"Anthropology / Culture" Essays

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Sartre on Colonialism in Algeria Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (653 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Colonialism is a system," the French existentialist philosopher Jean Paul Sartre analyzes the Algerian struggle for independence from French colonial domination in light of what it means to be a colony. Sartre writes that colonies saw their own, internal governing structures supplanted by the supposedly superior French civil system and also witnessed their economies being exploited. The methods by which land was owned and allocated was designed to benefit the mother country, not local residents. Sartre argues that there is no good and bad colonialism, as some argue, rather all forms of colonialism are by definition exploitation. "Will we ask the Algerians to thank our country for allowing their children to be born into poverty, to live as slaves and to die of hunger?" (Sartre 133). Colonialism is also unique in the sense in which the colonial residents set themselves apart from the culture of the native population: this is why European interests will never cohere with those of the individuals. "The colonists are invaders whom the colonial pact has completely cut off from the invaded: in more than a century during which we have occupied Algeria, practically no mixed marriages or Franco -- Muslim friendships have been recorded" (139).

Sartre's conception of colonial power is very much top-down. He argues that the colonial powers have absolute and uncomplicated power over the colonized. In contrast, Caribbean author Derek Walcott argues for a more complex and potentially empowering concept of colonialism. Walcott suggests that colonial subjects exercise a cultural influence over their colonizers in a manner which cannot be easily controlled or defined. "In the Caribbean, we do not pretend to exercise power in the historical sense. I think that what our politicians define as power, the need for it, or the lack of it should have another name; that, like America, what energizes our society is the spiritual force of a culture shaping itself, and it can do this without the formula of politics"…… [read more]

Pros and Cons of Cultural Relativism Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,560 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Against Cultural Relativism

As innovations in transportation and telecommunications technology continue to make the world a smaller place, there are few places left on earth that remain untouched by modern civilization. The increasing exchange of ideas and international commerce has also introduced new questions concerning the legitimacy of cultural relativism in justifying acceptance of behaviors and practices in… [read more]

Analysis of Joint Health in Horses Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,593 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Horses have been used for racing and traveling for centuries. W ith the use of horses comes the chance of injury. Horses frequently injure their joints especially when racing. This research paper is meant to highlight which joints are injured, the kind of things that may happen to a horse's joint, joint movement, and how to maintain horses and avoid… [read more]

Migration Patterns Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (955 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Globalization and migration of peoples is not a new phenomenon. This paper will focus on that theme and bring in scholarly literature to back up the assertion made in this paragraph.

According to Gemma Tulud Cruz, the present worldwide movement of people -- the immigration movement -- is as much a part of "globalization" as is the movement of money, goods and services (Cruz, 2008, p. 357). Cruz, assistant professor of theology at Radboud University in the Netherlands, explains that the "defining moments" in the history of the world have always been connected with the "massive movements" of people (p. 357). And the movements of people across borders today are not only "radically rearranging human demographics" but also those movements are redefining economic, religious, cultural and sociopolitical boundaries, Cruz continues.

But the point that Cruz makes as the pivotal idea in this scholarly article is that the linkage of migration and globalization is definitely not a new event. Indeed, the relationship between migration and globalization dates way back to the 16th Century (p. 358). In the 1500s Europe expanded all over the globe through its colonial exploitation period; during this period, Cruz continues, there were "large intercontinental movements of people" and the movements of people to and from three continents continued for "more than four centuries" (p. 358).

The routes that are quite visible and well-trod today in the latest chapter of globalization and migration were "laid down" by both European colonizers and the colonized peoples themselves, Cruz explains (p. 358). Another group of colonizers were launched by the European colonization period, the author asserts; those were the ones who colonized the "mind and soul" of the natives in the colonized nations. That group consisted of the colonizers who brought their dogmatic religious beliefs with them; they are more commonly alluded to as Christian missionaries, and others with a spiritual message for the colonized (Cruz, p. 359). Certainly it is easy to understand why the 16th Century Spanish Catholic authorities would be called colonizers, and are seen today by Cruz as part of the globalization of that era. To wit, the Spanish Catholics subjected Latino populations in Mexico, the Philippines, South America and elsewhere to forced religious conversion. Cruz calls it "colonial subjugation"; the priests came in "waves" along with the battleships and the merchant ships.

Another scholar who discusses history to remind readers that globalization is not a new concept, and that in fact the global economic integration apparent today around the world is "…not so different from those of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries" (roughly 1870 to 1913) (Ruccio, 2003, p. 78). Ruccio references the fact that because of the advances in long-distance transportation (when steamships cam along) and in communication technologies (notably the telegraph), the growth of global trade averaged 3.5% per annum compared with "output growth of 2.7%" (p. 78).

Ruccio…… [read more]

Richard Falk / Globalization From Below Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (583 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Richard Falk / Globalization from Below the controversial term of globalization mainly refers to a succession of improvements in relation to international reforms in economy that promote a global centre of funds by influencing countries in joining their potentials. One of the greatest achievements of globalizing the economy has been the faster developing of Southern Economies due to the improvement of their relations with the northerners. As the process took place in the Third-world countries, its benefits have been debated since it encouraged progress among the aristocracy with no regards to the demoralizing consequences it had on the lower classes. Several countries attempted to combat economic globalization through different means and methods but their endeavors have ended in failure sooner or later, leaving them aspiring for foreign investors.

One of the main reasons for which globalization is being denounced is because it is being exploited by the international market without any intervention from the corrupt authorities, regardless to how it affects the masses. This type of globalization had a comforting impact on economy by boosting its growth, but a devastating aftermath on the less fortunate one for the public. Richard Falk branded this side of globalization as "globalization-from-above."

This pattern of development is identified here as "globalization from above," a set of forces and legitimating ideas that is in many respects located beyond the effective reach of territorial authority and that has enlisted most governments as tacit partners."

Falk, 130)

Society has set free a number of factions hostile to the concept of globalization generating movements like environmentalism or localism that are protesting against globalization and the repercussions it has on either people or nature and have had numerous triumphs in their struggle.

Along the flaws it has, globalization is recognized…… [read more]

Saskia Sassen Immigration Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (658 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Saskia Sassen / Immigration

Immigration tests the new world order

The issue of globalization is one which interests more and more people and analysts every day. It has become part of the lives of billions of people particularly because, at every level of the society it affects each and every one of them. However, there have been voices arguing for and against this process. Some consider it to be a mere evolution of the society which existed before, while others consider it to be a revolution. However, there can be no assessment made properly and in a general manner because the effects of globalization tend to manifest differently and according to the specificities of each level of activity. Thus, in the trading business the issue of globalization is seen as a positive aspect of the interconnectivity of the world. On the other hand, however, there are discussions focusing on the way in which the wide access of people at the global job market or in general at the immigration possibilities is benefic or not for the states around the world.

Saskia Sassen discusses precisely this last aspect of the tensions arising in the debates on globalization. She takes into account the statement that immigration tests the new world order. However, in this regard it is important to see the meaning of the term "new world order." On the one hand, she points out the fact that globalization has created a reconfiguration of the political map in the sense that it changed the notion of sovereignty of the states. More precisely, it places in discussion the issue of nationality of the territories "where much globalization materializes in specific institutions and processes" (1996, 5). Also, the issue of the legal system governing cross border transactions has changed. In addition, globalization underlines the importance of the electronic space. All these changing issues, she concludes "reveal aspects of the relation between global economy and national state" (1996, 6). The new world order entangled…… [read more]

Social Cognitive Theory Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (317 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Social Cognitive Theory

It is always fascinating to read about the development of a psychological theory; the more complex, the more interesting.

And this is precisely what appeals to me about Albert Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory as discussed by Danice Stone. The circumstances leading to the development of this theory makes it obvious that a more complex model was needed to describe human behavior. It appears that all theories up until the development of Bandura's paradigm was somewhat simple in describing human behavior. It appears that there were two main schools of thought: those who believed that behavior was regulated consequently or antecedently.

Bandura's complex views appear to incorporate both. What I also like about his theory is the fact that it does not attempt to categorize human behavior into a limited number of specific classes. Instead he promotes the idea of a variety of human traits and circumstances that interact. His theory is therefore not one of…… [read more]

Social Theory Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (912 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Social Theory

Through the use of social theory it is theorized that the concept of globalization is capable of taking on various alternative interpretations. This theory is due to the understanding that the discourses surrounding the term globalization are not absolute but socially produced ideas. Social theory involves the use of theoretical frameworks for the purpose of explaining social meanings, structures, and processes. Globalization involves a complex set of economic, political, cultural, and social processes that have caused the modern world to become highly interdependent and interconnected. The precise definition of this term and its impact upon the world has been a source of constant debate between scholars of various social science disciplines.

Using the social theoretical framework several alternative views of the term globalization are derived. It is theorized that the meaning of this term can be open to interpretation due to the fact that past meanings were themselves the result of discursive construction and not, as some would have it, discourses naturally associated with globalization. It is stated that globalization and its impact upon the world has to be analyzed using critical social theory in order for scholars to come to a better understanding of the complex social processes occurring in the world today; this phenomenon is thus not something that should be ignored by scholars looking to better understand today's world (Kelly 1999).

An analysis can begin by examining the various geographical literatures upon the subject of globalization. Through such examination it will be observed that the discourses surrounding this term are polarized between either being an idealization of its impact or a belittling of the influence it has in today's societies. Some scholars view it idealistically as being capable of creating a utopian world where nation-states no longer exist and where economic and cultural processes become intimately interconnected throughout the world. Other scholars hold a completely opposite view in stating that globalization's impact has been minimal upon the world based on empirical evidence supporting the notion that a "super state" does not exist and on the notion that the world has undergone past periods of internationalization. Many scholars also equate globalization with neoliberal economic policies and believe this to be its inevitably natural discourse. This equation causes many to be disdainful of globalization's potential of having a positive impact upon the world. Other scholars, while insisting upon the continued importance of the nation-state in modern times, create a conflicting dichotomy between the notions of the global vs. local arenas (Kelly 1999).

After examining the literature, attempts can be made to refute the conflicting viewpoints about globalization. Before this it must first be understood that this phenomenon is not simply an imaginary notion dreamed up by business and academic elites. It is based…… [read more]

Review: Globalization Unplugged in Globalization Unplugged: Sovereignty Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,513 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Review: Globalization Unplugged

In Globalization Unplugged: Sovereignty and the Canadian State in the
Twenty-First Century, Peter Urmetzer tackles the issue of whether
globalization truly detracts from a country's sovereignty. While reviewing
the literature and history of globalization, he evaluates the term
'globalization' from all angles to find a better understanding of what is
meant by it. Although he comes to… [read more]

Globalization Is a Concept Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (307 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Labor forces from poorer countries are for example used in the production of goods that are then exported and sold at high prices. The labor forces are however being paid far less than the minimum wage in more prosperous countries such as the United States. Some have thus blamed globalization for the widening gap between rich and poor throughout the world.

When sufficient laws and enforcement are in place, however, globalization could be a positive rather than a negative force. It is thus perhaps better to look at ways in which this can be accomplished rather than condemning the phenomenon altogether. Globalization will not disappear by being ignored. Instead, problems should be identified and remedied in a responsible manner. When this is done, globalization can benefit rich and poor alike, providing communication, goods and services that would otherwise be unavailable.… [read more]

Globalization: Daniel Yergin's "Giving Aid Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (326 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


As Norberg-Hodge states, in "March of the Monoculture, for example: ". . . villages, rural communities and their cultural traditions around the world are being destroyed on an unprecedented scale under the impact of globalising market forces. Communities that have sustained themselves for hundreds of years are simply disintegrating."

Yergin sees the economic benefits of helping developing nations "catch up" with the west. Norberg-Hodge, in the other hand, questions both the wisdom and the necessity of such nations' "catching up" in the first place, in terms of cultural and even personal (to their self-esteem) damage to the peoples living in those areas of the world.

Works Cited

Norberg-Hodge, Helena. "The March of the Monoculture." Retrieved May 26,

2005, from: .

Yergin, Daniel. "Giving Aid to World Trade. Policy Matters, Vol. 2, Issue 34 (July

2002). Retrieved May 26, 2005, from:…… [read more]

Conference Proposal Supervision Type of Program: Roundtable Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (463 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Conference Proposal Supervision

Type of Program: Roundtable

Multicultural Approach to Contemporary Supervision

Program Description

With the continuing spread and domination of globalization in contemporary business, it is crucial for managerial practices to be able to keep up in an increasingly multicultural environment. The modern business environment presents issues in dealing with the extreme diversity within its working population. Understanding the need for sensitivity to this growing diversity is now a crucial element for successful supervision.

As such, the goals for this program are to introduce supervisors to this growing diversity in a practical manner in order to provide tools for them to utilize in their own unique working environments. A presentation of unique environmental and cultural factors to supervisors will strengthen their ability to cope with the diverse factors they encounter in their managerial roles. This will then strengthen the quality of leadership and efficiency to meet organizational goals.

In order to achieve such goals, the delivery of the program will center on a semi-structured roundtable presentation. The topic will be introduced and then expanded based on a thorough presentation of the literature in the current discourse regarding the nature of the need for cultural sensitivity within supervisor roles and relations. This will help facilitate a discussion between participants, where the leader guides each individual to finding their own unique way of implementing a more multicultural approach to their own supervisory…… [read more]

Discrete-Event Simulation (DES) Literature Review Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,742 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Through this, organization, performance and profitability is likely to be achieved and maintained. In addition, the objectives of the organization are likely to be achieved, and employees are allowed to work in accordance to their capabilities and qualifications.

Work cited

Abu-Taieh, Evon M.O. Handbook of Research on Discrete Event Simulation Environments: Technologies and Applications. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2012. Print.

Brailsford, Samuel and Schmidt, Benson. Towards incorporating human behavior in models of health care systems: An approach using discrete-event simulation, European Journal of Operational Research, 150, 19-31. 2003.

Freudenberg, Richard and Herper, Harris. Simulation of Workers in Manufacturing Systems, Proceedings of the 1998 Winter Simulation Conference, SCS, 951-956. 1998.

Greasley, Albert. Using system dynamics in a discrete-event simulation study of a manufacturing plant, International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 25(5/6), 534- 548. 2005.

Johnson, Fowler and Mackulak, George. A Discrete Event Simulation Model Simplification Technique, Proceedings of the 2005 Winter Simulation Conference, SCS, 2172-2176. 2005.

Juran, Chris and Schruben, Warren. Using worker personality and demographic information to improve system performance prediction, Journal of Operations Management, 22, 355- 367. 2004.

Laughery, Richard. Using Discrete-Event Simulation to Model Human Performance in Complex Systems, Proceedings of the 1999 Winter Simulation Conference, SCS, 815-820. 1999.

Leemis, Lawrence M, and Stephen K. Park. Discrete-event Simulation: A First Course. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2006. Print.

McGinnis, Leonard. Technical and Conceptual Challenges in Organizational Simulation (Rouse, W.B and Boff, K.R. (eds)), John Wiley…… [read more]

Evangelism in the Early Church Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (656 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Other ways Jesus approached evangelism include his being willing to point out sin when He saw it, and helped others to recognize the power that sin had over them. He would not allow his audience to ignore the fact of sin, and sought their full submission to the Word of God.

How did the disciples approach evangelism?

The way the disciples approached evangelism was much different from Jesus's approach. According to Earley and Wheeler, the disciples did not prioritize evangelism as Jesus did. They did not learn how to recognize the potential value in the souls of others, or the need to be saved. The disciples were focused on the mundane, more than the spiritual. They even rushed Jesus, as the parable of the journey to Galilee shows. The disciples remained ignorant about the wealth of opportunities to save souls, and about the special role they could play. After Jesus died and was Resurrected, though, the disciples finally understood.

What do you see in today's local church that is similar or different from the early church?

Today's church is more diversified and complex than it was in the days of the early Church. Although Jesus did contend with some cultural diversity, the world today in the midst of globalization means that evangelism occurs across thousands of miles. Evangelists address audiences with vastly different cultural values, worldviews, and languages. It is at once more difficult and easier to accomplish spiritual goals today. The Internet and other methods of communication can make evangelism easier, but cultural barriers and what Earley and Wheeler call the "devices of the Devil" make it more difficult. However, the modern church continues to recognize what we always knew: the potential of just one person to make a difference.

Works Cited

Earley, Dave and Wheeler, David. "Following the Example of Jesus." Chapter 15 in Evangelism Is

Earley, Dave and Wheeler, David. "Not Following the Example of the Disciples." Chapter 16 in…… [read more]

Wolf, "Why Globalization Works" Martin Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (733 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Wolf identifies globalization as having a net positive effect on the lives of the poor, and "in a nutshell," he states bluntly, this improvement in quality of life "is why" the focus on inequality "is wrong," since "globalization has not increased inequality." (Wolf 705). Wolf notes that overall the only thing held in common by all countries where conditions are improving is that each "chose, however haltingly, the path of economic liberalization and international integration. This is the heart of the matter: all else is commentary…" (Wolf 706). He notes that this kind of rapid growth is "bound to be uneven" and addresses critics like Pogge and Reddy, who suggest that rather than looking at income the welfare of the poorest countries should be measured in terms of "calories and essential nutrients" (Wolf 707). But Wolf cites improving statistics on life expectancy, infant mortality, literacy, reduced fertility rates -- and a decline in malnourishment and child labor, together with global trends toward democratic government and women's equality. Wolf notes that "social progress has been greatest where incomes have risen fastest" (Wolf 710). And in his conclusion he returns to the seven points usually claimed about globalization and inequality which he had summarized at the beginning. In light of the additional information he has offered, he now suggests that the only facts advanced by critics of globalization which are actually true are the first two points: that overall inequality between richest and poorest countries has increased, and the gap in living standards between them has grown. But the other five points, he reveals, are all entirely false because the material sitation of the poor has improved vastly under globalization. At this point, he notes in conclusion, the "problem of the poorest is not that they are exploited, but that they are almost entirely unexploited:…… [read more]

Globalization: Matter of Perspective Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (801 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" Further, the IMF writers assert that if "well-targeted social expenditure" is pursued, "then there is a better chance that growth will be amplified into more rapid poverty reduction."

Indeed, the IMF continues in its rosy description of just how poor countries can place themselves in position to benefit from globalization -- if they would just promote "pro-poor policies that are properly budgeted -- including health, education, and strong social safety nets. A participatory approach, including consultation with civil society, will add greatly to their chances of success." However, the IMF article fails to acknowledge its role in many of these nation's inability to do just the things they recommend -- after all, in imposing its will on these countries, essentially in dictating their road to globalization for them, many of these countries are unable to attain a strong enough domestic footing to even begin the journey -- note Argentina, for example -- crippled under the recommendations and austerity programs of outside interests -- all undermining the political, welfare, and social stability of the country -- the very things necessary to allow the poor to rise above their misery.

Unfortunately, the IMF does little to buoy its position as a leader of the "good," trend of globalization. As Stiglitz points out, the truly poor nations are unlikely to benefit from the globalization the IMF touts. Instead, unable to determine and advance their own interests, they will continue to be at the mercy of organizations like the IMF, and the other "strong men" representatives of the special interests of the "super power" economies.

Although the IMF attempts to obscure this fact, Stiglitz correctly points out what the IMF cannot hide, in spite of its effort -- globalism benefits the few, and the rest are doomed to suffer the consequences.


Stiglitz, Joseph. (2002). "Globalism's Discontents." American Prospect Magazine. Retrieved from Web site on April 10, 2004 66&hm____action=http%3a%2f%2fwww%2ethirdworldtraveler%2ecom%2fGlob al_Economy%2fGlobalisms_Discontents%2ehtml

IMF. (2002). "Globalism: Threat or Opportunity?" IMF Issues Briefs. Retrieved from Web site on April 10, 2004 http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/ib/2000/041200.htm#IV… [read more]

Ajun Appadurai and George Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (369 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


However, with the exception of global flows of people, I don't really see any difference in his way of thinking as compared to Ritzer's, from this point-of-view. Indeed, many of these global flows are immaterial, not necessarily in the nothing form that George Ritzer uses.

On the other hand, interesting aspects are pointed out in Appadurai's ideas when he refers to the fact that globalization may produce "violent forms of difference and separation," with threats to the national security and identity.

A may thus conclude that both authors have a rather grim outlook on globalization. A form of promoting nothing for one and a source for tensions for another, the global flows of virtually anything is deemed to have less positive consequences on humanity.


1. Fuchs, Christian. Globalization and Self-Organization in the Knowledge-Based Society. On the Internet at (http://triplec.uti.at/articles/tripleC1(2)_Fuchs.pdf

Fuchs, Christian. Globalization and Self-Organization in the Knowledge-Based Society. On the Internet at (http://triplec.uti.at/articles/tripleC1(2)_Fuchs.pdf… [read more]

Ethics and Ethical Responsibilities in Healthcare Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (749 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


It should, however, be noted that although the basis for cultural competence's opposition to clinician imperialism is largely rational, this whole set up brings to the fore several other challenges. For instance, aligning cultural competence to ethical relativism could effectively place the former on a collision course with conventional Western medical ethics (Paasche-Orlow, 2004). In seeking to highlight the need to go beyond cultural competence, Kumagai and Lypson (2009) propose the development of critical consciousness that in addition to positioning medicine in a historical, cultural, as well as social context, also actively recognizes social problems and seeks solutions to the said problems. This could avert the problems alluded to elsewhere in this text. To cap it all, Kumagai and Lypson, (2009) point out that to achieve the central goal in multicultural education, i.e. The advancement of critical awareness, there is need for efforts to be directed towards "action informed by an overreaching theoretical framework" (Kumagai and Lypson, 2009).

Towards this end, it would be prudent to point out how I would respond to the issue at hand, as a future healthcare leader. My approach would be primed on pushing for the adoption of an approach whereby like a thread, cultural competency would run through the various levels of not only the curriculum but also the medical school philosophy. This could take the form of immersion programs, workshops, and interactive sessions. If this were to be adopted, and implemented alongside the regular lectures and elective courses, we would have what can truly be regarded culturally competent medical education. In addition to leveling the playing field amongst all of those in the profession, this approach would help develop a new breed of professionals that are culturally aware; thus further enhancing responsibility and promoting moral principles that facilitate the application of proper judgment to the medical practice - which medical ethics is all about.


Kumagai, A.K. & Lypson, M.L. (2009). Beyond Cultural Competence: Critical Consciousness, Social Justice, and Multicultural Education. Academic Medicine, 84(6), 782-787.

Paasche-Orlow, M. (2004).…… [read more]

Conservation of Houston Toad Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,723 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Biodiversity: Houston Toad

The Houston Toad (Bufo Houstonensis) Found mostly in Post Oak Savannah, Texas, has an appearance similar to the Bufo Woodhouse or Wood house's Toad. However it varies in that it is smaller, reaching just three and a half inches or smaller for the male with the female slightly larger. The color of the toad ranges between bronze… [read more]