"Architecture / Construction" Essays

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Modernism as the 1800s Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,168 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


"He decided to try to expand on what he learned and make his mark in architecture. His decision proved wise. The Finnish architect is still known around the world for his well-detailed, functional buildings with unique personal touches. He's considered one of the top 20th century architects, along with Frank Lloyd Wright and Le Corbusier."

"I learned -- at the age of 4, I believe -- the philosophy of pencil and paper," Aalto said in his Own Words. I can still remember that the hard, sharp, brown pencils were called Eagle. The soft ones were Koh-i-noor."

Details were always of interest to him. He once designed a university in Jyvaskyla so that people walking through the study area would not disturb others. He put 57 circular light wells in the ceiling to provide even lighting without shadows. Windows were carefully placed, so the shelved books were shielded from direct sunlight.

In the 1940s, he designed and built the Baker House dormitory for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and served as a professor there for a few years.

Aalto, similar to Mondrian and Rieveld, says Schultze, "produced profoundly modern buildings that are unique combinations of reductive abstraction and expressive elements." He is manifestly a modernist, whose work reflects the leanings toward reductivist abstraction associated with much of 20th-century design. However, his uniqueness consists in his ability to combine such abilities with what appear to be their opposites, or the organic, the sensual, the additive. In the process, he blends them into a highly personal union of intention and effect.

However, architecture was not his only forte. He also used his expertise to design furniture. For example, he created the Paimio chair, an object best known as an example of a marriage of form and function. It was composed bent plywood, bent laminated birch and solid birch from Finland. It was sinuously curved to comfort the body and enthrall the formalist eye. Later, he once again created in wood a cantilevered chair, which had a form that fascinated furniture designers of the 1920s (Schultze).

Aalto, similar to Mondrian and Rietveld, was interested in art, but also much more so in utilitarianism. In fact, all three, went further and hoped that their work would actually provide a spiritual sense to others, says Butler. Aalto was "an architect who believed that man, woman, and child were the central concerns of architecture; that humanity, rather than art, or science, or technology, or image-making should determine the forms of our buildings." At Baker House, the student dormitories he designed for Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1947, along the Charles River in Cambridge, MA, he developed an undulating floor plan, rather than the more usual "modern" slab, because, he said, the views up and down the river were really more interesting than those straight across. He also saw to it that each of the 250-odd student rooms would be at least slightly different from every other!

Although Aalto's buildings have begun to age, they are demonstrating the… [read more]

Decreasing Quality in Construction Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,495 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


A study in 1997 revealed that 92% of construction firms had shortages of skilled laborers, and more than 85% of construction firms do not think their workforce is as skilled as it needs to be. "There were 6.7 million workers in our industry in 2001 and we will need an additional 1.5 million workers by 2010 just to sustain the… [read more]

Career in Architecture Actually Began Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (586 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


As my father's design partner, I worked with various traditional and digital tools of the trade. Exposure to various specialized software applications inspired me work with progressive and experimental techniques of creating architectural designs. I am still deeply motivated to further pursue a course of study that allows me to design aesthetic works using digital tools. Digital media permits long-distance design collaboration, negative space visualization, efficient and accurate problem solving, and a vast array of other benefits for the professional architect. I have also been stunned by feature-rich programs that for instance, provide requirements for code compliance as well as a "graphic grammar system" that generates designs for human interpretation

Eager to contribute to the atmosphere of academic intensity that I expect from Columbia, I will share my vision of both design and digital media representation. I look forward to presenting my architectural designs using unique media forms and digital representation. I will participate fully in campus life and in my classes and will be an instrumental part of the graduate school team at the University.

At Columbia, I will try to explore as many aspects of design methodology as possible, especially those that use digital media to produce fully functional works. My future aim is to promote design enhancements in developing communities throughout the world. While I contribute to campus diversity with my personal background, I will also contribute toward Columbia's dedication to encouraging creative, non-traditional approaches to our work. Finally, New York City is an ideal community for developing new friendships and professional relationships. I am fully prepared to meet the challenges of graduate work Columbia, and I look forward to studying with the elite team of researchers and designers that comprises your graduate school. Thank you for…… [read more]

Roman Architecture. Ancient Romans Introduced Many Modern Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (841 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Roman architecture. Ancient Romans introduced many modern and sophisticated techniques in architectural design and were the first people to use concrete in their buildings. This is one reason why most of their buildings have managed to withstand the test of time.


Roman architecture is considered one of the greatest accomplishments of the Roman Empire because of the lasting impact of its magnificent buildings and sheer grandeur of the architectural designs. Roman architecture finds its roots in the Etruscan architecture of 12 B.C. And was markedly influenced by Greek architectural designs too. But Roman architects brilliantly added and subtracted on the architecture of preceding eras to introduce new unique techniques and established their name firmly in this field. They left an indelible mark on the architectural world with the power of their grand designs and original style.

The most striking feature of Roman architecture is the use of arches and columns, which are found in most of the buildings of that era. Arches were first used to fill the spaces between columns but later became an important characteristic of Roman architectural designs because of their imposing presence. While the Greeks would normally employ stone for construction, Romans were the first people to make use of concrete in their buildings and this is one reason why many famous Roman buildings are still standing proudly with little wear and tear. Concrete also helped Romans in filling huge interior spaces with beautiful vaults.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 5th Edition, (1993) explains the importance of vaults in Roman architecture, "The cut-stone construction of the Greeks was largely replaced after the invention of concrete in the 2d century B.C. This enabled architects to cover vast interior spaces with vaults of increasing complexity and without interior supports. These included the barrel vault, the cross or groined vault, and the dome and semi-dome. Vault buttresses, instead of forming exterior projections, became an integral part of the interior support system. Although unfired brick was employed in all periods, under the empire baked bricks became popular as a facing for concrete walls."

Apart from columns, arches and vaults, another interesting feature of Roman architecture is the extensive use of marble on the walls to give them a brilliant immaculate finish. These are some of the important characteristics of Roman architecture and they can be found in all the major buildings of Roman Empire including the Colosseum (a.D. 70-82), a huge amphitheatre present in Italy, which was originally designed to accommodate 50,000 spectators. This amphitheatre is one of…… [read more]

Architecture and Linguistics Classical Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (760 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


For example, a typical house in the classical style consists of a porch that adjoins a common hallway. From this hallway, the living room and dining room then are adjacent to bedrooms, bathrooms, and a den.

The architectural grammar is a property of the combination of the rooms (words) within the house (the sentence). Specific rooms are arranged in common ways within the house. It is these rules of common arrangement that make up the architectural grammar of the classical style. For example, kitchens are almost always adjacent to dining rooms, while bedrooms are often adjacent to bathrooms. In this sense, it is the spatial relationship of the house that determines the architectural grammar.

Within linguistics, each individual word has a specific meaning. Combined together, words create further meanings, or the semantics of language. Similarly, within architecture, rooms have specific meanings that when combined together create further meanings, or the semantics of architecture.

In this sense, the meaning of a word is its specific purpose or function. In architecture, each room has a specific function. Kitchens are for preparing food, dining rooms are for eating, bedrooms are for sleeping, and dens are for studying or business pursuits. When combined together, these rooms can create further meanings. The simple combination of a kitchen, living room, bedrooms, and bathrooms creates a house that has a combined function of a fairly simple purpose: to house a family in a simple, functional manner. In contrast, a building with a lobby, multiple bathrooms and bedrooms, a common kitchen and laundry rooms creates the further purpose of a hotel. While the individual rooms (words) have their specific purposes, the combination of these words creates a further purpose (meaning), thus creating the semantics of architecture.

In conclusion, classical architecture and linguistics are closely related conceptually. Specifically, architecture can be effectively understood and described in terms of linguistic grammar and semantics. Thus, the investigation of the relationship between architecture and grammar reveals a great deal about both individual concept.

Works Cited

Cole, Emily. 2002. The Grammar of Architecture. Bulfinch.

Kaplain, Ronald M. 1989. The Formal Architecture of Lexical-Functional Grammar. 04 December 2003. Abstract available online at http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/kaplan89formal.html

Wikipedia. Classical architecture. 04 December 2003. http://en2.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_architecture… [read more]

Architecture Naves During the Middle Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (416 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Transverse barrel vaults

These intersecting barrel vaults require more supportive construction, and add little to a building's functional resistance to the elements or structural integrity. Aesthetically, the numerous intersections are softening and low-lying, and although more attractive than a timber roof or a single vault. They do not draw the viewer's eye like the latter, more textually complex vaults but provide more rounded texture than a single barrel vault.

Groin vaults using semicircular arches (" domed-up")

These show the intersection of two-barrel vaults meeting as one. More functionally and structurally sound than a timber roof, though no more so than the other type of vaults, they present a softening aesthetic structure to the spikier structure of sky-reaching spires.

Ribbed groin vaults using pointed arches

Although these are the most complex to construct, and provide little extra functionality or structural support in comparison to the "domed up" system of construction, aesthetically, according to the Middle Ages' worldview, they are perhaps the most satisfying to the Christian notion of sacred 'space.' The sense of spires or arches reaching or aspiring to touch heaven was a critical aesthetic feature for most aspects of Middle Age cathedral-style works of construction.… [read more]

Architecture the Advent of Modernity Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,406 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Their idealism and rationalism led to creating new factories and apartments that were designed more for comfortable living and working conditions rather than for purely aesthetic concerns.

For the members of the Bauhaus School, this translated to structures composed of flat-roofed blocks. Manufacturing industries were ready sources of cheaper glass, which the Bauhaus architects fashioned into curtain glass walls (Kuipers).… [read more]

How Architects Use Calculus in Everyday Life Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (903 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … calculus in Architecture: How Architects Use Calculus in Everyday Life

Architecture is the art and science of planning, designing, and constructing physical structures and buildings. To transform any given space to reflect social, functional, technical, and environmental considerations, architects require craftsmanship and creativity so as to manipulate different factors accordingly and coordinate technology and materials. According to Ross and Hetreed (2008), the practice of architecture also involves cost estimation, scheduling, as well as monitoring and control; and architects have to play the role of cost advisers as well as certifiers of contractors' valuations. For instance, in cost estimation, they have to increase costs as complexity increases and reduce them with the decrease in space. The economic length of time for the project also has to be taken into consideration in order to determine the effect it has on the construction and design process.

Defined as the calculation of truth and the study of change, calculus is one branch of mathematics that has given professionals in different fields extraordinary power and control over systems and materials. In fact, by applying knowledge gained from its two major branches, differential and integral calculus, architects have found numerous ways to determine the slopes of curves, rates of change, and the areas between curves; all of which are essential in planning, construction, and design. To better understand how calculus is used in everyday life, this text takes a look at the three major ways it is applicable in architecture.

Applications of calculus in architecture

1) To calculate weight and materials needed for constructions

When designing different designs and buildings, the materials to be used have to be assembled and weighed beforehand in accordance with the design, environmental concerns, and the structural elements (Ross and Hetreed, 2008). All the materials have to be listed, the specifications described, and quantity of units used to measure them indicated. For instance, steel may be describes as mild with sheets of 1.33mm, which is equivalent to 10.20 kg/m2. Therefore, in architecture, the shape of the structure influences the materials that will be used and how much they should weigh. For example, an architect intending to construct a sports arena will use calculus to assess the materials necessary to build a dome that covers the entire arena, assess how much the dome will weigh, and determine the support structure that will be put in place. Kuttler (2011) gives an example of a building that is to be constructed in the shape of the top half of an ellipsoid. The architects use integral calculus to determine how the areas will be painted, and the amount of cubic feet of paint that will be required.

2) The calculation of limits and dimensions…… [read more]

Consequences of Construction Delays Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (719 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … award vs. notice to proceed

There is often confusion between the concepts of a 'notice of award' versus a 'notice to proceed' in terms of the awarding of contracts. Both reflect different stages of the awards process and clarity regarding their precise definitions is needed to avoid miscommunication and misunderstanding. It is also essential to understand the difference because a contractor can only proceed until both notices are issued and a delay between the notice of award and notice to proceed can result in costly delays to the project overall.

The notice of award is the initial notice to the contractor or recipient of another type of grant to let him or her know that the award has been made and funds may be requested. The notice will include names of the recipient, project and budget period; authorized funds; terms and conditions of the awards; and directions for the use of funds ("Notice of award," NIH). Acceptance is conveyed by requesting funds to complete the project from the designated agency ("Notice of award," NIH).

In contrast, a notice to proceed is the actual notice which allows the project to begin or go ahead. A notice to proceed is sent to the contractor, the contracting officer, the resident engineer or the chief of engineering service ("Notice to proceed," LLI). "The contracting officer must provide construction contractors with a written notice to proceed for the work" ("Notice to proceed," LLI). The notice is sent after the contractor's performance and payment bonds or payment protection along with the completed contract forms have been accepted. "If the urgency of the work or other proper reason requires the contractor to begin work immediately, the contracting officer may include in the award letter a notice to proceed, with the reservation that payments are contingent upon receipt and approval of the required bonds or payment protection" ("Notice to proceed," LLI). Certified mail is only required if the contract provides for liquidated damages on the part of the contracting officer and the date of completion of the contract must be specified in the contract in such an instance ("Notice to proceed," LLI).

A delay between…… [read more]

Rsmean Is Used for Construction Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (686 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Any factor that would increase costs above and beyond the established rate is generally the primary driver for any alterations.

There are a plethora of costs that are included in such a proposal. This includes costs such as material, equipment, subcontractors, and direct and indirect labor. The labor costs are generally the hardest factor to estimate. Many projects will take considerably longer than originally estimated and contractors may have to absorb these costs. Therefore it is important to analyze the risks that could potentially drive labor costs up beforehand to avoid any unexpected increases in the labor costs. Furthermore, labor costs also include overhead labor such as administrative costs which can also be difficult to calculate. In most cases the project overhead can represent five to fifteen percent of the total project cost.

The markup on any particular construction project is generally the contractor's primary concern because this will represent the profits that the project generates for the company. The profit margin can vary significantly by industry or even individual projects. When the proposals are more competitive then this generally lowers the return that a contractor can expect. The profit margin usually falls between the five to twenty percent mark. Projects that are considerably large may have a smaller profit margin because the total expenses are higher and small projects typically have a higher margin. However, this is not always the case and there is a lot of variability and different factors that can dictate the profit margin.

There are many limitations that should be considered when using a RSMeans database to prepare a project. Many of the indices do not consider factors such as increase or decreases in productivity, changes in technology, or the competitiveness of contractors who are submitting bids. Any of these factors could significantly alter the estimate. For example, if a construction business is experiencing a slow or seasonal period, then they may lower their estimate so that they are more likely to increase their workload. Labor and equipment also generally becomes more productive over time.… [read more]

Master Format Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,425 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


'Detail' plans are likewise required to highlight the building plans for smaller items (such as how the shower might be put together). Finally, sections and interior elevation blueprints will explain precisely how the overall structure is put together and harmonize existing elevation and foundation plans ("009 Techniques -- Blueprints," Carnation Construction, 2013).

Q3. How BIM or Revit can help

Building… [read more]

BIM Strategy Developing BIM Implementation Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,082 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


The product can be very useful in the country, but there are some dire challenges prior to implementing any program. Despite the fact that the Arab Spring has left the country in some amount of turmoil, there has been little training regarding this type of technology (NGAB, 2007). The implementation of BIM would be a boon to the industry because Libya has been involved in some far-reaching construction projects, and it would allow the country to produce its own experts in the field instead of relying on foreign management of projects. Of course, the main drawbacks to using BIM are training and cost, but these seem to be minor hurdles to cross. Construction technology classes could be designed at the university level, and these operators be ready to work very quickly. The cost could also be easily absorbed by the government.

Libya CAD

Some may say that using CAD as an entry point would also serve the people better than simply implementing BIM systems from the first. Although the Libyan construction industry has used CAD programs in the past, these have generally been under the control of outside engineering and design firms (McGraw-Hill, 2009). Extending this knowledge to the Libyan people should not take a great deal of time and may be a quicker means of implementing the full scope of BIM software over time. The main reason that this has not already happened is because it has been easier in the past to hire foreign companies to come into the country and design and produce the needed projects. However, if Libya wants its own people to train and become competent on these systems, the training required may be better started with competence using CAD modeling and then progressing to more advanced BIM techniques as the knowledge of the programs increases.


Foundation of the Wall and Ceiling Industry (FWCI). (2009). Building information modeling: Understanding and operating in a new paradigm. Retrieved from http://www.awci.org/pdf/bim.pdf

Howell, I., & Batcheler, B. (2005). Building information modeling two years later -- huge potential some success and several limitations. Retrieved from http://www.laiserin.com/features/bim/newforma_bim.pdf

Lavy, S., & Fernandez-Solis, J. (2010). Complex healthcare facility management and lean construction. HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 3(2), 3-9.

Lu, J., & Price, A.D.F. (2011). Dealing with complexity through more robust approaches to the evidence-based design of healthcare facilities. HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 4(4), 3-8.

Lyon, M.P. (2006). Fantastic FOSE: Three diverse concepts featured at FOSE will give future public managers faster, easier, and cheaper means of managing the federal inventory. The Public Manager, 35(1), 40-49.

McGraw-Hill Construction. (2009). Understanding perceptions and usage patterns of BIM software among key player segments. Retrieved from http://www.bim.construction.com/research/pdfs/2009_BIM_Appendix.pdf

Ngab, A.S. (2007). Libya -- The construction industry: An overview. Academy of Graduate Studies Tripoli. Retrieved from http://enpub.fulton.asu.edu/cement/cbm_CI/CBMI_Separate_Articles/Article%202 1.pdf

Starkman, N. (2007). Problem solvers: U.S. students continue to lag behind the rest of the world in the four core STEM subjects THE Journal (Technological Horizons In Education), 34(10), 35-43.

Thomsen, C. (2010). BIM:… [read more]

Architecture and People (Tiesdel Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (411 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The Le Corbusier modernist development at Pessac shows need for personalization even while creating collective identity

Security -- perceived need for sanctuary; mutual protection, defensible space

Too much privacy can lead to loneliness, isolation; so privacy can mean controlling environment to avoid unwanted interaction

Architects- professional manipulator of the environment

Deal with contradictions of aesthetics and the practical needs of user… [read more]

Framing Is a Fundamental Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,472 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Examples of timber-framed private houses abound on the American Eastern seaboard. "Timber frames still stand in older Atlantic coast cities and towns like Philadelphia, New York and Charleston and throughout New England," (Blue Ridge Timberwrights).

The timber revolution slowed for a while during the Industrial Revolution. By that time, timber supplies had dwindled in the Eastern United States due to… [read more]

History of the Modern Era in Summary Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,740 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


History Of the Modern Era

In summary, the four historical periods of the modern Western history all played their part in the development of the areas of project management expertise and their application to building project activities. The development of knowledge and commerce during the span of the modern era, helped to facilitate the scientific and economic development that was… [read more]

New Reference Is Not Required. A Total Essay

Essay  |  13 pages (5,917 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


New reference is not required. A total of 15 references are needed

Baroque architecture from the late seventeenth century onwards was fully determined by the cultural interests of the Christian churchs, whether Catholic or Anglican. It was an expressive form designed to counteract the Reformation view of simplicity. As part of the counter-Reformation, the Baroque was reactionary and wished to… [read more]

Machine Age the Five Architectural Projects Reviewed Essay

Essay  |  13 pages (6,433 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Machine Age

The five architectural projects reviewed in this section represent the pinnacle of a confluence of a number of different factors that pertain to the early half of the 20th century. For the first time, man focused on erecting structures with an unparalleled degree of height and functionality that suited a variety of purposes. Yet as a review of… [read more]

Contract Analysis Analyzing a Construction Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,005 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


(6) The owner also may connect sewage disposal and water lines to the building within fifteen days after the rough plumbing has been completed.

V. Owner to Hold Contractor Harmless from Certain Events

The contractor is not responsible for any claims that arise due to the boundary or house stakes being positioned wrong. The contractor is also not responsible for any damages to persons or property that arise by the owner, his agents, or any third parties. Neither is the contractor responsible for any acts of God or other events that are beyond the control of the contractor. The owner is to hold the contractor completely harmless from all costs, damages, losses and expenses to include judgments and any attorney fees due to any claims that arise such as are stated in the contract.

VI. Possession of the Property

The owner will not have possession of the structure until all payments and obligations have been fulfilled as stated in the contract agreement. If for some reason the owner assumes possession of the property before the obligations of the contract agreement are met, then the owner signals acceptance of the structure 'as is'.

VII. Financing and Site Preparation Requirements

The owner must take the necessary steps to obtaining financing and to make sure the site is construction ready.

VIII. Other General Provisions

There are no agreements or understandings between the contractor and the owner except for those specified in the contract agreement and this includes any other verbal or written agreements. The contract terms cannot be amended or modified unless the owner and contractor enter into a written agreement modifying or amending the contract.

IX. Fairness of Contract

This is a fair contract and is in the form of contracts generally used in a construction project. This contract does not allow for assignabilty of rights. In the event that the situation arose where rights needed to be assigned then the contract would have to be formally amended or modified in written form and in agreement between the contractor and owner. This contract is an integrated contract in that it contains all agreements between the owner and the contractor. The building plans might be used in questioning the contents of the contract however, since the contract specifies the property information there should be no questions that arise from this specific contract.

Summary and Conclusion

This contract analysis has set out the provisions of an office building construction project and has specified the terms including the payments and when the installments are due as well as the responsibilities of both the owner and contractor in regards to this specific office building construction project. This construction contract is valid and the terms of the contract within the legal limits of the law governing such contracts in the State of Alabama.


Business Contract Form (2012) Free Legal Forms. Retrieved from: http://www.yourfreelegalforms.com/item_601/Construction-Contract.html

Mallor, J.P., Barnes, A.J., Bowers, T., & Langvardt, A.W. (2007). Business law: The ethical, global, and e-commerce environment (13th ed.). Chicago,…… [read more]

Baroque Four Baroque -1750) Projects San Carlo Essay

Essay  |  12 pages (4,522 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 16



Four Baroque (1600-1750) Projects

San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane (1638-1646)

The Church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane (1638-1646) or Saint Charles at the Four Fountains is a Roman Catholic church and monastery in Rome. It was built between 1634 and 1638 by Francesco Borromini. It was also the first church in Rome to be dedicated to St. Charles… [read more]

Thames Tunnel Was Originally Created Essay

Essay  |  15 pages (6,088 words)
Bibliography Sources: 21


Thames Tunnel was originally created as a means of connecting Wapping and Rotherbridge beneath London's River Thames. Each of those areas was located on the southern and the northern portions of the river; locals desired a direct connection between these two locations to accommodate the burgeoning docks on each side. The earliest efforts to create a tunnel of this sort… [read more]

Iron Bridge Was Conceived of and Erected Research Paper

Research Paper  |  16 pages (4,974 words)
Bibliography Sources: 23


Iron Bridge was conceived of and erected for the extremely pragmatic purpose of allowing travelers and tradesmen to cross the Severn Gorge which is part of the River Severn at Ironbridge Gorge. Prior to its construction, the only way to cross this river was by ferry. Iron Bridge is located in a village of Iron Bridge, which is one of… [read more]

Codes and Regulations Building Rules Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (753 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


This building construction type help contain fire internally up to one floor due to the concrete and steel structure used. However, the construction type cannot contain spread of fire during emergencies; the air conditioning ducts may make the fire spread to other rooms. The air conditioning vents though supply fresh air, thy allow fire and smoke to spread through them in the fire resistive type I established building. Fire and smoke from a burning room might filter into the air conditioning system spreading the fire and smoke to the whole building.

Design Features

The fire and smoke in the building was fast spreading at the back of the compared to the other sides. This side of the building could have been made of weak materials that are not fire resistant. The material used may have been of lightweight and easily combustible as compared to the other three sides of the building. The rear side could have been having large ventilation that helped fasten the spread of the fire and smoke in this side of the building.

Building Type That Offers Concern Regarding Fire and Smoke Growth

This type of building is likely to offer greater concerns during fire emergencies. The material used though combustible, can withstand fire flames than the wood frame used in type V building. Of the five building types, wood frame building type Vis the most combustible and spreads fire and smoke faster within a building. The walls of the building are made of wood making it the only one with exterior combustible walls. The flames and smoke during combustion can easily spread through the windows and walls to adjacent rooms.


Ching, F., & Winkel, S. ( 2012, April 24). Building Codes Illustrated: A Guide to Understanding the 2012 International Building Code. John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved May Thursday, 2012, from www.bizjournals.com: http://www.bizjournals.com/sacramento/stories/2005/04/25/focus5.html?page=1

Land Lord Zone. (1990). Fire Safety. Retrieved May 31, 2012, from www.landlordzone.co.uk: http://www.landlordzone.co.uk/fire_safety.htm

San Diego Municipal . (2010, June 1). Codes, Regulations, Requirements. Retrieved May Thursday, 2012, from www.sandiego.gov: http://www.sandiego.gov/development-services/industry/codes.shtml… [read more]

Sustainable Construction Issues Waste Reduction Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  12 pages (4,187 words)
Bibliography Sources: 11


1). This movement provides for healthy working and living environment for those that followed its views and objectives. Wide individual involvement with the movement fabricates most of the services that contractors generally offer in construction. Despite this, the movement highlights a number of risks. Threats posed by uncertified design methods and experimental methods frequently go unrecognized by the contractors. Such… [read more]

Building Codes in Modern A-Level Coursework

A-Level Coursework  |  2 pages (732 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


As a building is being designed, there has to be a foundation to support its structure, and this can increase the cost of seeking the appropriate location for the building -- i.e., the land must be able to support the relevant structure.

It is obvious that it is in the public's interest to ensure that new structures (and renovated older buildings as well) are subject to numerous codes and regulations. History is replete with examples of catastrophic fires and mass death due to fires and natural disasters; take for example what happened to San Francisco during the earthquake and resulting fire in 1906 or in the 2003 Rhode Island Station nightclub fire in which ninety-six patrons were killed. And of course, in the age of terrorism, fire and building safety become paramount in protecting the public's well-being and security. But in order for there to be safety and security, builders and contractors must be held to account for shoddy or inferior workmanship, and the only way to ensure that homes and buildings are safe and secure, is to use the force of law through regulations and codes to oblige builders to design and build safe and secure structures.

Codes and building standards are very important for firefighter and rescuer safety. Through the use of codes and regulations, buildings and structures can be designed to ensure maximum rescuer "safer" access and exit, thus facilitating the timely rescue of persons and property. Also, fire safe building design can aid in the quick exit of occupants, thus giving firefighters "less to do," so to speak, thus both limiting the amount of time a firefighter must remain in a burning structure and the number of trips a rescuer must enter the disaster area. Also, by requiring features such as sprinklers, fire extinguishers and numerous and easy emergency exits can aid fire fighters by ensuring that occupants themselves have the ability to limit or forestall the spreading of a fire while giving them the ability to quickly exit the burning structure as the fire spreads. All this can limit the danger a firefighter can potentially…… [read more]

Interior Design and Theories "Architects Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,648 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Another design style had erupted during the era as a reaction to the Neo-Classical Style known as Picturesque, and it emphasized on formality, proportion, order and Exactitude.

Neo-Classic architecture and design identified with Western Heritage, Luxury, Eliteness and Sophistication that seeks not to replicate. An example of Neo-Classic architecture and design would be the Schermerhorn Symphony Centre. Other examples are the Newton Memorial, Bibliotheque Nationale, Metropol Church, Hotel Alexandre, all located in Paris and built by Etienne-Loius Boullee. The interior of the White House is has Neo-Classic setting. (Kulahcioglu)

Neoclassical architecture has a few characteristics in common despite the emphasis placed upon the uniqueness of each structure. It involves decisive detailing, careful proportions, skillful use of light sources, and balanced ornamentation amongst many others. Notable are the arched windows and doors, grand entrances and staircases with an array of statuaries, sculptures, mosaics and other art work all coordinated in theme to assert the identity of the building and the interior.

Neo-Classical interiors may be preferred in the modern day because not only it is perceived as elegant, luxurious, and romantic but also because it stirs emotions and awakens memories.

There is a huge contrast between the Neo-Classical theory and the Classical Principles described in Vitruvius's writings. One focuses on the proportions and orders and how one member of a project interacts with another to create an effect that'd appease the eye as well as serve its functional purpose. While the other focuses on free flow of materials and flamboyance that are to be arranged in a manner as to exude beauty and luxury. Functionality takes a backseat when it comes to Neo-Classicism. The only common ground between both theories is the beauty of it all.

Works Cited

Corbusier, Le. The Modulor. Foreword of 2nd Edition, n.d.

Kulahcioglu, Can. "History and Theory of Interior Architecture." n.d.

The Center for Palladian Studies in America, Inc.,. "Palladio and English-American Palladianism.." (n.d.).

Vitruve. Book 1. Preface, trans. Morgan.… [read more]

American Architectural Identity Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,064 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



What is Laugier's justification for speaking about architecture as a non-specialist? What do you find convincing or unconvincing about his argument?

Laugier's justification for speaking about architecture as a non-specialist is that tools that knowledge provides are available for everyone and since even great men falter in their theories and ideas, there is no reason that he should be barred from commenting on a specialist subject. I find this argument only partly convincing. Laugier may comment on aesthetics of architecture as a non-specialist but essentially this view would be a superficial one. Ultimately it is the specialist who must decide the merits of certain architectural design.

Why does Laugier think the column, entablature and pediment are the only "natural" elements of the classical vocabulary? How does this relate to his "once upon a time people lived in caves" story?

The story of the evolution of architecture from caves to huts simpliciter and onwards to developed architecture with a column, entablature and pediment relates to the necessity, need and finally aesthetics of architecture. Columns are said to be round because nature does not raise anything in squares. Entablature and pediment are two elements that can found in even the earliest most basic huts made by humanity coming out of caves.


Banham claims that "Left to their own devices, Americans do not monumentalize or make architecture." Why not? What does he consider "America's monumental space," and do you agree?

The author believes that Americans create the basic human shell and then endeavor to fight off the elements by the use of technology -- modern heating and the like. He says that this is because the great outdoors is America's monumental space, which is why there is so much emphasis on verandahs and terraces. No doubt it may be true in part but I disagree that this is an accurate reflection of all American architecture. The main point of departure is that in my view American architecture is divided along urban and suburban lines where genuine American architecture can mean different things at different places.

Describe what Banham means by "a standard-of-living-package." Do you agree that this could be "architecture," and does it appeal to you?

What the author means by a standard of living package is creating conditions of comfort without unnecessarily burdening the architecture with artificial devices etc. To me architecture is more than simply a standard of living package. It is much more intrinsic to one's self and has a deep interplay with emotional and psychological needs of security and continuity.


What difficulty does Greenough think America's 'youth' and its variety of beliefs, national origins, and geography pose in defining its architectural identity? Explain why you agree or disagree with him.

Youth and variety of beliefs and national origins in addition to Geography -- in the author's view- makes whole scale adoption of European Architecture unsustainable. Greenough feels that while America was a new country, its people were old in terms of civilization and were heavily influenced… [read more]

Robert Venturi Less Is a Bore How His Architecture Validated That Statement Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,930 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Robert Venturi's famous line "less is a bore" is a direct challenge to the earlier modernist notion that "less is more," and Venturi's architectural production is similarly a challenge to earlier modes of architectural design that emphasized uniformity and simplicity while condemning extravagance or experimentation. While Venturi's work could not easily be called extravagant, examining it in relation to the… [read more]

Slave Community. In the Development Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,428 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


This happened especially in communities in the South-Eastern part of the United States (Hamer, Trinckley, 1997), especially in South Carolina. One of the explanations for this is the large proportion of the African-American population in the total population in the state, which had surpassed the population originating from Europe by the end of the 17th century. Many of them had… [read more]

Medieval Period - Westminster Abbey Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,176 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


In the photograph above, one can see the side of the structure that faces the courtyard: the area where congregants gather for open-ceremonies performed by the Church of England. The neo-classical style provides an appearance that is conducive to events that are held either on the inside or the outside of the edifice (Newbolt, 1828).

Victorian Period - St. Pancras Station

St. Pancras Station was built during the 19th century in Victorian England. This was a period when there was a backlash to the rather austere designs associated with the neo-classical period. England, in particular embraced the neo-Gothic style of architecture, because England was slow and reluctant to adopt classicism as an architectural style. The neo-Gothic architectural style, however, does not attempt to restore the exact practices associate with Gothic constructions. Rather, neo-Gothicism combines the influences impacting Gothic design along with the building techniques and materials that are associated with the Industrial Revolution.

Victorianism, as a consequence, embraced a neo-Gothic architectural style whose resulting structures were constructed with modern materials such as steel, giving the facades appearances that combined Gothic form with industrial colors. As one can see in the photograph below, the structure has a cathedral-like appearance. However, the structure appears to be primarily made out of bricks, giving the facade the color and tone that connotes associations with the Industrial Revolution. The structure was designed to both hold a train station in addition to other amenities, such as a hotel, which helps to explain why the structure is so enormous.

Outside St. Pancras Railway

The use of modern building materials makes it possible for the structure to contain 4 different levels. Additionally, when it was built, it possessed the largest roof in the world. Therefore, the neo-Gothic architecture produced during the Victorian Age possesses not only the dramatic design features that one associates with Gothic cathedrals; additionally, it possesses functionalities making its design responsive to the more modern needs of industrial society (Bradley, 2007).

Inside St. Pancras Railway

Modern Period -The Lloyd's building

This structure was designed by Richard Rogers between 1978 and 1986. The building was designed so that all of the electrical wires and water pipes were left on the outside of the edifice, freeing up space inside (Bachman, 2003). This design feature embodies the principles of Modernist architecture. Since the pipes and wiring consume space inside of the structure, limiting for what the inside spaces could be devoted. Consequently, in adherence to the maxim that form should follow function, the building was designed to maximize the internal spaces of the structure by placing much of the electoral and water system components outside of the edifice (Bachman, 2003).


Bachman, L.R. (2003). Integrated Buildings: The Systems Basis of Architecture. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Bond, F. (1909). Westminster Abbey. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Bradley, S. (2007). St. Pancras Station. London, UK: Profile Books Ltd.

Curl, J.S. (1992). Classical Architecture: An Introduction to Its Vocabulary and Essentials, with a Select Glossary of Terms. New… [read more]

Work of Steven Holl Related to Phenomenology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,302 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Steven Holl

Discussing the practical application of a phenomenological theory of architecture can present an initial challenge, because the basic tenets of the theory of phenomenology, as first articulated by Christian Norberg-Schulz and others, are deceptively simple. Phenomenology favors simplicity above all else, but not the kind of simplicity that results in a single identifiable aesthetic; rather the ideal simplicity… [read more]

Work of Peter Zumthor Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,182 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Peter Zumthor: Therme Vals

One of the best examples of a relatively recent application of phenomenology in architecture is Peter Zumthor's Therme Vals in Vals, Switzerland. Examining how Zumthor transformed an aging spa resort into the unique structure that exists today helps one to better understand how theoretical ideas may intesect the practice and production of architecture. In particular, considering… [read more]

Work of Steven Holl Architecture Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,535 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Steven Holl's Kiasma

Kiasma, the Musuem of Contemporary Art in Helsinki, Finland, takes its name from the Finnish word for chiasma, which was the original title of architect Steven Holl's winning design. Representing the convergence of disparate architectural, historical, and cultural themes, the name is a fitting entryway into an understanding of the work's importance in the history of architectural… [read more]

Piranesi on Architecture: Argument Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (496 words)
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The "devoid of artistic originality" is exemplified in such quotations as:

"Tell me, please, what are [Greek] columns supposed to represent? According to Vitruvius, they originate from the forked sticks placed at the corner of the huts; according to other, they are the trunks that support the roof. And what is the meaning of the flutes? Vitruvius thinks that they represent the pleats in the robes of Roman matrons. This means that the columns do not imitate forked sticks or trees but rather women supporting a roof."[footnoteRef:4] [4: Source given by customer -- Thoughts on Architecture by Giovanni Battista Piranesi (Translation by Michaels Nonis and Mark Epstein) ]

This quotation proves Piranesi's belief that Roman architecture is much more realistic and much more imitative of life. When he compares Roman architecture to pleats in the robes of Roman women, he is comparing a column with something that he has seen in life; whereas for him, Greek architecture is simple and almost as devoid of life as a tree (symbolically speaking), Roman architecture is full of life, and in fact, mirrors life.

Through his essay, Piranesi thus describes and successfully argues for the realism, the ornateness, the "life" in Roman architecture and, one would say, quite…… [read more]

Gothic Cathedral as Rhetorical Device Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (929 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


In large part, Venturi would be likely to argue, this is important because it is in the historical attributes that meaning is preserved and found.

Denise Scott Brown.

Brown objected to the idea that popular architecture could not convey meaning. She believed not only that it did, but that it should. Cultural meaning was to her essential to the constructed environment. Brown defended her interest in the tastes of the masses and her narrative about the status quo. She refused to project her own judgment before she had explored vernacular taste and sensibilities from, she would argue, was an objective perspective. Brown's position was that an architect should not take the people living in an environment out of any plans to renovate or completely make over that environment. The danger of a purely functional approach to architecture is that one does absent cultural meaning and historical reference. What Brown clearly conveyed, in voice and design, was the importance of respecting the environment, the context, in which one builds. Brown would have artists and architects ground themselves in the popular -- what she called "pop" -- culture as a way of investigating functional needs, social context, cultural meaning, and aesthetic expression. Brown was quick to caution architects who would judge the urban context with the caveat that inhabitants of certain localities may not reside where they would prefer to, nor might they be able to reconfigure their habitations to their liking. Brown not only linked people as found in their quotidian contexts to architecture, but she insisted that new forms of architecture must also link to the formal traditions of architecture. The new experiences, then, could be understood in light of formal architectural training.

Le Corbusier.

Acquaintances with cubist artists during Le Corbusier's early days seems to have made a lasting impression, and his modern buildings reflect his Cartesian orientation to symmetry and orderliness. His sensitivities seem inherently Swiss; his proclivity for industrial materials and stark functional construction belie a core reliance on structure and order. His style was moderately softened through the introduction of proportion, rhythm, and mathematical harmony. The source of these design elements was the golden ratio, and its influence is seen in his modular structures where proportion is dominant. Other architects were inspired by cathedral structure; Le Corbusier dreamt of ocean liners, and they took shape in his waking hours as clean, white structures on stilts punctuated by his version of portals and decks. In the same way that other architects admired the raw structural integrity of stone in the construction of cathedrals, Le Corbusier left the crude marks of the wooden forms on the inside and outside of the concrete surfaces -- a construction and conceit as honest as the dome of…… [read more]

Njit Admission Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (521 words)
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I have always been a great student, interested in the creative part of the world, and these programs will thus enable me to further my passion.

In addition to my passion for studying and my academic potential, I also want to add to the social and sport life of the University. I have a long-term experience as part of a cheerleading team. I have been part of a team since my elementary school studies as George Washington Elementary and until high school at Union Hill High School. Thus, I believe that not only would I benefit the NJIT's cheerleading team, but my captain experience would enhance its efforts as well. I hope that my experience in sports will also be taken into account when I apply to a sorority on campus. I would love to be a part of a sorority in order to be able to have lifetime sisters and friend to whom I can share my worries and whom I can trust.

I thus hope that my academic and social life experience will help with enabling the admission committee make its decision. Furthermore, please note that this would be the opportunity of a lifetime for myself and my family. I would be honored to attend your institution and be able to pursue not only my ability in this field, but also my long-time passion.… [read more]

Hazal Emre History of World Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,243 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The natural illumination is obviously functional as it helps readers in a practical sense to be able to see the lettering on the pages of the books. Natural illumination also has another implicit and romantic symbolism, it allows for man to enter an unnatural man made structure while at the same time not losing touch with one of natures most important and beneficial elements for man kind which is light. The Iron used in the design is also beneficial becuase it adds strength and protection from fires to the structures, it works in conjuncition with the concept of natural illumination because it allows the volume of the structural support system to be less dense, thereby allowing more light to penentrate the structure. The use of Iron in the structure can also be seen as dramatically romantic statement that comments on industrial revolution that was in its early development stages during the first and middle part of the nineteenth century. Romanticism was concerned with the dramatic developments in the life of humans and of nature. The industrial revolution provided many new, dramatic and important developments for humans to ponder and disscuss during this time period. Allowing for the Library of St. Genevieve to be functional, practical and useful for the public supports the ideals of the French Revolution which called for the illumination of the public in both the political and educational sectors.

As a topic of importance one can also consider the relatively simple form of a book when compared to the composition and design of the building itself. The building appears to share several fundamental and important qualities with the books that it holds within. The similarities between the two can used to find commonalities between the romantic movement in architecture and the seemingly opposing or contradictory design of the St. Genevieve Library. Books of the time period being disscussed were relative simple and bland on outside. Most of the time they were inscripted with only the title and the name of author. However, once a book is opened and read, it becomes very complex and versatile, it is a window to another world filled with dramas, conflicts, beauty, danger and a variety of never-ending elements too long to list. The design of the Librairy of St. Genevieve is composed in a similar manner. The outside facades are simple and curiously, they have inscripted on them the names of great authors hundreds of them in total. The relative simplicity of the facacades is undeniable, much like the exterior of a book it serves only to identify the contents held within. Entering the St. Genevieve Library is a lot like opening and reading a book, all the complexities and dramas are contained within. The interior of the librairy is made to inspire and delight and to serve a purpose, much like the intended purpose of books on readers.

The design of the library of St. Genevieve is one that holds symbolic and metaphorical elements that are closely related to designer's… [read more]

Development of the Columns Through History Research Paper

Research Paper  |  25 pages (6,600 words)
Bibliography Sources: 30


¶ … oif columns in architecture extends from the ancient Egyptians and the Greeks and Romans to its modern usage in both public and private constructions and building. The various forms and styles, such as the classical Doric and Ionic, have all contributed and added elements to the structural as well as the aesthetic aspects of architectural development,. What is… [read more]

City Hall Plaza Boston Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (730 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


City Hall Plaza, Boston

City Hall Plaza -- Boston

When most people hear about Boston, they often think of the most historic places including: Beacon Hill and the Paul Revere House. This is important, because these and many other structures establish the basic foundation of the city. As they serve not only a cultural oasis, but as a symbol of Boston itself. However, some sites throughout the city have been facing a number of different issues over the last several years. Once such location; is the City Hall Plaza as it was voted the worst piece of architecture in the world, by the Project for Public Places. This is significant, because this is confirming many criticisms the structure would face since 1970's. To fully understand the different site planning issues and public space related to the building along with its plaza requires: examining the architecture (as it relates to the site), elements that are placed around the plaza, the landscape, the slope / contour of the building, ADA responses, the location of the entrance, the placement of the structure in comparison with surrounding architecture and the relationship between historical buildings / contemporary architecture. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights as to the overall planning issues facing the City Hall Plaza and the building itself. ("Boston City Hall," 2010)

Architecture as it pertains to site.

The building's placement was to ensure that the city government would be in the heart of Boston. As it would utilize modern materials for construction (such as: steel and cement). At the same time, it would embrace the ultra modern design of architectural planning from the 1960's. The structure is located just south of Boston Common and is sitting at Boylston / Tremont Streets. It is easily accessible to pedestrians, but is challenging for vehicles (as far as parking spaces are concerned). On the human scale, the structure was designed to impress visitors and highlight the transparency of the city government. ("Boston City Hall," 2010)

Other Plaza site elements that are placed on the plaza and at its edges. Are they useful and for what purpose?

On the edges of the plaza are: a recessed fountain, umbrella shaded…… [read more]

Le Corbusier's Villa Savoye and Robert Venturi's Vanna Venturi House Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (903 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Deconstruction Architecture has a major impact on the development of the contemporary, late-capitalist built environment. Twentieth century architects like Frank Lloyd Wright and Le Corbusier carved a path for modernist planners to spread deconstruction architecture throughout the world. The progression of the movement found widespread support in organic models of architectural design and integrated building rehabilitations which seemed to mystically incorporate surrounding nature. Synchronous with the forces of visual and other arts, deconstruction opened up neutral spaces for exhibition and performance as integral aspects of the everyday lived experiences of those built environments. The foregoing dissertation proposal outlines the development of organic architecture as a philosophy of deconstruction; promoting harmony between human habitation and the natural world through design approaches so sympathetic and well integrated with its site that buildings, furnishings, and surroundings become part of a unified, interrelated composition.

Statement of Problem

The era of Modernist architecture was characterized by cosmopolitanism. Post WWII those stylistic standards contributed to the reconstruction of both Europe and Japan, and it is not surprisingly, then, that the two locations produced some of the most recognized and most abundant urban architectural structural developments. In continental Europe, seminal constructions by architectural designers like Le Corbusier in France, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius in Germany esteemed a post Frankfurt School movement toward reunification through democratic expression. Reflexive to internationalist theories within the field of Modernist architecture, the United States was already host to a burgeoning architectural renaissance underway. Of keen interest was the early sustainable construction of North American architect, Frank Lloyd Wright.

Deconstruction came on the scene in the 1960s, and has had a strong and lasting influence both in terms of methodological consideration in architecture and in public perception. Closely aligned to French Philsopher, Jacques Derrida and later followed by international intellectuals such as Japanese Philosopher, Kojin Karatani, much of the apt critique of its root in linguistics and grammatology offered flexibility to a field of Modernity once producing structures akin to neat cookie cutter boxes. From the 1980s forward, it is said that 'Gaudi was born again,' and one can observe in every major metropolis, the strange angles and conflicting fabrication that came to characterize buildings, integrally and in conflict with other like structures in the same surroundings. From a design perspective, a significant aspect of deconstructionism in architecture is the incorporation of flexible and modular parts, functioning as unrelated elements.

Deconstruction reached its zenith during the Parc de la Villette architectural design competition. In 1983, Peter Eisenman proved his artistic direction at the New York exhibition that year, with featured works by Frank Gehry, Daniel Libeskind, Rem Koolhaas, Peter Eisenman, Zaha Hadid, Coop Himmelbau, as well as Bernard Tschumi…… [read more]

Construction BETC Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,069 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


Architectural Design Specialists, Ltd.

London, England

Mr. Joseph B. Smith, President

Joe B. Smith Construction, Ltd.

London, England EC1Y 8SY

Bentley Builder, President

Architectural Design Specialists, Ltd.


Preliminary design sketch

Specification notes and rationale concerning approval

General description of the structure of the building and main service utility considerations

Preliminary sketch.

Specification notes and rationale concerning approval.

Preliminary specifications… [read more]

Suzhou Museum I'm Pei Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,955 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Suzhou Museum -- I.M. Pei

Suzhou Museum - I.M.Pei

The legacy of the ancient canal city is preserved in the gardens of Suzhou, the legacy of a city that identified with silk trade and its beauty left Marco Polo astounded. Even though the city had acquired ugliness of the commercial sprawl all this is shattered by the high walls saving… [read more]

Future House With Nature Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,938 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … sustainability is "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" from the Brundtland Declaration of 1987 ( (United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) 1987). It is a definition that contains within itself the implicit idea that the natural environment faces stress and overexploitation… [read more]

Architecture Through the Ages Mesopotamia Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  24 pages (6,891 words)
Bibliography Sources: 16


The Erechtheum and the small temple of Athena on the Acropolis are Ionic however. The Ionic order became dominant in the Hellenistic period, since its more decorative style suited the aesthetic of the period better than the more restrained Doric. Records show that the evolution of the Ionic order was resisted by many Greek States, as they claimed it represented… [read more]

Ancient Buildings With Modern Los Angeles Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (2,005 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Karim Snoussi

Christoph Korner

Roman Visions

Take a drive around the always-crowded streets of Los Angeles and you'll notice scores of buildings whose architects drew their inspiration at least in part from the ancient world -- from Babylon and Mesopotamia as well (more commonly) Greece and Rome. Such heavy stylistic borrowing from the cities of Greece and Rome should not… [read more]

History and Evolution of Construction Safety Regulations Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,205 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Evolution of Construction Safety Regulations

Author David L. Goetsch (who wrote Construction Safety and Health) -- along with several other authors and scholars -- present informative background into the area of construction safety -- and its evolvement as policy in the United States. This paper reviews the inadequate and sometimes non-existent workplace regulations that led to the development… [read more]

Castelvecchio Verona Italy Carlo Scarpa Architect Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (618 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Mixing old and new architecture in an aesthetically pleasing way to maintain a sense of history while keeping buildings useful and practical in the modern age. A truly visionary architect is able not only to achieve this meld of new practicalities and aesthetics with traditional and historic preservation, but is actually able to render a sort of homage to historic aesthetics while putting their own personal signature into the design of a building. Carlo Scarpa is one such architect, and the work he did updating and modernizing the medieval castle in Verona, Italy, known simply as Castelvecchio or the "Old Castle" is one of the most impressive and enduring monuments to his skill. While maintaining the integrity of the structure and its aesthetics and history of the castle, Scarpa's own sense of aesthetics and its far more modern shaping are apparent in many of the details of Cstelvecchio. In addition, he practical changes he made to transform the castle from a former fortress and housing unit to a modern museum.

The changes that Scarpa made to the interior of Castelvecchio for the specific purpose of displaying certain works of art reflect all of these elements -- a devotion to the practicalities of a museum, a commitment to preserving history, and a passion for his own sense of design and aesthetics. One of the most impressive examples of this melding of different (though not disparate) purposes is the display of a medieval statue on a beam of concrete that juts out approximately twenty feet from the wall and hovers many feet above the floor of the room. A walkway runs near this beam, allowing for a view of the statue. The concrete fits well with the stone of the original castle, and at the same time gives a distinctly modern texture to the room. The very existence of the…… [read more]

Fabrica Benetton Verona Italy Tado Ando 1994-2004 Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Personal Response to the Fabrica Benetton Building in Verona, Italy

One of the more appealing ambitions to emerge from post-modern architectural philosophy is that which seeks to immerse structural ambition into its natural surrounding without disruption. Traditional approaches to modern urban design have sought to dispatch with nature in favor of all-consuming building sites. Tadao Ando's Frabrica, also known as the Benetton Communication Research Center, in Verona, Italy stands as an inspiring counterpoint to this philosophy. The sprawling array of columns, arches, terraces and chambers was completed in 2004 and is an absolutely stunning inversion of architectural principles, weaving itself harmonious into the natural landscape by integrating a reflecting pool, an open-air solarium and indoor corridors illuminated by ample sky-lighting.

The research center was constructed to serve as a forum for specialized studies, innovative projects and research endeavors in a wide host of disciplines, but particularly in the area of communications. In line with its progressive orientation, the architecture renders a totally unique ambience for scholarly stimulation. Ando's Japanese ethnicity plays a particularly large role in what can be described as a distinctly materialist representation of architectural ideology. Ando would borrow heavily from all manner of architectural tradition, inserting outdoor colonnades with clear reference to Roman styles and, in close proximity, arranging sharp geometrical figures in asymmetrical harmony that comports with Asian philosophy on Feng Shui.

I found myself moved to intrigue by such areas as the open-air solarium, which is a bare concrete surface ensconced in columns. The close thicket of columns surrounds an opened center, which provides a surface that naturally attracts the individual given the open skylight directly above it. This is a fine example of the manner in which Ando manages to yield the prospect…… [read more]

Role of Platform Pyramid Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,297 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Platforms and pyramids have served many functions in antiquity. For the most part, these objects either of the natural world or made by man serve as a place of worship or symbolic reference to being closer to the heavens/god(s). The framing, manipulation and representation of the priestly or godlike ruling class as keepers of secrets and mystery often use such… [read more]

Fire Science Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (2,045 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Fire Science: Building Design, Construction Methods, And Collapse

In the construction industry, there are a lot of variables that can affect how fast something is built, the quality of it, and the cost -- and also how well it holds up and what happens to it in a fire. It is important to look at construction methods from the perspective… [read more]

Make a Contract Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (300 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Construction Contract

The following agreement is entered into by Harry Holmes (hereinafter

"Homeowner") and Chris Conrad (hereinafter "Contractor") and constitutes the entire understanding between Homeowner and Contractor of the services provided by Contractor to remodel Homeowner's kitchen.

Homeowner will furnish $2,500 as a nonrefundable deposit on the date of this agreement representing one-half the total agreed amount of $5,000 for the complete project, the balance of which is payable on the date that the project is completed by Contractor. Contractor agrees to complete the project on or before June 1, 2009 and further represents that time is of the essence and that failure to complete the project on that date will entitle Homeowner to a negotiated refund of $100 per day up to the total amount of the project for any delay not caused by the Homeowner or by circumstances commonly referred to as "acts of God." Homeowner agrees to…… [read more]

Gothic the Flamboyant Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (616 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3



The Flamboyant Gothic is generally considered to be the final phase of the Gothic architecture, manifesting itself on the European continent during the 15th century. As one of its main characteristics, the Flamboyant style shows an explosion of the artistic creativity and an increased focus on the decorations of the buildings. If previously, many of these decorations had a practical use foremost (the gargoyles, for example, had primarily the function of carrying the water away from the roof, while the arches were basic support functions), decoration exists in the Flamboyant style simply for the sake of decoration.

At the same time, the cathedrals were no longer the usual austere buildings they had been in the first Gothic periods. A greater attention to artistic detail, the preponderance of stained glass and decorations made these buildings more artistic than before. In fact, one of the first characteristics of Flamboyant Gothic is that "wall space was reduced to the minimum of supporting vertical shafts to allow an almost continuous expanse of glass and tracery."

This follows on what has been mentioned in the pervious paragraph. If before all elements in a Gothic construction were there for a practical purpose, with the Flamboyant Gothic, this practical aspect is kept to a minimum and more space is awarded to pinnacles, gables or stained glass.

Flamboyant Gothic can be analyzed in greater detail at particular construction elements. For example, the arch, a defining element of the Gothic style, is used now in a double-curved shape, after it was predominantly either concave or convex during the previous Gothic periods. The walls are no longer the same solid, stone constructions that are unitary up to the top. Now, occasional patterns are sculpted in them, without challenging their supportive ability, but improving their aesthetic and artistic perspective for the viewer.

At the same time, Flamboyant Gothic…… [read more]

Egyptian Technology Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,377 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Egyptian Technology

Since their creation, the pyramids of Egypt have been a source of awe, wonder, and amazement, from both an artistic viewpoint as well as from a technological and archeological examination of their structure, creation, and form. Created for kings and built not by slaves but by loyal citizens of the pharaoh, these pyramids required a massive undertaking of… [read more]

Identify an Issue Faced by the Housing Industry and Make Recommendations to Resolve Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (682 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Construction Quality - a Critical Housing Issue

The housing and construction industry is in flux right now because of the economy, dwindling housing prices, and the mortgage meltdown. However, underlying this slowdown is an underlying issue not often addressed in the industry, and that is the construction quality, or the lack thereof. Traditionally in the housing and construction industry, contractors and their sub-contractors are most concerned with timing and speed. There are almost always construction delays due to weather, material suppliers, building inspectors, and the like, and so, speed is of the essence. When speed is the number one motivator in construction, quality falls, and ultimately, the building owner will be dissatisfied with the results, costing the contractor time and money in repairs and maintenance.

In addition, traditionally many builders and developers, whether commercial or residential, sub-out their work to a variety of sub-contractors, whose goal again is to finish the job as quickly as possible so they can move on to the next job and make more profits. None of these subs are usually known for the quality of their work and their craftsmanship, but rather for getting the job done quickly and effectively. This can lead to quality issues throughout the construction process, from dirt work to finish carpentry and beyond. As one problem mounts on another, it can snowball into a building that lacks quality and good building practices, and it can become the norm for the industry.

How can builders assure high quality in their work, while still managing to make a profit on their construction? Most builders simply try to hire the best subs they can for the lowest price, and use inspectors to ensure buildings are up to standards. However, the intermediary, (the sub-in this scenario), is often more concerned with volume than with quality, and therein lies the bottom line in construction quality. For the best quality and quality assurance, there are two solutions, and they could revolutionize the construction industry - and give it a much better quality reputation, if they were…… [read more]

Architectural Manifesto for the 21st Century Modernist Term Paper

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Architectural Manifesto for the 21st Century

Modernist Architecture encumbers the soul with spiritual fatigue and frustration. Art is life and design is its blood. Transfuse society with architecture that reestablishes humanity's spiritual link with nature. Today's vistas are overwhelmed by perfectly sharp edges; Modernist Architecture visually denies our connection to nature. It is not enough to espouse a "green" building;… [read more]

Project Management Building a House Term Paper

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Project Management - Building a House

Building a House

The subject of this project is the construct of a residence consisting of two living space levels, four bedrooms and two bathrooms. The house is structured according to the standard stick-built mainframe development methods and construction. Utilizing the most innovative and modernized procedures in home construction, this home was engineered according to the customized specifics of its owner. The owner, a middle-upper class laborer, had ascertained their blueprints and overall concepts for the home through the signed agreement of home construction in association with the bank that has financed the entire project accordingly.

Assigned to the project's initial phases, there are two levels of project management, which ultimately helped in the outline of the development of the entire home (Denton, 2001). The highest, who has overseen every phase of construction, was assigned to a land developer whom also strategically developed the architecture of the specific home type. The developer was appointed by the bank to oversee every aspect of construction from the breaking of the dirt to the certificate of occupancy. Through each phase of the construction, the land developer was provided reports on budget status and the continual projected time-frames as the home progressed. This type of a supervision is proven to be constructively supporting to the development of homes (Gatlin Education Services, 2007).

The second level of project management was held by the construction crew foreman who was directly in charge of every sector of the homes development, including foundation, framing, exterior design, interior design, electrical, plumbing, landscaping, and overall cosmetic finishing. The foreman was responsible for reporting the materials cost, budget status and progression of the homes completion with time-frame status. The construction crew consisted of three waves of different skilled laborers. The first, and main group to take part in the most areas of completion, was a team of five individuals that adhere to the blueprint specifics and take full account in the infrastructure of the homes model design. Branching from this group, there was a second group consisting of three individuals that mainly handled the conception of certain developments in regard to common building methods, such as the measuring of material and ensuring the availability of all needed products and materials. This group also played a heavy role in the overall construction of the home. The third wave of crewman consisted of eight individuals who directly worked according to the demands of the other two upper construction commencement crewmen. These individuals were basically hired hands that supported the objectives…… [read more]

History of Architecture Not Only Provides Human Term Paper

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History Of Architecture

Architecture not only provides human beings a place of shelter but also create an aesthetic aura. History of architecture tells us about its evolution in terms of utilizing spaces, volumes, planes, masses, and voids, the use of light and shadow, as well as surface decoration. Different eras starting from Neolithic period to Renaissance have provided us important… [read more]

Subcontracting Problem Term Paper

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Construction Subcontractors: Problems and Possible Solutions

In recent years, the construction industry has grown more complex.

Major projects are typically handled by a main contractor who then subcontracts out the work for each individual aspect of the job.

Much of this growing complexity can be attributed to the scale and technical expertise required in today's construction projects. An entire… [read more]

Successful Utopias in Arts and Design Term Paper

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Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Artistic Utopias

Utopia is from the Greek term outopos, (no place) or eutopos (good place), and refers to an imaginary place where there are ideal laws and social conditions, where everyone is happy and knows no suffering. Some of the world's earliest writings have utopian themes, such as Hesiod's Golden Age depicted in his Works and Days, to Virgil's and… [read more]

History of Architects Term Paper

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Although the history of architecture dates back to very ancient times, beginning roughly in Mesopotamia, circa 4,000 B.C.E., it is during the period known as the Renaissance in which architecture truly began to influence world societies and cultures. Of all the arts, architecture expresses the most spatial aspects via temples, churches, public buildings, governmental buildings and private dwellings. The creator of these structure, namely, the architect, "designs groupings of enclosed spaces and enclosing masses, always keeping in mind the function of the structure, its construction and materials and its design principles" (Nuttgens, 78). For the public viewer, architecture is experienced both visually and by motion through and around the structure, so that architectural space and mass are perceived together.

It would seem logical to start our exploration of the history of architecture with one of the greatest artists of all time -- Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475 -- 1564), regarded by many as the "father of architecture in Europe and the greatest designer of the last 500 years" (Lowry, 167). Of all his architectural designs, the vestibule of the Laurentian Library, built to house the immense collections of the Medici family in Florence, Italy, stands out above all others. This vestibule gives the impression of a vertically compressed, shaft-like space which is dominated by a vast, flowing staircase that almost fills the interior, and unlike his contemporaries, Michelangelo ignored classical architectural ideals by placing his columns in pairs which are sunk into the walls; he breaks columns around corners and placed beneath them consoles not meant as support. In essence, Michelangelo "did away with classical architecture so prevalent in the High

Renaissance and greatly influenced all architectural designs and forms that followed him" (Copplestone, 178).

During the Baroque Period (1600 to 1750), the most important architectural project was the construction of St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome which was completed by Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598 -- 1680), an architect, painter and sculptor and one of the most brilliant and imaginative artists of the Baroque Period. As to St. Peter's, Bernini's best contribution was the monumental piazza in front of the building, composed of "a vast oval embraced by colonnades that are joined to the facade of St. Peter's by two diverging wings. Four huge Tuscan columns make up the two colonnades which terminate in classical temple fronts" (Gympel, 324). Thus, Bernini's architectural designs express the very essence of the Baroque spirit and influenced to a great degree numerous architects and builders linked to the periods that followed the golden days of the Baroque era.

Between 1675 and 1710, the dominant architectural structure…… [read more]

Commercial Construction Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


COMMERCIAL CONSTRUCTION is defined as "building projects exclusive of residential [single- or two-family home] construction." It is one of the biggest segments of the entire construction industry which is believed to have strengthened the industry in recent years due to rapid and steady growth. The commercial sector has been growing steady for some time now as it evident from market researches and reports. Back in 2000, Sinderman wrote: "...the state of the commercial real estate market is strong. The demand for office, industrial and retail buildings remains high, and, as Internet-based companies continue to grow, specialized facilities have become more popular than ever." Now in 2005, a construction report by McGraw-Hill also supports that claim: "The commercial and infrastructure construction segments are providing a lift to the overall construction industry, marking a role reversal from most of the past two or three years. According to October 2004 figures for future construction contracts calculated by McGraw-Hill Construction, Lexington, Mass., overall new construction starts increased 4% in October vs. September (on a seasonally adjusted basis), with nonresidential and infrastructure construction gaining while the residential sector fell slightly." ("Late Rebound")

Commercial construction is a roaring business these days because of the fact that construction industry does not have to endure fluctuations as frequent as some other industries. For some one who wants to enter this field, it is important to understand that a lot depends on the person himself. If I want to enter this vast field, I will need to focus on my strengths and avoid the basic pitfalls to make it work for me. Commercial builders are in the field for major gains while understanding the normally the margin is low. They have to make it big on volume. Challenges are numerous though. Commercial builders with more major projects under their belt need wider services, bigger staff and more inventories. Payments may not always be made in full and thus one needs to wait for monetary rewards. But despite all these problems, there are many advantages of being in commercial construction business. And now with this industry joining the Internet bandwagon, there are even greater chances of reaching a wider market and succeeding. As Sinderman writes: "Despite problems with materials, labor and zoning, the commercial real estate market has remained strong in all facets, from retail to industrial"

There are two basic forms of commercial construction. They are called light and heavy construction. Light construction refers to restoration or renovation work at multi-family buildings, retails stories, shopping malls, offices, motels, smaller hotels…… [read more]

M.S. Advanced Architectural Design Office Essay

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As an architect's tool, the computer supports design metaphors, an important requirement for the digital representation of design knowledge. Thus, it is clear that digital technology provides more opportunities to create architecture while also expanding the diversities of art, science and culture. However, I was confronted with many disappointments while at the Pratt Institute, especially when a certain instructor did not provide the freedom to do experimental architecture. In addition, there were not enough specialized experts in particular areas of study.

I realize that to become a prominent architect, merit alone is not enough motivation for success, so I have decided to continue my studies at Columbia University, knowing that it will not be an easy task to start all over again. At Columbia, I would like to explore as many aspects of design methodology as possible and then undertake a detailed investigation into visual art forms and their impact on diverse digital media. Also, I would like to create new designs that will enhance developing communities around the world.

Thus, I am certain that Columbia's international focus and openness toward non-traditional genres will offer the required support, not to mention the challenging and intellectual environment of New York City and its people. Since I thrive on work, accepting challenges and responsibilities, my confidence is high that I am more than ready for the challenges of graduate work at Columbia University and I sincerely hope that you provide the opportunity for me to demonstrate it.… [read more]

Antoni Gaudi Term Paper

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Antoni GAUDI

As some who has visited Barcelona, one would perhaps always remember the historical area around Los Ramblas, the old Gothic Cathedral or the Olympic Stadium, as well as the special charm of the city, proud in its Catalan spirit, but there is little chance that something is likely to impress you more than the presence of Antoni Gaudi… [read more]

Le Corbusier Towards a New Term Paper

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It is true that the ideas expressed in this book appear cold to a reader today, yet they do have great practical value. For one, Le Corbusier did architecture a great favor by freeing it of the chains of the past. On page 103, he argues that architects were mostly "enslaved to the past" and attacked "the narrowness of commonplace conceptions" in the field of architecture.

Such arguments against old design also gave way to concepts that separated beauty from new design and replaced it with function. On page 142, for example, he argues that,.".. A chair is in no way a work of art; a chair has no soul; it is a machine for sitting in." Le Corbusier's house designs are thus devoid of a real soul. His machines houses served cold practical purposes as they focused on his oft-repeated beliefs that: "We must create the mass production spirit." This concept was also highlighted again on page 274-275 when Le Corbusier highlighted it by citing the example of factory workers who worked according to the principles of mass production:

Industry has brought us to the mass-produced article; machinery is at work in close collaboration with man; the right man for the right job is coldly selected; laborers, workmen, foremen, engineers, managers, administrator -- each in his proper place.... Specialization ties man to his machine, an absolute precision is demanded of every worker, for the article passed on to the next man cannot be snatched back in order to be corrected and fitted; it must be exact in order... To fit automatically into the assembling of the whole;... A strange foreman directs severely and precisely the restrained and circumscribed tasks."

Le Corbusier maintained that the same precision of task could be achieved in the field of architecture and in fact was what architects needed to solve the problems of space etc. "All houses are constructed of standardized elements, forming a 'cell' type. The plots are equal, the arrangement regular. Architecture is very well able to express in a precise fashion." For some odd reason, Le Corbusier thought such houses could be beautiful too. We all know today that mass production is a dated concept, which led to the production of goods that no one appreciates anymore.

All of us are looking for something new and unique, something that only we possess. This desire to have something original in form and design appeared irrational to Le Corbusier and his book repeatedly highlights the so-called beauty of mass production. "The mass production house, healthy and beautiful in the same way that the working tools and instruments which accompany our existence are beautiful." He believed that "the Engineer's Aesthetic, and Architecture, are two things that march together and follow one from the other: the one being now at its full height, the other in an unhappy state of retrogression."

Thus the main argument of the book revolves around the modernist belief that "A house is a machine for living in.... An armchair is… [read more]

Gothic Cathedrals, With a Few Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


To the east of the outermost bay of each transept stands a deep chapel of two stages" (Kaye 43-44).

Again, the influence of Laon on Notre-Dame is evident in the rose on the north front, the larger areas for windows, and the supportive columns throughout the nave, along with the sexpartite ribbed vaults, and the arcaded gallery that is quite similar to Notre-Dame's, and is said to have highly influenced the Paris cathedral. It is clear Laon is not on the same scale as Notre-Dame, but that it influenced Notre-Dame's builders. Interestingly, Laon's influence spread farther than Paris. Architect Kaye continues, "The influence of this cathedral was considerable in the north and east of France, as well as in Normandy -- for example in the cathedral of Lisieux -- and in England, the Rhineland, Germany, and as far as Spain" (Kaye 46). This illustrates just how architecture spread throughout Europe by following earlier examples, and then creating new and innovative ideas, such as the flying buttresses of Notre-Dame. This innovation also spread to many other cathedrals, as noted. It was almost as if architectural innovations spread by word of mouth. As builders and architects moved from one site to another, this makes sense - they carried their new knowledge with them, and spread the technologies and innovations as they completed one cathedral and moved on to the next project.

Gradually, Gothic architecture ran its course. The Middle Ages gave way to a new kind of thought and artistic process, which grew up in Italy and was known as the Renaissance. Gothic architecture seemed old and dark to these new thinkers, and so, they raised architecture to another level, and Renaissance architecture was born. Roth notes, "They had a new confidence in their intellectual capacity and desired a new architecture, one no longer based in the traditions of the church but expressing the mathematical clarity and rationality they perceived in the divine order of the universe" (Roth 317). Gradually, Gothic architecture disappeared, but not before it had forever left its mark in the cities and towns of Europe.

In conclusion, Gothic cathedrals are some of the most lasting and memorable buildings still standing in Europe today. Gothic architecture created new building techniques and innovations, and moved building along to another level of understanding. Often, these ancient buildings have been renovated numerous times as they age, but they still manage to convey the power and opulence of the Gothic age. From their massive stature, to their incredibly beautiful stained glass windows and ornate stone carvings decorating the exteriors and interiors, these cathedrals tell us much about the people who created and used them. They are architectural wonders, but they are also incredibly artistic and stunning. They show an incredible attention to detail and decoration that we rarely see in modern architecture. They are truly wonders of the world, and they clearly influenced culture and society for hundreds of years. While their building style gave way to other influences, they can never be… [read more]

Ultimate Syntheses of Art Term Paper

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In order to do this, I will need to learn about historical applications of architecture, the building materials most often employed, and to study the plans and budgets of major development projects.

With computer-aided drafting, I can also combine my affinity with digital media with my passion for architecture. I also intend to learn traditional drafting, which I have always found fascinating. However, computer-aided drafting can help the designer visualize in three-dimensional space, allowing for all sorts of variables that are difficult to envision when working with pencil and paper. For example, with computers, an architect can input geographical and climate variables that might affect the structure or materials used in a building. If an architect has a contract that calls for extensive creative input, the computer can be a valuable time-saving devise used to quickly experiment with novel design ideas.

A also hope to learn a lot about architecture as a business, including the relationship between designers and the construction industry; architects and real estate developers; and architects and city planners. This will be practical information that I can use to develop my career.

3. The philosopher Goethe once said, "Science and art belong to the whole world, and before them vanish the barriers of nationality." This quote directly relates to my vision of architecture as an artistic endeavor and inspires my ideals in the field. I believe that both art and architecture, like music, are universal languages. People from all over the world, whatever language they speak, can appreciate the nuances and uniqueness of the art and architecture of other cultures. While we might have certain predilections for specific architectural styles, it is still easy to appreciate the genius in all sorts of culture-or time-specific constructions. For instance, the pyramids of Egypt will never be duplicated on that scale in modern times but they continue to amaze people.

Because architecture is both science and art, Goethe's words ring especially true for someone interested in that field of study. Science and art do belong to the whole world because they do not require any translation. The principles of good building design are executed no matter what the specific style; likewise, engineering facts are rules of scientific law, not of opinion.

This quote also reflects on my personal character because I am always trying to find ways to bridge differences between people. In the face of so much racism and prejudice, it is important to remember the fundamental human principles that unite us. Often these principles are contentious, as with philosophy or religion. However, architecture is one means by which human beings can communicate in a universal language. Architecture is inevitable because the need for shelter is as basic as the need for clothing; as such architecture belongs to the whole world and helps people to erase the "barriers of…… [read more]

Architect Santiago Calatrava Term Paper

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As the event was one of universal appeal, Calatrava took special care to clearly bring out all his innovative ideas in the structure. With its double arches and structural rigidity, lightness of form stressed by the steel and concrete support, the resulting bridge won him international acclaim and cemented his position among the leading architects of the world.

These ideas however, were not fully realized nor were their potential inspiration to the world of architecture assessed until the completion of the Campo Volantin Footbridge in 1997. After this point, Calatrava's genius spread to nations across the continent, and over in N. America too. His other projects included the BCE Place Mall in Toronto, Canada; the Oriente Railway Station in Lisbon, commissioned for Expo '98; Lyon Airport; the Swissbau Concrete Pavilion in Basel. Calatrava's unmistakable style is immediately apparent in all his structures. (See App. 5-8)

As with all art forms, Calatrava's work is designed to express the sentiment, culture, opinions and values of his clients, their countries and his personal ideology. In the example of Stadelhofen Station, we find that the city's civic layout is closely related to the cultural inclination of its people, the Swiss. The combinations of nature and mathematical technicality, free form and rigid discipline, and the theme of constant motion revolving round a stationary point - which is what a train station symbolizes - are all clearly brought out in Calatrava's building. The architect himself said, "This large-scale attack on the urban landscape is characterized by the organization and repetition on the part of the constructive element."

Calatrava's Spanish designs incorporate the cultural opinions of the creator and his country, yet maintain the rich diversity enjoyed by Spain's various regions. In the Campo Volantin Footbridge, one finds the truest elements of Calatrava's style, as the expression involved is more direct and spontaneous; there is no trace of imposition of this local style on any of his foreign works, yet one can discern traces of Spain and the architect's personal touch in all his creations. Philip Jodido sums it up best when he says, "As in many other designs by Santiago Calatrava, an apparent disequilibrium or rather a sense of frozen movement is heightened by the lightness of the structure." (Gibson, 2000)

Santiago Calatrava's importance to the world of architecture is enormous. His flamboyance and style are emulated across the globe. Many critics and architects acknowledge the extensive influence his work has had on fledgling and established artists. The disdain that Calatrava has shown for accepted form has inspired his contemporaries to follow suit in creating a new wave of architecture that does not border on chaos or disparity, but rather concentrates on uniting the artistic aspects of architecture and intellectual witticism with the technical rigidity offered by engineering. The concepts of open air structures, structural disequilibrium; unification of extremes in nature and construction, and sophisticated innovation that can hold its own in a rapidly progressing world make this architect's contribution to modern architecture priceless.

Calatrava's work… [read more]

Origins of Skyscrapers, Their Design Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


"In New York City, meanwhile, commercial building flourished in the early years of the twentieth century, and new skyscrapers quickly set height records. Though the basic technology of the steel frame had been worked out in Chicago, New York buildings soon eclipsed those in Chicago in size and conveniences, if not always in direct functional expression" (Roth 187).

The Singer Building in New York utilized new techniques to brace for high winds, and was the tallest building in the world, with 42 stories, when it was built. "Ernest Flagg's Singer Building, 1906-8, is a good example of the New York type. The forty-seven stories far exceed what was being done in Chicago, and the slender proportions of the tower were remarkable. To brace the tower against turbulent New York winds, crossed diagonals were used at the corners, and while this was expressed by the heavy corner wall piers enclosing the glass curtain-walls, it was not so directly expressive of the frame perhaps as were the works of Sullivan, or Holabird & Roche" (Roth 187).

The building was covered with green and red terra cotta on the outside, and the tall tower in the center of the building included an observation deck. The tower was supported by the larger block base of the building. It was also the first building to use electricity to light a spire. "The foundations of the building consisted of 36 caissons sunk to bedrock, 92 feet below the surface. It is said that Ernest Flagg's design of a setback building, may have influenced NYC's setback law of 1916, in which (basically) buildings needed to 'step up' as it went higher, in order to avoid having nothing but giant blocks all over the city. He told a City Hall hearing committee that buildings should be restricted to 3/4's of their sites, thus assuring open ground area and adequate light, or be restricted to no more than 100 feet in height" (Damore).

William van Alen built the Chrysler Building in 1930, and it was the tallest building in the world when it was completed. The beautiful art deco Nirosta stainless steel spire on top of the building was constructed inside the top floors of the building, and put in place in about 90 minutes when it was completed. The spire served no other purpose than to make the building taller than any other in the world. The building's "pierless corners reflect the cantilevers of the International Style and whose richly modeled aluminum spire is the nearest equivalent to European Art Deco" (Roth 245).

Van Alen was never paid for his work on the building, because of a dispute with owner William Chrysler. He designed few buildings after the Chrysler. Today, it is still one of the most stylish and striking buildings in the world.

Clearly, the Chicago School influenced skyscraper construction in New York. They gave them the techniques to build tall buildings, in another city where space was at a premium. However, New York architects took skyscrapers… [read more]

John Ruskin/S Beliefs Term Paper

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In Seven lamps of Architecture, Ruskin describes several elements that he contends are needed for a building to be good architecture. The elements are: Sacrifice, Truth, Power, Beauty, Life, Memory, and Obedience. For years discussion has revolved around these beliefs of Ruskin and his statements that only truly free people can create good architecture. The question has been asked: "Why can't good architecture be considered independently of the life circumstances surrounding those who build it?" The answer, according to Ruskin and those who agree with him, is a free spirit and soul are needed for true freedom and creative ability. Those who are not free hold certain preconceived desires to please their masters regardless of their own beliefs, and those desires to please carry over into the architecture world. In addition those who are not free have stress that a true artist cannot live with. A truly free person can look at the empty sky and create a building in his mind, which compliments and dovetails with the surrounding objects and ambiance. Ruskin believed that the soul and body of architectural greatness reflects the soul and body of an ideal society (Ruskin, 1990). How then, he reasons, can we expect any excellence from someone who is not free? They are not living the life of an ideal society and their best efforts will fall woefully short of excellence and perfection.

While Ruskin is often criticized for what looks like a simplistic viewpoint the foundation of his argument is steeped in truth. For one to be a true creator of beauty and art one must be free of bondage, both physically and mentally. The free man can create without fear while the non-free man must be ever mindful of the possible repercussions of his mind and soul. Therefore a free man might create where an owned man will mimic, and true art, whether it is in the beauty of a building or the paints on a canvass must come from the heart and soul, not the mind.


Ruskin, John. The Seven Lamps of…… [read more]

Indian Art Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,908 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Indian Art

The Taj Mahal is "a supreme culmination of many experiments that went before, and that's why it's so perfect," (cited in "Architectural Antecedents to the Taj Mahal," n.d.). Primary precursors to the Taj Mahal include the Mughal architecture of Central Asia prior to the irconquest of India; pre-Mughal Muslim Indian architecture in the Delhi region, and also earlier… [read more]

Issues With Design Build Contracts Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (876 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


However, recent trends have begun to favor design build set ups, where a single firm takes control over both the design and the construction. This is essentially a way to speed up the entire process and reduce potential risks in having to use two separate entities on a single project.

Additionally, there is the issue of working within the context of military contracts as well. 10 USC 2862 states that "The Secretary concerned may use one-step turn-key selection procedures for the purpose of entering into contracts for the construction of authorized military construction projects," with the term one-step turn-key meaning "procedures used for the selection of a contractor on the basis of price and other evaluation criteria to perform, in accordance with the provisions of a firm fixed-price contract, both the design and construction of a facility using performance specifications supplied by the Secretary concerned" (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2006). However, the main issue here is that there is a fixed price within the negotiations, which often causes issues for firms within the industry (Napier et al., 1988). If there snags or hiccups along the way, the architectural firm is left having to pay any extra costs based on the fixed price negotiations with the U.S. Military. This often can result in losses for the firm, which is a negative impact to the overall industry.


There are options for firms wanting to circumnavigate such conflicting Federal law statutes. However, it just takes the knowledge and skill to get the right authorization and permissions. It is thus a recommendation that firms have at least one person that is knowledgeable in working towards gaining the right authorization for design build contracts. In regards to the military y bids, team members must be highly skilled in negotiating contracts that will include room for mishaps within the fixed budget provided.


American Institute of Architects. (2007). Federal government design-build laws. AIA. Web. http://www.aia.org/aiaucmp/groups/ek_public/documents/pdf/aiap016823.pdf

American Institute of Architects. (2013). Building & Contract Negotiation. Emerging Professional's Companion. Web. http://www.aia.org/aiaucmp/groups/aia/documents/pdf/aiab097629.pdf

Napier, Thomas P., Holcomb, Timothy D., Kapolnek, Robert G., & Rivas, Abelardo. (1988). Six case studies on alternative construction methods: One-step "turnkey" facility acquisition and architectural fabric structure technology. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Web. http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a196929.pdf

U.S. Government Printing Office. (2006). 10 USC 2862 turn key selection procedures. United States Code. Web. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/USCODE-2010-title10/html/USCODE-2010-title10-subtitleA-partIV-chap169-subchapIII-sec2862.htm… [read more]

Shah Signature, Navi Mumbai Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (969 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


The iconic sail of the form of this building is a representation of the local context in the past as well as its futuristic bend that appears in the present context for the site of the project which is located in the twenty-first century of the Navi Mumbai city. The form centric design of the building as it was conceptualized for the project was quite appealing to the client immediately it was presented. There were different options that were put into consideration in the pre-design stage and the design was finalized eventually based on the concept as well as better energy performance vis-a-vis form and orientation (NBM Media Pvt. Ltd., 2010).

The building is a mixed-use high rise one, referred to as a signature tower is made up of offices on upper floors while retail shopping activity taking place within the basement and lower floors. The location is on the corner plot hence the open space found on the ground is well utilized since it acts as an open deck for the public spill -- over from the existing retail mall which is a good change for vicinity that is otherwise crowded. The special facade structure of the building is determined to be designed on the basis of a grid concept that lends it to the two way curve form that it takes. The intention of the warp form is to act as an outer layer of the building envelope that reduces heat ingress and not daylight hence minimizing load on air-conditioning. This form when compared to the normal box building is quite imposing but not unwieldy at the same time is more appropriate when it comes to handling winds at levels that are higher. The visualization of this curve building facade that was reducing of the plan of going higher was carried out at various stages until they achieved the outcome which was most satisfactory. Currently the team is trying to determine if this unique facade grid could be made parametric in order to accommodate change incase approval of the higher FSI is made by development control authorities. Structural consultant as well as the MEP consultant is sharing information from BIM model that is in the form of 3d files in order to bring out an integrated design in their structures as well as the services. The MEP services of this building are designed in such a way that they minimize energy as well as the conception of water (NBM Media Pvt. Ltd., 2010).


NBM Media Pvt. Ltd., (2010). The Firm Sustainability Intrinsic to Good Design. Retrieved March31, 2014 from http://www.nbmcw.com/articles/architects-a-project-watch/5533-the-firm-a-multi-design-practice-offering-architecture-interiors-and-landscape.html

Dsouza, B.(2012). Shah Signature at Vashi by Shah Group in Navi Mumbai. Retrieved March31,2014 from http://masssnews.weebly.com/4/post/2012/05/shah-signature-at-vashi-by-shah-group-in-navi-mumbai.html

Kalpana Struct.(2012). Shaha Signature-commercial Building construction. Retrieved March31, 2014 from http://www.kscpl.com/ongoing/shah-signature-commercial-building-construction/… [read more]

Building in India Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,002 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


5. It's not had to imagine the potential patron, the designer, the builder of this edifice.

Patron and designer were presumably part of the British Raj, hence the overwhelmingly British appearance of the structure. They must have built it as a school for the education of British children resident in the subcontinent.

The patron might very well have been a committee of British officers or bureaucrats, who sensed a need for a school building for the children of the increasingly large British presence in India. In such a case, the money for erecting the building might have been raised by subscription, or by the solicitation of richer patrons back in England.

Design was presumably done by someone back in England, who had a description of the plot of land secured for the purpose.

The actual building and bricklaying were more likely to have been done by locals.

6. The only other building in the surrounding location that can be glimpsed in the most recent of the photos shows an uneasy relation between the boxy white post-WW2 structure that has popped up behind our building.

The contrast isn't too horrible but it is noticeable. The white building seems like it's probably an apartment block.

It seems like, over time, there has been more development of the immediate surrounding area. It is now more crowded, more urbanized, and probably altogether less tidy than it was when our building was first constructed.

7. The general style and building materials used would seem to indicate late nineteenth or early twentieth century British architecture.

Within that context we would need a more detailed guide to Victorian and Edwardian architectural style to be able to specify a decade. Comparable brick Victorian buildings are likely to be even more ornate than this one -- however the level of ornament is still pretty high to seriously consider early twentieth century. It seems more like a late nineteenth century building.

8. Overall we may combine the observations in the previous answers to hazard some gueses about this building.

It's historical context would seem to be the British Raj. The brick construction with the stone trimmings and slate roof appear distinctly British.

The form is distinctly nineteenth century. The setting appears to be a relic of the nineteenth century also, as it appears the immediate vicinity must have changed between the time this building was built and the present: increased development has led to an encroachment upon the actual plot of land that our building inhabits.

Purpose is necessarily more speculative but the sheer size of the building certainly indicates a relatively large number of people could be expected to use the building, although without a glimpse inside it's not possible to know if people were housed here too -- the best guess we can make is that the topmost layer with…… [read more]

St. Patrick's Cathedral: Field Trip Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (562 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


For a small donation, visitors were allowed to light a candle. Although I took some photographs of the cathedral and its interior, there were some parts of the church like the gift shop where photography was not allowed. One of the areas within the Cathedral that I found most aesthetically inspiring was the baptistery. I also took some photographs of the main entrance's bronze doors. In the bronze doors' facades are figures that represent prominent people in the church's history.

Apart from the spectacular architectural design of the building (both internal and external), quite a number of other aspects of the Cathedral deserve a mention. For instance, from what I gathered, the Cathedral's great organ has more than seven thousand pipes. Further, in addition to having a total of 19 bells, the Cathedral has a spectacular and breathtaking Rose Window - which I have already mentioned in this text (although not clearly visible due to the scaffolding). The said window has a diameter of 26 feet. The other exceptional details of the Cathedral which I observed during my visit include but they are not limited to its stained glass, vaulted ceilings, interior woodwork, and narrow windows.

The Cathedral also has incredibly high arched ceilings that make it look and feel so exquisite and large. This is regardless of the fact that over time, many of the skyscrapers that have been erected in the Cathedral's neighborhood have effectively dwarfed this architectural masterpiece despite the tall spikes that characterize its external appearance. Complete with the tall and impressive stained glass windows, the carved stone walls of the Cathedral are reminiscent of most Gothic-styled churches. To me, St. Patrick's Cathedral is…… [read more]

Construction Project Management Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (603 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Hearst Tower on 57th and 8th in Midtown Manhattan

The Hearst Corporation is a media conglomerate that owns or controls newspapers, magazines, television stations, and cable networks. The company has been around since the early 20th century, and so has the base of the building, which was built in 1928 at the cost of $2 million then. The base of the building is a designated historic landmark. It has six stories, and comprises 40,000 square feet. Originally, a skyscraper was intended to emerge from the six-story building but the Great Depression caused the Hearst Corporation to postpone the project. It was postponed until 2006. The new tower built in 2006 was the first to be built in Manhattan since the terrorist attacks of September 11. The finished product is 46 stories tall, and offers 860,000 square feet of office space. Its defining external feature is its diagrid, made of 9500 metric tons of structural steel. It received the Emporis Skyscraper Award in 2006, the year it was completed. Moreover, the Hearst Tower is of note because it was the first "green" high rise office building in New York City. The Hearst Tower was constructed around the historical facade, a design approved by the Landmark Preservation Commission. The tower cost about $500 million to construct.

LEED Gold and Platinum Designations

The diagrid construction permits a great deal of external light to penetrate the offices inside, reducing dependence on artificially powered light. The building uses 26% less energy than the minimum average in the city. Special "low-E" windows also contribute to maximal external light, but also minimize the input of heat radiation to keep the building cool and prevent the need for air conditioning. In addition to being "green," the building's high degree of natural light is also beneficial for workplace…… [read more]

Curatorial Project Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (625 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Beyond Function: Form for Form's Sake

Architecture occupies a unique place in the art world because architecture possesses a practical dimension that few other art forms possess. The interface between form and function is classic and endemic to the study, practice, art, and science of architecture. Even the most cursory survey of architecture throughout human history reveals the ways architects transcend the need-driven function of form, to create forms with cultural, symbolic, and emotional content. "The poetic experience of space, light, and form remains the subject of architecture," (Hill 4). This poetry of architectural experience is evident in the art of the 20th century, and especially in the curvilinear and whimsical creations of Frank Gehry and Antonio Gaudi. Both Gehry's Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao and Gaudi's Casa Milo Apartments in Barcelona reveal ways architects use form to communicate culture, which is why they are included in the Beyond Function: Form for Form's Sake special collection.

Gehry's iconic museum in Bilbao, Spain houses the Peggi Guggenheim collection of art. The structure transformed an otherwise industrial town into one that fuses art and science (Van Buggen and Gehry). In fact, the placement of the Frank Gehry museum symbolizes the spirit of architecture itself: a blend of form and function that is at once aesthetically appealing, culturally relevant, and historically meaningful. Designed to function as a museum of art, the architect had the opportunity to create a structure to match the magnitude of the collection within. Gehry affirms fully the role of the architect in doing more than just creating four walls and a shelter from the elements. Instead, Gehry states, "I'm interested in architecture as a work of art, and whether it will hold up as art," (cited by Cuff 37). Indeed, the Gehry Guggenheim museum achieves this lofty goal. It is remarkably curvilinear and fluid, and yet also has a solid, reliable…… [read more]

Project Management, Sustainability and Whole Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (709 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Signifying the city's rapid transition from a mining boomtown to a modern metropolis, Freed wrapped the classical Beaux-Arts inspired cornice around the south side of the building, before suddenly revealing a modern facade of strikingly austere steel windows and stone walls.

For visitors to the San Francisco Main Public Library, the architectural skill of Freed can be felt through a variety of subtle design features. Many observers have lauded the inclusion of a towering atrium as a beautiful and effective means to facilitate natural lighting and climate control, and as the design firm responsible for the atrium's inclusion states proudly, "internal organization centers around a monumental open staircase and a five-story atrium, 60 feet in diameter, that provides a luminous hub of orientation" (Pei, Cobb, Freed & Partners, 2001). Although public appraisal has been nearly unanimous that the "library's huge, multistory atrium gives the building a soaring, open feel," many critics have remarked that this design feature has sacrificed functionality for form, decrying the fact that "the $137 million building seems to have been designed more as an architectural masterwork than as a working library" (Wildermuth, 2000). Nonetheless, with an abundance of perfectly integrated bridges and elevators to assure a smooth flow of traffic for library patrons, as well as a cleverly designed network of entrances and exits that integrates the building into the surrounding cityscape, the San Francisco Main Public Library stands as a testament to the success that can be achieved by blending historical and modern architectural styles.


Muschamp, H. (1996, May 12). Architecture view: Room for imagination in a temple of reason. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/1996/05/12/arts/architecture-view-room-for-imagination-in-a- temple-of-reason.html

Pei Cobb Freed & Partners. (2001, April 17). San francisco main public library. Retrieved from http://www.pcf-p.com/a/p/8908/s.html

San Francisco Public Library. (2013, January 11).Architecture of the main library. Retrieved from http://sfpl.org/index.php?pg=2000023201

Wildermuth, J. (2000, January 05). Cost of redoing s.f. main library put at $28 million / report notes lacks of shelf space read more: http://www.sfgate.com/education/article/cost-of- redoing-s-f-main-library-put-at-28-2785880.php… [read more]

Coed Darcy the Urban Village Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,964 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


This is being considered as a sustainability agenda that helps define the company the behavior of their clients. Needless to say, carbon forms the main constituent of the greenhouse gases that are considered responsible for the changes in the climate. 77% of the greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide. Other gases that contain carbon and constitute the greenhouse gases are methane,… [read more]

Gaudi's Works Antonio Research Paper

Research Paper  |  12 pages (3,787 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


They made sure that they made their work stand out and look amazing with the use of simple ornaments like plaster and brick. Surely, one can imagine that the use of luxurious items like marble and gold has always been used to make a building pretty. Gaudi paid extra attention to the simpler and cheaper materials as well. Nevertheless, his… [read more]

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