Study "Anthropology / Culture" Essays 221-275

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Globalization Consequences Essay

… Globalization

There is no set definition for the word globalization, but the concept can be understood in general terms of reflect a trend towards the removal of barriers to the flows of goods, information, capital, people and ideas, such that… [read more]


International Distribution Channels Strategic Alliances Article Review

… The cooperation of collation partners to common goals that transcend their specific geographic and even cultural limitations is based on how dependent international distribution partners are on each other for information and knowledge. The study shows that it isn't necessary the most measurable and quantifiable factors of performance that matter in international distribution channel agreements, it's how dependent those in the channel alliances and ISA frameworks are on each other for knowledge and market intelligence (Mehta, Polsa, Mazur, Xiucheng, Dubinsky, 2006). It is the inter-firm and extra-firm collaborative agreements that matter the most, not necessarily the current sales opportunities or deals occurring at any given point in time.

Implications for International Marketing Theory and Practice

As knowledge unifies international distribution channel partners and creates highly cohesive international strategic alliances across cultures and nations, the creation of knowledge-sharing networks is critical to the further study of these dynamics. There are many examples of the multiplicative effects of knowledge-sharing networks, with the Toyota Production System being a prime example of how network-based tacit and implicit knowledge can be transformed into a competitive advantage (Dyer, Nobeoka, 2000). The use of knowledge-sharing networks in an international distribution channel context would also act as an accelerator to the overall growth of each subsequent key success factor as well, including relationship closeness, relationship longevity, cooperation and relationship satisfaction (Mehta, Polsa, Mazur, Xiucheng, Dubinsky, 2006).

Conclusion

The success or failure of international distribution channel strategies is heavily dependent on the key success factors found in Strategic Alliances in International Distribution Channels (Mehta, Polsa, Mazur, Xiucheng, Dubinsky, 2006). Knowledge sharing is absolutely critical for the success of any international distribution channel initiative, in fact it is the galvanizing force that makes any international distribution channel succeeds. The need for more research to explore the effects of tacit and implicit knowledge on the key success factors as defined in this analysis is clearly needed, to see how knowledge-sharing networks accelerate sell-side transactions as they do on the procurement side as evidenced by the Toyota Production System's knowledge sharing success (Dyer, Nobeoka, 2000).

References

Dyer, J.H., & Nobeoka, K. (2000). Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal, 21(3), 345-367.

Mehta, R., Polsa, P., Mazur, J., Xiucheng, F., & Dubinsky, A.J. (2006). Strategic alliances in international distribution channels.…… [read more]


Moral Dilemma Anyone Who Know Anything Essay

… Moral Dilemma

Anyone who know anything about the Star Trek Universe knows about the Prime Directive which bans any Federation personnel from interfering in the internal affairs of non-spacefaring civilizations. In other words, the Federation is not allowed to influence the cultural development of primitive worlds. When a Federation starship visits one of these planets, the Prime Directive can lead to some interesting moral issues which the producers of the television series have confronted directly. One such issue is the difference between moral universalism and moral relevance; and this issue was faced by the character of Jean Luc Picard in the Star Trek the Next Generation episode entitled "Justice." In this episode, Captain Picard is faced with a choice, obey the Prime Directive, or break it in order to save the life of a member of his crew.

Without summarizing the episode, on the planet inhabited by a people called the Edo, Wesley crusher faces execution for a minor infraction of the rules. But on this peaceful yet primitive planet, any violation of the rules results in instant death. There is, however, an extremely advanced alien presence guarding the planet and directing it's development. This alien presence demands that the Edo's laws be obeyed by anyone visiting the planet, while Picard attempts to convince the aliens that there must be justice for his crew as well. The alien presence is attempting to enforce moral universalism on the crew of the Enterprise, while Picard argues that moral relativism is the crew's philosophy and it too should be respected.

Throughout the story there are a number of moral dilemmas faced by the characters. First and foremost in the idea of the Prime Directive. It forbids the Enterprise from interfering in the development of primitive worlds, but the Edo are a people that are already being interfered with by an even more advanced group of aliens. When the advanced aliens made their presence known, they exposed the Edo, not as primitive people developing on their natural course, but as the pawns of an advanced alien race. Picard's failed attempt to beam Wesley off the planet seems to…… [read more]


Clinician's Mirror: Cultural Self-Assessment in Chapter Article Review

… ¶ … Clinician's Mirror: Cultural Self-assessment

In Chapter 3, the author talks about the importance of cultural self-assessments and how these self-assessments can make clinicians more aware. The purpose of this chapter is twofold. First, it hopes to introduce future clinicians to the idea that their cultural backgrounds are going to influence their decisions as clinicians, so that they need to be aware of how their own background will impact their clients. This is particularly relevant when looking at issues of privilege, which some non-minority clinicians may not even realize that they possess. Second, it provides clinicians with the tools that they need in order to carry out a self-assessment. This article does not really contain any specific research findings, but it does do a good job of presenting information discovered by prior researchers. It advocates use of the ADDRESSING model to look at one's own cultural heritage. This involves Age and generational influences, Developmental disabilities, Disabilities acquired later in life, Religion and spiritual orientation, Ethnic and racial identity, Socioeconomic status, Sexual orientation, Indigenous heritage, National origin, and Gender. Each of these dimensions can influence whether or not a person experiences privilege in society.

Understanding one's own perspective is a crucial part of working with others, because every human being brings their own personal history to a scenario. Understanding how exerting privilege or experiencing a lack of privilege has impacted an individual helps one understand how those issues might impact clients. Moreover, it helps even when working with non-minority clients, because those who are in the dominant cultural groups may not even be aware of the privilege that they have in their daily lives and may be struggling to work through resentments for others because they perceive them as getting special treatment or opportunities in a system that is supposed to be free of bias.

Summary: Assessment research in correctional settings

In "Assessment research in correctional settings: Methodological issues and practical problems,"…… [read more]


Modern Chinese History Essay

… ¶ … Chinese History

The Cultural Revolution experienced by the Chinese state during the era of Mao Zedong was an important moment in the history of the state especially from the point-of-view of the changes this era sought in the Chinese society.

The Cultural Revolution however was a crucial step in the way in which the state transformed along the communist lines and the way it evolved up to the status of the late 1980s when the Tiananmen Square events took place. The phenomenon of the Cultural Revolution had as main purpose to shift the focus from a bourgeois and intellectual way of thinking to that based on the common thinking of the masses. The spirit of the communist ideology focused on the power of the masses; however, the educated population was seen by the communist party to represent a potential threat to the cadres of the Communist rule and therefore a need for isolation and "re-education" was essential in the approach of the Communist Party. This is in effect the basis for the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution.

The Cultural Revolution had serious consequences for the Chinese population but mostly these consequences were associated with those of the Communist rule itself during the Mao regime. These changes implied important acts of violence largely because the regime had to ensure the total and complete control over the Chinese population. The fact that China is a very populous country, control could not have been exercised without strict measures to be taken in the provinces and in the large cities of the country. Also, the Communist Party experienced strong opposition from the high class that was in place before and after the Second World War and therefore the Party had to ensure that such subversive forces would be defeated. Therefore, action had to be taken to enable the Communist concepts to be adopted at all the levels of the society and in all walks of life.

The Cultural Revolution represented…… [read more]


Value of Hawaii Hawai'i Is an Island Essay

… Value of Hawaii

Hawai'i is an island that has somewhat controversially and unusually entered its status as American state some 50 years ago. Indeed, many of the current economic and social problems currently experienced by the state have been ascribed to its difficult relationship with the United States and the circumstances surrounding its integration as a state of the country. In the book The Value of Hawaii: knowing the past, shaping the future, edited by Craig Howes and Jon Osorio (2010), the various authors offer highly divergent viewpoints of the problems facing Hawai'i, as well as potential solutions to these problems. What unites these authors is a basic understand that, to effectively function in the future, it is vital to remember the past and use its lessons; whether these indicate the need for change or the retention of previously effective ways of thought and management. Specifically, three of the essays seem to touch on important paradigms that should see change before Hawai'i as a state of the United States as well as an entity on its own can hope to find solutions to its myriad problems that are uniquely related to its nature as an island and as a culture. In this context, the essays by Jonathan Kay Kamakawiwo'ole Osorio, Sumner la Croix, and Ramsay Remigius Mahealani Taum offer questions and solutions regarding Hawaiian culture, its economy, and its tourist industry, promoting a sense of hope that the state can indeed resolve its problems and difficulties.

The essay by Jonathan Kay Kamakawiwo'ole Osorio is entitled "Hawaiian Issues" and focuses on the past nature of the state as a destination for Polynesian voyagers. He also briefly describes the state's development in terms of culture and rulership until it was taken as a state by the United States. The author seems to be very concerned with the effect of this integration, which he regards as both unfair and illegal.

The essay is not, however, a simple diatribe against the United States or even a call to action for Hawaiians to stand together and fight this integration. Although there is certainly a conceptual dichotomy between the descriptions of native, traditional Hawaiian culture and the way in which the United States as a whole operates, the author nonetheless suggests that Hawaiians simply remember the values upon which their culture is based, while calling upon corporations to integrate these into a common value system that would allow for the conservation of land. He also suggests that such integration would also mean the solution to a myriad social and economic problems such as the widening gap between the rich and poor, the current system of tourism, and the management of land. What is most striking about this essay is that the author focuses on the existing positive paradigms in the state and suggesting that those be used for future social reform, upon which economic and educational reform can also be built. To carry this further, Osorio considers in more detail the paradigm known as the Hawaiian… [read more]


Added Both Light and Heat Essay

… ¶ … added both light and heat to the experience of the first field-coding experience. I find myself both attracted to the idea and process of coding and yet also doubtful about its efficacy. Or, rather, doubtful about its objectivity. It seems to me clear that two different people coding the same event, or even one person coding the same event at two different points in time, will come up with different coding. This may or may not be a problem, depending on what one believes to be the goal of the process.

I believe that it is not helpful to consider this process as being one that is appropriate to think of in either objective or static terms. Each time that one observes an event (such as when one is present at an event and then views it later on video) one's understanding of the interpersonal, linguistic, and cultural dynamics involved will have shifted. As I understand it, the purpose of coding as a research (or analytic) tool is to reduce the complexity of real-time exchanges. Coding is a process of simplification, of choosing only a few possible interpretations of what the subtext of any exchange is (or perhaps the back story of the event might be a better way of thinking about it).

Looking back on my experience of coding so far, it seems to me that it is very difficult to determine in the most precise way how well one's codes match with the actual event that one is coding and how much they simply reflect the basic concepts that one has internalized and that one tends to apply regardless. This is the primary lesson that I have learned and that I have attempted to address in the process of coding this event.

The first code that I apply to this event (that was…… [read more]


Identity in America Essay

… Identity in America

Child of the Americas - analysis

Aurora Levins Morales' poem "Child of the Americas" puts across feelings related to multicultural heritage and to the pride that one should take on as a result of being multicultural. Although one might initially consider that the writer feels ashamed with her background, it is gradually revealed that she is particularly proud as a result of it and that she actually wants to express sentiments of self-esteem through this poem. Heritage has apparently played an essential role in the poet's upbringing, as her personality was shaped by the cultural background of the ethnic voices present in her. To a certain degree, Morales goes against the dominant part of her culture in order to emphasize the fact that she is multicultural and that the American society in general should accept the fact that it contains a great deal of cultural values inherited from other cultures.

Morales is apparently hesitant about being assimilated in the American society, as she wants the masses to acknowledge her background. The writer does not necessarily want to deny the influence that American cultural values have had on her upbringing, as she continues them to be equally important to traditions that she inherited from her ancestors. She was born in a place that respected cultural values present in a wide variety of communities and her first language was "Spanglish."

The poet makes good use of symbolism, imagery, and epitomes in an attempt to provide her readers with a clear understanding of her position. The poem is meant to explain more about the melting pot in the U.S. And how it has come to influence practically all Americans, considering that they identify with a diverse range of backgrounds. In spite of the fact that many Americans originate in particular cultures from around the world, it is very difficult for them to identify with a single culture, as their culture virtually consists out of several cultures that have been brought together.

Morales is frustrated with the fact that the American society believes that it can simply assimilate other cultures. She wants people to understand that it is impossible for her and for others like her to abandon their backgrounds in order to embrace a culture that they do not identify with. Similarly, she is aware that the American community is sometimes inclined to influence multicultural people to return to the countries that their ancestors came from. However, she highlights the fact that it would be impossible for her to return to a particular place, even with the fact that she realizes…… [read more]


Radio Project Radio Art Essay

… As such, I could also apply this to myself and my own culture. We all have different lives and different professions, as well as different cultural, historical, and family backgrounds. This makes us very diverse in relation to each other. This is not something we are always acutely aware of, especially within the culture we grew up in and spent most of our lives in. The danger here is that we might lose the sense of culture, and even ourselves, in this sense of basic lack of culture. Radio art that involves conversations with taxi drivers can help to make an individual aware of this once again.

Another reason why I chose this particular setting for my project is also the relation between the road a taxi travels on and our path in life. We are all involved in a journey through life, during which we meet many and interesting individuals. My conversations with the taxi drivers made me aware of the importance of appreciating the individual differences I saw in the taxi drivers themselves, but also of the cultural similarities I could detect in the profession as a collective group.

This awareness also brought me a new awareness and appreciation not only of the cultures that I encounter on my journey through life, but also of my own culture. I became aware that each culture is unique and has its own beauty, which should be celebrated and honored, rather than treated with suspicion and negativity.

As radio art, these recordings are unique in the insights they provided, but I do not believe that it is impossible to also represent this art in other media. Taxi drivers can, for example, be shown in their various environments. The language they use and music they listen to can, for example, be supplemented and reinforced by the clothing they wear and hairstyles and jewelry they choose. Nevertheless, I also do believe that, as radio art, the insights a potential audience could gain are unique to the genre itself.… [read more]


Cities Are Part of Toronto Thesis

… The role therefore of global trends in theory formulation would have been of critical interest.

The article titled "New Systems" dealt with globalization from the perspective of a columnist. The dominant feature of the work was the expression of the culture of globalization that tends to make things all over the world the same. This tendency toward homogeneity is a critical feature of capitalism as it reduces the cost of doing business tremendously. Friedman takes great pains to paint a picture of globalization as a powerful force that was influential in the destruction of communism. The contrast between globalization and the cold war was useful but at times, the intent of the contrast became lost. The idea of the demographic pattern of globalization found resonance with the demographic patterns identified by Hulchanski's discussion of Toronto's neighborhoods.

De Rivero's work expanded on the trends presented by Friedman. The attention given to not only nation states but also multinational corporations added a necessary balance to the arguments raised by Friedman. The danger posed by MNC is an important consideration of the work and it gave an important call to understanding the challenge of a world dominated by bloodless corporations and weak world leaders. This work honed and sharpened the destructive role of multinational and transnational corporations in their quest for greater profits at the expense of national interests.

The implications of these developments for social work are very important. The globalization of the world has meant greater poverty throughout the world and at the same time reduced resources for the fight against the ills of poverty. Consequently, the social worker becomes a necessary feature of modern society, but is not properly empowered to make lasting changes to the lives of individuals. While work of the social worker is local, global trends and global players influence it. This is disturbing and stimulating. It is disturbing because it may be that social problems will expand and social workers overwhelmed by the challenges. The stimulation comes from the possibilities that exist in the global environment with the sharing of solutions…… [read more]


Globalization Our World Is Interconnected A2 Coursework

… Within the cost driver, companies that consider lifestyle of a country before price are included. The technology driver includes increasing technological systems, especially communication systems such as the internet, but also transportation systems. Fourth, there is the government driver and fifth, there is the competition driver, which can drive an organization to become a global center. [5: Unknown Author. (2011). "What are the drivers of globalization?" Blurtit.com. Retrieved May 8, 2011, < http://www.blurtit.com/q635202.html>.]

Next, we must discuss the kind of effects that globalization has had upon the world. It is clear, from all the above-written and cited that globalization is both growing and affecting a lot of people at the same time due to various fundamental changes and market forces that drive progress forwards around the world. Though globalization's effects are widely felt both in political and economic arenas, this section will focus on a very specific example; namely, the effects of globalization in California and the pharmaceutical industry.

With regards to California, globalization affects the workforce very much. According to a study, this is most widely felt in the computer industry and the food industry. This study maintains that the total amount of "global interchange, in the form of export and import activity, the internal structure of firms and their production networks, and the characteristics of the labor force" have all shifted in California and have had serious effects on the state and its industries. The study here has utilized two industries mentioned above to illustrate changes in California's economy due to globalization and examine just how the state is responding to these challenges. Needless to say, the study has found the industries adapt to the impact of globalization. In the computer industry, for example, segmented production processes are much more popular now than before, whereas in the food processing industry there is much less segmentation. [6: Kroll, C. (2004). "Globalization and the Changing Face of California Industry." UC Berkeley. Retrieved May 8, 2011, .] [7: Kroll, C. (2004). "Globalization and the Changing Face of California Industry." UC Berkeley. Retrieved May 8, 2011, . ]

The pharmaceutical industry has also been affected by globalization. For example, the industry has increased its assets and influence around the world due to globalization. According to an article, companies spend "large amounts of money on advertising, marketing and lobbying (government or parliament i.e. The decision-making body)." In specific, this industry is said to spend around $19 billion per year in order to make its present known around the globe. [8: Unknown Author. (2011). "The Effects of Globalization on the Pharmaceutical Industry." Blog. Retrieved May 8, 2011, . ]

As seen from the facts mentioned above, globalization is a strong force globally, and can even affect specific communities in the United States. There are various theories and specific effects that can be examined; however, globalization's effects will only continue to grow and will, good or bad, affect everyone sooner or later. Thus, all we can do is embrace globalization and live with it.… [read more]


Post Modernism Is the Philosophy Thesis

… Compare it to contrasting 'birds' with 'dogs'. On the other hand, researchers for cross-cultural comparison argue that, in order to best understand the syndrome as a whole, cross-cultural comparisons are in order (Breakwell et al., 2007).

Making their proposal attractive to the potential logical positivistic, styling the proposal would pragmatically necessitate that the researchers couch their proposal in logical positivistic terms. Hence, the researchers could start off by pointing to initiators of depression,

They can point to research such as that by Abramson et al. (1989) who postulate that depression is manufactured by and based on hopelessness. Do not some culture have more hopeless socio-economic political environment than others, by their very nature causing unavoidable stress? Depression, being closely related to stress, is also, accordingly, defined by political economic / political, social characteristics of different countries and populations. In that manner, depression in one particular country would be likely more common (and possibly more intense) than depression in another and, therefore, each culture needs to be studied on its own merits.

The researcher's argument can continue by pointing to scientific studies that show that availability of social support may be amongst the most important controls for limiting risk to depression (Kaufman et al. 2004) and socail supprot may, in fact, be so essential a compeotn, that it can even ameliorate negative sequalea of gene and environmental factors. One culture may have a stronger social support system then another, and, therefore, teenage depression in that culture needs to be studied locally rather than as global phenomena.

Most significantly, researchers can indicate scientific studies that show cross-cultural differences such as those preformed on Chinese individuals where social scientists conclude that they either deny depression or expression it somatically (i.e. articulate it in depth) (e.g. Parker, Gladstone, and Chee, 2001). Amplifying this particular piece of data, the group can point to the authors' conclusion that even thoguh Chinese are more heterogeneous than is glibly thought and thus generalizations are difficult to make the authors concluded that, on the whole, data does seem to indicate that the Chinese incline to one of two extremes: they either deny their depression or express it somatically.

Different cultures therefore, have different ways of thinking and reacting, and accordingly need to be studied independently.

References

Abramson, L., Metolsky, G., & Alloy, L. (1989). Hopelessness depression: A theory-based subtype of depression. Psyc. Review, 96, 358-378

Breakwell, G.M., Hammond, S., & Fife-Schaw, C., (2007). research methods in psychogloy. SAGE: London.

Kaufman, J. et al. (2004). Social supports and serotonin transporter gene moderate depression in maltreated children, PNAS, 10, 17316-17321

Parker, G., Gladstone, G., & Chee, K.T (2001) Depression in the Planet's Largest…… [read more]


Post Modernism Is the Philosophy Thesis

… However, in this situation, and since they are dealing with scientists who might be averse to philosophical arguments, the researchers can adopt a scientific stance pointing out that depression, according to the popular scientifically accepted theory, is based on cognition. In fact, adolescent depression is engendered from cognition (Beck, 2006). Cognitions are based on the 'should', 'must's, oughts', particular guilt-feelings, and assumptions created by a certain culture. In order to deal with these cognitions most effectively, therefore (and in order initially even to measure adolescent depression most authentically), depressive cognitions of that specific culture must be studied and interventions, suited for that particular culture, created and implemented.

The grounded theory approach seems to be most relevant to postmodernist perspective, since aside from it accomplishing the researcher's motive of closely studying their target population, it also contravenes the standard 'power-usurping', dominating perspective of controlling White culture (accordingly White Science) that asserts that there is only one correct way of directing inquiry -- namely by inductive (rather than deductive) reasoning. The opposite of the scientific inductive approach, grounded theory asserts that research develops best from data, rather than the other way round. This can be further integrated with phenomenological methods, which enable the researchers to 'bracket' existent thinking and zone in on their population. As reaction to the preferred quantitative / empirical stance (that is the voice of dominant science), the researchers can choose a qualitative stance which, also in accord with postmodernist perspective, insists that people cannot be reduced to laboratory samples, that each population varies, and that they are, therefore, best studied outside the laboratory and in their real-life environment.

References

Beck AT (2006). Depression: Causes and Treatment. Philadelphia: University…… [read more]


Team Leadership in Multicultural Groups Research Paper

… Leadership in Multicultural Groups

To what extent does the larger context (i.e. A business setting, an educational setting) affect the dynamics of the leadership of a multicultural group?

How do gender and ethnicity interact in the context of the leadership of a multicultural group?

How significant is each group member's definitions of culture and cultural salience?

In investigating the dynamics of the leadership of multicultural groups, an important starting point is with the individual. This may seem counterintuitive given that the subject that is being focused on is the group. But while a group is certainly more than simply the sum of its parts, it is also its parts. A group must be investigated as its whole, but it must also must be examined in terms of the characteristics of each of the members. Hambrick et al. (1998), for example, note that in seeking to understand how multinational corporations can best provide good leadership, it is necessary to start with the individual characteristics of the members. These characteristics include gender, age, and ethnicity, as well as less demographic characteristics such as field of technical expertise (Mitchell et al., 2002).

Gibson & McDaniel (2010) make one of the most important arguments in this arena: There is as yet no single model that works for all multicultural groups since the specific cultural groups that are represented in a group affect its structure. Also, there is no single model that can be applied across the board since the degree of multiculturalism in a group is highly influential (Gong, 2003). It is also important to understand that the dynamic of multiculturalism cannot be understood in linear terms (Randel, 2003).

Another fundamental dynamic that must be taken into account when doing research in this area is the fact that individuals vary significantly in their definition of what culture is and what constitutes a cultural aspect of their personality as opposed to an aspect that arises from another factor (Harris, 2006).

The research proposed here is to examine how virtual multicultural groups function. Maznevski & Chudoba (2000) found that leaders of such groups may be negligent in terms of their acknowledging that culture can still create both complicated conflicts and affiliations, even when group members never interact in person.

Annotated Bibliography

Gibson, C.B. & McDaniel, D.M. (2010). Moving Beyond Conventional Wisdom: Advancements in Cross-Cultural Theories of Leadership, Conflict, and Teams. Perspectives on Psychological Science 5: 450-462.

The authors here examine the past several decades of cross-cultural research to determine what are the most relevant criteria for examining group dynamics, focusing on both what criteria help groups cohere and what tends to promote conflict. They find that there is a distinct lack of models that work in different settings.

Gong, Y. (2003). Toward a Dynamic Process Model of Staffing Composition and Subsidiary Outcomes in Multinational Enterprises. Journal of Management 29: 259-280.

This paper investigates a dynamic that is both obvious and essential to explore: The more multicultural a group, the more complicated the interpersonal dynamics and the… [read more]


Personality Development Essay

… Personality Development -- Social and Cultural Factors

Personality development in the individual is a function of numerous different variables, including genetic influences, family-of-origin dynamics, social circumstances, and the role of various elements of the external environment. Among the many aspects of the external environment that contribute to personality development in the individual are the influences of social and cultural norms, values, beliefs, and expectations. They can dictate substantial themes that determine the ways that individuals feel about themselves, the way they regard others, and the ways that they perceive their rights and roles in relation to other individuals and to society as a whole.

Discussion

In principle, human beings are, for all intents and purposes, "blank slates" when they are born. They have natural biological needs and tendencies, but the manner in which they come to view themselves, others, and the rest of society are determined for them by others. The importance of social learning can be demonstrated by the way that differential socialization of the genders (for just one nearly universal examples) radically affects the way that males and females come to develop different personalities with respect to aspects of personality such as confidence and the relative balance between aggressiveness and passivity. In many human cultures, this differential gender-based socialization also dictates the manner in which the individual comes to regard his or her own sexuality. While all human beings share similar sexual urges and inclinations, males are typically encouraged to explore their sexual urges freely and even to derive a measure of confidence and pride with respect to their sexual conquests. By contrast, females in those same societies are discouraged from that behavior and to the extent they…… [read more]


Successful Expatriate Training Synthesis Successful Expatriate Preparation Essay

… Successful Expatriate Training

Synthesis

Successful expatriate preparation requires more than simply learning a new language

Being fluent in another culture requires far more than simply learning the language. Every culture has a different framework of assumptions as to what constitutes appropriate and inappropriate behavior. For example, when dealing with Europeans, being excessively detailed and 'spelling out' the meaning of what one is saying can come across as patronizing, even though such clarity may be viewed as a positive attribute amongst plain-spoken Americans, These lapses of intercultural understanding are extremely common. Executives at HP committed such a faux paux when dealing with their counterparts in Grenoble, despite the fact that HP is a highly respected multinational firm (Kholsa 2001). Europeans also often resist certain aspects of American business life that we may take for granted, such as the need to wear nametags or to smile (Khosla 2001).

Intercultural understanding and making one's foreign counterparts feel at home often requires very subtle and nuanced gestures, to show that the negotiator has done his or her homework, regarding the other party's culture. These gestures can be as simple as knowing when to extend a cup of tea to Japanese colleagues during an intense negotiation session; showing respect for time when dealing with Israelis who prefer a highly compressed and time-efficient meeting style; or knowing when to pause and when to remain silent (Kholsa 2001).

Gaining such cultural fluency demands that Americans try to understand, with a sincere and open mind, why some individuals view American business tactics as rude. Arab businessmen, accustomed to a more high-context style of negotiations in which interpersonal relationships are paramount, often find Americans abrupt. Perhaps even more damaging to creating a positive atmosphere during negotiations, is the significant fact that Americans are viewed as unwilling to adapt themselves to deal with local business channels and are said to impose their internal business strategies upon foreign organizations (Wederspahan 2002). Of course, this may…… [read more]


Achievements Since My Early Days as Radio Admission Essay

… Achievements

Since my early days as radio reporter for World View Foundation in 1997, I believe I have come a long way. Pursuing my deep interest in the field of development, I moved from one opportunity to another, gaining wider experience and in the process becoming very more deeply involved in the area.

I have since gained 15 years of very valuable experience which has given me an opportunity to know a lot about the field of development in variety of area from refugee welfare to child protection to rural development. Starting as a radio reporter, I gained international experience when I worked with ZOA Refugee Care Netherlands and Terre Des Hommes Germany as administrator and project coordinator respectively. Though I worked exclusively from within the confines of my country, Thailand, still I managed to gain international experience by working with NGO with world wide presence. The scope of their reach also broadened my vision and knowledge about development and today I feel confident in my knowledge on the subject of development connected with child-related issues, sexual exploitation and rural problems. But still I felt this intense urge to gain more theoretical knowledge in indigenous development and believe that a Master's Degree in the field would help me gain deeper understanding of the field and related issues.

My resume shows in great detail some of the more tangible aspects of my knowledge and experience such as my work experience and educational background but what is truly more important to me is the experience and understanding I gained on a deeper level about human needs, problems and the bonds…… [read more]


Personal Identity and Cultural Identity Has Moving Research Proposal

… Personal Identity and Cultural Identity

Has Moving to Los Angeles Made a Difference in the Personal Identity of Middle-Eastern Persons Over the Age of 40?

People identify with the place in which they spend a majority of their lives. When… [read more]


Women's Rights Multiculturalism Book Report

… Opponents to multiculturalism argue that the state focuses too much on the importance of cultural diversity and too little on the necessity of each culture affirming its own heritance. Since this is the case, opponents further argue, xenophobia and extremism is on the increase. Drawing upon human rights law, Xanthaki (2010) seeks to show that human rights law endorses multicultural policies and seeks to promote a multicultural vision. Xanthaki (2010) also discusses current challenges concerning multiculturalism. Although multiculturalism is partially addressed in international / human rights law and then only indirectly, it is certain that international law insists upon protecting and respecting individual cultures. On the other hand, there may be instances where according to their particular cultural demands, cultures may separate themselves from their host-country and create problems with this host country. In that instance, care should be taken in the measures that governments apply when dealing with minorities and in the policies that they adopt. In other words, there is a limitation to affirmative action, and the larger country is taken into consideration when minority groups press for rights that differ to the situation extant in, or the policies shared by, that larger country, particularly when hostility to those minority groups might accrue as a result.

Does multiculturalism foster fundamentalism and undermine national identity? Xanthaki (2010) argues that the contrary is the case since the recognition of multiple cultural frameworks not only encourages anchoring in one's particular culture but also fosters a feeling of devotion to the larger country as a whole. International law argues the importance of interaction, consequently promoting the idea of reciprocity amongst cultures: that they share equal obeisance both to their particular country and to the surrounding culture. When allegiance is in conflict, the state's duty is to promote dialogue. On the other hand, cultural practices that violate human rights or human dignity such as female circumcision or wearing the burka cannot be justified since, even though condoned by particular group, they…… [read more]


Personal Critical Incident Journal

… Personal Narrative within a Cultural Context

It was late November in Madison, Wisconsin -- the leaves had begun to fall creating a crunchy undergrowth as you tramped across the quad to the oblong, totally glass encased building the undergraduates had… [read more]


Globalization Reader by Frank Lechner and John Reaction Paper

… Globalization Reader by Frank Lechner and John Boli, addresses what has become one of the most important buzz words of the 21st century. Globalization refers to a process that is complex and involves many different theories and facets. Lechner and… [read more]


Five Factor Model and Roy G. Biv Article Review

… Five Factor Model and ROY G. BIV

The five factor model has gained both support and criticism as the dominant empirical theory in recent personality research. In order for the model to have true scientific value, however, it must withstand empirical testing and explanatory power. Such a model is said to have 'truth value' (Hastings 88). In ROY G. BIV and the OCEAN, Brad Hastings compares the five factor model with the ROY G. BIV analysis of the color spectrum in order to assert the truth value of the five factor model.

Research by Allport (1937), Cattell (1945), McRae and Costa (1987 and 1990) and others have concluded that the five factor model of human personality is derived from five biological, innate core personality traits: Openness to experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism (OCEAN, as an acronym). Theoretically, his model has been supported by the lexical hypothesis, which states that natural language "contains the most relevant traits" and that personality traits can be best described by single decontextualized adjectives. The lexical hypothesis has been criticized by many psychologists (McAdams, for instance) for lacking an evidentiary base, not recognizing cultural differences among people and not explaining whole person among the participants (90).

Hastings supports the five factor OCEAN model by comparing this personality theory to our understanding of color and the electromagnetic spectrum. As Hastings explains, color is a scientific fiction, it does not actually exist, though all humans are explicitly taught to believe it does. The appearance of a color occurs when an object does not absorb a particular part of the electromagnetic spectrum. A rose is, therefore, not really red; it is merely absorbing every electromagnetic wave on the spectrum but one which gives the rose a red appearance to the human eye (92). When an electromagnetic wave is not absorbed by an object, there is a corresponding color chart for the resulting appearance, i.e.…… [read more]


Diversity Cultural Intelligence Essay

… Cultural Intelligence

Developing an Accurate Understanding of Cultural Intelligence and Diversity in the Contemporary Workplace

Earley, P. & Mosakowski, E. (2004). "Cultural intelligence." Harvard business review (October), pp. 1-9.

Throughout the several and varied sections of this article, the authors attempt to define cultural intelligence, and more importantly to demonstrate the means of cultivating cultural intelligence and acting in a way that promotes true intercultural understanding and collaboration. Their effort begins with a simplistic yet meaningful explanation of what culture is and what the term "cultural intelligence" means, providing examples of how different cultures perceive things and operate differently. People with high levels of cultural intelligence are better able to correctly interpret the gestures, tones, and inflections of people from other cultures, making for more effective communications. Examples are provided throughout the article to demonstrate the principles the authors discuss, and their lacking in certain situations.

The authors then go on to identify and describe three sources of cultural intelligence, listing the head, the body, and the heart as the essential elements. The head is the source for traditional learning and remembering about another culture and discovering meaning in actions and customs, while gestures and body language can much more clearly demonstrate a level of cultural knowledge. The heart has to do with one's belief in one's own efficacy and ability to communicate across cultural lines, providing the confidence needed for true cultural intelligence.

After describing the ways in which to develop cultural understanding and the goals and purposes of this development, the authors turn to describing typical personality types and situations that are encountered in regards to cultural intelligence. The personality types identified are categorized based on how they approach understandings of other cultures, and how they prepare (or fail to prepare) for intercultural interactions and dealings. The positive and negative aspects of each of the identified personality types are given, as well as scenarios involving these types and suggestions for how cultural intelligence could have been improved. The authors close with a section providing individuals with an explicit explanation of how to cultivate cultural intelligence, culminating the article's descriptions and definitions with a straight-to-the-point practical guide.

Critique

Understanding cultural intelligence as a phenomenon related to but separate from normal intelligence and emotional intelligence is in and of itself a powerful insight gained from this reading. Though diversity is a buzzword often heard in business and other arenas these days, the concept is not fully understood or appreciated by many and is instead merely paid lip-service, however earnestly this service may be paid (Hays-Thomas 2004). This article makes it clear that cultivating and truly respecting diversity does not mean simply treating everyone the same, but rather treating everyone with respect in the manner by which they are accustomed to seeing it (Earley & Mosakowski 2004). This is true cultural diversity intelligently handled.

At the same time, many of the scenarios and personalities described by the author appear to have far more complex and difficult problems and solutions than are… [read more]


Experimental Theatre Research Proposal

… Experimental Theater

Trends in globalism and technology have changed the existing structures and systems of power in the modern world. This rather fluid evolution has, really since the end of World War II, evolved towards breaking cultural and political conventions and moving towards new paths -- whether to a more Utopian world or the dystopian paradigm so popular in modern literature.

This is true in the Arts as much as in Politics, especially in a time in which the old political and social boundaries no longer exist. Too, building off Sartre and others, in the modern Developed world, the individual no longer need exist in complete isolation -- modern communications make it entirely possible to reach out with art and culture to almost everywhere in the world, irrespective of boundaries, economic status, educational level, or language.

Some of these larger, less epistemological questions began to pique my interest in alternative theater. For example, Jerzy Grotowski's creation of The Poor Theater, and his Akropolis and Apocalpypsis Cum Figuris, breaking away from standard conventions and yet asking seminal questions reminiscent of Greek theater in the Ancient World.

Further, I investigated the different forms of theatre that essentially broke away from the standardized conventions of traditional theatre -- alternative theatre.

Essentially, alternative theatre deconstructs traditional theater by creating body, space, and sounds that are more of juxtaposition between the actor, the text, and the audience. In many respects, both the actor and audience are intimately engaged within the performances so that each rendition is as unique as the audience. Taking this as an example, and adding other techniques of alternative theater, one can find certain essential commonalities that are germane to a successful performance. It is these techniques that I am most interested…… [read more]


Two Theories of Globalization Essay

… ¶ … Globalization

The tide of globalization has impacted every aspect of life and modern endeavor. Theorists however are divided in the ways they attempt to explicate this phenomenon. There are two fundamental cleavages in the theoretical landscape, theories that are economic in orientation and those that are cultural (Flynn 2007). This is entirely possible since by nature globalization captures multiple facets of the modern experience (Kenneth 2006, p. 51). This paper will critically discuss two, global capitalism and global polity.

Global capitalism is an economic theory of globalization which draws from Marxist conceptions of the economy. Global capitalism is sometimes considered a 'hyper' capitalist theory (Martell 2007, p. 172). It is a prescriptive theory that focuses on the "triumph of capitalism," the success of the market economy and the establishment of new transnational ruling elites (Kenneth 2006, p.55, Sklair 2001).

Global capitalism advances the concept of a new global empire (Sklair 2001). This new capitalist empire conjures new forms of "sovereignty, economy, culture and political struggle" (Kellener 2002, p.286).The proponents of this theory assert that capitalism has entered a new age of accumulation. This new wave a global accumulation is purported to engender international development and, reduce inequality and poverty.

For the global capitalist the transnational corporation (TNC) generates the substantive change in the global environment. TNC's are not fettered to a particular country and operate globally, thus the relationship between capital and labor becomes transnational (Flynn 2007). The role of the state also morphs from focusing on local capital accumulation to global capital accumulation. The rise of the TNC' is thought to weaken the power of the local state, reducing the state's role to merely implementing global policies initiated by the TNC's.

Steigliz (2003), asserts that this accumulation of capital is not without risks and negative fallout for international development. The reality is that "globalization has impacted different groups differently: some have benefitted enormously, others have borne more of the costs (Steigliz 2003 p.505). For Kiely (2005), this vapid inequality means that far from reducing poverty, globalization may have worsened the situation a widening the chasm between the wealthy and the poorer countries.

The weakness of the global capitalist theory centers on its failure to see beyond the economic dimension, and the reduction of the state to the position of a pawn in a world largely dominated by large corporations. This conception fails to consider that states have unique histories and variant "institutional capacities" (Flynn 2007, p. 12). Kellener (2002) asserts that, it also fails to see the complexity of globalization and adequately explain the "complex relations between capitalism and democracy" (Kellener 2002, p. 289)

Hay and Marsh (2000), add to the critique by contending that the evidence itself is tainted with selectivity, and ignores critical data that supports adverse positions.…… [read more]


Positive and Negative Effects of Globalization Essay

… Positive and Negative Effects of Globalization

The unique process of globalization is transforming the world in a phenomenal way. The world has never seen the movement of people from one place to another on such a scale as at present… [read more]


Multiple Regression Analysis Is an Essential Constituent Methodology Chapter

… Multiple regression analysis is an essential constituent of marketing research procedures. Better usability over several kinds of data, the ability to handle failure of pre-defined assumptions and ease of understanding are some its advantages. Predicting research results and analyzing the… [read more]


Determinism Certain Controversies Continue to Exist Essay

… Determinism

Certain controversies continue to exist within the scholastic arenas, such as nature vs. nurture and, more recently, global warming. Another one of these ongoing debates concerns determinism, or what "determines" or drives a nation to develop in a certain way. Does a society move in a specific direction because of cultural impetus? Or does it evolve, as Marx believed, from an economic standpoint? From the economic determinism side, it is argued that production is the primary motivator for all of social, political and cultural life and even the individual's social consciousness is determined by the economic structure. Allen et al. (2007) surveyed the cultural values of select East Asian and Pacific Island nations in 1982 and then again in 2002 and found, more practically, a combination of these factors at play, with economic determinism appearing to be a stronger motivator.

One of the significant areas of interest in the West has been the sociology of culture and whether or not culture exists by itself relative to the economic structures. This controversy revolves around the Marxist theory that culture falls under the umbrella of economics and is an output of the economic structure. From an extreme, this makes culture to be powerless. Proponents argue that economic determinism is an undisputed historic law. A society's institutions, government, social class structure, religion, family makeup, and even value systems, beliefs and norms are largely driven by economics. In fact, Charles Beard in an Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States (1913), his study of the property holdings of the Founding Fathers, concluded that they "were, with few exceptions, immediately, directly, and personally interested in, and derived economic advantages from, the establishment of the new system," and "the Constitution was essentially an economic document."

On the other hand, in the early 1940's, Leslie White (Service, 1976), coined the term "cultural evolution," arguing that culture was the major vehicle by which humans adapted to their environments. In the 1950's, Julian Steward (1972), promoted the development of "cultural ecology," or specific cultural features can be scientifically determined as closely connected to subsistence and economic activity.

The study by Allen et al. (2007) places a greater emphasis on the economic determinism side, although giving some examples of cultural focus. The authors also refer to research by Hofstede (1988), who has presented statistical evidence in support of the connection between a nation's culture and its economic growth.…… [read more]


Giddens' Late Modernity and Baudrillard' Postmodernity Essay

… Historian Comparison

Giddens's late modernity and Baudrillard's postmodernity.

Compare and contrast: Giddens' modernity and Baudrillard's postmodernity

Compare and contrast: Giddens' late modernity and Baudrillard's postmodernity

For postmodern historians like Jean Baudrillard, history is less a series of facts and figures than a springboard for musing about the human condition. As a philosopher and cultural critic, Baudrillard sees the perceived distance between 'the real' and the 'image' in modern society as fundamentally altering the way that human beings relate to the present and to the past. "History is our lost referential, that is to say our myth…the great event of this period, the great trauma, is this decline of strong referentials, these death pangs of the real and of the rational that open onto an age of simulation" (Felluga, 2001, Modules). Simulations, or simulacrums, are ideas or concepts that 'replace' what are real with something that was once supposed to only be a representation. Representations become reality in the postmodern world.

A good example of a simulacrum might be Disneyworld's Epcot Center, where many countries are simulated in miniature. The copy of France, as represented by a replica of the Eiffel Tower and some pastry shops, becomes more like France than France itself in the mind of the viewer. The word 'Watergate' comes to represent a specific political scandal rather than the building and soon the word comes to take on a life of its own and is used to convey a variety of forms of political scandals and corruption, such as 'Monica-gate' (Felluga, 2001, Definition)..

Perhaps the most frightening example of 'simulacra' discussed by Baudrillard is that of an NBC miniseries on the Holocaust whereby: "One no longer makes the Jews pass through the crematorium or the gas chamber, but through the sound track and image track, through the universal screen and the microprocessor. Forgetting, annihilation, finally achieves its aesthetic dimension in this way -- it is achieved in retro, finally elevated here to a mass level" (Felluga, 2001, Modules). The impact of the representation transcends the impact of the reality. However, it is also worth asking if, by simply critiquing cultural products rather than describing lived history, Baudrillard contributes to this sense of collective forgetting.

Anthony Giddens likewise suggests that human beings often lack a sense of control and empowerment over the symbols that make up language and culture. However, in contrast to Baudrillard who stresses the unconscious and often unnoticed replacement of 'the real' by a symbol, for Giddens, such a replacement often causes a very obvious sense of friction, in contrast to Baudrillard's stress on the subtlety…… [read more]


Migration and Globalization Migration Is Grounded Essay

… Migration and Globalization

Migration is grounded in process of globalization. Both of these concepts lead to the development of a world that is more interdependent and connected. The purpose of this discussion is to explain several themes associated with globalization and migration. The Reseacr will seek to explain the reasons why migration and globalization occur.

According to Steger, what are the main traits or characteristics and dimensions of globalization?

Steger explains that globalization is a set of social processes that appear to transform our present social condition of weakening nationality into one of globality (Steger)." Steger asserts that one of the primary characteristics of a globalization is the development of a global economy. The primary dimensions of globalization according to Steger are economic, political, ecological and cultural. All of these dimensions are affected by globalization. As it pertains to the economic dimension Steger points out that globalization has an impact on economic conditions such as trade and finance. Globalization serves as a conduit for an economic system that is interconnected and interdependent. As it pertains to the political dimension, Steger asserts that globalization is just another aspect of the creation of an international community that is without boundaries or borders. The author asserts that globalization may ultimately lead to the formation of a one world government and the European Union is a prototype for such a government. The ecological dimension of globalization emphasizes the idea that the environmental crisis affects every nation and as such the regions of the world have to work together to overcome issues such as global warming and pollution. These environmental problems require nations around the world to establish standards and to collaborate to ensure that these problems can be resolved. Finally the author discusses the cultural dimension of globalization. Steger asserts that globalization has forever changed culture particulalary as it pertains to the languages that are used throughout the world. Steger asserts that popular products and the companies that produce these products are changing cultures around the world and ultimately making the people of the world more homogenous.

What is globalization meant to regulate and how is unequal regulation reflected in the ranking of these movements?

The research seems to indicate that globalization is meant to regulate the world economy, migration, development of global cities, the development of cosmopolitan and local cultures and the deteriation of social identity (Cohen). According to Massey "immigration flows were dominated by Europe and stemmed from processes of colonization and economic growth under mercantile capitalism (Massey)." In other words, colonization was actually a form of globalization that came about as a result of the need to further economic opportunities and allow for greater freedoms. The authors further explain that the regulation of migration has been extremely unequal for at least 300 years as Europeans have been able, with little to no regulation, to inhabit significant portions of Oceania, Asia, African, and the Americas. Indeed Europeans have ranked the highest as it relates to the fluidity with which they can move… [read more]


Mass Media Facilitates Acculturation of Taiwanese Adult English Learners Literature Review

… Mass Media Facilitates Acculturation of Taiwanese Adult English Learners

The central purpose of this review of the literature is to provide an overview of a sample of the most pertinent studies relating to the topic under discussion. The articles have… [read more]


Cultural Competency Essay

… Cultural Competency in a Typical Elementary School

Cultural competency has become a new buzzword in many fields that deal with institutional and personal interactions. The basic concepts of multiculturalism and diversity have grown from concepts based largely in theory and with an attitude of political prudence to practical and effective means of dealing with a world in which people have increasingly different and often disparate beliefs, backgrounds, and values. Cultural competency is a term that describes an institution's -- be it a medical office or hospital, social work organization, or education facility -- ability to promote the most effective and culturally affirming experience for all of individuals served by the institution regardless of their cultural identification or background. There is a high degree of ethical importance in promoting and maintaining cultural competency in institutions that serve adults within a community, and this imperative can only be seen as more extreme in institutions that serve children.

Though there are significant differences in elementary schools' cultural competency levels at different institutions and perhaps generally in different regions of the country, overall it appears that most schools operate at the level of cultural blindness. There is a trend in trying to treat and think of everyone as exactly equal and essentially the same which denies the possibility of any real awareness of culture as a diverse mechanisms that leads to diverse and highly dissimilar worldviews (SPS 2009). Cultural competency is not achieved through the arrival at a precise and objective standard of practices, but rather is an ongoing process that is built on continual learning and adjustment that takes each individual's needs into account, and this is not occurring at a practical level at many elementary schools (Olsen et al. 2006).

One specific institution that the author had the opportunity to observe first hand for an extended period of time contained a highly diverse student body in terms of skin color and cultural and ethnic identification, and "diversity" was a common feature of many lessons. These lessons, however, focused primarily on the importance of specific individuals from various cultures that had made contributions to the dominant, white and Western culture of which the school was essentially a part. The central tenet of such lessons, though not explicitly stated as such (and perhaps made the more harmful through the subtlety of its implications) was that all cultures are equally important and valuable from the perspective of the dominant culture. While the aim of eradicating any notion of a qualitative ranking of cultures in terms of importance is certainly a laudable goal from the perspective of cultural competence, it comes at the price of masking specific cultural contributions and strengths (Olsen et al. 2006).

A lack of cultural competence…… [read more]


Spirit Helping Re-Imagining Fadiman's the Spirit Catches Case Study

… Spirit Helping

Re-Imagining Fadiman's the Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down: Better Alternatives in Cultural Competency

In her book The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down, Anne Fadiman recounts the tale of the Lee family, Hmong immigrants from Laos now residing in Merced, California, and their daughter Lia's diagnosis and medical battle with epilepsy. The book's focus, however, is on the battle that occurs between the principles of Western medicine and the Western doctors encountered by the Lees and the Hmong cultural beliefs and practices still strongly adhered to by the family. Both of these contribute to the diminished care of Lia from both cultural perspectives, and Fadiman does an excellent job of fairly rendering the shortcomings of care and the misunderstandings that occurred on both sides of the struggle to save a little girl's life and ensure her well-being (Fadiman 1998).

Conflict arises both due to misunderstandings and mistrusts that exist for both parties in regards to the other. The Lees interpret much of the doctors' orders for Lia's care as advice that can be taken or disregarded at will, while the doctors tend to see the Lees' refusal to give the prescribed medicines as stemming alternately from ignorance or arrogance, rather than the considered cultural perspective from which such decisions were actually being made (Fadiman 1995). The Lees' failure to provide the proper medicine leads to Lia's removal to a foster home for six months, and her ultimate vegetative state is blamed on the same lack of Western care or, according to the Lees' perspective on the prevention of the proper spiritual healing methods by the Western doctors and legal system (Fadiman 1998).

All parties concerned could have done a much better job of providing Lia with the care she needed and ensuring that all of the other parties, each of whom can be seen as fully and legitimately caring for Lia and having her best interests at heart, would feel more respected. As Fadiman makes quite explicit in her examination of the Hmong culture at large as well as in her specific description and discussion of the Lee family and their attitudes, being given orders and listening to other opinions was not a strong suit of Nao Kao Lee or Foua Yang Lee; both of Lia's parents could and should have made themselves receptive to other possibilities, and -- especially at the earlier stages of her illness -- tried to develop a better understanding of the explanations and advice they received.

At the same time, the onus is largely on the doctors for bridging the cultural gap and developing an understanding of the Lees' perspective during the course of Lia's treatment, as it is part of effective medical practice…… [read more]


Cultural Differences Essay

… Acculturation and cultural identity are both valuable tools in our understanding of cultural differences, and are surrounded by a fair amount of discourse and political controversy. What follows is an analysis of each concept and their implications for fostering our knowledge and understanding of cultural differences.

Acculturation is the concept of a minority group (i.e. immigrants) assimilating to the dominant majority by successfully adopting a second culture or separating from it and becoming marginalized (Rudmin, 2006). Rogler, Cortes, & Malagady add to this definition that those in acculturation contexts experience a change in attitude toward their host society (1991). Immigrants' ties with their own societies are often cut off, leaving them to face the difficulties of economic survival and social mobility in an unfamiliar place (Rogler, Cortes, & Malagady, 1991). Immigrants must also adapt to a new cultural system, language, set of behavioral norms, and value characteristics (Rogler, Cortes & Malagady, 1991).

Cultures can 'overlap,' however, and this affects the way in which some scholars interpret the idea of acculturation (Rudmin, 2006). For example, there exists a large overlap and little "cultural distance" between Japan and Korea, as well as the United States and Canada (Rudmin, 2006, p. 70). As such, Rudmin contends that in acculturative contexts, groups select the characteristics by which to identify themselves and "mark their intercultural boundaries" (2006, p. 70). Acculturation, then, is not about cultural values, Rudmin says, but about "encountering and reacting to social constructs created and maintained as perceptual boundary markers between cultures" (2006, p. 70).

Conspicuous examples of acculturation can be seen in, among other situations, Native Americans' adoption of Western-style dress, Native Americans' adoption of capitalism and other Western behaviors (read: opening casinos, drinking alcohol), and Western-style consumer behavior in Mexican-Americans.

Buriel (1993) describes two models useful for understanding acculturation. One is unidirectional; it implies that as immigrants become more competent and sensitive to their host culture, their own culture begins to erode (Buriel, 1993). This model is incompatible with biculturalism -- an idea closely related to acculturation -- the concept of an immigrant preserving his own culture while adopting his host society's (Buriel, 1993). An acculturation model capable of handling biculturalism is two-dimensional and "acknowledges the persistent dual cultural influences" in the lives of immigrants (Buriel, 1993, p. 532).

In his study of the acculturation of Mexican-Americans, Buriel claims that the level of respect for cultural differences can tell us how 'well' immigrant acculturation is proceeding. (1993). His study, in part, showed how elementary school bilingual/bicultural programs can foster understanding and thus respect of cultural differences in an acculturative context among elementary school students (Buriel, 1993).

What we can take from Buriel's (1993) findings is that an acculturative context can foster the understanding of cultural differences. Perhaps an acculturative context, as it is experienced, allows an individual to clearly identify the differences between her host culture and her home society's. Likewise, one close to an individual in the process of acculturation may become more aware of the individual's culture as… [read more]


Multi Cultural Psychology Essay

… Multicultural Psychology

Mutlicultural Psychology

What is the definition of Multicultural Psychology?

Simply put, multicultural psychology is the systematic study of human behavior where people of different cultural backgrounds encounter each other. Multicultural psychology can also be seen as a state of culture within a specific demographic. There are many differences that are evident in the U.S.; these differences are what can cause a disruption between individuals when we are not prepared to interact with those differences. Multicultural psychology focuses on the cultural differences in thought processes and acceptable vs. unacceptable behaviors. It relates not only to normal lives - such as home, education, work and relationships - but also to what is considered 'abnormal' or 'normal'. Multicultural psychology is just not merely a study of culture but of social and political issues ethnic minorities and those whose culture differs from the mainstream encounter.

What is the role of multicultural psychology in society?

Multicultural psychology helps us to understand and address challenges that certain cultures face. Through multicultural psychology we look through the eyes of various ethnic groups and gain a greater insight and understanding into their social, economic and political challenges. Multicultural psychology gives a better understanding of how people of different cultures may behave or think. Through its study we begin to understand how even other psychological concepts may be influenced by gender, race, class or ethnicity.

The study of multicultural psychology and the application of its concepts help us…… [read more]


World's Columbian Exposition Fair in Chicago 1893 Essay

… Columbian Expedition

To be marginalized as a population means many things depending on the particular population, the geographic area, and the chronological period. Typically, marginalized populations are those that, at least in part, are excluded, powerless, considered unimportant, and often have no say in the socio-political or cultural vibrancy of the particular society. Over the course of the last few centuries, for instance, children have been marginalized -- they were put to work as soon as possible, yet had no real political or social power. Women, too, have experienced this trend -- indeed there remain many societies in which males continue to dominate. In American history, one of the clearest examples of a marginalized population has been the various immigrant populations that, depending on the chronological period, had various levels of severity.

Certainly, the idea of marginalization is nothing new. In the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893, an article from the Journal of American Culture, presents an overview of some of the issues surrounding the 400th anniversary of Columbus' discovery of America. For instance, the Chicago Tribute of the time hinted at some of the exhibits being organized under evolutionary and cultural lines for example, one publication noted that Anglo-Saxon and Caucasian exhibits about humanity at one end of the spectrum, with "the negro types at the fair…. Represented… the barbarous or half-civilized state of a people who are a numerous and rapidly increasing class of American citizens" (270). The real irony of this argument was that even in the 1800s, the idea of America was seen to be inclusive -- and certainly after the Civil War and Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, a new attitude about racial equality was presumed. Exhibitions of this type, though, are often reflective of cultural attitudes of the time -- and the confluence of the "White City" as a cultural paradigm seemed, as DH Lawrence predicted, the world can expect "always the same" from America. America "refuses to hear the hum of destruction underneath… America has got to destroy…. It is [its] destiny"…… [read more]


Cultural Diversity Also Referred to as Multiculturalism Thesis

… Cultural diversity also referred to as multiculturalism is "based on the idea that cultural identities should not be discarded or ignored, but rather maintained and valued." (American Multicultural Publications, 2010) The United States is specifically unique in terms of its cultural diversity since many different ethnic and cultural groups are stated to have made contributions to the social, economic and cultural values" of the U.S. society.

Obligations & Rules Relating to Cultural Diversity

The work of Mira Burri-Nenova entitled: "Cultural Diversity" states that the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of cultural Expressions defines cultural diversity as "the manifold ways in which the cultures of groups and societies find expression." (2008) The Convention on Cultural Diversity is stated to contain 'neither specific obligations for the State parties, nor guidelines on what legitimate measures aimed at protecting and promoting cultural diversity are..." however it is additionally stated that it "may allow the State parties to adopt measures that suspiciously resemble protectionism." (Burri-Nenova, 2008)

II. Dispersion of Knowledge of Cultural Diversity

Simultaneously, it is important to understand that "cultural diversity remains a valid regulatory objective which could be traced back to fundamental human right of freedom and expression, and whose pursuit is arguably even more vital in the digitally networked environment." (Burri-Nenova, 2008)

There is a risk of marginalization of cultural expressions and specifically those of indigenous individuals which is further intensified "through the spread of corporate power and the proliferation of mainstream content." (Burri-Nenova, 2008) Just as well, the digital environment makes offerings of "unprecedented ways for creative expression, both individually and collectively, and for their instantaneous and global distribution." (Burri-Nenova, 2008) These newly formed opportunities that exist and that may serve to enable cultural diversity represent knowledge that is needed by societies making it critical that the existing legal and practical barriers are removed as well as barriers to access of the content of this knowledge.

III. Organizational Cultural Diversity

The work of Schauber (2001) entitled: "Effecting Extension Organizational Change Toward Cultural Diversity: A Conceptual Framework" states that people from differing cultural groups in the U.S. have differing perspectives, manifested in their values, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors." (Schauber, 2001) This is evidenced in the findings from studies describing these differences and for example a study conducted of the values within five Southwest U.S. cultures and specifically in those of American, Texas Homesteaders, Mormon, Navaho, and Zuni cultures, is stated to have "explored value orientations around which they assumed all people seek meaning." (Schauber, 2001)

Schauber (2001) additionally reports the stated three ways that individuals are known to relate to the natural environment and specifically states: (1) Harmony with nature; (2) Subjugation to Nature; and (3) Mastery over nature. (Schauber, 2001)

IV. Positive Effects of Organizational Cultural Diversity

Schauber (2001) reports that cultural diversity in the organization has the following impacts: (1) It enhances the creativity and problem-solving abilities of the organization; (2) It is morally, ethically, and socially the right thing to do; (3) It affects… [read more]


Migration and Cultural Pluralism Melange Cities Research Proposal

… Migration and Cultural Pluralism

Melange Cities, Blair a Ruble. The Wilson Quarterly; Summer 2006; 30, 3; Academic Research Library.

One of the great ironies of civilization is the disposition of righteous entitlement which has allowed groups large and small to claim entitlement and connectivity to lands in a way that removes the history of their own migration. Such is an idea which Ruble (2006) exposes as hypocrisy and convenient shortsightedness. His article on the concept of urban migration frames it as an issue of relevance not just in the modern context where it is often politicized and framed according to permeating racial hierarchies, but also in this history of humanity, where ethnicities and nations came to be after countless patterns of ethnic cross-breeding, migration, war and diplomacy.

As the article by Ruble contends, "migrants of all sorts -- immigrants, emigrants, refugees, displaced persons, guest workers -- have become a significant presence in cities around the world. According to the UN Human Settlements Program, there are approximately 175 million official international migrants worldwide, not including those without complete documentation. Even this massive movement of people is not unprecedented." (Ruble, 56)

The article is particularly valuable from the perspective that these patterns have not simply demonstrated the human proclivity toward migration but have also demonstrated the degree to which this has shaped our world today. Perceptions, for instance, of entitlement in the U.S. amongst the descendents of European immigrants to restrict immigration of Mexicans, is an illustration of the political imperatives shaping views on migration. As the article by Ruble effectively demonstrates, these imperatives are often adopted with little reflection on the historical implications of immigration, which have done nothing less than facilitated the birth of Australia, the United States and the independent nations of Europe.

2. Cultural Pluralism: The Case for Benign Neglect, Micheal James. Review - Institute of Public Affairs; Sep 1998; 50,4; ABI/INFORM Global. Pg. 14

In many ways, it has become the accepted logic that we have…… [read more]


Diversity in Business Thesis

… Diversity Management With Respect to Ethnicity, Culture and Gender

Diversity is an increasingly real and defining aspect of the American business culture. With respect to the globalization of the economy, the increasingly balance of gender in the workplace and the… [read more]


Cross-Cultural Psychology Essay

… Cross Cultural Psychology

Universality in Cross-Cultural Psychology

Is there truly a universal element to human psychology? Many great minds within the practice have debated whether cultural norms within the human mind are culture specific or more universal. Within cultural psychology, the basic concept is that psychology is heavily dependent on the individual culture in which the person is raised. However, within the construct of cross-cultural, researchers posit the idea that although each individual is heavily influenced by the world around them, there're basic patterns that appear within isolated groups that present the argument there must be some true universals.

In opposed to cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology relies heavily on the notion that psychological development is dependent on the culture each individual is raised within. According to research, one's culture is "a historically transmitted pattern of meanings embodied in symbols, a system of inherited conceptions expressed in symbolic forms by means of which men communicate, perpetuate, and develop their knowledge about attitudes toward life," (Gale Group 2001:1). Any individual growing up in a particular culture will then be psychologically impacted by that culture. Therefore, universals cannot truly exist for there is no universal culture. Each culture is relative; therefore each psychological construct of individuals is relative. This is the main argument within cultural psychology. The genre of psychology posits the idea that culture is an inseparable part of the human psyche, and will always then be relative to cultural heritage.

However, cross-cultural psychology states some differences that connect patterns in behavior as a universal construct within human nature. According to research, "Cross-cultural psychology is the study of similarities and differences in the individual psychological functioning in various cultural and ethnic groups; of the relationships between psychological variables and socio-cultural, ecological, and biological variables; and of current changes in these variables," (Berry et al. 1992:2). It takes into account all the cultural elements of an individual's mind state tat cultural society does. Culture is one of the dominating forces within the human mind. Yet, cross cultural psychology thought posits the idea that although cultures are so diverse, we can compare them and pick out common patterns seen in various cultural entities, "Our social world consists of simple, obvious, separate, fixed factors that transcend time and place, and are readily practiced and comprehended by large masses of people," (Ratner: 31). This branch of psychology studies how culture, with all of its unique traditions and social customs, affect the…… [read more]


My History Essay

… Personal Ethnicity

Ibo Across the Water

This place is strange. Not just because people look, talk, dress, and cat differently than I am used to. Not just because the buildings and streets are different, or the colors, sounds, and smells… [read more]


Cultural Diversity Persian and American Essay

… ¶ … Personal Cultural Diversity

The world in which we live and work has grown immensely more diverse in the apst several decades due to several factors. Not only are people of various etnic, religious, and cultural backgrounds more free and able to move around the world in the search for a better life for themselves and their family than they ever have been before, but other technologies -- most notably the Internet -- also make it possible for people of absolutely every imaginable background to connect with each other across vast distances of space. Organizations -- both corporations and other business entities as well as communities and other social groups -- must learn not simply to tolerate this diversity, which has been the general thrust that many such groups have followed, but must actually learn to use this cultural diversity in ways that maximize the benefits to the organization while limiting some of the problems that diversity can cause (Carnevale & Stone 1994). My own background has its own share of personal cultural diversity; as a Persian-American, I have had to learn to bridge to often very different cultures.

I believe that my cultural diversity has helped me to see ways of behaving and attitudes that will benefit me in my career and in life in general. My family is Persian, and follows most of the religious and cultural customs attendant upon that classification. This has led to my development as someone who not only appreciates and understands cultural diversity, but who actively engages in the cultural differences I perceive, learning about them and attempting to perceive the advantages of new ways of thinking. My Persian-American identity as helped to form my perspective in this regard in two ways: first, by the simple fact that my family's background is different than most of my peers, and second from the lessons of my Persian heritage itself.

Music is a great reflection of any culture's values and perspectives, and Persian culture is no exception (During & Mirabdolbaghi 1991). Some of the things I have taken away from Persian music include an appreciation for symmetry and meditative qualities. I believe that my culture, especially through its music, has helped me to see balance and similarities in situations, people, and events that enable me to draw conclusions about their interrelationships and the ways in which they operate that would otherwise go unnoticed. The general attitude of Persian culture has also greatly enhanced my ability to live and work in a culturally diverse world, as well; some of the most important Persian festivals are pure celebrations of life and existence, and the joy that such ceremonies inspire carries over into the daily life of the Persian culture (Fordham 2007).

At the same time as I have been indoctrinated -- quite willingly -- in the over-reaching aspects of Persian culture, I have also been strongly Americanized through my school and my peers. At times, this has led to conflicts, both with my parents…… [read more]


Culturally Competent Essay

… Cultural Competence

In a world that is no longer dominated by any one race or culture, it has become critically important to understand what is meant by cultural competency and why one must be culturally competent to thrive in today's business and social environment. Cultural competence refers to "ways of thinking and behaving that enable members of one cultural, ethnic or linguistic group to work effectively with members of another." (Lynch & Hanson, 1992, p. 356)

Cultural competence comes from knowing how it feels to live in another person's world. If a left handed person is asked to use a pair of scissors designed for right handed people, they normally do not even question the reasonability of such a request. They just do it because they have learned to live in a world dominated by products designed for right hand use. However this doesn't mean left handed people need to give up their own identity, they do not have to give up using their left hand or become right handed all of a sudden. Instead they just learn to be more dexterous. This is what cultural competence demands.

In order to become more culturally competent, one must possess good knowledge of other cultures. But even prior to that, he is required to be more self-aware and know a great deal about his own culture. A person needs to start "a process of self-reflection, gather information about your own culture and that of others, appreciate cultural similarities and differences, use cultural resources and acknowledge the value of all cultures." (Klein & Chen, p. 39)

Cultural competence is a valuable skill and a tool which can be used in a variety of settings including healthcare, business, education etc. It allows handling of diversity in a much better and skilled manner which facilitates communication and makes professional interaction…… [read more]


Globalization Refers to How Local Processes Essay

… Globalization refers to how local processes are increasingly becoming part of the greater world, and is usually used to describe economic aspects of these processes. Globalization has largely been a post World-War II phenomenon, enabled by the creation of the United Nations and its role as international policeman as much as by the technological advances that have made global business a real possibility. Because globalization has the potential to expose people to things from around the world, it has the potential to impact many aspects of local life, including financial markets, local economies, industry, politics, language, access to information, education, environment, culture, technology, social aspect, legal systems, and the development of ethics. As such, globalization has the power to be a tremendously positive practice, but it also has the potential to be terribly abused.

One of the most negative aspects of globalization has been the use of exploitation of cheap labor in less developed countries by companies from more developed countries. Nike is one of the most well-recognized brands that has been linked to the use of sweatshop labor. These sweatshops traditionally use women and children, work them long hours, and pay them a wage below a subsistence level. As a result, it would be easy to dismiss these corporations and this practice as exploitative. However, there are actually compelling arguments for the use of sweatshop labor. In societies where there are no alternative forms of income, sweatshops can actually provide a means to make a living. For example, in India there are people employed in sweatshops that would otherwise by forced to rely upon begging to make a living. While these corporations could easily afford to pay a marginally higher wage that would greatly increase the standard of living of their employees, the reality is that they are supplying them with a wage.

Globalization can have a very positive impact on traditional non-Western societies. For example, Greg Mortensen's efforts to provide the children of Afghanistan and Pakistan with an education would never have occurred without globalization. His organization has helped provide young girls with an opportunity for education, and, in some places, has helped change how their…… [read more]


Cultural Diversity in Organizations Organization Behavior Today Thesis

… Cultural Diversity in Organizations

Organization Behavior

Today, globalization is a widely spread phenomenon making boundaries between countries fade away. It has a great impact on organizations and consumers because it provides the means to all countries to work in one… [read more]


Intercultural Communication One of the First Barriers Research Proposal

… Intercultural Communication

One of the first barriers that Christian experiences in his encounters with a different culture is language. While his initial encounter with the people is positive and even euphoric, this early reaction leads to areas of discord and… [read more]


Biological Science in Dr. William Maple's Dead Research Paper

… Biological Science in Dr. William Maple's Dead Men Do Tell Tales

Biology literally translates from the ancient Greek as "the study of life." Generally, when people think of biology and biologists they imagine studying the way plants grow, and discovering… [read more]


Operations Strategy Essay

… Operations Strategy

Cross-Cultural Considerations for an Operations Strategy

Just as organizations must have concerted, sychronised operations strategies globally to capitalize on new market opportunities, production efficiencies emanating from localized expertise (Ferdows, 2006) or the potential for greater market share based on mergers and acquisitions, they must also create strategies to enable cultural congruence and compatibility. Too often however these strategies for attaining cultural assimilation are blinded by ethnocentrically-based perspectives and processes (Hammond, Axelrod, 2006). Arguably the latter is even more critical, as for any operational strategy to succeed it must take into account the many cultural dimensions that its influences, and that influence it as well. With increased globalization it has often been argued that there is a flattening of the world's cultures, a homogenizing if you will, yet evidence suggests that strategies executed without regard to cultures very often fail. The intent of this paper is to show why it is more critical than ever to pay attention to cultural dimensions and variations between ones' own culture and those of nations where merger and acquisition candidates are location. The failure of Wal-Mart to succeed in Germany, mainly due to an ethnocentric approach to managing the acquisition of smaller German competitors and having a perceptual blind spot to how Germans shop, led to their eventual exit from the market (Christopherson, 2007). As can be seen from this example, even one of the most efficient organizations operationally, Wal-Mart, still fails in regions of the world that require the ability to fit into a region from a cross-cultural standpoint.

Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions as a Framework for Evaluating Cultural Variations

The work of Geert Hofstede at IBM which led to the development of the Cultural Dimensions Model provides a useful framework for quantifying the variations in cultures globally (Hofstede, McCrae, 2004). There were initially four accepted dimensions to Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions Model, with a fifth one added to take into account the perception of time, which is called Long-Term Orientation. The four dimensions are Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, and Uncertainty Avoidance. These five cultural dimensions provide insightful analysis into the wide differences between cultures, and also can be invaluable in explaining how operations management goals, objectives, and strategies for fulfillment can vary significantly across cultures that may reside on the same continent. The perception of time is significantly different in India vs. China for example, and this alone can have a major impact on the performance of operations management strategies and also influence how strategic decisions are made. The Hofstede Cultural Dimensions Model can provide insights into how variations in how one culture…… [read more]


Myth and the Western Civilization Essay

… Myth's Importance Today

Myth has been an essential ingredient in Western Civilization since its inception. The ancient religions -- and arguably our modern religions -- were built on myth, and contain many archetypal mythic figures and events. Religion, in turn, has hade a huge effect on the way the world at large and many of the societies within it have developed. But myth is important today for many more pressing reasons than its impact on religion and historical development. Because myths are so universal in the human experience, it stands to reason that they stem from -- and/or create -- some distinct commonalities between the many disparate people living on this planet. Myth's importance today has immense historic value, but it is even more important for the insight it provides to us as individuals, to our cultural beliefs and actions, and to our interrelationships with other individuals and cultures. Myth provides a map to human understanding.

First and foremost, an understanding of the history of Ancient Greece is essential to a proper understanding of Western Civilization, and an understanding of myth is essential to an understanding of the Ancient Greeks (Powell, Chapter 2). This makes myth an important tool in understanding the founding principles of Western Civilization. The discussion of myth today, then, reflects a discussion of the very core of our current culture ad society. This is important because anything that can help leads us to a better understanding of ourselves and the world around us is useful in this global age. Understanding the way the world developed helps us to understand the way the world behaves now, and how the various countries and cultures within it view each other. This makes the historical value of myth far more important than in simply providing an archaeological and anthropological understanding of ancient cultures; the historical value applies directly to our history, and to the very development of Western society.

Myth provides an even more profound understanding of us as individuals. The discussion of myth can lead to certain personal revelations or shifts in worldview. For instance, Joseph Campbell finds a lot of mythology at work in the institution of marriage, and equates tit to the mythic and spiritual finding of one's center or bliss, which he claims can often be synonymous in myth (Campbell, 147). Myth presents an entire perspective for introspection, allowing one to delve into deep explanations and examinations of their sense of self. Mythic figures represent human ideals, often clearly portraying a select and often repeated set of traits to typify them as certain archetypal figures like the Hero or the Healer. Though such simplistic labels cannot be wholly applied to flesh and blood human beings, an understanding of these universal archetypes can help lead to an understanding of…… [read more]


Aboriginal Art Essay

… Teaching Aboriginal Art

Canada has a very rich and unique history in the modern era, having maintained connections to its parent country while achieving independence in a peaceful manner. At first, Canada was also unique in the relationships formed between… [read more]


Personal Creative Thinking Obstacles Essay

… Personal Creative Thinking Obstacles

Obstacles to Creative Thinking:

Personal Reflection

After reading this chapter, I am convinced that creative thinking is necessary in many parts of life. Without creative thinking, change could not occur, and change must occur for cultures,… [read more]


Effective Management in a Global Environment Thesis

… ¶ … Management in a Global Environment using Cultural Intelligence

Globalization is accelerating the urgency that individuals from significantly different cultures are facing in their efforts to collaborate with each other to attain common objectives and goals. This urgency to… [read more]


Andrew Blauvelt and Tim Plowman Consider Graphic Research Proposal

… ¶ … Andrew Blauvelt and Tim Plowman consider graphic design and product design as reflecting a culture. The authors both urge designers to take a more critical approach to design so that products are not isolated from their contexts. Only the cultural context can provide designs and objects with meaning. In "Towards Critical Autonomy or Can Graphic Design Save Itself?" Blauvelt suggests that graphic designers take a more critical stance toward their profession. Designers need to act independently of consumerism. Similarly, Plowman claims that graphic designers need to approach their work more like anthropologists do in the article "Ethnography and Critical Design Practice."

Both Blauvelt and Plowman use the word "critical" in their titles. The authors use the word critical in generally the same way. Both Blauvelt and Plowman use the word critical to suggest a critique of the graphic design profession, and both authors also use the word critical to mean "urgent." The theme of both the articles is that designers must reclaim their arts and not be slaves to consumerism.

If, as Plowman suggests, the…… [read more]


Do Human Rights Following a Cultural Relativism Approach Depend on International Regimes for Their Implementation? Term Paper

… Enforcement of Non-Universal Human Rights

There are some practices that are so abhorrent and degrading that they simply cannot be justified -- ever.

Genocide will never be successfully defended with a human rights argument.

Rape cannot be justified on free-speech… [read more]


Business the Concept of Globalization Essay

… Business

The Concept of Globalization

According to some, globalization is extremely bad for the American economy, because it "takes" jobs away from Americans and sends them to foreign countries, where workers will labor for far less in wages and benefits. At least some of these workers are exploited by long hours and low pay, as well. However, globalization has opened up new markets for millions of American products, (such as PCs in the Lenovo case), which might not have been necessary for work around the globe without globalization. This has certainly helped the American economy in many areas, especially technology and high-tech. After all, everyone seems to have a cell phone now, and that is a plus for the American companies who first helped develop and distribute them. There are good and bad aspects to globalization, and one that many ignore is how western culture is permeating global society, westernizing countries and cultures at a rapid pace. That may be the worst part of globalization, far worse than changing the dynamics of the job market; it is changing…… [read more]

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