"Anthropology / Culture" Essays

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Global Leadership Prior to Denoting Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,391 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


There is a pyramidal type relationship between the three layers of competencies which include behavioral skills (at the base), mental characteristics (in the middle), and one's fundamental core (at the top). The competencies associated with behavioral skills include social skills, networking skills and knowledge (Osland 2012, p. 56) -- which are all areas that Jiango is lacking in particularly in the Westernized setting of France. Therefore, getting him to utilize his colleagues as a resource for knowledge, as well as displaying the sort of zeal necessary to work with others and to get invited to social settings and utilizing his social intelligence (Boyatzis 2007, p. 8) will effectively allow the executive to improve his mental characteristics and his fundamental core -- both areas of which are his strong point, especially as they relate to Asian and other forms of non-Westernized culture.

I am certain of the difference that following this plan -- utilizing personal resources closest to one, making an active attempt to learn the mores and customs of a new culture, and harnessing the power of social networking -- can make for one transitioning from one culture to the next. When I went to my first data management conferences, I was intimidated by the knowledge of the others and largely stuck to myself. I was visibly shunned by the others during informal activities such as lunch, dinner, and socializing during vendor displays. Less than six months later, however, I attended another data management conference. I had learned a little bit more about this study and was more familiar with my colleagues who were there. I also took the initiative to immerse myself in the culture, readily talking to and meeting other people, and went on excursions with others during social settings. I ended up learning a lot and having a good time, and realize the value that this approach can bring to someone attempting to adjust to a climate of varying cultural competencies.

The final step in assisting Jiango with his transitional issues in Europe coming from China is to readily incorporate his new knowledge into effective marketing that best produces a hybrid approach that captivates people in both Westernized and Non-Westernized world. Part of this turnaround will naturally come from the executive himself, since his strengths are knowledge of non-Westernized cultures and marketing. Once he is able to gain insight into European and French culture, he will be able to incorporate that into his own framework. Yet just as valuable as this approach is his willingness to open up and trust his associates -- particularly those additional vice-presidents already mentioned in this document -- and discuss facets of Non-Westernized culture so that they can become more familiar with it as well. That way, Jiango can consider Westernized culture in his marketing, and the other members of his firm can utilize facets of non-Westernized culture to assist them. This way, Deronde is actually benefitting from a cross-cultural approach with more than just Jiango's involvement, which demonstrates the veracity of… [read more]

Cultural Observation of Dress Case Study

Case Study  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


(Eicher, 2008)

Have you had the experience of being taught how to dress according to the cultural expectations of another society? Share these stories in a small discussion group as examples of acculturation. Contrast these acculturation experiences with the enculturation process through which you learned to dress according to your own society's cultural expectations.

Yes. When I was living in… [read more]

Cultural Representation of Social Class Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (704 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


The culture that is related to social class helps in keeping other outside a special social class. This is because within a specific social class there are certain behaviors, actions and beliefs that the culture advocates. This means that people might be kept out of special social classes simply because they are not used to the particular beliefs, behaviors or actions which are normal in that social class. Moving from one social class to another can be quite difficult. This is because one is accustomed to the culture that is found within their specific social class.it is not easy for someone who is from a lower class to pass as upper class. Similarly it is also not easy for someone from a higher class to pass to a lower class (Gabrenya, 2003).These two movements are equally difficult since everyone is used to and is comfortable within their social class. This is because they are deeply rooted in the culture that is found within their social class. Therefore even if they move to a different social class they will stiff find themselves acting or behaving in the same way they were in this new social class. They will thus end up not being comfortable since they will not blend in well with other people in that social class.

Culture reproduces social classes from one generation to another. This is because people are used to the existence of these social classes and they are comfortable with .They end up carrying these social classes forward from one generation to another since they considered them part of life and normal. People end up staying in the same social class they are born in since they are used to that particular lifestyle. They get used to the social class and that is what they perceive as normal (Menon, 2011).


Gabrenya, W.K. (2003).Culture and Social class. Retrieved June 26, 2013 from http://my.fit.edu/~gabrenya/social/readings/ses.pdf

Menon, D. (2011).Social class as culture. Retrieved June 26, 2013 from http://www.psychologicalscience.org/index.php/news/releases/social-class-as-culture.html… [read more]

Cross Cultural Business Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (773 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


, "Long-term vs. short-term orientation refers to the extent to which a culture programs its members to accept delayed gratification of their material, social, and emotional needs. Hofstede's research shows country scores on a Long-term Orientation Index (LTO) for 23 countries. East Asian countries (China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, and South Korea) scored highest." (p. 4)


The determination of price is not necessarily culturally-loaded so much as it is determined by the cost of production and the market demand for a given product. Learning how to accommodate local price demands will be largely a function of coming to understand the dynamics of a new set of local and national economies.


Promotion is a dimension of marketing that is highly culturally dependent. One bit of counsel provided in the article by Kolesnikov-Jessop is that one must choose employees not according to that with which one is culturally comfortable but according to that which most benefits a company. In this case, employing a marketing firm directly steeped in the host culture is the appropriate approach.


Place is a critical issue to consider, especially for one who is an outsider to the host culture. This is because a great many geographical and cultural nuances may otherwise be overlooked. An American businessman speaking on his experiences managing in China helps to explain this issue in the article by Kolesnikove-Jessop. According to the interviewee, "there are cultural differences within China. In Shanghai, the culture is more much open and commercial; in Beijing, it is much more regimented. It's not one China; there are differences. Customers work differently and employees work differently." (Kolesnikov-Jessop, p. 1)

This is important to consider because it can be tempting as a foreign manager to treat the host nation in blanket terms. However, this approach denotes a lack of cultural awareness and, more importantly, is likely to cost an organization the opportunity to market more intuitively.

Ethical Issues:

The primary ethical issues to consider are those of labor rights and environmental conditions. These must both be progressive and highly developed to justify entering into operations in any Asian host country.

Works Cited:

Anbari, F.T.; Khilkhanova, E.V.; Romanova, M.V. & Umpleby, S.A. (2008). Cross Cultural Differences and Their Implications for Managing International Projects. GWU.edu.

Kolesnikov-Jessop, S. (2012). Respecting…… [read more]

World Globalization Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,054 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Globalization is a compelling aspect of the new global system reflecting the future of intercontinental and regional partnerships around the globe. It has complex manifestations: investment, political, security, health, environmental, social and culture. The term "globalization" was made up in the 1980s but the notion is universal depending on the distinctive interpretations by various scholars. Because of these distinctive interpretations,… [read more]

Social Workers in the U Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,300 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … social workers in the U.S. have any obligation to international social work? Why?

While the word "obligation" might seem a bit strong regarding the social worker in the United States and his or her responsibility towards others on the planet, philosophically the answer is yes, social workers are accountable to other peoples, no matter their location. The National Association of Social Workers (NASW) asserts that the "…struggle for human rights remains a vital priority for the social work profession in the 21st Century" -- and moreover, the NASW urges social worker organizations to "develop and maintain collaborative relationships with international development agencies (http://www.socialworkers.org). Indeed the NASW asks members to help raise funds for special projects developed by Social Workers Across Nations (SWAN). The social work profession is not an isolated department unique to a Western society; it is a movement, a philosophy, if you will, based on justice, human needs, and empathy.

In that light, among the important issues that social workers in the United States should be concerned about is the problems associated with indigenous peoples (IPs). A peer-reviewed piece in the journal Global Governance relates to the human rights issues and IPs; the indigenous peoples in Africa, South America, and elsewhere on the planet are victims of abuses, including: a) land loss; b) environmental destruction; c) forced displacement; d) imposed assimilation; e) discrimination; and f) ethnocide (Stavenhagen, 2005, 19).

Among the more egregious discriminatory policies impacting IPs have been designed to "…eliminate and transform indigenous cultures" because states saw these indigenous cultures as "…detrimental to the idea of national integration and development (Stavenhagen, 21). For example, Stavenhagen references the injustices done to native peoples in the U.S. And Canada, who were forced to learn English and punished when they spoke native languages (21).

Another piece in the peer-reviewed Politics of Identity journal notes that IPs have historically been marginalized by colonial powers; they have struggled to survive "…against the colonizing states' efforts to eradicate them culturally, politically and physically" (Alfred, et al., 2005, 597). The colonizing countries didn't necessarily attempt to "eradicate" the actual people, albeit they did try to remove the existence of IPs "…through the erasure of the histories and geographies that provide the foundation for Indigenous cultural identities and sense of self" (Alfred, 598).

In too many cases indigenous peoples remain -- as in "earlier colonial eras" -- "occupied peoples who have been dispossessed and disempowered in their own homelands" (Alfred, 598). On page 609 Alfred mentions the work being done by Cherokee/Creek scholar Tom Holm (and Diane Pearson and Ben Chavis) that brings to the table the "original peoplehood concept"; that is, there are four concepts that Alfred refers to as "interlocking" and they should be known to social workers who deal with diverse cultures (some of which are connected to IPs). The four are: a) sacred history; b) ceremonial cycles; c) language; and d) ancestral homelands (609).

If any of the identity elements (like "sacred history") becomes lost, or is even… [read more]

Global Leadership Diagnosing Your Cultural Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,043 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Examples of intercultural adaptability in corporate America

Paying lip service to intercultural adaptability is one thing (many companies engage in image enhancement) but there are companies who take intercultural dynamics seriously. The Ford Motor Company (http://corporate.ford.com) has a program called "Employee Resource Groups" (ERGs), which conducts outreach, recruiting, and intercultural activities for African-Americans, Asian Indians, Chinese immigrants, disabled persons, Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender employees, Latinos, persons of faith, military veterans and "Middle Eastern Community" workers as well. The purpose of the ERGs is to "…develop leadership through seminars, mentoring, counseling and 'dialogues on diversity'" with senior management. Ford is clearly promoting the concept of "Social Initiative" and Flexibility through its ERG campaign.

The Marriott Hotel group supports diversity through its "Committee for Excellence" program, which promotes diversity "…and inclusion in four key areas…associates…guests, suppliers and owners" (www.marriott.com). This program embraces Cultural Empathy and Open-Mindedness as well as Social Initiative.

The Philadelphia Insurance Companies have embraced the Social Initiative concept by providing support for "Right in the Community," an advocacy organization with 22 homes for people with developmental disabilities. The insurance companies support "diverse segments" of Philadelphia by "giving back to the communities in which we serve" (www.phly.com).

The AT&T approach to diversity includes the "Chief Diversity Officer (CDO) Forum" which meets four times a year and seeks to "formally integrate, leverage and grow enterprise-wide initiatives for AT&T to become best-in-class in diversity and inclusiveness" (www.att.com). This is another example of a Social Initiative and suggests that Cultural Empathy and Open-mindedness is a goal for AT&T.

Meanwhile, an article in Forbes quotes the Chief Diversity Officer of IBM, Ron Glover: "Diversity is much more than just a multicultural issue. Diversity is about embracing many different types of people, who stand for different things and represent different cultures, generations, ideas and thinking" (Llopis, 2011). IBM should know something about diversity as they have workplaces in 172 countries and 427,000 employees in those countries.

In conclusion, as mentioned earlier in this paper, many companies pay nothing more than lip service to the idea of intercultural adaptability. But there are companies that truly "get it" when it comes to the role of a company being inclusive and having Cultural Empathy, Open-mindedness, and not being afraid to launch Social Initiatives within and without the employee ranks.


Abele, John. 2009. 'Cultural Intelligence -- What's your CQ?' Kingbridge Collaboration Blog. Retrieved May 30, 2013, from http://www.kingbridgecentre.com.

AT&T. 2012. 'Workforce Inclusion / Workforce Highlights.' Retrieved May 30, 2013, from http://www.att.com.

Ford Motor Company. 2012. 'Employee Resource Groups.' Retrieved May 30, 2013, from http://corporate.ford.com.

Llopis, Glenn. 2011. 'Diversity Management Is the Key to Growth: Make it Authentic.' Forbes. Retrieved May 30, 2013, from http://www.forbes.com.

Marriott Hotel Group. 2012. 'Diversity & Inclusion -- Corporate.' Retrieved May 30, 2013, from http://www.marriott.com.

Philadelphia Insurance Companies. 2010. 'Our Philosophy / Success Through Diversity.' Retrieved May 30, 2013, from https://www.phly.com.

Tamas Consultants Inc. 2008. 'Description of the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire (MPQ).' Retrieved May 30, 2013, from http://www.tamas.com.… [read more]

Americanism and Multiculturalism Definition Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,087 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


The maximization of harmony and debate within the different cultures is also part of the re-Americanism being suggested. The failure of the U.S. students of appreciates other cultures such as Hispanics, African-Americans, and Cubans may have caused a widespread antagonism regarding baseline Americanism. Had the ideological foundations of Americanism been not misinterpreted, the conflict and divide between the two concepts, Americanism and multiculturalism would not have been such widespread and evident.

The societies may cling to the past and the glorious yesterday that they have experienced, yet the society is an evolutionary entity and has to incorporate the new ideas regarding culture, identity, and association as the time passes. Baseline Americanism also needs to incorporate the cultural and social equality of other sub-cultures and only then can the educationists incorporate the concepts and cultural aspects of Americanisms along with multiculturalism.

The following image being published by American Legion organization that safeguards the Americanism and strives to instill it on a macro-level within the American population indicates that there are not much differences in the perspectives of multiculturalism and Americanism provided that the narratives for both concepts are based on findings common, true, and collective baseline within one country as the U.S.

Fig 1 Americanism: American Legion Post 52

Source: (American Legion, n.d.)

The Americanism as professed by the American Legion does not discriminate between people of America on the basis of subcultures, ethnicities, or religion. The broad principle that the Legion sets is the allegiance to the country where each one of us is residing and that is natural demand. However, there are the tenets of liberty and justice promised for all and none be discriminated unless disagreeing to the notion of one nationhood.


Americanism is the collective ideology based on the principles of equality, liberty, and opportunity for all, belief on the right of self-government, and pursuit of free-association to any group until the association does not takes place against the one nationhood and unity of America. Multiculturalism is the concept of allowing the sub-cultures to have complete independence without having to adopt the national culture. Although, seemingly different and at some odds with each other, both the concepts are aimed at achieving the equality and freedom of individuals and individual groups.

In order to truly synthesize the cultural collectivism of America, it is necessary not to disregard either multiculturalism or Americanism. However, meanings of both these concepts need to be aligned with the true spirit in which they originated rather than subjugation of one group by the other powerful group. Americanism should be re-Americanized by aligning and identifying it with the ideological principles laid by Abraham Lincoln and other leaders that looked for synergies between subcultures.

To include the Americanism perspective, the theoretical perspectives of Americanism should be revisited and aligned with the American Legion inscription. Multiculturalism should also be understood from a broader perspective that underlying objective of this concept is also to remove discrimination and oppression based on cultural affiliations. Educationists shall investigate the broader… [read more]

Cross Cultural Psychology Cultural Theories Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (689 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


"An 'integrative' approach to cross-cultural psychology emphasizes human activity, a process of the individual's goal-directed interaction with the environment. Human motivation, emotion, thought, and reactions cannot be separated from human activity" (Chapter 1 summary, n.d). Like the eco-cultural mode, integrated theories also stress the environmentally, contextually-bound nature of human behavior. However, integrative psychology focuses more upon their material effects and the dialogue between environment and actions (Chapter 1 summary, n.d).

For example, a lack of access to proper education because of social injustices will affect the individual psychology of the decision-maker, and have a profound impact upon his or her personal trajectory in life. In nations where same-sex education is more customary, such as Japan, there will be a notable impact upon culture-wide relations between the genders. And the persons in power who determine not only who but what shall be disseminated through the educational system can either impede or enhance the ability of certain groups to advance vs. others. It has been observed that within the United States where property taxes funds much of public education, this means that students who live in wealthier areas often get to go to better schools and are more easily able to attend elite private colleges that better enable them to gain access to powerful positions. Once in power, they continue to create conditions that further the education of their own children in a similar fashion. Goals that are valued within the United States (such as individualism and success) are thus supported through access to specific resources like gaining entry to very specific types of educational institutions. Certain types of personalities are more likely to flourish in these environments, but environmental factors also enable specific groups to more easily achieve their goals to access the resources prized by society.


Chapter 1 summary. (n.d). Retrieved:


Trommsdorff, G. (2002). An eco-cultural and interpersonal relations approach to development over the life span. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 6 (2).1-15 Retrieved from http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1057&context=orpc… [read more]

Geertz and Common Sense Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (666 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


In a Navaho tribe, instead of prompting horror or disgust, intersexuality might evoke wonder and awe. In Navaho common sense, intersexuals are considered blessed (p. 83). By contrast, in an East African Pokot tribe, intersexed people are regarded as useless due to their inability to reproduce and extend the all-important family line. They are frequently killed or ousted. The lives they live are miserable; they are neglected, lonely, treated with indifference. In Pokot common sense, intersexed people would have been better off never existing. As the two extremes suggest, there is no grey area for intersexuality. Someone is either male or female -- and that condition is either great or horrible. The overall social attitude on the subject is shaped solely by the collective "common sense" of the dominant culture. We see from these examples that there are myriad ways that local cultures think about the world.

Geertz goes on to illustrate that even though common sense differs culturally it can still be transculturally characterized. He proposes that some features of common sense may be the same culturally, such as naturalness, practicalness, thinnes, immethodicalness, and accessibleness (p. 85). I believe that all of these play themselves out every day in our perceptions of others and the world we live in. I was particularly drawn to the discussion of naturalness of common sense. I think that we accept that many things in life are "just the way it goes." The norms of our culture lead to a passive acceptance of certain "truths." It could be anything -- that the earth is flat, that the sky is blue, or that fish have fingers. The danger arises when everyone relies more on common sense and not enough on fact finding in order to attain accurate and solid knowledge. Without that, we run the risk of becoming an ill-informed, misguided and naive society.


Geertz, Clifford. "Common Sense as a Cultural…… [read more]

Communication Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The power distance factor in Sweden can be readily compared to more hierarchical societies, such as India, in which the haves and the have-nots are separated by wide and usually insurmountable chasms. Even the United States has a higher power distance factor than does Sweden, as many Americans are fundamentally opposed to social institutions and structures that generate equality such as free higher education for all citizens, and free healthcare funded by taxpayer dollars. As American onlooker Alford (2012) describes it, " New parents get 480 days of parental leave?! Everyone I talk to seems to have a summer house on an island?!" (p. 2).

As Allwood (1999) points out, Sweden shares many communication traits in common with other Nordic countries like Finland. However, there are a few culture-specific variables that should be taken into account to better understand non-verbal communication patterns. One is specific to social gatherings in which alcohol is involved. Allwood (1999) notes that in Sweden, it is customary for each guest to bring and drink his or her own alcoholic beverages rather than expect the host to provide it. Moreover, the guests will not start drinking until a communal toast has been proposed (Allwood, 1999). This is somewhat similar to the Jamaican custom of not starting to eat at a party until the host makes an invitation to do so; which is ironic given the informal nature of Jamaican communication styles in general ("Jamaica: Language, Culture, Customs, and Etiquette," n.d.). Swedes appreciate informality, but do not appreciate superficiality in terms of conversation topics and styles ("Sweden: Conversation," 2009).

Allwood (1999) also notes that Swedish teaching styles are noticeably different from those in other cultures including other Nordic cultures. There is less authoritarian teaching styles in… [read more]

Communication in "Un Summit Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (610 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


This is especially true in the areas of environmental and social justice. As Mander (n.d.) points out, "corporate leaders, their allies in government, and a newly powerful centralized global trade bureaucracy" are imposing a paradigm of liberalized trade on the rest of the world. If such leaders were promoting the common good, then their efforts would not be so harshly criticized. Yet the reason why corporate colonialism is so harshly criticized is because the policies represented by North American cultures "have proven spectacularly unsuccessful over the past several decades wherever they've been applied," (Mander, n.d.).

The Clark (2012) article therefore shows how corporate colonialism is the new brand of cultural imperialism. Ironically, the former colonizing powers of Europe are spearheading a revolutionary paradigm in which corporate responsibility reigns over corporate greed. As the text points out, there must be a process of diffusion before new ideals, norms, and values take root. Opinion leadership and change agents lead to adopters of new policy. The nations of Western Europe certainly do not want to thwart business growth and development, which is why Clark (2012) mentions the company that is supporting the proposed regulations. Regulations are set forth as being necessary antecedents to positive growth and change. Without regulations, corporate colonialism and North American hegemony continue. It is necessary now to come to terms with global values that can foster environmental and social justice. If the message can be adapted to the receiving culture -- which is in this case the cultures of North America as well as India -- then change becomes possible.


Clark, P. (2012). UN summit to push for corporate green plans. Financial Times. 18 June 2012.

Mander, J. (n.d.) Corporate colonialism. Retrieved online: http://theunjustmedia.com/Corporation/Articles%20on%20Corporation/Corporate%20Colonialism.htm… [read more]

End Game of Globalization "Nothing Book Report

Book Report  |  7 pages (2,052 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The systemic eradication and assimilation of world cultures is an objective of American imperialism as demonstrated over the course of, according to Smith, approximately half of the country's history/existence. Therefore, those who consume American cultures without consideration, sustain the continuation of affects that globalization has upon the world in ways of which many people are peripherally aware.

The impacts of globalization via the imperialism of the United States upon forms of indigenous cultures around the world can range from a spectacularly positive, to political and/or social upheaval. The great shift and changes experience by global cultures is a direct result of the advent and distribution of a variety of new technologies including mobile devices, the Internet, and smartphones. The world is able to communicate with and experience itself in unprecedented ways because of the technology. In fact, technology has been a critical factor in the diffusion of globalization.

One not need be well versed in any particular field when reading The End Game of Globalization. As Smith writes in the preface to the book, the book proceeds in a straightforward manner. The language is succinct and vivid. He provides enough of a context (historical, social, political, cultural, economic, etc.) that for a novice or informed reader of this topic, he/she would be able to follow along with ease and speed. That said, there is also a balance of this contextual information such that a highly informed reader would not be bored or insulted by the background and/or contextual texts.

Smith's viewpoints and perspectives are clear; the reader knows which side of the debate Smith is on, yet he does not allow his own views to keep him from demonstrating spans of objectivity and neutrality. This strategy is most effective as part of an argument -- recognizes and acknowledging the position and arguments of the opposing side, hopefully as a way to adapt some of those strategies to one's own argument and/or style of argumentation. It is more likely that readers will consider and accept the ideas of a person who acknowledges the opposing viewpoints; such a writer exudes fairness. There is a tone of hope mixed with admonition and the close of The End Game of Globalization. He hopes that the world may reverse, recover from, and in some way positively recycle some of the damaging aspects of America's agenda for globalization.

In retrospect it may be that September 11th comes to stand not as the beginning of a new phase in the American Empire but as its denouement, the beginning of the end for this particular moment of imperialism. Both prior moments of U.S. globalism culminated in spectacular war, and although the first battle volleys after 9/11 pale by comparison, the third moment too is being capped by war. For the first time, however it is perceived, today's war is instigated by the United States. Isolation, incompetence, and impossibility together with rising opposition and a fatal inbuilt nationalism already circumscribe the possibilities of success in this war for U.S.… [read more]

Cross-National Management: Questions Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,067 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


A second challenge is that high levels of employee attrition are likely, given the frustrations back-of-the-house staff may feel at what they see as their unjustly subordinate status. They may feel that it is they who really keep the hotel running, versus the showier positions of the front-of-house staff. Their benefits are likely not as generous as those of the front-of-house staff, and as hourly employees, they may feel justified 'jumping ship' for a few extra dollars offered by a competitor. This is a problem because all employees demand a financial and time investment for the company, regarding training.

A third challenge that will arise is the training itself. At one hotel chain, it was discovered that new hires from the Russian population did not find learning through memorization or role playing to come naturally to them, reflecting their different cognitive structures reinforced by their original cultural environment (Shea 1994: 6). The structure of the training program and the learning style of the back-of-house staff may not be commensurate.

Q3. A multinational team will encompass individuals from a wide variety of cultural contexts. The first step is to conduct a review of the various cultural backgrounds of members, to anticipate any conflicts that might ensue. Individuals from cultures that are very low-context, where individual motivation and autonomy is important (such as the United States and Scandinavian countries) may bring different assumptions to the new working environment than individuals from high-context cultures, where direction from management and collectivism are valued (such as East Asian, Southern European and Middle Eastern cultures).

Even the dialogue of the negotiations may be different, based upon the cultural contexts of the participants. Individuals from high-context cultures are likely to be less direct in terms of how they phrase their displeasure and support and place a greater emphasis on honoring social hierarchies. Low-context cultures tend to operate with the assumption that people mean what they say, and consider 'getting to the point' as an almost sacred obligations. They view 'time as money' and are likely to be impatient with the lateness and discursive sense of time that is attached to some high-context cultures, particularly in Southern European cultures.

Only 22 leadership attributes are considered universally positive cross-culturally (Dimensions of culture, Slides 83). Even values that might superficially seem universal such as trustworthiness are prioritized differently (particularly in Germanic nations, for example, versus the Mediterranean) (Dimensions of culture, Slides 82). When leading a team that is highly diverse, these cultural differences must be kept in mind. Issues should be communicated in several ways, to ensure comprehension; expectations should be also clear about how to engage in dialogue, and feedback should be solicited to ensure team members are 'on board' regarding the decision-making process. The structure of meetings can be linear, but there must be the expectation that individuals from high-context, polychromatic societies will chafe and some of these restrictions and view common assumptions in a different light (Dimensions of culture, Slides 71-73).


Dimensions of culture: Ways to… [read more]

Socio-Cultural Perspective "The Sociocultural Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (958 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


We also learn sets of principals from social interactions, such as what is right and wrong. Social interactions play a big part in how we see the world around us. They play a very big part of what we learn as right and wrong, what is valuable, what we believe, morals, and what is important to us. But, the social cognitive perspective ignores the cultural aspects that also play a big part of who we are.

Culture has symbolic dimensions of identity, what is meaningful and important, and who we are in life. It shapes our perceptions and interpretations of the world. Culture places our boundaries for us. It tells us what is normal, appropriate, and expected. Culture gives us our understanding of relationships and rituals. What is common or normal to one group is strange and out of place for another group. Languages are also different. The same word in two different languages can have two different meanings, even though it is spelled the same.

The cultural aspects of life can cause conflicts in social interactions with others, especially people outside our cultural circle. It can also cause conflict inside the cultural circle with generational cultures, gender cultures, and disciplinary cultures. The different races have different beliefs, religious rituals, and ideals. Generational culture causes conflicts in families, especially between parents and teenagers. Gender culture can cause conflicts between spouses. The way people are raised often conflict with different disciplines of what is right or wrong, or how things are supposed to be done. The different cultural aspects play a big part of what we value, how we perceive our world, and how we interpret the things in our world. Cultural aspects interact with the social interactions we engage in.

Ignoring the cultural aspects of humans ignores a big part of the social interactions we develop in life. Different cultures have different values and what is important for how we act and think in relationships. It shapes what is acceptable and what is forbidden actions of the members of particular cultures. It also shapes different requirements in religious rituals and how we are supposed to act with other society members. The religious rituals shape a lot of what is valuable, important, and meaningful in our lives.

The socio-cultural perspective puts more value on the person as a whole. It looks at all the aspects of whom and what we really are. Our cultural interactions play a big part in what determines our social interactions and how the social interactions come into play. It can also determine the outcomes of the social interactions we encounter in life.


Major Perspectives in Psychology. n.d. Web. 8 May 2012.

Social Learning & Social Cognitive Perspectives on Personality. 23 Dec 2003. Web. 9 May 2012.

Social-Cultural…… [read more]

Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis Argues Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (893 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The words that different cultures use to express different thoughts are actually determined by the culture itself. One culture will view the meaning of a word one way, while another culture will view a different meaning for the same word. Or, the meaning will be the same for both cultures, but the word itself will be different in each culture.

A measure of realism is presupposed by relativism. Without concepts, beliefs, or modes of reasoning, different cultural groups could not be different in respects to them. The concepts, beliefs, and modes of reasoning shape languages and the meanings of the words in languages for each culture. The linguistic relativity hypothesis is important in the understanding of the different modes of reasoning for different thought patterns. The hypothesis results reveal facts about how culture, language, beliefs, concepts, and even biological makeup shape how people use different words and meanings in the different languages.

Annotated Bibliography

Begley, S. (2009, July 8). What's in a Word? Retrieved from The Daily Beast: http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2009/07/08/what-s-in-a-word.html

The Daily Beast is a news website. This article discusses linguistic experiments performed Lera Boroditsky, a psychologists from Stanford University, that showed evidence that language does shape thought. Some cultures used gender specific words that have different meanings. The evidence also showed how shades of different colors with distinct names actually improve memory with the different cultures.

Fountain, H. (1999, Mar 30). Proof Positive that People See Colors with the Tougue. Retrieved from New York Times: http://we.ics.purdue.edu/~felluga/NewYorkTimes.html

Purdue is a scholarly source that connects to an article with the New York Times, a news source. The article discusses how the use of the meaning of colors in different cultures can shape how language is used and the different meanings of the words can and do change from one culture to another in languages. It discusses how the linguistic relativity hypothesis argues that colors are seen more through language than with sight.

Swoyer, C. (2003, Feb 2). Relativism. Retrieved from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/relativism/index.html

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy is a scholarly site. This entry discusses the meaning of relativism, the different contexts of relativism, and how they shape modes of thought, and standards of reasoning. It discusses how the principles and practices of different cultures work with the different methods of relativism in shaping thought processes and standards of reasoning to develop different words and meanings with different cultures. It also discusses how linguistic categories affect the way we see the world. The different categories of words are different from each culture and cause each culture to perceive things different than other cultures do.… [read more]

Race and Ethnicity Multiculturalism Grade Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,901 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 11


This is also depicted from the attitude adopted by the PM of Italy; Berlusconi, who is against the policies or the idea of integrating the immigrants. For this reason, immigration continues to remain a challenge for several states and continents including the European Union which has further added the burden of challenges when integrating its own member states come in question. Despite this, EU has developed almost eleven principles called as the Common Basic Principles for integrating the immigrants. These principles are formulated on the basis of the cultural, economic, political and social diversity of its member states.


Thus, the extent to which the ideology of multiculturalism is dying is not only evident from the immigration policies of countries, but also through the efforts they put in to integrate the immigrants. The actual aim of multiculturalism is all about the acceptance and tolerance of diversity where different cultures co-exist living side by side. However, from the moment this concept was measured in terms of religion, the failure of the ideology began. Thus, although difficult, to keep multiculturalism alive, cultures need to integrate the immigrants of other cultures and accept their differences based on race and most importantly religion (Cohen, 2007). This could possibly be done by setting certain universal standards of peace, equality and human rights which are to be followed by every man.


Banting K. 2006. Immigration, multiculturalism and the welfare state. Ethics and International affair. Vol. 20, No.3. Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affair.

Benwell, B. And Stokoe, Elizabeth. 2006. Discourse and Identity. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Brooker, P. 1999. Concise Glossary of Cultural Theory, London: Hodder Arnold.

Cohen D. 2007. Violence Is Inherent in Islam - It Is a Cult of Death. The Evening Standard. 18.

Deaken Q. 2007. British Multiculturalism under the Spotlight. Contemporary Review. Vol. 289, no. 1687.

European Union. The EU and Immigration: Opportunities and Challenges. EU Focus. 2008.

Jay G. 2011. What is multiculturalism? Milwaukee.

Padolsky E. 2001. Multiculturalism at the Millennium. Journal of Canadian Studies. Vol. 35, no. 1.

Peberdy S. 2005. Wits University, "Migration in Southern Africa," a paper prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration. Retrieved from: http://www.sarpn.org.za/documents/d0001680/index.php.

Rosado C. 1997. Toward a definition…… [read more]

Cultural Briefing Document Zurich Switzerland Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,885 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 6



This cultural brief on Swiss social and business etiquette provides the basics for understanding the native culture of our Zurich Employee. United States and Swiss cultures are similar in many way, except for a few customes. The most important points to remember about Swizz culture are:

• it is a formal culture where politeness and etiquette are highly prized

• punctuality is important, as is efficiency in communication and operations

• the Swiss are not emotionless and cold, it is not customary to share their emotions in public

• the Swiss have a highly structured social order between genders and between associates on various levels of the organization

• it is important not to get to friendly and attempt to use a first name until the relationship has progressed and the other person suggests it.

If everyone understands these basic principles, an honest effort can be made to make Mr. Burkhalter feel at home. We are excited to welcome this new member of our team and are looking forward the insight and perspective that he will bring to the organization. It is our hope that everyone will take the time to get to know him and to work to establish long-term relationships that will benefit everyone.


COMMUNICAID GROUP LTD. 2009. Doing Busineass in Switzerland: Swiss Social and Business Culture. [online] Available from: http://www.communicaid.com/access/pdf/library/culture/doing-business-in/Doing%20Business%20in%20Switzerland.pdf [accessed to December 2011}.

EDIPLOMAT. 2011. Switzerland. [online] Available from: http://www.ediplomat.com/np/cultural_etiquette/ce_ch.htm [accessed to December 2011}.

EXPATICA. 2011. Management Culture in Switzerland. Expatica.com. [online] Available from: http://www.expatica.com/ch/employment/employment_information/Management-culture-in-Switzerland_13331.html [accessed to December 2011}.

HOFSTEDE, G. 2001. Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. (2nd ed.) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

HOFSTEDE, G. 2008. Switzerland. ITIM International. [online] Available from: http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_switzerland.shtml [accessed to December 2011}.

MICHELOUD & CIE. 2008. Nonverbal communication in Switzerland. IsYours. [online] Available from: http://www.isyours.com/e/swiss-business-guide/nonverbal.html [accessed to December 2011}.

PULIS, D. 2010. Beyond Cheese and Chocolate -- On Swiss Stereotypes. 27 April 2010. Lonely Planet. [online] Available from: http://www.lonelyplanet.com/travelblogs/1259/52024/Beyond+Cheese+and+Chocolate+%E2%80%93+On+Swiss+Stereotypes?destId=360810 [accessed to December 2011}.

WORLD Business CULTURE. Swiss Communication Styles. [online] Available from: http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/Swiss-Business-Communication-Style.html [accessed to December 2011}.… [read more]

Bill Ivey's Art, Inc Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (778 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Ivey proposes that, through the removal of "the profit motive and the compromises that limit risk," artists will be freed to explore their creative impulses, thereby "giving us art that isn't homogenized by the forces that plague our commercial arts industry" (Ivey 208). America can restore its sense of artistic identity only by allowing art and culture to flourish without the limitations imposed by corporate influence. If art is produced purely to procure profit, the inevitable result can only be the degeneration of creative expression which America has witnessed during the latter part of the 20th century.

Ivey states without equivocation that "all Americans should enjoy the benefits of a vibrant expressive life, but that expressive life can flourish only after we satisfy a set of basic cultural rights" (Ivey, xviii), and it is the securement of these rights with which he is primarily concerned. In an age where the capacity to create works of cultural value has been confined to a select few, namely those with the specialized education and financial freedom necessary to pursue their work unhindered, Ivey asserts that every man, woman and child must be afforded the opportunity to express themselves artistically. To confirm this thesis, Ivey quotes Michael Kimmelman, the New York Times art critic who "laments the decline of amateur art making" by observing that "a vast majority of society seems to presume that culture is something specialists produce" (Ivey, xv). Both Kimmelman and Ivey are cognizant of a disturbing trend in American society, one in which the creation of art has been consolidated to a privileged group of highly trained professionals, while the average person is denied even the most basic outlets of creative expression. To avoid the dangerous stratification of culture, Ivey proposes a set of governmental policies seeking to reverse those of past administrations which "long ago ceded far too much authority over our creativity and heritage to a web of commercial interests" (Ivey, 21). For Ivey, only by combining sound policy making with a successful campaign of heightened public awareness can America truly recapture its once vibrant spirit of artistic and cultural integrity.


Ivey, B.J. (2008). Arts, inc: how greed and neglect have destroyed our cultural rights. Los Angeles, CA: University of…… [read more]

Photosynthesis Chemosynthesis. Determine Significant Step Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (614 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


In relationship-driven cultures, the emphasis is on 'saving' the other person's face rather than confronting them and demonstrating them to be wrong in public. In America, debate and even friendly insults are accepted, even across the organizational hierarchy, and those who are hurt by these displays of aggression are criticized for being overly sensitive. This might be difficult for someone to comprehend from another culture, particularly if the challenge is made to a respected authority figure. However, in those same context-oriented cultures, other practices which are common might be considered quite rude to an American. Americans value time as a commodity, yet other cultures have more fluid sense of time -- fostering social engagements take priority over holding to a specific 'o'clock, and Americans are often outraged when meetings in Southern Europe and elsewhere begin 15 minutes to a half hour later than schedule.

An important lesson from cultural diversity is that there is no 'correct' culture. What is required is that one is mindful enough about one's cultural worldview so as not to be judgmental in a harsh and negative fashion. This is true not only of foreign cultures, but also of intergenerational differences present within the workforce. Members of the millennial generation have attention spans shaped by technology -- they want swift feedback, tend to be very informal (a side effect of communicating so much via text and email) -- and stand in sharp contrast to older workers who tend to stress formality, hierarchy, and organizational loyalty (Wong 17). An effective manager will know how to 'play to the strengths' of all members of the organization, regardless of age or culture, and create structures of mentorship and team-building exercises so that employees are able to understand, tolerate, and appreciate difference rather than regard…… [read more]

Human Behavior Article Review

Article Review  |  9 pages (3,040 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Thus a spiritual person is less likely to be prejudiced and discriminating.

Social work values

The behavioral theories and the ethical code of conduct formulate the behavior that complies with the norms of the society. The social work class has some values like respect, avoiding discrimination, cooperation and collaboration. The social workers need a proper education to fine tune their… [read more]

Sociology Cooley and Mead's Theories Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (446 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Ethocentrism and Cultural Relativism

Ethnocentrism is "The tendency to view one's own culture as best and to judge the behavior and beliefs of people in other societies by one's own standards" while Cultural Relativism is the belief that that one should try to evaluate and understand another culture/society on its own terms and relative to its own values and beliefs.

Most societies and individuals are ethnocentric to some extent but some people, particularly the anthropologist, strive to be as non-ethnocentric as possible.

Ethnocentrism can give rise to racism and feelings of cultural and racial superiority as was practiced in Nazi Germany. Cultural Relativism, on the other hand, enables understanding of other cultures with empathy and, ideally, promotes peace and goodwill among people. However, when Cultural Relativism is applied to cultures which are themselves based on notions of cultural superiority, hate, and discrimination (e.g. neo-Nazis) one could end up supporting the undesirable tenants and beliefs of those cultures.

Socialization." Available online at http://www.socqrl.niu.edu/forest/Socialization.htm

Conrad Kottack quoted in "Ethnocentrism vs. Cultural Relativism" available online at http://www2.eou.edu/~kdahl/ethnodef.html

Introduction to Cultural Anthropology." Available online at http://cas-courses.buffalo.edu/classes/apy/anab/apy106/handouts/relativism.htm

Sociology… [read more]

Objectivity in Sociological Perspectives Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (839 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


This data so far seems to be objective in being able to categorize the Internet culture.

It is precisely when the authors of the article decide to construct a model to show how such increased levels of trust would result in more efficient world system designs that I begin to see how the culture of the writers themselves affects the way the model is constructed. Obviously, the fact that these authors make use of mathematical linear models does not surprise me, but it shows a taste for what seems to be evolutionary psychology, in that the writers were influenced to conclude something that would fit into a structure that ended up "being in the best interests of everyone."

Does this mean that the authors are necessarily moral themselves? Does this mean the authors would use this model of trust if they ran billion dollar companies and were asked to contract with some sort of ambiguous party with ambiguous terms? Trust in this case should also be reasonable, but that's where my culture steps in and mars (or enhances?) my analysis in that from a legal background, I believe trust would make one liable to accepting something which maybe they had the right to refuse.

Also, I think the article is so colored by appealing to academia's standards that it forgets one critical thing. The trust model only works if everyone participates. It is because of this distortion that is not mitigated that I think this article is similar to the theory that only one culture exists. If the sub-classifications cannot be accounted for as all really being part of one larger culture, then I cannot accept the argument that I should dismiss the fact that each subculture is a culture in and of itself. However, with more time, I am sure that just as the Internet conglomerates many cultures into one larger body and identity, we will one day be able to qualify the world denizens globally, and not just in the United States as being part of a larger culture, with each subculture and each of their sub-subcultures just a more myopic detailed look into that which exists naturally on the bigger scale and can be shown to objectively interlink to qualify for the definition of a true "world culture."

Works Cited

Electronic Journal of Sociology (2002), ISSN: 1198-3655, Elements of Trust: The Cultural Dimension of Internet Diffusion Revisited, Thomas Volken, University of…… [read more]

Hours of Ancient Sunlight Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,831 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Finally, develop and describe a personal way of thought (a mentality, a level of consciousness, a "story" about who we are and why we are here, and how we are related to each other and other forms of life) that, if taken up by a critical mass of people, could resolve the human crisis that Hartmann describes.

We are not related to one another, we are one; we are the product of one thing and that is the drop of water, as science now proves that everything on this plant has its origin from the drop of water. If this is the truth, we need not go in to the detail in to establishing who we really and are what we need to know about our identity. Off course, we are related to dinosaurs too as they too were created from a drop of water and bacteria too as they too have origins in the drop of water. If we think on these lines then we would respect every other creature on this plant, every resource on this planet. Resources on this plant are made for the betterment of the people and its inhabitants, not for the destruction. Destruction of the inhabitants is against the law of nature, and going against the law of nature means inviting destruction to us. So the solution lies in knowing the exact nature and purpose of our existence, whether it is survival, competence, control, dominance, rebellion, violence, or whether it is peace and harmony between every one. Thus, the proponents of the younger culture need to think deep which is better, present day control and dominance over the resources and people or the future peace and harmony and survival knowing our planet is getting hot and hot every passing day due to this trend of younger culture.

Work aCited

Hartmann, T. (2000) The Last Hours of Ancient Sunlight: Waking Up to Personal and Global Transformation, Three Rivers Press

The Last Hours…… [read more]

American Globalization Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,017 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


" In fact, for a restaurant chain that features many beef and pork items and is famous for these offerings, they've all been pretty much removed from their menus in India. In that sense one can argue what some might call American influence on India, is actually Indian influence on America.

Furthermore, the belief that Americanization is this truly all-powerful force throughout the world isn't just riddled with inaccuracy, it's asserted by people who don't really have a clear understanding of the facts. Many people think that American culture and media is so pervasive because that's how they view America, and this can often be an inaccurate perspective of America in general. Consider the following: "…according to a worldwide 1999 BBC poll, the most famous movie star in the world isn't Ben Affleck or Julia Roberts, but Amitabh Bachchan, an Indian film star probably unfamiliar to most Americans. Last January, the New York Times reported that even American television programming has begun to lose its appeal overseas. Reason magazine writer Charles Paul Freund notes that as of 2001, more than 70% of the most popular television shows in 60 different countries were locally produced. And an article in the British newspaper The Guardian last year points out that the top-grossing movies for 2002 in Japan, Germany, Spain, France and India weren't U.S. imports, but were produced domestically" (Balko, 2014). This demonstrates a trend of consumers wanting to see work produced by artists which they share common experiences. Thus, the facts are demonstrating more and more trends of celebrities and artists which are thriving in smaller more local scenarios, as a result of people wanting to see those who represent their own culture, values and ethnicities take center stage (Kitamura, 2010).

However, some argue that the very fact that so many people abroad can identify American celebrities, music, movies, and food means that Americanization has taken place abroad. These people argue that by virtue of the fact that Americans can almost never identify celebrities, artists and other such personages from other countries means that there's a rampant imbalance. This is incorrect, because it just means that America has a strong presence abroad, but doesn't mean that globalization is at work.

In conclusion, those who say that Americanization is an extreme force around the world and one which causes other nations to lose their culture are largely incorrect. These people treat America as more powerful a nation than it actually is. These individuals don't understand that there is a big difference between having a cultural influence and eradicating another culture through one's influence. If anything, the American cultural pillars are more influences by the nations they enter than the opposite.

Works Cited

Balko, R. (2014). Globalization & Culture. Retrieved from globalpolicy.org: http://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/162/27607.html

Chapman.edu. (2013). Culture Shock. Retrieved from Chapman.edu: http://www.chapman.edu/international-studies/center-for-global-education/study-abroad-programs/accepted-students/culture-shock.aspx

Kitamura, H. (2010). Screening Enlightenment. NewYork: Cornell University Press.… [read more]

Cultural Relativism &amp Ethnocentrism: Understanding Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (663 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


She therefore opted to wear the red dress which was against the American culture norms which expects her to wear a white dress.by so doing she believed that her culture was right and superior compared to the American culture. This shows how she believed her culture was important compared to the American culture and choose to disregard it and go for a red dress and not the white dress worn by Americans in weddings.

As we have seen cultural relativism involves regarding the beliefs, norms, of a culture from the cultures point-of-view. She respects the fact that in American cultural norms brides is supposed to wear white and does not in any way disregard this. However she can not wear white since according to her tradition white is reserved for mourning and therefore she can not wear white during her wedding since this is a happy day for her. She respects the American cultural norms but also respects her own cultural norms. Therefore she goes for the different color which is red not to protest the American cultural norms but to be happy on her wedding day according to her own cultural norms.

When we look at the bride's decision from both an ethnocentric and cultural interpretation I can say that the bride has the right to wear whatever color she is comfortable with during her wedding day. This is because there is no need for her to conform to the American cultural norms if she will not be comfortable or happy. If she can associate red with happiness on her wedding day then I believe the groom's parents should not judge her. They should not take an ethnocentric stand and believe that their culture is more superior compared to the brides culture. Therefore I believe that the bride should be understood and the groom's parents should embrace cultural relativism.


Ariwibowo Y., (2013). The Differences between Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism. Retrieved May 29, 2014 from http://yuriariwibowo.blogspot.com/2013/01/type-1the-differences-between.html… [read more]

Globalisation Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,970 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Globalisation is the process by which "the constraints of geography on social and cultural arrangements recede and in which people become increasingly aware that they are receding" (Waters, 1995). While this process has become more rapid over the course of the past century, geographic and social constraints still dominate our lives, and as such national differences remain of critical importance.… [read more]

Legalize and Strategize Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (596 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Globalization and Culture

Perhaps the common thread between this week's readings which include Matthew Sparke's Political Geography: Political Geographies of Globalization III -- Resistance, Laura Ahern's Language and Agency, and Christine Harold's Pranking Rhetoric: "Cultural Jamming" as Media Activism is a preoccupation with globalization. However, some of these articles deal with this topic explicitly, such as Sparke's work, while others deal with the topic from a much more implicit perspective. Harold's piece, for instance, largely implies that globalization is the phenomenon behind the sort of mass-media advertising that cultural jamming and pranking is attempting to forestall. And Ahern widely alludes to the fact that manipulation of language and the agency which it endows is useful as a form of resistance to globalization -- especially when a local population utilizes its own language (and its subsequent agency) in settings in which multinational corporations are attempting cultural hegemony in addition to its obvious economic one.

Yet perhaps a more subtle, if not less cogent similarity between these articles is that they all address the issues of globalization in terms of its cultural effects. Language, then, which is referred to in Harold's work in terms of rhetoric and its rhetorical value, is a critical consideration in terms of globalization. In certain instances it is useful as a means of resistance and protestation. Sparke alludes to this fact when listing several web sites that were designed to counteract the effects of the military and political aspect of globalization, imperialism (in the form of the War of Terror) or those designed to impede the progress of capitalism as practiced within its global form. And again, Aheran suggests that such a possibility is possible by discoursing on the agency of language and its social implications, which would be useful as a means of resistance…… [read more]

Appreciated the Section on Key Concepts Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (666 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … appreciated the section on key concepts in cultural studies, as well as the section on sociology. It was helpful to learn about the Marxist perspective and the structural issues in sociology. Recently, I came across the writings of W.E.B. Du Bois, who was heavily influenced by Marx as well as Durkheim and Weber. When reading the sections about Marxism in the text, my understanding of issues related to race, class, gender, and power were enhanced even farther. Similarly, I appreciated the sections on feminist discourse. I do believe that race, class, gender, and power have intersections, and are embedded into social structures. Yet I also believe these structures serve specific functions, and preserve a status quo of patriarchy and subjugation. To subvert these structures, it is often important to use civil disobedience and even in ways that might be labeled temporarily as "deviant." Norms change over time, and it sometimes takes centuries for those social norms to change. Women are still fighting for their rights to be taken seriously, to receive equal pay, and to enjoy positions of power in society.

I found that the section on postmodernism and postrstructuralism were the most difficult to grasp. I would understand the basic concepts discussed by Derrida and Foucault. I have read some Foucault in other classes, and enjoy his concept of the panopticon because I have seen this mechanism in my daily life. However, I fail to see what postmodernism actually means, and expect this to be continually a source of struggle for me. Other sections of the first chapter that I found annoying included the ones related to language, the "textual character of culture," the "character of truth," and methodologies. On the other hand, I have known much about Freud and that section was substantiating what I had already read. I also enjoyed reading the "limits of rationality" section, because I believe that our brains do not operate at their full capacity. From what I am learning in classes related to…… [read more]

Orientalism as Defined by Burton in the Arabian Nights Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (2,900 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Burton's translation of The Arabian Nights (TAN) backed by a deep knowledge of Islam contributes to the Orientalist project and to the past and present knowledge of the Orient as it has been shaped by different disciplines such as anthropology, history and literature. It will trace the evolution of The Arabian Nights and its translation by Burton followed… [read more]

World's Columbian Exposition Fair in Chicago 1893 Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (674 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Columbian Expedition

To be marginalized as a population means many things depending on the particular population, the geographic area, and the chronological period. Typically, marginalized populations are those that, at least in part, are excluded, powerless, considered unimportant, and often have no say in the socio-political or cultural vibrancy of the particular society. Over the course of the last few centuries, for instance, children have been marginalized -- they were put to work as soon as possible, yet had no real political or social power. Women, too, have experienced this trend -- indeed there remain many societies in which males continue to dominate. In American history, one of the clearest examples of a marginalized population has been the various immigrant populations that, depending on the chronological period, had various levels of severity.

Certainly, the idea of marginalization is nothing new. In the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893, an article from the Journal of American Culture, presents an overview of some of the issues surrounding the 400th anniversary of Columbus' discovery of America. For instance, the Chicago Tribute of the time hinted at some of the exhibits being organized under evolutionary and cultural lines for example, one publication noted that Anglo-Saxon and Caucasian exhibits about humanity at one end of the spectrum, with "the negro types at the fair…. Represented… the barbarous or half-civilized state of a people who are a numerous and rapidly increasing class of American citizens" (270). The real irony of this argument was that even in the 1800s, the idea of America was seen to be inclusive -- and certainly after the Civil War and Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, a new attitude about racial equality was presumed. Exhibitions of this type, though, are often reflective of cultural attitudes of the time -- and the confluence of the "White City" as a cultural paradigm seemed, as DH Lawrence predicted, the world can expect "always the same" from America. America "refuses to hear the hum of destruction underneath… America has got to destroy…. It is [its] destiny"…… [read more]

Multi Cultural Psychology Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (482 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Multicultural Psychology

Mutlicultural Psychology

What is the definition of Multicultural Psychology?

Simply put, multicultural psychology is the systematic study of human behavior where people of different cultural backgrounds encounter each other. Multicultural psychology can also be seen as a state of culture within a specific demographic. There are many differences that are evident in the U.S.; these differences are what can cause a disruption between individuals when we are not prepared to interact with those differences. Multicultural psychology focuses on the cultural differences in thought processes and acceptable vs. unacceptable behaviors. It relates not only to normal lives - such as home, education, work and relationships - but also to what is considered 'abnormal' or 'normal'. Multicultural psychology is just not merely a study of culture but of social and political issues ethnic minorities and those whose culture differs from the mainstream encounter.

What is the role of multicultural psychology in society?

Multicultural psychology helps us to understand and address challenges that certain cultures face. Through multicultural psychology we look through the eyes of various ethnic groups and gain a greater insight and understanding into their social, economic and political challenges. Multicultural psychology gives a better understanding of how people of different cultures may behave or think. Through its study we begin to understand how even other psychological concepts may be influenced by gender, race, class or ethnicity.

The study of multicultural psychology and the application of its concepts help us…… [read more]

Cultural Differences Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,329 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Acculturation and cultural identity are both valuable tools in our understanding of cultural differences, and are surrounded by a fair amount of discourse and political controversy. What follows is an analysis of each concept and their implications for fostering our knowledge and understanding of cultural differences.

Acculturation is the concept of a minority group (i.e. immigrants) assimilating to the dominant majority by successfully adopting a second culture or separating from it and becoming marginalized (Rudmin, 2006). Rogler, Cortes, & Malagady add to this definition that those in acculturation contexts experience a change in attitude toward their host society (1991). Immigrants' ties with their own societies are often cut off, leaving them to face the difficulties of economic survival and social mobility in an unfamiliar place (Rogler, Cortes, & Malagady, 1991). Immigrants must also adapt to a new cultural system, language, set of behavioral norms, and value characteristics (Rogler, Cortes & Malagady, 1991).

Cultures can 'overlap,' however, and this affects the way in which some scholars interpret the idea of acculturation (Rudmin, 2006). For example, there exists a large overlap and little "cultural distance" between Japan and Korea, as well as the United States and Canada (Rudmin, 2006, p. 70). As such, Rudmin contends that in acculturative contexts, groups select the characteristics by which to identify themselves and "mark their intercultural boundaries" (2006, p. 70). Acculturation, then, is not about cultural values, Rudmin says, but about "encountering and reacting to social constructs created and maintained as perceptual boundary markers between cultures" (2006, p. 70).

Conspicuous examples of acculturation can be seen in, among other situations, Native Americans' adoption of Western-style dress, Native Americans' adoption of capitalism and other Western behaviors (read: opening casinos, drinking alcohol), and Western-style consumer behavior in Mexican-Americans.

Buriel (1993) describes two models useful for understanding acculturation. One is unidirectional; it implies that as immigrants become more competent and sensitive to their host culture, their own culture begins to erode (Buriel, 1993). This model is incompatible with biculturalism -- an idea closely related to acculturation -- the concept of an immigrant preserving his own culture while adopting his host society's (Buriel, 1993). An acculturation model capable of handling biculturalism is two-dimensional and "acknowledges the persistent dual cultural influences" in the lives of immigrants (Buriel, 1993, p. 532).

In his study of the acculturation of Mexican-Americans, Buriel claims that the level of respect for cultural differences can tell us how 'well' immigrant acculturation is proceeding. (1993). His study, in part, showed how elementary school bilingual/bicultural programs can foster understanding and thus respect of cultural differences in an acculturative context among elementary school students (Buriel, 1993).

What we can take from Buriel's (1993) findings is that an acculturative context can foster the understanding of cultural differences. Perhaps an acculturative context, as it is experienced, allows an individual to clearly identify the differences between her host culture and her home society's. Likewise, one close to an individual in the process of acculturation may become more aware of the individual's culture as… [read more]

Spirit Helping Re-Imagining Fadiman's the Spirit Catches Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (908 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Spirit Helping

Re-Imagining Fadiman's the Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down: Better Alternatives in Cultural Competency

In her book The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down, Anne Fadiman recounts the tale of the Lee family, Hmong immigrants from Laos now residing in Merced, California, and their daughter Lia's diagnosis and medical battle with epilepsy. The book's focus, however, is on the battle that occurs between the principles of Western medicine and the Western doctors encountered by the Lees and the Hmong cultural beliefs and practices still strongly adhered to by the family. Both of these contribute to the diminished care of Lia from both cultural perspectives, and Fadiman does an excellent job of fairly rendering the shortcomings of care and the misunderstandings that occurred on both sides of the struggle to save a little girl's life and ensure her well-being (Fadiman 1998).

Conflict arises both due to misunderstandings and mistrusts that exist for both parties in regards to the other. The Lees interpret much of the doctors' orders for Lia's care as advice that can be taken or disregarded at will, while the doctors tend to see the Lees' refusal to give the prescribed medicines as stemming alternately from ignorance or arrogance, rather than the considered cultural perspective from which such decisions were actually being made (Fadiman 1995). The Lees' failure to provide the proper medicine leads to Lia's removal to a foster home for six months, and her ultimate vegetative state is blamed on the same lack of Western care or, according to the Lees' perspective on the prevention of the proper spiritual healing methods by the Western doctors and legal system (Fadiman 1998).

All parties concerned could have done a much better job of providing Lia with the care she needed and ensuring that all of the other parties, each of whom can be seen as fully and legitimately caring for Lia and having her best interests at heart, would feel more respected. As Fadiman makes quite explicit in her examination of the Hmong culture at large as well as in her specific description and discussion of the Lee family and their attitudes, being given orders and listening to other opinions was not a strong suit of Nao Kao Lee or Foua Yang Lee; both of Lia's parents could and should have made themselves receptive to other possibilities, and -- especially at the earlier stages of her illness -- tried to develop a better understanding of the explanations and advice they received.

At the same time, the onus is largely on the doctors for bridging the cultural gap and developing an understanding of the Lees' perspective during the course of Lia's treatment, as it is part of effective medical practice…… [read more]

Cultural Competency Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (908 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Cultural Competency in a Typical Elementary School

Cultural competency has become a new buzzword in many fields that deal with institutional and personal interactions. The basic concepts of multiculturalism and diversity have grown from concepts based largely in theory and with an attitude of political prudence to practical and effective means of dealing with a world in which people have increasingly different and often disparate beliefs, backgrounds, and values. Cultural competency is a term that describes an institution's -- be it a medical office or hospital, social work organization, or education facility -- ability to promote the most effective and culturally affirming experience for all of individuals served by the institution regardless of their cultural identification or background. There is a high degree of ethical importance in promoting and maintaining cultural competency in institutions that serve adults within a community, and this imperative can only be seen as more extreme in institutions that serve children.

Though there are significant differences in elementary schools' cultural competency levels at different institutions and perhaps generally in different regions of the country, overall it appears that most schools operate at the level of cultural blindness. There is a trend in trying to treat and think of everyone as exactly equal and essentially the same which denies the possibility of any real awareness of culture as a diverse mechanisms that leads to diverse and highly dissimilar worldviews (SPS 2009). Cultural competency is not achieved through the arrival at a precise and objective standard of practices, but rather is an ongoing process that is built on continual learning and adjustment that takes each individual's needs into account, and this is not occurring at a practical level at many elementary schools (Olsen et al. 2006).

One specific institution that the author had the opportunity to observe first hand for an extended period of time contained a highly diverse student body in terms of skin color and cultural and ethnic identification, and "diversity" was a common feature of many lessons. These lessons, however, focused primarily on the importance of specific individuals from various cultures that had made contributions to the dominant, white and Western culture of which the school was essentially a part. The central tenet of such lessons, though not explicitly stated as such (and perhaps made the more harmful through the subtlety of its implications) was that all cultures are equally important and valuable from the perspective of the dominant culture. While the aim of eradicating any notion of a qualitative ranking of cultures in terms of importance is certainly a laudable goal from the perspective of cultural competence, it comes at the price of masking specific cultural contributions and strengths (Olsen et al. 2006).

A lack of cultural competence…… [read more]

Mass Media Facilitates Acculturation of Taiwanese Adult English Learners Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  15 pages (4,340 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Mass Media Facilitates Acculturation of Taiwanese Adult English Learners

The central purpose of this review of the literature is to provide an overview of a sample of the most pertinent studies relating to the topic under discussion. The articles have been selected to provide cogent insight into the issue of acculturation in the context of the demographic group under discussion.… [read more]

Migration and Globalization Migration Is Grounded Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,006 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Migration and Globalization

Migration is grounded in process of globalization. Both of these concepts lead to the development of a world that is more interdependent and connected. The purpose of this discussion is to explain several themes associated with globalization and migration. The Reseacr will seek to explain the reasons why migration and globalization occur.

According to Steger, what are the main traits or characteristics and dimensions of globalization?

Steger explains that globalization is a set of social processes that appear to transform our present social condition of weakening nationality into one of globality (Steger)." Steger asserts that one of the primary characteristics of a globalization is the development of a global economy. The primary dimensions of globalization according to Steger are economic, political, ecological and cultural. All of these dimensions are affected by globalization. As it pertains to the economic dimension Steger points out that globalization has an impact on economic conditions such as trade and finance. Globalization serves as a conduit for an economic system that is interconnected and interdependent. As it pertains to the political dimension, Steger asserts that globalization is just another aspect of the creation of an international community that is without boundaries or borders. The author asserts that globalization may ultimately lead to the formation of a one world government and the European Union is a prototype for such a government. The ecological dimension of globalization emphasizes the idea that the environmental crisis affects every nation and as such the regions of the world have to work together to overcome issues such as global warming and pollution. These environmental problems require nations around the world to establish standards and to collaborate to ensure that these problems can be resolved. Finally the author discusses the cultural dimension of globalization. Steger asserts that globalization has forever changed culture particulalary as it pertains to the languages that are used throughout the world. Steger asserts that popular products and the companies that produce these products are changing cultures around the world and ultimately making the people of the world more homogenous.

What is globalization meant to regulate and how is unequal regulation reflected in the ranking of these movements?

The research seems to indicate that globalization is meant to regulate the world economy, migration, development of global cities, the development of cosmopolitan and local cultures and the deteriation of social identity (Cohen). According to Massey "immigration flows were dominated by Europe and stemmed from processes of colonization and economic growth under mercantile capitalism (Massey)." In other words, colonization was actually a form of globalization that came about as a result of the need to further economic opportunities and allow for greater freedoms. The authors further explain that the regulation of migration has been extremely unequal for at least 300 years as Europeans have been able, with little to no regulation, to inhabit significant portions of Oceania, Asia, African, and the Americas. Indeed Europeans have ranked the highest as it relates to the fluidity with which they can move… [read more]

Giddens' Late Modernity and Baudrillard' Postmodernity Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (860 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Historian Comparison

Giddens's late modernity and Baudrillard's postmodernity.

Compare and contrast: Giddens' modernity and Baudrillard's postmodernity

Compare and contrast: Giddens' late modernity and Baudrillard's postmodernity

For postmodern historians like Jean Baudrillard, history is less a series of facts and figures than a springboard for musing about the human condition. As a philosopher and cultural critic, Baudrillard sees the perceived distance between 'the real' and the 'image' in modern society as fundamentally altering the way that human beings relate to the present and to the past. "History is our lost referential, that is to say our myth…the great event of this period, the great trauma, is this decline of strong referentials, these death pangs of the real and of the rational that open onto an age of simulation" (Felluga, 2001, Modules). Simulations, or simulacrums, are ideas or concepts that 'replace' what are real with something that was once supposed to only be a representation. Representations become reality in the postmodern world.

A good example of a simulacrum might be Disneyworld's Epcot Center, where many countries are simulated in miniature. The copy of France, as represented by a replica of the Eiffel Tower and some pastry shops, becomes more like France than France itself in the mind of the viewer. The word 'Watergate' comes to represent a specific political scandal rather than the building and soon the word comes to take on a life of its own and is used to convey a variety of forms of political scandals and corruption, such as 'Monica-gate' (Felluga, 2001, Definition)..

Perhaps the most frightening example of 'simulacra' discussed by Baudrillard is that of an NBC miniseries on the Holocaust whereby: "One no longer makes the Jews pass through the crematorium or the gas chamber, but through the sound track and image track, through the universal screen and the microprocessor. Forgetting, annihilation, finally achieves its aesthetic dimension in this way -- it is achieved in retro, finally elevated here to a mass level" (Felluga, 2001, Modules). The impact of the representation transcends the impact of the reality. However, it is also worth asking if, by simply critiquing cultural products rather than describing lived history, Baudrillard contributes to this sense of collective forgetting.

Anthony Giddens likewise suggests that human beings often lack a sense of control and empowerment over the symbols that make up language and culture. However, in contrast to Baudrillard who stresses the unconscious and often unnoticed replacement of 'the real' by a symbol, for Giddens, such a replacement often causes a very obvious sense of friction, in contrast to Baudrillard's stress on the subtlety…… [read more]

Determinism Certain Controversies Continue to Exist Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (803 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



Certain controversies continue to exist within the scholastic arenas, such as nature vs. nurture and, more recently, global warming. Another one of these ongoing debates concerns determinism, or what "determines" or drives a nation to develop in a certain way. Does a society move in a specific direction because of cultural impetus? Or does it evolve, as Marx believed, from an economic standpoint? From the economic determinism side, it is argued that production is the primary motivator for all of social, political and cultural life and even the individual's social consciousness is determined by the economic structure. Allen et al. (2007) surveyed the cultural values of select East Asian and Pacific Island nations in 1982 and then again in 2002 and found, more practically, a combination of these factors at play, with economic determinism appearing to be a stronger motivator.

One of the significant areas of interest in the West has been the sociology of culture and whether or not culture exists by itself relative to the economic structures. This controversy revolves around the Marxist theory that culture falls under the umbrella of economics and is an output of the economic structure. From an extreme, this makes culture to be powerless. Proponents argue that economic determinism is an undisputed historic law. A society's institutions, government, social class structure, religion, family makeup, and even value systems, beliefs and norms are largely driven by economics. In fact, Charles Beard in an Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States (1913), his study of the property holdings of the Founding Fathers, concluded that they "were, with few exceptions, immediately, directly, and personally interested in, and derived economic advantages from, the establishment of the new system," and "the Constitution was essentially an economic document."

On the other hand, in the early 1940's, Leslie White (Service, 1976), coined the term "cultural evolution," arguing that culture was the major vehicle by which humans adapted to their environments. In the 1950's, Julian Steward (1972), promoted the development of "cultural ecology," or specific cultural features can be scientifically determined as closely connected to subsistence and economic activity.

The study by Allen et al. (2007) places a greater emphasis on the economic determinism side, although giving some examples of cultural focus. The authors also refer to research by Hofstede (1988), who has presented statistical evidence in support of the connection between a nation's culture and its economic growth.…… [read more]

Achievements Since My Early Days as Radio Admission Essay

Admission Essay  |  2 pages (537 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Since my early days as radio reporter for World View Foundation in 1997, I believe I have come a long way. Pursuing my deep interest in the field of development, I moved from one opportunity to another, gaining wider experience and in the process becoming very more deeply involved in the area.

I have since gained 15 years of very valuable experience which has given me an opportunity to know a lot about the field of development in variety of area from refugee welfare to child protection to rural development. Starting as a radio reporter, I gained international experience when I worked with ZOA Refugee Care Netherlands and Terre Des Hommes Germany as administrator and project coordinator respectively. Though I worked exclusively from within the confines of my country, Thailand, still I managed to gain international experience by working with NGO with world wide presence. The scope of their reach also broadened my vision and knowledge about development and today I feel confident in my knowledge on the subject of development connected with child-related issues, sexual exploitation and rural problems. But still I felt this intense urge to gain more theoretical knowledge in indigenous development and believe that a Master's Degree in the field would help me gain deeper understanding of the field and related issues.

My resume shows in great detail some of the more tangible aspects of my knowledge and experience such as my work experience and educational background but what is truly more important to me is the experience and understanding I gained on a deeper level about human needs, problems and the bonds…… [read more]

Personal Identity and Cultural Identity Has Moving Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  8 pages (2,977 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Personal Identity and Cultural Identity

Has Moving to Los Angeles Made a Difference in the Personal Identity of Middle-Eastern Persons Over the Age of 40?

People identify with the place in which they spend a majority of their lives. When they migrate to another area, it can cause a sense of loss for something familiar. Migrants of Middle Eastern decent… [read more]

Globalization Reader by Frank Lechner and John Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  8 pages (3,217 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Globalization Reader by Frank Lechner and John Boli, addresses what has become one of the most important buzz words of the 21st century. Globalization refers to a process that is complex and involves many different theories and facets. Lechner and Boli present some of the most recent research on globalization in a format that is easy to understand. The book… [read more]

Women's Rights Multiculturalism Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (656 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Opponents to multiculturalism argue that the state focuses too much on the importance of cultural diversity and too little on the necessity of each culture affirming its own heritance. Since this is the case, opponents further argue, xenophobia and extremism is on the increase. Drawing upon human rights law, Xanthaki (2010) seeks to show that human rights law endorses multicultural policies and seeks to promote a multicultural vision. Xanthaki (2010) also discusses current challenges concerning multiculturalism. Although multiculturalism is partially addressed in international / human rights law and then only indirectly, it is certain that international law insists upon protecting and respecting individual cultures. On the other hand, there may be instances where according to their particular cultural demands, cultures may separate themselves from their host-country and create problems with this host country. In that instance, care should be taken in the measures that governments apply when dealing with minorities and in the policies that they adopt. In other words, there is a limitation to affirmative action, and the larger country is taken into consideration when minority groups press for rights that differ to the situation extant in, or the policies shared by, that larger country, particularly when hostility to those minority groups might accrue as a result.

Does multiculturalism foster fundamentalism and undermine national identity? Xanthaki (2010) argues that the contrary is the case since the recognition of multiple cultural frameworks not only encourages anchoring in one's particular culture but also fosters a feeling of devotion to the larger country as a whole. International law argues the importance of interaction, consequently promoting the idea of reciprocity amongst cultures: that they share equal obeisance both to their particular country and to the surrounding culture. When allegiance is in conflict, the state's duty is to promote dialogue. On the other hand, cultural practices that violate human rights or human dignity such as female circumcision or wearing the burka cannot be justified since, even though condoned by particular group, they…… [read more]

Personal Critical Incident Journal

Journal  |  9 pages (3,290 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Personal Narrative within a Cultural Context

It was late November in Madison, Wisconsin -- the leaves had begun to fall creating a crunchy undergrowth as you tramped across the quad to the oblong, totally glass encased building the undergraduates had aptly nicknamed "The Shark Tank," no doubt a symbol of their attitude towards young budding members of the Bar. It… [read more]

Five Factor Model and Roy G. Biv Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (632 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Five Factor Model and ROY G. BIV

The five factor model has gained both support and criticism as the dominant empirical theory in recent personality research. In order for the model to have true scientific value, however, it must withstand empirical testing and explanatory power. Such a model is said to have 'truth value' (Hastings 88). In ROY G. BIV and the OCEAN, Brad Hastings compares the five factor model with the ROY G. BIV analysis of the color spectrum in order to assert the truth value of the five factor model.

Research by Allport (1937), Cattell (1945), McRae and Costa (1987 and 1990) and others have concluded that the five factor model of human personality is derived from five biological, innate core personality traits: Openness to experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism (OCEAN, as an acronym). Theoretically, his model has been supported by the lexical hypothesis, which states that natural language "contains the most relevant traits" and that personality traits can be best described by single decontextualized adjectives. The lexical hypothesis has been criticized by many psychologists (McAdams, for instance) for lacking an evidentiary base, not recognizing cultural differences among people and not explaining whole person among the participants (90).

Hastings supports the five factor OCEAN model by comparing this personality theory to our understanding of color and the electromagnetic spectrum. As Hastings explains, color is a scientific fiction, it does not actually exist, though all humans are explicitly taught to believe it does. The appearance of a color occurs when an object does not absorb a particular part of the electromagnetic spectrum. A rose is, therefore, not really red; it is merely absorbing every electromagnetic wave on the spectrum but one which gives the rose a red appearance to the human eye (92). When an electromagnetic wave is not absorbed by an object, there is a corresponding color chart for the resulting appearance, i.e.…… [read more]

Diversity Cultural Intelligence Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,007 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Cultural Intelligence

Developing an Accurate Understanding of Cultural Intelligence and Diversity in the Contemporary Workplace

Earley, P. & Mosakowski, E. (2004). "Cultural intelligence." Harvard business review (October), pp. 1-9.

Throughout the several and varied sections of this article, the authors attempt to define cultural intelligence, and more importantly to demonstrate the means of cultivating cultural intelligence and acting in a way that promotes true intercultural understanding and collaboration. Their effort begins with a simplistic yet meaningful explanation of what culture is and what the term "cultural intelligence" means, providing examples of how different cultures perceive things and operate differently. People with high levels of cultural intelligence are better able to correctly interpret the gestures, tones, and inflections of people from other cultures, making for more effective communications. Examples are provided throughout the article to demonstrate the principles the authors discuss, and their lacking in certain situations.

The authors then go on to identify and describe three sources of cultural intelligence, listing the head, the body, and the heart as the essential elements. The head is the source for traditional learning and remembering about another culture and discovering meaning in actions and customs, while gestures and body language can much more clearly demonstrate a level of cultural knowledge. The heart has to do with one's belief in one's own efficacy and ability to communicate across cultural lines, providing the confidence needed for true cultural intelligence.

After describing the ways in which to develop cultural understanding and the goals and purposes of this development, the authors turn to describing typical personality types and situations that are encountered in regards to cultural intelligence. The personality types identified are categorized based on how they approach understandings of other cultures, and how they prepare (or fail to prepare) for intercultural interactions and dealings. The positive and negative aspects of each of the identified personality types are given, as well as scenarios involving these types and suggestions for how cultural intelligence could have been improved. The authors close with a section providing individuals with an explicit explanation of how to cultivate cultural intelligence, culminating the article's descriptions and definitions with a straight-to-the-point practical guide.


Understanding cultural intelligence as a phenomenon related to but separate from normal intelligence and emotional intelligence is in and of itself a powerful insight gained from this reading. Though diversity is a buzzword often heard in business and other arenas these days, the concept is not fully understood or appreciated by many and is instead merely paid lip-service, however earnestly this service may be paid (Hays-Thomas 2004). This article makes it clear that cultivating and truly respecting diversity does not mean simply treating everyone the same, but rather treating everyone with respect in the manner by which they are accustomed to seeing it (Earley & Mosakowski 2004). This is true cultural diversity intelligently handled.

At the same time, many of the scenarios and personalities described by the author appear to have far more complex and difficult problems and solutions than are… [read more]

Experimental Theatre Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 11


Experimental Theater

Trends in globalism and technology have changed the existing structures and systems of power in the modern world. This rather fluid evolution has, really since the end of World War II, evolved towards breaking cultural and political conventions and moving towards new paths -- whether to a more Utopian world or the dystopian paradigm so popular in modern literature.

This is true in the Arts as much as in Politics, especially in a time in which the old political and social boundaries no longer exist. Too, building off Sartre and others, in the modern Developed world, the individual no longer need exist in complete isolation -- modern communications make it entirely possible to reach out with art and culture to almost everywhere in the world, irrespective of boundaries, economic status, educational level, or language.

Some of these larger, less epistemological questions began to pique my interest in alternative theater. For example, Jerzy Grotowski's creation of The Poor Theater, and his Akropolis and Apocalpypsis Cum Figuris, breaking away from standard conventions and yet asking seminal questions reminiscent of Greek theater in the Ancient World.

Further, I investigated the different forms of theatre that essentially broke away from the standardized conventions of traditional theatre -- alternative theatre.

Essentially, alternative theatre deconstructs traditional theater by creating body, space, and sounds that are more of juxtaposition between the actor, the text, and the audience. In many respects, both the actor and audience are intimately engaged within the performances so that each rendition is as unique as the audience. Taking this as an example, and adding other techniques of alternative theater, one can find certain essential commonalities that are germane to a successful performance. It is these techniques that I am most interested…… [read more]

Two Theories of Globalization Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (926 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Globalization

The tide of globalization has impacted every aspect of life and modern endeavor. Theorists however are divided in the ways they attempt to explicate this phenomenon. There are two fundamental cleavages in the theoretical landscape, theories that are economic in orientation and those that are cultural (Flynn 2007). This is entirely possible since by nature globalization captures multiple facets of the modern experience (Kenneth 2006, p. 51). This paper will critically discuss two, global capitalism and global polity.

Global capitalism is an economic theory of globalization which draws from Marxist conceptions of the economy. Global capitalism is sometimes considered a 'hyper' capitalist theory (Martell 2007, p. 172). It is a prescriptive theory that focuses on the "triumph of capitalism," the success of the market economy and the establishment of new transnational ruling elites (Kenneth 2006, p.55, Sklair 2001).

Global capitalism advances the concept of a new global empire (Sklair 2001). This new capitalist empire conjures new forms of "sovereignty, economy, culture and political struggle" (Kellener 2002, p.286).The proponents of this theory assert that capitalism has entered a new age of accumulation. This new wave a global accumulation is purported to engender international development and, reduce inequality and poverty.

For the global capitalist the transnational corporation (TNC) generates the substantive change in the global environment. TNC's are not fettered to a particular country and operate globally, thus the relationship between capital and labor becomes transnational (Flynn 2007). The role of the state also morphs from focusing on local capital accumulation to global capital accumulation. The rise of the TNC' is thought to weaken the power of the local state, reducing the state's role to merely implementing global policies initiated by the TNC's.

Steigliz (2003), asserts that this accumulation of capital is not without risks and negative fallout for international development. The reality is that "globalization has impacted different groups differently: some have benefitted enormously, others have borne more of the costs (Steigliz 2003 p.505). For Kiely (2005), this vapid inequality means that far from reducing poverty, globalization may have worsened the situation a widening the chasm between the wealthy and the poorer countries.

The weakness of the global capitalist theory centers on its failure to see beyond the economic dimension, and the reduction of the state to the position of a pawn in a world largely dominated by large corporations. This conception fails to consider that states have unique histories and variant "institutional capacities" (Flynn 2007, p. 12). Kellener (2002) asserts that, it also fails to see the complexity of globalization and adequately explain the "complex relations between capitalism and democracy" (Kellener 2002, p. 289)

Hay and Marsh (2000), add to the critique by contending that the evidence itself is tainted with selectivity, and ignores critical data that supports adverse positions.…… [read more]

Positive and Negative Effects of Globalization Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,496 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Positive and Negative Effects of Globalization

The unique process of globalization is transforming the world in a phenomenal way. The world has never seen the movement of people from one place to another on such a scale as at present (Nevin, 2006, p. 43). Another major facet of current economic globalization is increasing libertarian concept of free trade across the… [read more]

Multiple Regression Analysis Is an Essential Constituent Methodology Chapter

Methodology Chapter  |  5 pages (1,613 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Multiple regression analysis is an essential constituent of marketing research procedures. Better usability over several kinds of data, the ability to handle failure of pre-defined assumptions and ease of understanding are some its advantages. Predicting research results and analyzing the different variables used in those predictions are the two primary objectives of multiple regression analysis. In a situation where a… [read more]

Personality Development Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (561 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Personality Development -- Social and Cultural Factors

Personality development in the individual is a function of numerous different variables, including genetic influences, family-of-origin dynamics, social circumstances, and the role of various elements of the external environment. Among the many aspects of the external environment that contribute to personality development in the individual are the influences of social and cultural norms, values, beliefs, and expectations. They can dictate substantial themes that determine the ways that individuals feel about themselves, the way they regard others, and the ways that they perceive their rights and roles in relation to other individuals and to society as a whole.


In principle, human beings are, for all intents and purposes, "blank slates" when they are born. They have natural biological needs and tendencies, but the manner in which they come to view themselves, others, and the rest of society are determined for them by others. The importance of social learning can be demonstrated by the way that differential socialization of the genders (for just one nearly universal examples) radically affects the way that males and females come to develop different personalities with respect to aspects of personality such as confidence and the relative balance between aggressiveness and passivity. In many human cultures, this differential gender-based socialization also dictates the manner in which the individual comes to regard his or her own sexuality. While all human beings share similar sexual urges and inclinations, males are typically encouraged to explore their sexual urges freely and even to derive a measure of confidence and pride with respect to their sexual conquests. By contrast, females in those same societies are discouraged from that behavior and to the extent they…… [read more]

Successful Expatriate Training Synthesis Successful Expatriate Preparation Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (649 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Successful Expatriate Training


Successful expatriate preparation requires more than simply learning a new language

Being fluent in another culture requires far more than simply learning the language. Every culture has a different framework of assumptions as to what constitutes appropriate and inappropriate behavior. For example, when dealing with Europeans, being excessively detailed and 'spelling out' the meaning of what one is saying can come across as patronizing, even though such clarity may be viewed as a positive attribute amongst plain-spoken Americans, These lapses of intercultural understanding are extremely common. Executives at HP committed such a faux paux when dealing with their counterparts in Grenoble, despite the fact that HP is a highly respected multinational firm (Kholsa 2001). Europeans also often resist certain aspects of American business life that we may take for granted, such as the need to wear nametags or to smile (Khosla 2001).

Intercultural understanding and making one's foreign counterparts feel at home often requires very subtle and nuanced gestures, to show that the negotiator has done his or her homework, regarding the other party's culture. These gestures can be as simple as knowing when to extend a cup of tea to Japanese colleagues during an intense negotiation session; showing respect for time when dealing with Israelis who prefer a highly compressed and time-efficient meeting style; or knowing when to pause and when to remain silent (Kholsa 2001).

Gaining such cultural fluency demands that Americans try to understand, with a sincere and open mind, why some individuals view American business tactics as rude. Arab businessmen, accustomed to a more high-context style of negotiations in which interpersonal relationships are paramount, often find Americans abrupt. Perhaps even more damaging to creating a positive atmosphere during negotiations, is the significant fact that Americans are viewed as unwilling to adapt themselves to deal with local business channels and are said to impose their internal business strategies upon foreign organizations (Wederspahan 2002). Of course, this may…… [read more]

Team Leadership in Multicultural Groups Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,064 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Leadership in Multicultural Groups

To what extent does the larger context (i.e. A business setting, an educational setting) affect the dynamics of the leadership of a multicultural group?

How do gender and ethnicity interact in the context of the leadership of a multicultural group?

How significant is each group member's definitions of culture and cultural salience?

In investigating the dynamics of the leadership of multicultural groups, an important starting point is with the individual. This may seem counterintuitive given that the subject that is being focused on is the group. But while a group is certainly more than simply the sum of its parts, it is also its parts. A group must be investigated as its whole, but it must also must be examined in terms of the characteristics of each of the members. Hambrick et al. (1998), for example, note that in seeking to understand how multinational corporations can best provide good leadership, it is necessary to start with the individual characteristics of the members. These characteristics include gender, age, and ethnicity, as well as less demographic characteristics such as field of technical expertise (Mitchell et al., 2002).

Gibson & McDaniel (2010) make one of the most important arguments in this arena: There is as yet no single model that works for all multicultural groups since the specific cultural groups that are represented in a group affect its structure. Also, there is no single model that can be applied across the board since the degree of multiculturalism in a group is highly influential (Gong, 2003). It is also important to understand that the dynamic of multiculturalism cannot be understood in linear terms (Randel, 2003).

Another fundamental dynamic that must be taken into account when doing research in this area is the fact that individuals vary significantly in their definition of what culture is and what constitutes a cultural aspect of their personality as opposed to an aspect that arises from another factor (Harris, 2006).

The research proposed here is to examine how virtual multicultural groups function. Maznevski & Chudoba (2000) found that leaders of such groups may be negligent in terms of their acknowledging that culture can still create both complicated conflicts and affiliations, even when group members never interact in person.

Annotated Bibliography

Gibson, C.B. & McDaniel, D.M. (2010). Moving Beyond Conventional Wisdom: Advancements in Cross-Cultural Theories of Leadership, Conflict, and Teams. Perspectives on Psychological Science 5: 450-462.

The authors here examine the past several decades of cross-cultural research to determine what are the most relevant criteria for examining group dynamics, focusing on both what criteria help groups cohere and what tends to promote conflict. They find that there is a distinct lack of models that work in different settings.

Gong, Y. (2003). Toward a Dynamic Process Model of Staffing Composition and Subsidiary Outcomes in Multinational Enterprises. Journal of Management 29: 259-280.

This paper investigates a dynamic that is both obvious and essential to explore: The more multicultural a group, the more complicated the interpersonal dynamics and the… [read more]

Cultural Diversity Also Referred to as Multiculturalism Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,085 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Cultural diversity also referred to as multiculturalism is "based on the idea that cultural identities should not be discarded or ignored, but rather maintained and valued." (American Multicultural Publications, 2010) The United States is specifically unique in terms of its cultural diversity since many different ethnic and cultural groups are stated to have made contributions to the social, economic and cultural values" of the U.S. society.

Obligations & Rules Relating to Cultural Diversity

The work of Mira Burri-Nenova entitled: "Cultural Diversity" states that the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of cultural Expressions defines cultural diversity as "the manifold ways in which the cultures of groups and societies find expression." (2008) The Convention on Cultural Diversity is stated to contain 'neither specific obligations for the State parties, nor guidelines on what legitimate measures aimed at protecting and promoting cultural diversity are..." however it is additionally stated that it "may allow the State parties to adopt measures that suspiciously resemble protectionism." (Burri-Nenova, 2008)

II. Dispersion of Knowledge of Cultural Diversity

Simultaneously, it is important to understand that "cultural diversity remains a valid regulatory objective which could be traced back to fundamental human right of freedom and expression, and whose pursuit is arguably even more vital in the digitally networked environment." (Burri-Nenova, 2008)

There is a risk of marginalization of cultural expressions and specifically those of indigenous individuals which is further intensified "through the spread of corporate power and the proliferation of mainstream content." (Burri-Nenova, 2008) Just as well, the digital environment makes offerings of "unprecedented ways for creative expression, both individually and collectively, and for their instantaneous and global distribution." (Burri-Nenova, 2008) These newly formed opportunities that exist and that may serve to enable cultural diversity represent knowledge that is needed by societies making it critical that the existing legal and practical barriers are removed as well as barriers to access of the content of this knowledge.

III. Organizational Cultural Diversity

The work of Schauber (2001) entitled: "Effecting Extension Organizational Change Toward Cultural Diversity: A Conceptual Framework" states that people from differing cultural groups in the U.S. have differing perspectives, manifested in their values, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors." (Schauber, 2001) This is evidenced in the findings from studies describing these differences and for example a study conducted of the values within five Southwest U.S. cultures and specifically in those of American, Texas Homesteaders, Mormon, Navaho, and Zuni cultures, is stated to have "explored value orientations around which they assumed all people seek meaning." (Schauber, 2001)

Schauber (2001) additionally reports the stated three ways that individuals are known to relate to the natural environment and specifically states: (1) Harmony with nature; (2) Subjugation to Nature; and (3) Mastery over nature. (Schauber, 2001)

IV. Positive Effects of Organizational Cultural Diversity

Schauber (2001) reports that cultural diversity in the organization has the following impacts: (1) It enhances the creativity and problem-solving abilities of the organization; (2) It is morally, ethically, and socially the right thing to do; (3) It affects… [read more]

Migration and Cultural Pluralism Melange Cities Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (658 words)
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Migration and Cultural Pluralism

Melange Cities, Blair a Ruble. The Wilson Quarterly; Summer 2006; 30, 3; Academic Research Library.

One of the great ironies of civilization is the disposition of righteous entitlement which has allowed groups large and small to claim entitlement and connectivity to lands in a way that removes the history of their own migration. Such is an idea which Ruble (2006) exposes as hypocrisy and convenient shortsightedness. His article on the concept of urban migration frames it as an issue of relevance not just in the modern context where it is often politicized and framed according to permeating racial hierarchies, but also in this history of humanity, where ethnicities and nations came to be after countless patterns of ethnic cross-breeding, migration, war and diplomacy.

As the article by Ruble contends, "migrants of all sorts -- immigrants, emigrants, refugees, displaced persons, guest workers -- have become a significant presence in cities around the world. According to the UN Human Settlements Program, there are approximately 175 million official international migrants worldwide, not including those without complete documentation. Even this massive movement of people is not unprecedented." (Ruble, 56)

The article is particularly valuable from the perspective that these patterns have not simply demonstrated the human proclivity toward migration but have also demonstrated the degree to which this has shaped our world today. Perceptions, for instance, of entitlement in the U.S. amongst the descendents of European immigrants to restrict immigration of Mexicans, is an illustration of the political imperatives shaping views on migration. As the article by Ruble effectively demonstrates, these imperatives are often adopted with little reflection on the historical implications of immigration, which have done nothing less than facilitated the birth of Australia, the United States and the independent nations of Europe.

2. Cultural Pluralism: The Case for Benign Neglect, Micheal James. Review - Institute of Public Affairs; Sep 1998; 50,4; ABI/INFORM Global. Pg. 14

In many ways, it has become the accepted logic that we have…… [read more]

Diversity in Business Thesis

Thesis  |  30 pages (8,378 words)
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Diversity Management With Respect to Ethnicity, Culture and Gender

Diversity is an increasingly real and defining aspect of the American business culture. With respect to the globalization of the economy, the increasingly balance of gender in the workplace and the assertion of such forces as Affirmative Action, there is a clear emphasis on improving the diversity orientation of the American… [read more]

Cross-Cultural Psychology Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (810 words)
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Cross Cultural Psychology

Universality in Cross-Cultural Psychology

Is there truly a universal element to human psychology? Many great minds within the practice have debated whether cultural norms within the human mind are culture specific or more universal. Within cultural psychology, the basic concept is that psychology is heavily dependent on the individual culture in which the person is raised. However, within the construct of cross-cultural, researchers posit the idea that although each individual is heavily influenced by the world around them, there're basic patterns that appear within isolated groups that present the argument there must be some true universals.

In opposed to cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology relies heavily on the notion that psychological development is dependent on the culture each individual is raised within. According to research, one's culture is "a historically transmitted pattern of meanings embodied in symbols, a system of inherited conceptions expressed in symbolic forms by means of which men communicate, perpetuate, and develop their knowledge about attitudes toward life," (Gale Group 2001:1). Any individual growing up in a particular culture will then be psychologically impacted by that culture. Therefore, universals cannot truly exist for there is no universal culture. Each culture is relative; therefore each psychological construct of individuals is relative. This is the main argument within cultural psychology. The genre of psychology posits the idea that culture is an inseparable part of the human psyche, and will always then be relative to cultural heritage.

However, cross-cultural psychology states some differences that connect patterns in behavior as a universal construct within human nature. According to research, "Cross-cultural psychology is the study of similarities and differences in the individual psychological functioning in various cultural and ethnic groups; of the relationships between psychological variables and socio-cultural, ecological, and biological variables; and of current changes in these variables," (Berry et al. 1992:2). It takes into account all the cultural elements of an individual's mind state tat cultural society does. Culture is one of the dominating forces within the human mind. Yet, cross cultural psychology thought posits the idea that although cultures are so diverse, we can compare them and pick out common patterns seen in various cultural entities, "Our social world consists of simple, obvious, separate, fixed factors that transcend time and place, and are readily practiced and comprehended by large masses of people," (Ratner: 31). This branch of psychology studies how culture, with all of its unique traditions and social customs, affect the…… [read more]

My History Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,665 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Personal Ethnicity

Ibo Across the Water

This place is strange. Not just because people look, talk, dress, and cat differently than I am used to. Not just because the buildings and streets are different, or the colors, sounds, and smells of the cities are still unusual to my senses. All of these things make this place strange, yes, but that… [read more]

Cultural Diversity Persian and American Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (997 words)
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¶ … Personal Cultural Diversity

The world in which we live and work has grown immensely more diverse in the apst several decades due to several factors. Not only are people of various etnic, religious, and cultural backgrounds more free and able to move around the world in the search for a better life for themselves and their family than they ever have been before, but other technologies -- most notably the Internet -- also make it possible for people of absolutely every imaginable background to connect with each other across vast distances of space. Organizations -- both corporations and other business entities as well as communities and other social groups -- must learn not simply to tolerate this diversity, which has been the general thrust that many such groups have followed, but must actually learn to use this cultural diversity in ways that maximize the benefits to the organization while limiting some of the problems that diversity can cause (Carnevale & Stone 1994). My own background has its own share of personal cultural diversity; as a Persian-American, I have had to learn to bridge to often very different cultures.

I believe that my cultural diversity has helped me to see ways of behaving and attitudes that will benefit me in my career and in life in general. My family is Persian, and follows most of the religious and cultural customs attendant upon that classification. This has led to my development as someone who not only appreciates and understands cultural diversity, but who actively engages in the cultural differences I perceive, learning about them and attempting to perceive the advantages of new ways of thinking. My Persian-American identity as helped to form my perspective in this regard in two ways: first, by the simple fact that my family's background is different than most of my peers, and second from the lessons of my Persian heritage itself.

Music is a great reflection of any culture's values and perspectives, and Persian culture is no exception (During & Mirabdolbaghi 1991). Some of the things I have taken away from Persian music include an appreciation for symmetry and meditative qualities. I believe that my culture, especially through its music, has helped me to see balance and similarities in situations, people, and events that enable me to draw conclusions about their interrelationships and the ways in which they operate that would otherwise go unnoticed. The general attitude of Persian culture has also greatly enhanced my ability to live and work in a culturally diverse world, as well; some of the most important Persian festivals are pure celebrations of life and existence, and the joy that such ceremonies inspire carries over into the daily life of the Persian culture (Fordham 2007).

At the same time as I have been indoctrinated -- quite willingly -- in the over-reaching aspects of Persian culture, I have also been strongly Americanized through my school and my peers. At times, this has led to conflicts, both with my parents…… [read more]

Culturally Competent Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (611 words)
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Cultural Competence

In a world that is no longer dominated by any one race or culture, it has become critically important to understand what is meant by cultural competency and why one must be culturally competent to thrive in today's business and social environment. Cultural competence refers to "ways of thinking and behaving that enable members of one cultural, ethnic or linguistic group to work effectively with members of another." (Lynch & Hanson, 1992, p. 356)

Cultural competence comes from knowing how it feels to live in another person's world. If a left handed person is asked to use a pair of scissors designed for right handed people, they normally do not even question the reasonability of such a request. They just do it because they have learned to live in a world dominated by products designed for right hand use. However this doesn't mean left handed people need to give up their own identity, they do not have to give up using their left hand or become right handed all of a sudden. Instead they just learn to be more dexterous. This is what cultural competence demands.

In order to become more culturally competent, one must possess good knowledge of other cultures. But even prior to that, he is required to be more self-aware and know a great deal about his own culture. A person needs to start "a process of self-reflection, gather information about your own culture and that of others, appreciate cultural similarities and differences, use cultural resources and acknowledge the value of all cultures." (Klein & Chen, p. 39)

Cultural competence is a valuable skill and a tool which can be used in a variety of settings including healthcare, business, education etc. It allows handling of diversity in a much better and skilled manner which facilitates communication and makes professional interaction…… [read more]

Globalization Refers to How Local Processes Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (716 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Globalization refers to how local processes are increasingly becoming part of the greater world, and is usually used to describe economic aspects of these processes. Globalization has largely been a post World-War II phenomenon, enabled by the creation of the United Nations and its role as international policeman as much as by the technological advances that have made global business a real possibility. Because globalization has the potential to expose people to things from around the world, it has the potential to impact many aspects of local life, including financial markets, local economies, industry, politics, language, access to information, education, environment, culture, technology, social aspect, legal systems, and the development of ethics. As such, globalization has the power to be a tremendously positive practice, but it also has the potential to be terribly abused.

One of the most negative aspects of globalization has been the use of exploitation of cheap labor in less developed countries by companies from more developed countries. Nike is one of the most well-recognized brands that has been linked to the use of sweatshop labor. These sweatshops traditionally use women and children, work them long hours, and pay them a wage below a subsistence level. As a result, it would be easy to dismiss these corporations and this practice as exploitative. However, there are actually compelling arguments for the use of sweatshop labor. In societies where there are no alternative forms of income, sweatshops can actually provide a means to make a living. For example, in India there are people employed in sweatshops that would otherwise by forced to rely upon begging to make a living. While these corporations could easily afford to pay a marginally higher wage that would greatly increase the standard of living of their employees, the reality is that they are supplying them with a wage.

Globalization can have a very positive impact on traditional non-Western societies. For example, Greg Mortensen's efforts to provide the children of Afghanistan and Pakistan with an education would never have occurred without globalization. His organization has helped provide young girls with an opportunity for education, and, in some places, has helped change how their…… [read more]

Cultural Diversity in Organizations Organization Behavior Today Thesis

Thesis  |  17 pages (4,681 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Cultural Diversity in Organizations

Organization Behavior

Today, globalization is a widely spread phenomenon making boundaries between countries fade away. It has a great impact on organizations and consumers because it provides the means to all countries to work in one large network, instead of separate smaller ones. In the one large network, the competition becomes tighter, the technology diffusion becomes… [read more]

Intercultural Communication One of the First Barriers Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  9 pages (3,531 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Intercultural Communication

One of the first barriers that Christian experiences in his encounters with a different culture is language. While his initial encounter with the people is positive and even euphoric, this early reaction leads to areas of discord and lack of understanding. Language usage and the ability to understand the nuances of a foreign language play a vital role… [read more]

Biological Science in Dr. William Maple's Dead Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,574 words)
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Biological Science in Dr. William Maple's Dead Men Do Tell Tales

Biology literally translates from the ancient Greek as "the study of life." Generally, when people think of biology and biologists they imagine studying the way plants grow, and discovering what makes animal bodies react and in many ways behave the way they do. In essence, the literal translation and… [read more]

Operations Strategy Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (860 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Operations Strategy

Cross-Cultural Considerations for an Operations Strategy

Just as organizations must have concerted, sychronised operations strategies globally to capitalize on new market opportunities, production efficiencies emanating from localized expertise (Ferdows, 2006) or the potential for greater market share based on mergers and acquisitions, they must also create strategies to enable cultural congruence and compatibility. Too often however these strategies for attaining cultural assimilation are blinded by ethnocentrically-based perspectives and processes (Hammond, Axelrod, 2006). Arguably the latter is even more critical, as for any operational strategy to succeed it must take into account the many cultural dimensions that its influences, and that influence it as well. With increased globalization it has often been argued that there is a flattening of the world's cultures, a homogenizing if you will, yet evidence suggests that strategies executed without regard to cultures very often fail. The intent of this paper is to show why it is more critical than ever to pay attention to cultural dimensions and variations between ones' own culture and those of nations where merger and acquisition candidates are location. The failure of Wal-Mart to succeed in Germany, mainly due to an ethnocentric approach to managing the acquisition of smaller German competitors and having a perceptual blind spot to how Germans shop, led to their eventual exit from the market (Christopherson, 2007). As can be seen from this example, even one of the most efficient organizations operationally, Wal-Mart, still fails in regions of the world that require the ability to fit into a region from a cross-cultural standpoint.

Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions as a Framework for Evaluating Cultural Variations

The work of Geert Hofstede at IBM which led to the development of the Cultural Dimensions Model provides a useful framework for quantifying the variations in cultures globally (Hofstede, McCrae, 2004). There were initially four accepted dimensions to Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions Model, with a fifth one added to take into account the perception of time, which is called Long-Term Orientation. The four dimensions are Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, and Uncertainty Avoidance. These five cultural dimensions provide insightful analysis into the wide differences between cultures, and also can be invaluable in explaining how operations management goals, objectives, and strategies for fulfillment can vary significantly across cultures that may reside on the same continent. The perception of time is significantly different in India vs. China for example, and this alone can have a major impact on the performance of operations management strategies and also influence how strategic decisions are made. The Hofstede Cultural Dimensions Model can provide insights into how variations in how one culture…… [read more]

Myth and the Western Civilization Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (925 words)
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Myth's Importance Today

Myth has been an essential ingredient in Western Civilization since its inception. The ancient religions -- and arguably our modern religions -- were built on myth, and contain many archetypal mythic figures and events. Religion, in turn, has hade a huge effect on the way the world at large and many of the societies within it have developed. But myth is important today for many more pressing reasons than its impact on religion and historical development. Because myths are so universal in the human experience, it stands to reason that they stem from -- and/or create -- some distinct commonalities between the many disparate people living on this planet. Myth's importance today has immense historic value, but it is even more important for the insight it provides to us as individuals, to our cultural beliefs and actions, and to our interrelationships with other individuals and cultures. Myth provides a map to human understanding.

First and foremost, an understanding of the history of Ancient Greece is essential to a proper understanding of Western Civilization, and an understanding of myth is essential to an understanding of the Ancient Greeks (Powell, Chapter 2). This makes myth an important tool in understanding the founding principles of Western Civilization. The discussion of myth today, then, reflects a discussion of the very core of our current culture ad society. This is important because anything that can help leads us to a better understanding of ourselves and the world around us is useful in this global age. Understanding the way the world developed helps us to understand the way the world behaves now, and how the various countries and cultures within it view each other. This makes the historical value of myth far more important than in simply providing an archaeological and anthropological understanding of ancient cultures; the historical value applies directly to our history, and to the very development of Western society.

Myth provides an even more profound understanding of us as individuals. The discussion of myth can lead to certain personal revelations or shifts in worldview. For instance, Joseph Campbell finds a lot of mythology at work in the institution of marriage, and equates tit to the mythic and spiritual finding of one's center or bliss, which he claims can often be synonymous in myth (Campbell, 147). Myth presents an entire perspective for introspection, allowing one to delve into deep explanations and examinations of their sense of self. Mythic figures represent human ideals, often clearly portraying a select and often repeated set of traits to typify them as certain archetypal figures like the Hero or the Healer. Though such simplistic labels cannot be wholly applied to flesh and blood human beings, an understanding of these universal archetypes can help lead to an understanding of…… [read more]

Aboriginal Art Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,442 words)
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Teaching Aboriginal Art

Canada has a very rich and unique history in the modern era, having maintained connections to its parent country while achieving independence in a peaceful manner. At first, Canada was also unique in the relationships formed between early settlers and the indigenous tribes that existed in the country for thousands of years -- since the beginning of… [read more]

Personal Creative Thinking Obstacles Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,951 words)
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Personal Creative Thinking Obstacles

Obstacles to Creative Thinking:

Personal Reflection

After reading this chapter, I am convinced that creative thinking is necessary in many parts of life. Without creative thinking, change could not occur, and change must occur for cultures, businesses, people, and a host of other organizations to survive. In my personal life, I'm convinced that I need to… [read more]

Effective Management in a Global Environment Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (2,709 words)
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¶ … Management in a Global Environment using Cultural Intelligence

Globalization is accelerating the urgency that individuals from significantly different cultures are facing in their efforts to collaborate with each other to attain common objectives and goals. This urgency to collaborate and attain shared objectives rapidly is exacerbating the need for greater levels of cultural intelligence on the part of… [read more]

Andrew Blauvelt and Tim Plowman Consider Graphic Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (354 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Andrew Blauvelt and Tim Plowman consider graphic design and product design as reflecting a culture. The authors both urge designers to take a more critical approach to design so that products are not isolated from their contexts. Only the cultural context can provide designs and objects with meaning. In "Towards Critical Autonomy or Can Graphic Design Save Itself?" Blauvelt suggests that graphic designers take a more critical stance toward their profession. Designers need to act independently of consumerism. Similarly, Plowman claims that graphic designers need to approach their work more like anthropologists do in the article "Ethnography and Critical Design Practice."

Both Blauvelt and Plowman use the word "critical" in their titles. The authors use the word critical in generally the same way. Both Blauvelt and Plowman use the word critical to suggest a critique of the graphic design profession, and both authors also use the word critical to mean "urgent." The theme of both the articles is that designers must reclaim their arts and not be slaves to consumerism.

If, as Plowman suggests, the…… [read more]

Business the Concept of Globalization Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (357 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



The Concept of Globalization

According to some, globalization is extremely bad for the American economy, because it "takes" jobs away from Americans and sends them to foreign countries, where workers will labor for far less in wages and benefits. At least some of these workers are exploited by long hours and low pay, as well. However, globalization has opened up new markets for millions of American products, (such as PCs in the Lenovo case), which might not have been necessary for work around the globe without globalization. This has certainly helped the American economy in many areas, especially technology and high-tech. After all, everyone seems to have a cell phone now, and that is a plus for the American companies who first helped develop and distribute them. There are good and bad aspects to globalization, and one that many ignore is how western culture is permeating global society, westernizing countries and cultures at a rapid pace. That may be the worst part of globalization, far worse than changing the dynamics of the job market; it is changing…… [read more]

Globalization Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,419 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Globalization is becoming a more and more spoken word, present on the lips of more and more individuals. But what exactly does this concept imply? Globalization is a generic term which encompasses a wide series of changes that occur on various levels and domains, including economics, politics, medicine, technology and even culture. "Globalization is a process of interaction and integration… [read more]

Algonquin Indian Tribes of Michigan and the Influence the Early French Term Paper

Term Paper  |  23 pages (7,164 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Agonquin Indian Tribes of Michigan and the Influence the Early French Had on These Tribes

The history of the American people is the result of numerous influences that have put their mark on what is today the American culture and heritage. The entire array of factors that have determined the unique yet troubled history of the United States belong to… [read more]

Psychic Distance Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,744 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 17


Psychic Distance

The natural occurrence of globalization is bringing the world increasingly closer together through the exchange of culture, products and services, information, and knowledge. Over the last several decades, the speed of this global connection has become much greater, because of continual technology, communications, and science advancements. Research has recognized that within this global interaction, countries will begin the… [read more]

Clifford Geertz Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,505 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Balinese Cockfighting" and F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel the Great Gatsby: Deep Play in Long Island

According to the anthropologist Clifford Geertz, all societies contain cultural systems that can be read as texts. For example, the rituals surrounding cockfighting in Balinese culture, Geertz argues can be interpreted and re-interpreted much like we interpret "Macbeth" in an English class. Cultural… [read more]

Santa Clara County Research CC the Evolving Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,975 words)
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Santa Clara County Research CC

The evolving concept of Cultural Competence is an area of reformation that is changing the delivery of many aspects of health and social work services. The delivery of social work services, especially in periods of client and family duress can and usually do place a screener or an emergency response social worker in a position… [read more]

Negotiation Strategies and Procedures Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (912 words)
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Younger negotiators may be less flexible, given their lack of experience with the 'give and take' of the negotiation process. Older negotiators also are more inclined to engage in antecedent planning activities, as outlined above. This is also true of more experienced negotiators.

Education exerts some less discernable influence upon planning -- individuals with a moderate level of education are more inclined to plan a strategy, as opposed to those negotiators without a formal education who are more uncertain of their abilities, and those with high levels of education who may feel confident enough to 'wing it.' Gender may influence negotiating style. Female negotiators may be more accepting of collaboration and more inclined to plan before the negotiating process. However, the strongest correlation between antecedent planning as it affects the negotiation process is that of national culture, as classified according to Hofstede's famous value dimensions of individualism vs. collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, power distance, and masculine vs. feminine cultures. Collectivism results in more planning and acceptance of collaboration, as does uncertainty avoidance, and nations with high 'power distances' or acceptance of hierarchies are more inclined to plan, as are more 'feminine' or relational cultures, as opposed to masculine cultures which may be more rigid, inflexible, and thus less likely to see the value of planning and compromising.

Which of them, in your eyes, is most crucial to the success of a negotiation session?

Of all of these variables, national culture exerts the most clear influence upon negotiating strategy and behavior -- particularly as younger people, or women, or less educated individuals may adapt to the styles endorsed by their cultures within their organizations and nations to 'fit in.' But it is far more difficult to adopt the negotiating culture of one's opponent without considerable finesse and practice. Collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, acceptance of power distance, and feminine acceptance of collaboration are all likely to be linked to greater planning, greater time and resources devoted to the construction of a strategy, and greater acceptance that the negotiating process will result and necessitate some give and take. This is likely to make for a less potentially 'painful' negotiation process overall, as opposed to an opponent who links taking an unyielding position to be an exhibition of power and authority, rather than a source of frustration. Regardless, it is important to be aware of the opponent's cultural orientation, as it will undoubtedly affect their strategy, expectations, techniques, and goal-formulation throughout the process.

Works Cited

Peterson, R.M., and Lucas, G.H. (2001). Expanding the antecedent component of the traditional business negotiation model; Pre-negotiation literature review and planning-preparation propositions. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice. Statesboro: Fall 2001… [read more]

Globalization Weakens the State Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,954 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 14


Globalisation weakens the state. Discuss.

Globalization is clearly one of the most controversial topics of the last decades, opinions on the matter being extremely different. When speaking about whether globalization weakens the state, there are several arguments that must be taken into consideration, both pro and con. This paper first deals with the question of whether globalization is benefic or… [read more]

Globalization Can Be Defined as Spreading Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (372 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Globalization can be defined as spreading, combining and collaborating on mainstream economic, political and cultural ideas and practices all around the world in a way that allows people in other parts of the world to connect and experience things they may not have always known. (Stiglitz, 2006)

The idea of globalization many times can go hand in hand with the idea of capitalism because businesses spread their ideas and products all over the world for all people to share. (Stiglitz, 2006) Some people are happy with the effects of globalization on the world because it allows cultures to interact and overlap. For example, kids in China may be able to eat lunch at McDonalds or kids in Europe can shop at the Gap.

However, others may believe globalization has had a negative effect on the world because it interferes with the cultural and religious beliefs of people in certain areas. Another negative aspect of globalization can be the fact that people of a certain culture and religion could lose their identity because they become so consumed by influences from other parts of the world. People also…… [read more]

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