Study "Anthropology / Culture" Essays 331-341

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Wolf, "Why Globalization Works" Martin Article Review

… Wolf identifies globalization as having a net positive effect on the lives of the poor, and "in a nutshell," he states bluntly, this improvement in quality of life "is why" the focus on inequality "is wrong," since "globalization has not increased inequality." (Wolf 705). Wolf notes that overall the only thing held in common by all countries where conditions are improving is that each "chose, however haltingly, the path of economic liberalization and international integration. This is the heart of the matter: all else is commentary…" (Wolf 706). He notes that this kind of rapid growth is "bound to be uneven" and addresses critics like Pogge and Reddy, who suggest that rather than looking at income the welfare of the poorest countries should be measured in terms of "calories and essential nutrients" (Wolf 707). But Wolf cites improving statistics on life expectancy, infant mortality, literacy, reduced fertility rates -- and a decline in malnourishment and child labor, together with global trends toward democratic government and women's equality. Wolf notes that "social progress has been greatest where incomes have risen fastest" (Wolf 710). And in his conclusion he returns to the seven points usually claimed about globalization and inequality which he had summarized at the beginning. In light of the additional information he has offered, he now suggests that the only facts advanced by critics of globalization which are actually true are the first two points: that overall inequality between richest and poorest countries has increased, and the gap in living standards between them has grown. But the other five points, he reveals, are all entirely false because the material sitation of the poor has improved vastly under globalization. At this point, he notes in conclusion, the "problem of the poorest is not that they are exploited, but that they are almost entirely unexploited:… [read more]

Migration Patterns Term Paper

… Globalization and migration of peoples is not a new phenomenon. This paper will focus on that theme and bring in scholarly literature to back up the assertion made in this paragraph.

According to Gemma Tulud Cruz, the present worldwide movement of people -- the immigration movement -- is as much a part of "globalization" as is the movement of money, goods and services (Cruz, 2008, p. 357). Cruz, assistant professor of theology at Radboud University in the Netherlands, explains that the "defining moments" in the history of the world have always been connected with the "massive movements" of people (p. 357). And the movements of people across borders today are not only "radically rearranging human demographics" but also those movements are redefining economic, religious, cultural and sociopolitical boundaries, Cruz continues.

But the point that Cruz makes as the pivotal idea in this scholarly article is that the linkage of migration and globalization is definitely not a new event. Indeed, the relationship between migration and globalization dates way back to the 16th Century (p. 358). In the 1500s Europe expanded all over the globe through its colonial exploitation period; during this period, Cruz continues, there were "large intercontinental movements of people" and the movements of people to and from three continents continued for "more than four centuries" (p. 358).

The routes that are quite visible and well-trod today in the latest chapter of globalization and migration were "laid down" by both European colonizers and the colonized peoples themselves, Cruz explains (p. 358). Another group of colonizers were launched by the European colonization period, the author asserts; those were the ones who colonized the "mind and soul" of the natives in the colonized nations. That group consisted of the colonizers who brought their dogmatic religious beliefs with them; they are more commonly alluded to as Christian missionaries, and others with a spiritual message for the colonized (Cruz, p. 359). Certainly it is easy to understand why the 16th Century Spanish Catholic authorities would be called colonizers, and are seen today by Cruz as part of the globalization of that era. To wit, the Spanish Catholics subjected Latino populations in Mexico, the Philippines, South America and elsewhere to forced religious conversion. Cruz calls it "colonial subjugation"; the priests came in "waves" along with the battleships and the merchant ships.

Another scholar who discusses history to remind readers that globalization is not a new concept, and that in fact the global economic integration apparent today around the world is "…not so different from those of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries" (roughly 1870 to 1913) (Ruccio, 2003, p. 78). Ruccio references the fact that because of the advances in long-distance transportation (when steamships cam along) and in communication technologies (notably the telegraph), the growth of global trade averaged 3.5% per annum compared with "output growth of 2.7%" (p. 78).

Ruccio… [read more]

Richard Falk / Globalization From Below Term Paper

… Richard Falk / Globalization from Below the controversial term of globalization mainly refers to a succession of improvements in relation to international reforms in economy that promote a global centre of funds by influencing countries in joining their potentials. One of the greatest achievements of globalizing the economy has been the faster developing of Southern Economies due to the improvement of their relations with the northerners. As the process took place in the Third-world countries, its benefits have been debated since it encouraged progress among the aristocracy with no regards to the demoralizing consequences it had on the lower classes. Several countries attempted to combat economic globalization through different means and methods but their endeavors have ended in failure sooner or later, leaving them aspiring for foreign investors.

One of the main reasons for which globalization is being denounced is because it is being exploited by the international market without any intervention from the corrupt authorities, regardless to how it affects the masses. This type of globalization had a comforting impact on economy by boosting its growth, but a devastating aftermath on the less fortunate one for the public. Richard Falk branded this side of globalization as "globalization-from-above."

This pattern of development is identified here as "globalization from above," a set of forces and legitimating ideas that is in many respects located beyond the effective reach of territorial authority and that has enlisted most governments as tacit partners."

Falk, 130)

Society has set free a number of factions hostile to the concept of globalization generating movements like environmentalism or localism that are protesting against globalization and the repercussions it has on either people or nature and have had numerous triumphs in their struggle.

Along the flaws it has, globalization is recognized… [read more]

Saskia Sassen Immigration Term Paper

… Saskia Sassen / Immigration

Immigration tests the new world order

The issue of globalization is one which interests more and more people and analysts every day. It has become part of the lives of billions of people particularly because, at every level of the society it affects each and every one of them. However, there have been voices arguing for and against this process. Some consider it to be a mere evolution of the society which existed before, while others consider it to be a revolution. However, there can be no assessment made properly and in a general manner because the effects of globalization tend to manifest differently and according to the specificities of each level of activity. Thus, in the trading business the issue of globalization is seen as a positive aspect of the interconnectivity of the world. On the other hand, however, there are discussions focusing on the way in which the wide access of people at the global job market or in general at the immigration possibilities is benefic or not for the states around the world.

Saskia Sassen discusses precisely this last aspect of the tensions arising in the debates on globalization. She takes into account the statement that immigration tests the new world order. However, in this regard it is important to see the meaning of the term "new world order." On the one hand, she points out the fact that globalization has created a reconfiguration of the political map in the sense that it changed the notion of sovereignty of the states. More precisely, it places in discussion the issue of nationality of the territories "where much globalization materializes in specific institutions and processes" (1996, 5). Also, the issue of the legal system governing cross border transactions has changed. In addition, globalization underlines the importance of the electronic space. All these changing issues, she concludes "reveal aspects of the relation between global economy and national state" (1996, 6). The new world order entangled… [read more]

Social Cognitive Theory Term Paper

… Social Cognitive Theory

It is always fascinating to read about the development of a psychological theory; the more complex, the more interesting.

And this is precisely what appeals to me about Albert Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory as discussed by Danice Stone. The circumstances leading to the development of this theory makes it obvious that a more complex model was needed to describe human behavior. It appears that all theories up until the development of Bandura's paradigm was somewhat simple in describing human behavior. It appears that there were two main schools of thought: those who believed that behavior was regulated consequently or antecedently.

Bandura's complex views appear to incorporate both. What I also like about his theory is the fact that it does not attempt to categorize human behavior into a limited number of specific classes. Instead he promotes the idea of a variety of human traits and circumstances that interact. His theory is therefore not one of… [read more]

Social Theory Term Paper

… Social Theory

Through the use of social theory it is theorized that the concept of globalization is capable of taking on various alternative interpretations. This theory is due to the understanding that the discourses surrounding the term globalization are not absolute but socially produced ideas. Social theory involves the use of theoretical frameworks for the purpose of explaining social meanings, structures, and processes. Globalization involves a complex set of economic, political, cultural, and social processes that have caused the modern world to become highly interdependent and interconnected. The precise definition of this term and its impact upon the world has been a source of constant debate between scholars of various social science disciplines.

Using the social theoretical framework several alternative views of the term globalization are derived. It is theorized that the meaning of this term can be open to interpretation due to the fact that past meanings were themselves the result of discursive construction and not, as some would have it, discourses naturally associated with globalization. It is stated that globalization and its impact upon the world has to be analyzed using critical social theory in order for scholars to come to a better understanding of the complex social processes occurring in the world today; this phenomenon is thus not something that should be ignored by scholars looking to better understand today's world (Kelly 1999).

An analysis can begin by examining the various geographical literatures upon the subject of globalization. Through such examination it will be observed that the discourses surrounding this term are polarized between either being an idealization of its impact or a belittling of the influence it has in today's societies. Some scholars view it idealistically as being capable of creating a utopian world where nation-states no longer exist and where economic and cultural processes become intimately interconnected throughout the world. Other scholars hold a completely opposite view in stating that globalization's impact has been minimal upon the world based on empirical evidence supporting the notion that a "super state" does not exist and on the notion that the world has undergone past periods of internationalization. Many scholars also equate globalization with neoliberal economic policies and believe this to be its inevitably natural discourse. This equation causes many to be disdainful of globalization's potential of having a positive impact upon the world. Other scholars, while insisting upon the continued importance of the nation-state in modern times, create a conflicting dichotomy between the notions of the global vs. local arenas (Kelly 1999).

After examining the literature, attempts can be made to refute the conflicting viewpoints about globalization. Before this it must first be understood that this phenomenon is not simply an imaginary notion dreamed up by business and academic elites. It is based… [read more]

Review: Globalization Unplugged in Globalization Unplugged: Sovereignty Term Paper

… Review: Globalization Unplugged

In Globalization Unplugged: Sovereignty and the Canadian State in the
Twenty-First Century, Peter Urmetzer tackles the issue of whether
globalization truly detracts from a country's sovereignty. While reviewing
the literature and history of globalization, he evaluates the… [read more]

Globalization: Daniel Yergin's "Giving Aid Term Paper

… As Norberg-Hodge states, in "March of the Monoculture, for example: ". . . villages, rural communities and their cultural traditions around the world are being destroyed on an unprecedented scale under the impact of globalising market forces. Communities that have sustained themselves for hundreds of years are simply disintegrating."

Yergin sees the economic benefits of helping developing nations "catch up" with the west. Norberg-Hodge, in the other hand, questions both the wisdom and the necessity of such nations' "catching up" in the first place, in terms of cultural and even personal (to their self-esteem) damage to the peoples living in those areas of the world.

Works Cited

Norberg-Hodge, Helena. "The March of the Monoculture." Retrieved May 26,

2005, from: .

Yergin, Daniel. "Giving Aid to World Trade. Policy Matters, Vol. 2, Issue 34 (July

2002). Retrieved May 26, 2005, from:… [read more]

Globalization Is a Concept Term Paper

… Labor forces from poorer countries are for example used in the production of goods that are then exported and sold at high prices. The labor forces are however being paid far less than the minimum wage in more prosperous countries such as the United States. Some have thus blamed globalization for the widening gap between rich and poor throughout the world.

When sufficient laws and enforcement are in place, however, globalization could be a positive rather than a negative force. It is thus perhaps better to look at ways in which this can be accomplished rather than condemning the phenomenon altogether. Globalization will not disappear by being ignored. Instead, problems should be identified and remedied in a responsible manner. When this is done, globalization can benefit rich and poor alike, providing communication, goods and services that would otherwise be unavailable. [read more]

Ajun Appadurai and George Term Paper

… However, with the exception of global flows of people, I don't really see any difference in his way of thinking as compared to Ritzer's, from this point-of-view. Indeed, many of these global flows are immaterial, not necessarily in the nothing form that George Ritzer uses.

On the other hand, interesting aspects are pointed out in Appadurai's ideas when he refers to the fact that globalization may produce "violent forms of difference and separation," with threats to the national security and identity.

A may thus conclude that both authors have a rather grim outlook on globalization. A form of promoting nothing for one and a source for tensions for another, the global flows of virtually anything is deemed to have less positive consequences on humanity.


1. Fuchs, Christian. Globalization and Self-Organization in the Knowledge-Based Society. On the Internet at (

Fuchs, Christian. Globalization and Self-Organization in the Knowledge-Based Society. On the Internet at ( [read more]

Globalization: Matter of Perspective Term Paper

… " Further, the IMF writers assert that if "well-targeted social expenditure" is pursued, "then there is a better chance that growth will be amplified into more rapid poverty reduction."

Indeed, the IMF continues in its rosy description of just how poor countries can place themselves in position to benefit from globalization -- if they would just promote "pro-poor policies that are properly budgeted -- including health, education, and strong social safety nets. A participatory approach, including consultation with civil society, will add greatly to their chances of success." However, the IMF article fails to acknowledge its role in many of these nation's inability to do just the things they recommend -- after all, in imposing its will on these countries, essentially in dictating their road to globalization for them, many of these countries are unable to attain a strong enough domestic footing to even begin the journey -- note Argentina, for example -- crippled under the recommendations and austerity programs of outside interests -- all undermining the political, welfare, and social stability of the country -- the very things necessary to allow the poor to rise above their misery.

Unfortunately, the IMF does little to buoy its position as a leader of the "good," trend of globalization. As Stiglitz points out, the truly poor nations are unlikely to benefit from the globalization the IMF touts. Instead, unable to determine and advance their own interests, they will continue to be at the mercy of organizations like the IMF, and the other "strong men" representatives of the special interests of the "super power" economies.

Although the IMF attempts to obscure this fact, Stiglitz correctly points out what the IMF cannot hide, in spite of its effort -- globalism benefits the few, and the rest are doomed to suffer the consequences.


Stiglitz, Joseph. (2002). "Globalism's Discontents." American Prospect Magazine. Retrieved from Web site on April 10, 2004 66&hm____action=http%3a%2f%2fwww%2ethirdworldtraveler%2ecom%2fGlob al_Economy%2fGlobalisms_Discontents%2ehtml

IMF. (2002). "Globalism: Threat or Opportunity?" IMF Issues Briefs. Retrieved from Web site on April 10, 2004 [read more]

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