"Anthropology / Culture" Essays

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Cross-Cultural Management Relativism Dimension and Applications Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,342 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Cross-Cultural Management Relativism

Global business and the growth of multinational organizations has created in the modern era many obstacles and opportunities that are related to difference and commonalities. The way that a different culture communicates, organizes, produces and overall does business can be very different from one culture to the next and though culture is not innate but learned these intricate and sometimes conflicting ideologies will have a great deal of affect on how a multi-national manager and those he is supposed to manage interact and come together to produce a desired outcome. (Hofstede, 2005, 4)

The multinational manager must ultimately transverse through all the differences with a fair minded sense of difference rather than conflict and create a mutual standard that gets the job done without altering to much about the base culture or creating to many conflicts regarding the judgment of the others' cultural business standards. The multinational manager must balance the demands and core missions and goals of the parent company with the way in which the foreign worker and systems run and develop, often times translating terms and ideologies that are innately foreign and rarely to be assumed as understood. (Adler and, Gundersen, 2008, 73)

Achieving this balance between the goals of the parent organization and the cultural perspectives and standards of the host culture can be the primary challenge of the expatriate manager and the modern as compared to historical standards of doing this are very different. While in the past seeing these differences and how they might affect the meeting of goals led to universal and blanket attempts to subvert the differences, remake the cultural standards and then to some degree force the host culture to accept the changes, even if just for the sake of business goal completion. Today this is not an acceptable or logical ethic and will likely result in more resistance than will be productive. Today it is more acceptable for the parent culture to accept and understand as much of the host culture as is possible and to restructure to meet common goals. (Adler and, Gundersen, 2008, 103-104)


Cultural relativism is born of the idea that colonialism frequently judged, juried and convicted cultures based on differences and then made changes to meet their own cultural ideas and demands. In today's standards of globalism this is not only not possible it is considered destructive and therefore managers and others from other cultures must see cultural difference not as a point of negative or positive judgment but as a relative reality in the foreign culture. To make changes these expatriates must either negotiate to make changes or leave well enough alone and alter his or her own standards, needs and culturally-based presuppositions to meet those of the other group. (Hofstede, 2005, 5)

Challenges arise when the expatriate manager has a difficult time balancing what he or she believes is right or wrong in his own culturally biased ideologies of organization with the differences he or she sees in the other… [read more]

History of Anthropological Thought Essay

Essay  |  12 pages (3,689 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Anthropological Thought

Durkheim, E. 1895. What is Social Fact? Rules of the Sociological Method. In Anthropological Theory: An Introductory Theory. Fourth Edition. R. McGee and Richard Warms. McGraw Hill

Emile Durkheim proposed that the field of sociology was separate from the related sciences of anthropology and psychology. He established that certain types of thought are separate from the… [read more]

Intercultural and/or Cross-Cultural Communication Theories, Models Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,848 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Intercultural and/or cross-cultural communication theories, models, and/Or methodologies and a description of at least one research project or study for each theory chosen

Theories, models, and methodologies of face-negotiation and feminist communication theory

Saving face.' 'Face time.' Americans and other individuals from low-context Westernized countries are likely think about the metaphor of 'face' in terms of personally securing dignity and… [read more]

Ethical Relativism Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,588 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Cultural Relativism: Drawbacks and Defenses

Morality appears to us as a concrete term which is underscored by certain rational assumptions about the universe. And yet, our own experience tells us that that which one considers to be vice may, to another, be seen as virtue. The reverse may also apply. Thus, it is rather difficult to reconcile that which does… [read more]

Ishmael Dear Ishmael Seeing the World Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,232 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Dear Ishmael

Seeing the world through your gorilla eyes has meant a complete shift in the way I think about human history. In fact, your point-of-view has catalyzed a consciousness change in me, affecting my worldview and my political perspectives. I have come to realize how the "Takers" have literally taken over the world by brute force and that "Leaver" cultures have generally presented more peaceful, reasonable, and sustainable methods of living. The triumph of one culture over another does not at all prove one's superiority over the other. All world history has proven is that arrogance and self-righteousness define dominant cultures. Colonialism proved how far the Takers are willing to go to impose their worldview. With overt hypocrisy, the Takers claim to be morally superior than the Leavers while at the very same time killing and denigrating Leavers.

Your views seem extreme and radical in the modern world. Few of us whose ancestors are Takers would be willing to adopt a Leaver lifestyle. The world has changed far too much to support communal lifestyles on a large scale. Leavers can survive or rebuild their communities but only on a small scale and in great opposition to larger forces such as governments run by Taker cultures. Mass production and the global market economy have essentially made Leaver cultures unable to thrive on cottage industries or small-scale subsistence agriculture. City dwellers are unlikely to surrender their creature comforts. The Taker way of life has triumphed and even those of us with high ideals fail to make the wholesale changes that would be necessary to transform the world as you suggest. However, I appreciate your optimism in suggesting that the world and human consciousness are evolving toward increased intelligence and sophistication as well as increased complexity. As you point out, the strength of character exuded by many human beings suggests that we can infuse wisdom into our current way of life. We can keep progressing toward scientific and technological goals while retaining our core human values. I would like to learn more about your vision of the future and what practical steps need to be taken to promote positive change.

A sometimes wonder what wisdom a gorilla can offer humanity. Your perspective is sound and logical but seems to overlook the power of human nature in determining the course of history. Greed and lust for power have created situations in which Leaver societies have themselves surrendered peace. I believe it may be too late to undo what centuries of behavior has wrought. Differences in opinion over how human beings should live are difficult to mediate because so many Takers base their views on religion. As you point out, religion is often distorts reality by creating untenable myths. Yet if a Taker culture bases its entire reason for being on religion it is impossible to use reason to counteract their arguments. In the end, a fundamentalist will always point to some irrational argument for why their views are the correct ones. People… [read more]

Cultural Globalization Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,145 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Cultural Globalization

Despite the prevailing popular press that globalization and the "flattening" of entire countries and cultures is now in full force, there is still a high degree of variation, in fact heterogeneity, between and within cultures. This dynamic of greater differences within cultures between groups and between cultures and nations is in turn driving a much more… [read more]

Movie Baraka Non-Narrative Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (572 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Geographical Reflections on Baraka

Ron Fricke's non-narrative film Baraka serves as both an intimate portrayal of the workings of nature and human geography, and as a devastating commentary on man's interaction with the natural environment. In what follows, we will analyze Baraka from the standpoint of two key geographical issues, both of which form central components of the film - that is, globalization, and culture and the environment.

With all of the beautiful, moving, and lyrical images one finds in Baraka, there is one image that is conspicuously absent. In not one single frame of the magnificent sites and vistas do we see a single tourist. Thus, while Baraka may be said to be a literal representation of globalization - in that the camera seems to effortlessly glide through a wide array of different cultural sites - one does not get the sense that any human beings are traveling alongside the camera. It is a fact that as a result of globalization, a cross-cultural fusion has been affected. This is not visible in Baraka.

There are, however, facets of globalization that come to the forefront in the course of the film. In the industrial sector, trans nationalization has organized people and products into specialized demographics that transcend national boundaries. This is poignantly illustrated in Baraka in the footage of workers in China who are clearly working in sweatshop conditions, manufacturing products that are most likely for export to more prosperous nations.

In witnessing some of the negative side effects of industrialization, one is led to ask the following question: Is it possible for man to have a harmonious relationship with the natural environment? This is one question that Baraka seems to have a definite answer…… [read more]

Multicultural Learning in Business Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,262 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Multicultural learning in business has been a mainstay in management education for the last twenty years as more and more universities in the UK and elsewhere seek to prepare students for management roles in corporations with extremely diverse makeup. The standards accepted, as well as the theory surrounding such standards are applicable to not only management training but group dynamics… [read more]

Astro Boy Marketing Japanese Anime to the World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,021 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Astro Boy-Marketing Japanese Anime to the World

Is the success of Japanese anime in countries such as the United States indicative of the emergence of a global youth culture?

It is estimated that approximately sixty percent of the world's youth reside in Asian counties. (Kahn and Kellner) However, the success of the Japanese anime phenomenon is not only limited to… [read more]

Impact of Globalization Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,581 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Globalization

The intent of this analysis is to evaluate how economic globalization is affecting and influencing local cultures while also exploring why urban geographers are increasingly analyzing the world's cities for influences of globalization as well. The city of Los Angeles, California is included as an example of a city that is analyzed according to its urban layout,… [read more]

Intercultural Communication Explain How Differences Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (954 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Intercultural Communication

Explain how differences in the perception of time and the use of space affect intercultural and co-cultural communication.

Imagine this scenario. You arrive for an afternoon meeting at the scheduled time. You have just suffered a long flight from New York to Paris. Forty-five minutes later, the representatives from your organization's French branch sally into the conference room. They are still discussing the delightful new cafe they discovered, where they have enjoyed a two-hour lunch. 'Why didn't they leave on time for our carefully scheduled meeting,' you rage inside, 'how could they be so inconsiderate?' Later, when you explain your ire to a French friend, he does not understand why less than an hour was so important to you.

Imagine another scenario. You are meeting the representatives of a Japanese organization your business hopes to embark upon in a joint venture. The two of you offer your hands to shake. They do so, gently, while you and your colleague give a firm handshake, to show that you mean business. You sit close by these representatives at the table, to show your friendliness, but they seem standoffish. You leave the meeting feeling as though things did not go well, that the two of you did not make a good impression. Yet despite their apparent dislike for American closeness in physical gestures of friendship, you note that many Japanese citizens happily pack themselves into loaded commuter trains.

These experiences illustrate some differences in how different cultures value time, such as American's premium upon time equating money, versus the French value upon leisure and quality of life, or the different protocols regarding personal space that vary between and within cultures depending on different situational contexts. A largely Muslim nation like Morocco might be quite flexible about the beginnings of meeting times, given its French colonial history but the times for prayers to Mecca are inflexible. Even within the United States, a Southerner might be taken aback by what he sees as an impatient, 'in your face' New Yorker. Thus cultural awareness is important, so that cultural norms are not read as rudeness or ingratitude and impede real understanding between nations or regions.

What are the differences in behavior exhibited by people who come from cultures that have different activity orientations?

Activity orientations refer to the culture's degree on emphasis in 'doing' and 'being.' This stress upon what someone does is almost immediately apparent in a cocktail party in the United States. "What do you do?" is the first question everyone is asked, as if vocation is synonymous with identity. Pragmatic, logical, and forward-thinking approaches and an emphasis on getting things done are the hallmarks of American business and in American society' doing one's job is synonymous with doing something of measurable value. Someone who does not work, such as a homemaker, will often say that he or she…… [read more]

Global Communications Decide on a New Cultural Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (543 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Global Communications

Decide on a new cultural metaphor for the United States besides Football. Explain why you choose that new cultural metaphor.

In defining a new cultural metaphor for the United States, the impact of terrorism, globalization, a protracted war in Iraq, and a faltering image globally leads to the metaphor of the Phoenix. The mythical bird that rose from the ashes, the Phoenix is an ideal cultural metaphor for the United States, as it is the land of second chances for literally hundreds of millions of people, and literally millions of immigrants. Even within the United States, there are specific areas where rejuvenation and the re-inventing of ones' self is a critical part of culture. Take California for example, and in fact the entire Western U.S., once known for its rugged individualism and self-reliance, is now increasingly known for its focus on rejuvenation and renewal. According to Franke, R., Hofstede, G., and Bond, M. (1991) the essence of cultural differentiation and strength comes for the ability to create a regenerative and renewing set of cultural standards. As Phoenix is ideal as a cultural metaphor for the United States as it further accentuates that even from the most difficult of times - death in the case of the mythical Phoenix -it rises again, more beautiful and stronger than ever. This cultural metaphor mixes the regenerative aspects of the American culture and spirit, yet also illustrates that globally, the U.S. is struggling to redefine itself as a humanitarian nation and respecter of life and renewal vs. A nation impervious to those values.

Compare and Contrast two "Authority Ranking Cultures: Japan and Korea…… [read more]

Business A. What Are the Key Elements Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,747 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Business a. What are the key elements that define a culture?

According to Ellwood, culture comprise on the one hand, the entire of human's material civilization, instruments, armory, outfits, machinery, and systems of industry as well, and on the other hand the complete intangible or spiritual civilization, like language, writings, art, religion, sacraments, ethics, regulations and administration. (Kluckhohn; Kroeber; Meyer;… [read more]

International Organizational Behavior Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,242 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


International Organizational Behaviour

International joint ventures rise important problems for human resource management and evidence for this fact has been put forth by the recent international management literature (Geringer & Frayne, 1990; Gantinsky & Watske, 1990; Zeira & Shenkar, 1990;Bleeke & Ernst, 1991; Yuen & Kee, 1993; Luthans, Marsnik & Luthans, 1997; Makino & Beamish, 1998; Lin & Germain, 1998).… [read more]

Michelangelo Bosch Montaigne Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (335 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Cannibals

REPLY: Yes, I do think that values become more rigid when we are less sure of ourselves. We tend to value the opinions and ideas of others more than we value our own, as well. Surety gives confidence in the ideas we hold true and how we feel about ourselves. I also think that power can make us more rigid as well. The powerful and aggressive may have feelings of insecurity and feel more unsure, but they also must hold on to their power to maintain their superiority and control. That can lead to rigid values as well, because the powerful have fewer choices if they are to remain powerful and in control. Thus, it seems as if the weakest and the most powerful may be the most rigid entities in a culture, while those who remain more neutral in the middle have less need for a rigid dependence on society's values and ideals.

REPLY: I would definitely want to live in Michelangelo's culture,…… [read more]

Of Cannibal by Michael Montaigne Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (335 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1



All of this brings me to the question, are all social practices equally valid, good, true, beautiful? Should we never judge other people's culture? Are there no absolutes?

Is everything relative? Some radical postmodern theorists would agree that this is true. And on some level, everything we feel is 'correct' has its root in cultural assumptions and stereotypes. Even the profound American confidence in individualism and freedom is not universal. Some European nations prize the value of socialism and the welfare of the community equally as much as the American ideal of 'don't tread on me.' In other words, even in the so-called developed world, what is considered to be true is actually a cultural product and is nationally contextual. What is beautiful has famously shifted from age to age, as the beauty of a modernist Picasso painting or the spare architecture of a Frank Lloyd Wright design would be hideous in the eyes of a Victorian aesthete.

But taken to its logical conclusion, radical relativism…… [read more]

African Studies and Multiculturalism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,354 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


African Studies and Multiculturalism

An article by Mineke Schipper, titled "Knowledge is like an ocean: insiders, outsiders, and the academy," has as its focus the discussion the "unequal power relations that persist" between Africa and the Western world. The piece, published in Research in African Literatures, also points to the fact that African scholars who wish to participate in the… [read more]

Gnome Liberation Front Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,346 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Gnome Liberation Front

The plight of gnomes is a cause of great concern to an organization of gnome thieves who call themselves Front de Liberation des Nains de Jardin (FLNJ)- Gnome Liberation Front (GLF). This paper is devoted to the discussion of the agenda of the GLF, its goals and the probability that it's actions are a form of culture jamming thus giving it a deeper, more significant perspective.


The Gnome Liberation Front first came to scene in mid-90's in France where they served to liberate gnomes from the harsh treatment they were subjected to. The organization has spread all over Europe having their members instated in France, Belgium, Turkey and so on. The organization became dormant when a French court fined its ringleader and handed him a suspended prison sentence for stealing about 150 gnomes. But it was sighted again in September 1998, when 11 of them were found dangling by their necks under a bridge. A letter found nearby said "By the time you read these few words," it continued, "We will no longer be part of your selfish world, which it has been our unhappy task to decorate."

In the town of Saint-Die-des-Vosges these thieves brutally seized 80 garden gnomes from their owners and lined them on the steps of a local church the following sunday as if waiting to go to a mass. "French police are trying to find homes for over 80 garden gnomes kidnapped in eastern France earlier this year."(Caroline Wyatt)

In yet another incident the GLF stole about 20 gnomes at the gnome exhibition in Paris and the Front's Paris wing said, "We demand... that garden gnomes are no longer ridiculed and that they be released into their natural habitat" and also threatened to strike again if their demands weren't fulfilled.(Garden Gnome Liberation Front strikes Paris show).


There are many explanations as to how the GLF came into being and I shall discuss a few of them.

The European gnomes in mid 90s are thought to have mobilized as a result of big business and elitism. Germany manufactured gnomes at far higher prices than its neighboring countries, which resulted in their proliferation. The Czech made gnomes in Germany were targeted and thought of as a disease plaguing gardens. "The FLNJ originally fashioned itself on the eco-minded German Grune Party, fitting the gnome's traditional relationship with nature. Besides this, during the more famous French Revolution, the red Phrygian cap was the recognised symbol of liberation. But behind their open dislike of hyper-protectionism was a thinly-veiled hatred of kitsch. "They are ugly, and we have eradicated them from Alencon!" announced the first FLNJ release, claiming responsibility for the disappearance of 200 gnomes from the Normandy town." (Rob Irving)

Another article states that the garden gnomes were once considered a status symbol in France. The elite got just another excuse to display their wealth through installing such figurines outdoor. It is also possible that this organization started off… [read more]

Teaching Properties Re: Borofsky, Robert. ) Yanomami Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (487 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Teaching Properties

Re: Borofsky, Robert. (2005) Yanomami: The Fierce Controversy and What We Can Learn From It. Berkley: The University of California Press.

An open letter to the AAA:

Robert Borofsky's 2005 text, Yanomami: The Fierce Controversy and What We Can Learn From It, highlights how the serious human rights abuses that occurred while researching the titular Amazonian tribe are emblematic of the problems inherent in the discipline of anthropology. This tribe's status as a seminal test case, as noted in Borofsky makes the case of the Yanomami not simply a compelling humanitarian issue, but an issue of note for academic study. The Yanomami provide a textbook case of how not to conduct an investigation and research study according to AAA standards. (Borofsky, 2005, p.4)

The Yanomami have long and erroneously been characterized as a tribe of slash and burn agriculture and a people who exist in a state of constant warfare. (Borofsky, 2005, p.5) Yet, comparatively speaking, anthropologists have contended with such a reductive view of the Yanomami. The tribe actually, according to Patrick Tierney "have a low level of homicide by world standards of tribal culture" (Borofsky, 2005, p.30) Tierney accused one of the original anthropologists who chronicled the Yanomami, James Neel, to have forgotten appropriate styles of fieldwork and research. Instead, Neel "went for adventure, violence, sex, and, of course, the films," that were the result of his writings on the tribe. (Borofsky, 2005, 44) One of the films of…… [read more]

Multiculturalism the United States Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (892 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Prominent politicians like Maryland Governor Robert Ehrlich, for instance, called multiculturalism "crap," and "bunk," asserting that multiculturalism creates problems. Instead, Americans should support assimilation and uniformity. What citizens like Ehrlich are suggesting constitutes the homogenization of American culture. Granted, multiculturalism is a contract. Just as the host society must offer leeway to immigrant cultures and permit them to retain unique ethnic and linguistic identity, immigrants must also be willing to adapt to the social, cultural, and linguistic norms of the United States. Language is at the heart of the multiculturalism debate. When Ehrlich issued his statement, he was partly reacting to a statement by a fellow politician, who had a "problem with a Spanish-speaking McDonald's clerk," (RCADE). When immigrants do not learn English, some problems can and do arise. Therefore, multiculturalism should be promoted as a cooperative policy, one that fosters ethnic and linguistic pride but which at the same time promotes unity through diversity.

Examples of how multiculturalism can and should work in the United States as well as in other nations include cities like Miami, Florida. For decades in Miami, waves of Spanish-speaking immigrants from South America and the Caribbean created distinct ethnic enclaves. Because of the sheer size of the Spanish-speaking community in Miami, newer immigrants did not need to learn English to get by, and the subsequent linguistic divide drove many English-speakers out of the city and created much resentment. Yet after several decades, Miami has evolved into a genuinely multicultural city. Although official bilingualism is still not supported by law, Miami is essentially a bilingual city that encourages both English- and Spanish-speakers to thrive. What makes Miami such a dynamic city is its informal multiculturalism and multilingualism.

Through multiculturalism, linguistic and ethnic minority communities can add to the cultural richness of whole societies. The United States should promote multiculturalism over assimilation. People like Governor Ehrlich need not be afraid that English will suddenly fall out of favor. On the other hand, by promoting multilingualism and multiculturalism, all parties benefit. Young American children should learn more than one language in school. English should definitely be the primary and official language, but other languages like Spanish can be taught side-by-side to promote international awareness, cultural awareness, tolerance, and diversity. Through open-minded multiculturalism, the United States can become a less antagonistic society that welcomes ethnic and linguistic diversity.

Works Cited

'Multiculturalism." Wikipedia. May 2005. Online at .

RCADE. "Maryland Governor Calls Multiculturalism 'Crap.'" Drudge Retort. 12 May 2004. Online at .

'What is Multiculturalism?" 20 Jan 2004. Canadian Heritage. Online at .… [read more]

Ishi in Two Worlds Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,231 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Ishi in Two Worlds

Kroeber, Theodora. Ishi in Two Worlds. Originally published by Berkley: University of California Press, 1961. Reprinted in 1976.

Ishi in Two Worlds tells the tale of an Indian man who was accustomed to living a traditional way of life thrust into the full brunt of modern, American civilization by a cruel accident. It is indeed a story of a man who dwelled in two worlds, for most of his life in the ways and sphere of the Yahi Indians. After his tribe's eradication he was forced to live in contemporary civilization, specifically in the context of the modern American university amongst well-meaning anthropologists who wished to study and learn from him. Despite all of the compassion they showed to him, the spectacle is occasionally painful to read about.

Ishi's tale is thus at once fascinating and uncomfortable to hear, as the reader finds him or herself a witness to Indian histories, languages and narratives that would otherwise have been lost, yet also a fly-on-the-wall observer to the personal struggle of an essentially private individual, forced to cope with a civilization he never knew existed, a civilization that has overtaken his own even though it is not necessarily superior to the Yahi's ways. At least the anthropologist under whose care Ishi found himself had some of the current postmodern or tolerant mindset of today. They wished to learn about his culture with an open mind, rather than try to change him or to condemn the Yahi practices. Still, the solitude of Ishi's final years amongst White men and women makes his struggle even painful for a 21st century reader to acknowledge.

Despite the discomfort the complicated nature of being a witness to his story may cause for the reader, Ishi's tale is still an important one, historically speaking, and thus the continued referencing of this book is valuable. Ishi was the very last surviving Yahi Indian, the lone survivor of an exterminated tribe. His tale must be told, otherwise the Yahi story would be lost forever, killed by cultural as well as population genocide. In the year of 1911, invading Whites killed all of the rest of Ishi's tribal family. The Indian was found hiding in a farm on California. He was starving and dressed in rages. A local anthropologist only identified him as one of the Yahi.

Ishi was, it soon became clear to even a casual observer, unaware of the modern technical innovations characteristic even of the early 20th century such as electricity, moving pictures, telegraphs, railroads, motorcars, the recording devices and indoor plumbing, in other words to access to even the knowledge of the kind of the usual practices and habits of the White, 'modern' world. Despite becoming aware of these things, Ishi continued to speak of his tribe with pride. This pride makes his solitude, as he spent his last years amongst whites, living under the care of anthropologists and talking about his lost way of life harsh and stark.

Theodora Kroeber was… [read more]

Communications Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (309 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



The term "nation" refers to the political and geographic features of the United States of America, and nationality refers to citizenship within that nation. When citizens of the United States identify as Americans, they are referring to their national identity. They also imply that they live and work in the United States or did for a significant portion of their lives.Most people who identify with the nation were born there, but many people who identify as "Americans" were born outside the country. Likewise, many people who are born in the United States no longer live in the country but may choose to identify themselves as "Americans."

Cultural identity can be completely different from national identity, especially in a country as diverse as the United States. Culture generally refers to one's family of origin and one's ancestry. Culture can comprise such aspects as religion, cuisine, clothing, customs, social norms, values, and beliefs. People of…… [read more]

Life Experience, Professional Experiences Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


If I could reach over and grab those peas, why should I interrupt others' dinner, and ask them to pass the peas! Yet, this is part of American manners.

The family gathering with my in-laws is just one of the many experiences I have had that illustrate how different countries employ a different set of customs. I have come to believe that individuals should embrace their own culture, yet it is important for them to respect the customs of another country when they are living there. That is why I feel multicultural counseling is so important. While one culture might consider something as inappropriate, another might think it's proper. It is also important for the ethnic minorities in America to enjoy a culturally sensitive therapeutic environment that bridges the cultural gaps between different groups.

As an Asian international student in Indiana, I have observed that many people in minority groups often do not interact with other minority groups. I believe most counselors try to be culturally sensitive; nevertheless, understanding a different culture is often a process not an event. My husband who lived in Japan for two years has developed a strong cultural sensitivity to Asian cultures. During our four years of marriage, we have encountered problems due to cultural differences. Fortunately, we have both adjusted our expectations to resolve these differences. However, this mutual understanding is not often acquired in typical relationships. Therefore, unless people from different cultures are able to seek multicultural counseling, they may have a hard time reconciling their diversity.

Psychology is culturally oriented and, therefore, I believe we cannot use the American standard to judge everyone's issues. I understand the importance of history, traditions, and cultural values that can influence a client in their decision making. For example, contrary to Western cultures, Chinese families regard the elderly as family treasures. As a future mental health provider, I know I will need to understand how a client's symptoms are often culturally relevant. My interest in multicultural counseling started in my third year of undergraduate studies. I shifted my primary research interest from child and adolescent counseling to multicultural counseling after I learned of the increasing need for culturally sensitive counselors. I have taken a variety of anthropology, history, culture and Spanish and Japanese language classes.

Furthermore, I have participated in a year-long independent study with Dr. Phyllis Lin, a Taiwanese professor in sociology whom I consider my mentor. Although I grew up in Hong Kong, I did not… [read more]

Political Involvement Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,709 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Non-American Culture

The World Outside of the United States in 2004

The purpose of this paper is to research contemporary culture outside of the United States and to examine the current trends and movements on the societal level as well as to touch upon the economical, political and religious themes that are predominant in today's international society. Further this paper… [read more]

Functionalism &amp Structuralism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (851 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Levi-Strauss's analysis presents a micro-level analysis of culture to ultimately identify the kind of culture that prevails within a particular group or community.

Mircea Eliade's cultural analysis is similar with Levi-Strauss's subsistence to structuralism. In his discussion in "The sacred and the profane," he offers a similar thesis about structuralism, positing that binary opposites determine the nature of human culture. However, what differentiates Eliade from Levi-Strauss is that he formulates his structuralist analysis of human cultures through religion, which he considers as the primary determinant that allows people to identify what is right or wrong, or beneficial or detrimental to them as a community. He thus argues that religion create a reality for people wherein they live in a society that is determined by "two modes of being in the world, two existential situations." In effect, like Levi-Strauss, human cultures, according to Eliade's analysis, are governed by a world of polarities or dichotomies, allowing them to make decisions in life based on two kinds of knowledge and truth in life, where one is beneficial for people and the other, as harmful and considered deviant to the society. This is illustrative of his point in the book, wherein he states, " ... we constantly find the same cosmological schema and the same ritual scenario: settling in a territory is equivalent to founding a world."

Bronislaw Malinowski, the founder of the field of social anthropology, subsists to a different, yet complementing perspective to Levi-Strauss and Eliade's structuralist analysis. Subsisting to functionalism to explain human cultures, Malinowski looks into the prevalence of myth in society by distinguishing between religion and magic. Identifying the difference between the two is vital for his study, since he intended to find out what makes magic prevail despite the existence of religion in human societies. In "Magic, ritual, and symbolism," Malinowski argues that "[m]agic is distinguished from Religion in that the latter creates values and attains ends directly, whereas magic consists of acts which have a practical utilitarian value and are effective only as a means to an end." From this passage, it is evident that both religion and magic serve a particular purpose for the society, hence, the reason for their continued existence. Malinowski's study presents cultural analysis conducted at the macro-level, wherein the prevalence of myth is first determined and its components are identified to be influenced to it, as opposed to Levi-Strauss and Eliade's arguments illustrating cultural myths as concepts composed together to create a particular kind…… [read more]

Ethnography There Are a Number of Issues Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,577 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



There are a number of issues that Sociologists find themselves dealing with. It is important to examine what ethnography is, provide some examples, and determine how we are all part of ethnography in order to gain a better understanding of the concept.

Defining Ethnography

There is not a set definition of ethnography, as it "can be both a process… [read more]

Society as a Social Organization Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,667 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Society as a Social Organization

One often looks to culture as a means of describing society and social organization. Most anthropologists would agree that culture is related to the aspects of the human condition that are "derived as what we learn as members of society" (Just and Monaghan, 2000:35). Further, aspects of the human condition learned as members of society… [read more]

Lost in Translation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,119 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Lost in Translation, written and directed by Sophia Coppola. Specifically, it will contain a review of the film, answering some specific questions about the film and how it relates to life and culture today.

From the very opening scene of the film, it is quite clear that both the main characters in this film are facing major cultural differences, and they are "lost" in another world, with no one to connect to. As Bob drives in the old-fashioned limousine to his hotel, the garish neon and Japanese language cues on the signs clearly indicate he is far from home. Charlotte's perch on the ledge of the window in the hotel room indicates the same thing, that she is alienated from everything around her, and is feeling culturally isolated. No words need to be spoken to show that these two people are lost, and so, would seek each other out if they knew they could. The scene with Bob in the elevator, surrounded by a sea of short people, and the shower that is never tall enough are great icons, illustrating how very different the culture is, and how much these two characters simply do not fit in.

Bob's wife is somewhat like his conscience, calling him back to reality in a very unreal and uneasy situation. She reminds him of everything he does wrong, even while the Japanese are treating him like a hero and a very big celebrity. At home, he is Bob the actor. In Japan, he is Bob the big celebrity, and his wife, who cannot see the treatment he receives, is his lifeline to reality, while the time in Japan is surrealistic and certainly cannot continue. Bob's wife may not be pleasant, but she represents "real" life, and all the responsibilities and problems that go with it.

The bar is quite an important meeting place for the characters for a number of reasons. First, the bar seems like any bar back home. Bob can get what he wants to drink, and listen to American music, even if it is more like Muzak. The bar represents normalcy and a culture where they are secure and comfortable, and it is in direct contrast to the rest of the culture surrounding them. In the bar, they can convince themselves everything is "normal," when of course it is not. Charlotte's marriage is empty, and Bob's life is empty, and nothing, even another culture, can change that. However, in the bar, everything is equal, and the rest of the world, the culture, and their lives back home do not matter.

Charlotte's visit to the Shinto shrine is a turning point for her, because it indicates that she really is in another world, another culture, and that the reality of her life cannot be ignored. She can enjoy time with Bob, but that is not real. Her marriage is real, the problems with it are real, the Shrine is real, and so, it brings reality back to her, and shows… [read more]

Hours of Ancient Sunlight Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,831 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Finally, develop and describe a personal way of thought (a mentality, a level of consciousness, a "story" about who we are and why we are here, and how we are related to each other and other forms of life) that, if taken up by a critical mass of people, could resolve the human crisis that Hartmann describes.

We are not related to one another, we are one; we are the product of one thing and that is the drop of water, as science now proves that everything on this plant has its origin from the drop of water. If this is the truth, we need not go in to the detail in to establishing who we really and are what we need to know about our identity. Off course, we are related to dinosaurs too as they too were created from a drop of water and bacteria too as they too have origins in the drop of water. If we think on these lines then we would respect every other creature on this plant, every resource on this planet. Resources on this plant are made for the betterment of the people and its inhabitants, not for the destruction. Destruction of the inhabitants is against the law of nature, and going against the law of nature means inviting destruction to us. So the solution lies in knowing the exact nature and purpose of our existence, whether it is survival, competence, control, dominance, rebellion, violence, or whether it is peace and harmony between every one. Thus, the proponents of the younger culture need to think deep which is better, present day control and dominance over the resources and people or the future peace and harmony and survival knowing our planet is getting hot and hot every passing day due to this trend of younger culture.

Work aCited

Hartmann, T. (2000) The Last Hours of Ancient Sunlight: Waking Up to Personal and Global Transformation, Three Rivers Press

The Last Hours…… [read more]

Objectivity in Sociological Perspectives Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (839 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


This data so far seems to be objective in being able to categorize the Internet culture.

It is precisely when the authors of the article decide to construct a model to show how such increased levels of trust would result in more efficient world system designs that I begin to see how the culture of the writers themselves affects the way the model is constructed. Obviously, the fact that these authors make use of mathematical linear models does not surprise me, but it shows a taste for what seems to be evolutionary psychology, in that the writers were influenced to conclude something that would fit into a structure that ended up "being in the best interests of everyone."

Does this mean that the authors are necessarily moral themselves? Does this mean the authors would use this model of trust if they ran billion dollar companies and were asked to contract with some sort of ambiguous party with ambiguous terms? Trust in this case should also be reasonable, but that's where my culture steps in and mars (or enhances?) my analysis in that from a legal background, I believe trust would make one liable to accepting something which maybe they had the right to refuse.

Also, I think the article is so colored by appealing to academia's standards that it forgets one critical thing. The trust model only works if everyone participates. It is because of this distortion that is not mitigated that I think this article is similar to the theory that only one culture exists. If the sub-classifications cannot be accounted for as all really being part of one larger culture, then I cannot accept the argument that I should dismiss the fact that each subculture is a culture in and of itself. However, with more time, I am sure that just as the Internet conglomerates many cultures into one larger body and identity, we will one day be able to qualify the world denizens globally, and not just in the United States as being part of a larger culture, with each subculture and each of their sub-subcultures just a more myopic detailed look into that which exists naturally on the bigger scale and can be shown to objectively interlink to qualify for the definition of a true "world culture."

Works Cited

Electronic Journal of Sociology (2002), ISSN: 1198-3655, Elements of Trust: The Cultural Dimension of Internet Diffusion Revisited, Thomas Volken, University of…… [read more]

Sociology Cooley and Mead's Theories Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (446 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Ethocentrism and Cultural Relativism

Ethnocentrism is "The tendency to view one's own culture as best and to judge the behavior and beliefs of people in other societies by one's own standards" while Cultural Relativism is the belief that that one should try to evaluate and understand another culture/society on its own terms and relative to its own values and beliefs.

Most societies and individuals are ethnocentric to some extent but some people, particularly the anthropologist, strive to be as non-ethnocentric as possible.

Ethnocentrism can give rise to racism and feelings of cultural and racial superiority as was practiced in Nazi Germany. Cultural Relativism, on the other hand, enables understanding of other cultures with empathy and, ideally, promotes peace and goodwill among people. However, when Cultural Relativism is applied to cultures which are themselves based on notions of cultural superiority, hate, and discrimination (e.g. neo-Nazis) one could end up supporting the undesirable tenants and beliefs of those cultures.

Socialization." Available online at http://www.socqrl.niu.edu/forest/Socialization.htm

Conrad Kottack quoted in "Ethnocentrism vs. Cultural Relativism" available online at http://www2.eou.edu/~kdahl/ethnodef.html

Introduction to Cultural Anthropology." Available online at http://cas-courses.buffalo.edu/classes/apy/anab/apy106/handouts/relativism.htm

Sociology… [read more]

Analysis of Joint Health in Horses Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,593 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Horses have been used for racing and traveling for centuries. W ith the use of horses comes the chance of injury. Horses frequently injure their joints especially when racing. This research paper is meant to highlight which joints are injured, the kind of things that may happen to a horse's joint, joint movement, and how to maintain horses and avoid… [read more]

Pros and Cons of Cultural Relativism Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,560 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Against Cultural Relativism

As innovations in transportation and telecommunications technology continue to make the world a smaller place, there are few places left on earth that remain untouched by modern civilization. The increasing exchange of ideas and international commerce has also introduced new questions concerning the legitimacy of cultural relativism in justifying acceptance of behaviors and practices in… [read more]

Sartre on Colonialism in Algeria Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (653 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Colonialism is a system," the French existentialist philosopher Jean Paul Sartre analyzes the Algerian struggle for independence from French colonial domination in light of what it means to be a colony. Sartre writes that colonies saw their own, internal governing structures supplanted by the supposedly superior French civil system and also witnessed their economies being exploited. The methods by which land was owned and allocated was designed to benefit the mother country, not local residents. Sartre argues that there is no good and bad colonialism, as some argue, rather all forms of colonialism are by definition exploitation. "Will we ask the Algerians to thank our country for allowing their children to be born into poverty, to live as slaves and to die of hunger?" (Sartre 133). Colonialism is also unique in the sense in which the colonial residents set themselves apart from the culture of the native population: this is why European interests will never cohere with those of the individuals. "The colonists are invaders whom the colonial pact has completely cut off from the invaded: in more than a century during which we have occupied Algeria, practically no mixed marriages or Franco -- Muslim friendships have been recorded" (139).

Sartre's conception of colonial power is very much top-down. He argues that the colonial powers have absolute and uncomplicated power over the colonized. In contrast, Caribbean author Derek Walcott argues for a more complex and potentially empowering concept of colonialism. Walcott suggests that colonial subjects exercise a cultural influence over their colonizers in a manner which cannot be easily controlled or defined. "In the Caribbean, we do not pretend to exercise power in the historical sense. I think that what our politicians define as power, the need for it, or the lack of it should have another name; that, like America, what energizes our society is the spiritual force of a culture shaping itself, and it can do this without the formula of politics"…… [read more]

Socialization, Deviance and Social Control Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (496 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Thee systems usually ensure there is uniformity in behavior through the socialization that they conform each individual into. Childhood is the most important stage in socialization and it is when personalities take shape. In the contemporary society, the socialization is done through education systems and the books that children read at attender age. One such book is the "Where the Wild Things Are" by Maurice Sendak. The ethnic group that forms the basis of the adventure book is a white boy, telling from the illustrations. It gives the accounts of a young boy Max who faces scary adventures but enjoys the outdoor adventures and also equals the challenges presented by the monsters. The wild tings scare Max that they would eat him up but Max surmounts this scare and conquers these scary creatures and becomes their king, well after all a boy should focus at being a conqueror of problems and be a leader or king in the future as is expected in this society portrayed here. This socializes a boy child into a person who does not easily bulge under scary conditions, has a tough take on challenges in life and has more of the outdoor orientation than being indoors in order to have an adventure worth remembering.


Maurice Sendak, (1963).Where the Wild Things Are. Harper Trophy Publishers. Retrieved July 28, 2014 from http://ebooks.booklikes.com/post/8903/where-the-wild-things-are-by-maurice-sendak

Merriam Webster, (2014). Definition: Enculturation. . Retrieved July 28, 2014 from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/enculturation… [read more]

Cross-Cultural Tourist Research: Analysis Introduction Chapter

Introduction Chapter  |  5 pages (1,569 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


81). In that regard, therefore, individualism has got to do with the preference for a social framework that is not tightly-knit. Here, persons are expected to give their needs and those of their families first preference. On the other end of the spectrum, we have collectivism, where a loosely-knit social framework is frowned upon in preference for one that is tightly-knit. On this front, persons can expect members of a group (outside their immediate families) to care for them. The reward in this case is usually enhanced loyally. With regard to the dimension under consideration and expectations of quality, Furrer and Lieu (as cited in Hong and Lee, 2014, p. 3) point out that "based on a survey of personnel from 16 different countries" it was found out that "customers from a collectivistic culture tend to have a higher intention to praise the service provider when they experience service quality than customers from an individualistic culture." It should also be noted that as the authors further point out, collectivistic customers are not likely to voice their disapproval of a service, or even change a service provider as a result of their displeasure with the said service.


Bowe, H. & Martin, K. (2007). Communication across Cultures: Mutual Understanding in a Global World. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Hong, J.K. & Lee, Y. (2014). The Influence of National Culture on Customers' Cross-Buying Intentions in Asian Banking Services: Evidence from Korea and Taiwan. New York, NY: Routledge.

Mueller, B. (2008). Communicating…… [read more]

Our Social World and the Communication Process Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (743 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Miscommunications and conflicts are very normal in our day-to-day professional lives. They are often brought about by perceiving a situation in a way that is not appropriate. I have had a situation where my perception led to a conflict between my colleague and me. We were supposed to work together with a male colleague of mine in a project. However, I felt as though he was not giving me enough room to work on the project equally. I decided to confront him on the issue and it brought about a big conflict. He claimed that he gave me the opportunity to work on the project but I on the other hand felt as though he was not giving me the chance I needed to work on that project.

Several factors led me to interpret the situation the way I did. First, I felt as if he was looking down upon me because I was a woman in a male dominated profession. I therefore felt as if he was denying me the chance to work on the project simply because I was a woman. Secondly, I interpreted the situation that way because I had previously been awarded the employee of the month and so I thought that he was feeling bad that he was not the one named. I felt it was a way of getting back to me because of that.

Perception checking involves a clarification of what one perceives. In some instances, we assume something is correct without making sure and this is the main cause of conflicts and miscommunications. Without perception, checking then we automatically thinks what we want to think even if it is not the correct thing. Perception check could have helped me void the conflict that I was in. Perception checking could have helped me avoid guessing and thus could not have thought of my colleagues intentions as I did. It could have helped me find a possible interpretation of the situation and requested a clarification from my colleague about the behavior and my interpretations.


Crossman, A., (2010).The sociological imagination. Retrieved July 10, 2014 from http://sociology.about.com/od/Works/a/Sociological-Imagination.htm… [read more]

Globalization Risks Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,217 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Again, this has a lot to do with the design of the system.

The fact that so many problems with globalization can be traced to design and implementation rightly draws people to evaluate whether globalization has any merit at all. Technological advances would have happened anyway, albeit at a slower pace. A slower pace might have given us time to… [read more]

Speak for Themselves Methodology Chapter

Methodology Chapter  |  2 pages (553 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


In fact, one of the guiding assumptions of the research will be the need to transcend the purely verbal to paint a full picture of the culture. The focus will likewise be broader than with narrative research, which focuses upon how human beings tell their stories -- although the how's and why's of the individual's story-telling will be important, the broader lens of phenomenology will also allow the researchers to incorporate objective data into this holistic study of a multifaceted phenomenon.

Finally, intuitive inquiry would be inappropriate given the extent to which it emphasizes the subjective experiences of the researcher. Intuitive inquiry is defined as "an epistemology of the heart that joins intuition to intellectual precision in a hermeneutical process of interpretation…informed by feminist theory, heuristic inquiry, hermeneutics" (Blake 2012). Once again, rather than emphasizing the researcher in this inquiry and the researcher's biases and assumptions (or attempting to access the researcher's intuitive 'heart'), the focus will be upon the lived experiences of the participants in a broader fashion. It is their words and perceptions that will be chronicled and examined, rather than a more self-reflexive emphasis on the perspective of the researcher.


Blake, J. (2012). Intuitive inquiry research methods. Social Mindfulness.

Retrieved from:


Calman, L. (n.d.). What is grounded theory? The University of Manchester. Retrieved from:


Lester, S. (1999). An introduction to phenomenological research. Taunton UK, Stan Lester

Developments. Retrieved from:

http://www.sld.demon.co.uk/resmethy.pdf… [read more]

CAE / Presspauseplay Both Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


CAE / PressPausePlay

Both "PressPausePlay" and "Utopian Plagiarism" make the mistake of seeing the current paradigm shift -- out of a world of printed material and traditional cultural artifacts and into a virtual world of digital communication and social media -- as being far more comprehensible than it genuinely is. "PressPausePlay" represents a multiplicity of viewpoints in the course of its varied interviews with media and culture personalities and digital culture nabobs like Sean Parker, so it is perhaps less guilty than "Utopian Plagiarism" of making this crucial error in thinking the upshot of the "digital revolution" is in any way intelligible at this point in time. But it is not. We must recall the real meaning of the word "utopia" as "no place" -- this is indeed where we are headed, nowhere that can be confidently predicted. That is why both "PressPausePlay" and "Utopian Plagiarism" may very well come to seem quaint in ten years: they each identify the problem correctly (how could anyone with an interest in culture not do so?) but to the extent that they are attempting to predict an end result to the current process, they are engaged in sheer bullshit. What we are undergoing culturally is on the order of Thomas Kuhn's notion of a "paradigm shift" in the sciences. The shift into digital culture is like the shift into Copernican heliocentrism to this extent: it is happening, whether we like it or not. But does that mean that any of the conclusions drawn from it by the likes of Lena Dunham or CAE are likely to hold up ten years from now.

The aim of CAE in "Utopian Plagiarism" is to finally and utterly destroy any remaining romantic notion of the artist…… [read more]

Baab, Karen L., and Kieran Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  10 pages (3,424 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


Baab, Karen L., and Kieran P. McNulty. "Size, shape, and asymmetry in fossil hominins: the status of the LB1 cranium based on 3D morphometric analyses." Journal of Human Evolution 57, no. 5 (2009): 608 -- 622. Accessed November 29, 2013. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2008.08.011.

This study examines the connection between shape and cranial size over a range of hominin including an African ape… [read more]

Renergical Ltd. What Questions Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (625 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Also, fewer Americans have been abroad than those living in the UK, so there may be less sensitivity to intercultural differences in general in the U.S. There may also be a different 'work ethic' between the American and British workforces: Americans are accustomed to working longer hours; have lower expectations for generous vacation policies; and adhere to a more regimented work schedule than Brits may be accustomed to (Cultural differences between the U.S. And the UK, 2013, British Expats).

Which individuals from within the team would you invite to the meeting and why? Would you focus on meeting your team only or would you meet other individuals and organisational units to know them better before the project begins?

Engineers and all individuals with a leadership title should be present, given that they will be responsible for guiding the team and ensuring the timetable of the specifics of the project is respected. However, representatives of the technicians and construction workers should also be present to ensure that this is truly a 'joint effort.' A team effort can benefit from a participatory strategy: soliciting input from all members of the different components of the project, not simply those with a managerial position. Participatory leadership means "using collective intelligence to inform decision-making" (Corrigan 2013). Similarly, the holistic nature of the project requires that the team is in dialogue with other teams that are involved: no team can operate in isolation, and particularly given the many geographical and cultural factors which could create a dispersed effort on this project, a sense of common and cohesive mission is required for the venture to be a success.


Corrigan, C. 2013. Describing participatory leadership. Available:


[5 Oct 2013]

Cultural differences between the U.S. And the UK. 2013. British Expats. Available:


[5 Oct 2013]… [read more]

Acculturative Stress of African Catholic Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  20 pages (6,281 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 20


In this regard, Akomolafe reports that, "The bewildered immigrant who had a spacious apartment in his native land is forced to make do with sleeping in other people's living rooms or 'box' rooms in which a single bed hardly fits. Money in the pocket also happens to dry up fast, especially when it is not being replenished" (2011, p. 95).… [read more]

Social, Cultural, and Economic Dimensions Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (669 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Majority look at ethnicity when considering culture, but culture entails political affiliation, religion, gender identity and people who are united through undergoing a similar experience. Such groups could include veterans of war, ex-convicts or holocaust survivors. Such variables will not account for the information needs of a person. However, sensitivity and awareness on how individuals with diverse experiences and backgrounds engage information and services are always beneficial. The collection of organized information is critical in ensuring that all community users are properly served (Gallagher & Leckie, 2010).

Library professionals have the obligation and opportunity to provide community members with the information they need or want. Librarians must teach individuals positive principle by letting them govern themselves. As information professionals, they must strive to educate the communities they serve on issues relating to ethical principles and self-governance (Trauth, 2011). This empowers the community on the importance of appropriate information use on their culture, and economy. Libraries disseminate information in their possession to individuals wishing to acquire it. While undertaking their roles, library staffs determine ways of assisting people to obtain information that they want. In their service responsibility, librarians offer quality records that enable users to identify the information they intend to find. During the delivery of reference services, the staff may liaise with clients in order to establish the desired information needs. This is done by adhering to all rules pertaining to professional and academic ventures.


Libraries strive to institute a liaison with the community they serve so that they can offer them with the exact resource they want. Librarians and their institution are viewed as a catalyst for positive development across the community, creating lifelong learners and informed citizens.


Gallagher, A., & Leckie, S. (2010). Economic, social, and cultural rights: A legal resource guide. Philadelphia, Pa: Univ. Of Pennsylvania Press.

Trauth, E.M. (2011). The culture of an information economy: Influences and impacts in the…… [read more]

Multiculturalism Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (449 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



The case study referring to the young man from Cambodia, charged with three felony counts of discharging a weapon presents a very interesting perspective on how culture and crime are intermixed. Bartol & Bartol (2004) described multiculturalism as referring to the sensibility to differences in race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation and disability. All of these factors are complicated in their own right, making the ideas of culture very difficult to understand and grasp without employing an open mind. This case study provided two helpful points that are useful to help learn more about this topic and apply it in practical and helpful ways that can benefit those around us.

The first multicultural issue regarding the young man from Cambodia is the language barrier. Language, even within this and other countries, are extremely varied. Translations do not always make sense either as numerous slang and local variations are constantly introduced to languages all the time. In order to fully understand the young man, a translator would be very helpful in clearing up many of the miscommunications that had occurred during the interview. This third party interpreter would benefit the situation even more as a cultural interpreter as well. These people can provide helpful insights and make useful comparisons to help develop a standard set or words that can be used.

The APA Guidelines for…… [read more]

Multiculturalism in Europe With Special Dissertation

Dissertation  |  43 pages (12,919 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 69


¶ … Multiculturalism in Europe With Special Reference to Germany

The issue of multiculturalism has been the focus to the political concerns of European nations since nineteen forty five. The problem of multiculturalism covers numerous issues, which predominates differ with different political situations. Multiculturalism mirrors concerns regarding immigration and the manner in which immigrants settled in Western Europe between 1950s… [read more]

Social Justice and the Gospel Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,427 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Over the last three to four decades, the global landscape has changed to embrace a process called globalism. Globalism is a key change in that economic, political and cultural movements throughout the world move closer together as a result of economic cooperation and communication. Globalization has shrunk many aspects of the world that prevented social justice in the past. The… [read more]

John Bowen in "The Myth Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (939 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The author claims that civilization is "a cultural entity," and that "Villages, regions, ethnic groups, nationalities" all possess "distinct cultures" (Huntington 1993, 23). The author goes on to posit that the civilizations that these cultures are based upon will become the primary reason for conflict in the future.

This point, however, is diametrically opposed to the majority of Bowen's essay, and is the primary point of divergence between these two essays. Bowen provides several examples of the fact that culture does not become a reason for divisions, much less for combat, until the concept of nationalism, descended from nation states, is introduced. Once this tenet takes hold of groups of respective cultures, combat occurs between them either to "expand outward to encompass other peoples" (Bowen 1993, 4) -- and their land -- or to "exclude" (Bowen 1993, 5) the presence of other peoples. The author demonstrates this point most efficaciously by bringing up the conflict of Croatia, Serbia and Bosnia, three different cultures with different religions that lived peacefully and intermarried for many years until nationalism took root in the 1800s. Such nationalism is unequivocally related to attempts to live in "states…composed of one nationality," (Bowen 1996, 3, and demonstrates the author's opinions that it is only nationalism, and not cultural or ethnic differences, that account for armed conflicts between groups.

Huntington, however, widely propagates the opposite notion. He agrees with Bowen regarding the manifestation of the armed conflicts that take place between people within nation states, positing the view that such disputes are typically "over the control of territory and each other" (Huntington 1993, 27), in a stance that is similar to what Bowen states is the effects of nationalism -- people attempting to expand their territory and control the presence of others within it. Yet whereas Bowen views these circumstances as direct results of nationalism and warns against the verbiage (and even parodies) those who say such differences are intrinsically related to culture, Huntington is merely one of the many who view differences as cultures as the reason for these conflicts. The author believes that "differences in culture and religion create differences over policy" (Huntington 1993, 27) as though such differences have been existent since time eternal. Bowen demonstrates, quite convincingly, that this notion is simply not true.

Both authors agree that armed conflict stems from the emergence of nation states. However, Bowen presents the viewpoint that nation states and the nationalism they foster are the reason for conflict between cultures that otherwise lived in accordance with one another for years. His plethora of examples regarding the impact of colonialism seems valid. Huntington, meanwhile, propounds the traditional notion that differences in culture trigger armed conflict, between entire civilizations, even.


Huntington, SamuelP 1993.The clash…… [read more]

Sociology of Globalization in the Developing World Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,220 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Sociology of Globalization in the Developing World

As the world has penetrated into the epoch of twenty first century, the entire human race has witnessed transformations in various aspects of human life whether it is scientific, technological, social, political or economical. Amongst the innumerable revolutions, the phenomenon of globalization is amongst the few to mention, which includes a variety of… [read more]

Person's Identity May Develop Differently Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Thus, while the characteristics of extroversion may be present to varying degrees in members of all societies, the extent to which that characteristic is prized will not be the same. Someone who is very extroverted and dislikes doing what everyone else is doing in Japan may find him or herself highly criticized. As a student, he or she may feel frustrated by a more conformist system of education, particularly if the student is not particularly strong in another value praised by the Japanese, that of conscientiousness. In America, that same student might be gently rebuked for being 'too social' or for talking back to his or her teachers, but provided his qualities of extroversion find a positive channel (such as in business, in the arts, or other areas of modern American life which value independent thinking and creativity), that student will come to have a positive self-concept. The same is not likely to be true of a Japanese student with similar qualities in his or her collective society.

Even within national cultures, however, the same characteristics as manifest in different persons may not be valued 'the same.' A young woman who is very extroverted, not particularly conscientious, or agreeable will likely be viewed in a more censorious fashion than a male with those same characteristics in either the United States or in Japan. Both societies have clearly different gender role expectations for both men and women, and it has been observed that more developed nations have more marked personality differences between the genders, regardless of whether the cultures are collective or individualistic (Schmitt et al. 2008).

It would seem that based upon a comparison of Japan… [read more]

Colleague's Postings Response to First Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (629 words)
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Response to Fourth Post

Culture influences the way a personality reflects itself upon the universal traits. Is it ideal to conclude that culture acts as a hindrance to the true identity of the impact the universal traits have on individual personalities. An individual trait is likely to come out in the way they present in a society themselves in their respective society. It is contented that the expected individual attributes may be covered up by the cultural impact upon the individual. Some societies expect women to be open and men to be assertive. This may conflict personality traits with the social culture traits.

Response to Fifth Post

Are the judgments made in describing an individual character wrong if they are based upon the cultures and right if based on observed behaviors and tendencies? It is true that the resultant personality traits influences result from the influences of the universally accepted traits. Contention on the negative and positive aspect relates to cultures observed and the impact these cultures will have on the individuals. Caution should also be given in asserting that expectations of the society do not yield the released behaviors and attitudes. The understanding of behaviors and personalities should be linked to their genders and social expectations.

Response to Sixth Post

Universality of the traits varies according to culture, age and the cultures observed. Do these traits vary among those with similarities in age, culture, and gender? The impact of culture on individuals from different regions influences how Agreeableness and Neuroticism come out in the society. It is possible for a collective impact of culture to result in a collective display of traits among people of similar cultures. In order to understand the individual, there is the need to appreciate that commonality in outcome, does not obscure the individual aspects. The individual has the capacity to display their own…… [read more]

Theoretical, Methodological, and Ethical Issues Essay

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The sample would not completely represent any particular population because of this. While universities contain a large percentage of younger persons, older individuals are returning to universities at higher rates. This is important because older persons would have experienced the components of their culture longer than younger persons. This contains two possibilities. The first is that they are better adapted to not be influenced by some of the more covert elements and thus negate any cultural differences. The second is the opposite of that possibility where they are completely oblivious to the cultural impediments to observation and are stymied by those limitations. The absence of older persons did not permit the examination of these possibilities.

The final concern would be the absence of females from the sample. While there is an argument to hold gender constant. It would be necessary to examine whether the findings would be consistent if women were included in the sample. It is possible that women observational skills are different from men so that the effect observed would be non-existent if women were incorporated. The study design did not raise any major ethical issues and any harm to the participants would be very small.

One of the easiest challenges to remedy with this study would be the inclusion of a more diverse sample size. The researcher should include women and older students. The sample would therefore contain less error and be more representative of the population. The necessity of this is clear when the reason for sampling is considered. Sampling is done to represent the population (Babbie 2007). This could not be more important than in cross cultural research where there is a need to sample all elements of the… [read more]

Commodities a Commodity Is Simply Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (744 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


" However, commodities come and go and cannot fully describe the day-to-day struggles, the more intrinsic needs and values, and the higher values of the people within a culture. Moreover, commodities are limited as signs of a culture by their affordability. Marx referred to this "mystification" of commodities as being actual entities as opposed to mere goods and services. The idea that one's ownership of a particular automobile for example may in some way define their goals and social relationships is tempered by what they can actually afford and what basically fits into their lifestyle. A married man with four children may own a minivan and a station wagon, but he may deeply desire to own a Lamborghini. Likewise, a farmer may own a set of horses and plow but may desire to own the latest tractors and farm equipment. Commodities are not actual entities and the desire to own certain commodities is reflection on personal dreams and cultural values, but this is not always reflected in the actual ownership of commodities themselves.

Warde (1994) views consumption as a form of suicide to self-identity in the same way that actual suicide is not always an expression of free choice, but is itself heavily influenced by outside pressures. For example a chronically person may commit suicide to relieve an economic burden on their family. How are we ever to know how the act is reflected in identity and perceived pressure? Likewise, consumption may not reflect the values of a particular culture but instead may reflect a particular group's economic status in a society. The drive to own a large mansion -- type house may be quashed by the reality of one's profession as a dishwasher with four dependents to support. Thus, while commodities are good to think with, they are certainly not the only thing to think about.


Canclini, N.G. (1995). Hybrid cultures: Strategies for entering and leaving modernity.

Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Douglas, M. & Isherwood, B. (1979). The world of goods. New York: Basic Books.

Marx, K. (1857). 1986. Outlines of the critique of political economy. In the Collected works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels (Vol. 28). New York:…… [read more]

Cultural Sensitivity Decreasing One's Own Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (764 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Anyone can be insensitive about things, even if that is not their intention or they really do not mean to be anything other than kind and open minded. If a person thinks that he or she is being insensitive, correcting that problem is relatively easy with some work and dedication. It is important to apologize to people to whom one may have been insensitive, but it is also important to consider the feelings of others in the group or culture so that future insensitive behavior does not occur (Cavell, 2002). Overall, being insensitive is something that comes more naturally to some people than it does to others. This may have to do with how these people were raised, but it can also be related to the environment in which they find themselves or other factors beyond their control.

The good news is that anyone who wants to be more sensitive and lower the level of his or her ignorance can do so. The bad news is that not everyone realizes that this is an activity in which he or she needs to engage. If people are not aware of their faults, they may do nothing to work on them (Barry, 2002). It is certainly possible for someone to correct his or her level of ignorance without the need for someone else's input on the situation. There is also no reason to assume that everyone who needs to become less ignorant and more culturally sensitive will be aware of the problem or take steps to correct it without input from someone else. For those people who do not seem to see the value in becoming more sensitive to different cultures and ways of life, it may be necessary to be told (sometimes repeatedly) that there is a problem and that the person's ignorance about the truth of a culture or group of people is showing. When people are told this enough, they will generally, eventually, take steps to become more sensitive to other cultures and other people's differences.


Barry, B. (2002). Culture and equality: An egalitarian critique of multiculturalism. New York, NY: Harvard University Press.

Cavell, S. (2002). Knowing and acknowledging. Must We Mean What We…… [read more]

Postmodernism Is a Philosophy Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (674 words)
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Modernism held that "reason and science provide accurate, objective, reliable foundation of 'knowledge,'" while postmodernists see science as merely one discipline amongst many (Drake 2012). Postmodernists believe that science is also a product of culture, just like any other epistemological system. Scientific claims have been influenced by racism, cultural biases (such as claims about the intellectual inferiority of women), political pressures and inaccuracies.

For postmodernists, all ideas are relative. "Ideas such as God, freedom, immortality, the world, first beginning, and final end have only a regulative function for knowledge, since they cannot find fulfilling instances among objects of experience" (Aylesworth 2012). Postmodernism stresses how all cultures have different versions of these concepts, or lack such concepts at all. Rather than drawing connections between all faiths, postmodernism stresses cultural differences and the particular nature of beliefs.

Although this relativism may make people uncomfortable, there is also a profound potential for tolerance in the postmodern view. Postmodernism does not see all of human history as 'progressing' to a particular end and refuses to rank certain cultures or civilizations as more primitive than other cultures on a hierarchy. Instead, postmodernism denies "the image that philosophy and science are progressive developments in which thought and knowledge increasingly appropriate their own origins and foundations... This does not mean historical change ceases to occur, but that its unitary development is no longer conceivable, so only local histories are possible" (Aylesworth 2012). The fact that Western culture has certain forms of technology does not make it more 'advanced' than a native culture, given that the native culture may have elements Western culture lacks (for example, a knowledge of how to live off of the land in a sustainable fashion and a sense of community responsibility to the old, young, and sick).


Aylesworth, Gary. (2012). Postmodernism. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Retrieved at: http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2012/entries/postmodernism

Drake, Tom. (2012). Modernism vs. postmodernism. The University of Idaho. Retrieved at:

http://www.class.uidaho.edu/engl_258/Lecture%20Notes/modernism_vs_postmodernism.htm… [read more]

Sickle Cell What Detracted Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (597 words)
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This ultimately helped the entire team become successful in the activity as they became more familiar with one another. Likewise, in the personal space activity, participants were allowed to come closer during the second trial. This indicated an increased comfort level amount the respective members of the team. I believe this concept has far reaching implications in regards to cultural sensitivity. Various cultural groups will have varying cultural norms. Teams must be aware of these differences and change their activity according. What might seem comfortable to one culture may be entirely unacceptable to another. Realizing these differences, I believe participants became more aware of their non-verbal communication as it relates to collaboration and teamwork. Body language, gestures, personal space, and eye contact can be interpreted different ways by different individuals.

What assessment can you offer regarding human behavior and the challenge of building and fostering a sense of team in the workplace?

Human behavior is predicated on learning and experience. The challenge with building a team and fostering a sense of collaboration is found primarily in communication. Verbal and nonverbal forms of communication can mean entirely different things within various cultures. Simply aspects such as proximity of one another and personal space are all aspects that must be considered when working on a team. Teams also need time in which to recognize cultural differences. Teams seldom know each other immediately. Through action, activities, and collaboration a team can subsequently form with respect to each others cultural differences. Everyone is different in their thoughts behaviors and motivations. The activities within the video proved it. In order to become effective teams, each member must communication and show respect for cultural differences and conflicting points-of-view. It is through this human behavior that strong teams can form that offer synergy and…… [read more]

Does Globalization Help or Hurt the Worlds Poor? Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (594 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Globalization Help or Hurt the World's Poor?

Even with the fact that the process of globalization has had a beneficial effect on many countries; it has also generated much controversy regarding the effect that it has had on the world's poor. The fact that a great deal of underprivileged individuals fail to take advantage of the resources coming along with globalization is largely owed to the political and economic institutions that control affairs in the territories where these people live. The numerous debated that have emerged as a result of the fact that economists have trouble determining whether globalization is effective in poorer areas or not have brought much confusion and the general public is unable to gain a complex understanding of the situation.

Many economists tend to believe that globalization is going to have a beneficial effect on the world's underprivileged countries in the long-run. However, one might find him or herself wondering: at what cost are these countries going to experience success. Developed countries need to understand that it is up to them to back up poor international players and that they are also going to suffer in the near future with the purpose of improving long-term conditions. "Much of the theory of comparative advantage is about the long run when people and resources are assumed to be fully mobile between activities, whereas much of the pain of adjustments is in the short run" (Bardhan 3).

The masses are often inclined to believe that globalization is making the rich richer and the poor poorer. However, this is wrong and when considering the resources that wealthy countries have invested in poor countries through a series of programs during the recent decades it is only safe to claim that poor countries are slowly but surely…… [read more]

Emic vs. Etic Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (832 words)
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Emic vs. Etic

Emic and Etic terminologies were coined by Kenneth Pike in 1954. Pike was a linguistic anthropologist, and he derived the terms from "phonemic" and "phonetic." The terminologies suggest there are two views that can be used when conducting cultural research of a society, these views are the inside view or the outside view.

Emic perspective is also referred to as the insider perspective. This is because the person giving their findings has to be a member of the community or field of study. The findings are from the experiences that one undergoes or faces, and they are more valid. With an inside view/perspective, one is able to better understand and relate to their field of study and their findings will more trustworthy and valid. Etic perspectives require a lot of time to be spent in the field so that the researcher can get all the information they require, patience is also very important in order for one to get relevant information.

Etic perspectives are referred to as the outsider perspective. The person giving out their findings is not a member or directly related to the field of study. The findings are from observation only. Outside perspectives are mostly based on concepts that the researcher sees, but they do not get to experience anything. Thus, there might be slight discrepancies if the information is valid. Etic perspectives do not require as much time as with etic perspectives. This is because one does not need to immerse themselves into the world of their informants. The researcher may never have to visit the natural environment of the field of study and he/she would mostly rely on the information they read, or their own knowledge.

Emic perspectives as more valid than Etic ones

Insider information is always more trustworthy and valid than having outsider or observers information, and that is why emic perspectives are more valid than etic perspectives. When conducting research in a particular field one would be better placed if they can immerse themselves to the insider environment of their research field. This way they will be better placed to understand and have more concrete facts that will lead to their research been more validated and accepted by others.

Emic perspective allows the researcher to gain the confidence of their field of study be it people, animals, or the environment. Since the researcher is living amongst the people, they will warm up to them much faster, and they will…… [read more]

Globalization Consequences Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,509 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7



There is no set definition for the word globalization, but the concept can be understood in general terms of reflect a trend towards the removal of barriers to the flows of goods, information, capital, people and ideas, such that these flows transcend the paradigm of the nation-state (Higgott & Reich, 1998). As a general, largely unguided force, globalization is… [read more]

International Distribution Channels Strategic Alliances Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (859 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The cooperation of collation partners to common goals that transcend their specific geographic and even cultural limitations is based on how dependent international distribution partners are on each other for information and knowledge. The study shows that it isn't necessary the most measurable and quantifiable factors of performance that matter in international distribution channel agreements, it's how dependent those in the channel alliances and ISA frameworks are on each other for knowledge and market intelligence (Mehta, Polsa, Mazur, Xiucheng, Dubinsky, 2006). It is the inter-firm and extra-firm collaborative agreements that matter the most, not necessarily the current sales opportunities or deals occurring at any given point in time.

Implications for International Marketing Theory and Practice

As knowledge unifies international distribution channel partners and creates highly cohesive international strategic alliances across cultures and nations, the creation of knowledge-sharing networks is critical to the further study of these dynamics. There are many examples of the multiplicative effects of knowledge-sharing networks, with the Toyota Production System being a prime example of how network-based tacit and implicit knowledge can be transformed into a competitive advantage (Dyer, Nobeoka, 2000). The use of knowledge-sharing networks in an international distribution channel context would also act as an accelerator to the overall growth of each subsequent key success factor as well, including relationship closeness, relationship longevity, cooperation and relationship satisfaction (Mehta, Polsa, Mazur, Xiucheng, Dubinsky, 2006).


The success or failure of international distribution channel strategies is heavily dependent on the key success factors found in Strategic Alliances in International Distribution Channels (Mehta, Polsa, Mazur, Xiucheng, Dubinsky, 2006). Knowledge sharing is absolutely critical for the success of any international distribution channel initiative, in fact it is the galvanizing force that makes any international distribution channel succeeds. The need for more research to explore the effects of tacit and implicit knowledge on the key success factors as defined in this analysis is clearly needed, to see how knowledge-sharing networks accelerate sell-side transactions as they do on the procurement side as evidenced by the Toyota Production System's knowledge sharing success (Dyer, Nobeoka, 2000).


Dyer, J.H., & Nobeoka, K. (2000). Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal, 21(3), 345-367.

Mehta, R., Polsa, P., Mazur, J., Xiucheng, F., & Dubinsky, A.J. (2006). Strategic alliances in international distribution channels.…… [read more]

Moral Dilemma Anyone Who Know Anything Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (709 words)
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Moral Dilemma

Anyone who know anything about the Star Trek Universe knows about the Prime Directive which bans any Federation personnel from interfering in the internal affairs of non-spacefaring civilizations. In other words, the Federation is not allowed to influence the cultural development of primitive worlds. When a Federation starship visits one of these planets, the Prime Directive can lead to some interesting moral issues which the producers of the television series have confronted directly. One such issue is the difference between moral universalism and moral relevance; and this issue was faced by the character of Jean Luc Picard in the Star Trek the Next Generation episode entitled "Justice." In this episode, Captain Picard is faced with a choice, obey the Prime Directive, or break it in order to save the life of a member of his crew.

Without summarizing the episode, on the planet inhabited by a people called the Edo, Wesley crusher faces execution for a minor infraction of the rules. But on this peaceful yet primitive planet, any violation of the rules results in instant death. There is, however, an extremely advanced alien presence guarding the planet and directing it's development. This alien presence demands that the Edo's laws be obeyed by anyone visiting the planet, while Picard attempts to convince the aliens that there must be justice for his crew as well. The alien presence is attempting to enforce moral universalism on the crew of the Enterprise, while Picard argues that moral relativism is the crew's philosophy and it too should be respected.

Throughout the story there are a number of moral dilemmas faced by the characters. First and foremost in the idea of the Prime Directive. It forbids the Enterprise from interfering in the development of primitive worlds, but the Edo are a people that are already being interfered with by an even more advanced group of aliens. When the advanced aliens made their presence known, they exposed the Edo, not as primitive people developing on their natural course, but as the pawns of an advanced alien race. Picard's failed attempt to beam Wesley off the planet seems to…… [read more]

Clinician's Mirror: Cultural Self-Assessment in Chapter Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (645 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Clinician's Mirror: Cultural Self-assessment

In Chapter 3, the author talks about the importance of cultural self-assessments and how these self-assessments can make clinicians more aware. The purpose of this chapter is twofold. First, it hopes to introduce future clinicians to the idea that their cultural backgrounds are going to influence their decisions as clinicians, so that they need to be aware of how their own background will impact their clients. This is particularly relevant when looking at issues of privilege, which some non-minority clinicians may not even realize that they possess. Second, it provides clinicians with the tools that they need in order to carry out a self-assessment. This article does not really contain any specific research findings, but it does do a good job of presenting information discovered by prior researchers. It advocates use of the ADDRESSING model to look at one's own cultural heritage. This involves Age and generational influences, Developmental disabilities, Disabilities acquired later in life, Religion and spiritual orientation, Ethnic and racial identity, Socioeconomic status, Sexual orientation, Indigenous heritage, National origin, and Gender. Each of these dimensions can influence whether or not a person experiences privilege in society.

Understanding one's own perspective is a crucial part of working with others, because every human being brings their own personal history to a scenario. Understanding how exerting privilege or experiencing a lack of privilege has impacted an individual helps one understand how those issues might impact clients. Moreover, it helps even when working with non-minority clients, because those who are in the dominant cultural groups may not even be aware of the privilege that they have in their daily lives and may be struggling to work through resentments for others because they perceive them as getting special treatment or opportunities in a system that is supposed to be free of bias.

Summary: Assessment research in correctional settings

In "Assessment research in correctional settings: Methodological issues and practical problems,"…… [read more]

Modern Chinese History Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (660 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Chinese History

The Cultural Revolution experienced by the Chinese state during the era of Mao Zedong was an important moment in the history of the state especially from the point-of-view of the changes this era sought in the Chinese society.

The Cultural Revolution however was a crucial step in the way in which the state transformed along the communist lines and the way it evolved up to the status of the late 1980s when the Tiananmen Square events took place. The phenomenon of the Cultural Revolution had as main purpose to shift the focus from a bourgeois and intellectual way of thinking to that based on the common thinking of the masses. The spirit of the communist ideology focused on the power of the masses; however, the educated population was seen by the communist party to represent a potential threat to the cadres of the Communist rule and therefore a need for isolation and "re-education" was essential in the approach of the Communist Party. This is in effect the basis for the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution.

The Cultural Revolution had serious consequences for the Chinese population but mostly these consequences were associated with those of the Communist rule itself during the Mao regime. These changes implied important acts of violence largely because the regime had to ensure the total and complete control over the Chinese population. The fact that China is a very populous country, control could not have been exercised without strict measures to be taken in the provinces and in the large cities of the country. Also, the Communist Party experienced strong opposition from the high class that was in place before and after the Second World War and therefore the Party had to ensure that such subversive forces would be defeated. Therefore, action had to be taken to enable the Communist concepts to be adopted at all the levels of the society and in all walks of life.

The Cultural Revolution represented…… [read more]

Value of Hawaii Hawai'i Is an Island Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,374 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Value of Hawaii

Hawai'i is an island that has somewhat controversially and unusually entered its status as American state some 50 years ago. Indeed, many of the current economic and social problems currently experienced by the state have been ascribed to its difficult relationship with the United States and the circumstances surrounding its integration as a state of the country. In the book The Value of Hawaii: knowing the past, shaping the future, edited by Craig Howes and Jon Osorio (2010), the various authors offer highly divergent viewpoints of the problems facing Hawai'i, as well as potential solutions to these problems. What unites these authors is a basic understand that, to effectively function in the future, it is vital to remember the past and use its lessons; whether these indicate the need for change or the retention of previously effective ways of thought and management. Specifically, three of the essays seem to touch on important paradigms that should see change before Hawai'i as a state of the United States as well as an entity on its own can hope to find solutions to its myriad problems that are uniquely related to its nature as an island and as a culture. In this context, the essays by Jonathan Kay Kamakawiwo'ole Osorio, Sumner la Croix, and Ramsay Remigius Mahealani Taum offer questions and solutions regarding Hawaiian culture, its economy, and its tourist industry, promoting a sense of hope that the state can indeed resolve its problems and difficulties.

The essay by Jonathan Kay Kamakawiwo'ole Osorio is entitled "Hawaiian Issues" and focuses on the past nature of the state as a destination for Polynesian voyagers. He also briefly describes the state's development in terms of culture and rulership until it was taken as a state by the United States. The author seems to be very concerned with the effect of this integration, which he regards as both unfair and illegal.

The essay is not, however, a simple diatribe against the United States or even a call to action for Hawaiians to stand together and fight this integration. Although there is certainly a conceptual dichotomy between the descriptions of native, traditional Hawaiian culture and the way in which the United States as a whole operates, the author nonetheless suggests that Hawaiians simply remember the values upon which their culture is based, while calling upon corporations to integrate these into a common value system that would allow for the conservation of land. He also suggests that such integration would also mean the solution to a myriad social and economic problems such as the widening gap between the rich and poor, the current system of tourism, and the management of land. What is most striking about this essay is that the author focuses on the existing positive paradigms in the state and suggesting that those be used for future social reform, upon which economic and educational reform can also be built. To carry this further, Osorio considers in more detail the paradigm known as the Hawaiian… [read more]

Added Both Light and Heat Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (614 words)
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¶ … added both light and heat to the experience of the first field-coding experience. I find myself both attracted to the idea and process of coding and yet also doubtful about its efficacy. Or, rather, doubtful about its objectivity. It seems to me clear that two different people coding the same event, or even one person coding the same event at two different points in time, will come up with different coding. This may or may not be a problem, depending on what one believes to be the goal of the process.

I believe that it is not helpful to consider this process as being one that is appropriate to think of in either objective or static terms. Each time that one observes an event (such as when one is present at an event and then views it later on video) one's understanding of the interpersonal, linguistic, and cultural dynamics involved will have shifted. As I understand it, the purpose of coding as a research (or analytic) tool is to reduce the complexity of real-time exchanges. Coding is a process of simplification, of choosing only a few possible interpretations of what the subtext of any exchange is (or perhaps the back story of the event might be a better way of thinking about it).

Looking back on my experience of coding so far, it seems to me that it is very difficult to determine in the most precise way how well one's codes match with the actual event that one is coding and how much they simply reflect the basic concepts that one has internalized and that one tends to apply regardless. This is the primary lesson that I have learned and that I have attempted to address in the process of coding this event.

The first code that I apply to this event (that was…… [read more]

Identity in America Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (863 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Identity in America

Child of the Americas - analysis

Aurora Levins Morales' poem "Child of the Americas" puts across feelings related to multicultural heritage and to the pride that one should take on as a result of being multicultural. Although one might initially consider that the writer feels ashamed with her background, it is gradually revealed that she is particularly proud as a result of it and that she actually wants to express sentiments of self-esteem through this poem. Heritage has apparently played an essential role in the poet's upbringing, as her personality was shaped by the cultural background of the ethnic voices present in her. To a certain degree, Morales goes against the dominant part of her culture in order to emphasize the fact that she is multicultural and that the American society in general should accept the fact that it contains a great deal of cultural values inherited from other cultures.

Morales is apparently hesitant about being assimilated in the American society, as she wants the masses to acknowledge her background. The writer does not necessarily want to deny the influence that American cultural values have had on her upbringing, as she continues them to be equally important to traditions that she inherited from her ancestors. She was born in a place that respected cultural values present in a wide variety of communities and her first language was "Spanglish."

The poet makes good use of symbolism, imagery, and epitomes in an attempt to provide her readers with a clear understanding of her position. The poem is meant to explain more about the melting pot in the U.S. And how it has come to influence practically all Americans, considering that they identify with a diverse range of backgrounds. In spite of the fact that many Americans originate in particular cultures from around the world, it is very difficult for them to identify with a single culture, as their culture virtually consists out of several cultures that have been brought together.

Morales is frustrated with the fact that the American society believes that it can simply assimilate other cultures. She wants people to understand that it is impossible for her and for others like her to abandon their backgrounds in order to embrace a culture that they do not identify with. Similarly, she is aware that the American community is sometimes inclined to influence multicultural people to return to the countries that their ancestors came from. However, she highlights the fact that it would be impossible for her to return to a particular place, even with the fact that she realizes…… [read more]

Radio Project Radio Art Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (703 words)
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As such, I could also apply this to myself and my own culture. We all have different lives and different professions, as well as different cultural, historical, and family backgrounds. This makes us very diverse in relation to each other. This is not something we are always acutely aware of, especially within the culture we grew up in and spent most of our lives in. The danger here is that we might lose the sense of culture, and even ourselves, in this sense of basic lack of culture. Radio art that involves conversations with taxi drivers can help to make an individual aware of this once again.

Another reason why I chose this particular setting for my project is also the relation between the road a taxi travels on and our path in life. We are all involved in a journey through life, during which we meet many and interesting individuals. My conversations with the taxi drivers made me aware of the importance of appreciating the individual differences I saw in the taxi drivers themselves, but also of the cultural similarities I could detect in the profession as a collective group.

This awareness also brought me a new awareness and appreciation not only of the cultures that I encounter on my journey through life, but also of my own culture. I became aware that each culture is unique and has its own beauty, which should be celebrated and honored, rather than treated with suspicion and negativity.

As radio art, these recordings are unique in the insights they provided, but I do not believe that it is impossible to also represent this art in other media. Taxi drivers can, for example, be shown in their various environments. The language they use and music they listen to can, for example, be supplemented and reinforced by the clothing they wear and hairstyles and jewelry they choose. Nevertheless, I also do believe that, as radio art, the insights a potential audience could gain are unique to the genre itself.… [read more]

Cities Are Part of Toronto Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (698 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


The role therefore of global trends in theory formulation would have been of critical interest.

The article titled "New Systems" dealt with globalization from the perspective of a columnist. The dominant feature of the work was the expression of the culture of globalization that tends to make things all over the world the same. This tendency toward homogeneity is a critical feature of capitalism as it reduces the cost of doing business tremendously. Friedman takes great pains to paint a picture of globalization as a powerful force that was influential in the destruction of communism. The contrast between globalization and the cold war was useful but at times, the intent of the contrast became lost. The idea of the demographic pattern of globalization found resonance with the demographic patterns identified by Hulchanski's discussion of Toronto's neighborhoods.

De Rivero's work expanded on the trends presented by Friedman. The attention given to not only nation states but also multinational corporations added a necessary balance to the arguments raised by Friedman. The danger posed by MNC is an important consideration of the work and it gave an important call to understanding the challenge of a world dominated by bloodless corporations and weak world leaders. This work honed and sharpened the destructive role of multinational and transnational corporations in their quest for greater profits at the expense of national interests.

The implications of these developments for social work are very important. The globalization of the world has meant greater poverty throughout the world and at the same time reduced resources for the fight against the ills of poverty. Consequently, the social worker becomes a necessary feature of modern society, but is not properly empowered to make lasting changes to the lives of individuals. While work of the social worker is local, global trends and global players influence it. This is disturbing and stimulating. It is disturbing because it may be that social problems will expand and social workers overwhelmed by the challenges. The stimulation comes from the possibilities that exist in the global environment with the sharing of solutions…… [read more]

Globalization Our World Is Interconnected A2 Coursework

A2 Coursework  |  3 pages (1,031 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Within the cost driver, companies that consider lifestyle of a country before price are included. The technology driver includes increasing technological systems, especially communication systems such as the internet, but also transportation systems. Fourth, there is the government driver and fifth, there is the competition driver, which can drive an organization to become a global center. [5: Unknown Author. (2011). "What are the drivers of globalization?" Blurtit.com. Retrieved May 8, 2011, < http://www.blurtit.com/q635202.html>.]

Next, we must discuss the kind of effects that globalization has had upon the world. It is clear, from all the above-written and cited that globalization is both growing and affecting a lot of people at the same time due to various fundamental changes and market forces that drive progress forwards around the world. Though globalization's effects are widely felt both in political and economic arenas, this section will focus on a very specific example; namely, the effects of globalization in California and the pharmaceutical industry.

With regards to California, globalization affects the workforce very much. According to a study, this is most widely felt in the computer industry and the food industry. This study maintains that the total amount of "global interchange, in the form of export and import activity, the internal structure of firms and their production networks, and the characteristics of the labor force" have all shifted in California and have had serious effects on the state and its industries. The study here has utilized two industries mentioned above to illustrate changes in California's economy due to globalization and examine just how the state is responding to these challenges. Needless to say, the study has found the industries adapt to the impact of globalization. In the computer industry, for example, segmented production processes are much more popular now than before, whereas in the food processing industry there is much less segmentation. [6: Kroll, C. (2004). "Globalization and the Changing Face of California Industry." UC Berkeley. Retrieved May 8, 2011, .] [7: Kroll, C. (2004). "Globalization and the Changing Face of California Industry." UC Berkeley. Retrieved May 8, 2011, . ]

The pharmaceutical industry has also been affected by globalization. For example, the industry has increased its assets and influence around the world due to globalization. According to an article, companies spend "large amounts of money on advertising, marketing and lobbying (government or parliament i.e. The decision-making body)." In specific, this industry is said to spend around $19 billion per year in order to make its present known around the globe. [8: Unknown Author. (2011). "The Effects of Globalization on the Pharmaceutical Industry." Blog. Retrieved May 8, 2011, . ]

As seen from the facts mentioned above, globalization is a strong force globally, and can even affect specific communities in the United States. There are various theories and specific effects that can be examined; however, globalization's effects will only continue to grow and will, good or bad, affect everyone sooner or later. Thus, all we can do is embrace globalization and live with it.… [read more]

Post Modernism Is the Philosophy Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (961 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Compare it to contrasting 'birds' with 'dogs'. On the other hand, researchers for cross-cultural comparison argue that, in order to best understand the syndrome as a whole, cross-cultural comparisons are in order (Breakwell et al., 2007).

Making their proposal attractive to the potential logical positivistic, styling the proposal would pragmatically necessitate that the researchers couch their proposal in logical positivistic terms. Hence, the researchers could start off by pointing to initiators of depression,

They can point to research such as that by Abramson et al. (1989) who postulate that depression is manufactured by and based on hopelessness. Do not some culture have more hopeless socio-economic political environment than others, by their very nature causing unavoidable stress? Depression, being closely related to stress, is also, accordingly, defined by political economic / political, social characteristics of different countries and populations. In that manner, depression in one particular country would be likely more common (and possibly more intense) than depression in another and, therefore, each culture needs to be studied on its own merits.

The researcher's argument can continue by pointing to scientific studies that show that availability of social support may be amongst the most important controls for limiting risk to depression (Kaufman et al. 2004) and socail supprot may, in fact, be so essential a compeotn, that it can even ameliorate negative sequalea of gene and environmental factors. One culture may have a stronger social support system then another, and, therefore, teenage depression in that culture needs to be studied locally rather than as global phenomena.

Most significantly, researchers can indicate scientific studies that show cross-cultural differences such as those preformed on Chinese individuals where social scientists conclude that they either deny depression or expression it somatically (i.e. articulate it in depth) (e.g. Parker, Gladstone, and Chee, 2001). Amplifying this particular piece of data, the group can point to the authors' conclusion that even thoguh Chinese are more heterogeneous than is glibly thought and thus generalizations are difficult to make the authors concluded that, on the whole, data does seem to indicate that the Chinese incline to one of two extremes: they either deny their depression or express it somatically.

Different cultures therefore, have different ways of thinking and reacting, and accordingly need to be studied independently.


Abramson, L., Metolsky, G., & Alloy, L. (1989). Hopelessness depression: A theory-based subtype of depression. Psyc. Review, 96, 358-378

Breakwell, G.M., Hammond, S., & Fife-Schaw, C., (2007). research methods in psychogloy. SAGE: London.

Kaufman, J. et al. (2004). Social supports and serotonin transporter gene moderate depression in maltreated children, PNAS, 10, 17316-17321

Parker, G., Gladstone, G., & Chee, K.T (2001) Depression in the Planet's Largest…… [read more]

Post Modernism Is the Philosophy Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (619 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


However, in this situation, and since they are dealing with scientists who might be averse to philosophical arguments, the researchers can adopt a scientific stance pointing out that depression, according to the popular scientifically accepted theory, is based on cognition. In fact, adolescent depression is engendered from cognition (Beck, 2006). Cognitions are based on the 'should', 'must's, oughts', particular guilt-feelings, and assumptions created by a certain culture. In order to deal with these cognitions most effectively, therefore (and in order initially even to measure adolescent depression most authentically), depressive cognitions of that specific culture must be studied and interventions, suited for that particular culture, created and implemented.

The grounded theory approach seems to be most relevant to postmodernist perspective, since aside from it accomplishing the researcher's motive of closely studying their target population, it also contravenes the standard 'power-usurping', dominating perspective of controlling White culture (accordingly White Science) that asserts that there is only one correct way of directing inquiry -- namely by inductive (rather than deductive) reasoning. The opposite of the scientific inductive approach, grounded theory asserts that research develops best from data, rather than the other way round. This can be further integrated with phenomenological methods, which enable the researchers to 'bracket' existent thinking and zone in on their population. As reaction to the preferred quantitative / empirical stance (that is the voice of dominant science), the researchers can choose a qualitative stance which, also in accord with postmodernist perspective, insists that people cannot be reduced to laboratory samples, that each population varies, and that they are, therefore, best studied outside the laboratory and in their real-life environment.


Beck AT (2006). Depression: Causes and Treatment. Philadelphia: University…… [read more]

Team Leadership in Multicultural Groups Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,064 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Leadership in Multicultural Groups

To what extent does the larger context (i.e. A business setting, an educational setting) affect the dynamics of the leadership of a multicultural group?

How do gender and ethnicity interact in the context of the leadership of a multicultural group?

How significant is each group member's definitions of culture and cultural salience?

In investigating the dynamics of the leadership of multicultural groups, an important starting point is with the individual. This may seem counterintuitive given that the subject that is being focused on is the group. But while a group is certainly more than simply the sum of its parts, it is also its parts. A group must be investigated as its whole, but it must also must be examined in terms of the characteristics of each of the members. Hambrick et al. (1998), for example, note that in seeking to understand how multinational corporations can best provide good leadership, it is necessary to start with the individual characteristics of the members. These characteristics include gender, age, and ethnicity, as well as less demographic characteristics such as field of technical expertise (Mitchell et al., 2002).

Gibson & McDaniel (2010) make one of the most important arguments in this arena: There is as yet no single model that works for all multicultural groups since the specific cultural groups that are represented in a group affect its structure. Also, there is no single model that can be applied across the board since the degree of multiculturalism in a group is highly influential (Gong, 2003). It is also important to understand that the dynamic of multiculturalism cannot be understood in linear terms (Randel, 2003).

Another fundamental dynamic that must be taken into account when doing research in this area is the fact that individuals vary significantly in their definition of what culture is and what constitutes a cultural aspect of their personality as opposed to an aspect that arises from another factor (Harris, 2006).

The research proposed here is to examine how virtual multicultural groups function. Maznevski & Chudoba (2000) found that leaders of such groups may be negligent in terms of their acknowledging that culture can still create both complicated conflicts and affiliations, even when group members never interact in person.

Annotated Bibliography

Gibson, C.B. & McDaniel, D.M. (2010). Moving Beyond Conventional Wisdom: Advancements in Cross-Cultural Theories of Leadership, Conflict, and Teams. Perspectives on Psychological Science 5: 450-462.

The authors here examine the past several decades of cross-cultural research to determine what are the most relevant criteria for examining group dynamics, focusing on both what criteria help groups cohere and what tends to promote conflict. They find that there is a distinct lack of models that work in different settings.

Gong, Y. (2003). Toward a Dynamic Process Model of Staffing Composition and Subsidiary Outcomes in Multinational Enterprises. Journal of Management 29: 259-280.

This paper investigates a dynamic that is both obvious and essential to explore: The more multicultural a group, the more complicated the interpersonal dynamics and the… [read more]

Personality Development Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (561 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Personality Development -- Social and Cultural Factors

Personality development in the individual is a function of numerous different variables, including genetic influences, family-of-origin dynamics, social circumstances, and the role of various elements of the external environment. Among the many aspects of the external environment that contribute to personality development in the individual are the influences of social and cultural norms, values, beliefs, and expectations. They can dictate substantial themes that determine the ways that individuals feel about themselves, the way they regard others, and the ways that they perceive their rights and roles in relation to other individuals and to society as a whole.


In principle, human beings are, for all intents and purposes, "blank slates" when they are born. They have natural biological needs and tendencies, but the manner in which they come to view themselves, others, and the rest of society are determined for them by others. The importance of social learning can be demonstrated by the way that differential socialization of the genders (for just one nearly universal examples) radically affects the way that males and females come to develop different personalities with respect to aspects of personality such as confidence and the relative balance between aggressiveness and passivity. In many human cultures, this differential gender-based socialization also dictates the manner in which the individual comes to regard his or her own sexuality. While all human beings share similar sexual urges and inclinations, males are typically encouraged to explore their sexual urges freely and even to derive a measure of confidence and pride with respect to their sexual conquests. By contrast, females in those same societies are discouraged from that behavior and to the extent they…… [read more]

Successful Expatriate Training Synthesis Successful Expatriate Preparation Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (649 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Successful Expatriate Training


Successful expatriate preparation requires more than simply learning a new language

Being fluent in another culture requires far more than simply learning the language. Every culture has a different framework of assumptions as to what constitutes appropriate and inappropriate behavior. For example, when dealing with Europeans, being excessively detailed and 'spelling out' the meaning of what one is saying can come across as patronizing, even though such clarity may be viewed as a positive attribute amongst plain-spoken Americans, These lapses of intercultural understanding are extremely common. Executives at HP committed such a faux paux when dealing with their counterparts in Grenoble, despite the fact that HP is a highly respected multinational firm (Kholsa 2001). Europeans also often resist certain aspects of American business life that we may take for granted, such as the need to wear nametags or to smile (Khosla 2001).

Intercultural understanding and making one's foreign counterparts feel at home often requires very subtle and nuanced gestures, to show that the negotiator has done his or her homework, regarding the other party's culture. These gestures can be as simple as knowing when to extend a cup of tea to Japanese colleagues during an intense negotiation session; showing respect for time when dealing with Israelis who prefer a highly compressed and time-efficient meeting style; or knowing when to pause and when to remain silent (Kholsa 2001).

Gaining such cultural fluency demands that Americans try to understand, with a sincere and open mind, why some individuals view American business tactics as rude. Arab businessmen, accustomed to a more high-context style of negotiations in which interpersonal relationships are paramount, often find Americans abrupt. Perhaps even more damaging to creating a positive atmosphere during negotiations, is the significant fact that Americans are viewed as unwilling to adapt themselves to deal with local business channels and are said to impose their internal business strategies upon foreign organizations (Wederspahan 2002). Of course, this may…… [read more]

Achievements Since My Early Days as Radio Admission Essay

Admission Essay  |  2 pages (537 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Since my early days as radio reporter for World View Foundation in 1997, I believe I have come a long way. Pursuing my deep interest in the field of development, I moved from one opportunity to another, gaining wider experience and in the process becoming very more deeply involved in the area.

I have since gained 15 years of very valuable experience which has given me an opportunity to know a lot about the field of development in variety of area from refugee welfare to child protection to rural development. Starting as a radio reporter, I gained international experience when I worked with ZOA Refugee Care Netherlands and Terre Des Hommes Germany as administrator and project coordinator respectively. Though I worked exclusively from within the confines of my country, Thailand, still I managed to gain international experience by working with NGO with world wide presence. The scope of their reach also broadened my vision and knowledge about development and today I feel confident in my knowledge on the subject of development connected with child-related issues, sexual exploitation and rural problems. But still I felt this intense urge to gain more theoretical knowledge in indigenous development and believe that a Master's Degree in the field would help me gain deeper understanding of the field and related issues.

My resume shows in great detail some of the more tangible aspects of my knowledge and experience such as my work experience and educational background but what is truly more important to me is the experience and understanding I gained on a deeper level about human needs, problems and the bonds…… [read more]

Personal Identity and Cultural Identity Has Moving Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  8 pages (2,977 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Personal Identity and Cultural Identity

Has Moving to Los Angeles Made a Difference in the Personal Identity of Middle-Eastern Persons Over the Age of 40?

People identify with the place in which they spend a majority of their lives. When they migrate to another area, it can cause a sense of loss for something familiar. Migrants of Middle Eastern decent… [read more]

Women's Rights Multiculturalism Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (656 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Opponents to multiculturalism argue that the state focuses too much on the importance of cultural diversity and too little on the necessity of each culture affirming its own heritance. Since this is the case, opponents further argue, xenophobia and extremism is on the increase. Drawing upon human rights law, Xanthaki (2010) seeks to show that human rights law endorses multicultural policies and seeks to promote a multicultural vision. Xanthaki (2010) also discusses current challenges concerning multiculturalism. Although multiculturalism is partially addressed in international / human rights law and then only indirectly, it is certain that international law insists upon protecting and respecting individual cultures. On the other hand, there may be instances where according to their particular cultural demands, cultures may separate themselves from their host-country and create problems with this host country. In that instance, care should be taken in the measures that governments apply when dealing with minorities and in the policies that they adopt. In other words, there is a limitation to affirmative action, and the larger country is taken into consideration when minority groups press for rights that differ to the situation extant in, or the policies shared by, that larger country, particularly when hostility to those minority groups might accrue as a result.

Does multiculturalism foster fundamentalism and undermine national identity? Xanthaki (2010) argues that the contrary is the case since the recognition of multiple cultural frameworks not only encourages anchoring in one's particular culture but also fosters a feeling of devotion to the larger country as a whole. International law argues the importance of interaction, consequently promoting the idea of reciprocity amongst cultures: that they share equal obeisance both to their particular country and to the surrounding culture. When allegiance is in conflict, the state's duty is to promote dialogue. On the other hand, cultural practices that violate human rights or human dignity such as female circumcision or wearing the burka cannot be justified since, even though condoned by particular group, they…… [read more]

Personal Critical Incident Journal

Journal  |  9 pages (3,290 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Personal Narrative within a Cultural Context

It was late November in Madison, Wisconsin -- the leaves had begun to fall creating a crunchy undergrowth as you tramped across the quad to the oblong, totally glass encased building the undergraduates had aptly nicknamed "The Shark Tank," no doubt a symbol of their attitude towards young budding members of the Bar. It… [read more]

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