"Architecture / Construction" Essays

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Environment and Islamic Architecture Research Paper

Research Paper  |  15 pages (5,408 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Environment and Islamic Architecture

As the term implies, "Islamic architecture" is an architectural style that is characterized by functional elements and forms that are inspired by the Islamic religion, and which serves as a framework in which Islamic tenets can be implemented, celebrated and sustained over time. Graceful arabesques, Romanesque horseshoe arches and domes all typify many Islamic architectural styles,… [read more]

Architecture Remarkably Similar in Their Appearance Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,005 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



Remarkably similar in their appearance, the Temple of Aphaia on the Greek island of Aegina, and the Temple of Portunus in Rome reveal continuity in Greco-Roman architectural aesthetics and their corresponding cultural contexts. The Temple of Aphaia predates the Temple of Portunus by several centuries, suggesting that most mimicry would have been one-directional; the Roman design and function of… [read more]

Architecture Farnsworth House Mies Van Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,698 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


(See Robert Silman's sidebar) This was the time when a surprise crack was noticed which formed the plastic hinge over a cantilever beam exactly on the face of pier (Feldman, 2002)

The evaluation of design was done by pre-structured models. It is necessary to keep on refining the models for which external post-tensioning is performed in order to determine the effects of forces applied on the current structure along with the newly revealed "hinge." The end product of this culmination process is the final design of structures (Feldman, 2002).

The design of the structure becomes more complicated due to the addition of hinge discovered. However, an external post-tensioning system is used but it is necessary that the post-tensioning force applied also fulfils the requirements of other cantilever beams. So it was decided in the beginning that the current deflections could not be detached. It was prevented by the continuous creeping process of over 60 years and also by the yielding of reinforcing steel. To prevent further deflection, stress of dead load must be reduced in reinforcing steel by 10 Ksi approximately. This will eventually generate vertical forces which will slightly move the cantilevers (Feldman, 2002).

The cantilevers require forces of external post-tensioning for positioning their upper floor over the lower cantilever by structural window mullions. These mullions do face problems by the chosen design forces in order to reduce stresses created by cantilever. To bring the buckling process closer, mullion axial forces should be increased and this is done by the hosted vertical parts of posttensioning forces at end of cantilevers. These forces which are utilized to enhance the system could not be lessened but after consulting WPC on this issue the mullions of the structures were gripped up by the process of welding more plates to increase axial volume (Feldman, 2002).


Farnsworth House. (1995). Probing Architecture's Anatomy. Progressive Architecture, pp 58, 59.

Feldman, G.C. (2002). Fallingwater is no longer Falling. The Structure Group Companies.

MetLife. (2012). Rogerson Communities' Farnsworth House in Boston is Recognized by MetLife Foundation and Enterprise Community Partners for Exemplary Work in Senior Housing and Successfully Incorporating Green Components in its Housing: Wins 2012 MetLife Foundation Award for Excellence in Affordable Housing, $50,000. Press Release.

The…… [read more]

Role of Architecture Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,675 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The culture and society are not only preserved via conservation but by bringing innovation too (Golberger). The psychology of architecture can be best understood by comprehending that "something that mattered yesterday still matters today, and more important, will still matter tomorrow" (Golberger).

Therefore, it is the responsibility of the architects today to create and take care of new and give it room to breathe. Creativeness is a type of social responsibility and both of them are components of the same task. Originality is how the structural design makes itself matter. The manner of construction is how the generations engage in the practice of using architecture as a means of communicating to one another (Golberger).

To cut a long story short, architecture plays a small part in the affairs of man and society. However, it brings in concert to a great extent the important components of a society such as protection, social function, knowledge, fine arts, money matters, politics, science etc. As a result, architecture can be a mirror to society. Architecture can be understood as a natural manifestation of what is in progress within society, politically and economically.

It is the society and not the architect that establishes the types of architecture, according to the requirements of its diverse institution. The goals are set by the society which then assigns the job of discovering the resources of achieving them to the architect. Therefore, it is clear that society's progress also depends on the role that the architecture plays.


"architecture." Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 2012. Web. 2 Aug 2012. .

"architecture." Questia. Columbia University Press, 2012. Web. 2 Aug 2012. .

Ballantyne, A. Architecture: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. Web. 1 August 2012. .

Conway, H., & Roenisch, R. Understanding Architecture: An Introduction to Architecture and Architectural History. New York: Routledge, 1994. Web. 1 August 2012. .

Golberger, P.. "Does Architecture Matter? Thoughts on Social Responsibility, Buildings, and the World After September 11th." Paul Goldberger. N.p., 08 October 2002. Web. 1 Aug 2012. .

Larmer, B.. "Building the American Dream in China." The New York Times. N.p., March 16, 2012. Web. 3 Aug 2012. .… [read more]

Architecture of the Mind Sight Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,572 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Architecture of the Mind

Sight is one of our most important senses in our engagement with the external world. We rely on sight to get by in the world. Sight is so essential that a deluded or ignorant person is said to be "blind." It is indisputable that sight is an important tool, even the dominant one, for obtaining knowledge… [read more]

Construction of Ancient Pyramids Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,290 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Construction of the Ancient Pyramids

The Egyptian pyramids remain one of the most beautiful and complex mysteries of the modern world. Throughout history there have been many theories regarding the exact manner in which the Egyptian pyramids were built but no one seems to have devised a concept that has been completely accepted.

It appears to modern man the ancient Egyptian pyramids were no small feat to construct. Ancient documents have revealed that in most instances it took numerous years, usually decades, for even one of the ancient Egypt pyramids to be assembled (Mystery of the Egyptian Pyramids).

Construction of the Pyramids

There have been varying scientific and alternative theories regarding the Great Pyramid's construction techniques. Most accepted construction theories are based on the idea that it was built by moving huge stones from a quarry and dragging and lifting them into place (Great Pyramid of Khufu).

Ancient Egyptians had the wheel technology and may have used them in building the pyramids by moving heavy stones. They also used pulleys to raise their boats' sails and could have used them in lifting stones to higher levels.

The true pyramid is a natural development and improvement on the earliest form of pyramids, the step pyramid, consisting of several steps. The first true pyramids were introduced in at the beginning of the 4th dynasty. The structure of these pyramids is virtually the same as a step pyramid. Packing blocks are stacked until the dimensions were right, and then finishing blocks (usually limestone) were the last touch (Winston ).

A major problem facing the builders of the ancient Egyptian pyramids was getting the large stone blocks to the height they required. The method of building ramps is the only one proven to have been used (Winston).

The ramps were built on inclined planes of mud brick and rubble. They then dragged the blocks on sledges to the needed height. As the pyramid grew taller, the ramp had to be extended in length, and its base was widened, or else it would collapse. It is likely that for the construction of each pyramid, several ramps were probably used (Winston).

Various Ramp Style Theories

Many theories have been introduced suggesting building ramps either from one direction, four directions, or helical ramps that rose around the pyramid.

The arrangement of the ramps used for building is in much dispute. Assuming that the step pyramid was built before the outer structure, and then the packing blocks were laid on top, the ramps could have run from one step to another rather than approaching the pyramid face at right angles (Winston).

Some of the pyramids indicate an accurate understanding of Pi due to the relationship between the base perimeter and the height, but the mathematical knowledge of the Egyptians did not include the ability to arrive at this by calculation. It is possible that Pi could have been arrived at "accidentally" through a means such as counting the revolutions of a drum (Winston).

Alternate Theory -- Built with… [read more]

North American Architecture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,653 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



North American Architecture from Pre-Columbian to Federalist

The architecture of North America spans many centuries and many distinct periods. In earliest times, buildings were constructed by Native Americans according to principles that reflected their cultures and religious beliefs. Later on, after the coming of Europeans, architectural tastes reflected those prevailing in Europe, but always with an American flair. Among… [read more]

Architecture School as a Transfer After Completing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (388 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Architecture School as a Transfer After Completing 3 Years Elsewhere, Student Is Now 30

Personal Statement: Tell us why you are interested in studying in this program at the New York Institute of Technology for your Architecture, B.A.

I am currently working as an architectural drafter. I am involved in setting AutoCAD standards and creating AutoCAD designs at Cannon Design, an architectural firm located in Boston. The field of architecture is familiar to me, vocationally, and I understand its rigor and the pressures of the profession. I have witnessed 'in the field' the demands made upon the firm's architects. I am aware of wide variety of knowledge demanded of architects today in terms of mathematics, spatial awareness, the practical needs of human life, and as well as the need to create a beautiful design.

I would like to put my own knowledge talents into creative practice as an architect. Currently, I am involved with the evolving design of the University of Massachusetts hospital. It has been fascinating to discuss the needs of creating a hospital that balances the structural needs of a healthcare environment, creates a functional place of work, fosters a…… [read more]

Culture vs. Architecture Essay

Essay  |  11 pages (2,751 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


¶ … Architecture

There are certainly several periods throughout and even before current human civilization that represent quintessential examples of the greatness that existed at least at that time but even if one is looking at the entire amalgamation of architecture over the years including from the ancient pyramids of Egypt up through the newer structures of today such as… [read more]

Fear of the Return of Totalitarian Architecture Due to Technological Advancements Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,679 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Actually, his footnotes to this statement show the goal of the attack: both Ruskin's Stones of Venice and Geoffrey Scott's The Architecture of Humanism are against this Wittkower's paradigm because it supports a totalitarian regime and the building of architecture structure that ushers in the totalitarianism type of buildings. Specifically, Wittkower has a problem with anyone that shares the following… [read more]

Architecture Is at a Curious Crossroads Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,420 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Architecture is at a curious crossroads. According to Kenneth Frampton, the current role and goal of architecture is "to remove itself from both the optimization of advanced technology and the ever-present tendency to regress into nostalgic historicism or the glibly decorative," ("Towards a Critical Regionalism," Part 3). Universal techniques, materials, technologies, and cultural concepts of spaces and places have emerged,… [read more]

Project Leader for the Office Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,694 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


By using the integrated delivery approach it has the potential to strengthen the project teams understanding of the owner's desired outcome, thus improving the team's ability to control costs and manage the budget. Most project managers understand that these are important elements for projects.

The IPD approach of including the contractors as one of the core members will allow them to contribute their expertise in construction techniques early in the design process resulting in improved project quality and financial performance during the construction phase. By using the contractors during the designing phase will help with pre-construction planning and a better understanding of the design. As a project manager, one would realize that understanding the design is crucial for this type of project, because if something goes wrong it could be very costly. We all know that the budget is critical to any project and to go over the budget is not ideal.

Using the architectures or designers as part of the process is another one of those early benefits such as accurate budget estimates to make informed design decisions and the pre-construction resolution of design-related issues resulting in improved project quality and financial performance. They normally bring some of the same qualities as the contractor but from a different perspective.

The IPD approach is the desired method that should be used because it is known to be built on trust and early involvement by more parties. As we all have learned throughout this course, developing trust among team members encourages people to focus on project outcomes vs. individual goals. Normally, without trust the project has the potential to falter in turn the team will remain in opposing and hostile relationships. It is also acknowledged that including all key team members helps ensure members remain motivated to want to do a good job. Lastly, the project lifecycle will be included with the IPD approach as part of the standard procedures.


Carbasho, T. (2008). Integrated Project Delivery Improves Efficiency Streamlines Construction. Retrieved from http://www.tradelineinc.com/reports/0A03D1C0-2B3B-B525-85702BCEDF900F61

Edmondson, A. C, & Rashid, F. (2009) Integrated Project Delivery at Autodesk, Inc. Boston: Boston, MA: Harvard Business Publishing.

Gray, C., & Larson, E (2008). BUS 517: Project management: The managerial process: 2009 custom edition (4th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.

Lewis, J. (2003). Project leadership: Boston, MA:…… [read more]

Investigation Into the Issues of Managing Building Construction Projects in Iran Research Paper

Research Paper  |  18 pages (4,597 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … managing building construction Projects in Iran

102.2 Causes of Delay big projects.

112.3 Construction Delay: Quantitative Analysis

112.4 Construction Delay: Developing Economy

122.4.1 Poor ICT groundwork

122.4.2 Unacquaintedness of local personnel with ICT in remote construction sites

122.4.3 No financial justification for ICT training of personnel in small construction sites

122.4.4 Lack of sensation transfer in some electronic… [read more]

Architecture H-Project Dome of Florence Cathedral Research Paper

Research Paper  |  14 pages (5,608 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 20




Dome of Florence Cathedral (1420 -- 1436)

The Dome of Florence Cathedral (a.D. 1420-36) has been described as a "miracle" of design which is in essence a blend of Renaissance and Gothic architectural building aspects. The dome itself covers an octagonal apartment which is 138 ft. 6 ins, in diameter, and is raised on a drum, with circular… [read more]

Vitruvius Le Corbusier Loos Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,308 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Vitruvius, Le Corbusier, Loos

Vitruvius: from Book I of the Ten Books of Architecture

What sorts of information do we learn about Vitruvius and his career from the Preface? How does he come across as a person to you?

Vitruvius has had a long career in architecture. It is a subject that he has been interested in for a long time. He has been a loyal supporter of Caesar and his father before that. He kept his writings about architecture to himself for a long time in fear of not being received favorably by Caesar, but has now seen a good opportunity to reveal them to him. He wrote down his ideas on architecture in order for Caesar to have a plan to be more successful and he is happy to finally be able to share these with him.

What is Vitruvius's formula for a successful career as an architect? Is this formula valid for architects, or for other types of professions?

Vitruvius's formula for a successful career as an architect is one of education. He feels that an architect should be equipped with knowledge in many different subjects. He feels that knowledge is broken down into practice and theory. Those who have the natural ability to carry out the practice can not do so successfully without the understanding of theory. Theory, he says is the ability to demonstrate and explain things that can only be done by way of education.

3. What are Vitruvius's criteria for good architecture? Do they still apply today? Are they all equally important, or do you think some deserve a higher priority than others?

Vitruvius's criteria for good architecture includes: order, arrangement, eurythmy, symmetry, propriety and economy. Order has to do with making sure that the separate parts all fit together to make the whole. Arrangement is putting things in their proper place. Eurythmy is the beauty and fitness. Symmetry is a proper agreement between the different parts and the whole scheme. Propriety is the perfection of style and economy has to do with the proper management of the materials involved. All of these criteria still apply today, as they are all important to the success of the overall project. Some of these criteria are more important than others. For instance, in today's world economy would be a top priority with arrangement not being far behind.

Le Corbusier: "The Engineer's Aesthetic" from Towards a New Architecture

1. Why does Le Corbusier think it's bad for people to live in old-fashioned houses? Do you agree? How does he see houses as a sort of "tools" and why is it important to throw away "old tools"?

Le Corbusier sees houses as tools because they were one of the first things that people built for themselves. Man's tools are seen as stages of civilization. With each progression in the tools that one has the more progress they have made for themselves. He says that old tools should be thrown out and replaced with new ones in… [read more]

Construction Industry in Iran Current Obstacles and Possible Solutions Case Study

Case Study  |  5 pages (1,766 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 20


Construction Industry in Iran - Current Obstacles and Possible Solutions

The Construction Industry in Iran: Current Obstacles and Possible Solutions

Case Studies

The construction industry in Iran has many problems, but there are also chances to see solutions presented. Some of the areas where difficulties are currently being seen include economic issues and financing, building materials, education, international sanctions, design,… [read more]

Economics in Construction Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,716 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Economics in Construction Industry

Data is very critical in a construction environment, and availability of appropriate statistical data assists policy makers in implementing an effective housing planning and formulates appropriate construction policy for the country. Despite the importance of data for the formulation of construction policy, it is still challenging to source for the appropriate statistical data that could be… [read more]

Architecture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,667 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


It has been mentioned that the "house's strength came from its chronological characteristic: Light, air and water were meant to encourage a life that is wholesome."

The home became Neutra's third payment in the United States and then was constructed four years later after the Lovell Health House in Los Feliz.

The Research House then eventually became the emphasis of… [read more]

Importance of a College Degree in Construction Management Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (926 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … college degree in Construction Management.

The construction industry: The usefulness of seeking an academic degree

The construction industry was severely impacted by the recent recession. Most housing markets are over-saturated with homes for sale. However, one segment of the construction industry is expanding, that of energy efficient, LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design)-certified or 'green' buildings. A 2011 study by the Fredonia Group found that "demand for green building products -- buoyed by increased availability, environmental concerns, stricter building codes, and a rebounding construction industry -- is expected to increase by 13% annually to create a $71 billion market in 2015" (Rimetz 2011).The skyrocketing costs of fossil fuels require a new way of looking at how commercial and residential structures are built. To satisfy this demand requires thinking outside of the traditional 'box' of how to construct modern buildings. Although I have experience as a project manager, I desire to better prepare myself for the future of construction, which I believe will be cleaner and greener than it is today.

According to the Sustainable Buildings Industry Council (SBIC): "A sustainable building is one in which the site, design, construction, occupancy, maintenance, and deconstruction of the building are accounted for in ways that promote energy, water, and material efficiencies, while providing healthy, productive, and comfortable indoor environments and long-term benefits to owners, occupants, and society as a whole" (What is sustainability, 2011, SBIC). The technology needed to make this possible, including solar and wind energy, is still being refined. The need for greater technological knowledge of how to create a sustainable building is manifest in the existence of such internationally-recognized standards of certification for construction professionals, such as LEED. LEED measures the sustainability of site selection and development, water usage, materials, atmospheric quality, and intentions for use (What LEED is, USGBC).

According to one construction manager I interviewed, while demonstrated excellence and experience in the field was enough to succeed in the industry in the post, that is no longer the case. Technical knowledge is required to capitalize upon the full range of opportunities that exist in construction. Additionally, the financial strains put upon the industry by the credit crisis increasingly require construction managers to balance competing demands for affordability, sustainability, and aesthetics. Knowledge of environmental science, architecture, and economics at a university level are invaluable assets for the construction manager's skill set.

It can be difficult to predict the needs that will arise over the course of a project. A manager cannot shrug and say he or she will only take projects where his or her skill set is applicable. Often to the manager's frustration, the priority given to the demands of different aspects of the project, or to the different visions of various interest groups may change over the…… [read more]

International Style of Architecture Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  2 pages (842 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


In art of all forms from the new jazz and musicals filling the air and radios to the great books produced and architecture, it was transformed into an extreme with one end looking overly optimistic with insight and hope to the other end of the spectrum seeking escapism from the plight. In architecture we saw the grandest buildings constructed like the Chrysler Building and the Empire State Building which helped citizens to maintain their faith in the American system in a time desperation was conquering. It helped give us an identity as a nation with many new styles of art from music, photography, fine art, literature, sculpting or architecture.


Encyclopedia Britanica. "International Style." Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2011. 1105-1108.

The authors of Encyclopedia Britanica provide details on specific subjects. In this specific occurrence, the authors visit the topic of the International Style of Architecture. The most common characteristics of International Style buildings are rectilinear forms; light, taut plane surfaces that have been completely stripped of applied ornamentation and decoration; open interior spaces; and a visually weightless quality engendered by the use of cantilever construction.

Henry Russell Hitchcock, Philip Johnson. The International Style. W.W. Norton and Company, 1997.

This work is one of the most influential works of architectural criticism and history of the twentieth century. Initially produced as a catalog to accompany a controversial and groundbreaking 1932 Museum of Modern Art show of the then new architecture emerging in Europe and America, The International Style quickly became the definitive statement of the principles underlying the work of such giants as Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius, and other pioneers. This new edition has been completely redesigned and reset, and it features a new foreword by Philip Johnson, who reflects on the legacy of the International Style and examines the still-precarious power of architecture.

Jobst, R. "Charm is Not an Antiquated Notion." FFWD Weekly 31 March 2005.

In criticizing the neo-traditional design of Tonko's 17th Avenue and 7th Street S.W. project, the Beltline planning group's Bob van Wegen maintains that all new buildings should be designed in a contemporary style. To reference historic styles in new buildings is, he argues, akin to stuffing the pet cat after it dies. People have learned through decades of bitter experience that new buildings will almost certainly be inferior to what stood before. Brick gives way to stucco, quality loses out to "economic feasibility" and charm is expunged by an architectural elite who seems…… [read more]

Architecture Modernism Dissertation

Dissertation  |  25 pages (8,020 words)
Bibliography Sources: 25



Modernism in architecture came about in the 20th century as it introduced completely innovative ways of thinking. The way that "designers, architects and engineers conceptualized, fabricated, and evaluated these environments has been the subject of very intense debate" (Doordan 2003, p x). The maxim created by Louis Sullivan, "form follows function," was one of the most central points of… [read more]

Function in Architecture Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,743 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Function in Architecture

The Arts and Crafts movements had a great influence on 20th century infrastructure. Architects thought of structural design as a form of art and expression -- a form of expression that also inspired functionality in a building. Two successful architects that adopted such principals were Frank Lloyd Wright and Peter Behrens. There was a certain spiritual connection… [read more]

Architecture of the Middle Ages Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (788 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Medieval Architecture

Romanesque vs. Gothic Architecture

Architecture of the Middle Ages encompasses a number of building and purposes for those buildings. Middle Ages architecture can be divided into two major styles: Romanesque and Gothic. However, within these categories other styles existed that encompassed a particular time or region, such as Italian Renaissance, Germanic, Celtic, or Tudor. This research will explore the similarities and differences between the two major styles of architecture in the Middle Ages.

Romanesque Architecture

Romanesque architecture represents the early Middle Ages and was popular until around 1100 A.D. It was influenced by the prominence and influence of the Roman Empire. The most recognizable features of Romanesque architecture are the barrel vault and the Roman arch (Sacred Destinations). A common misnomer is that Roman Architecture developed during the time of Roman occupation. However, the style developed after the fall of the Roman Empire. It managed to retain the key features of the Roman building style, but it can be distinguished from true Roman architecture by the absence of Roman features, such as roman columns. In addition to the absence of these features, other influences such as Byzantine and Islamic features can be seen in some structures (Sacred Destinations). These influences are an obvious artifact of the crusades.

The defining features of Romanesque architecture. Arches were supported in the middle by a keystone. Stones were precision cut to fit together perfectly without mortar. The "barrel vault" room was developed. This style of room construction was so named because it was reminiscent of the barrel that had been cut in had and laid on its side. Several barrel vaults could be made to intersect in the middle (Sacred Destinations).

Gothic Architecture

Around 1200 A.D. Romanesque architecture gave way to Gothic style architecture. It remained the most widespread architectural style through around 1500 A.D. The term "Gothic" is a reference to a group of barbarians who sacked Rome in 410 A.D. The term "Gothic' was meant as an insult to the art and architectural style (Gothic Art). It was meant to convey the message that this building style was "barbaric." However, despite its name, its popularity continues to grow and it eventually replaced the Romanesque style of architecture.

Romanesque structures were earthy and low to the ground. They gave the feeling of weight and massiveness. Gothic structure, on the other hand, tend to be light…… [read more]

Architecture's Response to Nature Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,125 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Architecture's Response To Nature

Architecture as an art form is far more than merely the design and building of houses that conform to a specific artistic ideal. Although this is indeed a big part of the process, architecture also serves as a platform for the development of new forms and designs, and combining these with the more traditional. Exemplifying these important paradigms are Red House, designed by William Morris and Philip Webb, and the Robie House, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright for his client Frederick C. Robie. Both homes connect not only with the design paradigms of their respective time periods, but also with an element of innovation and development, inspired specifically by the contemporary artistic and environmental elements surrounding them at the time. When comparing these two homes, it becomes clear how each respectively communicates with its environment to denote the specific architectural and artistic ideals behind them.

The Red House was completed in 1860, and served as the origin of the Arts and Crafts movement, as well as the English Free Style of architecture

. As such, the building represented pioneering architecture at its specific time and location. Another important element was Webb's use of local materials and craftsmanship to achieve the effect of Gothic Revival by means of clay tiling, corbelled brick work, rubbed brick arches and circular openings.

Because of its connection with Morris's passion for Arts and Crafts, and as the first of its kind, Red House is considered by some to be the most important Arts and Crafts home in England. As a direct result of the design and decoration of the home, Morris founded his design firm, Morris & Co., which in turn provided a springboard of definition and meaning for the Arts and Crafts movement

. As such, the home was built in harmony not only with its immediate physical environment, but also with the social and artistic needs of the time.

Like the Red House in England, Robie House is also considered one of the most important architectural works in the United States for its contribution to the country's architecture movements as they are manifest today. Like the Red House, Robie House incorporates a pioneering style for its time -- the Prairie Style. As such, its place in history and architecture is secured by its reputation as a forerunner of modernism in architecture.

The Robie House was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright for his business client Frederick C. Robie, a forward-thinking businessman who created a platform for the new, daring and innovative in architecture design. The home was completed in 1910.

Both Red House and Robie House form a unified whole with their respective exteriors. In the case of the Robie House, the Prairie Style involved a design that not only communicated with, but imitated the flat prairie fields of the United States. As such, the house exemplified pioneerism; a historically important American paradigm. Specifically, the design of the house then focused upon the horizontal, with vertical lines hidden as far… [read more]

Green Architecture Green Schools Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,897 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Green Architecture/Green Schools

What is Green Architecture?

Green architecture -- also known as sustainable development, eco-design, eco-friendly architecture, earth-friendly architecture, environmental architecture, natural architecture -- is a sustainable method of green building design: it is design and construction with the environment in mind (Craven).

Green architects generally work with the key concepts of creating an energy efficient, environmentally friendly house.… [read more]

Greek and Roman Architecture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (655 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Greek & Roman Architecture

Roman Adoption and Reform of Greek Architecture

What technological improvements did the Romans make to Greek architecture? How did their buildings differ from Greeks?

Although Roman and Greek architecture are often spoke of in one breath, because of their similar surface appearances, Roman architectural function and design is actually quite different. The reason that so many Roman structures look Greek is due to the fact that Rome was a highly adaptive culture, eager to assimilate other aspects of Greece into its appearance, just as it assimilated Greece itself into its empire. For example, after Sulla's Greek conquest, Romans almost immediately adopted mosaic designs into their homes, and the design of Greek homes with a wide open dining space became the triclinium in Roman villas ("Ancient Roman Architecture," Crystal Links, 2008).

However, Roman architecture substantially reformed the technical construction of earlier Greek models to meet the great capital city's unique needs. Rome was a vast and sprawling empire, with no real parallel in the Greek past. It required structures to support its high urban population density. The improved use of vaults and arches enabled Romans to create vast public spaces such as public baths and basilicas. For the first time, multi-tiered homes were constructed for large numbers of residents, and public and private structures were equipped with latrines and heating devices ("Ancient Roman Architecture," Crystal Links, 2008).

Rome created public buildings and monuments that were also unprecedented in Greece partly for political reasons. Architectural domination was a tool of the empire to show its wealth and glory, and by replicating these public arch and dome structures in miniature all over the empire, its self-image was gratified even further. The Pantheon, the temple to all the gods, is perhaps the most famous Roman structure commemorating the city's glory, as well as the Roman gods (many of which were adapted from Greek models). Rome's brutal site of public entertainment, the Coliseum, is based on a series…… [read more]

History and Architecture of Public Museums Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,611 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Architecture: Public Museums

The 1939 building of the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) was not only representative of architecture during its time, it was also an important turning point in museum architecture. When the Museum commissioned its own building for the first time during 1939, it was viewed as important not to provide only a building that served… [read more]

Chicago Architecture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (715 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Chicago Architecture

Reid, Murdoch & Co. Building: form, function, structure, and history

The Reid, Murdoch & Co. Building was designed in 1914 by the architect George C. Nimmons, a student of Frank Lloyd Wright, and an earlier adapter of Wright's Prairie and Chicago philosophies of architectural design. Because of its history it was designated a Chicago Landmark on November 15, 1976. The Prairie style of architecture is considered to be one of the most unique forms of Chicago architecture. It "was developed in the early 20th century as a modern architectural movement to reflect the needs of the common man," by Frank Lloyd Wright ("Prairie School Tour," City of Chicago Department of Planning and Development, Landmarks Division, 2003) it is characterized by "proportional, often brick-and-stucco, constructions" ("Prairie School Tour," City of Chicago Department of Planning and Development, Landmarks Division, 2003).

Although the Prairie style was supposed to bring Midwestern simplicity and functionalism to the design of the city, it was initially used in residential buildings and smaller structures. The Reid, Murdoch & Co. Building is an example of how larger commercial buildings of the era also eventually came to exemplify this style. The Reid, Murdoch & Co. Building combines elements of the Prairie style as well as the beginnings of what would later be called Wright's Chicago style, and thus it is of great significance in the history of Chicago architecture. Today, "this is one of the city's finest examples of industrial design and a rare reminder of the type of buildings that once lined the Chicago River"("Reid, Murdoch & Co. Building," City of Chicago Department of Planning and Development, Landmarks Division, 2003). The buildings showed that even ordinary warehouses and commercial structures could be pleasing to the eye as well as spacious inside and functional.

The building was originally intended to be a warehouse and office building for a wholesale grocery company. It was the first building to include a docking facility, in response to the city-wide mandate that designers include the Chicago River into building design to enhance Chicago's beauty as well as to make better commercial use of the river ("Reid, Murdoch & Co.…… [read more]

Poetics of Light in Architecture Tadao Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,845 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … Poetics of Light in Architecture: Tadao Ando

Art is an expression of the human spirit. It is a way of describing elements, which lie in the sublime, the world that is just out of reach of the present reality. Architecture is a means for humanity to connect with the finite nature of existence. The edifices that we build… [read more]

Steel Frame Construction Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,365 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Steel Frame Construction

Bibliography and Further Information

Appendix a An Analysis of the Selection, Application or Installation of Materials and Building Components Used in Steel Frame Construction Today

An increasing number of commercial and residential structures are using steel frame construction techniques today. The increased popularity of this building technique has grown from its early beginnings in Chicago a century… [read more]

Intended Major: Art and Architecture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (398 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


My main interest in the field of art is architecture. After majoring in art, I hope to pursue a master's degree in this discipline with the aim of becoming a licensed architect. Architecture is even more demanding a field, perhaps than art, for design must be functional and comfortable as well as beautiful and expressive -- some have called the field of architecture a vocation as well as a profession. One must be a skillful businessperson as well as a great artist of the eye. One must be well versed in the mathematics and spatial relations of numbers, and be a savvy negotiator as well with business contractors. One must create buildings that are energy efficient and let in a great deal of light, and lift the soul in a positive fashion by the way that light is dispensed across the floor and ceiling. One must create healthy buildings that are both sanitary and sanctuaries. One must, as an architect, become an artist of construction, as well as construct a soul every time one constructs a building.… [read more]

Architecture of Teotihuacan the City Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,192 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Architecture of Teotihuacan

The city of Teotihuacan is situated in the Valley of Mexico, about 50 kilometers to the north-east of modern Mexico City. It began its growth between 200 and 100 B.C. And by around 150 a.D. It had become one of the largest urban centers in the world, with an estimated population of over 125,000 people and covering an area of more than 20 square kilometers. The surviving evidence for the city reveals a planned metropolis, with extensive and wide streets and avenues, very large buildings, and regions of religious, administrative and industrial constructions as well as extensive housing. Teotihuacan reached its peak of size and power between circa 150 a.D. And 700 a.D., the "Classic" period of Mesoamerican civilization during which period it extended its influence throughout Mesoamerica. It has been called "the dominant Middle American site of the first half of the Classic era."

The geographic location of Teotihuacan is clearly of importance in its development. The Valley of Mexico is fertile and suitable for extensive irrigation; the lake provided a network of transport routes and a source of water; trade routes from north to south and east to west cross the valley, and there are nearby resources of obsidian and other materials suitable for building, ornament and trade. There is also evidence that volcanic eruptions had destroyed pre-existing urban settlements elsewhere in the valley around 200 B.C., encouraging survivors to establish a new and safer city, and allowing Teotihuacan to flourish in the vacuum left by the destruction of potential rivals. Perhaps the most important single factor, however, was religious. The earliest and most dominant edifice in Teotihuacan is the Pyramid of the Sun, and beneath this structure archaeologists discovered a natural cave, enlarged into a petalled shape and reached by a tunnel directly beneath the very center of the pyramid. This cave clearly had sacred significance and appears to have dictated the position of the Pyramid of the Sun, which in turn determined the development of the city around it.

The surviving buildings of Teotihuacan are of an austere design, using expressive planar surfaces and massive architectonic volumes. It may not be too fanciful to see in this architecture a reflection of the spirit of the place in which the city stands, with its sense of large scale, its wide plain and towering mountains. The temples themselves have been seen as artificial mountains, connecting the people of the city to the sky as the home of the gods, and affirming their centrality in the universe. The Pyramid of the Sun itself (fig. 1) is a vast construction, some 61 meters high with its sides having a width at the base of 213 meters; it is constructed of earth and adobe, faced with unshaped stones and burnt-lime mortar surfacing, and is shaped in a series of terraces rising towards a flat crown upon which a temple (or more than one temple) stood. The profile of the pyramid, with sloping talus alternating with vertical… [read more]

Green Architecture in Japan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  16 pages (4,849 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Buddhism reached Japan

12. Paul Watt, Shinto & Buddhism:Wellsprings of Japanese Spirituality. Asia Society's

Focus on Asian Studies, Vol. II, No. 1, Asian Religions, pp. 21-23, Fall 1982. Copyright AskAsia, 1996. http://www.askasia.org/frclasrm/readings/r000009.htm (October2002).

A in the eighth centuries AD and migrated into Japan through Korea and China. Other religions have existed in Japan in varying degrees at varying times, but… [read more]

Roman Public Architecture Contained Elements Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (810 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


From the outside, the 80 entrance arches on the ground floor, built using the standard column structure, added ease and beauty to the special design. From the inside, the ramped seating area and the giant vaults expanded the coliseum, and the layered and tiered arrangement of the seating area was an impressive show of spatial ingenuity. As with most Roman structures of the time, mass and interior space were manipulated to produce a visually appealing conception of greatness.

Another example of Roman public architecture is Trajan's market. The market was a commercial center of about 150 shops and offices, set into the side of the Quirinal Hill. Both monumental and functional, it is typical of ancient Roman architecture.

The semicircular brick building is set into the hill, above which are tiers of terraces ascending the slope. At the upper end of the hill, a two-story market hall with a series of groin vaults was lined with shops on either side of a central promenade with a balcony level and clerestory openings above.

The brick facades are detailed with brickwork arches, pediments, and travertine lintels, and the markets are a magnificent demonstration of concrete and brick construction, with vaults and arches throughout. The Great Hall has a central empty rectangular space covered with six large cross-vaults. Realized in the classic Roman taberna style, piers, and lintels in travertine with upper windows for light, the vaults relieve their mass onto the side surroundings. The system of the corridors on the first and second levels insured ventilation and light.

In this example, the vaults are again used to increase the spatial experience of roman architecture. The cross vaults and terraces are used to increase space, and maximize functionality. The large opening off the street provided a conception of mass and greatness from the outside.

Romans, using architecture of wall and enclosed tactile space, as seen in the above examples, created massive monuments, both inside and out. They dramatized the organization of the interior and the exterior by a framework of vertical and horizontal divisions, including engaged columns, pilasters, arch order, superposed orders both free-standing and applied, and painted architecture. The use of truss roofs in trabeated construction, and extensive use of vaulted construction created buildings and structures of large uninterrupted spaces, and…… [read more]

Romanesque and Gothic Styles: Comparison Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,359 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


As this paper will discuss below, many of the elements of the Romanesque style, including the arches and vaults, were taken over by the Gothic style and successfully adapted to the new architectural requirements. Pevsner (1964) argues that many of the elements from Gothic architecture had already been present and Gothic architecture develops them in more complex ways.

At the same time, as Banister (2001) shows the main characteristic of the Gothic style is the pointed arch, which is also the fundamental differential element between the Gothic and the Romanesque styles. The advantage of the pointed arch, as developed by the Gothic style, was that it allowed the translation from the Romanesque construction approach (heavy, solid walls and small openings) to the Gothic approach (larger openings, including large windows; a greater focus on light).

The pointed arch, along with the other traditional Gothic elements (buttresses, vaults etc.), also allowed the vertical development of buildings, particularly of churches: Gothic churches are significantly taller, and this is because the style developed all the necessary instruments to support this new type of more complicated construction. As Banister shows, the pointed arch splits the weight of the construction onto the columns and it does so at a steep angle. This type of weight distribution allows, as mentioned, a much taller construction than during the Romanesque period.

The height of the construction is, as such, one of the essential characteristics of Gothic architecture. The Cathedral of Munster has a spire that stands at 160 meters, the tallest in the world. The internal vault of the Cathedral of Beauvais has 48 meters height, also the highest in the world. These are just two of the examples that emphasize the importance of height in Gothic architecture.

There are several ways in which this emphasis on height is undertaken, both internally and externally. The paper has already discussed the pointed arch, but there are a series of external decorations employed. These include spires, towers (of different sizes) and pinnacles (Swaan, 1988). The shapes themselves are often pointed, to create an additional impression of space and height.

Light is another important element of Gothic architecture. As previously discussed, the new technological developments (both the pointed arches and vaults and the flying buttresses, which support the construction from the exterior) created the premises for larger windows and the Gothic style made full use of that. The windows now become a particular element of focus, many of these Gothic windows being richly decorated with stained glass. All of these elements (light, height, rich decorations) transform the church into a symbol of the glory of God.

As a conclusion, there are at least two fundamental things to point out. First of all, the Romanesque and Gothic styles are closely related, with the latter being a logical development of the former. The Gothic style takes over many of the Romanesque elements, further developing them to fit the new architectural paradigm, based on height and light. The transformation is from horizontal to vertical: the… [read more]

Managing Construction Activities and Costs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (648 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Corrective measures act as remedies through lessening the effect of the project control inhibiting factors. Organizational measures are wider and far-reaching practices that are not limited to the actual control process but have an impact on project control.

Apart from controlling the costs of the project's execution, the other important element in ensuring effective execution of project based on the established goals is monitoring construction activities. The project manager should work in collaboration with the contractor to establish procedures that promote evaluation of construction activities and costs. The first procedure for the project manager to undertake in collaboration with the contractor is to prepare and issue contract documents to the contractor and ensure that the documents are signed. The second step is to review the construction schedule and method statements of the contractor while ensuring there are adequate and suitable resources for the project. Third, as a project manager, I will assess the construction cash flow, review execution progress with the contractor, and monitor the contactor's performance (Chartered Institute of Building, 2010, p.67). This will be followed with developing control systems for environmental sustainability, cost and quality, and time. These control systems will be developed and implemented in consultation with the contractor to enable ease of implementation. The other step in this process is to manage introduction of changes in collaboration with the contractor and developing mechanisms for dealing with any claims or challenges. The final procedure is to ensure that the required design information by the contractor is supplied by consultants.


Chartered Institute of Building 2010, Code of practice for project management for construction and development, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford.

Olawale, Y.A & Sun, M 2010, 'Cost and time control of construction projects: inhibiting factors and mitigating measures in practice,' Construction Management and Economics, vol. 28,…… [read more]

Falling Accidents in the Construction Industry Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,874 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Accidents From Falling in the Construction Industry

Numerous accidents occur in the construction industry, but many of them can be avoided with proper safety procedures.

The Chosen Fall Accident

A construction worker in Queens, NY fell through the floor of the building on which he was working and hit his head on a steel girder, dying at the hospital from… [read more]

Water Cube Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (744 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Other requirements included making the venue environmentally compatible, $100 million dollar budget and have a venue where fast swimming an memorable Olympic moments can be shared across the globe. The members of the Arup team were indeed successful at their task and were lauded for the efforts for years to come from the architectural and sporting world.


Implementing the plans for the Water Cube was an international effort of the highest order. Many countries were involved with different aspects of the project and the managing processes proved their worth. The project management team avoided many pitfalls that were obvious in such an undertaking such as the cultural and regulatory standards that were not obvious to the designers. Also, the implementation process saw that many small details were addressed such as fine requirements of the pool design, temperature requirements, chemical and air balances and many other not so blatant challenges.

Lessons Learned

The lessons learned from this case study demonstrate how a strategic outlook that addresses a holistic and comprehensive approach to the design may truly flourish. The art of cooperation that Arup demonstrated in this project reveals many valuable lessons to be learned. The first lesson is that managing risks is of the most importance. In this case, due to the irregular nature of the contractors, risk management techniques had a cutlrual importance making the need to clearly and effectively communicate a necessity that if avoided would have spelled disaster for the project.

Another key lesson to be learned from the Water Cube project is that no matter what happens, surprises and setbacks are bound to happen. This happened during the construction phase of the project where on the ground contractors were not as involved as they could have been during critical times. A successfully communication strategy was developed from afar from Arup and in retrospect perhaps should have been more involved with this phase of the project.


Eccles, R., Edmondson, A. & Karadzhova, D. (2010). Arup: Building the Water Cube. Case Study.

Ian Volner. "How Arup Became The Go-To Firm for Architecture's Most Ambitious Projects" 16 Sep 2013. ArchDaily. Accessed…… [read more]

Building Program: Using Autocad&reg Architecture Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (372 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Both 3D and 2D models can be offered, depending on the needs of the project. A 3D model can be used to communicate clearly in a presentation to a client how the final project will appear while 2D models can be used for consultation on the precise project specifications like finely-detailed blueprints.

Using components of the program like 'Project Navigator' allow architects to plan out the entire building in advance, so nothing is left to chance. Also more general standards can be developed and applied across multiple projects to save time. Saving time means saving money on a project. The feature known as 'Dynamic Blocks' allows various prototypes to be created which can be used again and again, once again saving time on the project. A number of companies have noted that the software enables greater cooperation across teams within a company because of the general building blocks shared across various projects ("Case studies," AutoCAD® Architecture, 2014). This combination of flexibility and exactitude is what makes the program so useful.

Works Cited

"Case studies." AutoCAD® Architecture. [3 Feb 2014].

http://usa.autodesk.com/autocad-architecture/customers/… [read more]

Maori Response to Gothic Architecture - Summary Book Report

Book Report  |  5 pages (1,336 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Maori Response to Gothic Architecture" - summary

Deidre Brown's journal article "The Maori Response to Gothic Architecture" deals with a series of ideas meant to explain how Maori tribes adapted to change provoked by Western influences pervading their culture and to how their architecture came to be shaped by Gothic elements. The Maori apparently expressed interest in Western ideas ever since their early interactions with the Church Missionary Society. Maori leaders actually supported the CMS in installing their programs in New Zealand and in being able to promote their thinking to Maori tribes.

While the Maori accepted a series of Western influences, they did not hesitate to get involved in the affairs of the CMS in order to emphasize the importance of their cultural values. "Many Evangelical CMS missionaries did not try to prevent their Maori congregations from decorating the interior of their churches with customary kowhaiwhai rafter paintings and tukutuku wall panels." (Brown 254) Brown thus makes it possible for her readers to understand that even though the Maori supported the inclusion of Western elements into their culture, they did not abandon their traditions and actually focused on introducing many of their ideas into these respective elements.

Christian churches did not only provide the Maori with the opportunity to integrate their ideas into Christian involvement in their culture, as they also enabled the community to realize that it could change much of its architectural customs in order to make buildings more comfortable. Maori houses had been simplistic until that time and it was actually difficult for these people to stand upright in most parts of their homes. CMS churches provided Maori builders with the opportunity to learn new and more effective building strategies.

The fact that Maori tribes often expressed their competitiveness through progress they experienced in a series of domains enabled them to focus on building better churches and buildings in general. Rival Maori tribes considered that simply building Christian churches was not enough for them to emphasize their superiority. As a consequence, they got actively involved in designing buildings that would reflect their thinking and traditions.

The Rangiatea and Waikanae churches are interesting examples of Christian churches built by the Maori. The fact that they have a great deal of elements that are uncharacteristic to Maori architecture and that they do not have ancestral wood carvings demonstrates that the Maori had been involved in building structures that were in disagreement with their traditional values in order to emphasize their prominence.

The absence of ancestral wood carvings in many Maori built structures during the early years of Gothic architecture being present in the territory can be owed to a series of factors. In some cases missionaries did not approve of such elements in their churches and in other cases Maori builders had trouble coming up with designs that would be in agreement with Christian themes.

While ancestral wood carvings were not present in many Maori-built structures, builders were unhesitant about introducing kowhaiwhai patterns. These patterns are… [read more]

Architectural Monuments of Chavin Book Report

Book Report  |  4 pages (1,063 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Architectural Monuments of Chavin

Written in 2008 by William J. Conklin and Jeffrey Quilter, Chavin: Art, Architecture, and Culture was published by the Cotsen Institute of Archaeology at UCLA to reinterpret one of South America's most important archeological sites: Chavin de Huantar. Located in the mountain valleys of Peru near the confluence of the Mosna and Huanchecsa rivers, Chavin de Huantar was built in approximately 1200 BCE by the Chavin civilization, one of the region's most influential cultures during the pre-Incan era. A collection of monuments, gathering grounds, and massive temples, Chavin de Huantar was considered to be the focal point of the Chavin people's system of worship, with people making pilgrimages for hundreds of miles to assemble in one of the site's enormous plaza's, and to make offerings to their deities in the region's most prominent temple. As Conklin and Quilter explain in their comprehensive analysis, Chavin de Huantar was more than simply one civilization's capital city or ceremonial center; it was one of the world's most advanced architectural sites of its era. By approaching the study of Chavin de Huantar's distinctive architectural attributes with both a scholar's precision and a student's passion, Conklin and Quilter's Chavin: Art, Architecture, and Culture represents perhaps the most thorough and up-to-date examination of this historical site's architectural significance.

Consisting of a colossal pyramid with a flat top, Chavin de Huantar was surrounded by a series of smaller temples which have been termed a, B, C, and D. By modern archeologists, as well as an open-air plaza known today as the Circular Plaza. The most advanced architectural designs within Chavin de Huantar, however, were observed in the site's two primary temples, the Old Temple and the New Temple, which housed an array of advanced design features including acoustically-tuned water features, animalistic relief carvings, stone obelisks, and divinely inspired sculptures (Conklin and Quilter). For the Chavin people who lived and worshiped within the boundaries of Chavin de Huantar, the site represented the centerpiece of their civilization, and the architectural techniques used in the site's construction are befitting of its monumental status. As Conklin and Quilter observed in their book, the process of excavation and filling used by the Chavin to create suitable foundations for their massive edifices was remarkable in that the fills "are massive and seem to signify the intent of Chavin constructors to noticeably modify the overall landscape context of their structures" (20). The stonework used in Chavin de Huantar's construction was primarily white granite and black limestone, an architectural choice that resulted in the Black and White Portal and the Black and White Stage, two of the site's most symbolically meaningful locations. As Conklin and Quilter concluded in the book, the religious significance between the colors black and white, which equate to the eternal cycle of day and night for the Chavin, motivated the site's designers to source building materials by excavating over 50 miles away.

Another prominent feature of Chavin de Huantar that Conklin and Quilter devoted much of their… [read more]

Work of Architecture Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (456 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


It is "based on the continental system of geometrical proportion" and boasts the highest Gothic vault in England, a height that is intensified by its unusually narrow aisles ("Architecture," Westminster Abbey, 2012). Its "English features include single rather than double aisles and a long nave with wide projecting transepts" and the "elaborate mouldings of the main arches, the lavish use of polished Purbeck marble for the columns and the overall sculptural decoration" ("Architecture," Westminster Abbey, 2012).


The original site of the Abbey was identified as 'sacred' when a fisherman on the River Thames saw a vision of Saint Peter in 616. "The first phase of the rebuilding was organised by Henry III, in Gothic style, as a shrine to honor Edward the Confessor and as a suitably regal setting for Henry's own tomb, under the highest Gothic nave in England" ("Westminster Abbey," Sacred Destinations, 2010). The presence of the remains and images of famous politicians, artists, and other figures of note in this symbolically significant religious structure of the Church of England reflects the Abbey's embodiment of both the patriotic and religious spirits of the land.

Works Cited

"Architecture." Westminster Abbey. 2012. [16 Feb 2013]


"Art." Westminster Abbey. 2012. [16 Feb 2013]


"Westminster Abbey." Sacred Destinations. 29 Mar 2010. [16 Feb 2013]

http://www.sacred-destinations.com/england/london-westminster-abbey… [read more]

International Style of Design Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,544 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The exhibition was extremely popular and boasted high attendance. Contributing architects from the International Style contributed to the Die Wohung exhibition, including Peter Behrens, Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius, J.J.P. Oud, Mart Stam, and Bruno Taut (Jarzombek, 1999). The Weissenhof project was influenced by a number of important contributors who favored functionalism and who fled to the Soviet Union (Jarzombek, 1999). Taut and Stam, fled to the east in 1930 and began to build entire cities from the ground up, focusing on enormous, ambitious, idealistic -- and wholly unrealistic -- urban projects (Jarzombek, 1999). In 1936, Stalin ordered these "intellectuals" to leave the country and they were not allowed back into Hitler's Germany.


From the 1930s to the 1980s, the International Style was the standard in contemporary construction and provided rational solutions to the problems presented by building and design. The International Style aesthetic rested on the capacity of the architects and designers at the time to push the limits of technology and resources such as concrete, glass, and steel. The built environments extended from the sparse anonymity of suburbia to thrilling urban skylines. The International Style found expression in the work of individual architects, designers, and artists with distinct regional versions of reality and an…… [read more]

Construction Design for Safety Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (611 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The study's final objective is to determine whether a certain design process works better than other design processes resulting in lower deaths and accidents. The study seeks to provide information and data that will assist the construction industry in addressing workforce accidents, by comparing and contrasting popular design methodologies.

The proposed study's design is to look at numbers provided by both governmental and non-governmental organizations. These numbers may provide the evaluator with enough information to determine whether one construction design methodology is better than another, and with that information the evaluator expects to make recommendations that will assist the industry in addressing a critical issue. What has been discovered so far is that there does not seem to be enough emphasis placed on safety awareness in any of the construction design processes. It is expected, however, that this situation will change, as the evaluator gathers additional, and more specific, information from the various organizations.

The evaluator will not only seek further data from NGO's and government entities, but will also research industry specific journals that document certain design processes and the resulting circumstances.

Additionally, the evaluator will contact commercial companies that participate in construction projects, especially those who initiate large construction projects that are likely in need of design processes in order to complete the projects. The evaluator will also consult the pertinent people with Health and Safety Executive, Institution of Project Managers and relevant government and non-governmental organizations who are likely to have the necessary data.

Due to the complexity of the issue, the evaluator will likely have to also determine the validity and reliability of the gathered data in order to determine what, if any,…… [read more]

Renaissance Building Projects: Their Relationship Essay

Essay  |  12 pages (4,215 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Renaissance Building Projects: Their relationship with the Scientific Revolution Architectural Principles, Construction Technology and Master Builder Tradition

The four buildings discussed above show evidence of the advance of scientific thinking as well as other aspects particular to the Renaissance revolution in architecture. This also applies to the design of these buildings and the techniques and methods of building,… [read more]

De Botton's Text Essay

Essay  |  9 pages (3,301 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


¶ … Architecture of Happiness: Why Ideals Change

Alain de Botton asks the very apt question in his text, the Architecture of Happiness, why it is that society constantly has shifting values about what it finds beautiful, positing this question, very simply: "Why do we change our minds about what we find beautiful?" (154) This is an important question as… [read more]

Ohio Capitol Building Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (858 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


In recent elections, Ohio has been a key state in determining who will be the president of this country. It is possible that the placement of the two flags is designed to reflect this proclivity.

4. Discuss the architecture and decorative features of the interior.

The most prominent architectural feature of the Capitol building is the sweeping staircase which "was modeled after the Paris Opera House" (Ohio 2012). There is also a large, marble statue of President Abraham Lincoln. The sixteenth President of the United States is often considered one of the best presidents this nation has ever had. Although he was not born in Ohio nor did he live there, many of Lincoln's most trusted advisors were Ohioans. By placing a statue of Lincoln in the capitol, the people of Ohio are equating themselves with his legacy and also advancing Lincoln to a position such as the Greek and Romans Gods and Goddesses possessed in structures from those countries.

5. Discuss some of the reason that these styles have persisted for so many centuries. Why do you think this particular architectural style was used for the building?

Ancient Greece and Rome were two similar but also uniquely different times in history. Much of what is known about life during that time period is understood through the art and architecture that was created. Architecture in particular was a passion for the Greeks and Romans. The construction of buildings was designed to showcase the worship of the Greek and Roman gods and goddesses. In order to honor their deities, the artisans strove for artistic perfection. This was also a way to praise the individual who was creating the building, because he who was able to achieve the most perfect temple or building would be considered the greatest of all artisans. The desire to achieve perfection is still part of the artistic sensibility. Many architects still choose to use Grecian or Roman architectural techniques are to create an unspoken discourse on permanence. By constructing a building in this style, the creators are making a statement that this building will have the same importance and the lasting ability of the structures in Ancient Rome and Greece. Many state capitols, both in the United States and on an international level make the choice for this very reason.

6. Photographs:

Works Cited:

Gilkey, Elliott Howard et. al. (1901). The Ohio Hundred Year Book: a Hand-book of the Public

Men and Public. Taylor: Columbus, OH.

"The Ohio Statehouse."…… [read more]

Scandinavian Architecture: The Evolution Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,657 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


It was a challenge to the designers to create buildings for the function of dwelling of individuals while also keeping the aesthetic value (Mills). Bjarke is of the opinion that their style is the pragmatic utopian culture. This is a link between the boring, normal style and an adoption of the adventurous approach.


In conclusion, design is a critical factor in buildings. There are many factors that influence the designing of buildings. Most of them do not involve aesthetic value and they are just to serve the purpose. However, the Scandinavian culture brought a lot of modifications to this development. This culture started out with the use of modernism in their work. Considering that this region has many countries, it would be hard to come up with unity in the approaches to design. However, it was the traditions that all these countries had that were the impetus towards maintenance of this culture. Maintenance of the approach was through the creation of institutions where the same is still taught up-to-date. This work was not recognizable internationally until some of the artists proved to the world what aesthetic value could do to a building. Some of these were Aalto who is still the greatest artist up-to-date. Through his designs of buildings, he has been able to influence the use of the approach. The romanticism that he made use of in the Villa Mairea is still a guideline to other artists of the present age. These include the latest versions of this approach is BIG who are the creators of the Mountain dwellings (Mills).

Works cited

Bandle, Oskar, Kurt Braunmu-ller, Lennart Elmevik, and Gun Widmark. The Nordic Languages:

An International Handbook of the History of the North Germanic Languages. Berlin: de

Gruyter, 2005. Print.

Fallan, Kjetil. Design History: Understanding Theory and Method. Oxford: Berg Publishers,

2010. Internet resource.

Goodnow, Katherine J, and Haci Akman. Scandinavian Museums and Cultural Diversity. New York: Berghahn Books, 2008. Print.

Mills, Criss. Designing with Models: A Studio Guide to Architectural Process Models. Hoboken,

N.J: John Wiley & Sons, 2011. Print.…… [read more]

Construction Industry in Iran Current Obstacles and Possible Solutions Data Analysis Chapter

Data Analysis Chapter  |  5 pages (1,400 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Construction Industry in Iran: Current Obstacles and Possible Solutions

Analyzing the data is a significant part of any study. For this study, there were two client/owners, eight consultants, seven contractors, and two others who did not fit into the first three categories who participated in the study. There were four parts to the questionnaire, with the first part collecting basic… [read more]

Asses the Text of Andrea Palladio and Sinan Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,773 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Andrea Palladio and Sinan

The Turkish Architect, Sinan, and the Italian Andrea Palladio, born less than 20 years apart, show remarkable similarities in their work and attitude. One particular similarity is that they are both representative of great architecture in their respective cultures and time periods. Both rose from humble beginnings to become much sought-after professionals, designing luxurious and beautiful… [read more]

Alvar Aalto Architecture Is Rightly Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,073 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


For a detail analysis of the work of Alvar Aalto, The Muuratsalo Experimental House would be taken into consideration which was built in the year 1952. The site for the Muuratsalo Experimental House, situated on the western shore of the island of Muuratsalo, was discovered when the Town Hall of Saynatsalo was under construction. The site measuring 53650 square meters… [read more]

Sharon Construction Company Has Won Case Study

Case Study  |  7 pages (1,925 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


This proposal basically adds nothing to the proposal that was already made.

The third proposal would not help because neither of the problems is affected by the roof being erected. The three activities which will be completed after the roof is erected only take, at the most time-consuming (lighting), five weeks to complete. All of these processes will be completed by September the 26th (Appendix A) which is far ahead of either of the more major issues. Also, cutting this time off will not speed up the painting because painting must be done after everything else is completed. Since even an accelerated timeline has the seats being poured from 10/18 to 11/14 (Appendix B), there is no need to erect the roof any quicker because all else connected to the roof's completion is done prior to the 11/14 date when painting could begin.

As to the fourth proposal, on December first there are still seven weeks needed to complete all of the work on the project by the extended timeline (Appendix A). There is a 35% chance of an eight-week strike, a 15% chance of a twelve week strike, and a 33% chance that the coming December winter will require heating of the concrete pours. There is only a very small chance that a strike and an extremely cold December will happen (11.7% and 5%), but there is a chance. If everything works in the company's favor, this is the best course. But, there has to be some contingency because of the high chance that something will go wrong. This proposal will most likely put the project beyond the timeline which will cost $15,000 per week besides the extra money being spent on catching up. The potential extreme monetary and reputational costs of this proposal make it untenable.

The fifth proposal is not a viable solution because it is irresponsible to do nothing. Everything needs to be calculated based on three factors: the timeline, how much it will cost when the project is completed, and the probability of delay. This proposal assumes a best case scenario which is actually the opposite of what a site manager should plan for. The plan should be to assume the worst case scenario (a twelve week strike and…… [read more]

Romanesque Architectural Construction Essay

Essay  |  13 pages (5,446 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 13



The term Romanesque is an architectural class that refers to the art and architecture of the Mid -- Late Medieval Period in Europe (1000 to 1240 AD). It was coined in the nineteenth century to describe features of the post-Roman Empire style. This period saw the decline and downfall of the Roman Empire. Romanesque elements comprise round-headed arches, barrel… [read more]

Architecture and Urban Transformation: Revisioning Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (1,802 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


(Kaan, et al., 2011)

The boundary that exists between architecture and urbanism is such that is "constantly being exceeded in both directions." (Kaan, et al., 2011)

The work entitled "The Experience City and Challenges for Architects and Urban Designers" states "Modern city life is more than the simple reproduction of the workforce, about light, health and welfare. As mentioned, city life also increasingly has to do with procuring experiences and entertainment. The cities are therefore in the process of establishing themselves as stages for culture and city life that call for new architectural typologies, new types of urban spaces, and an urban planning that supports the novelties that are afoot." (Nordisk Arkitekturforskning, 2008)

Findings of the Initial Research

There are many considerations that must necessarily be included in the examination of redesign of a contemporary city so as to ensure the maximum and optimal use of space and place toward the design of an interconnected and functional city that best serves its citizens both in function and in form.

This study has only barely skimmed the surface of the literature relating to architecture and design considerations for the contemporary city but has demonstrated that there are myriad considerations in this initiative. The recommendation arising from this study is one that indicates the need for research on the Footscray reenvisioning initiative for the purpose of understanding the theoretical bases and the requirements for contemporary urban architecture and development in this city.


Lynch, K (1960) The Image of the City. Cambridge: MIT Press;

Revisioning Footscray -- Final Report (2005) Red Road Development 14 June 2005.

Sennett, R., 'The conscience of the eye, the design and social life of cities', USA, 1992

Leikina, Daria (nd) Exposure and Transition. March, Studio…… [read more]

Mechanization Architecture Is an Art Form Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (669 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Architecture is an art form that, perhaps more like any other, affects the daily lives of people as a result of its necessity; human beings need shelter. The way in which architecture evolves, then, is closely concerned with the developments in society and industry. According to Kahn (p. 578), for example, architecture adheres to the spirit of its time and cannot recreate the spirit of any other time. The author here implies that, although the tools and means necessary for recreating a cathedral from another epoch are available, the spirit behind the drive to build it is no longer inherent in the collective social consciousness and is therefore discarded from the architectural consciousness.

The mechanization and scientific discovery that have escalated since the beginning of the 20th century have also created an influence on architecture, where functionality takes precedence. Similarly, Rowe (p. 80) argues that architecture's main functionality lies in its connection with the mind and requirements of those it serves. With the introduction of mass production, architecture was then influenced to produce more space at a lower cost and with greater efficiency.

This is evident in both the work of both Frank Lloyd Wright and Ludwig Mies van de Rohe. These two architects embody Le Courbusier's assertion that "architecture finds itself confronted with new laws (Le Courbusier, p. 283). Both architects take elements from the time in which they operate and the environment within which they construct their homes to create a sense of space that is appropriate in terms of mechanization and the concomitant simplicity required by the new order of the world and work.

Specifically, this is accomplished by Frank Lloyd Wright in his prairie house style. Intrinsically american, Wright worked with the observed environment to create an extension of this environment, which would not only be functional in terms of living space, but also aesthetically in accordance with the environment from which it emerges. Wright's idea for the prairie house was a long, low building with hovering planes and…… [read more]

Role of the Architect in the Architecture of Today Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  11 pages (3,218 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Architect in the Architecture of Today

Today's architectural role to society has become more challenging over the years as technology has created many factors in which one must take into consideration when designing. While dealing with the over-abundance of factors in designing, architects have begun to lose a sense of a long-lasting built environment. The structures designers have… [read more]

History of Construction Technology of 4 Periods in Ancient Civilization Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  16 pages (4,755 words)
Bibliography Sources: 17


History of Construction Technology of 4 periods in Ancient Civilization

Construction in Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt

Mesopotamia did not have much timber but the area could boast of palm leaves and reed instead. However, before the consumption of fired pottery, and since the period of earliest Neolith, the villagers residing in the east of Tigris used to construct their homes… [read more]

Contemporary Craft Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (1,806 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


¶ … Art of Building Construction in Al-Alkhalaf Village

Saudi Arabia

Understanding the difference between Vernacular and Modern architecture

Vernacular architecture is architecture which is representative of the anthropological and historical community in which it exists.

Modern architecture is architecture more representative of an increasingly global and technologically aware world view

Positives of Vernacular architecture

Provides a direct link with… [read more]

History of Construction Technology of 12 Periods in Western Civilization Essay

Essay  |  24 pages (9,139 words)
Bibliography Sources: 72


History Of Construction Technology of 12 Periods in Western Civilization

What makes humans different from other animals can be attributed to many things, but it usually begins with our conscious choice to explore the world and separate ourselves from nature through some mastery of it. With the advent of agriculture, humans were now congregating in population centers and living for… [read more]

Contemporary Crafts Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  2 pages (544 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Crafts

A review of literature on traditional and contemporary architectural elements reveals core concepts related to the interface between form and function. Design parallels social, cultural, and geo-climactic conditions. The architecture becomes the most basic manifestation of social norms, beliefs, and practices. Moreover, a mystical and spiritual dimension is often revealed in the traditional architectures of Saudi Arabia, but is embedded and concealed rather than being overt. For example, Abu-Ghazzeh notes that the mensuration of traditional buildings in Al-Alkhalaf is based on the ratios of measurement in the human body. The ratios can be viewed as a practical means of determining architectural and decorative elements as well as testimony to the spiritual connections between human being, home, and environment. Moreover, there is a singular rejection of absolute measurements because using the human body for the placements of doors, windows, and furniture signifies an intimacy between resident and dwelling, as well as between master builder and resident. In his evaluation of Qahtan architecture, Abu-Ghazzeh found that master builders relied not on absolute measures but on the body, which would impart a slightly irregular ratio to dwellings and their relations with one another. The male foot, palm of hand, knee level, and walking stride are all units of measurement in the traditional architectures of Saudi Arabia. Abu-Ghazzeh also points out that public areas also reflect the social use of space. For instance, Abu-Ghazzeh notes that public thoroughfares and doorways allowed for the transport of goods on donkeys and on the heads of women.

The traditional dwellings of the Qahtan tribe provide a prime example of how architectural and design elements reflect socio-cultural…… [read more]

Contemporary Crafts Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (2,991 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … people define themselves in many expressive and artistic ways. By their songs and their poetry. By their food and their clothing. By their literature and by their buildings. Each one of these cultural forms is the creation of a particular moment in time and place, for everything changes and is transformed. Even a society that as fundamentally traditional… [read more]

Post Modernism Architecture Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,574 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Postmodern Architecture

Postmodernism in Architecture: A Flawed but Permeating Style of Building

Physical surroundings are a determinant factor in the defining the human experience. The communities, neighborhoods and buildings where we find familiarity and comfort are also those same hosts upon which we rely for sustenance, socialization and survival. And to that end, the interaction between man and nature defines… [read more]

Benefit of Strawbale Construction in UK Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (1,856 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Strawbale Construction Methods in the United Kingdom

In an era that demands sustainable and ecologically sound construction methods, one approach that is gaining increasing attention and acceptance in recent years has been strawbale construction. Introduced more than a century ago when baling method began to produce bales that were sufficiently dense for load-bearing wall construction, strawbale structures have… [read more]

Construction for the Fire Service Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,626 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Building Construction and Building Collapses Due to Fire

This paper reviews building design issues and construction issues in terms of whether or not certain codes and standards will prevent building collapses during a fire. This is a worthwhile topic because according to an article in the journal Professional Safety (www.asse.org), many firefighters are killed due to "unanticipated structural collapse." In… [read more]

Building Construction Fire Service Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,747 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Building Construction-Fire Service

Building Design and Construction in Emergency Situations

Smart construction can mean life or death in a disaster situation. Buildings today face a multitude of dangers which can cause fire and structural damage as well as collapse. There a wide variety of standard design practices out there which can affect the building during an emergency event, such as… [read more]

Construction Manager Thesis

Thesis  |  12 pages (3,480 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


¶ … Construction Manager

Today, the construction industry has become enormously competitive and complex. A wide range of new construction materials are available that require specialized knowledge in their application, and major construction projects demand careful budgeting and scheduling expertise. In addition, individual working in the construction industry must be able to communicate with a number of professionals and workers… [read more]

New Material Methods and Equipment for Construction Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  8 pages (2,355 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … New Construction Methods, Materials, and Equipment

What is Happening in the Industry?

Innovations in Concrete Foundations

Innovations Inside the Building

Recycling of Construction Materials

New Uses for Old Materials

Why is it Happening?

How Can These New Innovations Impact a Career in the Construction Industry?

Trends in New Construction Methods, Materials, and Equipment

In a constant race to… [read more]

History in Architecture Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,611 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


History In Architecture

Because they had been very well adapted to the surrounding environment, the primitive people did not felt the need of building houses to shelter them. However, as time passed and humans evolved, the first dwellings appeared as a result of people seeing the opportunity of enjoying more comfortable shelters. As humans evolved, their shelters have also evolved… [read more]

Sitework Construction Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (778 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Business Plan: Drew Construction Co., Inc.

Business Plan for Drew Construction Co., Inc.

Drew Construction Co., Inc. (hereinafter "Drew Construction" or alternatively, "the company") is a sitework construction company specializing in the installation of various materials, products, utilities and accessories required to satisfy various building codes and municipal regulations concerning residential, government and commercial structure safety and operations. The types of services to be provided by the company include roadway construction, underground utilities such as storm drainage, sanitary sewer, water mains, reuse mains, force mains, fire mains, etc.

Mission and Vision.

The mission of Drew Construction is to provide its customers with the best quality service possible on a consistent basis. It is the vision of the company's founders to become the leading site work construction company in the state.

Company Summary.

Drew Construction will initially be established as a de facto corporation doing business throughout the state; the company will subsequently be formally incorporated as a de jure corporation with the Secretary of State as the company becomes financially viable and its workforce expands.


Drew Construction intends to provide a wide range of building-related sitework including site preparation as well as the requisite site clearing services. The classifications of the building- related sitework typically performed by the company are set forth in ASTM UNIFORMAT Standard 1557 E. As shown in Table 1 below.

Table 1.

Classification of building-related sitework services provided by Drew Construction Co., Inc.

Major Elements

Group Elements

Individual Elements

G. Building sitework

G10 Site preparation

G1010 Site clearing

G1020 Site demolitions & relocations

G1030 Site earthwork

G1040 Hazardous waste remediation

G20 Site improvements

G2010 Roadways

G2020 Parking lots

G2030 Pedestrian paving

G2040 Site development

G2050 Landscaping

G30 Site civil/mechanical utilities

G3010 Water supply & distribution systems

G3020 Sanitary sewer systems

G3030 Storm sewer systems

G3040 Heating distribution

G3050 Cooling distribution

G3060 Fuel distribution

G3070 Other civil/mechanical utilities

G40 Site electrical utilities

G4010 Electrical distribution

G4020 Exterior lighting

G4030 Exterior communications & security

G4040 Other electrical utilities

G50 Other site construction

G5010 Service tunnels

G5020 Other site systems & equipment

Source: Classification of building related sitework, ASTM UNIFORMAT II (E1557-97), 2008.

The UNIFORMAT II standard descriptions were developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology in order to define six major "groups of products" used in the construction industry (Sebestyen, 1998).

Market Description

The…… [read more]

History of Boston Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,481 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Architecture of Boston

Boston is a city that represents the very heart of what it means to be American. Filled with rich historical significance, Boston serves as a reminder of what America used to be and what it is yet to be. Boston is unique in that it is dear to the heart of America's history. One of… [read more]

Museum Architecture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,634 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Museum Architecture

The New Museum of Contemporary Art is located in New York City, and was designed by Kazuyo Sejima and Ryue Nishizawa of SANAA in Tokyo. The seven-story building is one of its kind in terms of being the first ever art museum ever built in downtown Manhattan. "The New Museum" title indeed fits not only the building, but… [read more]

Frank Lloyd Wright and Frank Gehry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (828 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3



When comparing the two Guggenheim Museums created by Frank Lloyd Wright vs. Frank Gehry's creation, one would think from the names that they would be similar in many different ways. In this particular case, that is not necessarily true. Though the buildings do share some similarities they are difficult to find and it is much easier to contrast the two, than compare.

If it is true, as some art experts believe, that an architect is a portrayer of his society, then Wright's Guggenheim Museum should have been built in a much different spot. He railed early on that New York City was "overbuilt, overpopulated, and lacked architectural merit" (the Building). Perhaps subconsciously he wished to emphasize his displeasure with the location and it showed in the architecture. In discussing the form of each building one might consider that "the forms of architecture reflect and interpret some of the fundamental values of the society of the architect" (Martin, 146) One wonders then the difference between a building of 1959 versus the building of 1997 since it is difficult to tell that Wright's building is even a museum, which is true of Gehry's as well. Both buildings lack the form to follow the function. "The function or use of a building is an essential part of the subject matter of that building, what the architect interprets or gives insight into by means of its form" (Martin, 145)

This paper will compare and contrast not only the fact that both building lack the form to follow function but will also discuss the two styles of the buildings, and the symbolism, iconography, composition and chiaroscuro of the buildings as well.

First I will discuss the styles of both buildings. The focus of the paper on styles is that Wright's building is both earth-resting and sky-oriented architecture while the Guggenheim Bilbao created by Gehry is earth-rooted when observing it from the northern perspective and sky-oriented when viewing it from the southern perspective. "Earth-resting buildings relate more or less harmoniously to the earth" (Martin, 163-164) while sky-oriented architecture "discloses a world by drawing our attention to the sky bounded by a horizon" (Martin, 158). While Wright's building incorporates both of these styles it is conceded by most experts that it does not fit its location. The earth-rooted style of Gehry's building shows an architecture that seems to hug the earth. Wright's museum effectively uses cantilever construction to assist in the spiral flow leading to the sky (making it sky-oriented…… [read more]

Sustainability Skills Term Paper

Term Paper  |  38 pages (10,576 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 30


Sustainability in the UK Construction industry

Can the UK Construction Industry Meet the Challenges of Sustainable Development?

Issues such as climate change, a rapidly growing global population, pollution, and other environmental issues have brought the global community together with the realization that the way that we have been doing things cannot continue. The last century was dominated by rapid economic… [read more]

Art History Architecture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (869 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Le Corbusier's Villa Savoye

One of the most exemplary works of the "International Style" of architectural modernism, Le Corbusier's Villa Savoye is situated in Poissy, France, a suburban town right outside of Paris. The Villa Savoye is widely considered to be Le Corbusier's masterpiece, as it was the first building to fully realize all five points of his architectural aesthetic, as elucidated in his landmark work, Towards a New Architecture. It is worthwhile to investigate these five points in order to analyze the ways in which they contribute to the formal accomplishment of the building. Ultimately, the five points serve to put forward a fascinating fusion of cutting-edge aesthetics with functionality.

In brief, Le Corbusier's five points can be summarized as follows:

The Pilotis - in the Villa Savoye, this is made apparent in the form of the ground-level support columns. These columns effectively elevate the building above the earth, which allows the garden to flow underneath.

The Flat Roof Terrace - This works to ensure not only the building's role as an intriguing aesthetic experience, but as a vital enclave for maximum functionality. The entire area of the building site is claimed for domestic use; this includes a special gardening area.

The Free Plan - the open plan of the Villa Savoye features partitions that are situated wherever they may be needed, without having to pay heed to those on adjoining levels. This free plan was able to be executed thanks to Le Corbusier's inspired idea to eliminate load-bearing walls.

Horizontal Windows - Not only do they look attractive on the building, these windows also serve to provide both illumination and ventilation.

The Open facade - This is probably the most readily apparent visual motif of the building - its free-flowing design. The building is not constrained by load-bearing considerations that tend to weigh down other Modernist buildings. Instead, the facade of the Villa Savoye is noted for its thin wall layers and windows.

In its encapsulation of the five points, Villa Savoye effectively captures Le Corbusier's

Machine for Living ideal. In the sunroom, one is able to admire the Pilotis by observing that it passes through the fireplace. The supports that are employed throughout the building gracefully transfer throughout the building - and transform it. Whereas a more conservative architect might try to conceal the Pilotis, its presence did not bother Le Corbusier; thus, he felt no need to hide it, and instead incorporated it into the final design of the Villa. Other architectural oddities (for the period when the house was constructed - the late 1920s) include the fact that numerous…… [read more]

Classicism in Nazi Architecture and Classicism in Le Corbusier Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (4,136 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15



Classicism in Nazi Architecture and Classicism in Le Corbusier

Architectural styles say a great deal about a people's values and aspirations. From the soaring spires of the gothic cathedrals of medieval Europe to the glass and concrete office buildings of today, the outward appearance of buildings helps to shape cultures and cultural attitudes. The gothic cathedral represents the religious… [read more]

Postmodern Phenomenon Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,269 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Postmodern Architecture

What formal and spatial qualities characterize postmodern architecture? What is the relationship of postmodern architecture and classicism? How does this relate to the socio-political context within which postmodern architecture developed?

Postmodern architecture, as its name suggests, and like so many aesthetic movements in general, arose as a reaction to the expressive sensibility of the previous generation. Postmodernists revolted against the ideals of modernist architecture, and the modernists' insistence that architecture must be functional and respond to the needs of the common man and woman. "The first, and still the most common, understanding of the term [postmodernism] refers to the tendency that rejects the formal and social constituents of the modern movement and embraces a broader formal language, which is frequently figurative and historically eclectic" (McLeod 25).

The new postmodernists derided the formulaic genre of the preceding generations of architects, which they felt had produced buildings that were "monotonous" ("Art and culture: Postmodern architecture," 2007). The new critics despised modernism's uniform, linear lines, its consistency of shape, its "glass skyscrapers" that were "based on an efficiency of construction fostered by capitalist speculation ("Art and culture: Postmodern architecture," 2007). Modernism argued for architecture's politicization, an end to its "formal isolation" and for an expansion of architecture's role to address social problems. Postmodern critics of the early 1970s felt that elitism and individual expression were superior values to modernist's embrace of a populism that had really degenerated into a routinized corporate regime (McLeod 27).

The new architects wished to inject the individualistic vision of the architect that might fly in the face of the specific function of the building, or the dominant popular aesthetic. As the political impetus of the time was to reject capitalism's pandering to the demands of the masses, the 1970s upsurge of postmodernism celebrated what was not standardized like a commercial artifact. Postmodernism took up the idea that surfaces were important, and that an obsession with depth of meaning and form was passe by reintroducing older elements of architecture that were purely non-functional on the outside, purely to delight the eye.

Perhaps the most striking formal and spatial qualities and characteristics of postmodern architecture is its lack of cohesion in all of the qualities of form and style. The outside and the inside of the building may be in apparent conflict, or come from different periods. Curves and sharp angles may occur in unexpected places. Pastiche is the dominant motif. Postmodern architects, in contrast to the uniformity of modernism and its clean lines, created architectural structures "absent of references to historical signs and codes. Architects ignored material and technical specificity of site, place, or environment... divorcing historical forms from their contexts" ("Art and culture: Postmodern architecture, 2007).

Yet perhaps in this there is some shades of classicism in postmodern architecture -- or at least neo-classicism and its embrace of an earlier era, that of Greek and Roman formality, and its transformation and appropriation of those forms in different uses. It is individualistic, and non-standardized. Postmodernist architecture returns… [read more]

What Is a Construction Contract? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,830 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Construction Contract

Composing a contract is an important part of any project. The terms within that contract determine what exactly needs to be done, how much time is available for work to be done, who is liable for any damages, and all information about payment and payment schedules. This information needs to e clearly laid out as to avoid disputes… [read more]

Construction Subcontracting Term Paper

Term Paper  |  26 pages (7,083 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 25


Subcontracting Analysis (Cont'd)

What factors should be evaluated when selecting a subcontractor? What are the typical methods used to evaluate these factors and are these methods effective?

Outsourcing may be a term of fairly recent origin, but the practice itself is truly ancient because humans have been compelled to organize themselves into cooperative networks throughout history just to survive. Indeed,… [read more]

Subcontracting in the Construction Industry Today Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (3,636 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Subcontracting in the Construction Industry Today

The vast majority of the operations connected with the construction of buildings and public works are carried out by various companies, an important category of which is the construction firm or contractor. The management of the general contractor function is particularly important because, following the design, the contractor is responsible for giving… [read more]

Bill Hillier Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (645 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Bill Hiller Architecture

Architectural Article Review

Hillier, Bill. "What Architecture adds to Building?" From Space Is The Machine: A Configurational History of Architecture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

In his article, "What Architecture adds to Building? " Bill Hillier attempts to make an argument for what could be called a new "epistemology" of architecture, or an ideological thought process behind how buildings are constructed. How humans think about and instinctively approach space, Hillier suggests, must be integrated into how architects construct those dwelling and working spaces. Thinking about how a dweller instinctually perceives his or her bodily space, how the eye sees building spaces in a topographical fashion, and the human relationships towards the interior of a structure, is essential for a good architect. Understanding the human cognitive, physical eye is as essential as understanding the more technical aspects of construction for a good architect of the future places where humans will live and work.

What architecture can add to building, Hillier argues, is a more thoughtful and critical way for human beings to relate to the spaces of buildings in a positive fashion, given the nature of human cognition and spatial concepts. The language of spatial configuration is key to Hillier's theory. Spatial configuration relates to the relationship between the occupier of the structure and its interior, perceived set of relations. What will a dweller see when he or she walks into a building at his or her eye line, asks Hillier, as opposed to what constitutes a perfectly constructed structure.

Relationships are key concept in Hillier, as Hillier states that all spaces are really not enclosed, but a series of spatial and optical relationships that must take into account of other relations within the structure of a complex, from the walls, to the ceiling, to the configuration of the mind, as well as the body of the building's occupier. This is the cornerstone, the expanded idea of architectural relationships, that…… [read more]

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