"Architecture / Construction" Essays

1234. . .
X Filters 

Sign and Symbol, by John Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (428 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


, and elevation to heaven

Paris 12-13th centuries -- new School of Paris -- Gothic emphasizing "mystical signification" more lightness in the design, less materiality

Also shift away from Roman style, which symbolized paganism

Pointed forms, evoking "convergence of branches," capitals and pinnacles with leaves, now flower symbolizes living church

15th century Italy starts to abandon Gothic architecture

16th century shift of economic, political power away from church -- impacted architecture-made it more geometric, rigid to impart law and order -- symbolizing the keeping in check of economic and political power

19th century, After 1800- France uses Egyptian symbols in cemeteries bc symbolize death; Islamic symbols in England represent "wayward lifestyle" -- diverse styles used

20th century -- International Movement, Le Corbusier -- concrete, steel, lack of ornament

1980s -- architects, patrons want return to…… [read more]

Sustainable Energy for Low Carbon Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (936 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


It is a Government owned national standard intended to encourage continuous improvement in sustainable home building. It has a rating scale of one to six stars (Code Level 6 is the government target for 2016) and contains some mandatory levels in key areas like energy and water.BRE Global act as advisors on issues related to maintenance and development of the technical contents of the CSH standard and manage implementation of the scheme under contract to the Department of Communities and Local Government (DCLG)." (BREEAM, 2012) The report states that the Code for Sustainable Homes is much like BREEAM "in that the Green Guide to Specification is the mechanism Code Assessors use to measure the environmental impact of specifications for key building elements. Manufacturers choose to obtain a Certified Environmental Profile as a way of demonstrating their environmental performance and to obtain specific Green Guide ratings to be used within the Code." (BREEAM, 2012)

Best practices therefore can be concluded to be inclusive of the use of suitable materials that meet specifications and codes set out for sustainable structures. As well best practices include the elements listed in the following illustration published by Constructing Excellence in the South East in its "Guide to Bet Practice in Construction."

Source: Constructing Excellence in the South East (2012)

Sustainable construction is reported to address in a cohesive manner the "triple bottom line" or that of the "social, economic, and environmental performance of the industry including the following action areas:

(1) Being more profitable and competitive. It is recognized that businesses need higher profits to intelligently invest in its people, products, and processes to improve their competitiveness; (Construction Excellence in the Southeast, 2012)

(2) Delivering buildings and structures that provide greater satisfaction, well-being and added value to customers and users; (Construction Excellence in the Southeast, 2012)

(3) Respecting and fairly treating employees and the wider community. This includes improving health and safety, enhancing site and welfare conditions, and avoiding noise and dirt, which would inconvenience local residents; (Construction Excellence in the Southeast, 2012)

(4) Enhancing and protecting the natural environment, including protecting habitats, trees, waterways and other natural features; (Construction Excellence in the Southeast, 2012)

(5) Minimizing consumption of natural resources and energy during the construction phase and throughout the life of the facility. The buildings should be energy efficient and utilize energy from renewable resources by specifying recycled materials and renewable energy sources and considering the buildings' future use; (Construction Excellence in the Southeast, 2012) and (6) Reducing waste and avoiding pollution during the construction process. 70% of landfill is reportedly generated through construction activity. (Construction Excellence in the Southeast, 2012)

Summary and Conclusion

This study has examined the materials for use…… [read more]

Niosh Report -- Fire Safety Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (808 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


A parapet wall has little, if any, lateral stability and will present a high potential for collapse (Malanga, 1996). These structures can be easily identified because of the signs or awnings that may be attached. It is safe to assume that the parapet wall has not been engineered to take the weight and forces being applied by additional dead and live loads as a result of a fire (Dunn, 2006).

To properly establish a collapse zone, multiply the height of the building times 1 1/2 to account for falling and scattered debris (Fornell, 1995). Another critical element in preventing parapet-related firefighter deaths is preplanning. Size-up needs to start even before the run goes out. Crews should identify occupancies that present additional risk to life, safety, and property in our response area, and establish plans for that specific target hazard. It is also advised that crews should identify the age of structure, its integrity, the type of roof and interior structures and supports, building materials, and building class to make proper assessments for next steps (Dunn, 2006).

Case #3 - Explain the hazards that lightweight wooden trusses with gusset plate connectors present to firefighters working inside a structure fire.

Lightweight truss construction often includes gusset plates and other metal joints. A gusset plate is a stamped metal plate with raised teeth that is embedded in lightweight wood truss joints at the panel joints to hold the individual truss members together. The gusset teeth usually penetrate the wood members approximately 3/8-inch. When subjected to fire these components burn and fail faster than traditional wood lumber -- they do not have the fire stopping capabilities that wood lumber has (Fornell, 1995). If firefighters do not identify that a house is constructed with these types of materials, they could be endangered by floors that will collapse faster than traditionally constructed floors, and ceilings and roofs that will fail quickly when exposed to high heat conditions (Dunn, 2006). One of the problems associated with manufactured wood trusses is the improper installation of nailing or gusset plates (Malanga, 1996). A gap of 1/6-inch between the gusset plate and the wood can reduce connection strength by up to 50%.


Dunn, V. (2006). Collapse of burning buildings: A guide to fireground safety. Princeton, NJ: Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic.

Fornell, D. (1995). Don't trust…… [read more]

Frank Lloyd Wright Was Born in 1867 Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Frank Lloyd Wright was born in 1867 on a farm in Richland, Wisconsin where he spent most of his youth. He was originally named Frank Lincoln Wright but when his parents divorced and he had designed his first building, he decided to change his middle name to Lloyd. When he as 12 years old he and his parents moved to the larger city of Madison, Wisconsin where he attended high school but never graduated.

Wright's initial interest in architecture developed during his high school years and this interest led to his taking a job with the Dean of the University of Wisconsin's College of Wisconsin. The requirements of the job dictated that he quit high school but he did find time to take several courses in civil engineering.

After working at the University of Wisconsin for several years, Wright moved to the City of Chicago where he began working for local architect, Joseph Lyman Silsbee. Under Silsbee's tutelage Wright had the opportunity to design his first building. This building, known as the Lloyd-Jones family chapel, did not reveal any of the characteristics that ultimately defined Wright's unique style or construction concepts. This development would occur later as Wright took a new job with the Adler and Sullivan architectural firm.

The firm had already adopted the policy that "Form follows function" and Wright altered that policy to state that "Form and Function are one." Like his new mentors Wright was of the strong belief that American architecture needed to develop its own identity and divorce from the architectural styles that were popular in Europe.

It was while Wright was employed with Adler and Sullivan that he began to develop his own design style. Wright's architectural style was not the only change that occurred during his tenure with Adler and Sullivan. During this time he also fell in love and married Catherine Tobin. It was shortly after getting married that Wright and his wife built their house in Oak Park, Illinois which remains a heavily visited tourist attraction. In this house the couple raised their five children.

While his roots were there in the mid-West, his life led him to the biggest cities in America. His work embodied a spirit that was both personal and affirmative. His religious beliefs were informed in his childhood by his parents' Unitarianism: That same sense of and obsession with unity would shape the way Wright constructed -- from the uniformity of line in Robie House to the uniformity of curve and color in the Guggenheim Museum. Wright was keenly aware of all things working and fitting together

While Wright excelled as…… [read more]

Forces on Buildings When Constructing Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (623 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The third potential problem is the roof-renovation. Again, depending on the status of the renovation, the building's structure could be weakened do the lack of a roof providing structural support. The construction materials used for the renovation could also pose potential hazards to fire fighters and rescuers. Heavy materials on the roof or stored on the upper floors could foster floor or structural collapse; the materials could block pathways rescuers could need to save lives and property; and lastly, the materials could clutter areas around the building in such a manner as to impede firefighting or rescue efforts. The placement of construction materials should be such that they do not interfere with any type of emergency service. The roof may also have "open areas" that could allow inclement weather in, for example, rain or drizzle somehow sparking an electrical fire.

As I previously discussed, the loads of heavy furniture and appliances make the building "top heavy" and can foster building collapse where collapse otherwise would not occur. All heavy furniture and appliances should be placed on the ground and lower floors. As far as the composite materials go, generally they will strengthen the structure and provide insulation against a spreading fire. The whole building should be renovated with composites to bring it up to contemporary fire and structural safety codes and regulations. Loads in appliance and furniture stores usually require man-power using dollies and pallet jacks and because of this, there needs to be clear pathways and passages for both employees and rescue workers so there is a safe and secure working environment; and in the event of a disaster, there is an environment that can facilitate rescue and firefighting efforts.… [read more]

Frank Lloyd Wright Design Theory Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,756 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Kroll (2011) points out that "Similar to all of Wrights projects, every aspect of design and detail of the project was given particular attention by Wright." He designed the lighting and plumbing fixtures that were to go with the building, the style of windows, even, sometimes, the window treatments. He was not just interested in the outward look of the building and the inward space, he wanted the entire design, whether it be interior/exterior or structural, to flow as if it came from one palette.


Frank Lloyd Wright was a brilliant architect who took the designs offered at the end of the nineteenth century and expanded them. His influences may have been A mixture of Queen Anne and Sillsbee (Hurder, 2001), but he developed something that was many years ahead of its time. He was among the first designers who was concerned with the natural aesthetics of his projects. He wanted the perfect blend between what was natural and what was functional. He achieved his goal by going beyond what people thought could be done with the present construction materials (and they his detractors were sometimes correct), and incorporating as many natural elements as possible.


Aikens, J. (2009). Fallingwater: The story of a country house. AIArchitect, 16.

Hurder, S. (2001). Brief biography of Frank Lloyd Wright. Retrieved from http://www.oprf.com/flw/bio/

Kroll, A. (2011). AD classics: Taliesin West/Frank Lloyd Wright. Arch Daily. Retrieved from http://www.archdaily.com/123117/ad-classics-taliesin-west-frank-lloyd- wright/

Peponis, J., & Bellal T. (2010). In Fallingwater: Spatial structure at the scale of quasi- synchronic perception. Georgia Institute…… [read more]

Light Gauge Steel Studs Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (938 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … light gauge residential and commercial stud available and why-Is it strength? Durability? Weight that makes them the best?

The best light guage residential and commercial steels available are gauged according to load. They are strong -- anywhere from 20 guage to 12 guage in thickness, have a thicker galvanized coating, and are made from higher-strength steel. These do not -- like the regular steel -- come from lumber yards or drywall supply houses, but are made to order by a roll-former company. Their strength, durability, and weight all make them superior and better for use in construction.

What company(s) produce this stud?

The following companies produce information about this stud and produce it:

California Steel Framing Alliance (www.casfa.org)

Hawaii Pacific Steel Framing Alliance (www.hawaiisteel.com)

Light Gauge Steel Engineers Association (www.lgsea.com)

Steel Framing Alliance (www.steelframingalliance.com)

Steel Stud Manufacturers Association (www.ssma.com)

Tri-Chord Steel Systems, Inc. (www.tri-chordsteelsystems.com)

(Macerewich, http://bestdrywall.com/files/Switchingto%20Steel.pdf)

Why is it better than wood?

There are several reasons why steel is preferable to wood:

Steel framing material is far stronger than wood. It has the highest strength-to-weight ratio of any residential building material .

It is safer in earthquakes since it can withstand the highest seismic rating. This is due in part to its strength and resiliency as well as to the way that it is fastened to the base of t he building it is unaffected by changes in weather and therefore won't erode, bulge, blemish, sag, or squeak (and so forth) as wood does.

It won't fuel a fire therefore in some areas a steel-constructed house may even incur lower Homeowners and builder's risk insurance easier remodeling: renovations are far easier than with wood for you can simply screw or unscrew certain parts together rather than rip apart

Consistent quality: the wall and all appurtenances are straight. There is a strength and consistency that does not appear in wood.

Conservation of resources: Steel is the most recycled material far more than wood. It is best, therefore, on the environment.

(Excalibur. http://www.excalibursteel.com/better.htm)

- What are the new innovations in steel studs? In the last say 5 years? Is it a new design? Is it something that other studs can do like contain precut holes for electrical?

In the last five years there has been an exponential growth of new connectors made for cold-formed steel. In fact, some manufacturers have separate catalogs just for selling connectors.

Manufacturers also developed new steel making techniques with, for instance, developing floor systems that had additional material at the flange, in order to increase moment capacity and provided larger, stiffened holes in the web. Other techniques were also developed for wall stud framing.

Some stud manufacturers have been putting slits in their studs to cut down on the thermal heat transfer; others have used stiffened holes for the same reason.

There are also…… [read more]

Fire Department Reviewing and Changing Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (2,442 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Another factor that need to be taken into consideration here and that has also been agreed by a lot of authors such as: Dunn, 2000; Carter, 1992; Chapman, 1995, is that the stairwells in the high rise buildings can be used for the purpose of evacuations as well as ventilation. The thing that needs to be done here is, making… [read more]

Specific Architectural Ornamentation by Louis Sullivan Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,931 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Louis Sullivan

"Form Follows Function" in Sullivan's Guaranty Building

"It is the pervading law of all things…that form ever follows function," Louis Sullivan stated in "The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered."

Once upon a time recognized as the "father of skyscrapers," Sullivan and his influence would indeed leave their stamp on the next generation of architects like Frank Lloyd Wright.… [read more]

Architectural Principles of the Medieval Period Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (919 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Architectural Principles of the Medieval Period

There is a very close connection that can be seen between the architectural efforts and achievements of medieval cultures and the cultural visions and experiences that these architectural constructions were intended to express. The astounding structures that were fashioned by medieval cultures also show evidence of certain architectural principles and techniques that were central to building and construction at that time. Architectural principles and design techniques have developed constantly as humankind has utilised the tools necessary to complete such construction projects.

The architectural principles found during this time show evidence of the connection between architecture and religious themes and principles that were dominate at the time. This time frames ranges from the Byzantine Empire to the Gothic Period. Each period represents a major step in the development of fundamental architectural concepts that have proven vital for the development of Western architecture. There were many essential periods within each medieval historical context that highlight the main developments that have fostered the extension and evolution of architectural principles throughout the various historical frameworks.

The Byzantine architects incorporated the advanced usage of science based on sophisticated principles of physics and mathematics in order to create their churches. An increase use of brick and plaster together with more geospatial complexity in the design and construction of the architecture in addition to stone were incorporated into the development of public infrastructure at the time. The architecture of this time period incorporated very specific dimensions and angles as to emphasize certain features of the design. The cross-in-square was the dominant architectural form of middle Byzantine churches, which marked a decided departure from the oblong ground plan of the basilica, which had been seen previously. This architectural influence was pandemic in its effectuating influence all through the known world.

Likewise, Islamic architecture also contributed to the advancement of design and architectural principles that were then employed in later European architecture. Islamic architecture represented the connection between the secular and religious. The architectural styles were not separate in these two arenas. Islamic architectural style is embodied in structures that benefited society the most. This architectural style with its recurring mathematical designs is easily recognizable even today. The essential structures of Islamic architecture were introduced previous to the seventh century. Essential features of Islamic architecture include the crescent arch, the vault, the dome, buttresses, columns, and beams. These features are what distinguished Islamic building construction from Christian building construction. However, Islamic architecture also had an influence on some types of buildings in Europe.

The history of castles has a substantial level of association with the Crusades and the exchange of architecture amid the disparate cultures which co-existed in the Holy Land throughout that time period. Castles were mainly made out of stone,…… [read more]

Artist and Art Work Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,937 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Frank Lloyd Wright, Robie House, And the Guggenheim

Frank Lloyd Wright was an architect of the modern era -- an architect who, not unlike Marcel Breuer, was as modern in his ideas as the age that saw him create his most acclaimed works of architecture. For Wright, "Love of an idea (was) love of God" (Secrest 4) -- a caption… [read more]

CPM the Critical Path Method Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (964 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


There should be a single starting point and ending point, although some nodes may not have any contingent successors and predecessors (for example, the marketing of a group of development houses may be ongoing, and not necessarily dependent upon the project's physical construction, other than the need for its completion).

CPM is a useful part of the planning process of a construction project because it allows the involved parties to estimate which project are 'critical' in the sense that they must be completed on time, or else result in costly delays. Construction projects are easily stymied and can run months, even years over the estimated duration simply because one or two critical elements take longer than expected. (An excellent example of this is the infamous 'Big Dig' construction project in Boston, which was beset by delays during critical junctions of the construction process).

Once the most critical components of the project are determined, "if you put in information about the cost of each activity, and how much it costs to speed up each activity, CPM can help you figure out whether you should try to speed up the project, and, if so, what is the least costly way to speed up the project" (Baker 2004). A cost-benefit analysis of speed vs. financial outlays must always be conducted. A slower project costs more in labor, for example, but hiring additional workers and equipment may ultimately not save money for the project managers in the long run. Optimal use of CPM allows managers to find a balance between the scope of the project, its budget, and the best ways to use labor, equipment, and capital.

Even under the best of circumstances, however, projects can become conflicted. "The owner may expect the project to be completed on-time and on-budget. The general contractor has to finish within the allotted time, ensure its profit margin, manage relationships with subcontractors, and manage its relationship with the owner. Subcontractors require an efficient work environment so that productivity factors can be maintained" (About CPM, 2011, PMSB). The larger the project and the greater the number of subcontractors with potentially divergent interests (their phase of the project, for example, might simply be one project amongst many under the direction of the firm) the greater the risk of delays and in-fighting. But even when interpersonal conflicts occur, as they often do in the construction industry, knowledge is always power, and the CPM process gives managers the knowledge to more effectively negotiate a compromise between competing interests in the project.


About Critical Path Method (CPM). Project Management Services Bureau (PMSB). Retrieved

May 4, 2011


Baker, Samuel. (2004). Critical Path Method (CPM). Retrieved May 4, 2011


CPM. (2011). Net MBA. Retrieved May 4, 2011 at http://www.netmba.com/operations/project/cpm/

CPM. (2011). UGDSB. Retrieved May 4, 2011 at http://www.ugdsb.on.ca/jfr/ICS4M/cpm.pdf… [read more]

History of Project Management at the Dawn Essay

Essay  |  25 pages (6,401 words)
Bibliography Sources: 40


History of project management at the dawn of civilization can be looked at from two different civilisations -- Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. In this section both of these civilsations will be looked at from the perspective of cconstruction technology, architectural design, culture, science, economics, labour, and management, which all led to the creation of the master builder. The first ancient… [read more]

Twenty Building Projects Discussed Below Represent Essay

Essay  |  12 pages (3,378 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … twenty building projects discussed below represent the project activities of the periods discussed and provide supporting examples for the historical evidence. They represent the application of the areas of expertise to project activities from the dawn of civilisation to the classical antiquity. Undoubtedly building construction is a dynamic field for historical research. Much can be learned about social… [read more]

Engineering and Architectural Features of the Millau Viaduct in France Article

Article  |  9 pages (2,289 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Milau Viaduct

Stepping Out on a Twenty-First Century Bridge in the Sky: The Milau Viaduct Over the River Tarn

The World's Tallest Bridge

With a central pier stretching three-hundred and forty meters above the floor of the valley carved by the River Tarn over the eons, the Milau Viaduct bridge in southern France is the tallest bridge meant for automobile… [read more]

U.S. Green Building Leed Design Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6



Increasingly, the drive to develop green construction in the United States has grown from a small number of architects and contractors, who are responding to concerned consumers, to an actual trend that extends nationwide and includes mandated green buildings in many major cities. The degree to which this interest is now established throughout the country is exemplified by the… [read more]

Form Follows Function Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (628 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Function: The Implications as Seen Through Key Structures

Physical surroundings are a determinant factor in the defining the human experience. The communities, neighborhoods and buildings where we find familiarity and comfort are also those same hosts upon which we rely for sustenance, socialization and survival. And to that end, the interaction between man and nature defines the shape taken by each of these pursuits. Though such is a premise which has always persisted as an overarching theme in the infinite architectural philosophies that have adorned and scarred the earth, today's architectural dilemmas suggest that the emphases on nature and humanism have become destructively obscured by economic factors.

Some historical examples of architecture, such as the Colloseum in Rome and the proposed 1 World Trade Center are a direct reflection of this condition while others, such as the Basilica of St. Sernin in Toulouse, France and Fallingwater in rural Pennsylvania.

The Colloseum is likely the most prominent of these instances, with its sheer enormity implicating its function as a meeting place for sport, spectatorship and public gathering. The circular form and the cleared out arena tell a crucial narrative about both Roman society and the architectural capabilities which it had attained. We may observe that form follows function here with its grandness today denoting as much about the people who used it as about its modes of usage.

The basilica of St. Sernin is another particularly compelling example of this because its form deviates so particularly from the parameters of Christian architecture even as it is designed for many of the same purposes. The distinguishing feature of this structure is its relative enormity, making it an anomaly in 1060 when it first rose to its peak elevation. Its vaulted ceilings and the various satellite chapels which flank the grand sanctuary are a demonstration of the increasing proliferation of Christianity. The scale of the…… [read more]

Querini Stampalia Foundation Venice Italy Carlo Scarpa Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (596 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Querini Stampalia Foundation

At first glance, the Querini Stampalia Foundation in Venice, Italy, designed by architect Carlos Scarpa, is not an especially impressive edifice. Its muted brown tones and its very rectangular structure make the building appear almost industrial, and though it blends in quite well with the surrounding buildings it is neither especially evocative of Venetian history or a groundbreaking departure into new forms and styles of architecture. In short, the building appears rather plain and ordinary when first viewed. It does not grab the viewer's attention, but glides past like so much gondola on the canal. There is something to be said for this quality of blending in; certainly something more audacious, even if conceived on purely historical terms, would be more an interruption of the city's basic landscape than an addition to it. Yet the almost boring first impression of this building's facade quickly fades upon closer examination.

The outside of the building provides many of the details that make the Querini Stampalia Foundation stand out as an excellent example of historical integration without constraint in modern architecture. The arched windows and their metal greats give the building a much older feel, recalling a time when buildings in the powerful city-state of Venice might need to safeguard themselves against invading armies or militant merchants. Even the surrounding brickwork, which on one hand lends to the industrial and rather plain feeling of the building, helps to create this impression of age and solidity. This perspective gives the building an incredibly solid and fortified appearance, which the canals of Venice help to accentuate both by appearing as a sort of moat, and by providing a contrast in both color and solidity to the building itself. The way the building matches and flows into its neighbors can also…… [read more]

Florence Train Station Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (620 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Inside, traditional green and white marble make up the floors, adding a splash of color to the bright interior, and mirroring the interior of the nearby church, as well. This is really the only nod to history the designers employed, and it would probably not be apparent to most of the people who bustle through the terminal today. However, architects and experts recognize the importance and implications for historic design in the materials. In addition, it was one of the first truly modern buildings constructed in Florence, so its' design set it even more apart from the surrounding buildings, almost as if it was flaunting the historic symbolism of its' surroundings.

The concourse inside the building resembles a broad boulevard, and it was designed to become a gateway to the center of Florence, connecting one side of the city to the other in every way. It runs perpendicular to the train tracks, and is lined with shops along with ticket counters and information booths. Above the facades of the shops are a long row of black and white illustrations of the surrounding area, adding a bit of artwork to the modernity of the station.

In conclusion, the Florence Train Station is an excellent example of modern architecture in Italy, and it marks Italy's entrance into the modernism movement. Mussolini supported it because he was pushing for Italy to modernize and grow more efficient, and his acceptance of the building marked a definite shift in Italian architecture. The building is sleek, modern, open, and most of all efficient, which may be one reason that it has stood for so long. The design is still beautiful after all these years, and it is still a spectacular use of light, space,…… [read more]

Actions Had a Profound Impact on Others Admission Essay

Admission Essay  |  2 pages (587 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … actions had a profound impact on others in an organization (school, place of employment, extracurricular activity). What personal attributes were most helpful in addressing this situation? Did this experience involve any self-realization or self-actualization?

"The numbers just don't add up."

Few activities in life are as satisfying as building -- and few things are more frustrating.

Recently, I had the privilege of acting as project manager on joint venture that was contracted on behalf of employer, All American Flooring, and its sister company Quality Remodeling Design. Working on the project, a major addition on a house, gave me the joy of overseeing a major contract from its birth to its completion. The work began with my inspection of the job site and project materials, analyzing the architect's drawing and reviewing the permits needed to begin the job. Few people understand that the planning process of building a house or an addition is in many ways even more complicated than the physical construction of the structure itself. I gained a new appreciation of the importance of proper attention to detail -- especially when reviewing the architect's plans.

The most difficult part of the project was undoubtedly when the work of the lead architect had to be challenged. I discovered he had ignored vital details of the project -- quite simply, the numbers did not add up. Had I not double-checked his figures and asked to the architect to review his work, the project would have been delayed and my company could have suffered a tremendous loss of time and money. At first the architect questioned my reasoning and expertise, but after I demonstrated how and why he was in error, he was forced to concede my point and comply. Fortunately, I had…… [read more]

Greek and Roman City Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,095 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 3



Greek and Roman City

The study of ancient Mesopotamian architecture is based on the archaeological evidence that is available. This includes pictorial representations of buildings and texts on building practices. Scholarly literature usually focuses on temples, palaces, city walls and gates along with other monumental buildings, but occasionally there is talk of residential architecture as well.

The materials that were used to build a Mesopotamian house were the same as those that might be used today: mud brick, mud plaster and wooden doors, which were all naturally available around the city. Most houses contained a square center room with other rooms attached to it, but a great variation in the size and materials used to build the houses suggest they were built by the residents themselves. The smallest rooms did not necessarily belong to the poorest people. It was noted in fact the poorest people often built houses out of perishable materials such as reeds on the outside of the city.

The palaces in early Mesopotamian were large scale complexes, and were often generously decorated. These palaces often functioned as large scale socio-economic institutions. Meaning that along with residential and private functions, they housed craftsmen workshops, food storehouses, ceremonial courtyards, and were often associated with shrines. Assyrian palaces of the Iron Age have become famous because of the pictorial and textual narratives that were on their walls. These pictorials either included cultic scenes or a narrative account of the kings' military and civic accomplishments. Gates and important passageways were often edged with massive stone sculpture of mythological figures. The architectural planning of these Iron Age palaces was also planned around large and small courtyards. There is also a lot of evidence that suggests that bronze repousse bands decorated the wooden gates.

Ziggurats were massive stepped cult platforms that were found in certain Mesopotamian sanctuaries. This idea is thought to have originated in early Mesopotamian temples which were built in sequence; one building built over another on the same site over many centuries, creating a massive mound that raised the new temples up over the rest of the city. It is often thought that ziggurats were built in order to resemble mountains. The entire mud brick core structure of these ziggurats was originally given a facing of a baked brick envelope that was set in bitumen. Each of these baked bricks was stamped with the name of the king. The sloping walls of the stages were reinforced. "The access to the top was by means of a triple monumental staircase, which all converges at a portal that opened on a landing between the first and second stages. The height of the first stage was about 11 m while the second stage rose some 5.7 m. Usually a third stage is reconstructed by the excavator of the ziqqurat (Leonard Woolley), and crowned by a temple."

Greek architecture often followed a highly structured system of proportions that related to the individual architectural components to the entire building. This system revolved around three… [read more]

Integrated Project Teams Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,509 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Integrated Project Teams

Sir John Egan's reports "Rethinking Construction" (1998) and "Accelerating Change" (2002) identified the importance of the integrated process and supporting integrated teams for national and international projects. Compare and contrast the issues surrounding integrated project teams. Give an example where the supply has incurred delay through poor integration of the process.

Integrated project delivery (IPD) teams emphasize… [read more]

Romanesque Church Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (622 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Romanesque Church

Art in the Middle Ages was inseparable from religion, and it relied heavily on spiritual symbolism. The purpose of art was to inspire the viewer by representing the grandeur of God, and to serve as a material symbol of people's beliefs. From this point-of-view, the mission of the sculptor, painter, or architect was to decorate as well as to educate. The artist brought Biblical themes to life but during the Romanesque era, sculpture burst and developed more than the other branches of visual arts with little regard to classical conventions of proportion of figures. The term "Romanesque" was coined in 1818 by Charles-Alexis-Adrien de Gerville to describe the form of art and architecture that preceded Gothic. As the name indicates, Romanesque art was chiefly inspired by Roman architecture. Similarities between Roman and Romanesque include round arches, stone materials, and the basilica-style plan (used for secular purposes by the Romans). But the influences that led to the development of what we now refer to as 'Romanesque style' are far more complex, as Romanesque architecture, for instance, also reveals influences from Visigothic, Carolingian, Byzantine and Islamic architecture.

The Romanesque period cannot be precisely defined but Romanesque architecture generally dates from 1000 to 1150, when Gothic began to take over. Romanesque was at its height between about 1075 and 1125. Churches were important to any town, and towns in general took pride in the glory of their religious constructions. Money for these constructions usually resulted from the sale of indulgences by the Catholic Church, fund raising caravans of saints' relics, parish contributions, as well as generous contributions from local noblemen. Moreover, people would frequently volunteer their labor to the construction of the church which reduced costs although much of the work was carried on by skilled workmen along with the head mason and the architect. Some of the most famous examples of…… [read more]

St. Patrick's Cathedral 1858 78 Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (520 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Saint Patrick's Cathedral

Building History

The Cathedral was begun in 1858 by Archbishop John Hughes to replace the original St. Patrick's Cathedral, which is used today as a parish church in New York. The cornerstone was laid, August 15, 1858, with construction stopping temporary during the Civil War. Work resumed in 1865 and the cathedral opened its doors in May, 1879.

In 1888, the towers on the West Front were added and in 1901 the east addition was started, including the Lady Chapel. An extensive renovation of the interior took place between 1927 and 1931 when the great organ was installed and the sanctuary was enlarged.

Both interior and exterior were completely restored to their original beauty during the 1970's. Extensive renovations were made to the structural integrity of the building during the mid-80's and earlier 90's, including replacement of much of the roof, exterior steps, and replastering of the walls.

Architect James Renwick, Jr. designed what is considered his finest achievement with St. Patrick's Cathedral. It is the largest decorated Neo-Gothic-style Catholic Cathedral in the United States.

What Characteristic of this Stylistic Movement does the Building Exhibit?

St. Patrick's Cathedral was built in the Gothic Revival style also known as Neo-Gothic style which is an architectural movement that began in England around the mid-1700's. Its acceptance grew swiftly in the early nineteenth century. This stylistic movement was a return to Gothic architectural building styles that date back to the twelfth through sixteenth centuries.

Some of Gothic Revival architecture characteristics include: large stained glass windows that colorfully brighten the interior…… [read more]

Notre Dame Cathedral Paris Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (718 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris

The Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris

The Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris is a gothic cathedral. it's found on the Eastern side of Paris but the main way to get in is on the West side of the building (Myers, 1957). it's also the seat for the Archbishop of Paris. Viollet-le-Duc is the architect who saved and restored it so that people could still go and see it today. He was very famous in France during his lifetime and most people there still know who he is today. In French, "Notre Dame" means "Our Lady." Notre Dame was among the first of the gothic cathedrals and building it happened over almost the entire gothic period. There is a lot of stained glass in the Cathedral because it was influenced heavily by naturalism (Myers, 1957). It makes it different from the Romanesque architecture that took place earlier in time, and it helps Notre Dame to be distinct and easy to recognize.

The Cathedral has arched supports for the exterior (Michelin, 2003). They are called flying buttresses and they weren't supposed to be there originally but the walls kept getting taller and there were stress cracks starting, so the building needed more support. During the French Revolution in the 1790s the cathedral was desecrated and a lot of the religious images were destroyed or damaged (Michelin, 2003). They were fixed in the 19th century with a big restoration project that brought the Cathedral back to how it looked before. The layout of the Cathedral hasn't changed even when the Cathedral was damaged and then rebuilt. Instead, the damage was just fixed so that the Cathedral looked like it did in the past. Original building of the Cathedral started in 1163. This was the official timeline for construction:

1160 Maurice de Sully, the Bishop of Paris, ordered the original cathedral torn down.

1163 the cornerstone was laid for Notre Dame de Paris.

1182 the apse and the choir were completed.

1196 the nave was completed. Bishop de Sully died.

1200 Work began on the western facade.

1225 the western facade was completed.

1250 the western towers and north…… [read more]

Schinkel Pugin Viollet-Le-Duc Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,055 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Architecture History - Schinkel, Pugin, and Jefferson

According to David Watkin, "The time period in which an architectural work of art is created has everything to do with the way it looks. In other words, the style of an architectural work is a function of its historical period." 1 Thus, works of architecture, much like sculptures and paintings, are arranged into specific stylistic classes based on their appearances and the times or periods when they were constructed. Also, as a fundamental hypothesis of architectural history, buildings and other structures created at about the same time and in the same basic geographical location generally share common stylistic traits, such as those constructed during the Romantic Period in England which generally exhibit traits linked to the Gothic style or in France during the Baroque Period with its Rococo style. Therefore, architects must consider the historical period in which they live when designing a building and then decide whether to adhere to modern architectural principles or those from the past.

In many instances, architects have their own ideas related to designing a building or structure, yet at the same time, they must consider their own personal viewpoints on history as it relates to style and architectural genres. As Joseph Rykwert points out, whether hundreds of years ago or in our modern age, architects "are heavily influenced by architectural notions from long ago which helps them to visualize what the past was like and then contemplate the present and the future" in relation to how a building or other structure will be seen by those today and those in the distant future. 2 in addition, architects almost always strive to reflect their own nationalism when it comes to designing a building or other structure, such as the Eiffel Tower in Paris, the Taj Mahal at Agra in India, or the great Houses of Parliament in London, England.

In the mind of German architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel (1781 to 1841), considered as the most important architect of the Neoclassicism style and a staunch proponent of Greek Revivalism, 3 the historical past of ancient Greece played a major role in determining how Western society came about and from the viewpoint of an architect, ancient Greece manifested "a noble simplicity and quiet grandeur." 4 Schinkel also uncompromisingly designated Greek art and culture as "the most perfect from the hands of man and the only architectural model to be followed," 5 particularly in Prussia, his native land. As an architect, Schinkel also felt that the Gothic style, so evident in his Friedrichswerder Church, represented the summit of achievement for unified Christendom in Europe, symbolized the synthesis of religion, philosophy and art and made possible the first firm formation of the various European states that brought about modern history. As to nationalism, Schinkel "accounts for the origins of Gothic as the fusion of universal Christianity and native Germanic genius;" thus, the Gothic style "is not only specifically Christian, it is also specifically German." 6 in essence, the art of… [read more]

Key West Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,396 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … West

The Architectural Styles of Key West

Many houses in Key West are said to be of the conch style, but if you are not familiar with what a conch house is, that wouldn't be helpful. So, what is a conch house? When the early settlers from the Bahamas and the Florida Keys created their homes they used… [read more]

11th and 12th Century Romanesque Architecture Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (1,978 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


1th and 12th Century Romanesque Architecture

The term Romanesque architecture applies to the various stages of European architecture that were influenced by both Carolingian architecture and the diffusion of Latin civilization following the break-up of the Roman Empire up to the end of the 12th century. While there has been a modest resurgence in interest in Romanesque architectural style in… [read more]

Monadnock Building Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,104 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Monadnock Building

House Divided:" the Monadnock Building


Today, the Monadnock Building's location in Chicago, Illinois' downtown Loop district places it squarely in the heart of the financial section of the city. However, at the time this section of Chicago was still expanding and "few Chicagoans had faith in the proposal to locate a new building so far south" of what was then the existing commercial core of the city in 1884, when the construction of the office building was first proposed ("Monadnock Building," Commission on Chicago Historical and Architectural Landmarks, 2008, p.1). Not until 1889 were the plans to build in the area finalized, after skyscrapers began to creep into the district.

The aspirations that brought the building into being were artistic as well as commercial -- to create an architectural spectacle and also draw tenants and make revenue for the Boston-based developers brothers Peter and Shepard Brooks. The Monadnock's period and design locate it at the tail end of 19th century architectural grandeur, because of its impressive size and its elaborately crafted south half. But its older northern half, with its subtly curving lines and faint traces of Egyptian architecture act as a harbinger of the later modernist period and the Frank Lloyd Wright Chicago School. The lack of breaks and projections and utter continuity of line makes this part of the building look much younger than its construction date (Roth 176).


The Chicago-based architectural firm of Burnham and Root was selected to design the new building. "Burnham and Root had previously done two other [successful] commercial projects for [Peter] Brooks and [his agent Owen] Aldis: the Montauk Building in 1882 and the Rookery Building in 1886" ("Monadnock Building," Commission on Chicago Historical and Architectural Landmarks, 2008, p.1). The primary architects, John Welborn Burnham and Daniel Hudson Root, originally wanted to create a tall, pylon structure of Egyptian design, with elaborate ornamentation and different shadings of surface texture and materials similar to but even more ambitious than the Montauk, but Peter Brooks insisted on an utterly Spartan concept (Roth 176). Brook's one concession to practicality was to allow the inclusion of bay windows when Owen Aldis pointed out that this would make the building more marketable, given that employees within the structure were likely to want more light while working ("Monadnock Building," Commission on Chicago Historical and Architectural Landmarks, 2008, pp.3-4).

Later Citations

The ultimate fusion of spare grandeur combined with slight curves that still reflect the original 'pylon' design are what make the north half Monadnock so revolutionary. It was originally supposed to be even taller but Brooks finally settled on a sixteen story structure, with a seventeenth 'attic' floor in the Southern parapet ("Monadnock Building," Commission on Chicago Historical and Architectural Landmarks, 2008, p.3). Its north side design is both subtle yet oddly haunting. The final overall result, because of the fusion of styles, is holistically something both prototypically modernist and classical at once, a jarring juxtaposition of forms. The distinct differences in style reflect… [read more]

Adolf Loos Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,176 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Adolf Loos (1870-1933) is considered by many to be one of the foremost pioneers and inventive spirits in modern architecture. His reputation is based largely on a number of controversial and creative essays that include views on architectural theory and praxis. The buildings that he constructed and envisaged were, "....rigorous examples of austere beauty, ranging from conventional country cottages to… [read more]

Monadnock Building Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,411 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Monadnock Building:

Prototypical Melding Of Architectural Forms And Styles

Architect, Patron, Historical Context

Although it is hard to believe today, given the collective cultural memory of the Twin Towers and the still awesome presence of the Empire State Building, at the time of its construction during the 1890s, the Monadnock office building seemed awesome in its height, sprawl and its… [read more]

Local Land Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,053 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Local Land Use Little Rock

This report is on the local land development process for the city of Little Rock, Arkansas, a city that is also the Capital City for the State of Arkansas. The city is found in Pulaski County. The city has fourteen different departments and more than 2,500 employees, including in the police and fire departments (City of Little Rock, 2005).


Little Rock, Arkansas

Mayor-City Council form of government

Land Use Proposals and Plans

Development in the Little Rock regio is much affectied by zoning considerations, as discussed below. Development under the heading of Planned Zoning Development is a process for owners/developers to use when it is desirable to present a unified site plan for city reviews. There are four Planned Unit Development districts used in this process for multi-use developments. These are as follows:

PRD" Planned Residential

This district is used when residential uses are proposed in a development of mixed uses permitted.

POD" Planned Office

This district is used when office development is the intended principal use. Some commercial and residential is permitted when made a part of the review process.

PCD" Planned Commercial

This district is used when commercial mixed use development is proposed. A mix of residential, office and commercial is permitted.

PID" Planned Industrial

This district is used when warehousing, manufacturing or similar uses are proposed in a mix of uses.

Planned Development

This is a process using the same submittal and review procedures as a "PUD" except that this process permits development of single use projects exclusively in one of several districts (Zoning Definitions, 2007).

Documents are to be filed with the Little Rock Planning Commission. The Commission then holds hearings as needed. The Planning and Development Department has three divisions: Building Codes, Zoning & Subdivision, and Planning (Planning and Development, 2005). The planning process is described by the city as follows:

The Planning Division provides mid and long-range planning as well as technical support to the city. The Division prepares neighborhood plans and reviews/drafts amendments to the existing plans. This includes reviewing and development of staff reports for Land Use amendments, Master Street Plan amendments, and review of zoning changes requested by various groups. The staff of the Planning Division responds to requests for statistics, graphics and GIS products (Planning, 2005).

The City Land Use Plan and Map provides the proposed pattern for future land use and serves as a guide for making zoning decisions if there is a request for reclassification.

Environmental Concerns

The state as a whole has certain environmental issues and policies to address those issues. The state's population density is 45 people per square mile, and the overall risk to ecosystems is considered moderate. Population density has increased 4% since 1982, and the amount of developed land increased 8% between 1982 and 1992. The tall grass prairie in the Grand Prairie area of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain is virtually gone given then only 500 acres remain, and some 72% of the state's wetlands have been… [read more]

Deutscher Werkbund and Bauhaus Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,410 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … architectural and design movements that played central roles in the evolution of Modernism as a whole and in the development of German culture in particular throughout the first half of the 20th century. While a proper comparative analysis of the Deutscher Werkbund and the Bauhaus is difficult, if not impossible, to undertake, owing to the fact that the… [read more]

Victor Horta and the Art Nouveau Movement Term Paper

Term Paper  |  18 pages (4,788 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Victor Horta: Art Nouveau Movement

How Does Victor Horta's Work Reflect the Aesthetics of the Art Nouveau Movement and What Were Some of the Limitations of the Art Nouveau Movement?

The enduring popularity of some older architectural works makes them stand out from their less attractive contemporary counterparts, and the art nouveau-inspired works by Victor Horta stand out among these.… [read more]

15th Century Art Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (803 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Gothic Architecture in the Romantic Period

Between 1750 and 1850 in Europe, a new artistic style arose and prospered in Europe, one which is now referred to as the Romantic Period. This period originated toward the end of the 18th century in Germany, where critics wished to distinguish between "modern" traits and "classical" traits, such as those found in ancient Greek and Roman art forms. At this time, many artisans and supporters of the arts in Europe, particularly in England where Romanticism in literature began, revolted against the observable regularity of classical art and moved instead toward a style that had its beginnings some four hundred years before during the Medieval Era.

In architecture, this movement away from classical designs was aimed at showing that architecture did not necessarily have to contain elements of harmonious proportion and correct detail as illustrated in ancient Greek and Roman designs. Overall, the artists and architects of the Romantic Period desired to arouse pleasant and at times startling emotions in the beholder; thus, architecture, especially that based on the Gothic style, was a stimulus for new emotions and responses.


One of the first examples of this "natural" Gothic style in architecture in England occurred in 1718 when John Vanbrugh, the architect of the Baroque Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire, designed his own personal house to look like a Gothic castle, replete with spires, thin, latticed windows and very masculine lines among its numerous portices. This house is not, however, a pure expression of the Gothic, for it still retains some the designs and styles most closely associated with ancient Greek and Roman temples. At about the same time, the desirous qualities of the Gothic were just beginning to be appreciated by not only artists and architects but also the common people who lived and worked in the towns and villages that usually surrounded the vast estates of the aristocracy. As George M. Wedd points out, the uniqueness of the Gothic revival in 18th century England "was founded on and proclaimed moral values" and symbolized a retreat from religious styles; thus, "the Gothic style exactly fit the ideals" of those architects who sought a new means of physical expression (September 1997, 143).


For many architects in England, the combination of the terms "Romantic" and "Gothic" were most closely linked to "ruins and other reminders of past grandeur and of the melancholy passage…… [read more]

Marcel Breuer Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,349 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4



Architect Marcel Breuer

Modernist architect Marcel Breuer is well-known for his emphasis on the technical and structural aspects of his buildings. A focus on structure is also apparent in his furniture design. Additionally, his architecture is recognized for its attention to light and shading, particularly in the use of tinted or shaded windows and overhanging elements. Again, cantilevered design is also apparent in his furniture. Developing these visions early in his career, Breuer made himself known as an architect in the design of both public and private spaces. His work with fellow architect Herbert Beckhard illuminates many of Breuer's ideas, as both men focused on similar concepts in their work. This is perhaps nowhere more apparent than in their dual design of the McMullen Beach House in Mantoloking, New Jersey.

Born in Pecs Hungary in 1902, Marcel Breuer attended university at the newly formed Weimar Bauhaus, attracted to the promises of new architectural and artistic approaches (Marcel Breuer: architect biography, par. 1). He attended the Bauhaus in the early twenties and taught there after finishing his studies. Though the Bauhaus did not yet offer architecture when he began there, Breuer, aided by Georg Muche, began to study housing anyway. He had a particular interest in high-rise structures and soon after developed a seven-story apartment block that would be mass-produced in the years to come (Marcel Breuer: architect biography, par. 1). Following his time at the Bauhaus, Breuer spent time traveling and then trying to establish a practice in Berlin. However, this did not materialize and he was forced to flee from Germany during the Nazi era; emigrating to America, he taught at the Harvard School of Architecture (Marcel Breuer, par. 1).

Though he was accepted as a prominent teacher and architect within professional circles, his earliest mainstream popularity came from his work designing furniture. Inspired by his own bicycle, Breuer began to experiment with tubular steel furniture. One such chair that became widely popular was the "Wassily" chair; made for general residential use, it revolutionized the way that many people viewed their home furnishings (Marcel Breuer, par. 3). Obviously inspired by bicycle handlebars, the Wassily chair's mental tube design was indicative of Breuer's later building style as it emphasized the structure in a stark and minimalist way (Marcel Breuer, par. 3).

Working with fellow Harvard professor Walter Gropius, Breuer completed many significant projects during the 1930s. Among these was the well-known New Kensington, PA housing project for defense industry workers, which "established a new high standard of design for the federal government" (Marcel Breuer: architect biography, par. 2). Their work was also highlighted at the 1939 World's Fair, as they had designed an interior for the Pennsylvania Pavilion. Breuer and Gropius also built a number of houses in New England during this time, including their own. In 1941 he ended his partnership with Gropius, leaving Harvard five years later (Marcel Breuer: architect biography, par. 2).

In the early fifties, Breuer began working in partnership with a number of other… [read more]

Stylistic and Cultural Comparison Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (371 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Stylistic and Cultural Comparison of St. Peter's Basilica and The Taj Mahal

One of the eight wonders of the modern world, the Taj Mahal is regarded as one of the eight wonders of the world. There are some who feel that the beauty of the building and its architecture can never be surpassed. The building is made entirely of white marble, built by a Muslim Shah in memory of his wife and queen. A fusion of the Muslim influence and Indian culture, sometimes called an elegy in marble, the Taj Mahal (which means crown palace) was the burial place of Queen Mumtaz Mahal and later her husband Shah Jahan. The Taj stands on a raised, square platform (186 x 186 feet) with its four corners truncated, forming an unequal octagon. The architectural design uses what is called the interlocking arabesque concept, meaning that there is perfect integration of each element within the main structure and an element of self-replicating geometry and symmetry inherent to the architectural elements. The building incorporates features which can be attributed to ritual, which permeates the Islamic religion. The large rectangular…… [read more]

Seagram Building by Mies Van Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,747 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Seagram would look like a black glass tower when seen from one angle, and like a highly polished bronze tower from another angle. And even more amazingly, the color and the pattern would be subject to change, depending on the angle seen, and the lighting of the building when it is being viewed. For example, a brown can become… [read more]

Older and Modern Plan for a College Campus Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (597 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Way of Life in Search of an Architecture"

Cistercian architecture reflected the identity of a group of monks who wanted to reform the excesses of the church, which they regarded as inhibiting the spiritual life. They sought to establish a way of life that was simple and humble and devoid of distractions. These monks believed that elaborate architecture and highly embellished designs would distract from worship. They believed it was important to avoid distraction because it would lead to pride. Cistercians put down their roots in aesceticism which demanded withdrawal from the world, poverty, and discipline. Their communities called for an self-sufficient agrarian life in an isolated area. They renounced cash because business dealings would lead to contact with the outside world. They rearranged and reshaped their daily lives apportioning time for reading, manual labor, and prayer. They left behind lives as intellectuals and took up farming.

An efficient centralized government was set up with a clear chain of command ("a masterpiece of mideval planning" p. 6) to ensure austerity and simplicity. Their early buildings reflected both, and the names of their houses usually cited some characteristic of the land upon which they were built. The order grew rapidly, in fact, at an unprecedented rate. New abbeys were established and procedures for choosing new sites upon which to build became more and more elaborate. This was because sometimes in their zeal to establish a new abbey, they overlooked features of the site that would eventually cause them to fail and have to move to a new place. There were many rules for decorating the interiors of the churches, all aimed at simplicity and limiting embellishments. At first, there were not a lot of rules for architecture, but a general understanding apparently prevailed. Their architecture reflected sensory disengagement…… [read more]

Brunelleschi -- San Lorenzo Filippo Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (611 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Architecturally, the church of San Lorenzo is square in plan and forms a perfect cube in volume, covered by a Classical hemispherical dome supported by ribs, much like some earlier Gothic cathedrals which pre-dated Brunelleschi by two hundred years.

Brunelleschi's design and construction of the church at San Lorenzo became a motivating force for the re-design of the entire church along Renaissance lines instead of traditional Gothic influences. In addition, Brunelleschi's plan for the church was the forerunner for all future systems that came about in the late Renaissance and later Baroque buildings. According to Leon Battista Alberti (1407-1472), one of Brunelleschi's imitators, "the genius and creative energy required to achieve new social and intellectual status was no better represented by Brunelleschi whose San Lorenzo reflects the mind of a brilliant Renaissance man, his universal interests and love for beauty" (Hyman 245).

The church at San Lorenzo exemplifies the ultimate mastery of architecture during the Renaissance Era and as a truly iconographic structure, it reflects the religiosity of the period through its advanced use of the Gothic style. As Cosimo De Medici allegedly once said, the church of San Lorenzo and all similar buildings "not only honor God but likewise honor the architect and even those that enter the holy places of the church, for they are closer to the creator and to eternity" (Fanelli 312).


Battisti, Eugenio. Brunelleschi: The Complete Works. UK: Thames & Hudson, 1981.

Fanelli, Giovanni. Brunelleschi. New York: Scala Books, 1980.

Frey, Dagobert. Architecture of the Renaissance: From Brunelleschi to Michelangelo. Netherlands: The Hague,…… [read more]

Peter Behrens Born in Hamburg Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (792 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The photographs used in the catalogs were directly linked to the new AEG logo that was also designed by Behrens, a hexagonal comprised of nothing but the three letters (Sachsse pp). There was no allegory, floral or female figure designed in this logo, it simply consisted of the letters (Sachsse pp). This was in itself a revolution in graphic design and created a corporate identity, thus, AEG became synonymous with the label, Made in Germany (Sachsse pp).

AEG's history spans over 100 years, from the founding of AEG with the purchase of the German license for Edison patents to the first electrical appliances created by Behrens, the father of design (AEG pp). At the beginning of the twentieth century, AEG was the first industrial company that employed a designer, Behrens, and in 1907, he was commissioned not only to design new factories but also appliances (AEG pp).

The turbine hall for the AEG in Berlin-Moabit, 1909, represented the culmination of Behrens efforts to give architectural dignity to a workplace, similar to the achievement of Frank Lloyd Wright with the Larkin Building in Buffalo, New York (A.E.G. pp). Behrens created a plastic effect and a dynamic form of construction of the trusses that were pulled to the outside as well as through the tapering iron trusses and the glass areas that were drawn towards the inside (A.E.G pp). Although many criticized the building, Le Corbusier, however, admired the structure as being a charged center that represents the integral architectonic creations of modern society, with rooms of admirable moderation and cleanness, and magnificent machines that set impressive accents (A.E.G. pp). Behrens industrial work for A.E.G. has received praise from historians of the modern style and industrial design (Peter pp).

From 1922 to 1936, Behrens taught architecture at the Vienna Academy and in 1936 conducted architectural master-classes at the Berlin Academy, and from 1936 until his death in 1940, he was director of the department of architecture at the Prussian Academy in Berlin (Peter pp).

Work Cited

AE.G. High Tension Factory Commentary


AEG Appliances


Sachsse, Rolf. "Made in Germany as Image in Photography and Design."

Journal of Popular Culture; 12/22/2000; pp.

Peter Behrens. A Page for Graphic Designers

http://www.complink.net/greg/designsite/behrens.htm… [read more]

Frank Gehry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,824 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


. . With Walt Disney Concert Hall as its crown jewel, Los Angeles' Grand Avenue will become the center for the performing arts, culture and education in Southern California."?

With this new structure Gehry has become one of America's leading architects, matching his achievement in Bilbao in many ways and contributing to the aesthetics and economy of another city at the same time.


Arnold, Dana. Art History: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Ballantyne, Andrew. Architecture: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Bletter, Rosemarie Haag. "Frank Gehry's Spatial Reconstructions." In The Architecture of Frank Gehry. New York: Rizzoli, 1986.

Celant, Germano. Frank Gehry: Buildings and Projects. New York: Rizzoli, 1985.

Hackett, Regina. "Artist Builds on His Experience: Striking an Artistic Chord." The Seattle Post-Intelligencer (22 June 2000), p. C1.

McGuigan, Cathleen. "From Bauhaus to Fun House," Newsweek (11 July 1988), pp. 64-65.

McCoy, Esther. Case Study Houses, 1945-1960. Los Angeles:, 1977.

Upton, Dell. Architecture in the United States. New York: Oxford, 1998.

"Walt Disney Concert Hall Dedication Unveils a New Cultural Jewel for the Music Center and Los Angeles." Business Wire (20 Oct. 2003), p. 3.

Cathleen McGuigan, "From Bauhaus to Fun House," Newsweek (11 July 1988), pp. 64-65.

Andrew Ballantyne, Architecture: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), p. 104.

Ibid., p. 104.

Dana Arnold, Art History: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), p. 56.

Germano Celant, Frank Gehry: Buildings and Projects (New York: Rizzoli, 1985), p. 5.

Ibid., p. 5.

Ibid., p. 6.

Rosemarie Haag Bletter, "Frank Gehry's Spatial Reconstructions," in The Architecture of Frank Gehry (New York: Rizzoli, 1986), p. 25.

Ibid., p. 26.

Bletter, p. 51.

Ibid., p. 32.

Esther McCoy, Case Study Houses, 1945-1960 (Los Angeles:, 1977), p. 118.

Dell Upton, Architecture in the United States (New York: Oxford,…… [read more]

Santiago Calatrava's Name Is Synonymous Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,224 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


With this one major project under his belt, Calatrava quickly began exploring foreign frontiers. He first tried Europe and then went on to influence the rest of the world. His first few structures include the Alamillo Bridge and viaduct (World's Fair in Seville, Spain), the Campo Volantin Footbridge (Billbao, Spain), the Alameda Bridge and underground station in Valencia, Spain. The one design that earned his international acclaim and recognition was Bach de Roda Bridge project for the Olympic Games Barcelona Spain, 1984.

'For Calatrava, bridges go literally to the heart of many of the cities of Europe."Cities like London or Paris or Cologne or Valencia had Roman names once. The Romans arrived at a river and used it as a natural frontier. They put up a military camp, then they built a bridge, and a fortress on the other side of it to protect the bridge and to collect a toll. If you go to these cities now you can find where the center was. Today, bridges belong both to the art of construction and also to the art of cultural expression. We have a lot of resources and materials that did not exist 100 years ago. It is a flourishing period for bridging." (Usher, 2001)

Bridges are important exhibits for demonstration of Calatrava's distinctive style. They usually have asymmetrical embellishments such as the slender tail fin that operates as a sundial in $23.5 million glass-and-steel footbridge in Redding, California. Calatrava feels asymmetrical add-ons help him accentuate some key features of the structure, such as its position against the sea or its location in the city. Redding's bridge is an important recent structure because it is his first bridge in the United States. The bridge that many feel has exceptionally modern design spans 720 feet over the Sacramento River. Redding bridge is part of a massive project worth $84 million that includes a natural history museum and botanical gardens. Talking about mirrored backgrounds in bridges, Paula Deitz (2001) writes in The Architectural Review:

" ... nowhere were mirrors more effective than in the gallery of bridges, where each of the 16 models in white tubing appeared to float above its double reflected in a river of mirrors. It is difficult to travel around Europe, especially in Spain, without crossing a Calatrava bridge, and almost every major city has had one proposed if not constructed. If in Japanese culture the bridge is symbolic of the time it takes to cross from one place to another, for Calatrava, the bridge becomes a destination in itself, a link that is also a gathering place."

Calatrava is not only an accomplished architect but is also a linguist with command over seven languages. Both aspiring and established architects hang on to his words when he talks about his designs and the inspiration behind them. But Calatrava doesn't really need to say much for twelve honorary degree and numerous awards speaks volumes about his work. Some of these prestigious awards include Academy of Achievement Gold Plate… [read more]

Critique a Building After 1400 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,483 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … architecture of the Alamo in San Antonio Texas from Michelangelo's point-of-view. Specifically it will critique the building from the point-of-view of architect Michelangelo, who is totally unrelated to the building's design. Michelangelo will critique the building according to his own architectural values and beliefs. The Alamo is one of the most famous American buildings. Parts of the original… [read more]

Brownfield Land, it Is Vitally Important Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (671 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … brownfield land, it is vitally important to consult the necessary experts in order to determine the profitability of buying such land for new housing developments. As an adviser to the buyer then, I would consider the current status of the land, the extent of clean-up that is necessary, and also the possible safety hazards as a result of still existing contaminants.

My first recommendation would then be to consult environmental investigation agencies to determine the extent of contaminants still present on the site. As the adjacent site previously held factory premises, it is likely that contaminants may still be present in the environment. The new housing close to the premises however also suggests that such contaminants may be minimal, or indeed sufficiently absent to proceed with building.

In addition to contaminants, building materials from the adjacent housing and buildings previously existing on the site may also be present. These would have to be investigated to determine its usability or its need to be disposed of.

Prior to buying the land then, I would recommend assessing the cost of removing both hazardous and non-hazardous but unwanted waste from the premises. If such costs are too high, it may be wiser to search for development land elsewhere. However, the nearby housing suggests that this may not be the case, and I do recommend that such a survey be carried out thoroughly before making a decision.

The safety of construction workers as well as future inhabitants of the project will also have to be taken into consideration, as this could prove expensive in terms of possible legal liability. The land should then be examined in terms not only of hazardous waste, but also in terms of stability. Undetected hazardous chemicals could for example have fatal consequences when explosives are used for excavation purposes. Furthermore the cost of safety measures and training should also be taken into consideration. If construction workers need to take special measures in terms of clothing, equipment, or training in order to ensure…… [read more]

Le Corbusier Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,415 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Le Corbusier

Charles Edouard Jeanneret-Gris, was born on October 6, 1887 in Switzerland in the small town of La Chaux-de-Fonds. (Le Corbusie: Wikipedia) He later became known under the pseudonym Le Corbusier. Le Corbusier was one the creators of the International style in architecture and also designed furniture. He was an innovator and, with other architects such as Walter Gropius… [read more]

Acceptance to the Master Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (305 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


For me, obstacles in life are simply opportunities to explore new avenues. I have never been one to shy away from challenges and actually thrive in competition. No matter the challenge, accomplishment and achievement are always my goal.

I take great pride in my work and although I am quite satisfied with my current employment position, my long-term goal is to open my own firm someday.

A understand that this is a very competitive field of study, however I am extremely confident that I am more than capable of accepting the challenge. Moreover, there is a certain pride that comes with this profession and I very much desire to become a part of this unique field.

Arizona State University has always been my first choice. To be accepted at this fine institution would be an extreme honor. Please accept this essay and application for…… [read more]

Firefighters Structural Analysis and Design of High Rise Buildings Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,088 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Firefighters Structural Analysis and Design of High Rise Buildings

Twin Towers of New York

Building Construction Trends

Truss Construction

Fire Fighters Structural Analysis

Firefighters Structural Analysis and Design of High Rise Buildings

This report attempts to examine why fire fighters have voiced concerns regarding the ever increasing size of skyscrapers. When the World Trade Centre Twin Towers, which were at… [read more]

Florence Baptistery North Doors Lorenzo Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,130 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The steps leading up to the doorway are also in the form of semi-ovals and echo the rhythms of the flanking walls, which are concave in form. There is thus an interplay of concave and convex elements which express the oval plan of the interior and create a focus upon the doorway itself and the formal axis of the church to which it gives access. Above the porch is a great semicircular window framed by a deep entablature. The door itself is framed by a portico of a great triangular pediment supported by Corinthian columns.

The entrance to Sant' Andrea provides some interesting points of contrast to the doorway to the Florence Baptistery discussed earlier in this paper. The circumstances of the creation of each structure were very different; in the case of Florence, Ghiberti was adding doors to a structure that already existed, whereas in the case of Sant' Andrea the entire building was designed as a whole by Bernini. As a result the entrance to the latter is both an integrated element of the entire design and a focal point of the conception of the building, while the former takes its place as one element among several and is so formed as to exist in a relationship of balanced harmony with the rest of the structure. Furthermore, the Baptistery was then believed to be an ancient Roman structure, making adherence to the ideals of classicism all the more important. The very different spirit of the baroque architecture within which Bernini was working, compared to the gothic and renaissance styles of Ghiberti, is also very clear in the free use of form and space - and above all in the deployment of ovals and curves - in Bernini's scheme. Ghiberti's north doors are part of one doorway among three, giving entrance to a symmetrical building form, whereas Bernini's church has just one main entrance that is located on the central axis of a building planned with a very clear focus; the main axis leads from the entrance directly to the high altar, which itself uses the curving masses and forms of the entrance porch to echo and develop its own architectural scheme.

The doorway as a whole expresses very powerfully a sense of the sacred space of the church; it is not merely an entrance but a portal through which the divine can be accessed. By mounting the steps and passing beneath the portico and through the door itself, visitors to the church are transported from the realm of the mundane into the realm of the sacred. The architectural forms, sculpture, decoration and composition of the door and the porch are deployed to create this effect of transcendence and sacredness. In this respect, Bernini's work is very different from the urbane, harmonious, classically-inspired civic humanist architecture of Ghiberti's work at the Florence Baptistery.

Baroque architecture relies on dynamic uses of space, fluid forms and compositions, and the dramatic employment of light; it is an architecture of drama and expression.… [read more]

Le Corbusier, Frank Lloyd Wright Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (679 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Of the homes that Le Corbusier did complete, two of the most noted were the Ozenfant (1922), and the Roche home (1923). Both followed the characteristics devised by Le Corbusier, and were striking in their austerity and geometric lines. In short, both homes, as well as his later projects would become the benchmark of modernity.

Finally, the work of Louis Isadore Khan is perhaps the most revolutionary of the three (perhaps indicated by the fact that most of what he designed during his lifetime was never built). Although his design style is characterized as "classically romantic," featuring sometimes towering stairwells and air ducts planted in the midst of main areas, many consider his designs and buildings to be "impractical," and "unorthodox."

To be sure, Wright's "organic style," and Le Corbusier "modernism" were revolutionary as well -- however, buildings such as the Yale Art Gallery (1953), as well as the National Assembly Buildings in Dhaka, Pakistan, are particularly striking in their unusual use of concrete and brick -- especially in their ability to answer Khan's belief that "structure is the giver of light." Indeed, one can see that in both buildings, the geometric, almost chunky style seems to give way to showers of soft light transmitted through precise positioning of windows, openings, and special partitions.

In closing, all three architects revolutionized aspects of the concept of design -- developing the organic, modern, as well as, well, unorthodox, in heretofore, rigid design environments. Indeed, it could even be said that each architect not only paved the way for the possibility of the creation of new design innovations, but also opened the door for further design exploration today. In this way, the three are inexorably linked -- with each other, and with the modern architecture…… [read more]

Arch of Constantine Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (445 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Constantine was the first Christian emperor of Rome, and the arch, although erected to commemorate a military triumph, is more modest in nature to the earlier Roman Pantheon and the Coliseum. Like earlier, more florid displays of Roman architecture, however, the Arch makes substantial use of Greek motifs such as columns and symmetry in its design. The decorative nature of its relief structure and its highly ornamental quality both signal the still-flowering presence of Grecian ornamental influence in Roman architecture, the existence of triumphal Roman military glory, as well as the ambiguity of an end of a pagan era and the introduction of a Christian one.

Works Cited

Arch of Constantine." Great Buildings Online. Retrieved on March 6, 2004 at http://www.greatbuildings.com/cgi-bin/glk-http://sights.seindal.dk/sight/299.html

Benton and DiYanni. Arts and Culture. New York: Prentice Hall, 1988.

Planter and Ashby. "The Arch of Constantine." From A Topological Dictionary of Ancient Rome. Oxford University Press, Oxford: 1929. Retrieved on March 6, 2004 at http://www.ukans.edu/history/index/europe/ancient_rome/E/Gazetteer/Places/Europe/Italy/Lazio/Roma/Rome/Arch_of_Constantine/home.html… [read more]

Walter Gropius Germany's High Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,619 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Following the archetypal Taylorist logic, he further observed: "Precise numerical records by the famous American scientific managers Taylor and Gilbreth, show that the average American bricklayer is not more productive than the German bricklayer. Rather, the reason for the astonishing double efficiency in the United States lies in the adoption of appropriate building methods" (Gropius, 1927).

Gropius and his collaborators… [read more]

Frank Lloyd Wright Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,672 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Fallingwater Conservancy has thus commissioned a restoration project that includes shoring the weaker balconies and waterproofing the entire house (Silman).

Wright's other controversial monuments include the Guggenheim Museum in New York City. Because of its radical spiral ramp form, the museum's construction was delayed for years until it finally opened in 1959. Instead of a museum of separate square rooms, Wright designed a spiral ramp that visitors traversed to view the collection. This spiral extends from a domed skylight to an open central court (Hart 138).

Critics charge that the museum's curved walls make it unsuitable for displaying larger paintings. However, the buildings organic design has proved ideal for its purpose and it is now recognized as Manhattan landmark.

IV. Innovations and Contributions

Wright has made several important contributions to the way people view architecture and interior space. His early works, such as Taliesin and the Prairie Houses, broke the Victorian mold of dark, box-like living spaces. In doing so, he also ushered in the use of innovative material, such as poured concrete, textile masonry and steel.

Wright later introduced ways to incorporate elements of nature - light, greenery, water - into indoor spaces. He believed that people should stay close to nature and thus designed houses that embraced the earth or brought nature inside.

Wright believed that a building is more than just a living or a working space. It was also, in his words, "a way to be." For these reasons, Wright strived to design spaces that would allow people to commune with nature and with one another, in ways that were not possible before ("Frank Lloyd Wright"). By changing the spaces in which people lived and congregated, Wright may have also changed the way America lived.

Works Cited

Constantino, Maria. The Life and Works of Frank Lloyd Wright. New York: Courage Books, 1998.

Frank Lloyd Wright: The Man." Biographical Sketch. February 2003.. Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation. 8 April 2003 .

Hart, Spencer. The Wright Space. San Diego: Thunder Bay Press, 2001.

Hanks, David A. The Decorative Designs of Frank Lloyd Wright. Toronto: Dover Press, 1999.

Larkin, David. Frank Lloyd Wright: The…… [read more]

Asian African and Australian Neolithic Technology Multiple Chapters

Multiple Chapters  |  4 pages (1,809 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Neolithic Tools

Zhang, J., Harbottle, G., Wang, C. & Kong, Z. (1999). Oldest playable musical instruments found at Jiahu early Neolithic site, China. Nature. Vol. 401 (23 Sept 1999) 366-368.

This article reports on the findings of playable multi-note instruments dated 7000 BC to 5700 BC. These included six flutes made from the ulnae of the red-crowned crane and have… [read more]

Star Home Improvement 5582 Secor Rd Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,291 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Star Home Improvement

5582 Secor Rd

Mrs. Lindsey Dimick

2379 Woodlawn

Mr. Simpson

To Repair the Garage Entrance for Dimick Household

Mrs. Lindsey Dimick, Homeowner

Simpson, Chief Engineer

Star Home Improvement

Figure 1, Garage Opening

Figure 2, Uncovered System

Figure 3, View A Construction

Figure 4, View B. Construction

Figure 5, View A Completion

Figure 6, View B. Completion

This final report covers the actions taken by Star Home Improvements to make structural changes to a residential home for flood protection. It details structures and dry floodproofing methods incorporated in restricting water from entering the home. The report also includes an executive summary which outlines approved budget estimations.

Background & Statement of Problem

The client, Mrs. Dimicks, owns a home within a potential flood area. Openings and crevasses in the housing structure allow water to inundate the garage and subsequently the basement. Mrs. Dimicks has contracted Star Home Improvement to make structural changes to her home in order to reduce or eliminate the entrance of flood water.

Proposed Plan

Star Home Improvement plans to significantly reduce or eliminate the entrance of water into the home through use of dry floodproofing methods. Its structural team plans to take advantage of the synergistic effects of combining multiple methods. Plans include the use of continuous impermeable walls, sealants for openings, flood shields for openings in exterior walls, and drainage systems. Star Home Improvements endeavors for the system to restrict the water from 0 inches to 0.5 inches into the garage. The team anticipates that restriction of water into the garage will relieve any drainage into the basement.

Costs & Timeline

The approved project estimate ranges from $8,205 to $17,645. The client increased the overall budget to implement a more comprehensive solution over a four-week period. The project was completed in four weeks.


Mrs. Lindsey Dimick would like to maintain and improve the market value of her home. The garage and basement of her home become inundated with water during storms. Mrs. Dimick has contracted Star Home Improvement to make structural improvements to her home. Such improvements would prevent the entrance of flood waters into the home and its accompanying damage and negative impaction.

Expected Outcome

Star Home Improvement established the expected outcome based on standards cited by FEMA (2014): "The minimum performance requirement for dry floodproofing measures is a space that is protected by walls that are substantially impermeable and resistant to flood loads (FEMA, 2014)" FEMA (2014) notes that "a substantially impermeable wall should limit water accumulation of four inches in a 24-hour period." "However, the minimum performance requirement can be exceeded with proper planning, design, and materials." Given flooding occurs at 2 inches of water accumulation, Star Home Improvements expects to exceed the minimum standards, accordingly. Star Home expects to completely eliminate flooding or reduce flooding to no more than 0.25-inch over an eight hour period. This maximum allotment for water accumulation will thwart the passage of flooding to the basement and reduce the overall potential for water damage in… [read more]

Fire Protection Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,119 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Fire protection is a perpetual need, requiring continual vigilance and improvements to products, infrastructure, and response protocols. In "State of the Market: Fire Protection," Klotz-Young (2013) discusses overall growth in the fire protection industry, highlighting pending changes. Klotz-Young (2013) discusses three main areas of growth in the fire protection industry, including construction outfitting and retrofits, innovative new technologies, and improvements in mass communications infrastructure and methods. Within the discussion, Klotz-Young (2013) also addresses codes, standards, and the regulatory environment that impacts the fire protection industry. The article includes references to survey data and marketing research.

First, the author points out the intimate connection between the construction industry on the one hand, and the fire protection industry on the other. Real estate development trends and new construction incorporate new fire protection technologies such as fire alarm systems. Spending trends in both residential and commercial construction reveal an increase in overall spending on fire alarm systems. This includes a promising trend toward the retrofitting of older buildings to ensure they conform to current codes and bylaws. Moreover, Klotz-Young (2013) highlights methods by which manufacturers work with developers to come up with cost-effective solutions for fire protection needs, especially in geographic areas experiencing rapid growth. New technology itself has also boosted sales, as developers want to remain on the cutting edge of providing fire safety for their clients. In particular, Klotz-Young (2013) focuses on the increasing popularity of aspirating spoke detectors, which have the strongest rate of growth among all fire detection technologies. Klotz-Young (2013) includes a special focus report on aspirating fire detection technology to highlight the potential for commercial growth in this area. Alterations to building codes also create the opportunity for new product design and innovation with partnerships between fire protection manufacturers and the construction industry.

Special attention is also provided to the mass communications systems, and the need to rely on fire protection signals for natural and terrorist disasters. NFPA-72 requirements have been improved, and the changes have included more strident standards for UL systems including UL 2572. However, local infrastructure has not always kept up with needed changes to fire alarm systems. Communities with outmoded POTS lines are struggling to keep up with the fire protection industry, as POTS lines are gradually being phased out in many areas. The industry is thus designing its equipment to work with IP/GSM, which has been and is still being phased in for signal transmission. The challenges of helping communities upgrade their essential infrastructure present unique opportunities for the fire protection industry. Communities relying almost exclusively on volunteer fire response teams tend to be more critically disadvantaged in that they lack the needed resources to promote infrastructure changes, or perform inspections on a full-time basis. Training opportunities are the key, and the fire protection industry can offer training to local personnel to keep them abreast of technological innovations. Training programs can be offered free of charge, serving essentially as marketing opportunities that simultaneously promote fire safety goals.

Certification programs are another way… [read more]

Challenges in Building T5 Heathrow Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (495 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Second Process

While Just in Time logistics is an effective way to deal with the logistics part of the project, all bodies involved need to be well-acquainted with the exact strategies they need to employ in order to know when it is important for them to perform the next step in the program. Having materials and components lying around is not beneficial for the enterprise as a whole just as not having these materials when they are needed can bring on further issues.

By using ProjectFlow, individuals in the projects can have a complex understanding of their mission in general and can thus take efficient decisions when this is needed. The application provides users with the power to coordinate everything in the project ranging from what teams work in what parts of the program to what materials are being delivered to each individual team. The fact that LOR came across the possibility of not being able to deliver the product on time meant that the project needed to be completed alongside of Mott MacDonald. Both bodies would have to cooperate in spite of their differences and were practically left with no alternative but to get actively involved in the project without risking the project's failure.

Works cited:

Leonardi, P.M. (2012). Materiality and Organizing: Social Interaction in a Technological World. Oxford University Press.

Rios, R. & Rios-Solis, Y. (2011).…… [read more]

Nostalgia According to Lowenthal Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (608 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Nostalgia goes against the very concept of progress, as progress is conceived as time moving forward in a linear direction.

Another dimension of nostalgia is embedded in architectural design. As Lowenthal points out, each era of architecture's past is anchored in time. The creation of an idealized sense of an era, such as Tudor or Renaissance, guides real estate values and property development in addition to new architectural design. Looking back to a nostalgic past, the consumer idealizes old homes and uses labels like "heritage" and "character" to signify nostalgia. Homes are particularly susceptible to a pathological nostalgia, as home buyers project their idealized childhood on new home purchases. The nostalgia in homes can lead to irresponsible purchasing of homes that have "character" but that fall apart almost immediately.

Of course, there are virtues to nostalgia. A balance is needed, especially in the realms of architecture, urban planning, and design. It is just as wrongful to tear down wantonly old buildings and show disrespect for the past as it is to overly fetishize or idealize anything that is from the past. A person is just as neurotic fantasizing perpetually about the future as one who idealizes the past too much. The past is often warped through the lens of nostalgia, but the future can be as well. If a person has an irrational self-concept formed of nostalgia for the past, it will impact how that person lives in the present and what the future will bring.

Therefore, it is important to understand the function and phenomenon of nostalgia. Nostalgia influences design decisions, from the embrace of art deco to the infatuation with Tudor homes. Designers can capitalize on nostalgia by incorporating key elements from the past. Fashion designers especially need to pay attention to the themes trending that can be used to invoke…… [read more]

Bauhaus Remains Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (944 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The 1925 edifice in Dessau encapsulated the culmination of Bauhaus work until that time. As a large rectangle, the Bauhaus building signaled simplicity of form. Yet other conjoining rectangles are emerging from the central rectangle, like Bayer's drafts. The bisecting lines form the rooms inside. Written vertically along the side of the building, the word "Bauhaus" appears in all uppercase using the sans-serif font that became characteristic of the movement.

Dessau was where Bauhaus incorporated business strategies into its overall mission (Meggs & Pervis, n.d.). Bauhaus members realized the importance of designing for the newly emerging mass consumption market. Previously, works of art, design, and furniture were produced one at a time by artisans. Now, the Bauhaus organization could design a prototype or a plan and offer that plan to the manufacture. The manufacturer would then be able to mass-produce many items in exactly the same way. Thus, the Bauhaus mentality was "art for the masses," bringing sensible and attractive design to the common person. This is why so many Bauhaus designs are for practical objects rather than useless ones.

The Dessau Bauhaus also changed the materials with which things were made. Steel and other modern materials became incorporated into household furniture. Breuer's original char design from his Weimar years evolved to incorporate steel in his "tubular steel chair" designs. These were similar to his Weimar chairs, but are actually more streamlined and elegant with a greater surface area of the material used to support the back and behind. Aluminum also became a common Bauhaus material during the productive Dessau years.

Dessau Bauhaus is characterized by a greater productivity rate, and a greater emphasis on designing items that could be mass produced. During the Weimar years, this end goal of Bauhaus had yet to be fully realized. Moreover, in Dessau the Bauhaus movement more fully embraced its role in typeface design and the design of print materials for final publication such as magazines. The Bauhaus influence on magazine publications was palpable, as Bauhaus impacted every element of the finished product including layout and typeface. Architecturally, the Bauhaus designs flourished in Dessau, beginning with the Dessau Bauhaus office building and extended beyond that to the incorporation of curvilinear elements. Such curvilinear elements are evident especially in the exported Bauhaus designs that can be seen for example in the apartment buildings in Tel Aviv.



1923 logo: http://www.proprofs.com/quiz-school/upload/yuiupload/1294752936.jpg

1919 Bauhaus logo: http://www.thefactoryhair.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Bauhaus_1919_Logo_by_neuwks.jpg

Marcel Breuer: http://www.tomorrowstarted.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Marcel-Breuer-armchair-original-chair-1920-weimar-Bauhaus-design.jpg

Griffith Winton, Alexandra . "The Bauhaus, 1919 -- 1933." In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000 -- . http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/bauh/hd_bauh.htm (August 2007)


Meggs, P.B. & Pervis, A.W. (n.d.). Chapter 16. Retrieved online: https://www.inkling.com/read/history-of-graphic-design-philip-meggs-5th/chapter-16/the-bauhaus-at-dessau… [read more]

Steel Connections Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (939 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Rivets have the lowest strength of all three connection types, and thus are not as strong as bolted connections. Moreover, rivets cost more and are less effective overall.

There are mathematical formulas that are necessary to calculate the proper load put on steel connections. If stress exceeds a certain amount, the steel connections will ultimately falter, causing the potential to generate serious damage to the overall structure and potentially even collapse (Steel Construction, 2014). For the purpose of understanding how much load is appropriate for connections, fabricators must use the following formulas for bearing and bolted steel connections.

(Design of Steel Transmission Pole Structures Standards Committee, 2011, p 13)

(Design of Steel Transmission Pole Structures Standards Committee, 2011, p 13)

There are a wide number of connections designs that incorporate bolts, rivets, and welds.

Beam to Beam Connections

Beam to beam connections are typically bolted in. They require between three to four pairs of bolts at each connection point that attach the beams vertically (Alduri, 2012).

(Alduri, 2012)

Beam to Column Connections

When connecting beams to columns, developers have to be very careful to allow for joint flexibility. Otherwise, the joints will begin to bend at dangerous angles under the pressure of the force.

In bolted connections, there needs to be bending allowed in order to transfer the tensile force (Alduri, 2012).

This angled connection allows for better transferring of the load weight, making it stronger design than if there were no angle bending at all.

When using rigid joints, it is crucial that "stiffner plates are used to shore up the column flanges against the forces transmitted by the beam flanges," (Alduri, 2012). These stiffners may only be part of the column width or be the entire length of the column. Essentially, stiffners help redistribute the force of the load so that the connection zone does not bend or warp under the pressure.

(Alduri, 2012)

Column Base Plates

Anchors are used to hold down bolts connecting the steel and the concrete base plates. These anchors are a number of shapes, depending on the force of the load. They typically are an L. shape, hooked, or a cross shape and are embedded deep within the concrete base plates (Steel Construction, 2014).

(Alduri, 2012)

Gusset Plate Connections

Gusset plate connections feature a bolted connection between the steel set between angles (Alduri, 2012).

This angle helps bear the load of the steel and is often used with diagonal bracing for steel plates.

(Alduri, 2012)


(Alduri, 2012)


Alduri, Seshu. (2012). Typical steel connections. Memorial University. Web. http://www.engr.mun.ca/~adluri/courses/steel/ppt%20files1/Topic%20-Connections%20-typical%20joints.pdf

Design of Steel Transmission Pole Structures Standards Committee. (2011). Design of Steel Transmission Pole Structures Standards Committee: Standard 48-11. ASCE Publications.

Institute for Steel Development & Growth. (2013). Bolted connections. Teaching Material. Web. http://www.steel-insdag.org/TeachingMaterial/chapter33.pdf

Steel Construction. (2014). Simple connections. Resources.…… [read more]

Frank Lloyd Wright's Works Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (728 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Frank Lloyd Wright

A case could be made that Frank Lloyd Wright was the greatest architect in the history of the United States. There is no doubt that he is the most well-known and revered of all American architects. This paper reviews two of his most noted works, Fallingwater, and Taliesin West. How do these two iconic buildings reflect on Wright's life? That question will also be explored.


At seventy-seven years old, Wright's Fallingwater home in western Pennsylvania is still a "breathtaking" place to visit, according to an article in the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (Carpenter, 2011). It was designed by Wright in 1935 and built in the years 1936-1939, and a guest house was built in 1939 (Fallingwater.org). Fallingwater's original cost was $155,000 (that included $8,000 for Wright's architecture fee and $4,500 for walnut furnishings). The main house takes up 5,330 square feet (2,445 of that area is made up of terraces) and the guest house is 1,700 square feet (Fallingwater.org).

Fallingwater was build for the Edgar J. Kaufmann family, owners of Kaufmann's Department Store in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. Edgar, his wife Liliane, and their son Edgar Kaufman Junior lived in the Fallingwater home; Liliane died in 1952, Edgar Sr. died in 1955, and Edgar Jr. (who lived in the house until 1963) died in 1989.

Wright went to the trouble to make water "…a part of the house," said Lynda Waggoner, who is vice president of the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy and director at Fallingwater (Carpenter, 2011). Hence, Wright designed a system in which water is piped in from the stream and it "trickles through the stone" inside the house; "It's such a full-blown example of his genius," Waggoner explained. The house and the splashing water sounds are the ideal expression of "organic architecture," Waggoner continued, asserting that Fallingwater was just a weekend home for the Kaufmann family and it worked well in that context. The fact that the house is preserved in its natural world setting has been one of the positives for its legacy; indeed, the house is "…surrounded by 5,000 protected acres of pristine woodland" (Carpenter, p. 2).

How does Fallingwater reflect on Frank Lloyd Wright's life?

Wright was a man who…… [read more]

Personal Statement Supplement Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (617 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Inventor in New York City

If I had the opportunity to spend a day in New York City, I would ideally spend it with Elisha Otis. Elisha Otis is credited with inventing the elevator, but this is actually incorrect. He invented the modern brake which made elevators safer and instilled a greater degree of public confidence in them. This was something that was absolutely crucial for more people to accept elevators as a modern device to make life more practical and convenient. Elevators of all kinds existed for centuries and centuries, but human beings still tended to create building that were on average three floors high. Just because elevators were invented wasn't enough to make people use them. People had to feel confident about them or else they were just sophisticated gadgets that no one had any faith in.

One of the reasons I would want to spend time in New York City with Otis is because one of the things that New York is most famous for is its skyline: New York has a tremendous amount of truly glorious buildings that act as jewels against the night sky. The skyscrapers of New York truly are triumphs and signs of the progress of mankind and what human beings are able to accomplish. I would talk with Otis about how none of these skyscrapers would ever have existed if not for his mechanical brake. Without the mechanical brake that Otis invented, who knows if people would ever have quite accepted elevators. There might have always been a fear attached to riding in elevators which would have no doubt made people reluctant to use them. This would absolutely have made the creation of tall buildings like skyscrapers something that was considered undesirable. People wouldn't want to walk up ten flights of stairs, much less 60. Otis, by demonstrating…… [read more]

Sealed Bids vs. Competitive Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (651 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


This is in contrast to competitive proposals where other reasons apart from price could easily allow for the selection of the second best offer.

Further, in contrast to sealed bidding, competitive proposals require bidders to specifically demonstrate not only their knowledge but also their expertise in the area of interest. In that regard, while sealed bids could benefit new entrants, more established firms are more likely to sail through in a competitive proposal. Thus from a contractor's perspective, the most advantageous method in this case could largely be dependent on a number of factors including but not limited to the competitiveness (in terms of experience and expertise) of the firm concerned.

It can also be noted that the selection of either method could benefit or complicate a contractor's situation. For instance, while contractors in the construction industry would favor sealed bids, contractors in research and development fields may find competitive proposals more favorable. This is more so the case given that when it comes to research and development contracts, specifying associated costs could be somewhat challenging.

In the final analysis, the relevance of utilizing the most appropriate method of conducting procurement cannot be overstated. Applying one method in place of another could harm the interests of either the contractor or the contracting party.


In conclusion, it is important to note that typically, both competitive proposals and sealed bids attract a significant number of bidders. Maximum competition is more often than not a common feature of both methods. From a contracting party's perspective, having many proposals or bids to select from effectively increases the likelihood that the services or goods supplied will be of stellar quality.


Murphy, J.E. (2009). Guide to Contract Pricing: Cost and Price Analysis for Contractors, Subcontractors, and Government Agencies (5th ed.). Virginia: Management Concepts.

Sollish, F. & Semanik, J. (2012). The Procurement and Supply Manager's Desk Reference (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ:…… [read more]

Fire Protection Specialist Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (618 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Fire Protection Specialist

It takes a special kind of person to be an effective fire protection specialist. It takes extensive knowledge and the ability to communicate well with others. The skills needed and knowledge requirements are strict and numerous and for good reason. Currently, fire protection specialists are charged with filling three major roles. These roles include fire inspector, fire plan examiner, and fire investigator. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) is the organization that sets the minimum standards for these fields and the standards are carefully scrutinized before being adopted. Both NFPA 1031 and NFPA 1033 are specific sets of standards required to become certified in the areas of fire Inspector, plan examiner, and fire investigator. These standards define exactly what the roles and responsibilities of the fire protection specialist are.

According to the National Fire protection Association, the responsibilities of the fire inspector are numerous, but the basic functions of a level one fire inspector include "inspecting public, commercial, and residential structures for compliance with applicable laws" (NFPA 2009). In 1031 of NFPA, the guidelines, responsibilities, requisite knowledge, and required skills are spelled out in great detail. Suffice it to say that the 'core responsibilities include inspecting buildings for compliance with all applicable fire codes and laws, inspecting underground storage tanks, addressing complaints with inspections, identifying corrective actions, assisting in fire code interpretation, issuing fire code violations, and testifying in court regarding fire code violations' (NFPA 2009).

1031 of the National Fire Protection Association also addresses the functions and responsibilities of the plan examiner. The association identifies the core functions of the plan examiner as being "responsible for examining plans, fire protection system plans, and specifications for compliance with applicable fire code laws" (NFPA 2009). The duties of a plan examiner include ' preparing variances and appeals to be presented to the building standards commission, attending meetings…… [read more]

Behavioral Sciences and Architectural Theory Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (923 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Behavioral Sciences and Architectural Theory

In this chapter, the author discusses the behavioral sciences and their relationship to architecture and design. The various behavioral sciences are discussed. The author states that "this book focuses on the subject of the above that is concerned with the nature of human habitats and the relationship between the physical structure of the world and human activities and values" (Lang, 1987). The combination of these two fields of study has many names: M-ER (man-environment relations), environmental sociology, human ecology, and the person-environment theory (term used here in this book). It is important to note that psychology has generally been concerned with the environment on a molecular level which is of no use in design. However, Gestalt psychology does focus on it and has thus been latched onto by many architects and designers (for better or worse). Sociology has spent a great deal of time in consideration of group processes and the environment. However, anthropology has spent considerable time on the settings of primitive societies and is now expanding that area to include more modern societies.

Behavioral Sciences: Include anthropology, sociology and, psychology. Economics and political science are sometimes included. These, 'fields of study are dedicated to understanding human activities, attitudes, and values' (Lang, 1987).

The concerns of the behavioral sciences: There is a "utility gap" between the behavioral sciences and environmental design (Lang, 1987). This is because the behavioral sciences follow the scientific method as closely as possible and are focused on facts. They are focused on facts to achieve their goal of building positive theory. It allows them to predict patterns of activities and values. If a behavioral scientist then uses the information and states a preference for an outcome, he/she is no longer a scientist. The problem is that empirical data does not guide practice. Only Theory can guide practice and this needs to be addressed to close the "utility gap" (Lang, 1987).

The concerns of design: To understand the relationship between the two areas, one needs to consider the concerns of designers. There are multiple descriptions given historically, but for the purposes of this book, the author has taken a normative philosophy about which a designer should be concerned.. He states that the model used here is from the humanist psychologist Abraham Maslow (1954) (Lang, 1987).. It states, "The built environment, if properly configured, can meet aspects of human needs for survival, security, affiliation, esteem, learning, and aesthetics" (Lang, 1987).

The nature of design problems: The nature of the design problem is that it is not usually well defined or articulated. However, the designer should strive to create an environment that meets all the needs of all the people utilizing that environment. The behavioral sciences are helping to achieve that end.…… [read more]

Cantilever &amp Cable Stayed Bridges Essay

Essay  |  9 pages (2,971 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


¶ … Cantilever Bridges

Page 4 Advantages of Cantilever Bridges

Page 5 Top 5 Longest Cantilever Bridges

Page 6 Cable Stayed Bridges

Page 8 Advantages of Cable Stayed Bridges

Page 8 Top 5 Longest Cable Stayed Bridges

Page 8 Comparison: Cable Stayed with Cantilever

Cantilever and Cable Stayed Bridges

There are major differences between a cantilever bridge and a cable… [read more]

Romantic and Modern Design Styles Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,568 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The material itself being the focus meant Wright used a limited color palette in his designs, using a very muted, intimate and warm palette that came straight from nature. (Pile, 1997) Not until Postmodernism in the 1960s would architects and designers start to experiment beyond the bounds of Frank Lloyd Wright's choices.


Romanticism and Modernism were two design movements that could not have been more different in their conception and their purpose. The choice to build with a romantic, neoclassical or beaux-art design was based on the wealth of the client, and the exceptional circumstances of the turn of the century. With the onset of the First World War in 1914, and the deaths of millions of young individuals in Europe, a new tone was struck and the world could not simply go back to the way it had been during the height of the 19th century. Machine guns, poison gas, airplanes, and tanks had destroyed the beauty of the age. Modernism was a harsh reaction to this, creating a somber, and sober outlook to the world. It coincided with the rise of America, and the rise of Frank Lloyd Wright, and guided the world of design in the post World War II era.

Works Cited:

1. Customer Notes -- Provided by Customer from Academic Notes and Books

2. Britannica Encyclopedia, (2012). Interior Design: The Romantic Movement and the Battle of the Styles. Retrieved from, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/290278/interior-design/74226/The-Romantic-movement-and-the-battle-of-the-styles-1835-1925

3. Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation, (2012). Wright's Life and Work. Retrieved from, http://www.franklloydwright.org/web/Home.html

4. Pile, J. (1997). Color in Interior Design.…… [read more]

Adopted Fire Prevention and Life Safety Codes for Buildings Structures Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,703 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Fire Prevention Code for the City of Dallas

The adoption of the International Fire Code and International Building Code by the city of Dallas marks a huge step for the city in the area of public safety. There have been numerous public safety incidents related to building fires in particular. Building fires are especially dangerous in the context of multi-level… [read more]

Comparison of Cable Stayed and Suspension Bridges Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  10 pages (3,177 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Cable-Stayed and Suspension Bridges

Case Studies-

Of the different types of bridges the comparison between the suspension bridge and the cable stayed bridge is feasible because of the similarities. There are other types of bridges that are widely used. For example, the Arch Bridge which is found from prehistoric times. The arch sustains heavy loads and the arches… [read more]

Sustainable Design Is the Smart Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,227 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


" BSRIA - Providing Consultancy, Instruments, Test and Research in Building Services and Construction - Market Research Reports, Product Testing, Information and Membership. Web. 19 May 2011. .]

ESTIDAMA, the word meaning 'sustainability' in Arabic, is the green design standard for the city of Abu Dhabi, in the United Arab Emirates, ESTIDAMA, and particularly the Pearl Rating System used to rate sustainability in ESTIDAMA, was created in advance of Abu Dhabi's 2030 vision for the creation of a modern global capitol city. Although a similar system to the other two, there are a few major differences. ESTIDAMA places far more emphasis of its credit distribution on water usage, and less on energy usage, as this is a critical part of Abu Dhabi's development and need for clean water to be recycled as efficiently as possible. Energy is plentiful in the Middle East, and much of the development built in this region is a result of its fortunate energy supply.[footnoteRef:2] This problem of water usage, however, is not applicable to the rest of the world, and therefore shows why ESTIDAMA was created in the first place, because LEED and BREEAM simply could not readily adapt themselves to the particular conditions of Abu Dhabi. [2: "Comparing Estidama's Pearls Rating Method to LEED and BREEAM." Carboun. Web. 19 May 2011. .]

As far as accreditation is concerned, ESTIDAMA takes a hybrid approach between BREEAM and LEED, urging the use of a dedicated professional onsite to evaluate as progress moves, as BREEAM does, but also requiring the oversight of a "Pearl Qualified Professional" to complete the final inspection. This process is extremely thorough in its approach, and to have two checks is a valuable tool against cheating and corruption, which may seep into the competitive world of construction in the other two standards. This method of double checks however could be prohibitively bureaucratic in a democracy setting, which ESTIDAMA does not operate in currently. ESTIDAMA is certainly just as important to the field of sustainable design as the larger rating systems are, as it brings much of the same professionalism to the task, ESTIDAMA is however tinkered to appeal to its local market in the Middle East, and this is apparent in the breakdown of the evaluation process.

In conclusion, it is foreseeable that buildings will reach a near-zero release of carbon during their complete phase, and a lot less energy will be used during the buildings construction. In this way, all three sustainable standards will play their part, and will have brought good policy to a controllable environment of office space and residential construction. I, however, believe that the LEED standard is the best standard to follow, as it is best understand around the world and by architects, does not require specialization within countries, which would only dilute the strength of LEED's simplicity, and does not allow any individual to make evaluations, only the Green Building Council itself. This disallows cheating and presents a balanced and expert opinion of what LEED's standards ought… [read more]

Beguinage Church in Brussels Belgium Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,271 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Beguinage Church in Brussels, Belgium (Eglise du Beguinage) 1676 ("Brussels" Europe-cities) or possibly 1656 as is noted by Gilliant-Smith in the Story of Brussels (235) to replace a much more demure church built in the 13th-14th century for the Beguinage, is attributed to the Flemish Baroque sculptor and architect Luc Faydherbe (1617-1697), who was a student of Rubens and therefore had significant Italian influences. ("Luc Faydherbe" Larrousse Encyclopedia) Though I have not seen the work in person the depictions of the work represent to some degree how moving the work is and why it has continued throughout the centuries to draw both the faithful and the non-faithful tourist to its doors. The work is a striking and thought provoking example of the Baroque architectural tradition and its exterior is visible for miles in its grand representation.

The greatest attraction of the Beguinage Church of St. John the Baptist is its amazingly elaborate facade, widely regarded as being one of the most beautiful in the country. It is spread over three gables of varying heights and flanked by an octagonal tower. The church has a simple Latin cross design, typical of Gothic architecture, while the onion-shaped steeples are characteristic of Flemish Baroque style popular in the 17th Century. ("Brussels" Europe-cities)

The work is a blend of styles, and has historical underpinnings of a church built specifically for the largest Beguinage in the world. The Beguinage is a monastic tradition for women, both nuns and unmarried laywomen that lived around the church and in a monastery that is no longer on the site. During the period when the church was built the Beguinage is said to have had 1250 members, clearly a community that could be served by and support such a large and grand church as its center of worship and community. ("Brussels" Europe-cities) the two styles noted within the above citation are Latin in the form of the church shape and Flemish Baroque, which was the overriding architectural and artistic style of the 17th century period. There is a clear demonstration of movement toward heaven, such as is seen in many period churches as well as other buildings of state. The facade is elaborate and demonstrates the combination of building materials, stones of various colors with the darker being found nearer the ground (supporting the weight and the structure of the church and the facade) while the upper tiers of the building are lighter stone that plays off the striking ornamentation carved within it. The striking red metal doors of the church are also highly decorated and ornamental and contrast with the lighter colored stones used to build the church.

It is also noted that the square where the church is centered is very serene and centralized to several streets, at one time there were many other buildings supporting the Beguinage as well as gardens and homes for the sisters, yet Gilliant-Smith notes that during the French revolution the Beguinage was suppressed a great deal and lost a good deal… [read more]

Interior Design Visual Planning Book Report

Book Report  |  6 pages (1,883 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6



Book: Visual planning and the picturesque Pevsner, Nikolaus (1949/2010)

Footnote all direct quotes, whether by the book author or another author you might quote in relation to the book.

Structure the report so that it develop logically and make it coherence and interesting reading

Be selective in the points for comments, don't be a full summary or cover every… [read more]

Master Builders Today, the Professions Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


By the time of 700 B.C. And the inscriptions of Sennacherib, much more detail is provided about the temple construction and the use of these structures in feasts and celebrations. Esarhaddon (681 to 669 BC), who was Sennacherib's son and successor of king of Assyria, tells of his interest to rebuild Babylon and its temple to the appearance of "favourable signs in the heaven and on earth" (Luckenbill 260) He proceeded cautiously by asking an oracle if he was making the correct decision: "To (await) the decision of Shamash and Adad, I prostrated myself reverently; to (learn) their final decree, I arranged the soothsayers at the entrance to the Bit-mummu. I saw a vision concerning Assur, Babylon and Nineveh. (For guidance) concerning the artificers who should accomplish the work and carry out (lit. bring in) the (divine) decree…" (ibid). When Esarhaddon received positive confirmation, he hired "wise architects and skillful builders," laid the walls of the foundation in "choice oil, honey, butter, wine of the mountain," and spanned the roof "with beams of cedar, the product of Mount Amanus" (ibid 250-251).


The concept of builder in Egypt encompassed the positions of architect, engineer, and builder. There was no distinction between the three roles, and all were normally conducted by one person: the master builder. This concept lasted for some time until more complex structures and construction techniques led to the disciplines becoming separated (Jackson 5). At first, the architects and engineers of Egypt (and Rome) belonged to the priesthood or were closely related with it. This idea is based on the fact that the Latin word pontaifex or "bridge builder" designated a priest (Straub 32). As time passed, along with the growing initiation and supervision of the construction of temples, aqueducts and roads, specific people needed to be designated in charge. In Egypt, the quarrying of stone material and its transport from the quarry to the site, the removal of the huge blocks including the hardest granite, the organization and catering for the tremendous numbers of labour forces that were required at the edge of the desert all caused considerable challenges and difficulties that could only be handled by those who had specific knowledge (ibid 9).

One such "master builder" was the Egyptian polymath Imhotep (2650 -- 2600 BC), who served during the third dynasty of King Djoser and is the first such individual whose name was thus recognized (Osler 12). Imhotep was also considered a genius in many other fields, including medicine, mathematics, astronomy and poetry, which demonstrates the level of intellect of this new architectural role. He held the titles of high priest of Ptah, chancellor, palace administrator, builder, and sculptor and was later defied and worshipped as the god of medicine in both Egypt and Greece (Quatman 23). His cult reached its peak during Greco-Roman times when he was identified with the Greek god of medicine Asclepius.

Imhotep was idealized… [read more]

Atlanta High Rise Office Fire Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (824 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Atlanta High Rise Office Fire

The case of Atlanta High Rise Office Fire that broke on June 30, 1989 in Atlanta, Georgia because of an electric fault is significant because it was the first reported case of multiple deaths in U.S. due to a fire accident at a high-rise office building. Five people were killed, and 23 civilians and six fire fighters were injured severely. The building was located at 1720 Peachtree Street and was commonly known as Peachtree 25th Building. (Jennings, 1989)

The main fire protection features of the building were limited. There were manual fire alarm stations located at each exit of the building along with a system of Class III standpipe with 6-inch standpipe risers located in each stairwell, and at each stairway, an occupant use hose station in the interior corridors was situated. During the renovation of the building, two of the floors of the building were equipped with smoke detectors. In the South Tower of the building, the elevators were equipped with automatic fire fighter service features along with automatic recall. Yet, there was no such fire fighter feature on the floor that caught the fire except one elevator in the North Tower. For the purpose of fire fighting, there was proper provision of emergency power and the stairways were also equipped with emergency lighting system. (Jennings, 1989)

The building was properly designed and erected in accordance with the City of Atlanta Building Code. The minimum fire resistance rating for the building was two hours for the concrete floor and three-hours for the columns of the building. It was noticed that no code for fire resistance and protection was violated by the builders. (Jennings, 1989)

The fire that erupted due to an electric fault on the sixth floor was very severe that caused an untenable atmosphere on the sixth floor of the building. The fourth, fifth and seventh floor of the building also suffered minor smoke and fire damage while the sixth floor suffered huge fire damage. The situations were so threatening that a worker jumped out of the sixth floor in order to strive for her survival. No unusual toxic material or gas was reported to erupt due to the electric arcing that caused the fire. (Jennings, 1989)

Some of the occupants on the sixth floor tried to take refuge in the farthest offices from the electric compartments. Most of them broke the windows of the offices that helped them to survive in dense smoke while…… [read more]

Lightweight Concrete Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,427 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Structural Performance of Lightweight Concrete

The Pantheon, built 18 centuries ago, demonstrates the structural performance of lightweight concrete to be superior to many contemporary building materials. In time, the use of lightweight concrete has spread across the U.S., the UK, Sweden and a number of other countries. The performance of the muti-faceted building material, nevertheless, depends on a myriad of… [read more]

Post Tensioned Concrete Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,646 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Post-tensioned concrete forms one of the most important mixtures that form the basis of most structural engineering works. Extant literature has been dedicated to the study of post-tensioned concrete. In this paper we analyse the various forms and types post-tensioned concrete and the ideal mix ratio that result in the most durable post-tensioned concrete. Our major aim is to improve… [read more]

History of Furniture Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,411 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Windsor chair created by furniture maker Joseph DeGant, circa 1810. The Windsor chair has a long history, and it traveled from England to North American in the 18th century. A classic chair design, it is still one of the most popular types of chairs today, used often as a side chair or dining table chair.

This particular Windsor… [read more]

Lend Lease Australia the Green Building Strategy Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,020 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 6



Lend Lease Australia: the green building strategy

In an increasingly carbon conscious world, there has been a lot of emphasis on the creation of new green buildings and infrastructure. But, with 98 per cent of Australia's existing office buildings built without sustainability considerations, people are starting to recognize the importance of improving this space, rather than using lots of energy to build new buildings (Taylor, 2009). A sustainable building that has a high degree of durability can help to decrease the amount of materials that end up in landfills and use of resources within the community when disasters occur. "The ordinances often provide mandatory requirements for increased resistance to natural disasters with the goal of reducing the number of destroyed buildings while protecting property and saving lives" (Document Helps Implement Green Building Codes, 2009).

There has also been an increase in Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) that requires an understanding of the entire life cycle of products by manufacturers in order for them to undertake effective product stewardship or extended producer responsibility (EPR) programs. Through the LCA, it is hoped that business will determine the most effective developments it can make in order to minimize its impact and to utilize resources efficiently. It is thought that by the year 2050, 85% of Australia's total carbon emission budget will be needed to combat landfill's that are emitting very high levels of methane gas (Neales, 2007).

Green buildings are a relatively new thing in Australia. In 1992 there were many issues that were highlighted as being problems. These issues include: shortages of water, transportation congestion and an increasing demand on energy. The early focus of green buildings in Australia has been mainly in the residential sector. It has taken more than a decade for the ideas of sustainable cities and green buildings to become a main focus of the government (Hubbard, Rice and Beamish, 2008).

Lend Lease which is a leading real estate services business was founded in 1951 in Australia. Their key operating behaviors revolve around the improvement, building and management of real estate properties in both the public and private sectors. The founders of Lend Lease seem to have an authentic aspiration to make valuable and profitable contributions to society through their everyday business activities. They are devoted to meeting the social, cultural and environmental demands that have been set forth in order to create complete and sustainable communities (Hubbard, Rice and Beamish, 2008).

In 2000 and 2001 Lend Lease went through a down period where they were loosing money. It was at this time that they initiated a review process that led to The Bond project. The Bond was designed to enhance the communication that took place between the occupants and the community. Lend Lease made a commitment to engage the community during the development and construction phases while making the decision making process as transparent as possible. The intention of The Bond was to an ecologically sustainable structure along with a socially sustainable environment for both the occupants… [read more]

Fire Technology Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,929 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Duct Smoke Detectors: The Impact of Various Factors on Their Effectiveness," Construction Technology Update No. 72, December 2008 by G.D. Lougheed

The use of smoke detectors in heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) ducts is a requirement of a majority of building codes in North America, including the National Building Code of Canada (NBC). As part of this… [read more]

Impact of Nightclub Fires on the Fire Service Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (2,983 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Nightclub Fires on the Fire Service

This is a guideline and template and should not be used as a final turn-in paper.

Natchez, Mississippi, April 24, 1940. The Rhythm Nightclub fire lasted just 15 minutes. In that quarter of an hour, 212 African-Americans had been burned alive, trampled or had suffocated from smoke inhalation. There was only one… [read more]

1234. . .
NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.