"Anthropology / Culture" Essays

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Material Culture Commodities Are Good to Think Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (887 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … culture - commodities are "good to think with"

The Proposition that commodities are "good to think with" was stated by Levi-Strauss in his theoretical models in an attempt crack the code of culture and to explain the meaning of the existence of objects. Levi-Strauss explained that the existence of the material objects is not just to serve straight forward utilitarian purposes. He further noted that the existence of objects is to enable humans to construct and give meanings within their cultural universe which is what he termed as a symbolic role of objects (Paul a. Soukup, 2011)

The meaning of the concept from the symbolic perspective that commodities are good to think with can be derived based on what every object symbolizes and what a consumer can think of while getting the utility value from the object or just by seeing the object we already think of something which varies depending on one's culture. Different individuals based on their own cultural beliefs in one way or another have attached cultural meanings to certain objects. These objects are used to identify specific cultures as they represent that particular culture and whenever one interacts with such commodities for instance food or clothing or craftwork, we think of that particular culture they represents or symbolizes. Objects are owned for different reasons and the value that one gets from an object he or she acquires is what differentiates consumption. Both the cultural and personal experiences while one interacts with various objects play an integral role in what these objects mean or make us think of. At the mention of an object, one's mind wonders around what that particular object can do which therefore explains that we use the commodities to think and we do not just need the commodities for their utility values. (Sherry Tuckle, n.d).

There is a difference between the objects in the non-western societies and the western societies. Western societies represent an advanced consumer society flooded with so many commodities of which some are meaningless when presented to individuals from non-western societies or have little or no personal or cultural value. Roland Barthes a French Semiotician concentrated on this part of analyzing and interpreting the proliferation of commodity objects within the advanced societies. Barthes mentioned that certain commodities have more stories to tell, others are political only that the political aspects have been detached. He associated a bunch of red roses with the cultural symbol of romance and love and a wedding ring to mean a romantic love. He also attached meaning to the mode of dressing to mean that individuals wore certain dresses or adopted certain dress codes not for comfort…… [read more]

Globalization and Middle Eastern Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,361 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Science and technology are accepted, but they are to be subordinated to Islamic belief and values in order to guard against the Westernization and secularization of Muslim society."

By its very nature globalization impacts on people's way of life and often causes adjustments to the pattern of the dominant global culture. This has meant that the affect of globalization on Middle-Eastern counties has become a very controversial issue.

To a large extent, globalization promotes integration of the world and calls for the removal of all cultural barriers. Although globalization is a vital process toward transferring knowledge and education to the world, it still has its negative effects on most cultures and civilizations. Its impact on cultures, in this case the Arabic culture, is relatively controversial.

Many Islamic States and cultural institutions are particularly aware of the possibility that their cultures might be affected by the influx and ascendancy of western cultural norms. "Many nationalists and cultural trustees of the Arab world, for instance, condemn the influences of globalization on their culture. Conservative Arab nationalists and fundamentalists argue that their culture cannot adhere to many globalized notions. "

An example of the way that globalization is already having an impact on cultures in the Middle East and other regions of the world is the reduced emphasis on native language and the predominance of English as the universal language. It should be remembered that besides its function as a communicative tool, language is also a repository and a conveyor of cultural traditions. The fear is that traditional languages might die out which will inevitably have a far-reaching affect on cultural heritage and transmission. This fear is express in the following analysis and study.

At the end of the 20th century, according to Nigerian CEL researchers, out of 6,800 languages classified as threatened, being spoken by the roughly six billion people of the Earth, 2,400 of them (35%) are indigenous to Africa. Indonesia is home to 672 languages, Papua New Guinea to 800, and Nigeria to 400 languages. While some of them are well-known, others are virtually unheard of outside a small community of speakers. The fear being expressed today is that some of these languages, in view of their degrees of adulteration or outright abandonment, may not live to see the 22nd century. In fact, it is estimated that only ten percent of the present languages in the world will survive. The fear is that of a homogenous world, where everybody speaks the same language, wears the same standard clothes, and thinks the same standard thoughts.

In conclusion, the issue of globalization remains a very controversial topic, particularly with regard to cultural issues. While globalization certainly offers communication and technical advancements to developing counties it is something of a double-edged sword. It can also mean that dominant cultures by extending their economic and cultural grasp can detrimentally affect other cultures.


Cheruiyot K. Our Languages Are Dying [article online] Available from http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/cultural/2003/0224language.htm; Internet: accessed December 1, 2004.

Held D. And McGrew A.… [read more]

German Influences on Texas Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (3,692 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Mary's Catholic at Fredericksburg; Westphalia Catholic in Falls County; St. Joseph's Catholic in San Antonia and St. Peter's Catholic Church in Cooke County (Jordan, 2003). Among the features of some of these churches include a convex helmet tower at St. Maries, locally made organ pipes, brick Romanesque design at St. Peters, and the largest wooden structure, St. Joseph's Catholic in… [read more]

Symbolic Interactionism in Sidewalk Culture Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (595 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Symbolic Interactionism in Sidewalk culture of "Sidewalk" by Mitchell Duneier

Mitchell Duneier's "Sidewalk" provides a descriptive, narrative, and ethnographic view of "sidewalk culture" in contemporary American society. Generating data and information from in-depth interviews and participant observation of housed and unhoused vendors and scavengers in the streets of New York City, Duneier sought to identify the process by which "informal structures" within sidewalk culture are created, developed, and perpetuated. His discussion and analyses of this qualitative information reflects the paradigm of symbolic interactionism as the dominant perspective at which sidewalk culture, its nature, and its dynamics can be viewed.

Symbolic interactionism, a sociological paradigm developed primarily by the sociologist George Herbert Mead, posits that culture, organizations, and social structures are created through daily communications and interactions among people. Moreover, symbolic interactionism also takes into account the emergence of patterns and rules that govern social interaction within a particular society or community. "Sidewalk" provides analyses that show how social interaction between the sidewalk vendors and people who frequent the places these vendors are stationed or situated are conducted, and these are demonstrated through the narratives and documentation of the experiences of the vendors and scavengers in these New York sidewalks.

An important point that the book discusses the potential importance of his study, since it documents a particular phenomenon in American society wherein social structures are built and developed informally, as opposed to the common notion that people hold when, for example, conducting business in the city. This is an important feature of symbolic interactionism, since structures are formed or created based on social interactions alone. Duneier describes the creation of an informal structure, which characterizes sidewalk culture, in the story of Hakim Hasan. Hasan, as well as other vendors and scavengers in New York sidewalks, and their…… [read more]

Assimilation in the American Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (382 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Assimilation in the American culture has been an issue almost since the birth of the country. The very nature of the United States is one of multiple cultures with a single nationality in common. The number of immigrants coming into the country signifies not only the prosperity of the country, but also implies a number of issues concerning assimilation. A number of losses, but also gains are for example experienced by immigrants to the United States.

According to McGuire, more recent immigrants tend to adhere more closely to the cultures and groups they left in their own countries than is the case with the previous generation of immigrants. This could relate to an issue of cultural pride. Whereas assimilation and integration into mainstream American society was the priority with the first generations of immigrants, the emphasis is now on retaining as much as possible of the original culture.

Also related to the above issue is a sense of loss. Immigrants to a new country experience a substantial loss of home and country. This loss then manifests itself in an urge to retain whatever is possible from the old culture. Thus what…… [read more]

Art History Photography Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,638 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Western perceptions of the "other"

In her work Raw Histories: Photographs, Anthropology and Museums, Margaret Edwards outlines the most cogent and problematic issue surrounding the use of photography as a means of understanding cultural and social phenomena

photographs cannot simply be reduced to signifiers of social forces and relations ... Or to models of spectacle within a socio-political matrix ....… [read more]

Culture Working With Refugees: Challenges in Counseling Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (542 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Working With Refugees: Challenges in Counseling

More and more counselors and social workers are assisting growing numbers of clientele that are refugees rather than ordinary citizens. The needs of refugees are highly specialized compared with traditional clients in a social work setting. Because the population of refugees within the United States continues to grow, social workers and counselors must continue to make efforts to understand what methods are best employed to counsel these individuals effectively (Potocky-Tripody, 202). Counselors working with refugees must often adapt traditional techniques and mainstream interventions because the needs of refugee populations and common or shared experiences of this group are often so different from those of mainstream Americans seeking counseling and social support (Potocky-Tripody, 2002; Clark & Hofsess, 1998).

Challenges and Obstacles

There are many challenges and problems western counselors may expect to encounter when working with refugees. These include their own biases toward members of certain cultures or ethnicities and their own reliance on their own ethnic groups or cultural identity (Potocky-Tripodi, 2002). It is often difficult for westerners to relate to the strong traditions, values and practices typically associated with refugees ethnic identity, particularly when that ethnic identity falls outside of the scope of the traditional "American" culture (Potocky-Tripodi, 2002; Devore & Schlesinger, 1999).

What westerners may also not expect is the vast array of refugees that associate with cultures other than the dominant culture in the United States. Whereas the predominant culture in the U.S. For example is "White Anglo Saxon" a refugee might associate more "with African-American cultures" than the dominant culture when attempting to acculturate to society (Potocky-Tripody, 123). A counselor…… [read more]

Hofstede Writes, Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,632 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Hofstede writes, "Culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy. Cultural differences are a nuisance at best and often a disaster." (www.geert.hofstede.com) Interesting words emanating from a Professor of Culture, but ones that may resound in truth, especially for China and New Zealand.

These words by Hofstede echo in ambiguity. The dearth of precision, and the lack… [read more]

Magolda, Peter. (Nov/Dec 2003) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,540 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


(Magnola, 2003, p.4)

However, the idea that commencements are scripted, rather than creative and personal rituals is persuasively argued throughout the article, and the article as a whole presents a kind of 'dark side' to what seems like merely a comforting, even corny family picture-taking ritual. Magdola even shows how such attempts of the president to show cultural savvy by making popular references to "Survivor" are actually quite scripted and common, and carefully deployed ways of luring in the adolescent audience's presumably wandering attention to listen to later references of good citizenship and advice. (Magdola, 2003, p.3) The president's speech is analyzed on a rhetorical scaffold of advice, humor, and finally a call to improve the future. The high physical place of the president, his authority in giving diplomas, the uniform costumes of the once-diverse graduates have both a nostalgic and in a way a chilling aspect -- once, the individuality of this particular group of students dominated the college, now they have been shorn of their identity. They wear the same clothes and head off into an uncertain future in America, but have the comfort of their common university participation to shield them from the common demands of adulthood. The article, although one could argue with specific generalizations made from a limited study, provides an important window into one's own cultural,…… [read more]

Broken Fountain by Thomas Belmonte Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (402 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Broken Fountain

Quiz 3: The Culture of Poverty

The Culture of Poverty

Oscar Lewis' 'culture of poverty' approach to understanding the disenfranchised can be best described as a theory of a 'cycle' of poverty, whereby decreased opportunities in life lead to the same fate being suffered by the children of the poor. Life is a struggle for the poor, thus lessening the energy the poor have to devote to education and social betterment. This creates a cycle of depression and despondency that is often reinforced by the larger community, who are poor themselves and resent attempts at social improvement. Lewis acknowledges that communities can exist with common ethnic ties that sustain members of the impoverished area with mutual aid as well as subvert attempts at social betterment but this cultural is tangential to his theory. The real culture is the culture of poverty, much like any other culture, is a kind of theory of expectations of behavior. But in the culture of poverty these expectations are self-defeating.

Much of what Thomas Belmonte chronicles in urban anthropology of Fontana del Re, an impoverished Neapolitan neighborhood, seems to confirm what Lewis says about a culture of poverty. Belmonte's Neapolitans live in physically unhealthy…… [read more]

Culture Might Influence the Perception Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The need to affirm relationships before, during, and after a negotiation is just as important as anything expressed explicitly in dialogue. This emphasis on community values also reflects a more polychromic notion of time, in which more than one thing is being affirmed during a single incident -- agreeing to do something is not simply a good business decision, but is also perceived as paving the way for a long-term relationship.

Although Japan may be a 'workaholic' nation like the United States, this derives less from a sense of individualistic self-betterment and more from wishing to honor community expectations (Brislin & Kim 2003: 371). Values such as honoring one's social obligations, becoming part of a fabric of a community and filial piety are not completely absent in the U.S., but are given far less emphasis and are thus far less significant in motivating behaviors and shaping attitudes towards time (Lu, Gilmour, & Kao 2001: 487).

Long-term and short-term orientations can also affect people's health. Cultures that are very short-term and present-focused may give less priority to taking preventative steps to reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases. When advised to eat less sugar and stop smoking, the patient may simply shrug his or her shoulders and say, fatalistically, "we're all going to die of something." Particularly if the culture is very communitarian in orientation and socialization and doing what other people are doing (such as overeating, smoking, and drinking) is given great importance, this can result in poorer health outcomes. Cultures with a strong emphasis on the past and not on the present or on the future can be reluctant to change unhealthy behaviors (such as in Latin America) while cultures with… [read more]

Multiculturalism Is Being Challenged by New Theories of Cosmopolitanism Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,698 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Multiculturalism Challenged by New Theories of Cosmopolitanism

Reasons and challenges of developing policies of multiculturalism in Australia

Multicultural theory is broad often defying its obvious definition. It might be used as a demographic fact that describes the coexistence of individuals from diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds in a single organization or society. In Australia, multiculturalism policies have been used to… [read more]

Youth and Adult Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (664 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



The Goth Culture and Society

The group I chose for this particular assignment is the Goth culture. I find this group to be interesting in the sense that while Goth individuals I have observed seem to be anti-mainstream, they all seem to be very similar in appearance when put one beside each other -- I am interested in studying the clash of ideas between originality and conformity within their own subculture. The main identity of the Goth culture would be the dark appearance -- most asserted Goth individuals can be recognized by their dark clothing and makeup and even Victorian-era influenced attires and accessories (Wilson). As stated in Goth: Undead Subculture, keynotes from the Goth culture are traced back to the Punk era, demonstrating a romanticized affinity for the macabre (Bibby and Goodlad, 1). Since the Goth culture started to emerge and gained popularity through the underground world -- the rebellious Punk movement, as aforementioned -- it is safe to say that its relationship with society as a whole is tormented and indicates a separation from the mainstream culture and a detachment from what is considered acceptable within society's boundaries. However, the Goth culture has created a "strong sense of shared identity even while traversing geographical boundaries" (Bibby and Goodlad, 6).

The Goth culture and "scene" started to appear back in the late 1970's, following the debut of the post Punk movement. Bands such as Joy Division, Bauhaus and Siouxsie and the Banshees are said to be at the root of the emergence of Goth and by 1982, the English press had coined the term gothic rock to describe a movement that translated itself by being a dressier, fancier version of Punk fashion (Bibby and Goodlad, 2). Since then, the culture itself has grown into a mainstream fashion in the mid-1990s only to become a subtle permanent fixture in today's society (Bibby and Goodlad, 8). It is impossible to call individuals belonging to the Goth culture "members," as being Goth is…… [read more]

Consumer Culture Theory &amp Post Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (620 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The authors begin by explaining a little about what the postmodernist perspective and theory are. They also describe a brief history of the ways postmodernism has been used in various fields of study over the past century, approximately. Then, the authors begin their discussion of postmodernism's role in understanding and performing consumer research. The authors spend quite a bit of time explaining the critiques of postmodernism. This is an interesting and effective strategy to understand the context within which consumer research uses postmodernism. It is also an interesting and uncommon strategy to begin by highlighting a theory's weaknesses in great detail before extolling its virtues and utility. It is a different approach and it was a nice break from typical academic journal style argumentation. The thesis of the article is composed of four parts with primary focus on the urge to aptly, accurately, and fully describe the postmodern consumer market spectrum of experience within a single unifying logic, which they call market logic.

The authors conclude that postmodernist theory is a highly appropriate and effective theory to use when researching and reflecting upon issues in consumer culture for many reasons. The authors use critique, comparative analysis, and historical review to show the reader how to use postmodernism in relation to topics in consumer culture. The authors illustrate the complimentary relationship between consumer culture and postmodernist theory. They are compatible because they are both situated within cultural flux and cultural plurality of identity and experience. They are both heavily concerned with the role of aesthetics as well. This article is intriguing, engaging, and well executed.


Arnould, E.J., & Thompson, C.J. (2005) Consumer Culture Theory (CCT): Twenty Years of Research. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(4), 868 -- 882.

Firat, A.F., & Venkatesh, A. (1995) Liberatory Postmodernism and the Reenchantment of Consumption.…… [read more]

Consequences of Cultural Conflicts Book Report

Book Report  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


This is especially true when the cultural and racial differences are dramatic. Economic exploitation is not uncommon and in the United States many consider the undocumented worker problem a specious argument because the U.S. benefits considerably from a cheap labor source.

Historically, the cultural norms that developed in Europe and America became distinct from the rest of the world. These cultures focused on creativity and a free market, leading to significant advances in the arts and sciences, agriculture, management, communications, literature, and complex social institutions. The result was a culture that valued individualistic progress over a collectivist ideal. Myers (2010) points out that "individualism's benefits can come at the cost of more loneliness, more divorce, more homicide, and more stress-related disease (Popenoe, 1993; Triandis et al., 1988)," but the tendency towards violence is not restricted to individualistic cultures. Domestic violence, for example, is not uncommon among couples emigrating to the U.S. from collectivist cultures that emphasize group consciousness or loyalty to the greater good. Applying for U.S. permanent residency can create conditions that favor the emergence of domestic violence because the wife is dependent on the husband for residency status. Erez, Salcido, and Adelman (as cited in Erez, E., Adelman, M., Gregory, C, 2009) stated:

"Covertures, in effect, identify the married couple as a single legal entity, within which the husband has control over the property and body of the wife and their children. Similarly, women who immigrate as wives of U.S. citizens, legal permanent residents, diplomats, students, or workers are legally dependent on others to sponsor, pursue, and complete their visa petitions. This legal dependency intensifies gendered inequality, creates new ways for men to abuse and control their intimate partners, and entraps battered women." (p. 37).

Language problems can exacerbate a domestic violence situation because of the sense of increased isolation. The idea of seeking help from the police or other government agencies may seem impossible. Friction can also be created when the marriage is between individuals from different cultures and victims may become confused by their own norms and how they judge right and wrong. Since Asian cultures tend to be collectivist, marriages with native-born Americans can create significant problems as individualist norms clash with collectivist norms. If a language barrier still exists, this can only aggravate the sense of isolation, misunderstanding, and helplessness felt by everyone involved.

Victims find themselves with conflicting needs when trapped in a domestic violence situation as an immigrant. The culture of origin will determine to a large extent how victims respond. Yick (2007) notes that, "Many Asian-American and immigrant women avoid disclosing incidences of violence for fear of losing face. Shame is not merely an individual consequence; rather, the entire family is shamed. Such a burden keeps many women silent" (from Lee & Lawy, 2001, p. 279). Cultural norms and language difficulties combine to form a significant cultural barrier to finding relief from a domestic abuse situation.

The belief systems of different religions also bring about differences in personal and social development.… [read more]

Columbian Exchange Every Culture Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,535 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Diversity of culture should always be valued as an asset b the help of which people can compete with other nations in a unique way. Individuals belonging from different races and backgrounds can contribute towards the productivity of the country b working collectively as team. However some problems might come in the way but they should be handled with efficiently. Strong leadership can solve the problems of the differences prevailing among segments of the society once the followers decide that they are going to follow a particular leader. Leadership will clarify the vision and mission of the nation which will uplift the youth of the country from such minor things like race, color, sex or religion.

Work Cited

Adler, Nancy J. 1983. "Cross-Cultural Management Research: The Ostrich and the Trend." The Academy of Management Review 8(2): 226-232.

Audretsch, David, Dirk Dohse, and Annekatrin Niebuhr. n.d. "Cultural diversity and entrepreneurship: a regional analysis for Germany." The Annals of Regional Science 45(1): 55-85.

Barachini, Franz. 2007. "Cultural and social issues for knowledge sharing." Journal of Knowledge Management 13(1): 98-110.

Fave, Antonella D., and Marta Bassi. 2009. "The contribution of diversity to happiness research." The Journal of Positive Psychology 4(3): 205-207.

Niebuhr, Annekatrin. 2010. "Migration and innovation: Does cultural diversity matter for regional R&D activity?" Papers in Regional Science 89(3): 563-585.

Padilla, Amado M. 1994. "Ethnic…… [read more]

Adaptation, Culture Scale Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (861 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


They note that the present environmental crisis has a much large scope and scale than environmental crisis's of the past, in addition to being driven by the unique cultural features of our times.

The authors then delve into the limits of growth that our current environment can sustain. Sahlins and Service are quick to note that they do not believe that the ultimate physical limit to growth is an ultimate societal problem. However, they do not that the concept of social, cultural, and physical limits.

They note that anthropologists have traditionally promoted worldwide economic growth. However, recent evidence suggests that development that emphasizes sustainability in concert with social equity is much more desirable than the unbridled and unchecked development that has occurred in the past.

The authors then go on to examine environmental commissions. They note that The Global 2000 Report to the President of the United States was a fairly conservative estimate of trends in population, resources, and environment on a global scale. However, this conservative report still contained many serious warnings about the future. The report noted the potential for water shortages, serious deforestation, increases in population, deterioration of agricultural lands, poverty, human suffering, and international tension. The report was quickly followed by several others, including the Brundtland Commission (headed by the UN), and the British This Common Inheritance.

The authors then delve into the roots of the environmental crisis. This includes the examination of the ideological basis of capitalism, the role of unregulated self-interest, land degradation of the Mediterranean region, and the basis of human-driven extension and the resulting loss of biodiversity.

Next, Sahlins and Service examine the role of economics on domestic and political scale cultures. They note that earlier, tribal (domestic) cultures usually curbed their wants and thus managed to operate long-term, stable economies. This appears to have occurred as a result of the long-term adaptive value.

Interestingly, the authors then examine the interaction of domestic cultures and the environment. They note that domestic cultures managed to control their environment in several ways, including using fire to manage resources, and increase the fertility of an area. In addition, they note that many tribal religious beliefs help to contribute to regulating population size and the consumption of resources.

In conclusion, Sahlins and Service have written an interesting and informative article on the interaction of culture and the environment. Their article should serve as a warning that the world's current consumption of goods will eventually result in an increasing environmental crisis.

Works Cited

Sahlins, M. & Service, E.R. Adaptation, Culture Scale, and…… [read more]

Particularism vs. Cultural Ecology Franz Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,302 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Man adapts to two environments cognitive and operative Culture imposed on nature as well as nature imposed on culture. How men participate in an ecosystem depends not only on the structure and composition of that ecosystem but also upon the cultural baggage of those who enter it, what they and their descendents subsequently receive by diffusion or invent themselves the demands imposed on the local population from outside, and the needs which may be fulfilled by the local population from abroad.

Rappaport, as quoted in Marquette)

Here, we see that Rappaport is much more interested in the specifics of the historical situation as they present themselves to the observer and in considering the possibility of outside influences as well of the effects of the culture itself in subsequent developments. Thus, while Rappaport employs an overarching framework that would be in accordance with Steward's ideas about Cultural Ecology, his focus is not on the systematic development of the relationship between environment and culture, but on the particulars of any culture or historical event that is engrossed in the process of undergoing change. Indeed, Rappaport "stated that much is to be gained by regarding culture 'as part of the means by which animals of the human species maintain themselves in their environment'" (Runk). Thus, his focus on the particularities of an event reflects the influence of Boaz on his work.

In his work, Marvin Harris, too has established the link between environment and culture. In his work, he has even developed an idea, known as "Cultural Materialism," which deals with a similar interaction between culture and environment as those that have been considered above, albeit with some very important and notable differences:

Harris accepts modern criticisms of narrow views of the scientific method, but argues that science is still special in some way, that it is not "just another cultural practice." At the centre of cultural materialist epistemology is the distinction between the emic and the etic (roughly that between mental processes and symbolic structures on the one hand and observable physical and behavioural phenomena on the other) and a concern that the study of the latter take epistemological precedence over the former. This is not unique to cultural materialism, however, and the latter's distinguishing feature is a division of culture into infrastructure (ecological and biological constraints, modes of production), structure (kinship, politics) and superstructure (religion, art), coupled with a belief that this ordering reflects the dominant direction of causality.


Here, Harris reveals himself to be similarly situated between the legacy of Steward and Boaz and this shared inheritance is revealed in the compartmentalization of his work into several different elements that contribute to the functioning of culture. Like Steward's concept of the Cultural Center, Harris believes that ecological and biological restrictions as well as the requirements of the modes of the production lie at the center of cultural structure, as well as our basic instinctual impulses as humans, and the other cultural elements develop from these bases.

Thus, while Boaz… [read more]

Creswell ), Chapter Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,015 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Creswell (2013), Chapter 4

What is the background for each approach (narrative study, a phenomenology, a grounded theory, ethnography, and a case study)?

Narrative research may refer to the subject matter, or the technique used in a study. Additionally, narrative research may refer to the particular qualitative design in which "narrative is understood as a spoken or written… [read more]

Outline of Schein ) Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (572 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


3. Culture matters: because it is "powerful, tacit and unconscious and determines both individual and collective behavior.

A. Values and thought patterns of leaders are determined in part by individual cultural backgrounds and shared experiences.

B. Understanding the role played by culture to make organization more efficient and effective.

C. Making leaders aware of unique role as creators of culture, evolvers of culture and managers of culture.

E. The more questions that are asked the more inconsistencies will be exposed.

4. Shared tacit assumptions

A. Need to think historically about organization

B. Culture's essence is values and beliefs that are learned in shared experiences.

C. Reason culture is difficult to change because it represents shared learning of group along with "ways of thinking, feeling, and perceiving the world." (p.28)

D. Understanding why culture cannot be measured.

E. Understanding why there is no wrong or right culture.

F. Culture as a pattern of assumptions

G. Multidimensionality in assessing culture's strengths and weaknesses.

5. Complexity of Culture

A. Number of dimensions

B. Interconnection of dimensions

C. Ten Deep assumptions

i. Rugged individualism and entrepreneurial spirit in methods of success.

ii Employees willing and able to take responsibility.

iii. smart entrepreneurial individuals that crate innovatively and debate to establish truth

iv. work required to be fun

v. every individual a family member having job security.

vi. customers treated with complete respect and never lied to.

vii. responsible individuals with the right heart can solve all problems.

viii. engineers are best informed.

ix. internal competition among projects and market deciding how to define priorities.

x. maintenance of centralized paternalistic control required.

D. Understanding that assumptions interact directly with other assumptions.

F. Failure means person in…… [read more]

Cultural Diversity in the United States Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (961 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


S. Secondly, the U.S. is home to different religions based on freedom of religion.

The concept of cultural diversity is vital because it provides us with a chance to understand the different perspectives across the globe in which we live. Cultural diversity helps us recognize and respect different backgrounds of people who may be different from us. According to Pojman (1999), cultural diversity allows us to understand how other people perceive life. Pojman shows that Eskimos starve their elderly folks to death while Spartans of ancient Greece believed that stealing was morally right contrary to our beliefs. Cultural diversity makes our nation a more interesting place to live as people from different cultures contribute new ways of thinking, different experiences, and new knowledge. I believe that cultural diversity should be advanced at all levels.

The concept of cultural diversity is valuable to our country because workplaces and institutions of learning are increasingly consisting of different racial, ethnic, and cultural groups. The dawn of globalization and the advancement of technology have resulted in increased multinational activities. As such, people from different countries and with different cultures often interact to advance trade. Cultural diversity comes into play by allowing equality and the inclusion of all people irrespective of their cultural backgrounds. In addition, institutions of learning have increased cultural interaction through exchange programs. This later promotes cultural diversity within educational institutions.

Cultural diversity in the U.S. forms an integral part of statehood. The American culture is based on the principles of equality, and various freedoms such as freedom of worship are grounded on cultural diversity. In fact, America would not have been the same country as it is today without the diverse cultural groups. On the other hand, cultural diversity is not an entirely good concept as it allows the perpetuation of controversial behaviors. Cultural diversity brings with it certain retrogressive cultures such as homosexuality. The issue of homosexuality is among the widely contested topics in the U.S. And around the world and. Since some cultural groups in the U.S. embrace or support homosexuality, other people opposed to the custom may strongly oppose it leading to cultural tensions.

Concisely, cultural diversity promotes the idea that everyone can make a constructive and exceptional involvement to the wider society irrespective of their differences. With increased globalization, communication, and transportation across different nations, cultural diversity only serves to better the global cultural dimensions through new ways of thinking and knowledge. Without America's rich mixture of races, cultures and religions, the U.S.A. would not be the state it is today. As such, the U.S. would not be considered as an example of countries leading in the promotion of equality and freedom. Therefore, cultural diversity is a desirable aspect in the U.S.


Pojman, L. (1999). Ethics: Discovering Right and Wrong, 3rd edition. Belmont, CA:

Wadsworth.… [read more]

Change in Cultures Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (578 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


However, recently the Catholic Church has taken the stance that evolution reflects the process of divine creation and that the two ideas are not disparate.

All of the possible mechanisms of cultural change such as diffusion, acculturation, war, invention, exchange of ideas, etc. fall within at least one of these three proposed general modes of cultural change discussed by Rochon (1998) and provide the stimulant for how cultures change.

There are some instances where a particular culture will refuse to change. Perhaps the biggest barrier to cultural change is ethnocentrism (Richerson & Boyd, 2008). Cultures that are extremely ethnocentric will tend to view anything different in terms of their own set of cultural values and will therefore not be open to compromising these values. Thus, extreme ethnocentrism can cloud the perception of the particular culture to and result in a form of reactance, where anything new or different is viewed as being maladaptive, threatening, or limiting the values/rights of the members of a particular culture. However, it could be argued that mere exposure to new ideas offers some change in culture, even if this change is imperceptible or if the change simply results in increased resistance to a particular idea or value that previously did not exist.


Barnett, H.G. (1953). Innovation: The basis of cultural change. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Inglehart, R., & Welzel, C. (2005). Modernization, cultural change, and democracy: The human development sequence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Richerson, P.J., & Boyd, R. (2008). Not by genes alone: How culture transformed human evolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Rochon, T.R. (1998). Culture moves: Ideas, activism, and changing values. Princeton: Princeton

Steward, J.H. (1990).…… [read more]

Dark Raptures: Colonial Enterprise as Reflected in Anthropological Photography and Ethnography Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (4,474 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Anthropological Photography in Africa

In what way does the academic discipline of anthropology partake of what Patricia Hayes describes as "emerging colonial photographic rituals marking subjugation and power"? (Hayes 141). In this paper, I will examine the work of two anthropologists who both did work in Africa, and whose work was published with extensive photographic documentation. The first is Isaac… [read more]

Overlap of the Disciplines of Anthropology Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (587 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … overlap of the disciplines of anthropology and history. What can various subdisciplines of There is a definite relationship between the academic disciplines of anthropology and history. History involves several different facets of the actions and events that have taken place on the planet. Some of those actions and events specifically relate to mankind and its development on the planet. In this regard, anthropology effectively functions as the history of man and his cultural evolutions on the planet. Thus, in studying man's history one is actually studying anthropology, while in studying anthropology one is effectively analyzing various aspects of history.

The principle point of overlap between these two disciplines is that anthropology is actually a subject in history. Virtually anything related to anthropology is considered history. Granted, there are some aspects of anthropology that speculate about future developments in this field and their manifestations. Similarly, there are certain parts of this field that are concerned with present developments in mankind's progress and evolution. But at some point these contemporary developments will be included as historical ones, and the vast majority of research in this field is based on the (relatively) longstanding history of mankind and its evolution.

Another area of overlap between history and anthropology pertains to the role that culture plays in both of these disciplines. There are certain stratifications in history that pertain to specific cultures and the events and people that played an influential role in how those cultures changed over time. The notion of culture is central to anthropology, which is not only concerned with the culture of mankind as a whole but also with how various cultures of man were created and have changed over time. In this regard, the chronological development of culture is an aspect…… [read more]

Block in NYC. I Have the Images Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,672 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … block in NYC. I have the images of this block and there is an inventory map of this block. ivestigate this block according to the articles I attach. also there are reading reponse paper, which is about the articles I atttach. 6 pages is about the analysis and 2 pages is about suggestions.

First of all, I do… [read more]

Social Work Practice With Individuals Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,752 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Social Work With Individuals

According to Kirst-Ashman and Hull (2009, p. 147), the engagement stage of the social worker's relationship with the client is the first contact stage. This is a crucial stage, during which the basis for future interaction is established. It is therefore vitally important that the social worker displays the appropriate level of care and warmth to… [read more]

How Society and Education Shapes British Multicultural Life Today Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (837 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Multi Brit

Education, Society, and British Life

The modern world is exponentially smaller, in terms of the ease of transportation and the transfer of information, than it ever has been in the past. Technologies like the Internet and satellite-based communications mean that most points in the human-occupied world can be accessed almost instantaneously from anywhere else in the world, leading to a much greater exposure of all the world's citizens to other cultures, values, and belief systems. In addition, increased travel has been accommodated by airplanes and increasingly efficient rail service, and the spread of trade to encompass and interconnect the entire globe has spurred immigration on an international level, making disparate cultures not only aware of each other but actually making next-door-neighbors out of them. In the British educational system and British society in general, this multiculturalism has had a major effect on British life.

There are those that perceive, perhaps with some justification, distinctly negative effects of the increased diversity in educational settings. Students that are considered "British" by the traditional definition -- i.e. white, primarily Anglo-Saxon descended individuals -- might feel attacked due to the diminished attention and importance that is attached to their own culture, which will necessarily occur as other cultures are also examined and accommodated in the curriculum. This can be taken even further, and has been by some extremists, with the claim that the increasing multicultural emphasis in Britain is tantamount to an attack on the nation of Great Britain itself, and an insidious attempt to degrade British culture. This has made British life somewhat more tense in some aspects.

There are also many positive aspects of the multiculturalism that is recognized and receiving emphasis in British schools, however. By increasing the degree to which "non-British" cultures are accommodated, respected, and studied in British schools, British society can ensure that all students receive the same level of education. Currently, many minority students and families have felt uncomfortable attending British schools due to well-founded fears that their own values would not be upheld, and that they might fall victim to prejudiced and racist behavior, and for this reason many parents have sent their children to private elementary schools focused on their particular minority culture or religion (Berliner 2004). Making all students feel respected and comfortable in British schools ensures that all students receive the same education, and it also begins exposure to a diverse society that needs to work together -- which is how the adult world works -- very early on.…… [read more]

Educating the Expatriate in Papua New Guinea Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,469 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Educating the Expatriate in Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea:

An overview of the life and culture of the nation for an expatriate desiring to do business in PNG

Papua New Guinea:

An overview of the life and culture of the nation for an expatriate desiring to do business in PNG

This paper will provide a brief overview of the… [read more]

Global Sociocultural Responsibility Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,200 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Global Sociocultural Responsibility

Explaining global sociocultural responsibility to a 10-year-old

Global sociocultural responsibility is the means in which adults and companies have to behave towards to each other. They are supposed to live and work in the manner that they want and in the manner which is good for them, but this should not harm the others around them. You know when you go to the park? And there are a lot of children there also? You do get top play what you want, but you're not allowed to upset the other children. You can use the swing when this is free and you cannot throw sand and other children.

Also, when you are in school, and the teacher gives you homework, you need to do your homework. And you need to do-it-yourself, not copy it from other pupils or have your older brother or sister do it for you. And at home, you do get to play and watch television, but you also need to clean your room and you cannot be mean to your parents or your brothers and sister.

When you do all these, you set a good example. If you are a good child, then you will also help other children be good, and the world would become a better place. It's the same with adults and companies. They follow their dream and do what they need and want to do, but they must also pay attention to not harm those around them. Companies for instance have to be nice and considerate towards their employees, their business partners, the public and so on. All the efforts to do good by the groups and individuals around them are called programs of global sociocultural responsibility.

B. Developmental impacts of cross cultural of the social and/or natural environments

The individual is the result of the community. He is born with several innate characteristics which he develops throughout his life, but he also picks up several elements from the community and the society in which he lives. The personal development of the individual is influenced by teachers in schools, by colleagues in university, by bosses at work, by the spouse at home and so on. But it is also influenced by more latent elements, which do not represent the core of daily operations, but which cannot however be denied. One such example is constituted by the cross cultural forces in the social and natural environments.

The United States is in this order of ideas the largest pollutant and consumer of the planet. This single country consumes one third of the resources and, at this rate, the planet would only be able to support life for another estimated five decades (Leonard, 2009). Given this realization, individuals in other countries would recognize the threat of high levels of pollution and consumerism and would strive to reduce them in order to support environmental stability.

At the other pole sits Japan, a country also large and registering high consumption levels, but a country where… [read more]

Cultural Globalization Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (831 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Globalization often has a paradoxical effect. On one hand, it seems to make cultures more 'like' one another: the ubiquity of American popular culture all over the world is often cited as a symptom of the phenomena of globalization. For example, in Jeffrey Pilcher's discussion of the industrialization of traditional Mexican cuisine, the laborious but skilled work of traditional Mexican tortilla preparation was a source of social esteem as well as income for the women who crafted tortillas at home. When this process was rendered into a mechanical process at factories, the work was not much less tedious, but because it had become a standardized product, the woman took less pride and pleasure in it, and became merely cogs in a machine. The final product was less tasty and more suited to the American palate. It was also, more importantly, better-suited Western capitalist demands for standardization and mechanization in production methods. American culture's standardization can even seemingly change the nature of people quite quickly, within a generation. The Americans, Mr. And Mrs. Das in Jhumpa Lahiri's short story "Interpreter of Maladies" are unrecognizable to their Indian guide Mr. Kapasi in terms of their cultural worldview, although they are ethnically Indian.

On the other hand, whenever two cultures are exposed to one another, a kind of synergy always takes place. American culture transported across national borders is never transported in an intact fashion. The culture that acquires new cultural artifacts always makes those artifacts uniquely its own. While it is true, as noted in John Tomlinson's discussion of the phenomenon of cultural globalization, that many cultural artifacts have been 'deterritorialized' from their original location, this is not a process of imposing one culture onto another, but grafting two cultures together in a kind of cultural hybridization. Something new is produced, like the American version of yoga, for example, which is a fusion of American cultural physical fitness traditions with Near Eastern practices.

Even when immigrants establish ethnic enclaves abroad, as in the case of the Chinese community in Australia, a new culture is created. The more recent Chinese immigrants from Hong Kong were often wealthier than long-term Chinese residents, which caused class conflict between the two groups. The more recent immigrants were unhappy with how traditional dim sum culture had been, in their eyes, corrupted by Australian sensibilities. They thought dim sum was no longer as 'pure' as it should be, even though it was still produced by people of Chinese origin. They attempted to recreate…… [read more]

Influence of Culture on Innovation Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  11 pages (3,561 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … globalization" was just coming into vogue. Now it seems like a cliche to say that advanced technology allows multinational firms greater freedom about what to produce and where and that the market for a larger share of goods and services is universal. At the same time, however, these evolutionary factors are dramatically increasing the pressure on companies to… [read more]

Irish Dance Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,330 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Irish Dance

Many of us know about the role dance plays in our society and culture. Dance is not only limited to physical movements but goes way beyond the dictates of the body. It seeps into every society's history and culture. Dance, when understood to be a social variable, can be seen as having a bi-directional relationship with culture because not only does it influence culture but culture is influenced by dance as well.

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the relationship of Irish dance and Irish culture, putting thrust on the way Irish dance influences the culture of the Irish people. Before building and eventually strengthening this idea, I believe it is fitting to first provide a brief understanding of the Irish dance for us to be able to understand the intersection of dance, culture, and society of the Irish people.

Irish Dance: A Brief History

According to King, we can trace the history of Irish dance to the early centuries of modern history, by which the Celts' entrance in the land brought with them various kinds of folk dances that were then incorporated in the ritual activities of the Druids. Druids' ritualistic activities are known to be occultist in nature (par 1). The Druids dance as part of their ritual ceremonies to honor the oak tree and the sun (Arthur Flynn in "The History of Irish Dance" par 1).

The Norman invasion during the 12th century marked another hallmark in the history of Irish dancing. During this era, the invasion brought along new cultural components to Ireland which also marked the foundation of modern Irish dancing (ibid par 3). This infant modern dance became an avenue by which Irish people where able to express their natural love for fun and entertainment. The "cake dance" for example, is perhaps what was then known as the "Irish Dance Competition" usually performed after Sunday services where men and women compete by demonstrating complex dance steps and maneuvers -- the prize being a freshly -- baked cake (hence the name of the dance) (ibid par 4).

Moving on to the 18-19th century, we can see the proliferation of "Dance Masters" who travel in the different parts of the land, stay in a particular community for about 6-8 weeks to teach the basic forms of modern dance. By the early 20th century, we can see the standardization of Irish dance via pre-set forms and movements (ibid par 5-6).

Irish Dance

Now that we already have an idea of where Irish dance came from and the factors that contributed to how it is today, I will now present what Irish dance actually is. According to Kingsland, Irish dancing is usually divided into three main types: step dancing -- which was a product of 17th century repression of education of Catholic children. The Dance Masters continued on by secretly teaching students "steps" (defined as 8 measures or bards of music). These dance masters have a set of dance steps and sometimes they compete,… [read more]

Anthropologists to Conduct Such In-Depth Fieldwork/Research? Give Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (370 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Anthropologists to conduct such in-depth fieldwork/Research? Give an example or two.

Why is it so important for anthropologists to conduct such in-depth fieldwork/research?

Anthropology is the study of human cultures of the past and present. Culture is revealed through the mechanisms of human life, not simply through academic research. Very often what people say and what they do manifests a profound disconnect between thought and behavior. For example, the way that a myth is interpreted by an indigenous people in ritual may be very different than how it 'sounds' on paper, when an anthropologist reads a transcript of the myth in his or her study. Within American culture, common myths such as the myth that 'everyone can succeed if he or she really works hard' are very different in the ways they function in lived experience, in culture, versus how they are portrayed in the media or even how people articulate these myths in everyday speech. A person may proudly describe himself as a 'self-made man' because he owns his own business, even though the money he obtained was inherited from a wealthy…… [read more]

Cross-Cultural Communication Globalizations' Effect on Cultures Continues Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,343 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Cross-Cultural Communication

Globalizations' effect on cultures continues to rapidly force the integration of often widely divergent countries and regions together in the pursuit of common objectives, whether they are commercial or non-profit in scope. As companies partner with one another based on the potential of gaining competitive advantages in global markets, the pressure for people from widely divergent cultures to quickly assimilate with each other and accomplish shared objectives grows. The rapid increase in joint ventures, mergers, acquisitions and shared risk business models accelerates the need for intercultural and international communication (Sirkin, Hemerling, Bhattacharya, 2008). The intent of this paper is to analyze how cultures, both within organizations and within nations are being changed by the rapid pace of change attributable to globalization (Sirkin, Hemerling, Bhattacharya, 2008). While social networking and Web 2.0 technologies are increasingly being used to bridge the physical gaps between work teams (Bernoff, Li, 2008) there still exist significant gaps in how cross-cultural teams perceive each other. These perceptions need to make more congruent through dialogue and appreciation for how subcultures have unique communication requirements (Yankelovich, 1999). The internal and external forces that impact cultures are making ethnocetricism more noticeable given the urgency to assimilate teams from widely different cultures and quickly attain shared business objectives (Marques, Dhiman, King, 2009). Navigating this new global landscape of cultures requires a set of concepts and frameworks.

Setting the Foundation for Intercultural Dialogue

Of the many frameworks which can be used for determining the level of congruency or lack thereof between cultures the Cultural Dimensions Model (Hofstede, 1998) has been pervasively adopted and cited by well over 500 additional empirical studies according to Dr. Hofstede (1998). Using the Five Cultural Dimensions variations between cultures can be quantified and analyzed to determine the best possible strategies for enabling greater dialogue and communication. The five cultural dimensions include the Power Distance Index (PDI), which indicates how willing or accepting members of organizations, both social and professional, are willing to accept power being distributed unequally. To the extent that members of a society are willing to accept a high PDI is the extent to which they are more likely to prefer hierarchical, highly structured organizations that have very clear lines of authority and definitions of status and roles. The PDI also indicates how prevalent acceptance of inequality is across cultures as well. These are invaluable insights in determining how to create a communication strategy with someone in another culture. Figure 1 provides a global map of the PDI ratings by nation.

Figure 1: PDI Cultural Dimension Graphed by Nation



The second cultural dimension, Individualism (IDV) measures a cultures' propensity to form tight groups or have a strong collectivism mindset, relative to a strong individualist approach of loosely defined connections throughout a group. Strong individualist societies including the United States focus on ensuring the immediate family is taken care of; collectivist societies are more focused on the entire group or extended family. In terms of dialogue and the ability to attain… [read more]

Cross-Cultural Management Relativism Dimension and Applications Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,342 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Cross-Cultural Management Relativism

Global business and the growth of multinational organizations has created in the modern era many obstacles and opportunities that are related to difference and commonalities. The way that a different culture communicates, organizes, produces and overall does business can be very different from one culture to the next and though culture is not innate but learned these intricate and sometimes conflicting ideologies will have a great deal of affect on how a multi-national manager and those he is supposed to manage interact and come together to produce a desired outcome. (Hofstede, 2005, 4)

The multinational manager must ultimately transverse through all the differences with a fair minded sense of difference rather than conflict and create a mutual standard that gets the job done without altering to much about the base culture or creating to many conflicts regarding the judgment of the others' cultural business standards. The multinational manager must balance the demands and core missions and goals of the parent company with the way in which the foreign worker and systems run and develop, often times translating terms and ideologies that are innately foreign and rarely to be assumed as understood. (Adler and, Gundersen, 2008, 73)

Achieving this balance between the goals of the parent organization and the cultural perspectives and standards of the host culture can be the primary challenge of the expatriate manager and the modern as compared to historical standards of doing this are very different. While in the past seeing these differences and how they might affect the meeting of goals led to universal and blanket attempts to subvert the differences, remake the cultural standards and then to some degree force the host culture to accept the changes, even if just for the sake of business goal completion. Today this is not an acceptable or logical ethic and will likely result in more resistance than will be productive. Today it is more acceptable for the parent culture to accept and understand as much of the host culture as is possible and to restructure to meet common goals. (Adler and, Gundersen, 2008, 103-104)


Cultural relativism is born of the idea that colonialism frequently judged, juried and convicted cultures based on differences and then made changes to meet their own cultural ideas and demands. In today's standards of globalism this is not only not possible it is considered destructive and therefore managers and others from other cultures must see cultural difference not as a point of negative or positive judgment but as a relative reality in the foreign culture. To make changes these expatriates must either negotiate to make changes or leave well enough alone and alter his or her own standards, needs and culturally-based presuppositions to meet those of the other group. (Hofstede, 2005, 5)

Challenges arise when the expatriate manager has a difficult time balancing what he or she believes is right or wrong in his own culturally biased ideologies of organization with the differences he or she sees in the other… [read more]

History of Anthropological Thought Essay

Essay  |  12 pages (3,689 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Anthropological Thought

Durkheim, E. 1895. What is Social Fact? Rules of the Sociological Method. In Anthropological Theory: An Introductory Theory. Fourth Edition. R. McGee and Richard Warms. McGraw Hill

Emile Durkheim proposed that the field of sociology was separate from the related sciences of anthropology and psychology. He established that certain types of thought are separate from the… [read more]

Intercultural and/or Cross-Cultural Communication Theories, Models Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,848 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Intercultural and/or cross-cultural communication theories, models, and/Or methodologies and a description of at least one research project or study for each theory chosen

Theories, models, and methodologies of face-negotiation and feminist communication theory

Saving face.' 'Face time.' Americans and other individuals from low-context Westernized countries are likely think about the metaphor of 'face' in terms of personally securing dignity and… [read more]

Ethical Relativism Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,588 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Cultural Relativism: Drawbacks and Defenses

Morality appears to us as a concrete term which is underscored by certain rational assumptions about the universe. And yet, our own experience tells us that that which one considers to be vice may, to another, be seen as virtue. The reverse may also apply. Thus, it is rather difficult to reconcile that which does… [read more]

Ishmael Dear Ishmael Seeing the World Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,232 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Dear Ishmael

Seeing the world through your gorilla eyes has meant a complete shift in the way I think about human history. In fact, your point-of-view has catalyzed a consciousness change in me, affecting my worldview and my political perspectives. I have come to realize how the "Takers" have literally taken over the world by brute force and that "Leaver" cultures have generally presented more peaceful, reasonable, and sustainable methods of living. The triumph of one culture over another does not at all prove one's superiority over the other. All world history has proven is that arrogance and self-righteousness define dominant cultures. Colonialism proved how far the Takers are willing to go to impose their worldview. With overt hypocrisy, the Takers claim to be morally superior than the Leavers while at the very same time killing and denigrating Leavers.

Your views seem extreme and radical in the modern world. Few of us whose ancestors are Takers would be willing to adopt a Leaver lifestyle. The world has changed far too much to support communal lifestyles on a large scale. Leavers can survive or rebuild their communities but only on a small scale and in great opposition to larger forces such as governments run by Taker cultures. Mass production and the global market economy have essentially made Leaver cultures unable to thrive on cottage industries or small-scale subsistence agriculture. City dwellers are unlikely to surrender their creature comforts. The Taker way of life has triumphed and even those of us with high ideals fail to make the wholesale changes that would be necessary to transform the world as you suggest. However, I appreciate your optimism in suggesting that the world and human consciousness are evolving toward increased intelligence and sophistication as well as increased complexity. As you point out, the strength of character exuded by many human beings suggests that we can infuse wisdom into our current way of life. We can keep progressing toward scientific and technological goals while retaining our core human values. I would like to learn more about your vision of the future and what practical steps need to be taken to promote positive change.

A sometimes wonder what wisdom a gorilla can offer humanity. Your perspective is sound and logical but seems to overlook the power of human nature in determining the course of history. Greed and lust for power have created situations in which Leaver societies have themselves surrendered peace. I believe it may be too late to undo what centuries of behavior has wrought. Differences in opinion over how human beings should live are difficult to mediate because so many Takers base their views on religion. As you point out, religion is often distorts reality by creating untenable myths. Yet if a Taker culture bases its entire reason for being on religion it is impossible to use reason to counteract their arguments. In the end, a fundamentalist will always point to some irrational argument for why their views are the correct ones. People… [read more]

Cultural Globalization Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,145 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Cultural Globalization

Despite the prevailing popular press that globalization and the "flattening" of entire countries and cultures is now in full force, there is still a high degree of variation, in fact heterogeneity, between and within cultures. This dynamic of greater differences within cultures between groups and between cultures and nations is in turn driving a much more… [read more]

Movie Baraka Non-Narrative Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (572 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Geographical Reflections on Baraka

Ron Fricke's non-narrative film Baraka serves as both an intimate portrayal of the workings of nature and human geography, and as a devastating commentary on man's interaction with the natural environment. In what follows, we will analyze Baraka from the standpoint of two key geographical issues, both of which form central components of the film - that is, globalization, and culture and the environment.

With all of the beautiful, moving, and lyrical images one finds in Baraka, there is one image that is conspicuously absent. In not one single frame of the magnificent sites and vistas do we see a single tourist. Thus, while Baraka may be said to be a literal representation of globalization - in that the camera seems to effortlessly glide through a wide array of different cultural sites - one does not get the sense that any human beings are traveling alongside the camera. It is a fact that as a result of globalization, a cross-cultural fusion has been affected. This is not visible in Baraka.

There are, however, facets of globalization that come to the forefront in the course of the film. In the industrial sector, trans nationalization has organized people and products into specialized demographics that transcend national boundaries. This is poignantly illustrated in Baraka in the footage of workers in China who are clearly working in sweatshop conditions, manufacturing products that are most likely for export to more prosperous nations.

In witnessing some of the negative side effects of industrialization, one is led to ask the following question: Is it possible for man to have a harmonious relationship with the natural environment? This is one question that Baraka seems to have a definite answer…… [read more]

Multicultural Learning in Business Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,262 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Multicultural learning in business has been a mainstay in management education for the last twenty years as more and more universities in the UK and elsewhere seek to prepare students for management roles in corporations with extremely diverse makeup. The standards accepted, as well as the theory surrounding such standards are applicable to not only management training but group dynamics… [read more]

Astro Boy Marketing Japanese Anime to the World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,021 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Astro Boy-Marketing Japanese Anime to the World

Is the success of Japanese anime in countries such as the United States indicative of the emergence of a global youth culture?

It is estimated that approximately sixty percent of the world's youth reside in Asian counties. (Kahn and Kellner) However, the success of the Japanese anime phenomenon is not only limited to… [read more]

Impact of Globalization Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,581 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Globalization

The intent of this analysis is to evaluate how economic globalization is affecting and influencing local cultures while also exploring why urban geographers are increasingly analyzing the world's cities for influences of globalization as well. The city of Los Angeles, California is included as an example of a city that is analyzed according to its urban layout,… [read more]

Intercultural Communication Explain How Differences Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (954 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Intercultural Communication

Explain how differences in the perception of time and the use of space affect intercultural and co-cultural communication.

Imagine this scenario. You arrive for an afternoon meeting at the scheduled time. You have just suffered a long flight from New York to Paris. Forty-five minutes later, the representatives from your organization's French branch sally into the conference room. They are still discussing the delightful new cafe they discovered, where they have enjoyed a two-hour lunch. 'Why didn't they leave on time for our carefully scheduled meeting,' you rage inside, 'how could they be so inconsiderate?' Later, when you explain your ire to a French friend, he does not understand why less than an hour was so important to you.

Imagine another scenario. You are meeting the representatives of a Japanese organization your business hopes to embark upon in a joint venture. The two of you offer your hands to shake. They do so, gently, while you and your colleague give a firm handshake, to show that you mean business. You sit close by these representatives at the table, to show your friendliness, but they seem standoffish. You leave the meeting feeling as though things did not go well, that the two of you did not make a good impression. Yet despite their apparent dislike for American closeness in physical gestures of friendship, you note that many Japanese citizens happily pack themselves into loaded commuter trains.

These experiences illustrate some differences in how different cultures value time, such as American's premium upon time equating money, versus the French value upon leisure and quality of life, or the different protocols regarding personal space that vary between and within cultures depending on different situational contexts. A largely Muslim nation like Morocco might be quite flexible about the beginnings of meeting times, given its French colonial history but the times for prayers to Mecca are inflexible. Even within the United States, a Southerner might be taken aback by what he sees as an impatient, 'in your face' New Yorker. Thus cultural awareness is important, so that cultural norms are not read as rudeness or ingratitude and impede real understanding between nations or regions.

What are the differences in behavior exhibited by people who come from cultures that have different activity orientations?

Activity orientations refer to the culture's degree on emphasis in 'doing' and 'being.' This stress upon what someone does is almost immediately apparent in a cocktail party in the United States. "What do you do?" is the first question everyone is asked, as if vocation is synonymous with identity. Pragmatic, logical, and forward-thinking approaches and an emphasis on getting things done are the hallmarks of American business and in American society' doing one's job is synonymous with doing something of measurable value. Someone who does not work, such as a homemaker, will often say that he or she…… [read more]

Global Communications Decide on a New Cultural Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (543 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Global Communications

Decide on a new cultural metaphor for the United States besides Football. Explain why you choose that new cultural metaphor.

In defining a new cultural metaphor for the United States, the impact of terrorism, globalization, a protracted war in Iraq, and a faltering image globally leads to the metaphor of the Phoenix. The mythical bird that rose from the ashes, the Phoenix is an ideal cultural metaphor for the United States, as it is the land of second chances for literally hundreds of millions of people, and literally millions of immigrants. Even within the United States, there are specific areas where rejuvenation and the re-inventing of ones' self is a critical part of culture. Take California for example, and in fact the entire Western U.S., once known for its rugged individualism and self-reliance, is now increasingly known for its focus on rejuvenation and renewal. According to Franke, R., Hofstede, G., and Bond, M. (1991) the essence of cultural differentiation and strength comes for the ability to create a regenerative and renewing set of cultural standards. As Phoenix is ideal as a cultural metaphor for the United States as it further accentuates that even from the most difficult of times - death in the case of the mythical Phoenix -it rises again, more beautiful and stronger than ever. This cultural metaphor mixes the regenerative aspects of the American culture and spirit, yet also illustrates that globally, the U.S. is struggling to redefine itself as a humanitarian nation and respecter of life and renewal vs. A nation impervious to those values.

Compare and Contrast two "Authority Ranking Cultures: Japan and Korea…… [read more]

Business A. What Are the Key Elements Term Paper

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Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Business a. What are the key elements that define a culture?

According to Ellwood, culture comprise on the one hand, the entire of human's material civilization, instruments, armory, outfits, machinery, and systems of industry as well, and on the other hand the complete intangible or spiritual civilization, like language, writings, art, religion, sacraments, ethics, regulations and administration. (Kluckhohn; Kroeber; Meyer;… [read more]

International Organizational Behavior Term Paper

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International Organizational Behaviour

International joint ventures rise important problems for human resource management and evidence for this fact has been put forth by the recent international management literature (Geringer & Frayne, 1990; Gantinsky & Watske, 1990; Zeira & Shenkar, 1990;Bleeke & Ernst, 1991; Yuen & Kee, 1993; Luthans, Marsnik & Luthans, 1997; Makino & Beamish, 1998; Lin & Germain, 1998).… [read more]

Michelangelo Bosch Montaigne Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (335 words)
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¶ … Cannibals

REPLY: Yes, I do think that values become more rigid when we are less sure of ourselves. We tend to value the opinions and ideas of others more than we value our own, as well. Surety gives confidence in the ideas we hold true and how we feel about ourselves. I also think that power can make us more rigid as well. The powerful and aggressive may have feelings of insecurity and feel more unsure, but they also must hold on to their power to maintain their superiority and control. That can lead to rigid values as well, because the powerful have fewer choices if they are to remain powerful and in control. Thus, it seems as if the weakest and the most powerful may be the most rigid entities in a culture, while those who remain more neutral in the middle have less need for a rigid dependence on society's values and ideals.

REPLY: I would definitely want to live in Michelangelo's culture,…… [read more]

Of Cannibal by Michael Montaigne Term Paper

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Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1



All of this brings me to the question, are all social practices equally valid, good, true, beautiful? Should we never judge other people's culture? Are there no absolutes?

Is everything relative? Some radical postmodern theorists would agree that this is true. And on some level, everything we feel is 'correct' has its root in cultural assumptions and stereotypes. Even the profound American confidence in individualism and freedom is not universal. Some European nations prize the value of socialism and the welfare of the community equally as much as the American ideal of 'don't tread on me.' In other words, even in the so-called developed world, what is considered to be true is actually a cultural product and is nationally contextual. What is beautiful has famously shifted from age to age, as the beauty of a modernist Picasso painting or the spare architecture of a Frank Lloyd Wright design would be hideous in the eyes of a Victorian aesthete.

But taken to its logical conclusion, radical relativism…… [read more]

Brand Expands Term Paper

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¶ … Brand Expands" by Naomi Klein

Branding and Brand Expansion: The Usurpation of Human Cultures and Creation of Brand Culture in "The Brand Expands" by Naomi Klein

In the second chapter of her book No Logo, entitled "The Brand Expands," author Naomi Klein illustrated the beneficial and detrimental effects of branding not only to the commercial landscape, but also and most importantly, to the social landscape as well. Most salient in this chapter was Klein's illustration of how brands and branding have taken over people's lives, even going so far as to 'dictate' their choices in future consumption and personal lifestyle.

In her book, Klein's main thesis focuses on the detriment that branding has caused to modern, capitalist societies all over the world, but most especially to the United States. The chapter's main thesis is: branding and brand expansion resulted to the usurpation of human cultures and creation of a brand culture controlled by companies and corporations. To support this thesis, excerpts and statements from the chapter will be discussed in the sections that follow. Three insights were gleaned from Klein's discussion in the book: (i) the logo as a representation of the brand has become independent from the products it is emblazoned on, and identified alone for what it is, an identifiable brand and logo; (ii) the logo transcended from being commercial to social, as it increased its presence and usefulness in meaningful events in different cultures and societies; and (iii) brand expansion eventually led to the 'commodification' of the individual, of the "flesh," as brands and logos have become more invasive and influential in the lives of contemporary, commercialized societies.

Klein determined the "scaling-up of the logo" as an illustration of how the material became a strong concept in the minds of the consumers. According to the author, "logos have grown so dominant that they have essentially transformed the clothing on which they appear into empty carriers for the brands they represent" (158-9). As posited earlier, the logo transformed from being a consumable material to being a strong concept/idea in the minds of the consumers. This transformation from material to idea means the influence of the brand is increasingly becoming pervasive, affecting people's consumption, lifestyle, perceptions, and even realities.

The most salient example of a logo that has encompassed the material to eventually become an idea is McDonald's. The McDonald's logo has been associated for the longest time as representing the strongest brand in the fast food industry; however, over time, it has evolved to an idea, and became the symbol for efficiency not only in the food service industry, but for other industries as well. That is why when referring to "McDonaldization" of an industry or sector in society, this means that it has reached a higher level of standardization and efficiency. Processes and workflow are well-defined and shortened to achieve quickness and efficiency, achieving optimization with the least resources available or used. The logo became the mother of all "fasts" in the world -- fast… [read more]

Work Family Interface in Culturally Distinct Societies Is it Organizational Issue Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  5 pages (1,514 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Cultural Dimension Theory

One of the key changes of the late 20th century, certainly enhanced in the early 21st, is that of the economic, political, and cultural movements that broadly speaking, move the various countries of the world closer together. This idea, called globalism, refers to a number of theories that see the complexities of modern life such that events… [read more]

Position Statement and Debate Repatriation Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 8


Repatriation and Its Consequences

There are few more contentious issues in the field of anthropology than that of repatriation, and this is no small claim to make in a field that can often seem to revel in contention. But unlike the generations-spanning feuds in physical anthropology, for example, much of the contention that arises around the issue of repatriation has… [read more]

Rolling Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  3 pages (874 words)
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Rolling Rs

Linmark's Rolling the R's: Reinventing Language and Personality

The realm of post-colonial literature often focuses on the immigrant experience, and the juxtaposition of increased national freedom and globalization on one hand with the challenges of cultural divisions and prejudices on the other. It is rarer to find a novel that accurately and fully explores other implications of the post-colonial (and even the colonial) era: the manner in which immigrant's children and those with mixed-race or multicultural identities must navigate the vicissitudes of living in a post-colonial West. For many of these individuals and the few literary characters that exist that can be seen as exemplifying this position, finding a place in society means carving out this place, and this can also involve carving out an identity for the self. This is exactly what the adolescent characters of Zamora Linmark's novel Rolling the R's accomplish through their use of language and their identification with pop-culture icons, creating their own sense of identity that rejects the cultural restraints both of the Western culture they are ostensibly a part of and of the own traditional culture of their ancestors.

English is a fluid thing in the mouths of Edgar Ramirez, Katrina Cruz, and Florante Sanchez, three Filipino-descended fifth graders in Honolulu in the 1970s. They use words in a rather pidgin fashion, melding the white culture of which Hawaii is officially a part, the Hawaiian culture that was even more prominent throughout the islands at the time of the novel's action, and their own Filipino culture which is itself a melding of European and indigenous traditions and languages. The highly independent and varied use of English exhibited by the characters is at once indicative of their lack of a distinct cultural location and their creativity in creating such a space.

It is not only in the specific words used that language becomes a source or perhaps a material for the creation of identity and cultural space. The different selections of text that the author uses to tell the story, blending different characters and voices in a sometime-difficult-to-follow yet always-rewarding manner also illustrates the fluidity and adaptability of language as it is perceived and used by the characters. From poems to letters to less conventional means of conveying narrative, it is explicitly the interactions with language and the printing of the word that these characters go through by which these characters become known to the reader. In a very concrete sense, then, these characters are defined by the fragmented yet cohesive nature of the different linguistic elements that record the events of their lives, their emotions, and all of…… [read more]

Intercultural Communication the Cultural Dimensions and Barriers in Miami Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,612 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 6



Mr. Chow,

Firstly, we are pleased you have decided to become a part of our exciting and growing workforce. In an effort to acclimate you to your new work environment, the following report is being prepared to offer the information deemed necessary to assist you with the transition and adaptation to your new work environment. In order to ensure… [read more]

Globalization Changes the World's Cultures Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (714 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


S., has provided living arrangements, and the worker only makes the equivalent of $500 per anum, one has to ask what that worker can purchase for $500 and if it is well beyond the normal wage a person might receive in that country. When the morality comes into play is with identical jobs being done, and the American worker receiving 10-100 times more for the exact same work; clearly a case that might need to be adjusted in some manner (Oak, 2009).

Part 3- The idea of Disney selling the same kind of food in its parks overseas as it does in the United States may not be the best idea. On one hand, there is the idea of the cultural experience of American food (friend chicken, hamburgers, etc.). And, when one dines in the different scenarios in a Disney park, part of the charm is experiencing different foods. However, at the same time, one must be aware of regional and specific country tastes; it is probably a good idea to serve wine and beer in EU countries as those beverages are an expected part of entertainment; yet alcohol is banned in some countries. Beef would not be sold in an Indian park, and the availability of certain proteins might be more difficult in China (too expensive) to make the experience enjoyable (the exchange rate, for instance). In Euro Disney, for example, the cultural norm was that Europeans ate a small breakfast and large lunch; which is true on regular days. However, on vacations, this proved incorrect -- as did the way of eating. Americans will walk around the park with food, whereas Europeans want to sit down for a long and leisurely lunch. These habits change, depending on country and culture, making it necessary for the Disney model to become more flexible (Yue, 2009).


Oak, R. (May 9, 2009). GM Offshore Outsourcing U.S. Jobs. The Economic Populist. Retrieved from: http://www.economicpopulist.org/content/gm-offshore-outsourcing-us-jobs

Simon, C. (February 11, 2007). Bringing Disney to China Seems as Tough as Shark Fin

Soup. The Ledger. Retrieved from:


Yue, W. (November 2009). The Fretful Euro Disneyland. International Journal of Marketing

Studies.…… [read more]

Lost in Translation Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Lost in Translation, written and directed by Sophia Coppola. Specifically, it will contain a review of the film, answering some specific questions about the film and how it relates to life and culture today.

From the very opening scene of the film, it is quite clear that both the main characters in this film are facing major cultural differences, and they are "lost" in another world, with no one to connect to. As Bob drives in the old-fashioned limousine to his hotel, the garish neon and Japanese language cues on the signs clearly indicate he is far from home. Charlotte's perch on the ledge of the window in the hotel room indicates the same thing, that she is alienated from everything around her, and is feeling culturally isolated. No words need to be spoken to show that these two people are lost, and so, would seek each other out if they knew they could. The scene with Bob in the elevator, surrounded by a sea of short people, and the shower that is never tall enough are great icons, illustrating how very different the culture is, and how much these two characters simply do not fit in.

Bob's wife is somewhat like his conscience, calling him back to reality in a very unreal and uneasy situation. She reminds him of everything he does wrong, even while the Japanese are treating him like a hero and a very big celebrity. At home, he is Bob the actor. In Japan, he is Bob the big celebrity, and his wife, who cannot see the treatment he receives, is his lifeline to reality, while the time in Japan is surrealistic and certainly cannot continue. Bob's wife may not be pleasant, but she represents "real" life, and all the responsibilities and problems that go with it.

The bar is quite an important meeting place for the characters for a number of reasons. First, the bar seems like any bar back home. Bob can get what he wants to drink, and listen to American music, even if it is more like Muzak. The bar represents normalcy and a culture where they are secure and comfortable, and it is in direct contrast to the rest of the culture surrounding them. In the bar, they can convince themselves everything is "normal," when of course it is not. Charlotte's marriage is empty, and Bob's life is empty, and nothing, even another culture, can change that. However, in the bar, everything is equal, and the rest of the world, the culture, and their lives back home do not matter.

Charlotte's visit to the Shinto shrine is a turning point for her, because it indicates that she really is in another world, another culture, and that the reality of her life cannot be ignored. She can enjoy time with Bob, but that is not real. Her marriage is real, the problems with it are real, the Shrine is real, and so, it brings reality back to her, and shows… [read more]

Society as a Social Organization Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Society as a Social Organization

One often looks to culture as a means of describing society and social organization. Most anthropologists would agree that culture is related to the aspects of the human condition that are "derived as what we learn as members of society" (Just and Monaghan, 2000:35). Further, aspects of the human condition learned as members of society… [read more]

Functionalism &amp Structuralism Term Paper

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Levi-Strauss's analysis presents a micro-level analysis of culture to ultimately identify the kind of culture that prevails within a particular group or community.

Mircea Eliade's cultural analysis is similar with Levi-Strauss's subsistence to structuralism. In his discussion in "The sacred and the profane," he offers a similar thesis about structuralism, positing that binary opposites determine the nature of human culture. However, what differentiates Eliade from Levi-Strauss is that he formulates his structuralist analysis of human cultures through religion, which he considers as the primary determinant that allows people to identify what is right or wrong, or beneficial or detrimental to them as a community. He thus argues that religion create a reality for people wherein they live in a society that is determined by "two modes of being in the world, two existential situations." In effect, like Levi-Strauss, human cultures, according to Eliade's analysis, are governed by a world of polarities or dichotomies, allowing them to make decisions in life based on two kinds of knowledge and truth in life, where one is beneficial for people and the other, as harmful and considered deviant to the society. This is illustrative of his point in the book, wherein he states, " ... we constantly find the same cosmological schema and the same ritual scenario: settling in a territory is equivalent to founding a world."

Bronislaw Malinowski, the founder of the field of social anthropology, subsists to a different, yet complementing perspective to Levi-Strauss and Eliade's structuralist analysis. Subsisting to functionalism to explain human cultures, Malinowski looks into the prevalence of myth in society by distinguishing between religion and magic. Identifying the difference between the two is vital for his study, since he intended to find out what makes magic prevail despite the existence of religion in human societies. In "Magic, ritual, and symbolism," Malinowski argues that "[m]agic is distinguished from Religion in that the latter creates values and attains ends directly, whereas magic consists of acts which have a practical utilitarian value and are effective only as a means to an end." From this passage, it is evident that both religion and magic serve a particular purpose for the society, hence, the reason for their continued existence. Malinowski's study presents cultural analysis conducted at the macro-level, wherein the prevalence of myth is first determined and its components are identified to be influenced to it, as opposed to Levi-Strauss and Eliade's arguments illustrating cultural myths as concepts composed together to create a particular kind…… [read more]

Ethnography There Are a Number of Issues Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+



There are a number of issues that Sociologists find themselves dealing with. It is important to examine what ethnography is, provide some examples, and determine how we are all part of ethnography in order to gain a better understanding of the concept.

Defining Ethnography

There is not a set definition of ethnography, as it "can be both a process… [read more]

Political Involvement Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Non-American Culture

The World Outside of the United States in 2004

The purpose of this paper is to research contemporary culture outside of the United States and to examine the current trends and movements on the societal level as well as to touch upon the economical, political and religious themes that are predominant in today's international society. Further this paper… [read more]

Life Experience, Professional Experiences Term Paper

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If I could reach over and grab those peas, why should I interrupt others' dinner, and ask them to pass the peas! Yet, this is part of American manners.

The family gathering with my in-laws is just one of the many experiences I have had that illustrate how different countries employ a different set of customs. I have come to believe that individuals should embrace their own culture, yet it is important for them to respect the customs of another country when they are living there. That is why I feel multicultural counseling is so important. While one culture might consider something as inappropriate, another might think it's proper. It is also important for the ethnic minorities in America to enjoy a culturally sensitive therapeutic environment that bridges the cultural gaps between different groups.

As an Asian international student in Indiana, I have observed that many people in minority groups often do not interact with other minority groups. I believe most counselors try to be culturally sensitive; nevertheless, understanding a different culture is often a process not an event. My husband who lived in Japan for two years has developed a strong cultural sensitivity to Asian cultures. During our four years of marriage, we have encountered problems due to cultural differences. Fortunately, we have both adjusted our expectations to resolve these differences. However, this mutual understanding is not often acquired in typical relationships. Therefore, unless people from different cultures are able to seek multicultural counseling, they may have a hard time reconciling their diversity.

Psychology is culturally oriented and, therefore, I believe we cannot use the American standard to judge everyone's issues. I understand the importance of history, traditions, and cultural values that can influence a client in their decision making. For example, contrary to Western cultures, Chinese families regard the elderly as family treasures. As a future mental health provider, I know I will need to understand how a client's symptoms are often culturally relevant. My interest in multicultural counseling started in my third year of undergraduate studies. I shifted my primary research interest from child and adolescent counseling to multicultural counseling after I learned of the increasing need for culturally sensitive counselors. I have taken a variety of anthropology, history, culture and Spanish and Japanese language classes.

Furthermore, I have participated in a year-long independent study with Dr. Phyllis Lin, a Taiwanese professor in sociology whom I consider my mentor. Although I grew up in Hong Kong, I did not… [read more]

Communications Term Paper

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The term "nation" refers to the political and geographic features of the United States of America, and nationality refers to citizenship within that nation. When citizens of the United States identify as Americans, they are referring to their national identity. They also imply that they live and work in the United States or did for a significant portion of their lives.Most people who identify with the nation were born there, but many people who identify as "Americans" were born outside the country. Likewise, many people who are born in the United States no longer live in the country but may choose to identify themselves as "Americans."

Cultural identity can be completely different from national identity, especially in a country as diverse as the United States. Culture generally refers to one's family of origin and one's ancestry. Culture can comprise such aspects as religion, cuisine, clothing, customs, social norms, values, and beliefs. People of…… [read more]

Ishi in Two Worlds Term Paper

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Ishi in Two Worlds

Kroeber, Theodora. Ishi in Two Worlds. Originally published by Berkley: University of California Press, 1961. Reprinted in 1976.

Ishi in Two Worlds tells the tale of an Indian man who was accustomed to living a traditional way of life thrust into the full brunt of modern, American civilization by a cruel accident. It is indeed a story of a man who dwelled in two worlds, for most of his life in the ways and sphere of the Yahi Indians. After his tribe's eradication he was forced to live in contemporary civilization, specifically in the context of the modern American university amongst well-meaning anthropologists who wished to study and learn from him. Despite all of the compassion they showed to him, the spectacle is occasionally painful to read about.

Ishi's tale is thus at once fascinating and uncomfortable to hear, as the reader finds him or herself a witness to Indian histories, languages and narratives that would otherwise have been lost, yet also a fly-on-the-wall observer to the personal struggle of an essentially private individual, forced to cope with a civilization he never knew existed, a civilization that has overtaken his own even though it is not necessarily superior to the Yahi's ways. At least the anthropologist under whose care Ishi found himself had some of the current postmodern or tolerant mindset of today. They wished to learn about his culture with an open mind, rather than try to change him or to condemn the Yahi practices. Still, the solitude of Ishi's final years amongst White men and women makes his struggle even painful for a 21st century reader to acknowledge.

Despite the discomfort the complicated nature of being a witness to his story may cause for the reader, Ishi's tale is still an important one, historically speaking, and thus the continued referencing of this book is valuable. Ishi was the very last surviving Yahi Indian, the lone survivor of an exterminated tribe. His tale must be told, otherwise the Yahi story would be lost forever, killed by cultural as well as population genocide. In the year of 1911, invading Whites killed all of the rest of Ishi's tribal family. The Indian was found hiding in a farm on California. He was starving and dressed in rages. A local anthropologist only identified him as one of the Yahi.

Ishi was, it soon became clear to even a casual observer, unaware of the modern technical innovations characteristic even of the early 20th century such as electricity, moving pictures, telegraphs, railroads, motorcars, the recording devices and indoor plumbing, in other words to access to even the knowledge of the kind of the usual practices and habits of the White, 'modern' world. Despite becoming aware of these things, Ishi continued to speak of his tribe with pride. This pride makes his solitude, as he spent his last years amongst whites, living under the care of anthropologists and talking about his lost way of life harsh and stark.

Theodora Kroeber was… [read more]

Multiculturalism the United States Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (892 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Prominent politicians like Maryland Governor Robert Ehrlich, for instance, called multiculturalism "crap," and "bunk," asserting that multiculturalism creates problems. Instead, Americans should support assimilation and uniformity. What citizens like Ehrlich are suggesting constitutes the homogenization of American culture. Granted, multiculturalism is a contract. Just as the host society must offer leeway to immigrant cultures and permit them to retain unique ethnic and linguistic identity, immigrants must also be willing to adapt to the social, cultural, and linguistic norms of the United States. Language is at the heart of the multiculturalism debate. When Ehrlich issued his statement, he was partly reacting to a statement by a fellow politician, who had a "problem with a Spanish-speaking McDonald's clerk," (RCADE). When immigrants do not learn English, some problems can and do arise. Therefore, multiculturalism should be promoted as a cooperative policy, one that fosters ethnic and linguistic pride but which at the same time promotes unity through diversity.

Examples of how multiculturalism can and should work in the United States as well as in other nations include cities like Miami, Florida. For decades in Miami, waves of Spanish-speaking immigrants from South America and the Caribbean created distinct ethnic enclaves. Because of the sheer size of the Spanish-speaking community in Miami, newer immigrants did not need to learn English to get by, and the subsequent linguistic divide drove many English-speakers out of the city and created much resentment. Yet after several decades, Miami has evolved into a genuinely multicultural city. Although official bilingualism is still not supported by law, Miami is essentially a bilingual city that encourages both English- and Spanish-speakers to thrive. What makes Miami such a dynamic city is its informal multiculturalism and multilingualism.

Through multiculturalism, linguistic and ethnic minority communities can add to the cultural richness of whole societies. The United States should promote multiculturalism over assimilation. People like Governor Ehrlich need not be afraid that English will suddenly fall out of favor. On the other hand, by promoting multilingualism and multiculturalism, all parties benefit. Young American children should learn more than one language in school. English should definitely be the primary and official language, but other languages like Spanish can be taught side-by-side to promote international awareness, cultural awareness, tolerance, and diversity. Through open-minded multiculturalism, the United States can become a less antagonistic society that welcomes ethnic and linguistic diversity.

Works Cited

'Multiculturalism." Wikipedia. May 2005. Online at .

RCADE. "Maryland Governor Calls Multiculturalism 'Crap.'" Drudge Retort. 12 May 2004. Online at .

'What is Multiculturalism?" 20 Jan 2004. Canadian Heritage. Online at .… [read more]

Teaching Properties Re: Borofsky, Robert. ) Yanomami Term Paper

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Teaching Properties

Re: Borofsky, Robert. (2005) Yanomami: The Fierce Controversy and What We Can Learn From It. Berkley: The University of California Press.

An open letter to the AAA:

Robert Borofsky's 2005 text, Yanomami: The Fierce Controversy and What We Can Learn From It, highlights how the serious human rights abuses that occurred while researching the titular Amazonian tribe are emblematic of the problems inherent in the discipline of anthropology. This tribe's status as a seminal test case, as noted in Borofsky makes the case of the Yanomami not simply a compelling humanitarian issue, but an issue of note for academic study. The Yanomami provide a textbook case of how not to conduct an investigation and research study according to AAA standards. (Borofsky, 2005, p.4)

The Yanomami have long and erroneously been characterized as a tribe of slash and burn agriculture and a people who exist in a state of constant warfare. (Borofsky, 2005, p.5) Yet, comparatively speaking, anthropologists have contended with such a reductive view of the Yanomami. The tribe actually, according to Patrick Tierney "have a low level of homicide by world standards of tribal culture" (Borofsky, 2005, p.30) Tierney accused one of the original anthropologists who chronicled the Yanomami, James Neel, to have forgotten appropriate styles of fieldwork and research. Instead, Neel "went for adventure, violence, sex, and, of course, the films," that were the result of his writings on the tribe. (Borofsky, 2005, 44) One of the films of…… [read more]

Gnome Liberation Front Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,346 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Gnome Liberation Front

The plight of gnomes is a cause of great concern to an organization of gnome thieves who call themselves Front de Liberation des Nains de Jardin (FLNJ)- Gnome Liberation Front (GLF). This paper is devoted to the discussion of the agenda of the GLF, its goals and the probability that it's actions are a form of culture jamming thus giving it a deeper, more significant perspective.


The Gnome Liberation Front first came to scene in mid-90's in France where they served to liberate gnomes from the harsh treatment they were subjected to. The organization has spread all over Europe having their members instated in France, Belgium, Turkey and so on. The organization became dormant when a French court fined its ringleader and handed him a suspended prison sentence for stealing about 150 gnomes. But it was sighted again in September 1998, when 11 of them were found dangling by their necks under a bridge. A letter found nearby said "By the time you read these few words," it continued, "We will no longer be part of your selfish world, which it has been our unhappy task to decorate."

In the town of Saint-Die-des-Vosges these thieves brutally seized 80 garden gnomes from their owners and lined them on the steps of a local church the following sunday as if waiting to go to a mass. "French police are trying to find homes for over 80 garden gnomes kidnapped in eastern France earlier this year."(Caroline Wyatt)

In yet another incident the GLF stole about 20 gnomes at the gnome exhibition in Paris and the Front's Paris wing said, "We demand... that garden gnomes are no longer ridiculed and that they be released into their natural habitat" and also threatened to strike again if their demands weren't fulfilled.(Garden Gnome Liberation Front strikes Paris show).


There are many explanations as to how the GLF came into being and I shall discuss a few of them.

The European gnomes in mid 90s are thought to have mobilized as a result of big business and elitism. Germany manufactured gnomes at far higher prices than its neighboring countries, which resulted in their proliferation. The Czech made gnomes in Germany were targeted and thought of as a disease plaguing gardens. "The FLNJ originally fashioned itself on the eco-minded German Grune Party, fitting the gnome's traditional relationship with nature. Besides this, during the more famous French Revolution, the red Phrygian cap was the recognised symbol of liberation. But behind their open dislike of hyper-protectionism was a thinly-veiled hatred of kitsch. "They are ugly, and we have eradicated them from Alencon!" announced the first FLNJ release, claiming responsibility for the disappearance of 200 gnomes from the Normandy town." (Rob Irving)

Another article states that the garden gnomes were once considered a status symbol in France. The elite got just another excuse to display their wealth through installing such figurines outdoor. It is also possible that this organization started off… [read more]

African Studies and Multiculturalism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,354 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


African Studies and Multiculturalism

An article by Mineke Schipper, titled "Knowledge is like an ocean: insiders, outsiders, and the academy," has as its focus the discussion the "unequal power relations that persist" between Africa and the Western world. The piece, published in Research in African Literatures, also points to the fact that African scholars who wish to participate in the… [read more]

Navigating Cultural Differences Between East and West Essay

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Navigating Cultural Differences Between East and West

In recent years, the phenomenon known as "culture shock" has become increasingly recognized by the academic community as well as the general public as a result of innovations in telecommunications and transportation. Despite this growing recognition, though, the fact remains that many people still experience culture shock when they first step foot in another country and try to navigate their way through the sometimes subtle but important social practices that characterize other cultures. Certainly, performing the needed research about other countries and their cultures can help pave the way for first-time recreational visitors and long-term immigrants alike, but even the most well-informed travelers can encounter situations where vastly different worldviews come into contact and even clash in unexpected ways. For example, in the "Land of the Morning Calm," a widespread acceptance of Buddhist traditions means that even though life is fast-paced and modern in every sense, there is an underlying acceptance that permeates Korean society that has not found its way into the West.

Besides religious differences, the relative status of men and women in other societies can result in some unexpected and perhaps unintended social faux pas if the rules are not known and understood. This does not mean, of course, that people must tip-toe around in other societies, especially free societies such as the United States and United Kingdom where eccentricities are not only acceptable, they are celebrated, but it does mean that it is possible to unintentionally offend people from other cultures -- sometimes deeply so -- without even realizing it. For example, pointing the bottom of the foot at others is regarded as highly insulting in many Eastern societies, and curling a finger to motion someone to follow is just an invitation to fight. There potential cross-cultural clashes, though, pale in comparison to the differences that exist…… [read more]

Nutrition Counseling Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (518 words)
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Delores, J. "Factors influencing food choices, dietary intake, and nutrition-related

attitudes among African-Americans: Application of a culturally sensitive model."

Ethnicity & Health, Vol. 9, No. 4 (2004): 349-367.

Purpose, Design, and Theoretical Approach

The primary purpose of the study detailed in the reviewed article was to identify the specific ways that culture and community affect the nutritional habits and choices of individuals. The other purpose of the study was to identify specific segments of the population studied that might be amenable to education about nutrition and to the effective promotion of healthful nutritional choices. More specifically, the study focused on the African-American community in north central Florida and the research design utilized a series of six focus groups comprising both male and female African-Americans. It employed a theoretical model (PEN-3) that emphasizes culture as the principal determinant of health-related behavior in relation to health promotion and disease prevention programs.

Results and Conclusions

The results of the study indicated that cultural perspective is a significant influence on the behavioral choices of individuals as pertains to nutritional choices. More specifically, the study determined that cultural identity and perspective played significant roles in shaping the relative degree of receptivity of individuals to behavioral changes in the area of improving the healthfulness of nutritional choices. The specific findings included the fact that making changes to improve nutritional choices are seen as conflicting with those elements of culture and heritage and as requiring individuals to give up foods with very specific cultural significance and symbolism.

Likewise, there was a perception that making changes to…… [read more]

Regional Identity Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,325 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


In the future, this influences various segments of society and the way they react to a variety of situations. (Fetterley 31)

Yet, it is also utilizing cultural imperialism to highlight how male dominated society is the most important feature for everyone to embrace. In both songs, there is an emphasis on this segment vs. others. When this happens, cultural imperialism… [read more]

Humanities and Other Modes Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,118 words)
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• List a current example of each type of the following humanities and explain why each example you give reflects current developments in politics, socioeconomics, and technology:

Art is a result of a human expression that maybe created by the mind and the social setting in which the mind explores its emotions. Thus artistic expressions are the key to the human emotions. Thus the study of human behavior and humanity as a whole can begin with artistic expressions and the modern art-based research -- ABR has now become a part of the general social science research. (McNiffa, 2011) The fact that art has attained value and has its own codes have created value for it and as an example the proliferation of electronic media can be seen. Electronic media per se is not humanities. It is a pure science, and the gadgets and technology has however affected all human thought and expression in every branch of study. (MacKenzie; Wajcman, 1999)

Music has been around ever since the first ape beat rocks with his cudgel. But in the context of modern humanity, the electronic media has changed the perception of music and has paved way for experimentation. In other words pure science has created changes in the human perceptions and altered not only the content but also the mode of delivery. (MacKenzie; Wajcman, 1999)

This is also true for architecture where human needs and the changes in value of things for humans in terms of function, working and economy has brought in studies that would align the technology to suit the human needs. The thought process and the way humans perceive life has changed, and the 'self-help' stream in the internet is an evidence of the way technology has affected human psyche, and consequently there have been vast changes in the way the perceptions have changed with regard to literature, language, and usages that have changed with the times. Thus technology is a creature of the social context in which it develops. This includes even military technology and the production technology. It is undeniable that there is a relationship between technology and society. (MacKenzie; Wajcman, 1999)

A purely human involved system like politics, which is very much the mainstay of humanities, has been affected. Now we have the interpretive approaches to politics which means a different interpretation of social and political action "and the import of that meaning for the explanation of political life." (Gibbons, 2006) In a nutshell then, all endeavors that are based purely on human thought, perception and values are humanities, and those that are not may be other sciences. But the important thing is that the development of technology has vastly affected, and is also affected by humanity, and human thought and perceptions.


Austin, Joy. (2009) "Defining the Humanities -- A work in Progress" Humanities Council of Washington, DC. Retrieved 30 October, 2012 from http://www.wdchumanities.org/docs/defininghumanities.pdf

McNiffa, Shaun. (2011) "Artistic expressions as primary modes of inquiry" British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, vol. 39, no. 5, pp:… [read more]

Social Science Social Change Situations Keep Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  4 pages (1,086 words)
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Social Science

Social Change

Situations keep on evolving, making different aspects of culture to change as well. The human social life has been faced with immense development, and still on the verge of change to accommodate posterity needs. The ancient generations evidently presented human beings as a pre-literate and conservative population. In addition, the existence in the ancient society mainly dwelt on nature's resources and complex aspects of their culture. However, increased competition and need to advance increased the rate at which social change was taking. Customs and traditions started to erode and replaced by new practices. These practices were driven by many discoveries, inventions and culture diffusion and perspective thinking and evaluation of ideas and ideologies.

Discovery and Invention

Discovery is a mutual human perception that enacts reality aspects. The use of discoveries has greatly contributed to the process of social change by introducing new ideas and policies that avert the present reality and culture. Invention involves the addition of already existing things but in a new way. Social change has gradually increased due to social and material invention, which all backbones of societal social change. In a chain summary, discoveries bring about inventions that eventually lead to innovation that change the structure and policies that social cultures dwell upon (Hunt and Colander, 2006).

Discovery and invention is a major factor that has led to the acceleration rates of social change. The discoveries made by previous generation led to the realization of more advanced knowledge that changed the entire mindset of human beings. Contributions to discoveries and invention placed technology and industrial revolution in other levels. An instance of historical evolution is writing that has made it possible for human beings to record and store their discoveries and inventions' theories for future generations. However, these discoveries are open to challenges and as global revolution changes, so does the discoveries. Inventions are improved to accommodate even more efficient devices to sustain human social life. In addition to the writing invention, transmission of transport and communication services has evolved with time, currently being sustained by high speed communication of airplanes and electric trains, the internet and the space satellites (Hunt and Colander, 2006).

Culture Diffusion

Another process that has contributed to social change is culture diffusion. Contact among human beings regardless of race, geographical region, among others has increased. This aspect is also attributed to other human factors of interaction such as business, tourism and entertainment. Under this notion, different communities shared or copied other important practices of other cultures, hence diffusing their own and developing new culture practices. The essence of taboos has greatly eroded due to the presence of new practices favorable to each member of the society. Similarly, culture diffusion has contributed to social change by making societal changes to culture dimensions. These repercussions are prone to resultant changes, though in a gradual process. The elements of culture diffusion that result to gradual social change are culture lags, which include belief-conceptual, aesthetic-value, institutional aspect, political, economic and technological.… [read more]

Communication Theory Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (559 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



Individualism is defined as "a cultural value that places emphasis on the individual over the group." In contrast, collectivism is defined as "a cultural value that places emphasis on the group over the individual." The two exist at opposite ends of a continuum, and many cultures lie in between. Countries from opposite ends can have very different concepts of the role of the individual within society. High levels of individualism are associated with Western nations, especially those whose cultures are rooted in Enlightenment philosophy. Countries with highly collectivist cultures tend to be those from Latin America.

Face is defined as a "metaphor for the public image people display." With a collectivist culture, individuals are often seeking bonds within that society, because in some ways one's self-worth is measured by their belonging -- by the strength of their social connections. Face negotiation theory "takes into account the influence that culture has on the way conflict is managed." The authors maintain that this is because the "individualistic-collectivistic cultural dimension influences the selection of conflict styles." How one views the issue of face recognition for himself or herself vs. others is going to be governed by the placement of the individual on the individualistic-collectivistic continuum.

In particular, "other face" is going to be more common in the face negotiation style of people from collectivist cultures, as they are more accustomed to considering the needs of others. A highly individualist culture, on the other hand, might prefer to emphasize self face, and ignore the other face. These different approaches to face negotiation can reflect the cultural underpinnings, in particular with respect to how the person prioritizes the face of the other, or…… [read more]

Multiculturalism Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,921 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Within a multicultural society, one would feel a sense of nationalism, importance of language and its use, a sense of universal religion, and an overall feeling of being part of the global society. This is the feeling the young Sudanese man had when he was on his way home to the motherland. Having spent some time in the United Kingdom, the Sudanese man had to endure a recovery period of having to get back to his native home, the home of his originating culture. In the United Kingdom, things appeared changed due to the presence and exposure to varied cultures. When he arrived home and tried to share using the Kingdom sentiments, there lacked communication.

The concept of multiculturalism comes with the notion of believing in a diverse society. Multiculturalism has not always been represented with positives. Nonetheless, it has suffered many predicaments in the human self. For instance according to the story, "migration to the north," multiculturalism has often been viewed as a pact of knowledge, which tends to shift humanity from its original setting or life. For instance, one would spell out that due to multiculturalism, the Sudanese man was able to lose the contractual values and value systems he would have acquired at home. The sense of living between varied nationalities brings in the notion of self-worth, something that might not be accessed by all the members in the society. It is also imperative to view multiculturalism as a facet of human unity but in separation (Chamoiseau 23).

In conclusion, the three books have dealt with the concept of multiculturalism in the modern world. As expressed by the stories "the blind owl," and "migration to the north," humanity has been in existence simply because of the varied cultures therein. With the coming in of the concept of multiculturalism, this human nature has been transformed into a formidable living, which brings in all aspects of culture and deliberated way of life into a universal conception. Moreover, multiculturalism is unilateral and subversive in the life of the people. It is with great possibility that one is able to spot a certainty of culture within the notion of multiculturalism (Hida-yat 12).

Works cited

Chamoiseau, Patrick, Rose-Myriam Rejouis, and Val Vinokur. Solibo Magnificent. New York:

Vintage Books, 1999. Print.

Hida-yat, S-a-diq. The Blind Owl. Richmond: Alma Classics, 2012. Print.

Modood, Tariq. Multiculturalism. Cambridge: Polity, 2007. Print.

Salih, Tayeb, and Denys Johnson-Davies. Season of Migration to the North. London:

Heinemann, 1999. Print.

Trotman, CJ. Multiculturalism:…… [read more]

Melting Pot Metaphor in Regards to Richard Rodriguez Hunger of Memory Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (932 words)
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Melting Pot Metaphor in Richard Rodriguez's Hunger Of Memory

The Melting Pot Metaphor: Rodriguez's Hunger of Memory

There are still so many racial issues which drive the status of social groups around the nation. The United States is still very racially divided. Yet, many of us within the nation still cling to an outdated idea that all immigrants and ethnic groups living in the United States want to voluntarily give up their cultural roots in order to assimilate into the majority culture. Individuals like Horace Kallen then see this as unrealistic. In many ways, Richard Rodriguez does see the metaphor as outdated; however, it is clear that he does agree the assimilation process is a combining of cultures that generate a new hybrid culture of blended heritages, which is essentially a view that is shared by Gene Yang in his American Born Chinese.

The melting pot metaphor presents the process of assimilation as one where different ethnic minorities begin to slowly but surely blend into the majority culture. Thus, they take on some elements of the majority culture in the process of assimilation; yet, they also contribute some of their own culture into the diverse American environment. Horace Kallen believed the melting pot is unrealistic, as the majority culture often is avoidant of accepting any elements of minority cultures. In some ways, Rodriquez does agree. He sees that it is unrealistic in the romanticized way it was envisioned in the past. The idea that all ethnic cultures are so wiling to assimilate into American culture is the most unrealistic part of the concept. There are instead hybrid cultures emerging out of an extremely tense situation, where ethnic minorities are both pulled back towards their cultural heritage as well as being expected to move forward in an English white dominated nation. Essentially, the white majority demands full assimilation of minority cultures, often without wanting any sort of contribution from their own unique cultural heritages. In this way, Rodriquez does tend to agree with Kallen.

Yet, in many ways, Rodriguez disagrees with Kallen. He sees that the process of assimilation is like a bunch of hybrid cultures melting together as they encounter each other more and more. Assimilating into the majority society includes the process of an ethnic minority group learning and blending in their culture with the dominate majority's culture. One example Rodriguez gives of this is the concept of bilingual education. In this, courses are available in a multitude of languages and blends of languages, so that minority groups can enjoy learning within the context of their own first language. Here, Rodriguez states that "bilingual schooling was popularized in the seventies, that decade when middle-class ethnics began to resist the process of assimilation -- the American melting pot" (Rodriguez 26). Bilingual education represents a resistance to…… [read more]

Therapist Doctor's Point-Of-View Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (621 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The U.S. is known to be welcoming to immigrants from various parts of the world. In that regard, it is important to note that several community resources and programs have been put in place to assist immigrants like the lady presented in the scenario. The U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) is one of the bodies that could help in the facilitation of the successful integration of the said lady into the American culture. There are also a number of websites that the said lady could utilize while seeking more information about the U.S. Such websites include but they are not limited to www.welcometousa.gov and www.usa.gov.

In seeking to make the stay of immigrants comfortable, regular citizens like myself are expected to play a number of roles. To begin with, regular citizens should desist from being judgmental. In that regard, we must avoid stereotyping others based on their ethnicity and/or culture. Also, we should cultivate a spirit of openness in all our dealings with immigrants. Secondly, we must be mindful of our immigrant brothers' and sisters' feelings. This is what is commonly referred to as empathy. For example, mocking the culture of others in their presence could be injurious to the feelings of such individuals. Further, we should also try to be sympathetic to the various needs of immigrants seeking to settle in the U.S. It is important to note that when they first set foot in the U.S., most immigrants have no stable jobs. Such individuals might also be unfamiliar with our culture and way of doing things. Natives should ideally be mindful of the needs of such individuals. We should also coexist peacefully with those who happen to come from other parts of the word.… [read more]

Early Encounter Between Indians and Europeans Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,489 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Indians & Europeans

Encounters between Europeans and Indians changed the course of history forever. From the moment both cultures intertwined, the United States as we know it was in the making. However, both of these different cultures were each set in their own ways. They independently held their own beliefs, religions, and practices. Their way of life was… [read more]

Globalization Myths and Threats Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (666 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Globalization Myths and Threats

Globalization is a concept that has earned a notable controversial force. Some people consider it as a beneficial process necessary for future economic development. They also view it as an irreversible and inevitable process. On the other hand, others have perceived it as hostile and have developed fears arguing that globalization increases national inequalities, threaten the living standards and employment besides thwarting societal progress. Therefore, these globalization aspects suggest that nations such as Thailand must design ways of overcoming its potential risks while remaining realistic about its opportunities (Scruton, 2010).

Every nation has its illusions and myths regarding globalization. In Thailand, globalization has been viewed as the internationalization of information sharing, investment, services and trade made possible by the internet. This trend has the possibility of changing humankind and shuttering the nation of Thailand as much as globalization is real, idealists have imposed on it visions that make it difficult for us to grasp what is happening and what is not happening. Among the various myths revolving around the concept of globalization, there are two significant myths. One of them is the most dangerous claim that globalization leads to a utopian peace regime and the notion that globalization is a new phenomenon. Individuals who argue that this phenomenon will produce an idyllic era of peace have not conceptualized the principles of humanity (Sabanadze, 2010).

One of the trending myths is that the forces of globalization might deliver greater global wealth and touch more lives. Over decades, this phenomenon has made profound transformation of international relationships while human nature remains the same. This creates the fourth myth that globalization precipitates peace. Human beings desire to live in a global paradise; for decades, this remains understandable. This notion has proven the illusionary nature and the capacity for humanity's mischief of harboring long-term selfish interests. In this regard, we can argue that human dreams have ignored reality leading to predictions that the war has become unthinkable. The relative peace experienced in historical…… [read more]

History of Multicultural Counseling Psychology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,799 words)
Bibliography Sources: 18


History Of Multicultural Psychology

History of Multicultural Counseling Psychology

The issue of culture has been in existence for centuries now. The term 'multiculturalism' is used to refer to a state of bother ethnic and cultural diversity (Adams & Welsch, 2009). Such culturalism is studied within the wider subject of human demographics and space. In some different societies, it becomes quite… [read more]

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