Study "Anthropology / Culture" Essays 111-165

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Human Behavior Article Review

… Thus a spiritual person is less likely to be prejudiced and discriminating.

Social work values

The behavioral theories and the ethical code of conduct formulate the behavior that complies with the norms of the society. The social work class has… [read more]

Photosynthesis Chemosynthesis. Determine Significant Step Term Paper

… In relationship-driven cultures, the emphasis is on 'saving' the other person's face rather than confronting them and demonstrating them to be wrong in public. In America, debate and even friendly insults are accepted, even across the organizational hierarchy, and those who are hurt by these displays of aggression are criticized for being overly sensitive. This might be difficult for someone to comprehend from another culture, particularly if the challenge is made to a respected authority figure. However, in those same context-oriented cultures, other practices which are common might be considered quite rude to an American. Americans value time as a commodity, yet other cultures have more fluid sense of time -- fostering social engagements take priority over holding to a specific 'o'clock, and Americans are often outraged when meetings in Southern Europe and elsewhere begin 15 minutes to a half hour later than schedule.

An important lesson from cultural diversity is that there is no 'correct' culture. What is required is that one is mindful enough about one's cultural worldview so as not to be judgmental in a harsh and negative fashion. This is true not only of foreign cultures, but also of intergenerational differences present within the workforce. Members of the millennial generation have attention spans shaped by technology -- they want swift feedback, tend to be very informal (a side effect of communicating so much via text and email) -- and stand in sharp contrast to older workers who tend to stress formality, hierarchy, and organizational loyalty (Wong 17). An effective manager will know how to 'play to the strengths' of all members of the organization, regardless of age or culture, and create structures of mentorship and team-building exercises so that employees are able to understand, tolerate, and appreciate difference rather than regard…… [read more]

World Globalization Research Paper

… Globalization is a compelling aspect of the new global system reflecting the future of intercontinental and regional partnerships around the globe. It has complex manifestations: investment, political, security, health, environmental, social and culture. The term "globalization" was made up in… [read more]

Cross Cultural Business Essay

… , "Long-term vs. short-term orientation refers to the extent to which a culture programs its members to accept delayed gratification of their material, social, and emotional needs. Hofstede's research shows country scores on a Long-term Orientation Index (LTO) for 23 countries. East Asian countries (China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, and South Korea) scored highest." (p. 4)


The determination of price is not necessarily culturally-loaded so much as it is determined by the cost of production and the market demand for a given product. Learning how to accommodate local price demands will be largely a function of coming to understand the dynamics of a new set of local and national economies.


Promotion is a dimension of marketing that is highly culturally dependent. One bit of counsel provided in the article by Kolesnikov-Jessop is that one must choose employees not according to that with which one is culturally comfortable but according to that which most benefits a company. In this case, employing a marketing firm directly steeped in the host culture is the appropriate approach.


Place is a critical issue to consider, especially for one who is an outsider to the host culture. This is because a great many geographical and cultural nuances may otherwise be overlooked. An American businessman speaking on his experiences managing in China helps to explain this issue in the article by Kolesnikove-Jessop. According to the interviewee, "there are cultural differences within China. In Shanghai, the culture is more much open and commercial; in Beijing, it is much more regimented. It's not one China; there are differences. Customers work differently and employees work differently." (Kolesnikov-Jessop, p. 1)

This is important to consider because it can be tempting as a foreign manager to treat the host nation in blanket terms. However, this approach denotes a lack of cultural awareness and, more importantly, is likely to cost an organization the opportunity to market more intuitively.

Ethical Issues:

The primary ethical issues to consider are those of labor rights and environmental conditions. These must both be progressive and highly developed to justify entering into operations in any Asian host country.

Works Cited:

Anbari, F.T.; Khilkhanova, E.V.; Romanova, M.V. & Umpleby, S.A. (2008). Cross Cultural Differences and Their Implications for Managing International Projects.

Kolesnikov-Jessop, S. (2012). Respecting…… [read more]

Social Workers in the U Essay

… ¶ … social workers in the U.S. have any obligation to international social work? Why?

While the word "obligation" might seem a bit strong regarding the social worker in the United States and his or her responsibility towards others on the planet, philosophically the answer is yes, social workers are accountable to other peoples, no matter their location. The National Association of Social Workers (NASW) asserts that the "…struggle for human rights remains a vital priority for the social work profession in the 21st Century" -- and moreover, the NASW urges social worker organizations to "develop and maintain collaborative relationships with international development agencies ( Indeed the NASW asks members to help raise funds for special projects developed by Social Workers Across Nations (SWAN). The social work profession is not an isolated department unique to a Western society; it is a movement, a philosophy, if you will, based on justice, human needs, and empathy.

In that light, among the important issues that social workers in the United States should be concerned about is the problems associated with indigenous peoples (IPs). A peer-reviewed piece in the journal Global Governance relates to the human rights issues and IPs; the indigenous peoples in Africa, South America, and elsewhere on the planet are victims of abuses, including: a) land loss; b) environmental destruction; c) forced displacement; d) imposed assimilation; e) discrimination; and f) ethnocide (Stavenhagen, 2005, 19).

Among the more egregious discriminatory policies impacting IPs have been designed to "…eliminate and transform indigenous cultures" because states saw these indigenous cultures as "…detrimental to the idea of national integration and development (Stavenhagen, 21). For example, Stavenhagen references the injustices done to native peoples in the U.S. And Canada, who were forced to learn English and punished when they spoke native languages (21).

Another piece in the peer-reviewed Politics of Identity journal notes that IPs have historically been marginalized by colonial powers; they have struggled to survive "…against the colonizing states' efforts to eradicate them culturally, politically and physically" (Alfred, et al., 2005, 597). The colonizing countries didn't necessarily attempt to "eradicate" the actual people, albeit they did try to remove the existence of IPs "…through the erasure of the histories and geographies that provide the foundation for Indigenous cultural identities and sense of self" (Alfred, 598).

In too many cases indigenous peoples remain -- as in "earlier colonial eras" -- "occupied peoples who have been dispossessed and disempowered in their own homelands" (Alfred, 598). On page 609 Alfred mentions the work being done by Cherokee/Creek scholar Tom Holm (and Diane Pearson and Ben Chavis) that brings to the table the "original peoplehood concept"; that is, there are four concepts that Alfred refers to as "interlocking" and they should be known to social workers who deal with diverse cultures (some of which are connected to IPs). The four are: a) sacred history; b) ceremonial cycles; c) language; and d) ancestral homelands (609).

If any of the identity elements (like "sacred history") becomes lost, or is even… [read more]

Cultural Observation of Dress Case Study

… (Eicher, 2008)

Have you had the experience of being taught how to dress according to the cultural expectations of another society? Share these stories in a small discussion group as examples of acculturation. Contrast these acculturation experiences with the enculturation… [read more]

Global Leadership Prior to Denoting Term Paper

… There is a pyramidal type relationship between the three layers of competencies which include behavioral skills (at the base), mental characteristics (in the middle), and one's fundamental core (at the top). The competencies associated with behavioral skills include social skills, networking skills and knowledge (Osland 2012, p. 56) -- which are all areas that Jiango is lacking in particularly in the Westernized setting of France. Therefore, getting him to utilize his colleagues as a resource for knowledge, as well as displaying the sort of zeal necessary to work with others and to get invited to social settings and utilizing his social intelligence (Boyatzis 2007, p. 8) will effectively allow the executive to improve his mental characteristics and his fundamental core -- both areas of which are his strong point, especially as they relate to Asian and other forms of non-Westernized culture.

I am certain of the difference that following this plan -- utilizing personal resources closest to one, making an active attempt to learn the mores and customs of a new culture, and harnessing the power of social networking -- can make for one transitioning from one culture to the next. When I went to my first data management conferences, I was intimidated by the knowledge of the others and largely stuck to myself. I was visibly shunned by the others during informal activities such as lunch, dinner, and socializing during vendor displays. Less than six months later, however, I attended another data management conference. I had learned a little bit more about this study and was more familiar with my colleagues who were there. I also took the initiative to immerse myself in the culture, readily talking to and meeting other people, and went on excursions with others during social settings. I ended up learning a lot and having a good time, and realize the value that this approach can bring to someone attempting to adjust to a climate of varying cultural competencies.

The final step in assisting Jiango with his transitional issues in Europe coming from China is to readily incorporate his new knowledge into effective marketing that best produces a hybrid approach that captivates people in both Westernized and Non-Westernized world. Part of this turnaround will naturally come from the executive himself, since his strengths are knowledge of non-Westernized cultures and marketing. Once he is able to gain insight into European and French culture, he will be able to incorporate that into his own framework. Yet just as valuable as this approach is his willingness to open up and trust his associates -- particularly those additional vice-presidents already mentioned in this document -- and discuss facets of Non-Westernized culture so that they can become more familiar with it as well. That way, Jiango can consider Westernized culture in his marketing, and the other members of his firm can utilize facets of non-Westernized culture to assist them. This way, Deronde is actually benefitting from a cross-cultural approach with more than just Jiango's involvement, which demonstrates the veracity of… [read more]

Global Leadership Diagnosing Your Cultural Term Paper

… Examples of intercultural adaptability in corporate America

Paying lip service to intercultural adaptability is one thing (many companies engage in image enhancement) but there are companies who take intercultural dynamics seriously. The Ford Motor Company ( has a program called "Employee Resource Groups" (ERGs), which conducts outreach, recruiting, and intercultural activities for African-Americans, Asian Indians, Chinese immigrants, disabled persons, Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender employees, Latinos, persons of faith, military veterans and "Middle Eastern Community" workers as well. The purpose of the ERGs is to "…develop leadership through seminars, mentoring, counseling and 'dialogues on diversity'" with senior management. Ford is clearly promoting the concept of "Social Initiative" and Flexibility through its ERG campaign.

The Marriott Hotel group supports diversity through its "Committee for Excellence" program, which promotes diversity "…and inclusion in four key areas…associates…guests, suppliers and owners" ( This program embraces Cultural Empathy and Open-Mindedness as well as Social Initiative.

The Philadelphia Insurance Companies have embraced the Social Initiative concept by providing support for "Right in the Community," an advocacy organization with 22 homes for people with developmental disabilities. The insurance companies support "diverse segments" of Philadelphia by "giving back to the communities in which we serve" (

The AT&T approach to diversity includes the "Chief Diversity Officer (CDO) Forum" which meets four times a year and seeks to "formally integrate, leverage and grow enterprise-wide initiatives for AT&T to become best-in-class in diversity and inclusiveness" ( This is another example of a Social Initiative and suggests that Cultural Empathy and Open-mindedness is a goal for AT&T.

Meanwhile, an article in Forbes quotes the Chief Diversity Officer of IBM, Ron Glover: "Diversity is much more than just a multicultural issue. Diversity is about embracing many different types of people, who stand for different things and represent different cultures, generations, ideas and thinking" (Llopis, 2011). IBM should know something about diversity as they have workplaces in 172 countries and 427,000 employees in those countries.

In conclusion, as mentioned earlier in this paper, many companies pay nothing more than lip service to the idea of intercultural adaptability. But there are companies that truly "get it" when it comes to the role of a company being inclusive and having Cultural Empathy, Open-mindedness, and not being afraid to launch Social Initiatives within and without the employee ranks.


Abele, John. 2009. 'Cultural Intelligence -- What's your CQ?' Kingbridge Collaboration Blog. Retrieved May 30, 2013, from

AT&T. 2012. 'Workforce Inclusion / Workforce Highlights.' Retrieved May 30, 2013, from

Ford Motor Company. 2012. 'Employee Resource Groups.' Retrieved May 30, 2013, from

Llopis, Glenn. 2011. 'Diversity Management Is the Key to Growth: Make it Authentic.' Forbes. Retrieved May 30, 2013, from

Marriott Hotel Group. 2012. 'Diversity & Inclusion -- Corporate.' Retrieved May 30, 2013, from

Philadelphia Insurance Companies. 2010. 'Our Philosophy / Success Through Diversity.' Retrieved May 30, 2013, from

Tamas Consultants Inc. 2008. 'Description of the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire (MPQ).' Retrieved May 30, 2013, from… [read more]

Globalization Myths and Threats Essay

… Globalization Myths and Threats

Globalization is a concept that has earned a notable controversial force. Some people consider it as a beneficial process necessary for future economic development. They also view it as an irreversible and inevitable process. On the other hand, others have perceived it as hostile and have developed fears arguing that globalization increases national inequalities, threaten the living standards and employment besides thwarting societal progress. Therefore, these globalization aspects suggest that nations such as Thailand must design ways of overcoming its potential risks while remaining realistic about its opportunities (Scruton, 2010).

Every nation has its illusions and myths regarding globalization. In Thailand, globalization has been viewed as the internationalization of information sharing, investment, services and trade made possible by the internet. This trend has the possibility of changing humankind and shuttering the nation of Thailand as much as globalization is real, idealists have imposed on it visions that make it difficult for us to grasp what is happening and what is not happening. Among the various myths revolving around the concept of globalization, there are two significant myths. One of them is the most dangerous claim that globalization leads to a utopian peace regime and the notion that globalization is a new phenomenon. Individuals who argue that this phenomenon will produce an idyllic era of peace have not conceptualized the principles of humanity (Sabanadze, 2010).

One of the trending myths is that the forces of globalization might deliver greater global wealth and touch more lives. Over decades, this phenomenon has made profound transformation of international relationships while human nature remains the same. This creates the fourth myth that globalization precipitates peace. Human beings desire to live in a global paradise; for decades, this remains understandable. This notion has proven the illusionary nature and the capacity for humanity's mischief of harboring long-term selfish interests. In this regard, we can argue that human dreams have ignored reality leading to predictions that the war has become unthinkable. The relative peace experienced in historical…… [read more]

History of Multicultural Counseling Psychology Term Paper

… History Of Multicultural Psychology

History of Multicultural Counseling Psychology

The issue of culture has been in existence for centuries now. The term 'multiculturalism' is used to refer to a state of bother ethnic and cultural diversity (Adams & Welsch, 2009).… [read more]

Americanism and Multiculturalism Definition Research Paper

… The maximization of harmony and debate within the different cultures is also part of the re-Americanism being suggested. The failure of the U.S. students of appreciates other cultures such as Hispanics, African-Americans, and Cubans may have caused a widespread antagonism regarding baseline Americanism. Had the ideological foundations of Americanism been not misinterpreted, the conflict and divide between the two concepts, Americanism and multiculturalism would not have been such widespread and evident.

The societies may cling to the past and the glorious yesterday that they have experienced, yet the society is an evolutionary entity and has to incorporate the new ideas regarding culture, identity, and association as the time passes. Baseline Americanism also needs to incorporate the cultural and social equality of other sub-cultures and only then can the educationists incorporate the concepts and cultural aspects of Americanisms along with multiculturalism.

The following image being published by American Legion organization that safeguards the Americanism and strives to instill it on a macro-level within the American population indicates that there are not much differences in the perspectives of multiculturalism and Americanism provided that the narratives for both concepts are based on findings common, true, and collective baseline within one country as the U.S.

Fig 1 Americanism: American Legion Post 52

Source: (American Legion, n.d.)

The Americanism as professed by the American Legion does not discriminate between people of America on the basis of subcultures, ethnicities, or religion. The broad principle that the Legion sets is the allegiance to the country where each one of us is residing and that is natural demand. However, there are the tenets of liberty and justice promised for all and none be discriminated unless disagreeing to the notion of one nationhood.


Americanism is the collective ideology based on the principles of equality, liberty, and opportunity for all, belief on the right of self-government, and pursuit of free-association to any group until the association does not takes place against the one nationhood and unity of America. Multiculturalism is the concept of allowing the sub-cultures to have complete independence without having to adopt the national culture. Although, seemingly different and at some odds with each other, both the concepts are aimed at achieving the equality and freedom of individuals and individual groups.

In order to truly synthesize the cultural collectivism of America, it is necessary not to disregard either multiculturalism or Americanism. However, meanings of both these concepts need to be aligned with the true spirit in which they originated rather than subjugation of one group by the other powerful group. Americanism should be re-Americanized by aligning and identifying it with the ideological principles laid by Abraham Lincoln and other leaders that looked for synergies between subcultures.

To include the Americanism perspective, the theoretical perspectives of Americanism should be revisited and aligned with the American Legion inscription. Multiculturalism should also be understood from a broader perspective that underlying objective of this concept is also to remove discrimination and oppression based on cultural affiliations. Educationists shall investigate the broader… [read more]

Cultural Representation of Social Class Essay

… The culture that is related to social class helps in keeping other outside a special social class. This is because within a specific social class there are certain behaviors, actions and beliefs that the culture advocates. This means that people might be kept out of special social classes simply because they are not used to the particular beliefs, behaviors or actions which are normal in that social class. Moving from one social class to another can be quite difficult. This is because one is accustomed to the culture that is found within their specific social is not easy for someone who is from a lower class to pass as upper class. Similarly it is also not easy for someone from a higher class to pass to a lower class (Gabrenya, 2003).These two movements are equally difficult since everyone is used to and is comfortable within their social class. This is because they are deeply rooted in the culture that is found within their social class. Therefore even if they move to a different social class they will stiff find themselves acting or behaving in the same way they were in this new social class. They will thus end up not being comfortable since they will not blend in well with other people in that social class.

Culture reproduces social classes from one generation to another. This is because people are used to the existence of these social classes and they are comfortable with .They end up carrying these social classes forward from one generation to another since they considered them part of life and normal. People end up staying in the same social class they are born in since they are used to that particular lifestyle. They get used to the social class and that is what they perceive as normal (Menon, 2011).


Gabrenya, W.K. (2003).Culture and Social class. Retrieved June 26, 2013 from

Menon, D. (2011).Social class as culture. Retrieved June 26, 2013 from… [read more]

Early Encounter Between Indians and Europeans Term Paper

… ¶ … Indians & Europeans

Encounters between Europeans and Indians changed the course of history forever. From the moment both cultures intertwined, the United States as we know it was in the making. However, both of these different cultures were… [read more]

Therapist Doctor's Point-Of-View Essay

… The U.S. is known to be welcoming to immigrants from various parts of the world. In that regard, it is important to note that several community resources and programs have been put in place to assist immigrants like the lady presented in the scenario. The U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) is one of the bodies that could help in the facilitation of the successful integration of the said lady into the American culture. There are also a number of websites that the said lady could utilize while seeking more information about the U.S. Such websites include but they are not limited to and

In seeking to make the stay of immigrants comfortable, regular citizens like myself are expected to play a number of roles. To begin with, regular citizens should desist from being judgmental. In that regard, we must avoid stereotyping others based on their ethnicity and/or culture. Also, we should cultivate a spirit of openness in all our dealings with immigrants. Secondly, we must be mindful of our immigrant brothers' and sisters' feelings. This is what is commonly referred to as empathy. For example, mocking the culture of others in their presence could be injurious to the feelings of such individuals. Further, we should also try to be sympathetic to the various needs of immigrants seeking to settle in the U.S. It is important to note that when they first set foot in the U.S., most immigrants have no stable jobs. Such individuals might also be unfamiliar with our culture and way of doing things. Natives should ideally be mindful of the needs of such individuals. We should also coexist peacefully with those who happen to come from other parts of the word.… [read more]

Melting Pot Metaphor in Regards to Richard Rodriguez Hunger of Memory Essay

… Melting Pot Metaphor in Richard Rodriguez's Hunger Of Memory

The Melting Pot Metaphor: Rodriguez's Hunger of Memory

There are still so many racial issues which drive the status of social groups around the nation. The United States is still very racially divided. Yet, many of us within the nation still cling to an outdated idea that all immigrants and ethnic groups living in the United States want to voluntarily give up their cultural roots in order to assimilate into the majority culture. Individuals like Horace Kallen then see this as unrealistic. In many ways, Richard Rodriguez does see the metaphor as outdated; however, it is clear that he does agree the assimilation process is a combining of cultures that generate a new hybrid culture of blended heritages, which is essentially a view that is shared by Gene Yang in his American Born Chinese.

The melting pot metaphor presents the process of assimilation as one where different ethnic minorities begin to slowly but surely blend into the majority culture. Thus, they take on some elements of the majority culture in the process of assimilation; yet, they also contribute some of their own culture into the diverse American environment. Horace Kallen believed the melting pot is unrealistic, as the majority culture often is avoidant of accepting any elements of minority cultures. In some ways, Rodriquez does agree. He sees that it is unrealistic in the romanticized way it was envisioned in the past. The idea that all ethnic cultures are so wiling to assimilate into American culture is the most unrealistic part of the concept. There are instead hybrid cultures emerging out of an extremely tense situation, where ethnic minorities are both pulled back towards their cultural heritage as well as being expected to move forward in an English white dominated nation. Essentially, the white majority demands full assimilation of minority cultures, often without wanting any sort of contribution from their own unique cultural heritages. In this way, Rodriquez does tend to agree with Kallen.

Yet, in many ways, Rodriguez disagrees with Kallen. He sees that the process of assimilation is like a bunch of hybrid cultures melting together as they encounter each other more and more. Assimilating into the majority society includes the process of an ethnic minority group learning and blending in their culture with the dominate majority's culture. One example Rodriguez gives of this is the concept of bilingual education. In this, courses are available in a multitude of languages and blends of languages, so that minority groups can enjoy learning within the context of their own first language. Here, Rodriguez states that "bilingual schooling was popularized in the seventies, that decade when middle-class ethnics began to resist the process of assimilation -- the American melting pot" (Rodriguez 26). Bilingual education represents a resistance to…… [read more]

Multiculturalism Research Paper

… Within a multicultural society, one would feel a sense of nationalism, importance of language and its use, a sense of universal religion, and an overall feeling of being part of the global society. This is the feeling the young Sudanese man had when he was on his way home to the motherland. Having spent some time in the United Kingdom, the Sudanese man had to endure a recovery period of having to get back to his native home, the home of his originating culture. In the United Kingdom, things appeared changed due to the presence and exposure to varied cultures. When he arrived home and tried to share using the Kingdom sentiments, there lacked communication.

The concept of multiculturalism comes with the notion of believing in a diverse society. Multiculturalism has not always been represented with positives. Nonetheless, it has suffered many predicaments in the human self. For instance according to the story, "migration to the north," multiculturalism has often been viewed as a pact of knowledge, which tends to shift humanity from its original setting or life. For instance, one would spell out that due to multiculturalism, the Sudanese man was able to lose the contractual values and value systems he would have acquired at home. The sense of living between varied nationalities brings in the notion of self-worth, something that might not be accessed by all the members in the society. It is also imperative to view multiculturalism as a facet of human unity but in separation (Chamoiseau 23).

In conclusion, the three books have dealt with the concept of multiculturalism in the modern world. As expressed by the stories "the blind owl," and "migration to the north," humanity has been in existence simply because of the varied cultures therein. With the coming in of the concept of multiculturalism, this human nature has been transformed into a formidable living, which brings in all aspects of culture and deliberated way of life into a universal conception. Moreover, multiculturalism is unilateral and subversive in the life of the people. It is with great possibility that one is able to spot a certainty of culture within the notion of multiculturalism (Hida-yat 12).

Works cited

Chamoiseau, Patrick, Rose-Myriam Rejouis, and Val Vinokur. Solibo Magnificent. New York:

Vintage Books, 1999. Print.

Hida-yat, S-a-diq. The Blind Owl. Richmond: Alma Classics, 2012. Print.

Modood, Tariq. Multiculturalism. Cambridge: Polity, 2007. Print.

Salih, Tayeb, and Denys Johnson-Davies. Season of Migration to the North. London:

Heinemann, 1999. Print.

Trotman, CJ. Multiculturalism:…… [read more]

Cross Cultural Psychology Cultural Theories Essay

… "An 'integrative' approach to cross-cultural psychology emphasizes human activity, a process of the individual's goal-directed interaction with the environment. Human motivation, emotion, thought, and reactions cannot be separated from human activity" (Chapter 1 summary, n.d). Like the eco-cultural mode, integrated theories also stress the environmentally, contextually-bound nature of human behavior. However, integrative psychology focuses more upon their material effects and the dialogue between environment and actions (Chapter 1 summary, n.d).

For example, a lack of access to proper education because of social injustices will affect the individual psychology of the decision-maker, and have a profound impact upon his or her personal trajectory in life. In nations where same-sex education is more customary, such as Japan, there will be a notable impact upon culture-wide relations between the genders. And the persons in power who determine not only who but what shall be disseminated through the educational system can either impede or enhance the ability of certain groups to advance vs. others. It has been observed that within the United States where property taxes funds much of public education, this means that students who live in wealthier areas often get to go to better schools and are more easily able to attend elite private colleges that better enable them to gain access to powerful positions. Once in power, they continue to create conditions that further the education of their own children in a similar fashion. Goals that are valued within the United States (such as individualism and success) are thus supported through access to specific resources like gaining entry to very specific types of educational institutions. Certain types of personalities are more likely to flourish in these environments, but environmental factors also enable specific groups to more easily achieve their goals to access the resources prized by society.


Chapter 1 summary. (n.d). Retrieved:

Trommsdorff, G. (2002). An eco-cultural and interpersonal relations approach to development over the life span. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 6 (2).1-15 Retrieved from… [read more]

Communication Theory Essay

… Communication

Individualism is defined as "a cultural value that places emphasis on the individual over the group." In contrast, collectivism is defined as "a cultural value that places emphasis on the group over the individual." The two exist at opposite ends of a continuum, and many cultures lie in between. Countries from opposite ends can have very different concepts of the role of the individual within society. High levels of individualism are associated with Western nations, especially those whose cultures are rooted in Enlightenment philosophy. Countries with highly collectivist cultures tend to be those from Latin America.

Face is defined as a "metaphor for the public image people display." With a collectivist culture, individuals are often seeking bonds within that society, because in some ways one's self-worth is measured by their belonging -- by the strength of their social connections. Face negotiation theory "takes into account the influence that culture has on the way conflict is managed." The authors maintain that this is because the "individualistic-collectivistic cultural dimension influences the selection of conflict styles." How one views the issue of face recognition for himself or herself vs. others is going to be governed by the placement of the individual on the individualistic-collectivistic continuum.

In particular, "other face" is going to be more common in the face negotiation style of people from collectivist cultures, as they are more accustomed to considering the needs of others. A highly individualist culture, on the other hand, might prefer to emphasize self face, and ignore the other face. These different approaches to face negotiation can reflect the cultural underpinnings, in particular with respect to how the person prioritizes the face of the other, or…… [read more]

Social Science Social Change Situations Keep Discussion Chapter

… Social Science

Social Change

Situations keep on evolving, making different aspects of culture to change as well. The human social life has been faced with immense development, and still on the verge of change to accommodate posterity needs. The ancient generations evidently presented human beings as a pre-literate and conservative population. In addition, the existence in the ancient society mainly dwelt on nature's resources and complex aspects of their culture. However, increased competition and need to advance increased the rate at which social change was taking. Customs and traditions started to erode and replaced by new practices. These practices were driven by many discoveries, inventions and culture diffusion and perspective thinking and evaluation of ideas and ideologies.

Discovery and Invention

Discovery is a mutual human perception that enacts reality aspects. The use of discoveries has greatly contributed to the process of social change by introducing new ideas and policies that avert the present reality and culture. Invention involves the addition of already existing things but in a new way. Social change has gradually increased due to social and material invention, which all backbones of societal social change. In a chain summary, discoveries bring about inventions that eventually lead to innovation that change the structure and policies that social cultures dwell upon (Hunt and Colander, 2006).

Discovery and invention is a major factor that has led to the acceleration rates of social change. The discoveries made by previous generation led to the realization of more advanced knowledge that changed the entire mindset of human beings. Contributions to discoveries and invention placed technology and industrial revolution in other levels. An instance of historical evolution is writing that has made it possible for human beings to record and store their discoveries and inventions' theories for future generations. However, these discoveries are open to challenges and as global revolution changes, so does the discoveries. Inventions are improved to accommodate even more efficient devices to sustain human social life. In addition to the writing invention, transmission of transport and communication services has evolved with time, currently being sustained by high speed communication of airplanes and electric trains, the internet and the space satellites (Hunt and Colander, 2006).

Culture Diffusion

Another process that has contributed to social change is culture diffusion. Contact among human beings regardless of race, geographical region, among others has increased. This aspect is also attributed to other human factors of interaction such as business, tourism and entertainment. Under this notion, different communities shared or copied other important practices of other cultures, hence diffusing their own and developing new culture practices. The essence of taboos has greatly eroded due to the presence of new practices favorable to each member of the society. Similarly, culture diffusion has contributed to social change by making societal changes to culture dimensions. These repercussions are prone to resultant changes, though in a gradual process. The elements of culture diffusion that result to gradual social change are culture lags, which include belief-conceptual, aesthetic-value, institutional aspect, political, economic and technological.… [read more]

Humanities and Other Modes Essay

… • List a current example of each type of the following humanities and explain why each example you give reflects current developments in politics, socioeconomics, and technology:

Art is a result of a human expression that maybe created by the mind and the social setting in which the mind explores its emotions. Thus artistic expressions are the key to the human emotions. Thus the study of human behavior and humanity as a whole can begin with artistic expressions and the modern art-based research -- ABR has now become a part of the general social science research. (McNiffa, 2011) The fact that art has attained value and has its own codes have created value for it and as an example the proliferation of electronic media can be seen. Electronic media per se is not humanities. It is a pure science, and the gadgets and technology has however affected all human thought and expression in every branch of study. (MacKenzie; Wajcman, 1999)

Music has been around ever since the first ape beat rocks with his cudgel. But in the context of modern humanity, the electronic media has changed the perception of music and has paved way for experimentation. In other words pure science has created changes in the human perceptions and altered not only the content but also the mode of delivery. (MacKenzie; Wajcman, 1999)

This is also true for architecture where human needs and the changes in value of things for humans in terms of function, working and economy has brought in studies that would align the technology to suit the human needs. The thought process and the way humans perceive life has changed, and the 'self-help' stream in the internet is an evidence of the way technology has affected human psyche, and consequently there have been vast changes in the way the perceptions have changed with regard to literature, language, and usages that have changed with the times. Thus technology is a creature of the social context in which it develops. This includes even military technology and the production technology. It is undeniable that there is a relationship between technology and society. (MacKenzie; Wajcman, 1999)

A purely human involved system like politics, which is very much the mainstay of humanities, has been affected. Now we have the interpretive approaches to politics which means a different interpretation of social and political action "and the import of that meaning for the explanation of political life." (Gibbons, 2006) In a nutshell then, all endeavors that are based purely on human thought, perception and values are humanities, and those that are not may be other sciences. But the important thing is that the development of technology has vastly affected, and is also affected by humanity, and human thought and perceptions.


Austin, Joy. (2009) "Defining the Humanities -- A work in Progress" Humanities Council of Washington, DC. Retrieved 30 October, 2012 from

McNiffa, Shaun. (2011) "Artistic expressions as primary modes of inquiry" British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, vol. 39, no. 5, pp:… [read more]

Regional Identity Term Paper

… In the future, this influences various segments of society and the way they react to a variety of situations. (Fetterley 31)

Yet, it is also utilizing cultural imperialism to highlight how male dominated society is the most important feature for… [read more]

Nutrition Counseling Essay

… Delores, J. "Factors influencing food choices, dietary intake, and nutrition-related

attitudes among African-Americans: Application of a culturally sensitive model."

Ethnicity & Health, Vol. 9, No. 4 (2004): 349-367.

Purpose, Design, and Theoretical Approach

The primary purpose of the study detailed in the reviewed article was to identify the specific ways that culture and community affect the nutritional habits and choices of individuals. The other purpose of the study was to identify specific segments of the population studied that might be amenable to education about nutrition and to the effective promotion of healthful nutritional choices. More specifically, the study focused on the African-American community in north central Florida and the research design utilized a series of six focus groups comprising both male and female African-Americans. It employed a theoretical model (PEN-3) that emphasizes culture as the principal determinant of health-related behavior in relation to health promotion and disease prevention programs.

Results and Conclusions

The results of the study indicated that cultural perspective is a significant influence on the behavioral choices of individuals as pertains to nutritional choices. More specifically, the study determined that cultural identity and perspective played significant roles in shaping the relative degree of receptivity of individuals to behavioral changes in the area of improving the healthfulness of nutritional choices. The specific findings included the fact that making changes to improve nutritional choices are seen as conflicting with those elements of culture and heritage and as requiring individuals to give up foods with very specific cultural significance and symbolism.

Likewise, there was a perception that making changes to…… [read more]

Geertz and Common Sense Reaction Paper

… In a Navaho tribe, instead of prompting horror or disgust, intersexuality might evoke wonder and awe. In Navaho common sense, intersexuals are considered blessed (p. 83). By contrast, in an East African Pokot tribe, intersexed people are regarded as useless due to their inability to reproduce and extend the all-important family line. They are frequently killed or ousted. The lives they live are miserable; they are neglected, lonely, treated with indifference. In Pokot common sense, intersexed people would have been better off never existing. As the two extremes suggest, there is no grey area for intersexuality. Someone is either male or female -- and that condition is either great or horrible. The overall social attitude on the subject is shaped solely by the collective "common sense" of the dominant culture. We see from these examples that there are myriad ways that local cultures think about the world.

Geertz goes on to illustrate that even though common sense differs culturally it can still be transculturally characterized. He proposes that some features of common sense may be the same culturally, such as naturalness, practicalness, thinnes, immethodicalness, and accessibleness (p. 85). I believe that all of these play themselves out every day in our perceptions of others and the world we live in. I was particularly drawn to the discussion of naturalness of common sense. I think that we accept that many things in life are "just the way it goes." The norms of our culture lead to a passive acceptance of certain "truths." It could be anything -- that the earth is flat, that the sky is blue, or that fish have fingers. The danger arises when everyone relies more on common sense and not enough on fact finding in order to attain accurate and solid knowledge. Without that, we run the risk of becoming an ill-informed, misguided and naive society.


Geertz, Clifford. "Common Sense as a Cultural…… [read more]

Navigating Cultural Differences Between East and West Essay

… Navigating Cultural Differences Between East and West

In recent years, the phenomenon known as "culture shock" has become increasingly recognized by the academic community as well as the general public as a result of innovations in telecommunications and transportation. Despite this growing recognition, though, the fact remains that many people still experience culture shock when they first step foot in another country and try to navigate their way through the sometimes subtle but important social practices that characterize other cultures. Certainly, performing the needed research about other countries and their cultures can help pave the way for first-time recreational visitors and long-term immigrants alike, but even the most well-informed travelers can encounter situations where vastly different worldviews come into contact and even clash in unexpected ways. For example, in the "Land of the Morning Calm," a widespread acceptance of Buddhist traditions means that even though life is fast-paced and modern in every sense, there is an underlying acceptance that permeates Korean society that has not found its way into the West.

Besides religious differences, the relative status of men and women in other societies can result in some unexpected and perhaps unintended social faux pas if the rules are not known and understood. This does not mean, of course, that people must tip-toe around in other societies, especially free societies such as the United States and United Kingdom where eccentricities are not only acceptable, they are celebrated, but it does mean that it is possible to unintentionally offend people from other cultures -- sometimes deeply so -- without even realizing it. For example, pointing the bottom of the foot at others is regarded as highly insulting in many Eastern societies, and curling a finger to motion someone to follow is just an invitation to fight. There potential cross-cultural clashes, though, pale in comparison to the differences that exist…… [read more]

Communication Essay

… The power distance factor in Sweden can be readily compared to more hierarchical societies, such as India, in which the haves and the have-nots are separated by wide and usually insurmountable chasms. Even the United States has a higher power distance factor than does Sweden, as many Americans are fundamentally opposed to social institutions and structures that generate equality such as free higher education for all citizens, and free healthcare funded by taxpayer dollars. As American onlooker Alford (2012) describes it, " New parents get 480 days of parental leave?! Everyone I talk to seems to have a summer house on an island?!" (p. 2).

As Allwood (1999) points out, Sweden shares many communication traits in common with other Nordic countries like Finland. However, there are a few culture-specific variables that should be taken into account to better understand non-verbal communication patterns. One is specific to social gatherings in which alcohol is involved. Allwood (1999) notes that in Sweden, it is customary for each guest to bring and drink his or her own alcoholic beverages rather than expect the host to provide it. Moreover, the guests will not start drinking until a communal toast has been proposed (Allwood, 1999). This is somewhat similar to the Jamaican custom of not starting to eat at a party until the host makes an invitation to do so; which is ironic given the informal nature of Jamaican communication styles in general ("Jamaica: Language, Culture, Customs, and Etiquette," n.d.). Swedes appreciate informality, but do not appreciate superficiality in terms of conversation topics and styles ("Sweden: Conversation," 2009).

Allwood (1999) also notes that Swedish teaching styles are noticeably different from those in other cultures including other Nordic cultures. There is less authoritarian teaching styles in… [read more]

Communication in "Un Summit Essay

… This is especially true in the areas of environmental and social justice. As Mander (n.d.) points out, "corporate leaders, their allies in government, and a newly powerful centralized global trade bureaucracy" are imposing a paradigm of liberalized trade on the rest of the world. If such leaders were promoting the common good, then their efforts would not be so harshly criticized. Yet the reason why corporate colonialism is so harshly criticized is because the policies represented by North American cultures "have proven spectacularly unsuccessful over the past several decades wherever they've been applied," (Mander, n.d.).

The Clark (2012) article therefore shows how corporate colonialism is the new brand of cultural imperialism. Ironically, the former colonizing powers of Europe are spearheading a revolutionary paradigm in which corporate responsibility reigns over corporate greed. As the text points out, there must be a process of diffusion before new ideals, norms, and values take root. Opinion leadership and change agents lead to adopters of new policy. The nations of Western Europe certainly do not want to thwart business growth and development, which is why Clark (2012) mentions the company that is supporting the proposed regulations. Regulations are set forth as being necessary antecedents to positive growth and change. Without regulations, corporate colonialism and North American hegemony continue. It is necessary now to come to terms with global values that can foster environmental and social justice. If the message can be adapted to the receiving culture -- which is in this case the cultures of North America as well as India -- then change becomes possible.


Clark, P. (2012). UN summit to push for corporate green plans. Financial Times. 18 June 2012.

Mander, J. (n.d.) Corporate colonialism. Retrieved online:… [read more]

End Game of Globalization "Nothing Book Report

… The systemic eradication and assimilation of world cultures is an objective of American imperialism as demonstrated over the course of, according to Smith, approximately half of the country's history/existence. Therefore, those who consume American cultures without consideration, sustain the continuation of affects that globalization has upon the world in ways of which many people are peripherally aware.

The impacts of globalization via the imperialism of the United States upon forms of indigenous cultures around the world can range from a spectacularly positive, to political and/or social upheaval. The great shift and changes experience by global cultures is a direct result of the advent and distribution of a variety of new technologies including mobile devices, the Internet, and smartphones. The world is able to communicate with and experience itself in unprecedented ways because of the technology. In fact, technology has been a critical factor in the diffusion of globalization.

One not need be well versed in any particular field when reading The End Game of Globalization. As Smith writes in the preface to the book, the book proceeds in a straightforward manner. The language is succinct and vivid. He provides enough of a context (historical, social, political, cultural, economic, etc.) that for a novice or informed reader of this topic, he/she would be able to follow along with ease and speed. That said, there is also a balance of this contextual information such that a highly informed reader would not be bored or insulted by the background and/or contextual texts.

Smith's viewpoints and perspectives are clear; the reader knows which side of the debate Smith is on, yet he does not allow his own views to keep him from demonstrating spans of objectivity and neutrality. This strategy is most effective as part of an argument -- recognizes and acknowledging the position and arguments of the opposing side, hopefully as a way to adapt some of those strategies to one's own argument and/or style of argumentation. It is more likely that readers will consider and accept the ideas of a person who acknowledges the opposing viewpoints; such a writer exudes fairness. There is a tone of hope mixed with admonition and the close of The End Game of Globalization. He hopes that the world may reverse, recover from, and in some way positively recycle some of the damaging aspects of America's agenda for globalization.

In retrospect it may be that September 11th comes to stand not as the beginning of a new phase in the American Empire but as its denouement, the beginning of the end for this particular moment of imperialism. Both prior moments of U.S. globalism culminated in spectacular war, and although the first battle volleys after 9/11 pale by comparison, the third moment too is being capped by war. For the first time, however it is perceived, today's war is instigated by the United States. Isolation, incompetence, and impossibility together with rising opposition and a fatal inbuilt nationalism already circumscribe the possibilities of success in this war for U.S.… [read more]

Cross-National Management: Questions Term Paper

… A second challenge is that high levels of employee attrition are likely, given the frustrations back-of-the-house staff may feel at what they see as their unjustly subordinate status. They may feel that it is they who really keep the hotel running, versus the showier positions of the front-of-house staff. Their benefits are likely not as generous as those of the front-of-house staff, and as hourly employees, they may feel justified 'jumping ship' for a few extra dollars offered by a competitor. This is a problem because all employees demand a financial and time investment for the company, regarding training.

A third challenge that will arise is the training itself. At one hotel chain, it was discovered that new hires from the Russian population did not find learning through memorization or role playing to come naturally to them, reflecting their different cognitive structures reinforced by their original cultural environment (Shea 1994: 6). The structure of the training program and the learning style of the back-of-house staff may not be commensurate.

Q3. A multinational team will encompass individuals from a wide variety of cultural contexts. The first step is to conduct a review of the various cultural backgrounds of members, to anticipate any conflicts that might ensue. Individuals from cultures that are very low-context, where individual motivation and autonomy is important (such as the United States and Scandinavian countries) may bring different assumptions to the new working environment than individuals from high-context cultures, where direction from management and collectivism are valued (such as East Asian, Southern European and Middle Eastern cultures).

Even the dialogue of the negotiations may be different, based upon the cultural contexts of the participants. Individuals from high-context cultures are likely to be less direct in terms of how they phrase their displeasure and support and place a greater emphasis on honoring social hierarchies. Low-context cultures tend to operate with the assumption that people mean what they say, and consider 'getting to the point' as an almost sacred obligations. They view 'time as money' and are likely to be impatient with the lateness and discursive sense of time that is attached to some high-context cultures, particularly in Southern European cultures.

Only 22 leadership attributes are considered universally positive cross-culturally (Dimensions of culture, Slides 83). Even values that might superficially seem universal such as trustworthiness are prioritized differently (particularly in Germanic nations, for example, versus the Mediterranean) (Dimensions of culture, Slides 82). When leading a team that is highly diverse, these cultural differences must be kept in mind. Issues should be communicated in several ways, to ensure comprehension; expectations should be also clear about how to engage in dialogue, and feedback should be solicited to ensure team members are 'on board' regarding the decision-making process. The structure of meetings can be linear, but there must be the expectation that individuals from high-context, polychromatic societies will chafe and some of these restrictions and view common assumptions in a different light (Dimensions of culture, Slides 71-73).


Dimensions of culture: Ways to… [read more]

Socio-Cultural Perspective "The Sociocultural Essay

… We also learn sets of principals from social interactions, such as what is right and wrong. Social interactions play a big part in how we see the world around us. They play a very big part of what we learn as right and wrong, what is valuable, what we believe, morals, and what is important to us. But, the social cognitive perspective ignores the cultural aspects that also play a big part of who we are.

Culture has symbolic dimensions of identity, what is meaningful and important, and who we are in life. It shapes our perceptions and interpretations of the world. Culture places our boundaries for us. It tells us what is normal, appropriate, and expected. Culture gives us our understanding of relationships and rituals. What is common or normal to one group is strange and out of place for another group. Languages are also different. The same word in two different languages can have two different meanings, even though it is spelled the same.

The cultural aspects of life can cause conflicts in social interactions with others, especially people outside our cultural circle. It can also cause conflict inside the cultural circle with generational cultures, gender cultures, and disciplinary cultures. The different races have different beliefs, religious rituals, and ideals. Generational culture causes conflicts in families, especially between parents and teenagers. Gender culture can cause conflicts between spouses. The way people are raised often conflict with different disciplines of what is right or wrong, or how things are supposed to be done. The different cultural aspects play a big part of what we value, how we perceive our world, and how we interpret the things in our world. Cultural aspects interact with the social interactions we engage in.

Ignoring the cultural aspects of humans ignores a big part of the social interactions we develop in life. Different cultures have different values and what is important for how we act and think in relationships. It shapes what is acceptable and what is forbidden actions of the members of particular cultures. It also shapes different requirements in religious rituals and how we are supposed to act with other society members. The religious rituals shape a lot of what is valuable, important, and meaningful in our lives.

The socio-cultural perspective puts more value on the person as a whole. It looks at all the aspects of whom and what we really are. Our cultural interactions play a big part in what determines our social interactions and how the social interactions come into play. It can also determine the outcomes of the social interactions we encounter in life.


Major Perspectives in Psychology. n.d. Web. 8 May 2012.

Social Learning & Social Cognitive Perspectives on Personality. 23 Dec 2003. Web. 9 May 2012.

Social-Cultural…… [read more]

Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis Argues Term Paper

… The words that different cultures use to express different thoughts are actually determined by the culture itself. One culture will view the meaning of a word one way, while another culture will view a different meaning for the same word. Or, the meaning will be the same for both cultures, but the word itself will be different in each culture.

A measure of realism is presupposed by relativism. Without concepts, beliefs, or modes of reasoning, different cultural groups could not be different in respects to them. The concepts, beliefs, and modes of reasoning shape languages and the meanings of the words in languages for each culture. The linguistic relativity hypothesis is important in the understanding of the different modes of reasoning for different thought patterns. The hypothesis results reveal facts about how culture, language, beliefs, concepts, and even biological makeup shape how people use different words and meanings in the different languages.

Annotated Bibliography

Begley, S. (2009, July 8). What's in a Word? Retrieved from The Daily Beast:

The Daily Beast is a news website. This article discusses linguistic experiments performed Lera Boroditsky, a psychologists from Stanford University, that showed evidence that language does shape thought. Some cultures used gender specific words that have different meanings. The evidence also showed how shades of different colors with distinct names actually improve memory with the different cultures.

Fountain, H. (1999, Mar 30). Proof Positive that People See Colors with the Tougue. Retrieved from New York Times:

Purdue is a scholarly source that connects to an article with the New York Times, a news source. The article discusses how the use of the meaning of colors in different cultures can shape how language is used and the different meanings of the words can and do change from one culture to another in languages. It discusses how the linguistic relativity hypothesis argues that colors are seen more through language than with sight.

Swoyer, C. (2003, Feb 2). Relativism. Retrieved from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy:

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy is a scholarly site. This entry discusses the meaning of relativism, the different contexts of relativism, and how they shape modes of thought, and standards of reasoning. It discusses how the principles and practices of different cultures work with the different methods of relativism in shaping thought processes and standards of reasoning to develop different words and meanings with different cultures. It also discusses how linguistic categories affect the way we see the world. The different categories of words are different from each culture and cause each culture to perceive things different than other cultures do.… [read more]

Race and Ethnicity Multiculturalism Grade Essay

… This is also depicted from the attitude adopted by the PM of Italy; Berlusconi, who is against the policies or the idea of integrating the immigrants. For this reason, immigration continues to remain a challenge for several states and continents including the European Union which has further added the burden of challenges when integrating its own member states come in question. Despite this, EU has developed almost eleven principles called as the Common Basic Principles for integrating the immigrants. These principles are formulated on the basis of the cultural, economic, political and social diversity of its member states.


Thus, the extent to which the ideology of multiculturalism is dying is not only evident from the immigration policies of countries, but also through the efforts they put in to integrate the immigrants. The actual aim of multiculturalism is all about the acceptance and tolerance of diversity where different cultures co-exist living side by side. However, from the moment this concept was measured in terms of religion, the failure of the ideology began. Thus, although difficult, to keep multiculturalism alive, cultures need to integrate the immigrants of other cultures and accept their differences based on race and most importantly religion (Cohen, 2007). This could possibly be done by setting certain universal standards of peace, equality and human rights which are to be followed by every man.


Banting K. 2006. Immigration, multiculturalism and the welfare state. Ethics and International affair. Vol. 20, No.3. Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affair.

Benwell, B. And Stokoe, Elizabeth. 2006. Discourse and Identity. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Brooker, P. 1999. Concise Glossary of Cultural Theory, London: Hodder Arnold.

Cohen D. 2007. Violence Is Inherent in Islam - It Is a Cult of Death. The Evening Standard. 18.

Deaken Q. 2007. British Multiculturalism under the Spotlight. Contemporary Review. Vol. 289, no. 1687.

European Union. The EU and Immigration: Opportunities and Challenges. EU Focus. 2008.

Jay G. 2011. What is multiculturalism? Milwaukee.

Padolsky E. 2001. Multiculturalism at the Millennium. Journal of Canadian Studies. Vol. 35, no. 1.

Peberdy S. 2005. Wits University, "Migration in Southern Africa," a paper prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration. Retrieved from:

Rosado C. 1997. Toward a definition…… [read more]

Globalization Changes the World's Cultures Essay

… S., has provided living arrangements, and the worker only makes the equivalent of $500 per anum, one has to ask what that worker can purchase for $500 and if it is well beyond the normal wage a person might receive in that country. When the morality comes into play is with identical jobs being done, and the American worker receiving 10-100 times more for the exact same work; clearly a case that might need to be adjusted in some manner (Oak, 2009).

Part 3- The idea of Disney selling the same kind of food in its parks overseas as it does in the United States may not be the best idea. On one hand, there is the idea of the cultural experience of American food (friend chicken, hamburgers, etc.). And, when one dines in the different scenarios in a Disney park, part of the charm is experiencing different foods. However, at the same time, one must be aware of regional and specific country tastes; it is probably a good idea to serve wine and beer in EU countries as those beverages are an expected part of entertainment; yet alcohol is banned in some countries. Beef would not be sold in an Indian park, and the availability of certain proteins might be more difficult in China (too expensive) to make the experience enjoyable (the exchange rate, for instance). In Euro Disney, for example, the cultural norm was that Europeans ate a small breakfast and large lunch; which is true on regular days. However, on vacations, this proved incorrect -- as did the way of eating. Americans will walk around the park with food, whereas Europeans want to sit down for a long and leisurely lunch. These habits change, depending on country and culture, making it necessary for the Disney model to become more flexible (Yue, 2009).


Oak, R. (May 9, 2009). GM Offshore Outsourcing U.S. Jobs. The Economic Populist. Retrieved from:

Simon, C. (February 11, 2007). Bringing Disney to China Seems as Tough as Shark Fin

Soup. The Ledger. Retrieved from:

Yue, W. (November 2009). The Fretful Euro Disneyland. International Journal of Marketing

Studies.…… [read more]

Intercultural Communication the Cultural Dimensions and Barriers in Miami Term Paper

… Miami

Mr. Chow,

Firstly, we are pleased you have decided to become a part of our exciting and growing workforce. In an effort to acclimate you to your new work environment, the following report is being prepared to offer the… [read more]

Rolling Reaction Paper

… Rolling Rs

Linmark's Rolling the R's: Reinventing Language and Personality

The realm of post-colonial literature often focuses on the immigrant experience, and the juxtaposition of increased national freedom and globalization on one hand with the challenges of cultural divisions and prejudices on the other. It is rarer to find a novel that accurately and fully explores other implications of the post-colonial (and even the colonial) era: the manner in which immigrant's children and those with mixed-race or multicultural identities must navigate the vicissitudes of living in a post-colonial West. For many of these individuals and the few literary characters that exist that can be seen as exemplifying this position, finding a place in society means carving out this place, and this can also involve carving out an identity for the self. This is exactly what the adolescent characters of Zamora Linmark's novel Rolling the R's accomplish through their use of language and their identification with pop-culture icons, creating their own sense of identity that rejects the cultural restraints both of the Western culture they are ostensibly a part of and of the own traditional culture of their ancestors.

English is a fluid thing in the mouths of Edgar Ramirez, Katrina Cruz, and Florante Sanchez, three Filipino-descended fifth graders in Honolulu in the 1970s. They use words in a rather pidgin fashion, melding the white culture of which Hawaii is officially a part, the Hawaiian culture that was even more prominent throughout the islands at the time of the novel's action, and their own Filipino culture which is itself a melding of European and indigenous traditions and languages. The highly independent and varied use of English exhibited by the characters is at once indicative of their lack of a distinct cultural location and their creativity in creating such a space.

It is not only in the specific words used that language becomes a source or perhaps a material for the creation of identity and cultural space. The different selections of text that the author uses to tell the story, blending different characters and voices in a sometime-difficult-to-follow yet always-rewarding manner also illustrates the fluidity and adaptability of language as it is perceived and used by the characters. From poems to letters to less conventional means of conveying narrative, it is explicitly the interactions with language and the printing of the word that these characters go through by which these characters become known to the reader. In a very concrete sense, then, these characters are defined by the fragmented yet cohesive nature of the different linguistic elements that record the events of their lives, their emotions, and all of…… [read more]

Cultural Briefing Document Zurich Switzerland Term Paper

… Conclusion

This cultural brief on Swiss social and business etiquette provides the basics for understanding the native culture of our Zurich Employee. United States and Swiss cultures are similar in many way, except for a few customes. The most important points to remember about Swizz culture are:

• it is a formal culture where politeness and etiquette are highly prized

• punctuality is important, as is efficiency in communication and operations

• the Swiss are not emotionless and cold, it is not customary to share their emotions in public

• the Swiss have a highly structured social order between genders and between associates on various levels of the organization

• it is important not to get to friendly and attempt to use a first name until the relationship has progressed and the other person suggests it.

If everyone understands these basic principles, an honest effort can be made to make Mr. Burkhalter feel at home. We are excited to welcome this new member of our team and are looking forward the insight and perspective that he will bring to the organization. It is our hope that everyone will take the time to get to know him and to work to establish long-term relationships that will benefit everyone.


COMMUNICAID GROUP LTD. 2009. Doing Busineass in Switzerland: Swiss Social and Business Culture. [online] Available from: [accessed to December 2011}.

EDIPLOMAT. 2011. Switzerland. [online] Available from: [accessed to December 2011}.

EXPATICA. 2011. Management Culture in Switzerland. [online] Available from: [accessed to December 2011}.

HOFSTEDE, G. 2001. Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. (2nd ed.) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

HOFSTEDE, G. 2008. Switzerland. ITIM International. [online] Available from: [accessed to December 2011}.

MICHELOUD & CIE. 2008. Nonverbal communication in Switzerland. IsYours. [online] Available from: [accessed to December 2011}.

PULIS, D. 2010. Beyond Cheese and Chocolate -- On Swiss Stereotypes. 27 April 2010. Lonely Planet. [online] Available from: [accessed to December 2011}.

WORLD Business CULTURE. Swiss Communication Styles. [online] Available from: [accessed to December 2011}.… [read more]

Position Statement and Debate Repatriation Term Paper

… Repatriation and Its Consequences

There are few more contentious issues in the field of anthropology than that of repatriation, and this is no small claim to make in a field that can often seem to revel in contention. But unlike… [read more]

Work Family Interface in Culturally Distinct Societies Is it Organizational Issue Capstone Project

… Cultural Dimension Theory

One of the key changes of the late 20th century, certainly enhanced in the early 21st, is that of the economic, political, and cultural movements that broadly speaking, move the various countries of the world closer together.… [read more]

Bill Ivey's Art, Inc Term Paper

… Ivey proposes that, through the removal of "the profit motive and the compromises that limit risk," artists will be freed to explore their creative impulses, thereby "giving us art that isn't homogenized by the forces that plague our commercial arts industry" (Ivey 208). America can restore its sense of artistic identity only by allowing art and culture to flourish without the limitations imposed by corporate influence. If art is produced purely to procure profit, the inevitable result can only be the degeneration of creative expression which America has witnessed during the latter part of the 20th century.

Ivey states without equivocation that "all Americans should enjoy the benefits of a vibrant expressive life, but that expressive life can flourish only after we satisfy a set of basic cultural rights" (Ivey, xviii), and it is the securement of these rights with which he is primarily concerned. In an age where the capacity to create works of cultural value has been confined to a select few, namely those with the specialized education and financial freedom necessary to pursue their work unhindered, Ivey asserts that every man, woman and child must be afforded the opportunity to express themselves artistically. To confirm this thesis, Ivey quotes Michael Kimmelman, the New York Times art critic who "laments the decline of amateur art making" by observing that "a vast majority of society seems to presume that culture is something specialists produce" (Ivey, xv). Both Kimmelman and Ivey are cognizant of a disturbing trend in American society, one in which the creation of art has been consolidated to a privileged group of highly trained professionals, while the average person is denied even the most basic outlets of creative expression. To avoid the dangerous stratification of culture, Ivey proposes a set of governmental policies seeking to reverse those of past administrations which "long ago ceded far too much authority over our creativity and heritage to a web of commercial interests" (Ivey, 21). For Ivey, only by combining sound policy making with a successful campaign of heightened public awareness can America truly recapture its once vibrant spirit of artistic and cultural integrity.


Ivey, B.J. (2008). Arts, inc: how greed and neglect have destroyed our cultural rights. Los Angeles, CA: University of…… [read more]

Brand Expands Term Paper

… ¶ … Brand Expands" by Naomi Klein

Branding and Brand Expansion: The Usurpation of Human Cultures and Creation of Brand Culture in "The Brand Expands" by Naomi Klein

In the second chapter of her book No Logo, entitled "The Brand Expands," author Naomi Klein illustrated the beneficial and detrimental effects of branding not only to the commercial landscape, but also and most importantly, to the social landscape as well. Most salient in this chapter was Klein's illustration of how brands and branding have taken over people's lives, even going so far as to 'dictate' their choices in future consumption and personal lifestyle.

In her book, Klein's main thesis focuses on the detriment that branding has caused to modern, capitalist societies all over the world, but most especially to the United States. The chapter's main thesis is: branding and brand expansion resulted to the usurpation of human cultures and creation of a brand culture controlled by companies and corporations. To support this thesis, excerpts and statements from the chapter will be discussed in the sections that follow. Three insights were gleaned from Klein's discussion in the book: (i) the logo as a representation of the brand has become independent from the products it is emblazoned on, and identified alone for what it is, an identifiable brand and logo; (ii) the logo transcended from being commercial to social, as it increased its presence and usefulness in meaningful events in different cultures and societies; and (iii) brand expansion eventually led to the 'commodification' of the individual, of the "flesh," as brands and logos have become more invasive and influential in the lives of contemporary, commercialized societies.

Klein determined the "scaling-up of the logo" as an illustration of how the material became a strong concept in the minds of the consumers. According to the author, "logos have grown so dominant that they have essentially transformed the clothing on which they appear into empty carriers for the brands they represent" (158-9). As posited earlier, the logo transformed from being a consumable material to being a strong concept/idea in the minds of the consumers. This transformation from material to idea means the influence of the brand is increasingly becoming pervasive, affecting people's consumption, lifestyle, perceptions, and even realities.

The most salient example of a logo that has encompassed the material to eventually become an idea is McDonald's. The McDonald's logo has been associated for the longest time as representing the strongest brand in the fast food industry; however, over time, it has evolved to an idea, and became the symbol for efficiency not only in the food service industry, but for other industries as well. That is why when referring to "McDonaldization" of an industry or sector in society, this means that it has reached a higher level of standardization and efficiency. Processes and workflow are well-defined and shortened to achieve quickness and efficiency, achieving optimization with the least resources available or used. The logo became the mother of all "fasts" in the world -- fast… [read more]

Globalisation Essay

… Globalisation is the process by which "the constraints of geography on social and cultural arrangements recede and in which people become increasingly aware that they are receding" (Waters, 1995). While this process has become more rapid over the course of… [read more]

Social Work Practice With Individuals Term Paper

… Social Work With Individuals

According to Kirst-Ashman and Hull (2009, p. 147), the engagement stage of the social worker's relationship with the client is the first contact stage. This is a crucial stage, during which the basis for future interaction… [read more]

How Society and Education Shapes British Multicultural Life Today Essay

… Multi Brit

Education, Society, and British Life

The modern world is exponentially smaller, in terms of the ease of transportation and the transfer of information, than it ever has been in the past. Technologies like the Internet and satellite-based communications mean that most points in the human-occupied world can be accessed almost instantaneously from anywhere else in the world, leading to a much greater exposure of all the world's citizens to other cultures, values, and belief systems. In addition, increased travel has been accommodated by airplanes and increasingly efficient rail service, and the spread of trade to encompass and interconnect the entire globe has spurred immigration on an international level, making disparate cultures not only aware of each other but actually making next-door-neighbors out of them. In the British educational system and British society in general, this multiculturalism has had a major effect on British life.

There are those that perceive, perhaps with some justification, distinctly negative effects of the increased diversity in educational settings. Students that are considered "British" by the traditional definition -- i.e. white, primarily Anglo-Saxon descended individuals -- might feel attacked due to the diminished attention and importance that is attached to their own culture, which will necessarily occur as other cultures are also examined and accommodated in the curriculum. This can be taken even further, and has been by some extremists, with the claim that the increasing multicultural emphasis in Britain is tantamount to an attack on the nation of Great Britain itself, and an insidious attempt to degrade British culture. This has made British life somewhat more tense in some aspects.

There are also many positive aspects of the multiculturalism that is recognized and receiving emphasis in British schools, however. By increasing the degree to which "non-British" cultures are accommodated, respected, and studied in British schools, British society can ensure that all students receive the same level of education. Currently, many minority students and families have felt uncomfortable attending British schools due to well-founded fears that their own values would not be upheld, and that they might fall victim to prejudiced and racist behavior, and for this reason many parents have sent their children to private elementary schools focused on their particular minority culture or religion (Berliner 2004). Making all students feel respected and comfortable in British schools ensures that all students receive the same education, and it also begins exposure to a diverse society that needs to work together -- which is how the adult world works -- very early on.…… [read more]

Influence of Culture on Innovation Research Proposal

… ¶ … globalization" was just coming into vogue. Now it seems like a cliche to say that advanced technology allows multinational firms greater freedom about what to produce and where and that the market for a larger share of goods… [read more]

Cultural Globalization Book Report

… Globalization often has a paradoxical effect. On one hand, it seems to make cultures more 'like' one another: the ubiquity of American popular culture all over the world is often cited as a symptom of the phenomena of globalization. For example, in Jeffrey Pilcher's discussion of the industrialization of traditional Mexican cuisine, the laborious but skilled work of traditional Mexican tortilla preparation was a source of social esteem as well as income for the women who crafted tortillas at home. When this process was rendered into a mechanical process at factories, the work was not much less tedious, but because it had become a standardized product, the woman took less pride and pleasure in it, and became merely cogs in a machine. The final product was less tasty and more suited to the American palate. It was also, more importantly, better-suited Western capitalist demands for standardization and mechanization in production methods. American culture's standardization can even seemingly change the nature of people quite quickly, within a generation. The Americans, Mr. And Mrs. Das in Jhumpa Lahiri's short story "Interpreter of Maladies" are unrecognizable to their Indian guide Mr. Kapasi in terms of their cultural worldview, although they are ethnically Indian.

On the other hand, whenever two cultures are exposed to one another, a kind of synergy always takes place. American culture transported across national borders is never transported in an intact fashion. The culture that acquires new cultural artifacts always makes those artifacts uniquely its own. While it is true, as noted in John Tomlinson's discussion of the phenomenon of cultural globalization, that many cultural artifacts have been 'deterritorialized' from their original location, this is not a process of imposing one culture onto another, but grafting two cultures together in a kind of cultural hybridization. Something new is produced, like the American version of yoga, for example, which is a fusion of American cultural physical fitness traditions with Near Eastern practices.

Even when immigrants establish ethnic enclaves abroad, as in the case of the Chinese community in Australia, a new culture is created. The more recent Chinese immigrants from Hong Kong were often wealthier than long-term Chinese residents, which caused class conflict between the two groups. The more recent immigrants were unhappy with how traditional dim sum culture had been, in their eyes, corrupted by Australian sensibilities. They thought dim sum was no longer as 'pure' as it should be, even though it was still produced by people of Chinese origin. They attempted to recreate…… [read more]

Educating the Expatriate in Papua New Guinea Research Paper

… Educating the Expatriate in Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea:

An overview of the life and culture of the nation for an expatriate desiring to do business in PNG

Papua New Guinea:

An overview of the life and culture of… [read more]

Global Sociocultural Responsibility Term Paper

… Global Sociocultural Responsibility

Explaining global sociocultural responsibility to a 10-year-old

Global sociocultural responsibility is the means in which adults and companies have to behave towards to each other. They are supposed to live and work in the manner that they want and in the manner which is good for them, but this should not harm the others around them. You know when you go to the park? And there are a lot of children there also? You do get top play what you want, but you're not allowed to upset the other children. You can use the swing when this is free and you cannot throw sand and other children.

Also, when you are in school, and the teacher gives you homework, you need to do your homework. And you need to do-it-yourself, not copy it from other pupils or have your older brother or sister do it for you. And at home, you do get to play and watch television, but you also need to clean your room and you cannot be mean to your parents or your brothers and sister.

When you do all these, you set a good example. If you are a good child, then you will also help other children be good, and the world would become a better place. It's the same with adults and companies. They follow their dream and do what they need and want to do, but they must also pay attention to not harm those around them. Companies for instance have to be nice and considerate towards their employees, their business partners, the public and so on. All the efforts to do good by the groups and individuals around them are called programs of global sociocultural responsibility.

B. Developmental impacts of cross cultural of the social and/or natural environments

The individual is the result of the community. He is born with several innate characteristics which he develops throughout his life, but he also picks up several elements from the community and the society in which he lives. The personal development of the individual is influenced by teachers in schools, by colleagues in university, by bosses at work, by the spouse at home and so on. But it is also influenced by more latent elements, which do not represent the core of daily operations, but which cannot however be denied. One such example is constituted by the cross cultural forces in the social and natural environments.

The United States is in this order of ideas the largest pollutant and consumer of the planet. This single country consumes one third of the resources and, at this rate, the planet would only be able to support life for another estimated five decades (Leonard, 2009). Given this realization, individuals in other countries would recognize the threat of high levels of pollution and consumerism and would strive to reduce them in order to support environmental stability.

At the other pole sits Japan, a country also large and registering high consumption levels, but a country where… [read more]

Block in NYC. I Have the Images Term Paper

… ¶ … block in NYC. I have the images of this block and there is an inventory map of this block. ivestigate this block according to the articles I attach. also there are reading reponse paper, which is about the… [read more]

Irish Dance Thesis

… Irish Dance

Many of us know about the role dance plays in our society and culture. Dance is not only limited to physical movements but goes way beyond the dictates of the body. It seeps into every society's history and culture. Dance, when understood to be a social variable, can be seen as having a bi-directional relationship with culture because not only does it influence culture but culture is influenced by dance as well.

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the relationship of Irish dance and Irish culture, putting thrust on the way Irish dance influences the culture of the Irish people. Before building and eventually strengthening this idea, I believe it is fitting to first provide a brief understanding of the Irish dance for us to be able to understand the intersection of dance, culture, and society of the Irish people.

Irish Dance: A Brief History

According to King, we can trace the history of Irish dance to the early centuries of modern history, by which the Celts' entrance in the land brought with them various kinds of folk dances that were then incorporated in the ritual activities of the Druids. Druids' ritualistic activities are known to be occultist in nature (par 1). The Druids dance as part of their ritual ceremonies to honor the oak tree and the sun (Arthur Flynn in "The History of Irish Dance" par 1).

The Norman invasion during the 12th century marked another hallmark in the history of Irish dancing. During this era, the invasion brought along new cultural components to Ireland which also marked the foundation of modern Irish dancing (ibid par 3). This infant modern dance became an avenue by which Irish people where able to express their natural love for fun and entertainment. The "cake dance" for example, is perhaps what was then known as the "Irish Dance Competition" usually performed after Sunday services where men and women compete by demonstrating complex dance steps and maneuvers -- the prize being a freshly -- baked cake (hence the name of the dance) (ibid par 4).

Moving on to the 18-19th century, we can see the proliferation of "Dance Masters" who travel in the different parts of the land, stay in a particular community for about 6-8 weeks to teach the basic forms of modern dance. By the early 20th century, we can see the standardization of Irish dance via pre-set forms and movements (ibid par 5-6).

Irish Dance

Now that we already have an idea of where Irish dance came from and the factors that contributed to how it is today, I will now present what Irish dance actually is. According to Kingsland, Irish dancing is usually divided into three main types: step dancing -- which was a product of 17th century repression of education of Catholic children. The Dance Masters continued on by secretly teaching students "steps" (defined as 8 measures or bards of music). These dance masters have a set of dance steps and sometimes they compete,… [read more]

Anthropologists to Conduct Such In-Depth Fieldwork/Research? Give Essay

… ¶ … Anthropologists to conduct such in-depth fieldwork/Research? Give an example or two.

Why is it so important for anthropologists to conduct such in-depth fieldwork/research?

Anthropology is the study of human cultures of the past and present. Culture is revealed through the mechanisms of human life, not simply through academic research. Very often what people say and what they do manifests a profound disconnect between thought and behavior. For example, the way that a myth is interpreted by an indigenous people in ritual may be very different than how it 'sounds' on paper, when an anthropologist reads a transcript of the myth in his or her study. Within American culture, common myths such as the myth that 'everyone can succeed if he or she really works hard' are very different in the ways they function in lived experience, in culture, versus how they are portrayed in the media or even how people articulate these myths in everyday speech. A person may proudly describe himself as a 'self-made man' because he owns his own business, even though the money he obtained was inherited from a wealthy…… [read more]

Cross-Cultural Communication Globalizations' Effect on Cultures Continues Thesis

… Cross-Cultural Communication

Globalizations' effect on cultures continues to rapidly force the integration of often widely divergent countries and regions together in the pursuit of common objectives, whether they are commercial or non-profit in scope. As companies partner with one another based on the potential of gaining competitive advantages in global markets, the pressure for people from widely divergent cultures to quickly assimilate with each other and accomplish shared objectives grows. The rapid increase in joint ventures, mergers, acquisitions and shared risk business models accelerates the need for intercultural and international communication (Sirkin, Hemerling, Bhattacharya, 2008). The intent of this paper is to analyze how cultures, both within organizations and within nations are being changed by the rapid pace of change attributable to globalization (Sirkin, Hemerling, Bhattacharya, 2008). While social networking and Web 2.0 technologies are increasingly being used to bridge the physical gaps between work teams (Bernoff, Li, 2008) there still exist significant gaps in how cross-cultural teams perceive each other. These perceptions need to make more congruent through dialogue and appreciation for how subcultures have unique communication requirements (Yankelovich, 1999). The internal and external forces that impact cultures are making ethnocetricism more noticeable given the urgency to assimilate teams from widely different cultures and quickly attain shared business objectives (Marques, Dhiman, King, 2009). Navigating this new global landscape of cultures requires a set of concepts and frameworks.

Setting the Foundation for Intercultural Dialogue

Of the many frameworks which can be used for determining the level of congruency or lack thereof between cultures the Cultural Dimensions Model (Hofstede, 1998) has been pervasively adopted and cited by well over 500 additional empirical studies according to Dr. Hofstede (1998). Using the Five Cultural Dimensions variations between cultures can be quantified and analyzed to determine the best possible strategies for enabling greater dialogue and communication. The five cultural dimensions include the Power Distance Index (PDI), which indicates how willing or accepting members of organizations, both social and professional, are willing to accept power being distributed unequally. To the extent that members of a society are willing to accept a high PDI is the extent to which they are more likely to prefer hierarchical, highly structured organizations that have very clear lines of authority and definitions of status and roles. The PDI also indicates how prevalent acceptance of inequality is across cultures as well. These are invaluable insights in determining how to create a communication strategy with someone in another culture. Figure 1 provides a global map of the PDI ratings by nation.

Figure 1: PDI Cultural Dimension Graphed by Nation


The second cultural dimension, Individualism (IDV) measures a cultures' propensity to form tight groups or have a strong collectivism mindset, relative to a strong individualist approach of loosely defined connections throughout a group. Strong individualist societies including the United States focus on ensuring the immediate family is taken care of; collectivist societies are more focused on the entire group or extended family. In terms of dialogue and the ability to attain… [read more]

Cross-Cultural Management Relativism Dimension and Applications Research Proposal

… Cross-Cultural Management Relativism

Global business and the growth of multinational organizations has created in the modern era many obstacles and opportunities that are related to difference and commonalities. The way that a different culture communicates, organizes, produces and overall does business can be very different from one culture to the next and though culture is not innate but learned these intricate and sometimes conflicting ideologies will have a great deal of affect on how a multi-national manager and those he is supposed to manage interact and come together to produce a desired outcome. (Hofstede, 2005, 4)

The multinational manager must ultimately transverse through all the differences with a fair minded sense of difference rather than conflict and create a mutual standard that gets the job done without altering to much about the base culture or creating to many conflicts regarding the judgment of the others' cultural business standards. The multinational manager must balance the demands and core missions and goals of the parent company with the way in which the foreign worker and systems run and develop, often times translating terms and ideologies that are innately foreign and rarely to be assumed as understood. (Adler and, Gundersen, 2008, 73)

Achieving this balance between the goals of the parent organization and the cultural perspectives and standards of the host culture can be the primary challenge of the expatriate manager and the modern as compared to historical standards of doing this are very different. While in the past seeing these differences and how they might affect the meeting of goals led to universal and blanket attempts to subvert the differences, remake the cultural standards and then to some degree force the host culture to accept the changes, even if just for the sake of business goal completion. Today this is not an acceptable or logical ethic and will likely result in more resistance than will be productive. Today it is more acceptable for the parent culture to accept and understand as much of the host culture as is possible and to restructure to meet common goals. (Adler and, Gundersen, 2008, 103-104)


Cultural relativism is born of the idea that colonialism frequently judged, juried and convicted cultures based on differences and then made changes to meet their own cultural ideas and demands. In today's standards of globalism this is not only not possible it is considered destructive and therefore managers and others from other cultures must see cultural difference not as a point of negative or positive judgment but as a relative reality in the foreign culture. To make changes these expatriates must either negotiate to make changes or leave well enough alone and alter his or her own standards, needs and culturally-based presuppositions to meet those of the other group. (Hofstede, 2005, 5)

Challenges arise when the expatriate manager has a difficult time balancing what he or she believes is right or wrong in his own culturally biased ideologies of organization with the differences he or she sees in the other… [read more]

History of Anthropological Thought Essay

… ¶ … Anthropological Thought

Durkheim, E. 1895. What is Social Fact? Rules of the Sociological Method. In Anthropological Theory: An Introductory Theory. Fourth Edition. R. McGee and Richard Warms. McGraw Hill

Emile Durkheim proposed that the field of sociology was… [read more]

Intercultural and/or Cross-Cultural Communication Theories, Models Thesis

… Intercultural and/or cross-cultural communication theories, models, and/Or methodologies and a description of at least one research project or study for each theory chosen

Theories, models, and methodologies of face-negotiation and feminist communication theory

Saving face.' 'Face time.' Americans and other… [read more]

Ethical Relativism Thesis

… Cultural Relativism: Drawbacks and Defenses

Morality appears to us as a concrete term which is underscored by certain rational assumptions about the universe. And yet, our own experience tells us that that which one considers to be vice may, to… [read more]

Ishmael Dear Ishmael Seeing the World Essay

… Ishmael

Dear Ishmael

Seeing the world through your gorilla eyes has meant a complete shift in the way I think about human history. In fact, your point-of-view has catalyzed a consciousness change in me, affecting my worldview and my political perspectives. I have come to realize how the "Takers" have literally taken over the world by brute force and that "Leaver" cultures have generally presented more peaceful, reasonable, and sustainable methods of living. The triumph of one culture over another does not at all prove one's superiority over the other. All world history has proven is that arrogance and self-righteousness define dominant cultures. Colonialism proved how far the Takers are willing to go to impose their worldview. With overt hypocrisy, the Takers claim to be morally superior than the Leavers while at the very same time killing and denigrating Leavers.

Your views seem extreme and radical in the modern world. Few of us whose ancestors are Takers would be willing to adopt a Leaver lifestyle. The world has changed far too much to support communal lifestyles on a large scale. Leavers can survive or rebuild their communities but only on a small scale and in great opposition to larger forces such as governments run by Taker cultures. Mass production and the global market economy have essentially made Leaver cultures unable to thrive on cottage industries or small-scale subsistence agriculture. City dwellers are unlikely to surrender their creature comforts. The Taker way of life has triumphed and even those of us with high ideals fail to make the wholesale changes that would be necessary to transform the world as you suggest. However, I appreciate your optimism in suggesting that the world and human consciousness are evolving toward increased intelligence and sophistication as well as increased complexity. As you point out, the strength of character exuded by many human beings suggests that we can infuse wisdom into our current way of life. We can keep progressing toward scientific and technological goals while retaining our core human values. I would like to learn more about your vision of the future and what practical steps need to be taken to promote positive change.

A sometimes wonder what wisdom a gorilla can offer humanity. Your perspective is sound and logical but seems to overlook the power of human nature in determining the course of history. Greed and lust for power have created situations in which Leaver societies have themselves surrendered peace. I believe it may be too late to undo what centuries of behavior has wrought. Differences in opinion over how human beings should live are difficult to mediate because so many Takers base their views on religion. As you point out, religion is often distorts reality by creating untenable myths. Yet if a Taker culture bases its entire reason for being on religion it is impossible to use reason to counteract their arguments. In the end, a fundamentalist will always point to some irrational argument for why their views are the correct ones. People… [read more]

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