Study "Animals / Nature / Zoology" Essays 386-432

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Ernest Hemingway's "Big Two-Hearted River Creative Writing

… Yet he was comforted by the fact that, despite his inability to reel it in, the fish would bear the mark of his hook, bitten through the snell by its teeth, on its face for some time to come.

A wry smile gently overtook his face. Of all the luck. There, before his eyes alone, was the biggest trout he had ever seen, probably the biggest one anybody had ever seen, and he was powerless to keep it. In just a short matter of time, the fish's teet would sever the hook from the line, leaving a permanent reminder of his experience with Nick in the form of the hook in its face. For all the fish's apparent anger, as things of that size were won't to express, there was no way Nick could tell anyone about it, and have them believe him.

At that moment, he suddenly saw this experience through Hop-Head's eyes. He heard his voice, as clear as he heard the rushing water. Almost, Nick, he chided him. Almost. You found the biggest rout virtually any body has ever seen, bigger than anything anyone's ever heard about, and what do you do? You lose him. Sure, you got your hook indelibly in him -- there's no way that's getting out once the fish cuts the line with his teeth. But all you really did was succeed in making him mad, and coming up empty.… [read more]

Yellow River's Flooding History Essay

… The paleoflood deposits indicated that much of the flood comprised of muddy flow with sediment concentration of over 200 kilograms per meters cubic. A shocking revelation reveals that the distance between the levees on both sides of the bank spanned to a distance of 25 kilometers during this same period. The broad flood plain was a suitable site for cultivation due to the fertile accumulation of silt. Large-scale reclamation and irrigation diversions in the river basin reduced the rate of water flow to the lower river. When this was happening, siltation of Lower River gradually increased and rose above the surrounding flood plain.

In view of the events that orchestrated much of the flooding, it is evidently clear that the alluvial channel morphodynamics can be altered considerably by embankment. For instance, when the river was allowed to flood naturally without restriction of artificial levees a negative feedback loop existed. This implied that an unstable avulsion channel develops thus causing the river to fluctuate within its avulsion threshold. On the other hand, artificial levees serve to prevent avulsion as human consistently repair the breaches. However, the success of this strategy as observed by WU et al. (2008) (Chen 693) is dependent on the strength of the levees and water flux. For example, stronger dykes that prevented breaches ensured increased water flux, hence promoting further deepening of the riverbed. On the other hand, if breaches occur, the water flux is reduced thus increasing siltation and further promoting the breaches of the levees.

In conclusion, human interaction with the Grand River has contributed immensely to its long history of flooding. It is undeniable that Yellow River formed a key natural feature that influenced the settlement of various ancient dynasties in China. Majority of the nomadic people preferred to concentrate their agricultural activities within the middle section of the river. Deforestation rates increased significantly: much of the soil and silt were eroded into the riverbed. The eventual implication of this is that the lower riverbed experienced massive siltation, which gradually raised the river channel and broadened the river. The region attracted more settlement and agricultural activities due to the accumulation of fertile loess deposits. As a result, flooding increased. Attempts to control flooding were also done by the river management agencies through construction of artificial levees to confine the waters within the natural channel. Their efforts were temporary successful because the river continually burst its dykes causing further flooding. Therefore, much of the historical flooding along Yellow River was human induced.

Work Cited

Chen, Yunzhen et al. Socio-economic Impacts on Flooding: A 4000-Year History of the Yellow

River, China. Beijing: Springer. 2012. Print.

Keith, Smith, and Petley, David. Environmental Hazards; Assessing Risks…… [read more]

Geography the Site Term Paper

… S. industrialization in the 20th century. With the automation of steel and automobile factories, and the rise of the industrial south, the industrial capacity of the rust belt over the last half of the 20th century became greatly diminished. Demographic flows show that many Americans have left the rust belt for the American South and West. This has had a deleterious effect on major cities such as Detroit and Flint Michigan and Allentown Pennsylvania, cities who've seen their citizens leave in droves for other areas of the United States. These cities are currently suffering industrial decline, and cities such as Flint are having formerly thriving housing areas razed to the ground. Cities in decline and urban decay are currently the norm for much of the Continental Core, but it seems that the inner city revitalization movement of the late 20th century and the development of modern technological industries such as nanotechnology and biotechnology may turn the tide of immigration flight and reinvigorate the region's economic base. For example, Cleveland Ohio has a burgeoning biomedical industry and Buffalo New York's growing health care and educational industries. Cities such as Pittsburgh are witnessing the redevelopment of former industrial areas into prosperous entertainment and restaurant districts and many localities (with the exception of Illinois) offer low tax incentives for business development. In fact, Indiana is witnessing growth for its low tax business environment.

All in all, the rust belt's geography and resources offer plenty for economic, political and cultural life, and the judicious use of sound environmental and economic policy can help lead this somewhat neglected area into the 21st century and restore the area its former quality of life.… [read more]

Resource Economics and Management Essay

… ¶ … Buongiono, J., Gilless, J. (2003). Decision Methods for Forest Resource Management. San Diego: Academic Press.

Modern sustainable forestry is also investigating other related issues of ecosystem management. To create and maintain the diversity of trees with a region (i.e. Hardwood and softwood), landowners leave several stands of both young and old growth within natural forest stands to enhance the biodiversity and health of the forest site. Normally clear-cutting results in the re-planting of tree seedlings, however some species (spruce, pine) overpower the growth of the hardwood trees. This minimizes the level of specie diversity among a timber stand. By allowing these older sections of stands to remain aids to the natural growth and development of hardwood species. Also, the wood debris, a remnant of old forest growth is essential to the survival of many forest species and also acts as a recycler of nutrients back into the soil. During forest harvesting it is not always necessary to remove all the wood from the lot. Rotten or older growth can be left to contribute to the nourishment of natural forests.

However, the complexity and manner in which ecosystems are tied together so inexorably requires that more modern techniques be used to understand, develop, and assist in prediction and conservation of forests. Quantitative analysis and forecasting of forest products began after World War II and the boom in wood needs for suburbia. This initial analysis was based, primarily, on prime time-series analysis. However, with technological advances in computing, considerable improvements have been made in the way we theoretically view, develop, and utilize statistical models of estimation. For example, we now use panel data in the analysis of demand for final products, as well as activity analysis and econometrics. Panel data refers to multi-dimensional data streams; for instance, observations on multiple phenomena observed over multiple time periods for the same issue; looking at forests over time and analyzing the same sets of data in a balanced manner. Activity analysis is a statistical measure of the types of activities in the system, how many resources are consumed, given, what the performance of the biome is, and how, through observation and tracking, our data set changes over time. Econometrics tends to…… [read more]

Reintroduction of Wolves Into Idaho Research Paper

… Reintroduction of Wolves Designated as Experimental

Section 10 j suggests that an experimental population of wolves be introduced to certain parts and under certain conditions and that this population be carefully regulated. They are seen as 'threatened' rather than 'endangered'.

This experimental population rule has been implemented successfully in other states such as in North Carolina and Wyoming. In this scenario, two experimental population areas will be established in parts of Montana and Idaho as well as through all of Wyoming and another in most of central Idaho and in parts of Montana.

Natural Recovery (No action)

No action to control or regulate wolf population would be implemented. Instead wolves (currently 65 wolves) that occupy Montana would be adjudged endangered and they would be encouraged to proliferate naturally and to spread to other areas including central Idaho and Yellowstone National Park.

There would be some restrictions in place, although the focus would be on encouraging the wolves to freely procreate and expand. To that end there would be land use restrictions that include motorized vehicles and livestock grazing.2

No Wolves

No wolves would be allowed whatsoever.

Wolf Management Committee Recommendations

The states of Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho would congregate and accomplish wolf recovery as a nonessential experimental population under state law and special regulation that would be more liberal than those currently allowed under the ESA.

Congress would be moved to appeal the ESA. The joint states would implement only a few land use restrictions. There would be federal compensation. Wolves would be naturally recovered in Central Idaho and parts of Wyoming and reintroduced to Yellowstone. Wolves would be controlled 3

Reintroduction of Wolves Designated as Nonexperimental.

10 breeding pairs of Wolves would be moved as a nonexperimental entity to Yellowstone and parts of central Idaho. There would be no regulation even if livestock are killed and all focus would be on regeneration of wolves. Livestock, inf act, would be moved to make way for wolves. If…… [read more]

Mono Lake California Case Study

… Mono Lake California

Mono Lake, California

Summary of the crisis

Mono Lake is located near the city of Los Angeles and has been in the spot light for the extensive damage done to it in the past few decades. As… [read more]

Italian Watersheds All Rivers Run Essay

… This leads to water that is very low in oxygen and very high levels of phosphorous and Italian environmental groups call the lake "chronically sick" (Belfast Telegraph, 2007)

Lakes are always fragile in terms of long-term maintenance of watershed health. With less free-flowing water than rivers or stream and a much smaller volume (and so a more delicate biochemical balance) than oceans, lakes are always shifting back and forth across a narrow tolerance for indigenous life forms. When this already delicate balance is affected in dramatically negative ways by agricultural and industrial run-off as well as human's ever increasing demand for freshwater (a demand pushed by increasing human population and exacerbated by climate change) the future health of lakes seems like a fool's dream.


Belfast Telegraph. (2007). Italy's lakes have sick water.

EPA. (2012). What is a watershed?

Popham, E. (2007).… [read more]

Reintroduction of Wolves Into Idaho Annotated Bibliography

… Reintroduction of Wolves Into Idaho

Annotated Bibliography

(1) Schmidt, PM & Peterson, MJ (2008) Biodiversity Conservation and Indigenous Land Management in the Era of Self-Determination. Conservation Biology. Paper submitted October 9, 2008; revised manuscript accepted March 9, 2009. Conservation Biology, Volume 23, No. 6, 1458 -- 1466

Biodiversity and cultural preservation are both addressed from the perspective of self-determination in the indigenous groups of Indians as related to the Gray wolf in Idaho, western Montana, Washington State and western Wyoming. The research reported in the work of Schmidt and Peterson ( 2008) states "Indigenous peoples and their lands in the United States provide an excellent opportunity to evaluate the relationship among self-determination by indigenous peoples, biodiversity conservation, and governmental statutes, regulations, and policies."

(2) Ohlson, DL and Trulio, L (2006) Tribal Sovereignty and the Endangered Species Act; Recovering the Idaho Wolves. Masters Abstracts International. Wildlife & Ecology Studies Worldwide. Vol. 44 Issue 1. P.300.

Ohlson and Trulio relate the partnership between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service with the Nez Perce Tribe in an initiative to recover gray wolves in Central Idaho and report the Federal Endangered Species Act.

(3) Bradley, EH and Pletscher, DH (2005) Assessing factors related to wolf depredation of cattle in fenced pastures in Montana and Idaho. Wildlife Society Bulletin 33(4):1256-1265. 2005.

Bradley and Pletscher examine the depredation on livestock related to managing…… [read more]

Landscape Data Interpretation the Presentation Essay

… The changes that occurred in the landscape of the Fort Bennington, GA area do not appear to be as extreme as they potentially could have been, though there has certainly been a significant change over the past two centuries of human involvement and development in the area. The map estimating forest coverage in the region in 1827 shows dense pine forests covering most of the area, with a moderate amount of mixed forest (deciduous and pine mixes or more sparsely forested areas) speckled throughout along with a few patches of deciduous forest, and two very small areas of cleared land approximating the placement of Native American settlements. By 1974, pine forests are still speckled throughout the region yet are arranged in very small clusters rather than a large continuous swath; bare land and buildings are dotted throughout most of the region and are surrounded by larger patches of cleared land, and deciduous forests have crept in amongst the pine forests to a considerable degree. Later maps indicate a more complete takeover of the region by deciduous trees, to the point that clusters of pine forest have all but disappeared, while bare land and buildings have grown to fill the areas of cleared land that existed in 1974.

Understanding the data that is being presented is almost as essential as having accurate data presented in the first place. This article's authors do an excellent job of explaining the data being presented, its collection and presentation, and any potential problems therein. The ecological data provided, when properly understood, provide compelling evidence for human impact…… [read more]

Humans Benefit From Their Pets? Article Review

… "

There was a third study that is reported in this Time magazine article, and it was conducted by McConnell at Miami University. The professor and his colleagues surveyed college students and asked them to think about a time in their lives when they felt "socially excluded or rejected"; and after they recounted that unpleasant experience, the students were asked "either to write a passage about a best friend, to write about a close pet, or to draw a map of their campus" (Blue).

The result of the survey was that students who wrote about their friends or their pets "felt better afterwards" and were able to recover their sense of "self-worth and happiness" following the exercise in which they were required to recall rejection and isolation in their lives. The group of students at Miami University that decided to write about map drawing "remained a little glum," Blue explains.

What also came out in this third research project was that pet owners were as excited to write about their pets as they were to write about a best friend. McConnell wrote: "One's pet was ever bit as effective as one's best friend in staving off social needs deficits" (Blue).

Conclusion: The upshot of these three reports on the value of pets in the lives of humans is that people can certainly derive pleasure and joy from pets even though they already have very normal, balanced lives and lots of friends and loving family members. A dog will always come to the door to greet you, long after everyone else is gone from your life, Blue concludes. And moreover, when people are psychologically close to their pets, those people will received well-being benefits just the same as they receive from their human friends.

Works Cited

Blue, Laura. (2011). Study: Pets Give Us the Same Warm Fuzzies That Friends Do. Time.

Retrieved September 11, 2011,…… [read more]

Existence, Lives, and Eventual Extinction of Dinosaurs Essay

… ¶ … existence, lives, and eventual extinction of dinosaurs have intrigued scientists and public alike for many years. Because of the vast periods of time between when dinosaurs walked the earth and the present time, the development of precise arguments regarding each of these issues has been a taunting task. Reliance upon fossil and bone evidence has been the standard measuring device and it has been only recently, with the improvements in x-ray, DNA, and carbon dating technology that any real support has been found for developing theories about dinosaurs.

There is little doubt as to the existence of dinosaurs. There is a considerable body of physical evidence including nearly complete skeletal remains of various different species of dinosaurs that categorically establish not only that dinosaur lived but also where they lived. Fossilized remains from the area around where the dinosaur skeletons were retrieved have provided scientists with information regarding their diet and environment but the big mystery remains: what caused the dinosaur to become extinct?

A variety of theories exist that offer an explanation for the extinction of the dinosaur population. None of the offered theories have been established as controlling among all scientists in the field but support for several is stronger.

The first such theory suggests that a giant asteroid or other heavenly object such as a comet struck the earth as some point causing not only traumatic damage to the dinosaur but also caused climatic changes that endangered the dinosaur's environment. The impact of the heavenly object on the earth's surface resulted in large masses of dust to develop which blocked the sun's rays causing the plant life to die and for temperatures to fall below comfort levels for the dinosaur. A large portion of the dinosaur population was decimated by this process and when the dust finally cleared and temperatures began rising quickly in the opposite direction the remainder of the population died as well. According to this theory, in just a brief period of time, perhaps as short as two or three years, the entire dinosaur population was eliminated as well as most of the plant life that supported them.

The evidence for this theory is considerable. A large crater lies just off the Yucatan peninsula in Mexico that scientists speculate was caused by the collision of an asteroid or comet. The timing of the creation of this crater corresponds with the estimate of when dinosaur would have occupied the world and so the existence corroborates the collision theory. Also, scientists have found a more concentrated amount of a rare earthly metal known as iridium in areas around where dinosaur fossil and skeletal remains have also been found. Iridium is more commonly found deeper within the earth's surface and on other planets and scientists believe that is being concentrated near dinosaur remains supports the collision theory as well.

The fossil records of dinosaur…… [read more]

Grand Canyon Was Formed Lab Report

… One of the more interesting topics that lends itself to more research is the Great Unconformity, shown at stop 6c. The Great Unconformity is a fascinating topic because it represents a time from which no rocks are preserved. The scientific community does not know if no rocks were formed during this period, or if they were formed but then eroded away. The fact that this unconformity which spans almost a billion years is found nearly everywhere across the globe makes the geological mystery that much more fascinating (Treiman n.pag.)

To sum up, not all evidence encountered during the field trip supports the overflow mechanism, nor does it explain all the geomorphic processes that were discussed. For example, superimposition provides a better explanation for transverse drainage incision associated with a regional drop in base level and prolonged denudation evidence at stops 2f and 5d. A piracy mechanism is a better fit for explaining possible different paleo-flow direction for the transverse drainage upstream of the bedrock high. As this and other papers and research have shown, there are still many unanswered questions about Grand Canyon formation.

2f, 5d, 8a

1e, 1c, 2c




5d, 6a, 7c, 9c

10a, 10c

4d, 4a, 4b


5b, 6d


3c, 3a, 7a, 5c

2e, 6a

9d, 10a, 10c

Works Cited

Holm, Richard. "Pliocene-Pleistocene Incision on the Mogollon Slope, Northern Arizona: Response to the Developing Grand Canyon." (n.d.) 24 June 2011.

Spencer, Jon, and Philip Pearthree. "Abrupt Initiation of the Colorado River and Initial Incision of the Grand Canyon." Arizona Geology 35 (2005): 1-6.

Treiman, Allan. "Grand Canyon -- The Great Unconformity." 23 Sept. 2003. Lunar and Planetary Institute. 24 June 2011. [read more]

Mass Extinction the Earth's Biodiversity Mass Extinctions Term Paper

… Mass Extinction

The Earth's Biodiversity

Mass extinctions are definitely not common; however, if the earth's biodiversity is threatened at a similar rate to pass mass extinctions (such as the one that destroyed the dinosaurs -- except for the birds), there are a number of probable losers, according to McKinney and Lockwood (1999), and one need only look at a list of threatened species. "However," they note, "this almost certainly underestimates the true number of losers as many (probably most) species are in decline but their abundance is not yet low enough to warrant current listing" (1999).

Many of the "global losers" will include threatened birds such as parrots and pheasants and threatened mammals such as apes and rhinoceroses. There will be "local losers" like the babbler bird of the Sumatran forest; parrots of the Brazilian forest; birds in urban areas of the United States; frogs in the Amazon forest; insects of the Boreal forest; and salamanders in the forests of Maine to name a few (McKinney & Lockwood 1999).

In the article entitled "Biologists say planet is undergoing mass species extinction," Daily Galaxy (2009) reports that, "for over 300 million years frogs, salamanders, newts and toads were hardy enough to precede and outlive the dinosaurs up until the present time," but now, within twenty years, many amphibians are becoming extinct. "Scientists are alarmed at how one seemingly robust species of amphibians will suddenly disappear within a few months" (2009).

We can never regain the lost biodiversity, but scientists claim that we can at least work to prevent a "worldwide bio collapse" (Daily Galaxy 2009), but they would all require that immediate action be initiated. Experts say that at least half of the world's present species will be entirely gone…… [read more]

Berberis Nevinii Research Paper

… Berberis nevinii is a shrub found in California alone. It has been declared endangered and is in list 1B.of the endangered species of the State of California from 1987 and later the Federal Government declared it 'endangered' in 1998. (Calflora. Taxon Report 1074) Berberis Nevinii can grow to 6 feet in height, and has grey foliage. The leaves may be upto 3 inches long with lateral or ovalate leaves and the terminal leaflet is lanceolate. (McMinn, 127) It has bristles on the margines and flowers in March to May. It is a rare species that occur in San Fernando Canyon and parts of California. It has yellow flowers and juicy colored berry all of which makes it an ideal candidate for group cultivation as ornamental plants, hedges and other landscape uses, apart from its medicinal properties. (McMinn, 129) The plants are collected and cultivated for ornamental purpose at private residences in gardens and as hedges. The plant assumes importance owing to being endemic to California alone and also being depleted because of alternate land use encroaching on its habitat.

(a) Care of Berberis Nevinii

The plant is an ornamental and medicinal plant but there has not been a systematic study of its cultivation although it is cultivated as an ornamental plant and to make fences and hedges. The plant tolerates all climatic and soil conditions of its native place -- California. The requirements for the cultivation, borders on the climate of the state. However as of now, there is no concrete information about the present situation of the shrub, either on its population or life history. Little has been divided of the breeding and other aspects like pollination biology. It is indicated that the shrub grows from a fertile seed is never observed. (Fedde, CPC National Collection Plant Profile: Berberis nevinii)

The current need for protection arises from the fact that the habitat of Berberis nevinii is now taken over by farming development and other urbanization activities. It can be cultivated and is tolerant to many types of soils and different cultivation practices. The growth and cultivation is done by private owners now, and only about a few plants exist in federal land and thus under federal protection. Since the researches are inconclusive there is a greater need to research further into the reproduction and seeding requirements of Berberis…… [read more]

Fire Dynamics Research Paper

… ¶ … Basin Complex Fire in California

Introduction and Fire Facts

California is a big, beautiful state, featuring mountains, deserts, beaches, and vast forested areas. Much of California is rural and wilderness. But California it is known for some serious… [read more]

Lake Tahoe Relate to Nevada History Research Paper

… ¶ … History of Lake Tahoe

Lake Tahoe has contributed much in terms of Nevada history. It has been the epicenter for both political, social, and environmental debate for a century and a half. It's first settlers preempted a massive migration spurred on by the promise of gold and other natural resources. These settlements grew and became part of the landscape and history of the area, continuing to inspire and influence the current development of the Lake Tahoe basin. Before white explorers discovered it, Lake Tahoe has been a gathering place for the Washoe Indians for hundreds of years. According to Lyndall Baker Landauer and her book, The Mountain Sea: a History of Lake Tahoe (Flying Cloud Press, 1996), the Indians conducted regular spiritual ceremonies on its southern shores, specifically around the Emerald Bay area. Landauer explores the aspects of Lake Tahoe's Native American history quite thoroughly in her book, and provides the reader with quite a large breadth of information on the subject. The lake was first discovered in 1844 by explorers Kitt Carson and John Fremont. These explorers described the lake as having crystal clear water and as possessing special meaning to the local Native American tribes. The book entitled, Destination Lake Tahoe: the Story behind the Scenery (Stanley W. Paher, KC Publications, 1994) is a book that describes many of the exploits of these and other early explorers. It's strength is that it is a very easy read and caters to the casual tourist. It does not however go into much detail about the explorers and tries to accomplish too much in too few pages. It is an interesting read however as comprehensive books about the history of Lake Tahoe are tough to find.

The Tahoe basin was settled extensively during the gold rush of 1849, as a byproduct of the settlers and prospectors looking to discover gold in the hills and streams of the Sierra Nevada's. The discovery of gold in the Sierra's not only increased human traffic around the lake but also stretched to natural resources in the area quite thin. The forests around the lake were nearly stripped bare, and if not for the waning interest in the Sierra gold, they would have certainly become completely depleted by the early 1900's. Once interest died down in prospecting activities around this time, Tahoe became a resort area…… [read more]

Saving Brazilian Amazon Through Sustainable Development Essay

… ¶ … saving the Brazilian Amazon through sustainable development. The Brazilian Amazon rain forest is one of the largest rain forests in the world, and it is being systematically destroyed due to overgrazing, logging, and slash and burn agriculture. Sustainable… [read more]

Extinction Risk and the Future Battlegrounds Article Review

… ¶ … Extinction Risk and the Future Battlegrounds of Mammal Conservation.

Cardillo M, Mace GM, Gittleman JL, and Purvis a. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103 (11); 2006: 4152-4161.

The research involved testing a specific hypothesis through predictive modeling techniques in conjunction with existing factual knowledge. That hypothesis was that current perceptions about which species are in the greatest danger of extinction are somewhat inaccurate. More particularly, the identification of endangered or threatened species is largely based on the degree to which those species have already suffered and begun to exhibit substantially declining numbers.

However, the research actually demonstrated that this approach to identifying endangered species is too exclusive because it does not account for any species that have not already been adversely affected by the principal causes of species endangerment (namely, human encroachment). Instead, conservation perspectives and conservation efforts should include those species that have not yet been threatened only because their natural habitats have not yet been harmed by human activity. Some of those species are especially vulnerable to disturbances in their habitat and are just as likely to be threatened once human activity affects them.

Relevance to Conservation Objectives

The principal relevance of the study is that it demonstrates that current beliefs about which mammalian species are at risk of extinction in the near future are inaccurate. In addition to those currently identified as being at greatest risk, there are other species that are equally at risk of extinction within the same time frame but they are still unrecognized and not considered in conservation philosophy and plans. To the extent conservation objectives relate to improving the survivability of threatened species,…… [read more]

Geomorphology of the Guadalupe River Thesis

… ¶ … geomorphologic information available on the Guadalupe River in Texas. The Guadalupe River is located in central Texas and is comprised by a mixed alluvial-bedrock channel with limestone bedrock "slightly incised and covered with a spatially discontinuous veneer of… [read more]

Salt Creek Tiger Beetle -- Endangered Species Essay

… Salt Creek Tiger Beetle -- Endangered Species Act

The Salt Creek Tiger Beetle (Cicindela nevadica lincolniana) is a half-inch long, dark brown / dark olive insect that is struggling for its survival in areas of Saunders County and Lancaster County,… [read more]

River the Area Term Paper

… The railyards would have to be relocated, or at least hidden from view, and in-channel water treatment facilities could be included to help improve water quality throughout the area.

I envision layered terraces that are attractive and function, and still protect the neighborhoods from extensive flooding. Above the terraces, there are green strips, trees, and plants that encourage wildlife, and walking paths so people can get out and enjoy more than a big cement aqueduct. Perhaps a wall could be constructed to hide the railyards, and a mural could be added to the wall to help beautify the area, too. The vision could be accomplished if the Army Corps of Engineers approved, and decided it was necessary. The biggest challenges would probably be funding, and moving the railyards if that was agreed upon.


Editors. "Los Angeles River Revitalization." 2009. 23 Oct. 2009.

.… [read more]

Rapid Population Growth... Though I Am Impressed Essay

… ¶ … Rapid Population Growth...

Though I am impressed and elated at the black-footed ferret's proven ability to come back from the brink of extinction and repopulate its natural habitat after captive breeding, something in the first paragraph of this article caught my eye and deserves, I believe some measure of reaction. What attracted my attention and caused me to bristle slightly is the fact that many endangered species bred in captivity and then re-released to their natural habitats "fail to produce self-sustaining populations" due in part to the "persistence of the environmental factors that caused the species to become endangered." Now, it does not particularly raise my wrath that the authors include this seemingly obvious statement in the first two sentences of their article, but the fact that this fact needs to be included is somewhat maddening. If the same environmental pressures that caused a species to become endangered still exist after a captive population has been bred,…… [read more]

Water Resource Issues Essay

… Environmental Science


Fish were once a healthy and reliable source of protein for communities living by the sea. However, the increase in the overall population of the world combined with the popularity of certain species of fish for consumption in the developed world has lead to a devastating problem: overfishing. Simply put, "overfishing means catching fish faster than they can reproduce" (Monterey Bay Aquarium, 2008). Without addressing the problem of overfishing, future generations will not be able to enjoy the nutritional bounty of the sea, fishermen will face the loss of their livelihoods, and the delicate balance of the ecosystem of the ocean will be destroyed, as entire species are eliminated. Today, "almost 80% of the world's fisheries are fully- to over-exploited, depleted, or in a state of collapse" (Koster, 2007, Chapter 3)

Action Plan

Action Item 1: Research and identify the effects of overfishing.

Action Step 1: Go onto websites such as the Monterey Bay Aquarium site. Identify what fish are endangered and which are recommended for consumption because they are not endangered. Learn more about the problem of overfishing. Find human examples of how people have been harmed by its effects. Look at local restaurants, supermarkets, and fishmongers to see what they offer, and make a list of which establishments sell sustainable fish, and which sell endangered fish like Chilean Sea Bass.

Month 1)

Action Item 2: Educate the public

Action Step 2: Create educational literature, such as a brochure listing species of fish that can be consumed without harming the environment. Make the brochure interesting and informative. Include recipes for sustainable species of fish. Advertise restaurants that serve these species. Also include examples of how overfishing hurts fishermen and ultimately all of us, because of the way it hurts the local economy and our health due to the harm done to the ecosystem of the ocean.

Months 2-3)

Action Item 3: Get local businesses and restaurants involved

Action Step 3: Encourage local restaurants to serve more sustainable species and to include educational literature on their menu about why such species are being served. The same can be done at local fishmongers and supermarkets. Fishermen can also be contacted and asked to speak about the dangers of overfishing they have personally experienced to schools and local environmental groups.

Months 4-5).

Action Item 4: Get local, national, and international politicians involved.

Action Step 4: Organize a letter-writing campaign to U.S. Senators and Representatives, urging them to take action to end overfishing. Lobby them to raise "catch limits," the "constantly reassessed, scientifically determined, limit on the total number of fish caught and landed by a fishery" and to strengthen the controls on by-catch, or the amount of fish that can be destroyed because it is not part of the target catch (Koster, 2007, Chapter 3) Conduct a fundraiser for organizations committed to ending overfishing based in the community or striving to do so…… [read more]

New Bacterium Scientists in Japan, Mohammad Abdul Term Paper

… New Bacterium

Scientists in Japan, Mohammad Abdul Bakir, Takuji Kudo and Yoshimi Benno, have discovered a new species of bacteria named Microbacterium hatanonis sp. Nov. that can live in the cosmetic product hairspray (New species of bacteria contaminates hairspray, 2008). The scientists reported this discovery in the March, 2008 issue of the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. They named Microbacterium hatanonis in honor of Dr. Kazunori Hatano, a well-known Microbacterium expert (Contaminated hairspray, 2008).


The scientists looked at the appearance and diet of the bacterium and then analysed its genome to show that it is a new species (New species of bacteria contaminates hairspray, 2008). Although the bacteria belonged to the previously known genus Microbacterium, the scientists determined that it had a distinct, evolutionary lineage on the basis of the morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic data and the results of the comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (Bakir, Kudo and Benno, 2008).


Bakir, Kudo and Benno (2008) report that Microbacterium hatanonis is an aerobic, rod-shaped, gram-positive, oxidase-ngative, catalase-positive bacterial isolate. The cell wall of Microbacterium hatanonis contained ornithine and the cell-wall sugars consisted of rhamnose and galactose. The main respiratory quinones were MK-12 (38%) and MK-11 (35%). The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15: 0 (48%), anteiso-C17: 0 (35%) and iso-C16: 0 (11%). The DNA G+C content was 69 mol%. The isolate showed <98 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with respect to all other known Microbacterium species. The type strain is FCC-01T…… [read more]

Los Angeles Department of Water and Power Term Paper

… ¶ … Los Angeles Department of Water & Power (LADWP) and the Colorado River Aqueduct. The city and county of Los Angeles' water needs are changing, and reliance on the Colorado River Aqueduct for a major portion of the region's… [read more]

Metamorphosis Gregor, a Traveling Textile Salesman Living Term Paper

… ¶ … Metamorphosis

Gregor, a traveling textile salesman living with his parents and sister, Grete, finds himself burdened by the responsibilities of providing for his family and his monotonous and tiring profession "O God," he thought, "what a demanding job… [read more]

Endangered Species and Habitat Conservation Plan Term Paper

… Endangered Species & Habitat Conservation Plan

Endangered Aquatic Species

The Shortnose Sturgeon, formally referred to as Acipenser brevirostrum, is among the federally endangered aquatic species, which are protected by federal government (SOCNFWR, 2007). The Shortnose Sturgeon is commonly found along… [read more]

Wilderness Bill Act 1964 Term Paper

… Wilderness Bill or Wilderness Act, developed out of the work of the Wilderness Society, led by Howard Zahniser. The bill came about as a response to the rapid urbanization and sprawl of the nation, which resulted in a rapid decline in the amount of protected wilderness space. At its core, the act created a legal definition for "wilderness" and, when enacted on September 3, 1964, protected over nine million acres of federal wilderness area.

Although prior to the act many wilderness areas were protected by administrative orders, the enactment of the Wilderness Act ensured that all federal land that qualified under the know clearly defined meaning of wilderness would be forever protected through the National Wilderness Preservation System. (Gorte, et. al.).

The Wilderness Society was founded in 1935 with the purpose of creating a "systematic protection of this nation's special wild places." (the Wilderness Society, et. al.). When Zahniser became president of the organization in 1955, he was disillusioned with the up-to-then piecemeal attempts to preserve these areas. Zahniser said:

Let us be done with a wilderness preservation program made up of a sequence of overlapping emergencies, threats and defense campaigns." (Harvey, p. 83).

From this statement the Wilderness Act was drafted. Eight years, eighteen hearings and sixty-six versions later, the Wilderness Act was passed several months after Zahniser's death. However, his definition of wilderness remained powerful:

An area where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain." (the Wilderness Act, 1964).

Today this definition includes all lands managed by the National Park Service, United States Forest Service, United States Fish and Wildlife Service and the Bureau of Land Management.

One of the key provisions of the act was its requirement that every wilderness area designated by Congress be given a specific boundary line, which was included in the statutory law. Once the wilderness area was added to the Wilderness Area Protection System, it was set in stone as the only way to alter the boundary was through another Congressional act.

The parameters of the Wilderness Act are aimed at ensuring real protection to federal lands for the preservation for future generations. According to the Wilderness Act, all land that is protected under its jurisdiction became areas of public land. Further, a designation as being a wilderness is an additional protection given to the land that supersedes any less protection granted by the administrative agency overseeing the national forest, national park, wildlife refuges and other forms of public land. The Wilderness Act also places an emphasis on conservation instead of tourism or public use. According to Doug Scott,

We strive to restrain human influences so that ecosystems can change over time in their own way, free, as much as possible, from human manipulation...the earth and…… [read more]

Black Fly Larvae Term Paper

… Black Fly Larvae

According to William F. Lyon at Ohio State University the scientific name for the black fly is "Simulium vittatum Zetterstedt, Simulium venustum Say, Simulium jenningsi, or Prosimulium sp." According to Lyon there are species of the adult black female fly that are "fierce biters, whereas others are strictly a nuisance by their presence around one's nostrils, ears, arms, hands, and other exposed skin areas." (2000)


When the black fly bites the area will appear "as a small, red, central sport surrounded by a slightly reddened, swollen area." The bite will then become "itchy, swollen and irritating..." (Lyon, 2000) These flies are known to transmit a disease of "filarial worms, onchocerciasis" which can cause blindness and as well may transmit encephalitis. The following labeled Figure 1 is an illustration of the black fly larva (top) and the Pupa (bottom)

Black Fly Larvae and Pupa

Source: William F. Lyons (2000)


The different species of the black fly have life cycles and habits that are somewhat different from one another. The Simulium vittatum Zetterstedt species is known for pestering horses and cattle and can be found on a wide basis in North America. The second species or the Simulium venustum Say is one that bites fiercely and is distributed throughout New England and Canada. The third species or the Similium jenningsi is one that breeds in large rivers. The states of Pennsylvania and New England along with other states in the area are involved in a "biological larvicide" initiative to control the larvae's spread into the river and streams. The fourth species or the Prosimulium sp is one that is a bother in early spring and both swarms and bites with the larvae being found in smaller woodland streams. (Lyon, 2000) the following labeled Figure 2 illustrates the lifecycle of the black fly.

Lifecycle of the Black Fly

Source: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (2003)


The young larvae "attach themselves to submerged objects" and molt six times while in the growth process. These larvae are "elongate with the hind part of their bodies swollen" and eat through use of a "head fan [which] sweeps food material into the mouth." (Lyon, 2000) These larvae stabilize their position in the water with…… [read more]

What Is the Role of Herring in the Fish Industry? Term Paper

… ¶ … Herring in the fish Industry

There is a lot of research today on the role of the herring, as in the fishing industry. One of the most important aspects being studied is the way in which scientists and… [read more]

Biology a Computer Term Paper

… Computers do not have any of the five levels of organization of life, so they cannot be "alive" even though they react to our input.

There are five levels in the organization of life. The first is cells, which are the basic structural unit in all living things. Cells can be very different, such as blood cells, bone cells, skin cells, etc. Next is tissue and all living things have tissue, too. Tissue is made up of cells that are alike, like bone tissue and muscle tissue. Third are organs, and they are a vital part of the organization of life. They give life to many objects, and are made up of groups of tissues that work together, like the heart, the lungs, the liver, and so on. Fourth are organ systems, which are made up of groups of two or more tissues. Examples of these include digestive, circulatory, skeletal, reproductive, etc. Finally are the organisms. These are fully alive and can grow, reproduce, take in food and excrete it, etc. They are usually made up of organ systems, but they can be single celled.… [read more]

Ecology / Biology Term Paper

… In fact, they engaged in fewer staggered dashes, engaged in more slow swims, and re-emerged from cover more frequently than the non-infected fish (Barber, et. al., 1431-1438). Because their findings were so similar to those found by Foster and Ness… [read more]

Imitate Poe's Style Term Paper

… Poe Style

River's Dusk

It was just at the moments of dusk, when the swallows begin to circle, temporarily blocking the sky from view, and the balm of night begins to penetrate the senses giving way to imagination of sinisterly events to come with the darkness, it was just at these moments that Laura spotted it, just across the bank, on the wooded side of the river, water black with red about it.

She had been sitting at the water's edge since sunset, wrapped snug in her brother's old army blanket, warm against the chill of the autumn air. It was exactly two weeks before the winter solstice, and soon much of river's banks would be frozen solid, trapping all beneath in a coffin of ice. This was one of Laura's favorite times of year, trees bared, allowing her to peer into the woods, glimpsing deer, hooves crunching along the dried leaves as they made their way deeper into the woods.

As Laura sat, still and quiet except for the sound and motion of her own breath, she began to hear leaves snapping just up-river. Without moving her head, her eyes moved left, following the echo. Laura had spent so many evenings, years of evenings actually, right here, at this spot, nestled between the willow and the oak, that she recognized each sound as one familiar with the creeks and cracks of his own house. This was not deer, and it was not Mr. Larson's dog, Ginger, who often spent afternoons sharpening her skills for prey. No, Laura knew immediately that this was a human, and from the rhythm of deliberate steps, it was certain…… [read more]

San Antonio River Tunnel Term Paper

… A recent example illustrates the tunnel's practical usefulness. San Antonio endured tremendous rains and flooding in 1998. The tunnel diverted much of the rain runoff, thus preventing the downtown district from being submerged in an estimated 6 feet of water. Thus, it has been proposed that the tunnel has already paid for itself regarding the damage prevention from this episode.

Not only will the tunnel lessen flood risk in San Antonio, but the city is currently focused on ecosystem restoration, which will reduce erosion and create an environment more suitable for recreation and wildlife. Restorative efforts include planting of trees and vegetation and the creation of wildlife habitat areas. These collaborative efforts will likely further lessen the risk of flood in San Antonio in the future.

In summary, the San Antonio River Tunnel is a recent addition to the city that has already proven its effectiveness. Furthermore, the tunnel will remain a benefit to the…… [read more]

Lord of the Rings: Fellowship Term Paper

… Hobbits were attacked by trees, with trees shifting their way to block the route of the group. One time in their journey, two hobbits were trapped by a tree. However, fortunately, the hobbits was saved by Tom Bombadil, a man who was just in time passing in the place. Tom Bombadil rescued the group and offered his residence for the group to stay for some time.

That night, the group was welcomed in Tom Bombadil's house. They were served with foods and a place to rest. Tom was a happy guy. He told a lot of stories to Frodo and the hobbits. The group was surprised to realize that they were very happy in Tom and Goldberry's, Tom's wife, company. The next day was also spent by Frodo and the hobbits in Tom's house. This is because of the hard rain that fell. Again, with the Bombadil's company, Frodo and the group were able to learn things about the place. Tom told them stories of the place and informed that he had been there even before the river and the trees. Later in the day, the hobbits made Frodo wear the ring. After which, they realized that the disappearing power of the ring does not work to Frodo. Frodo did not disappear.

The next morning, Frodo and the group continued their travel in the forest, finding the Old Forest's exit. Along their travel, they encountered weird experiences like sleeping unintentionally. Frodo also encountered falling into darkness, waking up later, and finding out the he was trapped in a barrow. Fortunately, with a cry for help, Tom Bombadil appeared to help them. Frodo and the hobbits were once again saved. Tom accompanied the group in finding the exit from Old Forest.

Frodo and the group encountered more experiences of danger in their next destinations. This includes the Black Riders and the scouts of Sauron and Gollum. Frodo and the hobbits traveled from Breeland, to the Ford of Bruinen, to the Misty Mountains, to Caradhras, to Khazad-dum, to Lorien, to the Anduin River, until the place where Frodo has to decide whether to continue their travel to Orodruin. When Boromir, another travel, tried to get the ring from Frodo, Frodo wore the ring in his finger to escape from Boromir. Frodo was able to see all evils.

Frodo only took off the ring from his finger after a long time of wearing it. This is because he felt the evil eye of Sauron from the ring. Frodo decided to continue on the travel by himself, without his hobbit friends because he did not want to put them in danger. However, Sam, a very loyal friend refused to let Frodo alone.

The Fellowship of the Ring concluded with Frodo and Sam continuing on with their travel to the evil land of Mordor to finish their mission of destroying the magic ring.… [read more]

Forest People Term Paper

… ¶ … Forest People

Colin Turnbull

Colin Turnbull's book, "The Forest People" is a romantic account of his expedition into the northeast corner of the Belgian Congo. More precisely, Turnbull traveled to the heart of Stanley's Dark Continent, into the Ituri Forest, that "vast expanse of dense, damp and inhospitable-looking darkness" (Turnbull Pp 11). Turnbull's book documents the three years he spent with the Pygmies of Zaire.

Turnbull begins by describing in poetic terms the sights and sounds of the rain forest, saying, "the damp air, the gigantic water-laden trees that are constantly dripping, never quite drying out between the violent storms...people feel overpowered by the seeming silence and the age-old remoteness and loneliness of it all" (Turnbull Pp12).

Turnbull describes how the BaMbuti Pigmies, have been in the forest for many thousands of years and are among the oldest inhabitants of Africa, they are the real people of the forest. He explains that this is their world and in return the forest provides them with all their needs, "for they know how to hunt the game of the region and gather the wild fruits that grown in abundance there" (Turnbull Pp14).

Turnbull allows the reader to enter this colorful world of the BaMbuti and learn about their daily lives, how they roam the forest at will without fear. Because there is…… [read more]

Human Croquet by Kate Atkinson Term Paper

… Isobel discovers herself as the novel progresses, and discovers her oneness with the forest and the area. The forest has survived many generations of the Fairfax family, but eventually, the forest will die, just as the Fairfaxes and their legacy will die. Trees give a sense of permanence to the book and the setting,

The fairy-tale qualities of the book are enhanced by the references to trees, and in fact, Isobel turns into a tree at one point when she runs away from several teenaged boys. Ultimately, the forests in the novel are deep, dark, and secretive. They swallow people, and people's lives. They are also places of life and transformation. Just as trees transform from ghostly branches to green buds in spring, lives that experience the forest are often transformed and made new again. In the forest, Isobel discovers secrets from her past, and looks toward the future. In the forest, it seems anything is possible, and anything can happen. The forest is like another character in the novel because it plays such an important role throughout the book, from saving Isobel from attempted rape (when she turns into a tree), to being the setting for weird and violent acts. Without the forest, the book would lack depth and detail, and would have no cohesiveness to bind it together. The book, because of its many characters and shifting in time, must use something to keep the many threads woven together, and the forest serves this purpose quite nicely. The forest, menacing and foreboding, or refuge and haven, also plays the part of duplicity well, and makes the reader more aware of the many-shifting settings in the novel. Isobel and the forest have much in common - they both endure through time and grow and mature as the book reaches its climax. The forest and the Fairfaxes share a long and varied history, and it is clear Isobel will never quite be free of the trees, no matter where she goes or what she does in life. The forest hides secrets, just as Audrey and her mother hide secrets, and the forest finally gives up her secrets, so the book can reach its conclusion. Forests are magical places in literature, and this book is no exception. The forest primeval opens the book, the Forest of Arden closes the book, and all that happens in between is more believable because of the ever-present and watchful forest.

In conclusion, trees are the very roots of this novel. They form the setting, the permanence, and the mystery that surrounds the story. They are a natural part of the environment that Isobel takes for granted, and yet, without them, the story would lose much of its quality and depth. The trees line her street, and hide the family's secrets, but the trees also signify change and growth, and this is just what Isobel does throughout the novel. The trees are the background, and yet they are almost like another character in the story. Without… [read more]

Drilling in the Alaskan Wilderness Term Paper

… These groups can make their support known to decision-makers through lobbying efforts. They can also express their opinions to the American public through campaigns and supporters such as environmental advocacy groups. Wilderness as a stakeholder has no direct voice. Its interests must be represented by federal legislators, traditional users such as the Inupiat Eskimos and the Gwich'in, environmental advocacy groups such as the Sierra Club, Greenpeace, and other organizations that give a voice to wilderness. These diverse groups must determine what level of development will be supported, and then let this desire be known to decision-makers.

Congress must debate if the consequences of development are outweighed by the benefits that would result if development of the oil reserves happens in Section 1002 of the ANWR. Congress can decide if no development will occur, if limited development will occur, or if full development will take place by removing some or all of Section 1002 from the protection of the ANWR. If no development occurs, then the current situation will continue, allowing wilderness to evolve in a natural state. If limited development occurs, then some impacts will likely occur on the land, the wilderness including wildlife populations and habits, and the groups who rely on the land. The Inupiat Eskimos and the Gwich'in could benefit financially from oil development, but traditions could be negatively affected. If full development occurs, then the wilderness as it currently exists could be irreversibly changed, with consequences being as drastic as eliminating caribou from this part of Alaska.

Based on the above analysis of the ethical issues that are presented in this case, I propose that no development occur at this time. Five reasons support this recommendation:

Demand for development is not currently proven, since world supplies have not yet been irreparably affected

Consequences of developing Section 1002 are not fully understood

Agreement has not been reached on whether to develop the land by the Inupiat Eskimos and the Gwich'in

Alternate energy strategies have not been developed including conservation or alternate energy sources

Low impact drilling technologies continue to be developed. By delaying a decision now, less intrusive technologies could be developed in the future, reducing impacts on ANWR

Critics will argue that national security is ignored by this recommendation. However I argue that alternate solutions to national security must be found to preserve the…… [read more]

Pseudacris Regilla Term Paper

… The second call is monophastic and is used to respond to the movement of other frogs. The third call consists of quick staccato notes and is used to challenge other males.

Each female Pacific Tree Frog can lay up to 750 eggs. The eggs are laid in clusters, normally averaging twenty-five eggs each, and the eggs are attached to submerged vegetation such as grass, stems or sticks. After breeding, the female will leave the area and the male will stay behind to attract new mates.

The Pacific Tree Frog is a ground dwelling frog that inhabits a wide variety of habitats, from deserts to rain forests, usually in low vegetation close to water. It can be found up to 11,600 feet in elevation and lives in areas that include Washington, Oregon, California, Nevada and the Santa Cruz and Cerros islands.

Adults feed on insects and spiders and tadpoles feed on algae. Common predators include the garter snake, bull frog, raccoons and owls.

Pacific Tree Frog Characteristics




Unique Features






Santa Cruz

Cerros islands




Rain Forests






Mixture of Above Colors inches in length

Dark eye stripe

Cartilage between fingers

Slender limbs

Webbed Hind Feet

Rib-it, kreck-ek or wreck

Monophastic…… [read more]

Abundance and Distributional Variation Term Paper

… All of these dragonflies are common throughout North America, and in particular, around the Kanahawa State Forest.

Preliminary Results / General Observations

Over the whole time period, more dragonflies were seen at Site one (the lake) than at Site two (the stream). This tentatively supports hypothesis number one, which suggested that dragonflies were more likely to prefer standing water, rather than running water.

Further, as a general observation, more dragonflies were seen when it was hot than when conditions were bad, for example, rainy or grey, with no sun. Generally, more dragonflies were seen at 1200 and at 1700 than at the earlier observation time of 0800. This tentatively supports hypothesis two, which suggested that dragonflies were more likely to be seen when temperatures were high.

In addition, there were broad differences between the two sites in terms of the abundance of species: at site one, many species and many individuals of those species were seen; at site two, all of the species were also seen, but at far lower numbers than those present at site one.

The following Graphs and Tables show the data in more detail, and following these a more detailed Analysis section, and Conclusions section will conclude this research paper.

Data Collected

Analysis of the Data



Bechly, G. "Phylogenetic Systematics of Odonata. (10th October 2003).

Dragonflies." [CD-ROM] World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia. 1998 ed.

Gerholdt E. James. Dragonflies. Minnesota: Abdo and Daughters, 1996.

Losito, Linda. Damselflies and Dragonflies. New york: The Bookwright Press, 1997.

Mauffray, Bill. "Dragonflies and Damselflies. October 2003)

Needham, JG et al. Dragonflies of North America.

Paulson, D. "Dragonfly (Odonata) Biodiversity. (10th October 2003).

Venable, J. Dragonflies: an Introduction to the Dragonflies and Damselflies of West Virginia. (10th October 2003).… [read more]

Endangered Tuna for Centuries Term Paper

… The most modern of these trawlers have their own freezers and facilities. Because the catch can be processed on board, these fishing boats can remain at sea for months at a time.

Corollary to commercial overfishing, the tuna stocks are… [read more]

Mammals of Michigan Term Paper

… ) used by humans around this time have been found around the Michigan area. There is also other kinds of evidence that humans hunted mastodons and mammoths in the Michigan area, such as cut marks on mastodon bones, which could only have come from human-made tools (information from the Yukon Beringia Interpretive Center notes).

Next, the woodland muskoxen. This species, Bootherium bombifrons, was one of the five species of muskoxen (Tribe Ovibovini) that lived in the Michigan area during the Pleistocene (2 million to 10,000 years ago). The woodland muskoxen was found throughout North America, but was confined to this region. The Bootherium was tall, and much more slender than the modern-day muskoxen. The males had huge, flaring horns with fused bases, and both sexes had longer hair than their sibling species, or their modern-day counterparts, indicating an adaptation to the cold Michigan weather of this period; the orbits were also sunk further in to the skull, which is also an adaptation for low temperatures.

The earliest woodland muskoxen specimens are known from 130,000 years ago, and most of the latest specimens date from the late Wisconsin period, 43,000 to 17,000 years ago. The habitat of woodland muskoxen, as the name suggests, seem to have been woodland areas, but the species is also known from lake and forest margins where, presumably, they foraged. Fossil specimens have, however, also been found from alpine grasslands, and so the woodland muskoxen was perhaps a highly adaptable species (information from the Yukon Beringia Interpretive Center notes).

Next, the flat-headed peccary. The flat-headed peccary, Platygonus sp., is known from a huge number of fossil specimens, the latest of which is dated to 10,000 years ago. The flat-headed peccary was larger than its modern-day counterparts, and was pan-North American in its range (and as with most of the other extinct Michigan-area mammals) was exclusively North American in its range. Flat-headed peccary fossils have been found from all habitats, and as such, it is fair to say that this extinct mammal was adapted to most Pleistocene environments.

Now to an extant species from the Michigan area, the gray wolf. The gray wolf, Canus lupus, is a protected species in Michigan, and in all of its North American range. There is hope for this species, thought, as its status has recently moved from endangered to threatened on the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conservation lists. The gray wolf was once distributed throughout Michigan, but myths about werewolfs, and subsequent predator control programs almost eliminated the species, until protection of the species was ordered legally in 1965. The gray wolf population was estimated at only 20 individuals in 1992; at the latest count, there were 278 individuals. The gray wolf, which was ubiquitous throughout North America, is thought to descend from the European wolf, and has a number of adaptations to enable it to withstand the cold Michigan weather: longer hair than its European counterparts, and as with the woodland muskoxen, orbits that are deeper in its skull than… [read more]

St. Croix Ground Lizard Term Paper

… "

Green Cay NWR is a small island located off the north coast of St. Croix, consisting of dry, forested areas and small cobble beaches (USFWS, 2003). The island is a volcanic region where outcrops of lava, tuffs and breccias are common geologic features.

The introduction of the small Indian mongoose resulted in a serious threat to the survival of the St. Croix ground lizard. Rats often feed on terminal shoots of trees and shrubs during dry season. Over time, the forest will be destroyed, as well as critical habitat for the lizards. Therefore, an eradication program was introduced and rats were trapped and removed off the island.

Green Cay is a U.S. National Wildlife Refuge, but Protestant Cay is home to an active resort. Present threats in Protestant Cay are represented by habitat modification through beautification practices, including constant raking and undergrowth removal to attract tourists.


The future of the St. Croix ground lizard populations depends on these cays. Future threats to the species include the danger of accidental invasion of said cays by the mongoose, and the Ameivas vulnerability to natural catastrophes such as hurricanes, mainly due to their small size and reduced habitat area. An increase in human disturbance or habitat alteration at important habitats, resulting from recreational activities, could also harm the future of the lizards.

When the lizard was declared an endangered species in 1977, Green Cay was purchased by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and designated the Green Cay National Wildlife Refuge. This area currently provides protection for 14 of the 18 acres of designated Critical Habitat for the ground lizard. Plans include a retrapping effort to remove mongoose that remain after an intensive trapping effort on Buck Island, the proposed experimental release site of wild-caught lizards.

The main purpose of the Green Cay project is to maintain the natural island ecosystem and protect the endangered St. Croix ground lizard and colonial nesting birds. To accomplish this, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service uses rigid law enforcement and conducts wildlife surveys. In addition, it removes wildlife that poses danger to the endangered species.

Basically, as far as current and future efforts to protect this endangered species are concerned, the Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Park Service signed a cooperative agreement in 1982 for the National Park Service to provide protection to Green Cay National Wildlife Refuge. In addition, a mongoose eradication program is in the works at Buck Island Reef National Monument to provide an experimental release site for the St. Croix ground lizard.

The question of whether the St. Croix ground lizard will make it on this planet largely depends on human efforts to continue the species. Without help from humans, the St. Croix ground lizard would be extinct. However, it is important to remember that human interference with the natural habitat of the lizard was what caused it to be endangered in the first place. If we had not introduced the rats to the island and build new… [read more]

Streambank Erosion and Restoration Term Paper

… The technique is to grow vegetation alongside the banks of the river. We can choose from a wide variety of native plants. This may include herbs, shrubs, and even some varieties of grasses. Plants that grow well in the native conditions and have a well-developed root system are to be preferred for this purpose. These plants can be appropriately spaced out so as to effect a combined binding force on the soil. Plants are excellent in slowing the run off. These plants not only stabilize the erosion by means of their soil binding power but also improve the greenery of the region and thereby assist in the prospering of a wide variety of local species. This is not a quick fix solution like barbing and using boulders but it is a long-term plan. It may even take a few years for the plants to grow well and get firmly rooted. This method is a little costly, as we need to procure the plants and it involves significant labor. [Bob Tjaden, Glenda M. Weber]

The advantages and disadvantages of these different methods are to be weighed carefully before implementing them. For example replanting vegetation alongside the banks simultaneously involves a need for change in cattle gracing habits. This method can take a long time to take effect but would be a natural solution and increase the chances of flourishing of wildlife habitat. On the other hand using rocks and boulders would prevent erosion on the spot but they will increase it downstream.

For example the Soque River in Georgia continued to inundate the farmlands and left severe sedimentation problem in the reservoirs that supplied water to Atlanta. This destroyed a variety of aquatic species and involved huge water treatment costs. The problem was identified to be the failure of years of government-aided methods of placing boulders, and other temporary methods of altering the course of the river. Instead of going in for a long-term solution they went in for an instant fix. Dani Wise-Frederick, watershed hydrologist and director of Stream Restoration Institute, North Carolina State University says, "Obviously we've been messing with streams for ages. What's new is our understanding that rivers are self-forming and self- maintaining. If you relocate, straighten or otherwise alter a river, it's going to try to carve its way back to its natural position." [Jessica Snyder Sachs] So it is necessary to have a futuristic perspective before we agree upon a remedial solution for streambank erosion problems.


Left unattended Streambank erosion will have an adverse effect on the ecological balance. Streambank erosion not only affects the soil fertility and the quality of the drinking water but also seriously endangers the survival of many forms of aquatic species. Growing vegetation alongside the banks seems to offer the best and Eco friendly solution of preventing erosion. These streams and rivers, which are the lifeline for many different species have to be better preserved so that they can continue to support and sustain all the different forms of… [read more]

Carnivorous Plants Botany, the Study Term Paper

… When any stimulus touches one of the hairs enough to move it, the leaves snap shut, which traps whatever is inside. If the object is not an insect, but rather a rock, or leaf, the leaves reopen in about twelve hours and "spit" the item out.

Once the trap is closed, there are cilia that keep the large insects from being able to escape. These cilia are look like fingers on the outside of the leaves, which interlock much like our fingers would if we were to clasp our hands together.

Within a few minutes, the trap shuts tightly, forming an airtight seal around the insect which keeps bacteria out, and the digestive secretions in (Stone).

For the next week, or so (depending on the size of the insect, as well as temperature conditions) the plant secretes digestive fluids that help dissolve the inner part of the insect, leaving behind the outer exoskeleton. Once the insect is dissolved, the trap reopens, and wind usually blows away the leftover exoskeleton.

The Venus' Flytrap is found in North Carolina, and grows to be around 12-25 cm tall (Stiefel 66). Insects are attracted to the plant by the sweet nectar and red interior that shows when the leaves are opened.

Carnivorous Plants, Conclusion

Carnivorous plants are not dangerous to humans, or household pets for that matter. There are some reports, as noted earlier, of one particular type of carnivorous plant - the Nepenthes pitcher plant (Asian jungle vine) that has eaten large frogs, some birds and even small monkeys (Stiefel 66). However, these reports are rare, and the birds and monkeys were most likely already sick. The vine can grow to be over ten meters long, making it a rather large carnivore, but harmless to humans nevertheless (Stiefel 65).

Each carnivorous plant has its own mechanism for trapping, and attracting insects, which can be fascinating study. The blatterwort plant, for example, attracts its prey with a faint odor that it gives off. Once close enough, the insect will rub against hairs that open up tiny, underwater traps that open up, let water rush in, which then brings the prey along with it.

In essence, carnivorous plants are fascinating flora which are diverse, beautiful, and deadly to insects and other small organisms. While they are not exactly alive in the sense that humans are, with nervous systems, they are unusual organisms that have caused many horror movie fans, and avid gardeners to become enamored by them.

Botanical Society of America, The Mysterious Venus' Flytrap., BSA Image Collection. Accessed 11/15/2002

Rice, Barry. Carnivorous Plants FAQ v.90, provided by International Carnivorous Plant Society. Last updated April 2002; Accessed 11/17/02

Stiefel, Chana. "Meat-Eating Plants." Science World. 220 March 2000, pp. 65-66

Stone, Doris. The Lives…… [read more]

Tips and Educational Instructions Term Paper

… A forest fire can easily get out of control because it has participating elements.

The USDA has decided on several plans of action they are going to implement. They are going to clear out shrubbery, because they determined that wildlife is not more important than human life. They will build houses with metal roofs, and encourage existing homeowners to rebuild their roofs. They will build damns and river flows to distribute the rainforest to humid and dry areas.

But it is not to be left up to the officials to do everything. Realizing if your home is in a high-risk area for fires and taking the necessary precautions is a preventive measure anyone can take. Educating your kids on how to escape safely should an emergency happen, a better preventive measure is teaching your kids how to stop a fire before it happens are also good preventions. Fire extinguishers, keeping the grass trimmed (even on unused property), limit the stacks of wood piles and do not stack the wood to close to your house, are other suggestions offered by the USDA.

For those who wish to make a bigger contribution to the prevention of fires, there are several options. Volunteering to speak to organizations, doing volunteer work for the fire department, and donating to your favorite fire prevention charities are ways to prevent fires. One would never know when he or she will make a difference and prevent one fire.

If the USDA was to enforce the new regulations and laws, the expectation is, of course eliminating fires. As mentioned before, the biggest problems are allowing the underbrush to grow and not enough rain in the humid areas. If the USDA was to monitor the extra grass and weeds allowed to grow in the forest and they were to distribute rainforest to humid areas, the expected result would be the successful elimination of forest fires.


N.A. Listed, (7/2002)

Wilderness Society

Newspaper Source

N.A or Date Listed

National Interagency Fire Center

Collier, G., (7/2002)

Praying For Rain

Newsweek, vol 14 Issuse 2-page 42

Reinghardt, T., Ottma R., (3/1999)

Exposure to Wild land firefighters www.srs.fs.fed./USpubs/view

Tougher, M., (7/2002)

Wealth, Foresight fuel Lake Tahoes Fire Prevention

Consta Costa Time… [read more]

Striped Bass Morone Saxatilis Research Paper

… The continually popular striped bass are fished both along the mid-Atlantic coast and in the Virginia waters of Chesapeake Bay. Approximately $18 million of hybrid striped bass are grown in outdoor ponds in California and the Southeast alone. In 1998, 16.3 million striped bass (estimated) were caught by recreational anglers. Of these, 92% of these were released alive (Gary Shepherd).

As with many other fish, striped bass have faced human-related challenges to their populations. The wild striped bass was once so highly prized that it was almost fished to extinction during the late 1970s. The states of Rhode Island, Maryland, Virginia, Massachusetts and Maine subsequently set strict limits on how striped bass are caught, minimum fish size and the number of striped bass that can be caught per season. Limits on the length of fish caught range from 12 to 18 inches, and are enforced by all Mid-Atlantic states. New York, Connecticut and New Jersey have closed seasons. Striped bass stocks off the Atlantic coast have been reported to be at a new low.

Striped bass contain several unique subpopulations. Discrete populations of striped bass are present in the Hudson River, and Chesapeake Bay waters may contain four populations of striped bass during the over-wintering period. The St. Lawrence River population is now seriously depleted. The St. Lawrence River population was considered distinct (J. Banck).

In conclusion, striped bass is a versatile and popular seafood. It is one of the most highly prized seafoods in the United States, and contains several distinct populations.

Works Cited

McAllister, K.W., Mann, J.A. And McKenzie, L.C.. Annotated Bibliography of the diseases and parasites of striped bass. Fish Disease Leaflet. Washington, D.C. United

States Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Fisheries and Wetlands Research, 1987.

Virginia Seafood: Facts about striped bass. Virginia Marine Products Board. 15 February 2002.

Aquaculture's Big and Growing. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 15 February 2002.

J. Banck. Striped Bass. 15 February 2002.

United States National Marine Fisheries Service. Synopsis of biological data on striped bass, morone saxatilis (Walbaum), 1980.

Shepherd, Gary. Striped Bass. 15 February 2002.… [read more]

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