Study "Architecture / Construction" Essays 56-110

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Role of the Architect in the Architecture of Today Creative Writing

… ¶ … Architect in the Architecture of Today

Today's architectural role to society has become more challenging over the years as technology has created many factors in which one must take into consideration when designing. While dealing with the over-abundance… [read more]

History of Construction Technology of 4 Periods in Ancient Civilization Literature Review

… History of Construction Technology of 4 periods in Ancient Civilization

Construction in Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt

Mesopotamia did not have much timber but the area could boast of palm leaves and reed instead. However, before the consumption of fired pottery,… [read more]

Contemporary Craft Essay

… ¶ … Art of Building Construction in Al-Alkhalaf Village

Saudi Arabia

Understanding the difference between Vernacular and Modern architecture

Vernacular architecture is architecture which is representative of the anthropological and historical community in which it exists.

Modern architecture is architecture… [read more]

History of Construction Technology of 12 Periods in Western Civilization Essay

… History Of Construction Technology of 12 Periods in Western Civilization

What makes humans different from other animals can be attributed to many things, but it usually begins with our conscious choice to explore the world and separate ourselves from nature… [read more]

Contemporary Crafts Literature Review

… ¶ … Crafts

A review of literature on traditional and contemporary architectural elements reveals core concepts related to the interface between form and function. Design parallels social, cultural, and geo-climactic conditions. The architecture becomes the most basic manifestation of social norms, beliefs, and practices. Moreover, a mystical and spiritual dimension is often revealed in the traditional architectures of Saudi Arabia, but is embedded and concealed rather than being overt. For example, Abu-Ghazzeh notes that the mensuration of traditional buildings in Al-Alkhalaf is based on the ratios of measurement in the human body. The ratios can be viewed as a practical means of determining architectural and decorative elements as well as testimony to the spiritual connections between human being, home, and environment. Moreover, there is a singular rejection of absolute measurements because using the human body for the placements of doors, windows, and furniture signifies an intimacy between resident and dwelling, as well as between master builder and resident. In his evaluation of Qahtan architecture, Abu-Ghazzeh found that master builders relied not on absolute measures but on the body, which would impart a slightly irregular ratio to dwellings and their relations with one another. The male foot, palm of hand, knee level, and walking stride are all units of measurement in the traditional architectures of Saudi Arabia. Abu-Ghazzeh also points out that public areas also reflect the social use of space. For instance, Abu-Ghazzeh notes that public thoroughfares and doorways allowed for the transport of goods on donkeys and on the heads of women.

The traditional dwellings of the Qahtan tribe provide a prime example of how architectural and design elements reflect socio-cultural… [read more]

Contemporary Crafts Essay

… ¶ … people define themselves in many expressive and artistic ways. By their songs and their poetry. By their food and their clothing. By their literature and by their buildings. Each one of these cultural forms is the creation of… [read more]

Post Modernism Architecture Thesis

… Postmodern Architecture

Postmodernism in Architecture: A Flawed but Permeating Style of Building

Physical surroundings are a determinant factor in the defining the human experience. The communities, neighborhoods and buildings where we find familiarity and comfort are also those same hosts… [read more]

Benefit of Strawbale Construction in UK Research Proposal

… ¶ … Strawbale Construction Methods in the United Kingdom

In an era that demands sustainable and ecologically sound construction methods, one approach that is gaining increasing attention and acceptance in recent years has been strawbale construction. Introduced more than a… [read more]

Construction for the Fire Service Thesis

… Building Construction and Building Collapses Due to Fire

This paper reviews building design issues and construction issues in terms of whether or not certain codes and standards will prevent building collapses during a fire. This is a worthwhile topic because… [read more]

Building Construction Fire Service Thesis

… Building Construction-Fire Service

Building Design and Construction in Emergency Situations

Smart construction can mean life or death in a disaster situation. Buildings today face a multitude of dangers which can cause fire and structural damage as well as collapse. There… [read more]

Construction Manager Thesis

… ¶ … Construction Manager

Today, the construction industry has become enormously competitive and complex. A wide range of new construction materials are available that require specialized knowledge in their application, and major construction projects demand careful budgeting and scheduling expertise.… [read more]

New Material Methods and Equipment for Construction Research Proposal

… ¶ … New Construction Methods, Materials, and Equipment

What is Happening in the Industry?

Innovations in Concrete Foundations

Innovations Inside the Building

Recycling of Construction Materials

New Uses for Old Materials

Why is it Happening?

How Can These New Innovations… [read more]

History in Architecture Essay

… History In Architecture

Because they had been very well adapted to the surrounding environment, the primitive people did not felt the need of building houses to shelter them. However, as time passed and humans evolved, the first dwellings appeared as… [read more]

Sitework Construction Research Proposal

… Business Plan: Drew Construction Co., Inc.

Business Plan for Drew Construction Co., Inc.

Drew Construction Co., Inc. (hereinafter "Drew Construction" or alternatively, "the company") is a sitework construction company specializing in the installation of various materials, products, utilities and accessories required to satisfy various building codes and municipal regulations concerning residential, government and commercial structure safety and operations. The types of services to be provided by the company include roadway construction, underground utilities such as storm drainage, sanitary sewer, water mains, reuse mains, force mains, fire mains, etc.

Mission and Vision.

The mission of Drew Construction is to provide its customers with the best quality service possible on a consistent basis. It is the vision of the company's founders to become the leading site work construction company in the state.

Company Summary.

Drew Construction will initially be established as a de facto corporation doing business throughout the state; the company will subsequently be formally incorporated as a de jure corporation with the Secretary of State as the company becomes financially viable and its workforce expands.


Drew Construction intends to provide a wide range of building-related sitework including site preparation as well as the requisite site clearing services. The classifications of the building- related sitework typically performed by the company are set forth in ASTM UNIFORMAT Standard 1557 E. As shown in Table 1 below.

Table 1.

Classification of building-related sitework services provided by Drew Construction Co., Inc.

Major Elements

Group Elements

Individual Elements

G. Building sitework

G10 Site preparation

G1010 Site clearing

G1020 Site demolitions & relocations

G1030 Site earthwork

G1040 Hazardous waste remediation

G20 Site improvements

G2010 Roadways

G2020 Parking lots

G2030 Pedestrian paving

G2040 Site development

G2050 Landscaping

G30 Site civil/mechanical utilities

G3010 Water supply & distribution systems

G3020 Sanitary sewer systems

G3030 Storm sewer systems

G3040 Heating distribution

G3050 Cooling distribution

G3060 Fuel distribution

G3070 Other civil/mechanical utilities

G40 Site electrical utilities

G4010 Electrical distribution

G4020 Exterior lighting

G4030 Exterior communications & security

G4040 Other electrical utilities

G50 Other site construction

G5010 Service tunnels

G5020 Other site systems & equipment

Source: Classification of building related sitework, ASTM UNIFORMAT II (E1557-97), 2008.

The UNIFORMAT II standard descriptions were developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology in order to define six major "groups of products" used in the construction industry (Sebestyen, 1998).

Market Description

The… [read more]

History of Boston Term Paper

… ¶ … Architecture of Boston

Boston is a city that represents the very heart of what it means to be American. Filled with rich historical significance, Boston serves as a reminder of what America used to be and what it… [read more]

Museum Architecture Term Paper

… Museum Architecture

The New Museum of Contemporary Art is located in New York City, and was designed by Kazuyo Sejima and Ryue Nishizawa of SANAA in Tokyo. The seven-story building is one of its kind in terms of being the… [read more]

Frank Lloyd Wright and Frank Gehry Term Paper

… Guggenheim

When comparing the two Guggenheim Museums created by Frank Lloyd Wright vs. Frank Gehry's creation, one would think from the names that they would be similar in many different ways. In this particular case, that is not necessarily true. Though the buildings do share some similarities they are difficult to find and it is much easier to contrast the two, than compare.

If it is true, as some art experts believe, that an architect is a portrayer of his society, then Wright's Guggenheim Museum should have been built in a much different spot. He railed early on that New York City was "overbuilt, overpopulated, and lacked architectural merit" (the Building). Perhaps subconsciously he wished to emphasize his displeasure with the location and it showed in the architecture. In discussing the form of each building one might consider that "the forms of architecture reflect and interpret some of the fundamental values of the society of the architect" (Martin, 146) One wonders then the difference between a building of 1959 versus the building of 1997 since it is difficult to tell that Wright's building is even a museum, which is true of Gehry's as well. Both buildings lack the form to follow the function. "The function or use of a building is an essential part of the subject matter of that building, what the architect interprets or gives insight into by means of its form" (Martin, 145)

This paper will compare and contrast not only the fact that both building lack the form to follow function but will also discuss the two styles of the buildings, and the symbolism, iconography, composition and chiaroscuro of the buildings as well.

First I will discuss the styles of both buildings. The focus of the paper on styles is that Wright's building is both earth-resting and sky-oriented architecture while the Guggenheim Bilbao created by Gehry is earth-rooted when observing it from the northern perspective and sky-oriented when viewing it from the southern perspective. "Earth-resting buildings relate more or less harmoniously to the earth" (Martin, 163-164) while sky-oriented architecture "discloses a world by drawing our attention to the sky bounded by a horizon" (Martin, 158). While Wright's building incorporates both of these styles it is conceded by most experts that it does not fit its location. The earth-rooted style of Gehry's building shows an architecture that seems to hug the earth. Wright's museum effectively uses cantilever construction to assist in the spiral flow leading to the sky (making it sky-oriented… [read more]

Sustainability Skills Term Paper

… Sustainability in the UK Construction industry

Can the UK Construction Industry Meet the Challenges of Sustainable Development?

Issues such as climate change, a rapidly growing global population, pollution, and other environmental issues have brought the global community together with the… [read more]

Art History Architecture Term Paper

… Le Corbusier's Villa Savoye

One of the most exemplary works of the "International Style" of architectural modernism, Le Corbusier's Villa Savoye is situated in Poissy, France, a suburban town right outside of Paris. The Villa Savoye is widely considered to be Le Corbusier's masterpiece, as it was the first building to fully realize all five points of his architectural aesthetic, as elucidated in his landmark work, Towards a New Architecture. It is worthwhile to investigate these five points in order to analyze the ways in which they contribute to the formal accomplishment of the building. Ultimately, the five points serve to put forward a fascinating fusion of cutting-edge aesthetics with functionality.

In brief, Le Corbusier's five points can be summarized as follows:

The Pilotis - in the Villa Savoye, this is made apparent in the form of the ground-level support columns. These columns effectively elevate the building above the earth, which allows the garden to flow underneath.

The Flat Roof Terrace - This works to ensure not only the building's role as an intriguing aesthetic experience, but as a vital enclave for maximum functionality. The entire area of the building site is claimed for domestic use; this includes a special gardening area.

The Free Plan - the open plan of the Villa Savoye features partitions that are situated wherever they may be needed, without having to pay heed to those on adjoining levels. This free plan was able to be executed thanks to Le Corbusier's inspired idea to eliminate load-bearing walls.

Horizontal Windows - Not only do they look attractive on the building, these windows also serve to provide both illumination and ventilation.

The Open facade - This is probably the most readily apparent visual motif of the building - its free-flowing design. The building is not constrained by load-bearing considerations that tend to weigh down other Modernist buildings. Instead, the facade of the Villa Savoye is noted for its thin wall layers and windows.

In its encapsulation of the five points, Villa Savoye effectively captures Le Corbusier's

Machine for Living ideal. In the sunroom, one is able to admire the Pilotis by observing that it passes through the fireplace. The supports that are employed throughout the building gracefully transfer throughout the building - and transform it. Whereas a more conservative architect might try to conceal the Pilotis, its presence did not bother Le Corbusier; thus, he felt no need to hide it, and instead incorporated it into the final design of the Villa. Other architectural oddities (for the period when the house was constructed - the late 1920s) include the fact that numerous… [read more]

Classicism in Nazi Architecture and Classicism in Le Corbusier Term Paper

… Architecture

Classicism in Nazi Architecture and Classicism in Le Corbusier

Architectural styles say a great deal about a people's values and aspirations. From the soaring spires of the gothic cathedrals of medieval Europe to the glass and concrete office buildings… [read more]

Postmodern Phenomenon Term Paper

… Postmodern Architecture

What formal and spatial qualities characterize postmodern architecture? What is the relationship of postmodern architecture and classicism? How does this relate to the socio-political context within which postmodern architecture developed?

Postmodern architecture, as its name suggests, and like… [read more]

What Is a Construction Contract? Term Paper

… Construction Contract

Composing a contract is an important part of any project. The terms within that contract determine what exactly needs to be done, how much time is available for work to be done, who is liable for any damages,… [read more]

Construction Subcontracting Term Paper

… Subcontracting Analysis (Cont'd)

What factors should be evaluated when selecting a subcontractor? What are the typical methods used to evaluate these factors and are these methods effective?

Outsourcing may be a term of fairly recent origin, but the practice itself… [read more]

Subcontracting in the Construction Industry Today Term Paper

… ¶ … Subcontracting in the Construction Industry Today

The vast majority of the operations connected with the construction of buildings and public works are carried out by various companies, an important category of which is the construction firm or contractor.… [read more]

Bill Hillier Term Paper

… Bill Hiller Architecture

Architectural Article Review

Hillier, Bill. "What Architecture adds to Building?" From Space Is The Machine: A Configurational History of Architecture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

In his article, "What Architecture adds to Building? " Bill Hillier attempts to make an argument for what could be called a new "epistemology" of architecture, or an ideological thought process behind how buildings are constructed. How humans think about and instinctively approach space, Hillier suggests, must be integrated into how architects construct those dwelling and working spaces. Thinking about how a dweller instinctually perceives his or her bodily space, how the eye sees building spaces in a topographical fashion, and the human relationships towards the interior of a structure, is essential for a good architect. Understanding the human cognitive, physical eye is as essential as understanding the more technical aspects of construction for a good architect of the future places where humans will live and work.

What architecture can add to building, Hillier argues, is a more thoughtful and critical way for human beings to relate to the spaces of buildings in a positive fashion, given the nature of human cognition and spatial concepts. The language of spatial configuration is key to Hillier's theory. Spatial configuration relates to the relationship between the occupier of the structure and its interior, perceived set of relations. What will a dweller see when he or she walks into a building at his or her eye line, asks Hillier, as opposed to what constitutes a perfectly constructed structure.

Relationships are key concept in Hillier, as Hillier states that all spaces are really not enclosed, but a series of spatial and optical relationships that must take into account of other relations within the structure of a complex, from the walls, to the ceiling, to the configuration of the mind, as well as the body of the building's occupier. This is the cornerstone, the expanded idea of architectural relationships, that… [read more]

Modernism as the 1800s Term Paper

… "He decided to try to expand on what he learned and make his mark in architecture. His decision proved wise. The Finnish architect is still known around the world for his well-detailed, functional buildings with unique personal touches. He's considered… [read more]

Decreasing Quality in Construction Term Paper

… A study in 1997 revealed that 92% of construction firms had shortages of skilled laborers, and more than 85% of construction firms do not think their workforce is as skilled as it needs to be. "There were 6.7 million workers… [read more]

Career in Architecture Actually Began Essay

… As my father's design partner, I worked with various traditional and digital tools of the trade. Exposure to various specialized software applications inspired me work with progressive and experimental techniques of creating architectural designs. I am still deeply motivated to further pursue a course of study that allows me to design aesthetic works using digital tools. Digital media permits long-distance design collaboration, negative space visualization, efficient and accurate problem solving, and a vast array of other benefits for the professional architect. I have also been stunned by feature-rich programs that for instance, provide requirements for code compliance as well as a "graphic grammar system" that generates designs for human interpretation

Eager to contribute to the atmosphere of academic intensity that I expect from Columbia, I will share my vision of both design and digital media representation. I look forward to presenting my architectural designs using unique media forms and digital representation. I will participate fully in campus life and in my classes and will be an instrumental part of the graduate school team at the University.

At Columbia, I will try to explore as many aspects of design methodology as possible, especially those that use digital media to produce fully functional works. My future aim is to promote design enhancements in developing communities throughout the world. While I contribute to campus diversity with my personal background, I will also contribute toward Columbia's dedication to encouraging creative, non-traditional approaches to our work. Finally, New York City is an ideal community for developing new friendships and professional relationships. I am fully prepared to meet the challenges of graduate work Columbia, and I look forward to studying with the elite team of researchers and designers that comprises your graduate school. Thank you for… [read more]

Roman Architecture. Ancient Romans Introduced Many Modern Term Paper

… ¶ … Roman architecture. Ancient Romans introduced many modern and sophisticated techniques in architectural design and were the first people to use concrete in their buildings. This is one reason why most of their buildings have managed to withstand the test of time.


Roman architecture is considered one of the greatest accomplishments of the Roman Empire because of the lasting impact of its magnificent buildings and sheer grandeur of the architectural designs. Roman architecture finds its roots in the Etruscan architecture of 12 B.C. And was markedly influenced by Greek architectural designs too. But Roman architects brilliantly added and subtracted on the architecture of preceding eras to introduce new unique techniques and established their name firmly in this field. They left an indelible mark on the architectural world with the power of their grand designs and original style.

The most striking feature of Roman architecture is the use of arches and columns, which are found in most of the buildings of that era. Arches were first used to fill the spaces between columns but later became an important characteristic of Roman architectural designs because of their imposing presence. While the Greeks would normally employ stone for construction, Romans were the first people to make use of concrete in their buildings and this is one reason why many famous Roman buildings are still standing proudly with little wear and tear. Concrete also helped Romans in filling huge interior spaces with beautiful vaults.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 5th Edition, (1993) explains the importance of vaults in Roman architecture, "The cut-stone construction of the Greeks was largely replaced after the invention of concrete in the 2d century B.C. This enabled architects to cover vast interior spaces with vaults of increasing complexity and without interior supports. These included the barrel vault, the cross or groined vault, and the dome and semi-dome. Vault buttresses, instead of forming exterior projections, became an integral part of the interior support system. Although unfired brick was employed in all periods, under the empire baked bricks became popular as a facing for concrete walls."

Apart from columns, arches and vaults, another interesting feature of Roman architecture is the extensive use of marble on the walls to give them a brilliant immaculate finish. These are some of the important characteristics of Roman architecture and they can be found in all the major buildings of Roman Empire including the Colosseum (a.D. 70-82), a huge amphitheatre present in Italy, which was originally designed to accommodate 50,000 spectators. This amphitheatre is one of… [read more]

Architecture and Linguistics Classical Term Paper

… For example, a typical house in the classical style consists of a porch that adjoins a common hallway. From this hallway, the living room and dining room then are adjacent to bedrooms, bathrooms, and a den.

The architectural grammar is a property of the combination of the rooms (words) within the house (the sentence). Specific rooms are arranged in common ways within the house. It is these rules of common arrangement that make up the architectural grammar of the classical style. For example, kitchens are almost always adjacent to dining rooms, while bedrooms are often adjacent to bathrooms. In this sense, it is the spatial relationship of the house that determines the architectural grammar.

Within linguistics, each individual word has a specific meaning. Combined together, words create further meanings, or the semantics of language. Similarly, within architecture, rooms have specific meanings that when combined together create further meanings, or the semantics of architecture.

In this sense, the meaning of a word is its specific purpose or function. In architecture, each room has a specific function. Kitchens are for preparing food, dining rooms are for eating, bedrooms are for sleeping, and dens are for studying or business pursuits. When combined together, these rooms can create further meanings. The simple combination of a kitchen, living room, bedrooms, and bathrooms creates a house that has a combined function of a fairly simple purpose: to house a family in a simple, functional manner. In contrast, a building with a lobby, multiple bathrooms and bedrooms, a common kitchen and laundry rooms creates the further purpose of a hotel. While the individual rooms (words) have their specific purposes, the combination of these words creates a further purpose (meaning), thus creating the semantics of architecture.

In conclusion, classical architecture and linguistics are closely related conceptually. Specifically, architecture can be effectively understood and described in terms of linguistic grammar and semantics. Thus, the investigation of the relationship between architecture and grammar reveals a great deal about both individual concept.

Works Cited

Cole, Emily. 2002. The Grammar of Architecture. Bulfinch.

Kaplain, Ronald M. 1989. The Formal Architecture of Lexical-Functional Grammar. 04 December 2003. Abstract available online at

Wikipedia. Classical architecture. 04 December 2003. [read more]

Architecture Naves During the Middle Term Paper

… Transverse barrel vaults

These intersecting barrel vaults require more supportive construction, and add little to a building's functional resistance to the elements or structural integrity. Aesthetically, the numerous intersections are softening and low-lying, and although more attractive than a timber roof or a single vault. They do not draw the viewer's eye like the latter, more textually complex vaults but provide more rounded texture than a single barrel vault.

Groin vaults using semicircular arches (" domed-up")

These show the intersection of two-barrel vaults meeting as one. More functionally and structurally sound than a timber roof, though no more so than the other type of vaults, they present a softening aesthetic structure to the spikier structure of sky-reaching spires.

Ribbed groin vaults using pointed arches

Although these are the most complex to construct, and provide little extra functionality or structural support in comparison to the "domed up" system of construction, aesthetically, according to the Middle Ages' worldview, they are perhaps the most satisfying to the Christian notion of sacred 'space.' The sense of spires or arches reaching or aspiring to touch heaven was a critical aesthetic feature for most aspects of Middle Age cathedral-style works of construction. [read more]

Architecture the Advent of Modernity Term Paper

… Their idealism and rationalism led to creating new factories and apartments that were designed more for comfortable living and working conditions rather than for purely aesthetic concerns.

For the members of the Bauhaus School, this translated to structures composed of… [read more]

How Architects Use Calculus in Everyday Life Term Paper

… ¶ … calculus in Architecture: How Architects Use Calculus in Everyday Life

Architecture is the art and science of planning, designing, and constructing physical structures and buildings. To transform any given space to reflect social, functional, technical, and environmental considerations, architects require craftsmanship and creativity so as to manipulate different factors accordingly and coordinate technology and materials. According to Ross and Hetreed (2008), the practice of architecture also involves cost estimation, scheduling, as well as monitoring and control; and architects have to play the role of cost advisers as well as certifiers of contractors' valuations. For instance, in cost estimation, they have to increase costs as complexity increases and reduce them with the decrease in space. The economic length of time for the project also has to be taken into consideration in order to determine the effect it has on the construction and design process.

Defined as the calculation of truth and the study of change, calculus is one branch of mathematics that has given professionals in different fields extraordinary power and control over systems and materials. In fact, by applying knowledge gained from its two major branches, differential and integral calculus, architects have found numerous ways to determine the slopes of curves, rates of change, and the areas between curves; all of which are essential in planning, construction, and design. To better understand how calculus is used in everyday life, this text takes a look at the three major ways it is applicable in architecture.

Applications of calculus in architecture

1) To calculate weight and materials needed for constructions

When designing different designs and buildings, the materials to be used have to be assembled and weighed beforehand in accordance with the design, environmental concerns, and the structural elements (Ross and Hetreed, 2008). All the materials have to be listed, the specifications described, and quantity of units used to measure them indicated. For instance, steel may be describes as mild with sheets of 1.33mm, which is equivalent to 10.20 kg/m2. Therefore, in architecture, the shape of the structure influences the materials that will be used and how much they should weigh. For example, an architect intending to construct a sports arena will use calculus to assess the materials necessary to build a dome that covers the entire arena, assess how much the dome will weigh, and determine the support structure that will be put in place. Kuttler (2011) gives an example of a building that is to be constructed in the shape of the top half of an ellipsoid. The architects use integral calculus to determine how the areas will be painted, and the amount of cubic feet of paint that will be required.

2) The calculation of limits and dimensions… [read more]

Consequences of Construction Delays Essay

… ¶ … award vs. notice to proceed

There is often confusion between the concepts of a 'notice of award' versus a 'notice to proceed' in terms of the awarding of contracts. Both reflect different stages of the awards process and clarity regarding their precise definitions is needed to avoid miscommunication and misunderstanding. It is also essential to understand the difference because a contractor can only proceed until both notices are issued and a delay between the notice of award and notice to proceed can result in costly delays to the project overall.

The notice of award is the initial notice to the contractor or recipient of another type of grant to let him or her know that the award has been made and funds may be requested. The notice will include names of the recipient, project and budget period; authorized funds; terms and conditions of the awards; and directions for the use of funds ("Notice of award," NIH). Acceptance is conveyed by requesting funds to complete the project from the designated agency ("Notice of award," NIH).

In contrast, a notice to proceed is the actual notice which allows the project to begin or go ahead. A notice to proceed is sent to the contractor, the contracting officer, the resident engineer or the chief of engineering service ("Notice to proceed," LLI). "The contracting officer must provide construction contractors with a written notice to proceed for the work" ("Notice to proceed," LLI). The notice is sent after the contractor's performance and payment bonds or payment protection along with the completed contract forms have been accepted. "If the urgency of the work or other proper reason requires the contractor to begin work immediately, the contracting officer may include in the award letter a notice to proceed, with the reservation that payments are contingent upon receipt and approval of the required bonds or payment protection" ("Notice to proceed," LLI). Certified mail is only required if the contract provides for liquidated damages on the part of the contracting officer and the date of completion of the contract must be specified in the contract in such an instance ("Notice to proceed," LLI).

A delay between… [read more]

Rsmean Is Used for Construction Research Paper

… Any factor that would increase costs above and beyond the established rate is generally the primary driver for any alterations.

There are a plethora of costs that are included in such a proposal. This includes costs such as material, equipment, subcontractors, and direct and indirect labor. The labor costs are generally the hardest factor to estimate. Many projects will take considerably longer than originally estimated and contractors may have to absorb these costs. Therefore it is important to analyze the risks that could potentially drive labor costs up beforehand to avoid any unexpected increases in the labor costs. Furthermore, labor costs also include overhead labor such as administrative costs which can also be difficult to calculate. In most cases the project overhead can represent five to fifteen percent of the total project cost.

The markup on any particular construction project is generally the contractor's primary concern because this will represent the profits that the project generates for the company. The profit margin can vary significantly by industry or even individual projects. When the proposals are more competitive then this generally lowers the return that a contractor can expect. The profit margin usually falls between the five to twenty percent mark. Projects that are considerably large may have a smaller profit margin because the total expenses are higher and small projects typically have a higher margin. However, this is not always the case and there is a lot of variability and different factors that can dictate the profit margin.

There are many limitations that should be considered when using a RSMeans database to prepare a project. Many of the indices do not consider factors such as increase or decreases in productivity, changes in technology, or the competitiveness of contractors who are submitting bids. Any of these factors could significantly alter the estimate. For example, if a construction business is experiencing a slow or seasonal period, then they may lower their estimate so that they are more likely to increase their workload. Labor and equipment also generally becomes more productive over time. [read more]

Master Format Essay

… 'Detail' plans are likewise required to highlight the building plans for smaller items (such as how the shower might be put together). Finally, sections and interior elevation blueprints will explain precisely how the overall structure is put together and harmonize… [read more]

BIM Strategy Developing BIM Implementation Research Paper

… The product can be very useful in the country, but there are some dire challenges prior to implementing any program. Despite the fact that the Arab Spring has left the country in some amount of turmoil, there has been little training regarding this type of technology (NGAB, 2007). The implementation of BIM would be a boon to the industry because Libya has been involved in some far-reaching construction projects, and it would allow the country to produce its own experts in the field instead of relying on foreign management of projects. Of course, the main drawbacks to using BIM are training and cost, but these seem to be minor hurdles to cross. Construction technology classes could be designed at the university level, and these operators be ready to work very quickly. The cost could also be easily absorbed by the government.

Libya CAD

Some may say that using CAD as an entry point would also serve the people better than simply implementing BIM systems from the first. Although the Libyan construction industry has used CAD programs in the past, these have generally been under the control of outside engineering and design firms (McGraw-Hill, 2009). Extending this knowledge to the Libyan people should not take a great deal of time and may be a quicker means of implementing the full scope of BIM software over time. The main reason that this has not already happened is because it has been easier in the past to hire foreign companies to come into the country and design and produce the needed projects. However, if Libya wants its own people to train and become competent on these systems, the training required may be better started with competence using CAD modeling and then progressing to more advanced BIM techniques as the knowledge of the programs increases.


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Lyon, M.P. (2006). Fantastic FOSE: Three diverse concepts featured at FOSE will give future public managers faster, easier, and cheaper means of managing the federal inventory. The Public Manager, 35(1), 40-49.

McGraw-Hill Construction. (2009). Understanding perceptions and usage patterns of BIM software among key player segments. Retrieved from

Ngab, A.S. (2007). Libya -- The construction industry: An overview. Academy of Graduate Studies Tripoli. Retrieved from 1.pdf

Starkman, N. (2007). Problem solvers: U.S. students continue to lag behind the rest of the world in the four core STEM subjects THE Journal (Technological Horizons In Education), 34(10), 35-43.

Thomsen, C. (2010). BIM:… [read more]

Architecture and People (Tiesdel Essay

… The Le Corbusier modernist development at Pessac shows need for personalization even while creating collective identity

Security -- perceived need for sanctuary; mutual protection, defensible space

Too much privacy can lead to loneliness, isolation; so privacy can mean controlling environment to avoid unwanted interaction

Architects- professional manipulator of the environment

Deal with contradictions of aesthetics and the practical needs of user [read more]

Framing Is a Fundamental Term Paper

… Examples of timber-framed private houses abound on the American Eastern seaboard. "Timber frames still stand in older Atlantic coast cities and towns like Philadelphia, New York and Charleston and throughout New England," (Blue Ridge Timberwrights).

The timber revolution slowed for… [read more]

History of the Modern Era in Summary Essay

… History Of the Modern Era

In summary, the four historical periods of the modern Western history all played their part in the development of the areas of project management expertise and their application to building project activities. The development of… [read more]

New Reference Is Not Required. A Total Essay

… New reference is not required. A total of 15 references are needed

Baroque architecture from the late seventeenth century onwards was fully determined by the cultural interests of the Christian churchs, whether Catholic or Anglican. It was an expressive form… [read more]

Machine Age the Five Architectural Projects Reviewed Essay

… Machine Age

The five architectural projects reviewed in this section represent the pinnacle of a confluence of a number of different factors that pertain to the early half of the 20th century. For the first time, man focused on erecting… [read more]

Contract Analysis Analyzing a Construction Research Paper

… (6) The owner also may connect sewage disposal and water lines to the building within fifteen days after the rough plumbing has been completed.

V. Owner to Hold Contractor Harmless from Certain Events

The contractor is not responsible for any claims that arise due to the boundary or house stakes being positioned wrong. The contractor is also not responsible for any damages to persons or property that arise by the owner, his agents, or any third parties. Neither is the contractor responsible for any acts of God or other events that are beyond the control of the contractor. The owner is to hold the contractor completely harmless from all costs, damages, losses and expenses to include judgments and any attorney fees due to any claims that arise such as are stated in the contract.

VI. Possession of the Property

The owner will not have possession of the structure until all payments and obligations have been fulfilled as stated in the contract agreement. If for some reason the owner assumes possession of the property before the obligations of the contract agreement are met, then the owner signals acceptance of the structure 'as is'.

VII. Financing and Site Preparation Requirements

The owner must take the necessary steps to obtaining financing and to make sure the site is construction ready.

VIII. Other General Provisions

There are no agreements or understandings between the contractor and the owner except for those specified in the contract agreement and this includes any other verbal or written agreements. The contract terms cannot be amended or modified unless the owner and contractor enter into a written agreement modifying or amending the contract.

IX. Fairness of Contract

This is a fair contract and is in the form of contracts generally used in a construction project. This contract does not allow for assignabilty of rights. In the event that the situation arose where rights needed to be assigned then the contract would have to be formally amended or modified in written form and in agreement between the contractor and owner. This contract is an integrated contract in that it contains all agreements between the owner and the contractor. The building plans might be used in questioning the contents of the contract however, since the contract specifies the property information there should be no questions that arise from this specific contract.

Summary and Conclusion

This contract analysis has set out the provisions of an office building construction project and has specified the terms including the payments and when the installments are due as well as the responsibilities of both the owner and contractor in regards to this specific office building construction project. This construction contract is valid and the terms of the contract within the legal limits of the law governing such contracts in the State of Alabama.


Business Contract Form (2012) Free Legal Forms. Retrieved from:

Mallor, J.P., Barnes, A.J., Bowers, T., & Langvardt, A.W. (2007). Business law: The ethical, global, and e-commerce environment (13th ed.). Chicago,… [read more]

Baroque Four Baroque -1750) Projects San Carlo Essay

… Baroque

Four Baroque (1600-1750) Projects

San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane (1638-1646)

The Church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane (1638-1646) or Saint Charles at the Four Fountains is a Roman Catholic church and monastery in Rome. It was built between… [read more]

Thames Tunnel Was Originally Created Essay

… Thames Tunnel was originally created as a means of connecting Wapping and Rotherbridge beneath London's River Thames. Each of those areas was located on the southern and the northern portions of the river; locals desired a direct connection between these… [read more]

Iron Bridge Was Conceived of and Erected Research Paper

… Iron Bridge was conceived of and erected for the extremely pragmatic purpose of allowing travelers and tradesmen to cross the Severn Gorge which is part of the River Severn at Ironbridge Gorge. Prior to its construction, the only way to… [read more]

Codes and Regulations Building Rules Essay

… This building construction type help contain fire internally up to one floor due to the concrete and steel structure used. However, the construction type cannot contain spread of fire during emergencies; the air conditioning ducts may make the fire spread to other rooms. The air conditioning vents though supply fresh air, thy allow fire and smoke to spread through them in the fire resistive type I established building. Fire and smoke from a burning room might filter into the air conditioning system spreading the fire and smoke to the whole building.

Design Features

The fire and smoke in the building was fast spreading at the back of the compared to the other sides. This side of the building could have been made of weak materials that are not fire resistant. The material used may have been of lightweight and easily combustible as compared to the other three sides of the building. The rear side could have been having large ventilation that helped fasten the spread of the fire and smoke in this side of the building.

Building Type That Offers Concern Regarding Fire and Smoke Growth

This type of building is likely to offer greater concerns during fire emergencies. The material used though combustible, can withstand fire flames than the wood frame used in type V building. Of the five building types, wood frame building type Vis the most combustible and spreads fire and smoke faster within a building. The walls of the building are made of wood making it the only one with exterior combustible walls. The flames and smoke during combustion can easily spread through the windows and walls to adjacent rooms.


Ching, F., & Winkel, S. ( 2012, April 24). Building Codes Illustrated: A Guide to Understanding the 2012 International Building Code. John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved May Thursday, 2012, from

Land Lord Zone. (1990). Fire Safety. Retrieved May 31, 2012, from

San Diego Municipal . (2010, June 1). Codes, Regulations, Requirements. Retrieved May Thursday, 2012, from [read more]

Sustainable Construction Issues Waste Reduction Literature Review

… 1). This movement provides for healthy working and living environment for those that followed its views and objectives. Wide individual involvement with the movement fabricates most of the services that contractors generally offer in construction. Despite this, the movement highlights… [read more]

Building Codes in Modern A-Level Coursework

… As a building is being designed, there has to be a foundation to support its structure, and this can increase the cost of seeking the appropriate location for the building -- i.e., the land must be able to support the relevant structure.

It is obvious that it is in the public's interest to ensure that new structures (and renovated older buildings as well) are subject to numerous codes and regulations. History is replete with examples of catastrophic fires and mass death due to fires and natural disasters; take for example what happened to San Francisco during the earthquake and resulting fire in 1906 or in the 2003 Rhode Island Station nightclub fire in which ninety-six patrons were killed. And of course, in the age of terrorism, fire and building safety become paramount in protecting the public's well-being and security. But in order for there to be safety and security, builders and contractors must be held to account for shoddy or inferior workmanship, and the only way to ensure that homes and buildings are safe and secure, is to use the force of law through regulations and codes to oblige builders to design and build safe and secure structures.

Codes and building standards are very important for firefighter and rescuer safety. Through the use of codes and regulations, buildings and structures can be designed to ensure maximum rescuer "safer" access and exit, thus facilitating the timely rescue of persons and property. Also, fire safe building design can aid in the quick exit of occupants, thus giving firefighters "less to do," so to speak, thus both limiting the amount of time a firefighter must remain in a burning structure and the number of trips a rescuer must enter the disaster area. Also, by requiring features such as sprinklers, fire extinguishers and numerous and easy emergency exits can aid fire fighters by ensuring that occupants themselves have the ability to limit or forestall the spreading of a fire while giving them the ability to quickly exit the burning structure as the fire spreads. All this can limit the danger a firefighter can potentially… [read more]

Interior Design and Theories "Architects Term Paper

… Another design style had erupted during the era as a reaction to the Neo-Classical Style known as Picturesque, and it emphasized on formality, proportion, order and Exactitude.

Neo-Classic architecture and design identified with Western Heritage, Luxury, Eliteness and Sophistication that seeks not to replicate. An example of Neo-Classic architecture and design would be the Schermerhorn Symphony Centre. Other examples are the Newton Memorial, Bibliotheque Nationale, Metropol Church, Hotel Alexandre, all located in Paris and built by Etienne-Loius Boullee. The interior of the White House is has Neo-Classic setting. (Kulahcioglu)

Neoclassical architecture has a few characteristics in common despite the emphasis placed upon the uniqueness of each structure. It involves decisive detailing, careful proportions, skillful use of light sources, and balanced ornamentation amongst many others. Notable are the arched windows and doors, grand entrances and staircases with an array of statuaries, sculptures, mosaics and other art work all coordinated in theme to assert the identity of the building and the interior.

Neo-Classical interiors may be preferred in the modern day because not only it is perceived as elegant, luxurious, and romantic but also because it stirs emotions and awakens memories.

There is a huge contrast between the Neo-Classical theory and the Classical Principles described in Vitruvius's writings. One focuses on the proportions and orders and how one member of a project interacts with another to create an effect that'd appease the eye as well as serve its functional purpose. While the other focuses on free flow of materials and flamboyance that are to be arranged in a manner as to exude beauty and luxury. Functionality takes a backseat when it comes to Neo-Classicism. The only common ground between both theories is the beauty of it all.

Works Cited

Corbusier, Le. The Modulor. Foreword of 2nd Edition, n.d.

Kulahcioglu, Can. "History and Theory of Interior Architecture." n.d.

The Center for Palladian Studies in America, Inc.,. "Palladio and English-American Palladianism.." (n.d.).

Vitruve. Book 1. Preface, trans. Morgan. [read more]

American Architectural Identity Article Review

… Laugier

What is Laugier's justification for speaking about architecture as a non-specialist? What do you find convincing or unconvincing about his argument?

Laugier's justification for speaking about architecture as a non-specialist is that tools that knowledge provides are available for… [read more]

Robert Venturi Less Is a Bore How His Architecture Validated That Statement Research Paper

… Robert Venturi's famous line "less is a bore" is a direct challenge to the earlier modernist notion that "less is more," and Venturi's architectural production is similarly a challenge to earlier modes of architectural design that emphasized uniformity and simplicity… [read more]

Slave Community. In the Development Research Paper

… This happened especially in communities in the South-Eastern part of the United States (Hamer, Trinckley, 1997), especially in South Carolina. One of the explanations for this is the large proportion of the African-American population in the total population in the… [read more]

Medieval Period - Westminster Abbey Research Paper

… In the photograph above, one can see the side of the structure that faces the courtyard: the area where congregants gather for open-ceremonies performed by the Church of England. The neo-classical style provides an appearance that is conducive to events that are held either on the inside or the outside of the edifice (Newbolt, 1828).

Victorian Period - St. Pancras Station

St. Pancras Station was built during the 19th century in Victorian England. This was a period when there was a backlash to the rather austere designs associated with the neo-classical period. England, in particular embraced the neo-Gothic style of architecture, because England was slow and reluctant to adopt classicism as an architectural style. The neo-Gothic architectural style, however, does not attempt to restore the exact practices associate with Gothic constructions. Rather, neo-Gothicism combines the influences impacting Gothic design along with the building techniques and materials that are associated with the Industrial Revolution.

Victorianism, as a consequence, embraced a neo-Gothic architectural style whose resulting structures were constructed with modern materials such as steel, giving the facades appearances that combined Gothic form with industrial colors. As one can see in the photograph below, the structure has a cathedral-like appearance. However, the structure appears to be primarily made out of bricks, giving the facade the color and tone that connotes associations with the Industrial Revolution. The structure was designed to both hold a train station in addition to other amenities, such as a hotel, which helps to explain why the structure is so enormous.

Outside St. Pancras Railway

The use of modern building materials makes it possible for the structure to contain 4 different levels. Additionally, when it was built, it possessed the largest roof in the world. Therefore, the neo-Gothic architecture produced during the Victorian Age possesses not only the dramatic design features that one associates with Gothic cathedrals; additionally, it possesses functionalities making its design responsive to the more modern needs of industrial society (Bradley, 2007).

Inside St. Pancras Railway

Modern Period -The Lloyd's building

This structure was designed by Richard Rogers between 1978 and 1986. The building was designed so that all of the electrical wires and water pipes were left on the outside of the edifice, freeing up space inside (Bachman, 2003). This design feature embodies the principles of Modernist architecture. Since the pipes and wiring consume space inside of the structure, limiting for what the inside spaces could be devoted. Consequently, in adherence to the maxim that form should follow function, the building was designed to maximize the internal spaces of the structure by placing much of the electoral and water system components outside of the edifice (Bachman, 2003).


Bachman, L.R. (2003). Integrated Buildings: The Systems Basis of Architecture. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Bond, F. (1909). Westminster Abbey. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Bradley, S. (2007). St. Pancras Station. London, UK: Profile Books Ltd.

Curl, J.S. (1992). Classical Architecture: An Introduction to Its Vocabulary and Essentials, with a Select Glossary of Terms. New… [read more]

Work of Steven Holl Related to Phenomenology Term Paper

… Steven Holl

Discussing the practical application of a phenomenological theory of architecture can present an initial challenge, because the basic tenets of the theory of phenomenology, as first articulated by Christian Norberg-Schulz and others, are deceptively simple. Phenomenology favors simplicity… [read more]

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