Study "Anthropology / Culture" Essays 276-330

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Globalization Term Paper

… Globalization is becoming a more and more spoken word, present on the lips of more and more individuals. But what exactly does this concept imply? Globalization is a generic term which encompasses a wide series of changes that occur on… [read more]


Algonquin Indian Tribes of Michigan and the Influence the Early French Term Paper

… Agonquin Indian Tribes of Michigan and the Influence the Early French Had on These Tribes

The history of the American people is the result of numerous influences that have put their mark on what is today the American culture and… [read more]


Psychic Distance Term Paper

… Psychic Distance

The natural occurrence of globalization is bringing the world increasingly closer together through the exchange of culture, products and services, information, and knowledge. Over the last several decades, the speed of this global connection has become much greater,… [read more]


Clifford Geertz Term Paper

… ¶ … Balinese Cockfighting" and F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel the Great Gatsby: Deep Play in Long Island

According to the anthropologist Clifford Geertz, all societies contain cultural systems that can be read as texts. For example, the rituals surrounding cockfighting… [read more]


Santa Clara County Research CC the Evolving Term Paper

… Santa Clara County Research CC

The evolving concept of Cultural Competence is an area of reformation that is changing the delivery of many aspects of health and social work services. The delivery of social work services, especially in periods of… [read more]


Negotiation Strategies and Procedures Term Paper

… Younger negotiators may be less flexible, given their lack of experience with the 'give and take' of the negotiation process. Older negotiators also are more inclined to engage in antecedent planning activities, as outlined above. This is also true of more experienced negotiators.

Education exerts some less discernable influence upon planning -- individuals with a moderate level of education are more inclined to plan a strategy, as opposed to those negotiators without a formal education who are more uncertain of their abilities, and those with high levels of education who may feel confident enough to 'wing it.' Gender may influence negotiating style. Female negotiators may be more accepting of collaboration and more inclined to plan before the negotiating process. However, the strongest correlation between antecedent planning as it affects the negotiation process is that of national culture, as classified according to Hofstede's famous value dimensions of individualism vs. collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, power distance, and masculine vs. feminine cultures. Collectivism results in more planning and acceptance of collaboration, as does uncertainty avoidance, and nations with high 'power distances' or acceptance of hierarchies are more inclined to plan, as are more 'feminine' or relational cultures, as opposed to masculine cultures which may be more rigid, inflexible, and thus less likely to see the value of planning and compromising.

Which of them, in your eyes, is most crucial to the success of a negotiation session?

Of all of these variables, national culture exerts the most clear influence upon negotiating strategy and behavior -- particularly as younger people, or women, or less educated individuals may adapt to the styles endorsed by their cultures within their organizations and nations to 'fit in.' But it is far more difficult to adopt the negotiating culture of one's opponent without considerable finesse and practice. Collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, acceptance of power distance, and feminine acceptance of collaboration are all likely to be linked to greater planning, greater time and resources devoted to the construction of a strategy, and greater acceptance that the negotiating process will result and necessitate some give and take. This is likely to make for a less potentially 'painful' negotiation process overall, as opposed to an opponent who links taking an unyielding position to be an exhibition of power and authority, rather than a source of frustration. Regardless, it is important to be aware of the opponent's cultural orientation, as it will undoubtedly affect their strategy, expectations, techniques, and goal-formulation throughout the process.

Works Cited

Peterson, R.M., and Lucas, G.H. (2001). Expanding the antecedent component of the traditional business negotiation model; Pre-negotiation literature review and planning-preparation propositions. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice. Statesboro: Fall 2001 [read more]


Globalization Weakens the State Term Paper

… Globalisation weakens the state. Discuss.

Globalization is clearly one of the most controversial topics of the last decades, opinions on the matter being extremely different. When speaking about whether globalization weakens the state, there are several arguments that must be… [read more]


Comparison of Two Books Term Paper

… European-Indian Contact: New England

Books: James Axtell- the Invasion Within: The Contest of Cultures in Colonial North America

William Cronon- Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists and the Ecology of New England

The Civilization of Northern America as a Result… [read more]


Globalization Can Be Defined as Spreading Term Paper

… Globalization can be defined as spreading, combining and collaborating on mainstream economic, political and cultural ideas and practices all around the world in a way that allows people in other parts of the world to connect and experience things they may not have always known. (Stiglitz, 2006)

The idea of globalization many times can go hand in hand with the idea of capitalism because businesses spread their ideas and products all over the world for all people to share. (Stiglitz, 2006) Some people are happy with the effects of globalization on the world because it allows cultures to interact and overlap. For example, kids in China may be able to eat lunch at McDonalds or kids in Europe can shop at the Gap.

However, others may believe globalization has had a negative effect on the world because it interferes with the cultural and religious beliefs of people in certain areas. Another negative aspect of globalization can be the fact that people of a certain culture and religion could lose their identity because they become so consumed by influences from other parts of the world. People also… [read more]


Modern Event or Issue Term Paper

… People around the globe are more connected to each other than ever before. Information and money flow more quickly than ever. Goods and services produced in one part of the world are increasingly available throughout the globe. International travel is more frequent and international communication is commonplace. This phenomenon has been titled "globalization." Today we can talk about the globalization of politics, economy, and culture. The term has come into common usage since the 1980s, reflecting technological advances that have made it easier to complete international transactions - both trade and financial flows. It refers to an extension beyond national borders of the same market forces that have operated for centuries at all levels of economic activity - village markets, urban industries, financial centers etc. This essay looks at the phenomenon of globalization and its relation to culture. Also, this essay tries to general an assessment of the power of building or destroying the cultural identity of one region, country, people etc. To the benefit of the process of globalization.

As with all important issues, globalization has given birth to numerous debates; its supporters believe it can bring tremendous opportunities and benefits; its opponents consider globalization as a phenomenon capable only of destruction. In this sense, it has been argued that uniformity imposed by globalization will lead to a loss of cultural national identity which in turn, will be the catalyst of a reduction of diversity in terms of traditions, customs, etc. Nevertheless, such a simplistic approach can be dangerous. The duality of the phenomenon can hardly be reduced to clear definitions of good and bad, of right and wrong. Globalization is neither inherently good nor bad. The vehicle of globalization is communication whose main purpose is sending and receiving information, i.e. The circulation of knowledge. Since Francis Bacon first enunciated it in the 17th century, knowledge has always been synonymous with power. Over the ages, power has taken varied shapes. In prehistory, power belonged to those who possessed physical qualities which determined their superiority in the community. During the middle ages, sovereigns represented the embodiment of power and authority. The word of the king was above the law, or in most cases, was the law itself. Hundreds of years later, during the industrial revolution, the financial capital became the true, and frequently, the only source of power as money dictated one's social status. In today's ever changing world, one thing is certain. Knowledge resides in information, and this particular level of information determines class structure. Of course, money is still highly relevant in establishing social order, but the immense flux of information circulating cannot be underestimated. Moreover, in today's society, one can easily distinguish between who possess information and who does not; in fact, this simplistic yet accurate classification works to the definite advantage of the former. Very few expressions of globalization are as… [read more]


Cultural Diversity Cultural Policy Term Paper

… Cultural Diversity

Cultural policy aims at the advancement of cultural diversity and cultural democracy. As Adams and Goldbard (1987) note, there is a strong need for the development of an effective cultural policy in the United States so as to balance the negative and discriminatory effects that the policy practiced by the government has produced throughout history.

Through the encouragement of culture in all its forms, incorporating both commercial culture as promoted by the media and the nonprofit realm of the high or traditional arts, a democratization of culture can be achieved. There is evidently no one single culture in the United States, but an extraordinary variety of subcultures that have the right to be expressed and defined by their members. In this context, Adams and Goldbard (1987) remark that there is a "right to culture," that should be exercised freely by all people. The main goal of the development of a cultural policy is "to stimulate active participation in community life in all its forms, including political life" (Adams and Goldbard 1987) Thus, through cultural expression people can be socially and politically active. The principal purpose of the movement is therefore the achievement of cultural dynamism, through which diversity, participation in the community life and freedom of belief and expression will be secured as main values of the American civilization. Cultural policy is therefore an effective way to militate for democracy and diversity, and to escape from the stasis that the governmental politics or the marketplace may impose on the individuals. In this view, it is essential that there be public funds and public spaces allotted for the practice of all the arts, such as performance rooms freely available to the public, or any other materials that may be needed by the artists. Adams and Goldbard (1987) emphasize therefore that the main aim of developing a cultural policy is to "promote diversity where government, market forces, and other powerful interests have discouraged it." Cultural democracy is therefore an effective way promoting social and political democracy at the same time, and ensuring the permanence of freedom against the main powers in the state that may sometimes follow different interests. In this respect, it… [read more]


Affects of Globalization Term Paper

… ¶ … Globalization

In the past few years, globalization has sparked a revolution in information and communication technology, dramatically and irreversibly changing society and civilization. As a result of globalization, new levels of interconnectedness between countries previously thought unimaginable have… [read more]


Globalization Defining Globalization and Its Effects Term Paper

… Globalization

Defining Globalization and its Effects on the Economic Future

The impact of the Internet on globalization is visible from the pervasiveness and visibility of brands globally to changes in the everyday lives of members of different cultures around the world as they strive to anticipate and react to significant changes in their lives as a result of this market, social, and political dynamic. Globalization, while discussed as a business strategy, actually affects individuals far more often and with greater consequences than corporations. It is in this blurring of geographic and national boundaries as mass communications, the Internet, and the pervasiveness and speed of e-commerce minimize the distances and differences between cultures. The Internet is serving as the catalyst for these many changes that both individuals and companies experience. The axiom that the Internet is shrinking distances is just part of the story; the fact that the Internet is forcing cultural distances to shrink as well, creating cultural conflict in the process is an area of globalization that impacts each individual differently. In that cultural conflict is the challenge of globalization, and the Internet simply intensifies this aspect of global relationships. The Internet is literally shoving people and cultures together that may or may… [read more]


Globalization and Its Effect on Identity in Africa Term Paper

… ¶ … globalization and how it impacts identity in Africa. The writer looks at group as well as individual identify issues as they relate to the globalization process.

GLOBALIZATION TEACHES MODERN WAYS THEN EXPECTS OLD FASHIONED HABITS TO CONTINUE: THE… [read more]


Globalizatoin the Face of Globalization: Forecasts, Trends Term Paper

… Globalizatoin

The Face of Globalization: Forecasts, Trends, and Possibilities

Critics of globalization have charged that one of the most significant dangers of the global phenomenon is the threat of cultural homogeneity. This is the process by which local and regional… [read more]


Globalization on Psychology View Term Paper

… Globalization has been most prominently seen as an economic issue, affecting business dealings among the various countries. Concomitantly, the different paradigms of culture have been seen as an important issue relating to business. With the inception of the Internet and… [read more]


Globalization and Colonialism as They Relate Term Paper

… ¶ … globalization and colonialism as they relate to the economy. The writer examines similarities and differences in the two concepts and argues that society continues to live in a neocolonial world. There were five sources used to complete this… [read more]


Globalization Such a Discussion Revolving Term Paper

… Globalization

Such a discussion revolving around the globalization process in all its ensemble is difficult to approach, not necessarily only because of the complexity of the subject, but because it is the type of subject that has been tackled by… [read more]


Interaction Between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Cultural Expression in Australia Term Paper

… ¶ … interaction between the Indigenous and the Non-Indigenous cultures of Australia. The author explores both populations and their cultures and compares them to each other the author then examines the method by which the cultures interact. There were six… [read more]


Learning in the Context of Globalization Term Paper

… Motivation in a Highly Multicultural Firm

Communications are Vital

Identifying Challenges and Confirming What Counts

Focusing on Can not Can't

Reminders to Help

Soliciting What's Valuable

Presenting Opportunities

Motivation in a Highly Multicultural Firm

Communications Are Vital

If you look… [read more]


Margaret Mead and Coming Term Paper

… In his book, Margaret Mead and the Heretic, he establishes that maybe she made a mistake or made the wrong choice in her analyzing her findings on Samoan coming of age. He explains, "our term heretic is derived from the… [read more]


Values and Ethics and Asylum Term Paper

… Second, from the perspective of the integration of refugees within the country of settlement, regarding housing, medical needs, voluntary agencies and participation in the labor market (Bocker pp). During the last ten years, these perspectives have been supplemented by studies into other aspects of the refugee problem, with respect to the causes of migration, financial and other assistance to the countries of first refuge in a conflict region, and the refugee policy of a certain country or group of countries (Bocker pp). Bocker concludes that it is not the characteristics of the countries of destination as much as the situation of the asylum seekers or the circumstances of the flight which appear to determine the destination of the asylum seeker's flight (Bocker pp).

Respect for autonomy means respectful actions, not simply an attitude of acceptance (Staton pp). Although quality of empathy, cultural sensitivity is not testable as content, it can however be an expectation of practice in the same sense that integrity or justice can be (Staton pp). The desirable posture for the social worker is one of cultural agnosticism (Staton pp). In other words, "not trusting in any particular cultural mold to determine what is right, wrong, or ultimately meaningful" (Staton pp).

Work Cited

Bocker, Anita. (1999). Country of asylum by choice or by chance: asylum-seekers in Belgium, the Netherlands and the UK. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. January 01. Retrieved October 27, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

The Ethics of Social Work Principles and Standards. Retrieved October 27, 2005 from:

http://www.asylumsupport.info/publications/ifsw/ethics.htm

International Federation of Social Workers. Retrieved October 27, 2005 from:

http://www.ifsw.org/en/p38000002.html

Staton, Michele. (2000). "Multiculturalism in Social Work Ethics." Journal of Social

Work Education. September 22. Retrieved October 27, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site. [read more]


Shrinking This Concept Term Paper

… 131).

Detractors of this assimilation and blending of cultures say that it results in the loss of the original culture and that it is possibly only an attempt by the minority group to avoid racism and discrimination by the majority of the new society (Karlson 2004, p. 131). Through this lens, assimilation to the majority culture, society, and language may only be a negative for the original culture. However, some scholars have noted that assimilation is not "a zero sum model, in which the acculturation of immigrants and their children involved the gradual replacement of their ethnic culture" (Thompson 2002, p. 416). These scholars believe that a melding of one group's original culture from their area of origin with the dominant culture of their new nation or region is possible without becoming a detriment to either culture, and perhaps strengthening both cultures.

The truth regarding cultural assimilation lies somewhere between these two extremes. Assimilation with regard to language, traditions, and social mores is most definitely a positive factor in easing the transition of immigrants to a new society; one author has noted that, as opposed to previous centuries in which different groups came into contact only when at war or in the context of conflict, today's "small world" has resulted in and encouraged interactions between various groups (Stepukonis 2003). These interactions increase the depth of individual cultures by emphasizing the important aspects of each to its own identity -- an emphasis on family and religion in one culture, for example, or a history and separate style of music and literature in another.

Migrating and acculturating to a society that is not one's original culture is difficult and definitely detracts from the aspects of one's original culture that are utilized in everyday life -- language is the most obvious example of this, but there are many smaller criteria that are gradually "assimilated out" during a group's move into another culture. However, the melding of cultures allows a group to absorb and adopt new practices, perhaps more modern and/or efficient traditions with respect to technology or work-related practices. Thompson's idea that culture is not a zero-sum game in which one side must be the winner is especially applicable to modern ideas of cultural assimilation. Both minority and majority cultures may learn from one another while preserving their own heritage.

Works Cited

Davidson, B., 1998. "Immigrants Tend to Embrace, not Avoid, English Language" San Francisco Examiner, accessed online at http://www.onenation.org/0898/082598b.html

Grow, B., 2004. "Hispanic Nation," in Business Week, March 15, 2004.

Karlson, S., 2004. "Black like Beckham? Moving Beyond Definitions of Ethnicity Based on Skin Colour and Ancestry" Ethnicity and Health 9:2, pp. 107-137.

Moran, A. 2005. "White Australia, Settler Nationalism, and Aboriginal Assimilation," Australian Journal of Politics and History 51:2, pp. 168-193.

Stepukonis, A., 2003. "The Idea of a World Philosophy in the East-West Context" Dialogue… [read more]


Drawbacks of Multiculturalism Term Paper

… Multiculturalism can be dangerous. Few people would, in their casual understanding of the concept, understand how many harmful effects have been the result of multiculturalism. It is true that multiculturalism is a very broad term. This in itself makes the concept problematic. It is also a multi-dimensional topic as it is understood and manifested differently in every country. Today however critics of the concept are increasingly in agreement that multiculturalism in the end does more harm than good: indeed, the fields of language, art, culture and everyday human relations suffer under the bureaucratic guise of "equality."

Multiculturalism has been a central issue in many countries to where immigration occurs as a result of push factors from homelands. The United States has been a prime candidate for such immigration almost since the inception of the country as the "land of the free." Not having an established American culture during approximately the first century made the multicultural paradigm seem attractive. Nonetheless, British elitist culture brought with it several oppressive practices that critics now recognize as defeating the very goal not only of freedom but also of integration and healthy race relations. The language issue is one of the ways in which multiculturalism has caused the opposite of its intention: marginalizing different culture. This means that catering to every different language within a country causes cultural marginalization and stereotyping more than an attempt at integration does. This can be seen in countries where there is an attempt to produce all instructive literature and other public documents in every conceivable language within the country. This not only has the drawback of limiting foreigners' attempts to become part of a national identity, but also of costing the government, and thus the taxpayer, money. This cultivates resentment rather than an open and free relationship among citizens of a country. By emphasizing differences within a population, these differences are exacerbated and negative feelings abound.

A further problem with multiculturalism is manifested in art, which marginalizes cultures in the same way that language does. In the United States for example, art from different cultures manifest their struggle during a particular era. This is also true of art in other countries such as South Africa, which has its own multicultural issues to contend with. The 1960's for example represent the struggle for freedom, and for a voice in a field reserved for the elite at the time. The nature of the struggle has however changed over the forty years since this era. Yet the change has not been allowed to manifest itself in art from the various cultural sectors of society. Whereas in culture, African-Americans, as well as other persons of various cultures, have begun to explore artistic and cultural views beyond the visual fact of race. The art world however still marginalizes these artists by attempting to limit their work to the eras of a particular struggle for a particular issue. In this way, under the guise of honoring the struggle of cultures to make themselves heard,… [read more]


Body Piercing Definition Term Paper

… Body Piercing

Webster's New Millennium Dictionary of English defines 'body piercing' as "the act of piercing of a part of the body other than the ear for the wearing of jewelry" (Body pp).

According to most encyclopedias, body piercing is a form of body modification, of which involves piercing a part of the human body and subsequently inserting and keeping a foreign object in the opening until the wound heals, by which forms a tunnel of skin, called a fistula, around the foreign objects, thus creating a suitable place for wearing different types of body piercing jewelry (Body1 pp). The term 'piercing' generally refers to this hole, and the most common example in today's society is ear piercing (Body1 pp). Some cultures practice piercing for religious or other traditional reasons, however, many people, particularly those in the modern West, choose to be pierced for spiritual, ornamental, or sexual reasons (Body1 pp).

Body piercing, including ear piercing, has been practiced from ancient times throughout the world (Body1 pp). Mummified bodies with piercings have been found, including the oldest mummified body discovered to date, which was found in an Austrian glacier, and had an ear piercing 7-11 mm in diameter (Body1 pp). Moreover, the Bible mentions nose piercing and ear piercing, as in Genesis 24:22, when it mention's that Abraham's servant gave a nose ring and bracelets to Rebekah, his daughter-in-law (Body1 pp). Since the sixteenth century, nose piercing has been common in India, and tongue piercing was popular with the elite class of Aztec and Maya civilization (Body1 pp). Ancient Mesoamericans wore jewelry in their ears, noses, and lower lips, and such practices continue to be popular among indigenous peoples in these regions (Body1 pp).

Ear piercing has existed continuously since ancient times, and even today is popular throughout the Western world (Body1 pp). Although it became a rarity from the 1920's until the 1960's, it regained popularity among American women and was eventually adopted by men in the "hippie" and gay communities, and later by the punk rock culture (Body1 pp). Among many non-Western cultures, ear piercing, of either or both ears, has always been practiced by men, and by the 1980's, male ear piercing became rather common in the Untied States, although, most men usually only pierced one ear, however, today, single and multiple piercing of either or both ears is very common among Western women… [read more]


America the Multinational Society Term Paper

… Sociology

Prospectus:

How America came to be a multinational society

The idea of multiculturalism and the blurring of national identity have received great attention in the last decade. But in truth, the idea of America as a crossroads for the… [read more]


Human Rights Term Paper

… The correct response to a power relationship is not necessarily to stand back. To refrain from intervening is to side with those on top. Given the ubiquity of power, between and within cultures, there is no option of a power-free… [read more]


Affluent Society, Marshall Sahlins Shows Term Paper

… The author constructs poverty not as an absolute feature of a culture or individual that is based on quantity of possessions. Rather, Sahlins describes poverty as a function of social class status, and as "the invention of civilization." By critiquing common perceptions of hunter-gatherer societies as being impoverished, Sahlins notes that anthropologists need to redefine terms like poverty, scarcity, work, and leisure. In "The Original Affluent Soceity," Sahlins corrects some specific misperceptions about hunter-gatherer cultures. For example, contrary to popular belief, the diet of hunter-gather society is "marvelously varied."

The fault with ethnocentric analyses of hunter-gather societies is that many anthropologists tend to few hunter-gather societies as an evolutionary stage, thereby implying that hunter-gatherer societies are inferior to modern industrial ones. What Sahlins shows is that hunter-gather societies may be much better off than modern capitalist ones. For one, hunter-gatherers work less than their capitalist counterparts. While the common perception of the hunter-gatherer is that work consumes his or her entire existence, the truth is that hunter-gatherers often work less than citizens of industrialized economies.

Sahlins does not suggest that hunter-gather societies are superior to capitalist ones, but rather, seeks to expose the ethnocentricism inherent in many ethnographies of hunter-gatherer cultures. Peeking into a hunter-gather society with the biases of the modern world, the anthropologist might be tempted to conclude that hunter-gatherers are poor, and subsequently, deprived. Sahlins shows that on the contrary, hunter-gatherers are affluent because they desire so little and because they base their existence on the idea that nature is inherently productive, abundant, and yielding.

Works Cited

Sahlins, Marshall. "the Original Affluent Society." Online at < http://www.eco-action.org/dt/affluent.html>. [read more]


Joy Luck Club by Term Paper

… This void is specifically identified as the woman's feeling of being unable to share with her daughter and experience empathy to her experiences and everyday interactions in the hybrid American society.

This phenomenon was not only the mother's dilemma, but… [read more]


Sociological Research Analysis of Group Term Paper

… ACES's nature of "timid affiliation" and autonomy from other activist groups became evident with their communication style, which was described by the researchers as 'more articulate' but with a certain level of 'nervousness,' very unlike the typical activist group which is loud and fierce, even angry.

A similar depiction of group culture was found among bar patrons of the Buffalo Club. Though the group's activist were somewhat subdued in nature than the ACES, centering their activities on socialization rather than demonstrations, Buffalo Club was distinct from other volunteer groups in that they were known for adopting a "wild, irrational, excitable, passionate" -- that is, a bad -- image, in order to reflect the group's "un-political" nature. Though the Buffalo Club was actively socially, its members deviate from expressing political opinions during interaction, and this was interpreted by the researchers as, in fact, a unique kind of politics. For Eliasoph and Lichterman, Buffalo Club's " ... aversion to "good manners" was a powerful rule itself: Do not talk seriously in the group context, and try to appear to be breaking the rules [sic] ... The members' "fierce joking" was a speech act, a way of "doing something" with words." Thus Buffalo Club's existence and cause was for pure interaction and communication with other people only, though its communication style was distinctly louder and more straightforward (yet implicit) than the ACES members' "timid" nature of affiliation.

The researchers' usage of the ethnography as the primary form of data gathering and analysis was appropriate for its objective, especially since interaction and communication were difficult to study if quantitative methods and measures are to be used in the study. Evidently, the study's focus on interaction and communication -- that is, group culture -- is an example of a study that adopted the symbolic interactionist paradigm. This paradigm posits that social action can have multiple meanings and interpretations, depending on the context in which these social actions are applied. Thus, as was shown in Eliasoph and Lichterman's study, group cultures of ACES and Buffalo Club were given unique character and collectivist representations through the incorporation of the principles of symbolic interactionism in their analysis and interpretation. Their study had given readers and potential social science researchers an avenue through which group culture, interaction, and communication will be understood better and in the proper context.

Work cited

Eliasoph, N. And P. Lichterman. (January 2002). "Culture in Interaction." American Journal of Sociology, Vol.… [read more]


Cultural Difference in Human Relations Term Paper

… Cultural Differences

Human Relations and Cultural Differences

Cultural differences impact a number of issues related to human relations. Within any society people are different; their attitudes, values and beliefs, the things that shape culture, vary depending on their upbringing and… [read more]


Encounters and Conflicts Term Paper

… ¶ … New Worlds for All: Europeans, Indians, and the Remaking of Early America

When positing why America is unique as a nation, Americans often respond with references to American legal guarantees of freedom that date back to the founding… [read more]


What Does Polyethnic Mean to US? Term Paper

… Polyethnism

According to the Random House Dictionary, the word "polyethnic" means "inhabited by or consisting of people of many ethnic backgrounds" (Random House, PAGE). As our world becomes more and more a "global village," individuals within that global village, or within their country, or within their own local community, can take several approaches to living within a polyethnic society. Some writers will dig down to their own ethnic roots and write from that ethnic experience, but in many case, the integration into the larger society, their isolation from it, or the cultural clashes as the two groups collide will mean that in today's modern world, few people have their own culture only as an influence on them and their writing. As a result, we will often see the influence of multiple cultures in today's literature.

Ethnic influences can surface in literature in several ways. One writer might write purely from his or her ethnic background, while another writer might write about the experience of blending into the larger society. Some literature will write about events as two differing cultures collide and what happens to people at those boundaries. The experiences of blending in or colliding with another culture are particularly likely to influence some writers in countries where immigration has been encouraged, so these cultural issues can be a prominent feature of some writing in the United States, a country where people from all kinds of ethnic backgrounds live and work together.

A renaissance of the ethnic novel now galvanizes the continuing ethnic reformation of America. Even as America in turn transforms ethnic cultures, the emergence during the past twenty years of a new ethnic novel compels a reconsideration of what it means to be an American. Sam P. Girgus writes of a "renaissance of the ethnic novel," works that require the reader to consider what it means to be "American." Books like Beloved, written from the viewpoint of African slaves, and the works of Amy Tan, which tell stories of Chinese-Americans, have transcended cultural boundaries and read by Americans from both the authors' subcultures and those who belong to the dominant culture in the United States.

Another country profoundly affected by polyethnism is South Africa. Colonized by Great Britain and The Netherlands, the Europeans held all the political and social power and instituted strict policies to try to prevent native and other ethnic cultures from influencing the European culture in any way. When this policy of apartheid crumbled, the interaction of cultures provided rich fodders for writers (Oliphant, PAGE).

In the United States, writers have a rich soup of cultures from which to draw as they work. In many places in the country, the obvious cultural distinctions are White and Black. However, the numbers of cultures represented in the United States in large numbers is staggering: there are the Native Americans, here before any Europeans butt subjugated by them and still struggling to emerge from that subjugation; Jews from all… [read more]


Organizational Behavior Diversity Term Paper

… Demographic differences should be treated not as a hindrance, but essential elements that complement each other in order to optimize the potential of each member to become productive for the team. He contends that although conflict is inevitable, organizations should channel this inherent quality in teams as a positive or functional factor -- that is, by creating a healthy competitive atmosphere wherein each member is given an equal chance that she or he is able to use his/her characteristics and convert them to become something that is useful or productive not only for the team, but also for the organization s/he belongs to. In effect, demographic differences complement each team member's characteristics, resulting to high performance and potentially, social cohesion.

Cultural differences such as differences in personality, attitudes, beliefs, and values is perhaps a more complex issue compared to dealing with differences among team members in terms of demographic characteristics. Cultural differences provide a more in-depth look at the personality and character of the individual, hence, the probability for conflict to occur is greatly increased. In addition, cultural differences go beyond the physical appearance of the individual, and conflict may occur between people of the same race because of conflict in their beliefs or attitudes. Thus, cultural diversity, in this case, becomes harder to reconcile. An organization's inability to create an effective way or method to alleviate conflict due to cultural diversity forfeits the chance of having a high performance team.

The organization must consider cultural differences, like demographic differences, not as a hindrance, but a supplement to filling in the gaps that each member has in creating a high-performance team. Thus, a member who is known for his/her radical propositions will be buffered or 'tempered' by a member who has conservative beliefs and attitudes in arriving at business decisions or resolutions. Furthermore, cultural differences also create the potential for the team to become high-performing if each member will represent the culture they belong, thus increasing the representativeness of each in the team's decisions and projects. Increased representativeness of cultures in the projects of the team also increases the team's universal appeal to the clients and customers, which translates immediately to the organization, which has also the potential in being recognized as a business institution that is sensitive and acknowledges the cultural diversity that is dominant in societies of the world at present.

Bibliography

Kreitner, R. (1995). Organizational behavior. Chicago: Richard D. Irwin, Inc.

Schermerhorn, J. et. al. (1995). Basic organizational behavior. NY: JohnWiley & Sons, Inc. [read more]


China's Big Mac Attack Essay

… Writer Watson compares this globalization as a much darker form of imperialism. He writes, "American academe is teeming with theorists who argue that transnational corporations like McDonald's provide the shock troops for a new form of imperialism that is far more successful, and therefore more insidious, than its militarist antecedents" (Watson 2). I must agree with Watson's theories. American culture is insidious, and is permeating so many aspects of the world's culture that it seems in time there may be no real way to tell the people's of the world apart. This is tragic, because one of the greatest things about our world are our differences. If we were all the same, the world would be a boring place, but worse, it would be a place of no new innovation, with no reason for change or individuality. The globalization of American culture is not right from many standpoints, especially that we are propagating a lifestyle that has made us one of the most overweight societies in time. By sending our global fast food habits around the world, we could be creating a global epidemic of obesity, which few in the corporate headquarters of American companies seem to be addressing now at home, let alone in the rest of the world.

These essays indicate that the values in American society are warped. Global companies like McDonald's only care about profits and returns; they do not really care about the health and well being of their customers, or the world. If they did, they would not serve such high-fat, high calorie foods, and they would not see the spread of this fast food culture as a good thing. Most countries of the world have survived quite nicely without French fries and chocolate shakes, and they should continue to survive, without McDonaldizing them to death.

References

Cohen, Roger. "Heartburn: Fearful Over the Future, Europe Seizes on Food."

Watson, James L.… [read more]


Psychology of Multiculturalism: Identity, Gender Term Paper

… Indeed, Hispanics and Latin Americans now hold 21 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives, and 39 seats are held by African-Americans (Saeman and Thomas, 2004).

How has psychology reacted to the cultural changes, and is the field of psychology… [read more]


Real Eve Is a Multimedia Term Paper

… The evidence shows that Eve and her progeny moved not northward as was once thought by Euro-centric researchers, but southward, to Yemen and then through India, Australia, and finally Europe. Some scientists claim that there was only one geographic route and that it was definitely not through the African deserts northward into Europe.

Besides being a fascinating tale of human evolution, "The Real Eve" also dispels many myths prevalent in archaeology. These myths include that of a Euro-centric worldview in which some distant African ancestor quickly left home for the European continent. This view was probably supported by academic elite which tended to view the cultures of Africa, Asia, and Australia as being primitive and somewhat inferior to the cultures of ancient Europe. Therefore, "The Real Eve" provides scientific evidence that can empower and elevate these cultures to a well-deserved position of status as being the primogenitors of all… [read more]


Ishmael Reed Discusses and Expands Term Paper

… "

Reed uses these examples to emphasize the influences of non-European cultures on several aspects of American society. For example, the author notes that Benjamin Franklin, hailed as a founding father of the United States, was influenced by Iroquois political systems, not just by European systems. According to Reed, African, Asian, and Native American societies influenced the evolution of American culture as much as the Europeans did and notes that it is a mistake to discount this fact.

According to Reed, not only is it a mistake to portray America as the ultimate example of "Western Civilization," but also that this viewpoint severely hinders free expression and creativity. Reed reminds his readers that European art, music, and philosophy was also influenced by the cultures of Asia and Africa and that Americans need to congratulate these significant influences.

Reed concludes by criticizing homogeneity. Without acknowledging the cultures of Africa, Asia, and Native America, American society runs the risk of becoming cold, sterile, and robotic. Therefore, the best way to perceive the Untied States, according to Reed, is as a "cultural bouillabaisse," as a rich mixture of intermingling, different but equally as important,… [read more]


Globalization in the Age Term Paper

… It is one in which we are each simultaneously actor, playwright and audience - but rarely director or producer. As Klein points out, what happened in Seattle, Quebec City, Prague and Genoa is the internet generation's response to the injustices created by an international economic system dedicated to furthering the interests and profits of a handful of wealthy investors and fewer than 1,000 large corporations. Unlike the old-guard Marxist activists of the 1960s, these web activists "have no top-down hierarchy ready to explain the master plan, no universally recognized leaders giving easy sound bites - and no one knows what is going to happen next" (Christie, 2002).

Klein (20020 proposes the "decentralization of power" as the "goal of the social movements is not to take power for themselves but to challenge power centralization on principle, [that would eventually give the way to the] new culture of vibrant direct democracy [that may be] fuelled and strengthened by direct participation."

In the article by OCAA, there is a clear indication as to what needs to be done when defining the confines of globalization. In fact, OCAA is true in asserting that the term and the ideology of globalization need "reformation," both in action as well as reaction to globalization.

References

The Globalization Challenge: Australia's Role in a Rapidly Changing World," Oxfam Community Aid Abroad (OCAA).

Balibar, etienne, and Pierre Macherey (1981) On Literature as an Ideological Form: Some Marxist Propositions." In Untying the Text: A Post-Structuralist Reader, edited by Robert Young. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Bordo, Michael D. (2002) "Globalization in historical perspective: Our era is not as unique as we might think, and current trends are not irreversible," Business Economics, Jan, 2002, http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1094/1_37/83793969/print.jhtml

Christie, Stuart (2002) Clear and present danger, The Guardian, November 9, 2002, Reviews on the Fences and Windows: Dispatches from the Front Lines of the Globalization Debate by Naomi Klein

Clausen, Christopher (1994) "National Literatures" in English: Toward a New Paradigm. New Literary History 25, no.1: 61-72.

Hill, Charles W.L., (2002) Global Business Today, Postscript 2003, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill Irwin

Hirst, Paul, and Grahame Thompson (1999) Globalization in Question: The International Economy and the Possibility of Governance. London: Polity Press.

Klein, Naomi (2002) Fences and Windows: Dispatches from the Front Lines of the Globalization Debate

Szeman, Imre (2003)… [read more]


Sociological Understandings of the Human Term Paper

… Durkheim might suggest that difference inspires fear, and that social taboos regarding race and sexuality have their roots not in rationalist self-preservation but in irrational or at very least primitive strivings to maintain the integrity of a 'tribe.' Rational economics would suggest that all members of the underclass should experience a sense of communal identity, something that flies in the face not of the racial alliances of the antebellum South, but also of modern racial culture, where impoverished neighborhoods of different ethnic backgrounds are often at war, yet individuals from different socioeconomic classes often embrace the culture of one another.

Witness the affluent modern adolescent embrace of 'hip hop' for instance, and its espousing of jailhouse culture, as well as those individuals whom are actually a part of that culture and embrace the affluent capitalist ethos of making a great deal of money in a flashy and ostentatious way. Tribal identifications have roots in age alliance and adolescent articulation of identity, Durkheim would state, rather than purely rational considerations.

Of course, Mills might counter that it is in the self-interest of some individuals to purvey their culture on a cultural marketplace, as well as for adolescents to engage in a period of defining themselves against their parental culture, before becoming newly assimilated to it. Although poverty might be a stimulus to certain means of cultural identification, the stress upon subjective culture as opposed to rationalism and economics found in Durkheim, Mills would argue, often masks the rational economic or social self-interest underlying such apparent irrational cultural taboos as race or, conversely, the embracing of a supposedly alien culture.

Regardless of such foundational differences, both theorists are important, both in counterpoint and in harmony, because of their stress that cultural taboos such as race and class alliances are never simply of personal and limited taste. Human psychological life always takes place within a larger social framework, either economically in Mills or familiarly and tribally in Durkheim. Only through social structures can familial or personal intellectual ideas eventually permeate a greater society and culture, and to evolve and change over time.

Works Cited

Henslin, James M. Down to Earth Sociology. Twelfth Edition. [read more]


Globalization Term Paper

… We must learn to live with its perils."

Today, he says, it is apparent that end of the Cold War and the Persian Gulf War in the early 1990s created too much overconfidence about world security, as leaders became cocky that conflict would be limited and manageable. According to Yergin; "After all, globalization was bringing the world together. Borders were coming down, and the rewards could be measured in higher standards of living and less poverty around the world. America's foreign trade doubled in the 1990s; that growth, in turn, was one of the main motors for the creation of 17.5 million new U.S. jobs."

However, we now know that globalization is more successful during times of peace and stability, as it is based on openness and trust. Today, as a result of globalization in the 1990s, millions of Americans are living in a world of extreme caution, and businesses are wary of new ventures, choosing not to grow so that they can avoid various risks. For these reasons, the world's economy is weak.

For example, the global travel network, which boomed in the 1990s, has created an open door for the spread of diseases and terrorism. Twenty years ago, China's Guangdong province, the incubator of the deadly SARS disease, was shut off from the rest of the world by the Bamboo Curtain. Globalization has taken away that curtain, resulting in increased foreign trade with China. However, it has also resulted in the easy spread of SARS through our global travel network.

Today's terrorists are using the tools of globalization, including global transportation, communications, fundraising, money movement and diminished barriers, to their advantage. These terrorists are not only targeting specific people and groups, but also the global economy. According to Yergin (2003): "Osama bin Laden has said that "the hinges of the economy" are one of al-Qaeda's top targets. Certainly, terrorism's impact on the desperate financial plight of airlines shows what that can mean."

As a result of globalization, the world has been forced to recognize that not even a nation as powerful as the United States can succeed on its own. Borders are no longer high enough to protect nations from the risks that are part of a more intertwined world.

Globalization is a permanent fixture today. For world citizens to prosper from the higher standards of living and economic growth it makes possible, nations must work together now to contain its perils.

In conclusion, global markets provide Americans and other citizens of the world with more opportunities for people to tap into more and larger markets around the world (IMF, 2000). It means that we now have greater access to more capital flows, technology, cheaper imports, and larger export markets. However, it is important to note that with these new opportunities come new risks. Thus, as we live in a global era, we must reevaluate our security strategies.

Bibliography

Fedderson. (2003). The Meaning and Implications of Globalization. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.feddersen.net/archives/000343.html.

International Monetary Fund. (2000). Globalization:… [read more]


Illegal and Often Even Legal Term Paper

… The idea of the Melting Pot (whether or not it was called this) was most in evidence during those decades in which the majority of immigrants to this country were already relatively similar to the majority of Americans already living here. Thus, in the first waves of immigration in the 17th and early 18th centuries when most people who came here were northern Europeans, it was relatively easy for them to find at least some common ground with those who were already here. This was again true during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when northern and eastern European peoples came to the United States and found it relatively easy to -- and desirable to -- assimilate. During these periods, many immigrants found a relatively hearty welcome, and this helped them to succeed in the business world. However, in many cases, immigrants were actually able to make more significant contributions to the arenas of business and industry, perhaps because as outsiders they were able to create and institute innovations that those who were more assimilated were not able to contribute.

An assimilationist model of the place that immigrants should have in America society has worked less well when immigrants to this country were more clearly different from the social and cultural norm of the majority of Americans already living here. Certainly, black African slaves cannot be said to have integrated themselves happily into the extant U.S. population during the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. The model of assimilation has also not worked particularly well even during some periods of voluntary immigration, specifically those decades during the past 125 years or so when large numbers of Asians came to the United States. The model of assimilation has also fared less well in recent years as a general social value for multiculturalism has increased. Multiculturalism shares with assimilation the fundamental idea and ideal that we can all get along with each other. However, inherent in the definition of multiculturalism is the idea that there is no single norm for any particular arena of human behavior, no single way to dress or to eat or to worship or to dream for one's future or to interpret the past or to make money. A multicultural society that has come to terms with its diversity is one that understands that all goals are achieved along many different paths. A multicultural perspective assumes not that minorities can or should lose their distinctiveness to become like the social majority but rather that each one of us can act in essentially bicultural ways, participating in the larger culture (in which assimilation does occur and we do become more like each other) as well as in the culture of our particular ethnic, religious, gender, and professional groups.

Whether the nation currently values assimilation over multiculturalism, or multiculturalism over assimilation, whether its immigration policies are in a restrictive or an open-door phase, immigrants have always contributed to and shaped the economy of our nation, although those contributions have been… [read more]


Art and Technology Bell Hooks Term Paper

… Researchers must also be able to determine to draw the line that divides the culture's original culture and the 'mixed culture' it had achieved due to foreign/colonial influence.

In order to achieve objectivity in the study of a culture, 'decolonization' is needed, meaning, artifacts and other cultural materials/objects are to be interpreted through the perspective of the creators of artworks during the time it was created, as well as the social context wherein that artwork was made. In the world of digital media, localization is a likely possibility wherein the colonizer/colonized mindset is abolished through the help of mass communicated media. Internet technology is especially effective in spreading the culture of minor societies and nations, which has not been popularized before. Popular culture media is especially focused on introducing new forms of 'side stream culture.' Over time, these sidestream culture and even counterculture finds its way into being mainstream, which is evidence of bell hooks' "crossing the borders" concept. Crossing the borders is signified by the mixture of various cultures and the acculturation of the society of these mixed cultures. For example, art that originated from an ethnic tribe or minority culture in the Eastern nations can be fused into modern Western culture, such as the art of ballet dancing combined with kung-fu actions and steps that is popular in the East (which is gradually becoming popular in pop culture today). Through this example, digital media has helped people become knowledgeable about other societies' unique culture, which helps them to incorporate each of these cultures into one, thereby resulting to a heterogeneous form of cultural art. Thus, 'old patterns' are resisted as a result of localization put into the globalization context. [read more]


Silent Language Term Paper

… In many cultures, especially agrarian ones, time and activity are less closely linked. A person is still "doing something" even if he or she is not actively engaged. A person from a more industrialized society will feel the sense of "wasting time," or of urgency. To simply sit and do nothing is anathema to progress and success. If a person is used to being constantly busy, time will seem so valuable that each minute must be scheduled and taken up with some kind of "meaningful" activity. Similarly, boredom is a cultural construct. Ironically, when the urgency of time is removed, so is boredom. Every moment becomes meaningful when there is no sense of time ticking away, to be gone and lost forever.

Although Hall notes that it takes about twelve years for children to understand time, the author reminds his readers of the influence of television on the child's concept of time (140; 144). Children, for whom minutes and hours might seem indistinguishable, nevertheless know that when the clock reads 6, that their favorite cartoon comes on. Even children who can read clocks might still not be sensitive to the notion of time in the same way adults are. "Are we there yet? Are we there yet?" is an example of children being unable to grasp time. Waiting for something is foreign to a child who normally depends on instant gratification. Time is always subjective for the child, always perceived as feelings and emotions rather than as something mathematical and precise. Similarly, waiting for five minutes can seem alternately like waiting an hour or five seconds, depending on the circumstances.

The subjective notion of time translates into other cultures as "rubber time," or flex-time. In cultures less dependent on the clock, time is not a matter of rigid seconds, minutes and hours. Minutes and hours provide a ballpark figure with which to work with. Many cultures do not value punctuality because their time-language does not demand it. This can be interpreted as a refreshing change of pace from the time-language of Western cultures, especially the United States. A flexible concept of time can engender flexibility in other areas, in open-mindedness, for instance. It is, like all other types of language, something that has to be collectively agreed-upon, however. If one person suddenly decides to adopt rubber time in the States, he or she could easily be fired from a job or scolded by a friend or spouse. Moreover, in a culture such as ours, buses and trains absolutely must run on time. The entire culture, from television to transportation, is based on our temporal language. In cultures with flexi-time, buses can afford to be minutes, even hours late, because no one is expected to be on time, anyway.

Like words, temporal views must be collectively shared if they are to be valid and relevant modes of communication. Because time is so central to understanding various cultures, it would be helpful to do a study correlating different temporal views with different… [read more]


Daniel Quinn's Vision of History Term Paper

… And his methodical (although somewhat repetitive) question and answer approach draws forth the realization that Mother Culture really has been speaking quietly in our ears since birth. Readers seem to respond to this realization as if they experienced a revelation… [read more]


Intercultural Conflict Management Today's Society Term Paper

… 442) By consistently demonstrating truthfulness, sincerity and commitment, rather than simply opportunism, businesses can effectively build multicultural teams.

In addition, businesses must recognize that each member of the team is unique in many ways, and work to develop creative combinations… [read more]


Multiculturalism Term Paper

… " Those who want a more multicultural approach are those who believe that America tends to promote an Anglo-Saxon culture that simply does not represent everyone. They call for a more diverse curriculum, going beyond the usual emphasis on the Western tradition. The belief of those supporting this approach is that for America to forge a truly common public culture, it is necessary first to recognize the importance and value of the many different heritages which go into the mix and to recognize their value on their own.

The two sides might sound reasonable when their positions are stated simply, but there is actually considerable fear of multiculturalism in some circles. Multiculturalism is a relatively new word as applied to educational issues, though in fact there has long been a multicultural aspect to education even if it was not identified as such. There was once a class in every school called Social Studies, and while the class has been renamed several times and may go under different titles in different places, it essentially involves the same thing -- the study of other peoples, their ways of life, and the way their culture relates to our own. Students learn that geography meant more than finding a place on a map but also includes the economic, social, and cultural differences between different areas and peoples. Students also encounter other cultures through the friends they make in school, friends with different family backgrounds and different national origins. If we use the new term, multiculturalism, however, it becomes a threat to the common ground education is… [read more]


Sami Entry Into the 21St Term Paper

… This is an especially severe problem for those who are - like the Sami - without substantial political and economic power, but it is a general danger to humanity.

Why should a minority community, necessarily, be denied the right to a forum where they can better discuss and manage their relationship with the, invariably, titular centre; obtain government funding to assist, where practical, with the care of the elderly within their community; why shouldn't minority schools be managed separately from the, too frequently, central colossi of education ministries (to give just three examples)? The main aim, after all, of cultural autonomy is to preserve these groups from deliberate or tacit assimilation.

Cultural autonomy need not be the preserve of indigenous peoples either. The 'protection' of the rights of the Sami, in much of the Nordic world, has demonstrated that cultural autonomy may largely meet the needs of the often displaced, marginalised and distinctly non-modern world (http://www.greekhelsinki.gr/bhr/english/special_issues/CEDIME-unwgm2001/G0112125.doc).

The Sami are working to find a place for themselves in the 21st century that both connects them to the world around them but that also offers them sufficient autonomy - and sufficient isolation - to allow them to remains themselves and to allow their culture to continue in its unbroken and ever evolving pattern.

Works Cited

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/1086547.stm http://www.greekhelsinki.gr/bhr/english/special_issues/CEDIME-unwgm2001/G0112125.doc

http://www.hcc.hawaii.edu/~rob/Anth200Menu/DOCS/5/anth20-2.htm

http://www.itv.se/boreale/samieng.htm

http://www.sametinget.se/english/sapmi/erennar.html (http://www.sapmi.se/domen/sami_eng.html)

http://www.yle.fi/samiradio/saamelen.htm [read more]


1991 by Eugene Linden Term Paper

… Tribal members realize too late that they have something of value in their traditional rituals and methods. And as the elders die off, so to does the invaluable knowledge they possess.

Researchers and scientists who work out in the field with tribes are trying to salvage the traditional knowledge before it is all lost. Scientists are now looking beyond the myths and superstitions of tribes and seeing an abundance of information and data that must be preserved. The medicinal and nutritional value of plants, the traditional aspects of agriculture, and the rich variety of crops that are providing botanists with a wealth of genetic reservoir "from which to breed future varieties."

Anthropologists want to keep the traditional knowledge alive by promoting economic incentives that would protect the areas where tribes live. However, there are problems with this viewpoint, in that it will disrupt the natural way of life of these tribal members and destroy the integrity of the cultures.

Linden said, "Preserving tribal wisdom is as much an issue of restoring respect for traditional ways as it is of creating financial incentives." There are several scientists and researchers who are now working to bring back honor and respect the elder tribes members once had with younger tribal members.

It is important for the younger tribal members to continue the legacy of the traditional methods and rituals. They must decide how to accept the modern world while still maintaining the traditions of their ancestors.

Works Cited

Linden, Eugene. "Lost Tribes, lost knowledge,"… [read more]


Human? Term Paper

… When she discovered discrepancies between what she had learned from the research of others and her own observations, she could have assumed that those observations were somehow at fault or she could have assumed that the troop that she was studying was anomalous in key ways.

However, she made neither of these assumptions, choosing instead to rethink all of the conventional wisdom about the ways in which social behavior works among baboons and especially the ways in which the hierarchies that both sexes participate in work.

While her growing understanding of baboon behavior - and the possible windows that it allows into understanding human behavior - are fascinating (and will be discussed in greater detail below), at least as important in her book is her discussion of how difficult it was to get her research published and acknowledged as valid by her peers.

Her work, and her incisive analysis of the publishing process, demonstrate what must in many cases prove a significant weakness in the world of scientific research. Her own work challenged the accepted wisdom in her field. This accepted wisdom was based on the research done by those scholars who now occupy senior positions in the small world of primatology, including serving as editors and reviewers of scientific journals. And since they did not want their own research challenged, they made it as difficult as they could for her to air her views.

This is certainly contradictory to the way in which - ideally - science should be done. Science should be the impassioned but disinterested search for truth, with scientists assuming that each new generation of scholars will refine the work of the previous generation thereby adding to the ever-growing pool or ever-more accurate knowledge about the world. Instead, the egos and personalities of the scientists themselves become a part of the picture, thereby ensuring that power and hierarchy matter almost as much as the truth - and sometimes perhaps even more so. Ironically, Strum's description of her own struggles as a scientist provide at least as fascinating a description of the gendered hierarchies of primates as do her descriptions of the baboons she worked with.

The posturings of other primatologists are especially interesting when placed in context with Strum's own findings about baboons, which is that - contrary to expectations - aggressive, high-ranking, dominant males are not as successive in their mating strategies as less aggressive (but lower ranking) males. Why this should be a surprise is itself surprising and (one cannot help but surmising) stems in no small measure from the fact that the world of academic primatology is itself full of aggressive high-ranking males who believe that their own personal strategies are the most attractive to females.

Many female humans could have told these primatologists that aggressive is not attractive to many females seeking a mate, and many female primates (and apparently this includes baboons as well as humans) are willing to select a mate who is a little less highly ranked for one… [read more]


Conservation of Houston Toad Essay

… Biodiversity: Houston Toad

The Houston Toad (Bufo Houstonensis) Found mostly in Post Oak Savannah, Texas, has an appearance similar to the Bufo Woodhouse or Wood house's Toad. However it varies in that it is smaller, reaching just three and a… [read more]


Ethics and Ethical Responsibilities in Healthcare Essay

… It should, however, be noted that although the basis for cultural competence's opposition to clinician imperialism is largely rational, this whole set up brings to the fore several other challenges. For instance, aligning cultural competence to ethical relativism could effectively place the former on a collision course with conventional Western medical ethics (Paasche-Orlow, 2004). In seeking to highlight the need to go beyond cultural competence, Kumagai and Lypson (2009) propose the development of critical consciousness that in addition to positioning medicine in a historical, cultural, as well as social context, also actively recognizes social problems and seeks solutions to the said problems. This could avert the problems alluded to elsewhere in this text. To cap it all, Kumagai and Lypson, (2009) point out that to achieve the central goal in multicultural education, i.e. The advancement of critical awareness, there is need for efforts to be directed towards "action informed by an overreaching theoretical framework" (Kumagai and Lypson, 2009).

Towards this end, it would be prudent to point out how I would respond to the issue at hand, as a future healthcare leader. My approach would be primed on pushing for the adoption of an approach whereby like a thread, cultural competency would run through the various levels of not only the curriculum but also the medical school philosophy. This could take the form of immersion programs, workshops, and interactive sessions. If this were to be adopted, and implemented alongside the regular lectures and elective courses, we would have what can truly be regarded culturally competent medical education. In addition to leveling the playing field amongst all of those in the profession, this approach would help develop a new breed of professionals that are culturally aware; thus further enhancing responsibility and promoting moral principles that facilitate the application of proper judgment to the medical practice - which medical ethics is all about.

References

Kumagai, A.K. & Lypson, M.L. (2009). Beyond Cultural Competence: Critical Consciousness, Social Justice, and Multicultural Education. Academic Medicine, 84(6), 782-787.

Paasche-Orlow, M. (2004).… [read more]


Conference Proposal Supervision Type of Program: Roundtable Term Paper

… Conference Proposal Supervision

Type of Program: Roundtable

Multicultural Approach to Contemporary Supervision

Program Description

With the continuing spread and domination of globalization in contemporary business, it is crucial for managerial practices to be able to keep up in an increasingly multicultural environment. The modern business environment presents issues in dealing with the extreme diversity within its working population. Understanding the need for sensitivity to this growing diversity is now a crucial element for successful supervision.

As such, the goals for this program are to introduce supervisors to this growing diversity in a practical manner in order to provide tools for them to utilize in their own unique working environments. A presentation of unique environmental and cultural factors to supervisors will strengthen their ability to cope with the diverse factors they encounter in their managerial roles. This will then strengthen the quality of leadership and efficiency to meet organizational goals.

In order to achieve such goals, the delivery of the program will center on a semi-structured roundtable presentation. The topic will be introduced and then expanded based on a thorough presentation of the literature in the current discourse regarding the nature of the need for cultural sensitivity within supervisor roles and relations. This will help facilitate a discussion between participants, where the leader guides each individual to finding their own unique way of implementing a more multicultural approach to their own supervisory… [read more]


Discrete-Event Simulation (DES) Literature Review Research Proposal

… Through this, organization, performance and profitability is likely to be achieved and maintained. In addition, the objectives of the organization are likely to be achieved, and employees are allowed to work in accordance to their capabilities and qualifications.

Work cited

Abu-Taieh, Evon M.O. Handbook of Research on Discrete Event Simulation Environments: Technologies and Applications. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2012. Print.

Brailsford, Samuel and Schmidt, Benson. Towards incorporating human behavior in models of health care systems: An approach using discrete-event simulation, European Journal of Operational Research, 150, 19-31. 2003.

Freudenberg, Richard and Herper, Harris. Simulation of Workers in Manufacturing Systems, Proceedings of the 1998 Winter Simulation Conference, SCS, 951-956. 1998.

Greasley, Albert. Using system dynamics in a discrete-event simulation study of a manufacturing plant, International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 25(5/6), 534- 548. 2005.

Johnson, Fowler and Mackulak, George. A Discrete Event Simulation Model Simplification Technique, Proceedings of the 2005 Winter Simulation Conference, SCS, 2172-2176. 2005.

Juran, Chris and Schruben, Warren. Using worker personality and demographic information to improve system performance prediction, Journal of Operations Management, 22, 355- 367. 2004.

Laughery, Richard. Using Discrete-Event Simulation to Model Human Performance in Complex Systems, Proceedings of the 1999 Winter Simulation Conference, SCS, 815-820. 1999.

Leemis, Lawrence M, and Stephen K. Park. Discrete-event Simulation: A First Course. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2006. Print.

McGinnis, Leonard. Technical and Conceptual Challenges in Organizational Simulation (Rouse, W.B and Boff, K.R. (eds)), John Wiley… [read more]


Evangelism in the Early Church Essay

… Other ways Jesus approached evangelism include his being willing to point out sin when He saw it, and helped others to recognize the power that sin had over them. He would not allow his audience to ignore the fact of sin, and sought their full submission to the Word of God.

How did the disciples approach evangelism?

The way the disciples approached evangelism was much different from Jesus's approach. According to Earley and Wheeler, the disciples did not prioritize evangelism as Jesus did. They did not learn how to recognize the potential value in the souls of others, or the need to be saved. The disciples were focused on the mundane, more than the spiritual. They even rushed Jesus, as the parable of the journey to Galilee shows. The disciples remained ignorant about the wealth of opportunities to save souls, and about the special role they could play. After Jesus died and was Resurrected, though, the disciples finally understood.

What do you see in today's local church that is similar or different from the early church?

Today's church is more diversified and complex than it was in the days of the early Church. Although Jesus did contend with some cultural diversity, the world today in the midst of globalization means that evangelism occurs across thousands of miles. Evangelists address audiences with vastly different cultural values, worldviews, and languages. It is at once more difficult and easier to accomplish spiritual goals today. The Internet and other methods of communication can make evangelism easier, but cultural barriers and what Earley and Wheeler call the "devices of the Devil" make it more difficult. However, the modern church continues to recognize what we always knew: the potential of just one person to make a difference.

Works Cited

Earley, Dave and Wheeler, David. "Following the Example of Jesus." Chapter 15 in Evangelism Is

Earley, Dave and Wheeler, David. "Not Following the Example of the Disciples." Chapter 16 in… [read more]


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