Study "Architecture / Construction" Essays 111-163

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Work of Peter Zumthor Term Paper

… Peter Zumthor: Therme Vals

One of the best examples of a relatively recent application of phenomenology in architecture is Peter Zumthor's Therme Vals in Vals, Switzerland. Examining how Zumthor transformed an aging spa resort into the unique structure that exists… [read more]

Work of Steven Holl Architecture Essay

… Steven Holl's Kiasma

Kiasma, the Musuem of Contemporary Art in Helsinki, Finland, takes its name from the Finnish word for chiasma, which was the original title of architect Steven Holl's winning design. Representing the convergence of disparate architectural, historical, and… [read more]

Piranesi on Architecture: Argument Term Paper

… The "devoid of artistic originality" is exemplified in such quotations as:

"Tell me, please, what are [Greek] columns supposed to represent? According to Vitruvius, they originate from the forked sticks placed at the corner of the huts; according to other, they are the trunks that support the roof. And what is the meaning of the flutes? Vitruvius thinks that they represent the pleats in the robes of Roman matrons. This means that the columns do not imitate forked sticks or trees but rather women supporting a roof."[footnoteRef:4] [4: Source given by customer -- Thoughts on Architecture by Giovanni Battista Piranesi (Translation by Michaels Nonis and Mark Epstein) ]

This quotation proves Piranesi's belief that Roman architecture is much more realistic and much more imitative of life. When he compares Roman architecture to pleats in the robes of Roman women, he is comparing a column with something that he has seen in life; whereas for him, Greek architecture is simple and almost as devoid of life as a tree (symbolically speaking), Roman architecture is full of life, and in fact, mirrors life.

Through his essay, Piranesi thus describes and successfully argues for the realism, the ornateness, the "life" in Roman architecture and, one would say, quite… [read more]

Gothic Cathedral as Rhetorical Device Essay

… In large part, Venturi would be likely to argue, this is important because it is in the historical attributes that meaning is preserved and found.

Denise Scott Brown.

Brown objected to the idea that popular architecture could not convey meaning. She believed not only that it did, but that it should. Cultural meaning was to her essential to the constructed environment. Brown defended her interest in the tastes of the masses and her narrative about the status quo. She refused to project her own judgment before she had explored vernacular taste and sensibilities from, she would argue, was an objective perspective. Brown's position was that an architect should not take the people living in an environment out of any plans to renovate or completely make over that environment. The danger of a purely functional approach to architecture is that one does absent cultural meaning and historical reference. What Brown clearly conveyed, in voice and design, was the importance of respecting the environment, the context, in which one builds. Brown would have artists and architects ground themselves in the popular -- what she called "pop" -- culture as a way of investigating functional needs, social context, cultural meaning, and aesthetic expression. Brown was quick to caution architects who would judge the urban context with the caveat that inhabitants of certain localities may not reside where they would prefer to, nor might they be able to reconfigure their habitations to their liking. Brown not only linked people as found in their quotidian contexts to architecture, but she insisted that new forms of architecture must also link to the formal traditions of architecture. The new experiences, then, could be understood in light of formal architectural training.

Le Corbusier.

Acquaintances with cubist artists during Le Corbusier's early days seems to have made a lasting impression, and his modern buildings reflect his Cartesian orientation to symmetry and orderliness. His sensitivities seem inherently Swiss; his proclivity for industrial materials and stark functional construction belie a core reliance on structure and order. His style was moderately softened through the introduction of proportion, rhythm, and mathematical harmony. The source of these design elements was the golden ratio, and its influence is seen in his modular structures where proportion is dominant. Other architects were inspired by cathedral structure; Le Corbusier dreamt of ocean liners, and they took shape in his waking hours as clean, white structures on stilts punctuated by his version of portals and decks. In the same way that other architects admired the raw structural integrity of stone in the construction of cathedrals, Le Corbusier left the crude marks of the wooden forms on the inside and outside of the concrete surfaces -- a construction and conceit as honest as the dome of… [read more]

Njit Admission Essay

… I have always been a great student, interested in the creative part of the world, and these programs will thus enable me to further my passion.

In addition to my passion for studying and my academic potential, I also want to add to the social and sport life of the University. I have a long-term experience as part of a cheerleading team. I have been part of a team since my elementary school studies as George Washington Elementary and until high school at Union Hill High School. Thus, I believe that not only would I benefit the NJIT's cheerleading team, but my captain experience would enhance its efforts as well. I hope that my experience in sports will also be taken into account when I apply to a sorority on campus. I would love to be a part of a sorority in order to be able to have lifetime sisters and friend to whom I can share my worries and whom I can trust.

I thus hope that my academic and social life experience will help with enabling the admission committee make its decision. Furthermore, please note that this would be the opportunity of a lifetime for myself and my family. I would be honored to attend your institution and be able to pursue not only my ability in this field, but also my long-time passion. [read more]

Hazal Emre History of World Essay

… The natural illumination is obviously functional as it helps readers in a practical sense to be able to see the lettering on the pages of the books. Natural illumination also has another implicit and romantic symbolism, it allows for man to enter an unnatural man made structure while at the same time not losing touch with one of natures most important and beneficial elements for man kind which is light. The Iron used in the design is also beneficial becuase it adds strength and protection from fires to the structures, it works in conjuncition with the concept of natural illumination because it allows the volume of the structural support system to be less dense, thereby allowing more light to penentrate the structure. The use of Iron in the structure can also be seen as dramatically romantic statement that comments on industrial revolution that was in its early development stages during the first and middle part of the nineteenth century. Romanticism was concerned with the dramatic developments in the life of humans and of nature. The industrial revolution provided many new, dramatic and important developments for humans to ponder and disscuss during this time period. Allowing for the Library of St. Genevieve to be functional, practical and useful for the public supports the ideals of the French Revolution which called for the illumination of the public in both the political and educational sectors.

As a topic of importance one can also consider the relatively simple form of a book when compared to the composition and design of the building itself. The building appears to share several fundamental and important qualities with the books that it holds within. The similarities between the two can used to find commonalities between the romantic movement in architecture and the seemingly opposing or contradictory design of the St. Genevieve Library. Books of the time period being disscussed were relative simple and bland on outside. Most of the time they were inscripted with only the title and the name of author. However, once a book is opened and read, it becomes very complex and versatile, it is a window to another world filled with dramas, conflicts, beauty, danger and a variety of never-ending elements too long to list. The design of the Librairy of St. Genevieve is composed in a similar manner. The outside facades are simple and curiously, they have inscripted on them the names of great authors hundreds of them in total. The relative simplicity of the facacades is undeniable, much like the exterior of a book it serves only to identify the contents held within. Entering the St. Genevieve Library is a lot like opening and reading a book, all the complexities and dramas are contained within. The interior of the librairy is made to inspire and delight and to serve a purpose, much like the intended purpose of books on readers.

The design of the library of St. Genevieve is one that holds symbolic and metaphorical elements that are closely related to designer's… [read more]

Development of the Columns Through History Research Paper

… ¶ … oif columns in architecture extends from the ancient Egyptians and the Greeks and Romans to its modern usage in both public and private constructions and building. The various forms and styles, such as the classical Doric and Ionic,… [read more]

City Hall Plaza Boston Term Paper

… City Hall Plaza, Boston

City Hall Plaza -- Boston

When most people hear about Boston, they often think of the most historic places including: Beacon Hill and the Paul Revere House. This is important, because these and many other structures establish the basic foundation of the city. As they serve not only a cultural oasis, but as a symbol of Boston itself. However, some sites throughout the city have been facing a number of different issues over the last several years. Once such location; is the City Hall Plaza as it was voted the worst piece of architecture in the world, by the Project for Public Places. This is significant, because this is confirming many criticisms the structure would face since 1970's. To fully understand the different site planning issues and public space related to the building along with its plaza requires: examining the architecture (as it relates to the site), elements that are placed around the plaza, the landscape, the slope / contour of the building, ADA responses, the location of the entrance, the placement of the structure in comparison with surrounding architecture and the relationship between historical buildings / contemporary architecture. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights as to the overall planning issues facing the City Hall Plaza and the building itself. ("Boston City Hall," 2010)

Architecture as it pertains to site.

The building's placement was to ensure that the city government would be in the heart of Boston. As it would utilize modern materials for construction (such as: steel and cement). At the same time, it would embrace the ultra modern design of architectural planning from the 1960's. The structure is located just south of Boston Common and is sitting at Boylston / Tremont Streets. It is easily accessible to pedestrians, but is challenging for vehicles (as far as parking spaces are concerned). On the human scale, the structure was designed to impress visitors and highlight the transparency of the city government. ("Boston City Hall," 2010)

Other Plaza site elements that are placed on the plaza and at its edges. Are they useful and for what purpose?

On the edges of the plaza are: a recessed fountain, umbrella shaded… [read more]

Le Corbusier's Villa Savoye and Robert Venturi's Vanna Venturi House Research Paper

… Deconstruction Architecture has a major impact on the development of the contemporary, late-capitalist built environment. Twentieth century architects like Frank Lloyd Wright and Le Corbusier carved a path for modernist planners to spread deconstruction architecture throughout the world. The progression of the movement found widespread support in organic models of architectural design and integrated building rehabilitations which seemed to mystically incorporate surrounding nature. Synchronous with the forces of visual and other arts, deconstruction opened up neutral spaces for exhibition and performance as integral aspects of the everyday lived experiences of those built environments. The foregoing dissertation proposal outlines the development of organic architecture as a philosophy of deconstruction; promoting harmony between human habitation and the natural world through design approaches so sympathetic and well integrated with its site that buildings, furnishings, and surroundings become part of a unified, interrelated composition.

Statement of Problem

The era of Modernist architecture was characterized by cosmopolitanism. Post WWII those stylistic standards contributed to the reconstruction of both Europe and Japan, and it is not surprisingly, then, that the two locations produced some of the most recognized and most abundant urban architectural structural developments. In continental Europe, seminal constructions by architectural designers like Le Corbusier in France, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius in Germany esteemed a post Frankfurt School movement toward reunification through democratic expression. Reflexive to internationalist theories within the field of Modernist architecture, the United States was already host to a burgeoning architectural renaissance underway. Of keen interest was the early sustainable construction of North American architect, Frank Lloyd Wright.

Deconstruction came on the scene in the 1960s, and has had a strong and lasting influence both in terms of methodological consideration in architecture and in public perception. Closely aligned to French Philsopher, Jacques Derrida and later followed by international intellectuals such as Japanese Philosopher, Kojin Karatani, much of the apt critique of its root in linguistics and grammatology offered flexibility to a field of Modernity once producing structures akin to neat cookie cutter boxes. From the 1980s forward, it is said that 'Gaudi was born again,' and one can observe in every major metropolis, the strange angles and conflicting fabrication that came to characterize buildings, integrally and in conflict with other like structures in the same surroundings. From a design perspective, a significant aspect of deconstructionism in architecture is the incorporation of flexible and modular parts, functioning as unrelated elements.

Deconstruction reached its zenith during the Parc de la Villette architectural design competition. In 1983, Peter Eisenman proved his artistic direction at the New York exhibition that year, with featured works by Frank Gehry, Daniel Libeskind, Rem Koolhaas, Peter Eisenman, Zaha Hadid, Coop Himmelbau, as well as Bernard Tschumi… [read more]

Construction BETC Essay

… Architectural Design Specialists, Ltd.

London, England

Mr. Joseph B. Smith, President

Joe B. Smith Construction, Ltd.

London, England EC1Y 8SY

Bentley Builder, President

Architectural Design Specialists, Ltd.


Preliminary design sketch

Specification notes and rationale concerning approval

General description of… [read more]

Suzhou Museum I'm Pei Term Paper

… Suzhou Museum -- I.M. Pei

Suzhou Museum - I.M.Pei

The legacy of the ancient canal city is preserved in the gardens of Suzhou, the legacy of a city that identified with silk trade and its beauty left Marco Polo astounded.… [read more]

Future House With Nature Term Paper

… ¶ … sustainability is "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" from the Brundtland Declaration of 1987 ( (United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED)… [read more]

Architecture Through the Ages Mesopotamia Literature Review

… The Erechtheum and the small temple of Athena on the Acropolis are Ionic however. The Ionic order became dominant in the Hellenistic period, since its more decorative style suited the aesthetic of the period better than the more restrained Doric.… [read more]

Ancient Buildings With Modern Los Angeles Research Paper

… Karim Snoussi

Christoph Korner

Roman Visions

Take a drive around the always-crowded streets of Los Angeles and you'll notice scores of buildings whose architects drew their inspiration at least in part from the ancient world -- from Babylon and Mesopotamia… [read more]

History and Evolution of Construction Safety Regulations Thesis

… ¶ … Evolution of Construction Safety Regulations

Author David L. Goetsch (who wrote Construction Safety and Health) -- along with several other authors and scholars -- present informative background into the area of construction safety -- and its evolvement as… [read more]

Castelvecchio Verona Italy Carlo Scarpa Architect Research Proposal

… Castelvecchio

Mixing old and new architecture in an aesthetically pleasing way to maintain a sense of history while keeping buildings useful and practical in the modern age. A truly visionary architect is able not only to achieve this meld of new practicalities and aesthetics with traditional and historic preservation, but is actually able to render a sort of homage to historic aesthetics while putting their own personal signature into the design of a building. Carlo Scarpa is one such architect, and the work he did updating and modernizing the medieval castle in Verona, Italy, known simply as Castelvecchio or the "Old Castle" is one of the most impressive and enduring monuments to his skill. While maintaining the integrity of the structure and its aesthetics and history of the castle, Scarpa's own sense of aesthetics and its far more modern shaping are apparent in many of the details of Cstelvecchio. In addition, he practical changes he made to transform the castle from a former fortress and housing unit to a modern museum.

The changes that Scarpa made to the interior of Castelvecchio for the specific purpose of displaying certain works of art reflect all of these elements -- a devotion to the practicalities of a museum, a commitment to preserving history, and a passion for his own sense of design and aesthetics. One of the most impressive examples of this melding of different (though not disparate) purposes is the display of a medieval statue on a beam of concrete that juts out approximately twenty feet from the wall and hovers many feet above the floor of the room. A walkway runs near this beam, allowing for a view of the statue. The concrete fits well with the stone of the original castle, and at the same time gives a distinctly modern texture to the room. The very existence of the… [read more]

Fabrica Benetton Verona Italy Tado Ando 1994-2004 Research Proposal

… Fabrica

Personal Response to the Fabrica Benetton Building in Verona, Italy

One of the more appealing ambitions to emerge from post-modern architectural philosophy is that which seeks to immerse structural ambition into its natural surrounding without disruption. Traditional approaches to modern urban design have sought to dispatch with nature in favor of all-consuming building sites. Tadao Ando's Frabrica, also known as the Benetton Communication Research Center, in Verona, Italy stands as an inspiring counterpoint to this philosophy. The sprawling array of columns, arches, terraces and chambers was completed in 2004 and is an absolutely stunning inversion of architectural principles, weaving itself harmonious into the natural landscape by integrating a reflecting pool, an open-air solarium and indoor corridors illuminated by ample sky-lighting.

The research center was constructed to serve as a forum for specialized studies, innovative projects and research endeavors in a wide host of disciplines, but particularly in the area of communications. In line with its progressive orientation, the architecture renders a totally unique ambience for scholarly stimulation. Ando's Japanese ethnicity plays a particularly large role in what can be described as a distinctly materialist representation of architectural ideology. Ando would borrow heavily from all manner of architectural tradition, inserting outdoor colonnades with clear reference to Roman styles and, in close proximity, arranging sharp geometrical figures in asymmetrical harmony that comports with Asian philosophy on Feng Shui.

I found myself moved to intrigue by such areas as the open-air solarium, which is a bare concrete surface ensconced in columns. The close thicket of columns surrounds an opened center, which provides a surface that naturally attracts the individual given the open skylight directly above it. This is a fine example of the manner in which Ando manages to yield the prospect… [read more]

Role of Platform Pyramid Essay

… Platforms and pyramids have served many functions in antiquity. For the most part, these objects either of the natural world or made by man serve as a place of worship or symbolic reference to being closer to the heavens/god(s). The… [read more]

Fire Science Thesis

… Fire Science: Building Design, Construction Methods, And Collapse

In the construction industry, there are a lot of variables that can affect how fast something is built, the quality of it, and the cost -- and also how well it holds… [read more]

Make a Contract Thesis

… Construction Contract

The following agreement is entered into by Harry Holmes (hereinafter

"Homeowner") and Chris Conrad (hereinafter "Contractor") and constitutes the entire understanding between Homeowner and Contractor of the services provided by Contractor to remodel Homeowner's kitchen.

Homeowner will furnish $2,500 as a nonrefundable deposit on the date of this agreement representing one-half the total agreed amount of $5,000 for the complete project, the balance of which is payable on the date that the project is completed by Contractor. Contractor agrees to complete the project on or before June 1, 2009 and further represents that time is of the essence and that failure to complete the project on that date will entitle Homeowner to a negotiated refund of $100 per day up to the total amount of the project for any delay not caused by the Homeowner or by circumstances commonly referred to as "acts of God." Homeowner agrees to… [read more]

Gothic the Flamboyant Essay

… Gothic

The Flamboyant Gothic is generally considered to be the final phase of the Gothic architecture, manifesting itself on the European continent during the 15th century. As one of its main characteristics, the Flamboyant style shows an explosion of the artistic creativity and an increased focus on the decorations of the buildings. If previously, many of these decorations had a practical use foremost (the gargoyles, for example, had primarily the function of carrying the water away from the roof, while the arches were basic support functions), decoration exists in the Flamboyant style simply for the sake of decoration.

At the same time, the cathedrals were no longer the usual austere buildings they had been in the first Gothic periods. A greater attention to artistic detail, the preponderance of stained glass and decorations made these buildings more artistic than before. In fact, one of the first characteristics of Flamboyant Gothic is that "wall space was reduced to the minimum of supporting vertical shafts to allow an almost continuous expanse of glass and tracery."

This follows on what has been mentioned in the pervious paragraph. If before all elements in a Gothic construction were there for a practical purpose, with the Flamboyant Gothic, this practical aspect is kept to a minimum and more space is awarded to pinnacles, gables or stained glass.

Flamboyant Gothic can be analyzed in greater detail at particular construction elements. For example, the arch, a defining element of the Gothic style, is used now in a double-curved shape, after it was predominantly either concave or convex during the previous Gothic periods. The walls are no longer the same solid, stone constructions that are unitary up to the top. Now, occasional patterns are sculpted in them, without challenging their supportive ability, but improving their aesthetic and artistic perspective for the viewer.

At the same time, Flamboyant Gothic… [read more]

Egyptian Technology Thesis

… Egyptian Technology

Since their creation, the pyramids of Egypt have been a source of awe, wonder, and amazement, from both an artistic viewpoint as well as from a technological and archeological examination of their structure, creation, and form. Created for… [read more]

Identify an Issue Faced by the Housing Industry and Make Recommendations to Resolve Thesis

… Housing

Construction Quality - a Critical Housing Issue

The housing and construction industry is in flux right now because of the economy, dwindling housing prices, and the mortgage meltdown. However, underlying this slowdown is an underlying issue not often addressed in the industry, and that is the construction quality, or the lack thereof. Traditionally in the housing and construction industry, contractors and their sub-contractors are most concerned with timing and speed. There are almost always construction delays due to weather, material suppliers, building inspectors, and the like, and so, speed is of the essence. When speed is the number one motivator in construction, quality falls, and ultimately, the building owner will be dissatisfied with the results, costing the contractor time and money in repairs and maintenance.

In addition, traditionally many builders and developers, whether commercial or residential, sub-out their work to a variety of sub-contractors, whose goal again is to finish the job as quickly as possible so they can move on to the next job and make more profits. None of these subs are usually known for the quality of their work and their craftsmanship, but rather for getting the job done quickly and effectively. This can lead to quality issues throughout the construction process, from dirt work to finish carpentry and beyond. As one problem mounts on another, it can snowball into a building that lacks quality and good building practices, and it can become the norm for the industry.

How can builders assure high quality in their work, while still managing to make a profit on their construction? Most builders simply try to hire the best subs they can for the lowest price, and use inspectors to ensure buildings are up to standards. However, the intermediary, (the sub-in this scenario), is often more concerned with volume than with quality, and therein lies the bottom line in construction quality. For the best quality and quality assurance, there are two solutions, and they could revolutionize the construction industry - and give it a much better quality reputation, if they were… [read more]

Architectural Manifesto for the 21st Century Modernist Term Paper

… Architectural Manifesto for the 21st Century

Modernist Architecture encumbers the soul with spiritual fatigue and frustration. Art is life and design is its blood. Transfuse society with architecture that reestablishes humanity's spiritual link with nature. Today's vistas are overwhelmed by… [read more]

Project Management Building a House Term Paper

… Project Management - Building a House

Building a House

The subject of this project is the construct of a residence consisting of two living space levels, four bedrooms and two bathrooms. The house is structured according to the standard stick-built mainframe development methods and construction. Utilizing the most innovative and modernized procedures in home construction, this home was engineered according to the customized specifics of its owner. The owner, a middle-upper class laborer, had ascertained their blueprints and overall concepts for the home through the signed agreement of home construction in association with the bank that has financed the entire project accordingly.

Assigned to the project's initial phases, there are two levels of project management, which ultimately helped in the outline of the development of the entire home (Denton, 2001). The highest, who has overseen every phase of construction, was assigned to a land developer whom also strategically developed the architecture of the specific home type. The developer was appointed by the bank to oversee every aspect of construction from the breaking of the dirt to the certificate of occupancy. Through each phase of the construction, the land developer was provided reports on budget status and the continual projected time-frames as the home progressed. This type of a supervision is proven to be constructively supporting to the development of homes (Gatlin Education Services, 2007).

The second level of project management was held by the construction crew foreman who was directly in charge of every sector of the homes development, including foundation, framing, exterior design, interior design, electrical, plumbing, landscaping, and overall cosmetic finishing. The foreman was responsible for reporting the materials cost, budget status and progression of the homes completion with time-frame status. The construction crew consisted of three waves of different skilled laborers. The first, and main group to take part in the most areas of completion, was a team of five individuals that adhere to the blueprint specifics and take full account in the infrastructure of the homes model design. Branching from this group, there was a second group consisting of three individuals that mainly handled the conception of certain developments in regard to common building methods, such as the measuring of material and ensuring the availability of all needed products and materials. This group also played a heavy role in the overall construction of the home. The third wave of crewman consisted of eight individuals who directly worked according to the demands of the other two upper construction commencement crewmen. These individuals were basically hired hands that supported the objectives… [read more]

History of Architecture Not Only Provides Human Term Paper

… History Of Architecture

Architecture not only provides human beings a place of shelter but also create an aesthetic aura. History of architecture tells us about its evolution in terms of utilizing spaces, volumes, planes, masses, and voids, the use of… [read more]

Subcontracting Problem Term Paper

… Business

Construction Subcontractors: Problems and Possible Solutions

In recent years, the construction industry has grown more complex.

Major projects are typically handled by a main contractor who then subcontracts out the work for each individual aspect of the job.

Much… [read more]

Successful Utopias in Arts and Design Term Paper

… Artistic Utopias

Utopia is from the Greek term outopos, (no place) or eutopos (good place), and refers to an imaginary place where there are ideal laws and social conditions, where everyone is happy and knows no suffering. Some of the… [read more]

History of Architects Term Paper

… Architecture


Although the history of architecture dates back to very ancient times, beginning roughly in Mesopotamia, circa 4,000 B.C.E., it is during the period known as the Renaissance in which architecture truly began to influence world societies and cultures. Of all the arts, architecture expresses the most spatial aspects via temples, churches, public buildings, governmental buildings and private dwellings. The creator of these structure, namely, the architect, "designs groupings of enclosed spaces and enclosing masses, always keeping in mind the function of the structure, its construction and materials and its design principles" (Nuttgens, 78). For the public viewer, architecture is experienced both visually and by motion through and around the structure, so that architectural space and mass are perceived together.

It would seem logical to start our exploration of the history of architecture with one of the greatest artists of all time -- Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475 -- 1564), regarded by many as the "father of architecture in Europe and the greatest designer of the last 500 years" (Lowry, 167). Of all his architectural designs, the vestibule of the Laurentian Library, built to house the immense collections of the Medici family in Florence, Italy, stands out above all others. This vestibule gives the impression of a vertically compressed, shaft-like space which is dominated by a vast, flowing staircase that almost fills the interior, and unlike his contemporaries, Michelangelo ignored classical architectural ideals by placing his columns in pairs which are sunk into the walls; he breaks columns around corners and placed beneath them consoles not meant as support. In essence, Michelangelo "did away with classical architecture so prevalent in the High

Renaissance and greatly influenced all architectural designs and forms that followed him" (Copplestone, 178).

During the Baroque Period (1600 to 1750), the most important architectural project was the construction of St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome which was completed by Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598 -- 1680), an architect, painter and sculptor and one of the most brilliant and imaginative artists of the Baroque Period. As to St. Peter's, Bernini's best contribution was the monumental piazza in front of the building, composed of "a vast oval embraced by colonnades that are joined to the facade of St. Peter's by two diverging wings. Four huge Tuscan columns make up the two colonnades which terminate in classical temple fronts" (Gympel, 324). Thus, Bernini's architectural designs express the very essence of the Baroque spirit and influenced to a great degree numerous architects and builders linked to the periods that followed the golden days of the Baroque era.

Between 1675 and 1710, the dominant architectural structure… [read more]

Commercial Construction Term Paper

… COMMERCIAL CONSTRUCTION is defined as "building projects exclusive of residential [single- or two-family home] construction." It is one of the biggest segments of the entire construction industry which is believed to have strengthened the industry in recent years due to rapid and steady growth. The commercial sector has been growing steady for some time now as it evident from market researches and reports. Back in 2000, Sinderman wrote: "...the state of the commercial real estate market is strong. The demand for office, industrial and retail buildings remains high, and, as Internet-based companies continue to grow, specialized facilities have become more popular than ever." Now in 2005, a construction report by McGraw-Hill also supports that claim: "The commercial and infrastructure construction segments are providing a lift to the overall construction industry, marking a role reversal from most of the past two or three years. According to October 2004 figures for future construction contracts calculated by McGraw-Hill Construction, Lexington, Mass., overall new construction starts increased 4% in October vs. September (on a seasonally adjusted basis), with nonresidential and infrastructure construction gaining while the residential sector fell slightly." ("Late Rebound")

Commercial construction is a roaring business these days because of the fact that construction industry does not have to endure fluctuations as frequent as some other industries. For some one who wants to enter this field, it is important to understand that a lot depends on the person himself. If I want to enter this vast field, I will need to focus on my strengths and avoid the basic pitfalls to make it work for me. Commercial builders are in the field for major gains while understanding the normally the margin is low. They have to make it big on volume. Challenges are numerous though. Commercial builders with more major projects under their belt need wider services, bigger staff and more inventories. Payments may not always be made in full and thus one needs to wait for monetary rewards. But despite all these problems, there are many advantages of being in commercial construction business. And now with this industry joining the Internet bandwagon, there are even greater chances of reaching a wider market and succeeding. As Sinderman writes: "Despite problems with materials, labor and zoning, the commercial real estate market has remained strong in all facets, from retail to industrial"

There are two basic forms of commercial construction. They are called light and heavy construction. Light construction refers to restoration or renovation work at multi-family buildings, retails stories, shopping malls, offices, motels, smaller hotels… [read more]

M.S. Advanced Architectural Design Office Essay

… As an architect's tool, the computer supports design metaphors, an important requirement for the digital representation of design knowledge. Thus, it is clear that digital technology provides more opportunities to create architecture while also expanding the diversities of art, science and culture. However, I was confronted with many disappointments while at the Pratt Institute, especially when a certain instructor did not provide the freedom to do experimental architecture. In addition, there were not enough specialized experts in particular areas of study.

I realize that to become a prominent architect, merit alone is not enough motivation for success, so I have decided to continue my studies at Columbia University, knowing that it will not be an easy task to start all over again. At Columbia, I would like to explore as many aspects of design methodology as possible and then undertake a detailed investigation into visual art forms and their impact on diverse digital media. Also, I would like to create new designs that will enhance developing communities around the world.

Thus, I am certain that Columbia's international focus and openness toward non-traditional genres will offer the required support, not to mention the challenging and intellectual environment of New York City and its people. Since I thrive on work, accepting challenges and responsibilities, my confidence is high that I am more than ready for the challenges of graduate work at Columbia University and I sincerely hope that you provide the opportunity for me to demonstrate it. [read more]

Antoni Gaudi Term Paper

… Antoni GAUDI

As some who has visited Barcelona, one would perhaps always remember the historical area around Los Ramblas, the old Gothic Cathedral or the Olympic Stadium, as well as the special charm of the city, proud in its Catalan… [read more]

Le Corbusier Towards a New Term Paper

… It is true that the ideas expressed in this book appear cold to a reader today, yet they do have great practical value. For one, Le Corbusier did architecture a great favor by freeing it of the chains of the past. On page 103, he argues that architects were mostly "enslaved to the past" and attacked "the narrowness of commonplace conceptions" in the field of architecture.

Such arguments against old design also gave way to concepts that separated beauty from new design and replaced it with function. On page 142, for example, he argues that,.".. A chair is in no way a work of art; a chair has no soul; it is a machine for sitting in." Le Corbusier's house designs are thus devoid of a real soul. His machines houses served cold practical purposes as they focused on his oft-repeated beliefs that: "We must create the mass production spirit." This concept was also highlighted again on page 274-275 when Le Corbusier highlighted it by citing the example of factory workers who worked according to the principles of mass production:

Industry has brought us to the mass-produced article; machinery is at work in close collaboration with man; the right man for the right job is coldly selected; laborers, workmen, foremen, engineers, managers, administrator -- each in his proper place.... Specialization ties man to his machine, an absolute precision is demanded of every worker, for the article passed on to the next man cannot be snatched back in order to be corrected and fitted; it must be exact in order... To fit automatically into the assembling of the whole;... A strange foreman directs severely and precisely the restrained and circumscribed tasks."

Le Corbusier maintained that the same precision of task could be achieved in the field of architecture and in fact was what architects needed to solve the problems of space etc. "All houses are constructed of standardized elements, forming a 'cell' type. The plots are equal, the arrangement regular. Architecture is very well able to express in a precise fashion." For some odd reason, Le Corbusier thought such houses could be beautiful too. We all know today that mass production is a dated concept, which led to the production of goods that no one appreciates anymore.

All of us are looking for something new and unique, something that only we possess. This desire to have something original in form and design appeared irrational to Le Corbusier and his book repeatedly highlights the so-called beauty of mass production. "The mass production house, healthy and beautiful in the same way that the working tools and instruments which accompany our existence are beautiful." He believed that "the Engineer's Aesthetic, and Architecture, are two things that march together and follow one from the other: the one being now at its full height, the other in an unhappy state of retrogression."

Thus the main argument of the book revolves around the modernist belief that "A house is a machine for living in.... An armchair is… [read more]

Gothic Cathedrals, With a Few Term Paper

… To the east of the outermost bay of each transept stands a deep chapel of two stages" (Kaye 43-44).

Again, the influence of Laon on Notre-Dame is evident in the rose on the north front, the larger areas for windows, and the supportive columns throughout the nave, along with the sexpartite ribbed vaults, and the arcaded gallery that is quite similar to Notre-Dame's, and is said to have highly influenced the Paris cathedral. It is clear Laon is not on the same scale as Notre-Dame, but that it influenced Notre-Dame's builders. Interestingly, Laon's influence spread farther than Paris. Architect Kaye continues, "The influence of this cathedral was considerable in the north and east of France, as well as in Normandy -- for example in the cathedral of Lisieux -- and in England, the Rhineland, Germany, and as far as Spain" (Kaye 46). This illustrates just how architecture spread throughout Europe by following earlier examples, and then creating new and innovative ideas, such as the flying buttresses of Notre-Dame. This innovation also spread to many other cathedrals, as noted. It was almost as if architectural innovations spread by word of mouth. As builders and architects moved from one site to another, this makes sense - they carried their new knowledge with them, and spread the technologies and innovations as they completed one cathedral and moved on to the next project.

Gradually, Gothic architecture ran its course. The Middle Ages gave way to a new kind of thought and artistic process, which grew up in Italy and was known as the Renaissance. Gothic architecture seemed old and dark to these new thinkers, and so, they raised architecture to another level, and Renaissance architecture was born. Roth notes, "They had a new confidence in their intellectual capacity and desired a new architecture, one no longer based in the traditions of the church but expressing the mathematical clarity and rationality they perceived in the divine order of the universe" (Roth 317). Gradually, Gothic architecture disappeared, but not before it had forever left its mark in the cities and towns of Europe.

In conclusion, Gothic cathedrals are some of the most lasting and memorable buildings still standing in Europe today. Gothic architecture created new building techniques and innovations, and moved building along to another level of understanding. Often, these ancient buildings have been renovated numerous times as they age, but they still manage to convey the power and opulence of the Gothic age. From their massive stature, to their incredibly beautiful stained glass windows and ornate stone carvings decorating the exteriors and interiors, these cathedrals tell us much about the people who created and used them. They are architectural wonders, but they are also incredibly artistic and stunning. They show an incredible attention to detail and decoration that we rarely see in modern architecture. They are truly wonders of the world, and they clearly influenced culture and society for hundreds of years. While their building style gave way to other influences, they can never be… [read more]

Ultimate Syntheses of Art Term Paper

… In order to do this, I will need to learn about historical applications of architecture, the building materials most often employed, and to study the plans and budgets of major development projects.

With computer-aided drafting, I can also combine my affinity with digital media with my passion for architecture. I also intend to learn traditional drafting, which I have always found fascinating. However, computer-aided drafting can help the designer visualize in three-dimensional space, allowing for all sorts of variables that are difficult to envision when working with pencil and paper. For example, with computers, an architect can input geographical and climate variables that might affect the structure or materials used in a building. If an architect has a contract that calls for extensive creative input, the computer can be a valuable time-saving devise used to quickly experiment with novel design ideas.

A also hope to learn a lot about architecture as a business, including the relationship between designers and the construction industry; architects and real estate developers; and architects and city planners. This will be practical information that I can use to develop my career.

3. The philosopher Goethe once said, "Science and art belong to the whole world, and before them vanish the barriers of nationality." This quote directly relates to my vision of architecture as an artistic endeavor and inspires my ideals in the field. I believe that both art and architecture, like music, are universal languages. People from all over the world, whatever language they speak, can appreciate the nuances and uniqueness of the art and architecture of other cultures. While we might have certain predilections for specific architectural styles, it is still easy to appreciate the genius in all sorts of culture-or time-specific constructions. For instance, the pyramids of Egypt will never be duplicated on that scale in modern times but they continue to amaze people.

Because architecture is both science and art, Goethe's words ring especially true for someone interested in that field of study. Science and art do belong to the whole world because they do not require any translation. The principles of good building design are executed no matter what the specific style; likewise, engineering facts are rules of scientific law, not of opinion.

This quote also reflects on my personal character because I am always trying to find ways to bridge differences between people. In the face of so much racism and prejudice, it is important to remember the fundamental human principles that unite us. Often these principles are contentious, as with philosophy or religion. However, architecture is one means by which human beings can communicate in a universal language. Architecture is inevitable because the need for shelter is as basic as the need for clothing; as such architecture belongs to the whole world and helps people to erase the "barriers of… [read more]

Architect Santiago Calatrava Term Paper

… As the event was one of universal appeal, Calatrava took special care to clearly bring out all his innovative ideas in the structure. With its double arches and structural rigidity, lightness of form stressed by the steel and concrete support, the resulting bridge won him international acclaim and cemented his position among the leading architects of the world.

These ideas however, were not fully realized nor were their potential inspiration to the world of architecture assessed until the completion of the Campo Volantin Footbridge in 1997. After this point, Calatrava's genius spread to nations across the continent, and over in N. America too. His other projects included the BCE Place Mall in Toronto, Canada; the Oriente Railway Station in Lisbon, commissioned for Expo '98; Lyon Airport; the Swissbau Concrete Pavilion in Basel. Calatrava's unmistakable style is immediately apparent in all his structures. (See App. 5-8)

As with all art forms, Calatrava's work is designed to express the sentiment, culture, opinions and values of his clients, their countries and his personal ideology. In the example of Stadelhofen Station, we find that the city's civic layout is closely related to the cultural inclination of its people, the Swiss. The combinations of nature and mathematical technicality, free form and rigid discipline, and the theme of constant motion revolving round a stationary point - which is what a train station symbolizes - are all clearly brought out in Calatrava's building. The architect himself said, "This large-scale attack on the urban landscape is characterized by the organization and repetition on the part of the constructive element."

Calatrava's Spanish designs incorporate the cultural opinions of the creator and his country, yet maintain the rich diversity enjoyed by Spain's various regions. In the Campo Volantin Footbridge, one finds the truest elements of Calatrava's style, as the expression involved is more direct and spontaneous; there is no trace of imposition of this local style on any of his foreign works, yet one can discern traces of Spain and the architect's personal touch in all his creations. Philip Jodido sums it up best when he says, "As in many other designs by Santiago Calatrava, an apparent disequilibrium or rather a sense of frozen movement is heightened by the lightness of the structure." (Gibson, 2000)

Santiago Calatrava's importance to the world of architecture is enormous. His flamboyance and style are emulated across the globe. Many critics and architects acknowledge the extensive influence his work has had on fledgling and established artists. The disdain that Calatrava has shown for accepted form has inspired his contemporaries to follow suit in creating a new wave of architecture that does not border on chaos or disparity, but rather concentrates on uniting the artistic aspects of architecture and intellectual witticism with the technical rigidity offered by engineering. The concepts of open air structures, structural disequilibrium; unification of extremes in nature and construction, and sophisticated innovation that can hold its own in a rapidly progressing world make this architect's contribution to modern architecture priceless.

Calatrava's work… [read more]

Origins of Skyscrapers, Their Design Term Paper

… "In New York City, meanwhile, commercial building flourished in the early years of the twentieth century, and new skyscrapers quickly set height records. Though the basic technology of the steel frame had been worked out in Chicago, New York buildings soon eclipsed those in Chicago in size and conveniences, if not always in direct functional expression" (Roth 187).

The Singer Building in New York utilized new techniques to brace for high winds, and was the tallest building in the world, with 42 stories, when it was built. "Ernest Flagg's Singer Building, 1906-8, is a good example of the New York type. The forty-seven stories far exceed what was being done in Chicago, and the slender proportions of the tower were remarkable. To brace the tower against turbulent New York winds, crossed diagonals were used at the corners, and while this was expressed by the heavy corner wall piers enclosing the glass curtain-walls, it was not so directly expressive of the frame perhaps as were the works of Sullivan, or Holabird & Roche" (Roth 187).

The building was covered with green and red terra cotta on the outside, and the tall tower in the center of the building included an observation deck. The tower was supported by the larger block base of the building. It was also the first building to use electricity to light a spire. "The foundations of the building consisted of 36 caissons sunk to bedrock, 92 feet below the surface. It is said that Ernest Flagg's design of a setback building, may have influenced NYC's setback law of 1916, in which (basically) buildings needed to 'step up' as it went higher, in order to avoid having nothing but giant blocks all over the city. He told a City Hall hearing committee that buildings should be restricted to 3/4's of their sites, thus assuring open ground area and adequate light, or be restricted to no more than 100 feet in height" (Damore).

William van Alen built the Chrysler Building in 1930, and it was the tallest building in the world when it was completed. The beautiful art deco Nirosta stainless steel spire on top of the building was constructed inside the top floors of the building, and put in place in about 90 minutes when it was completed. The spire served no other purpose than to make the building taller than any other in the world. The building's "pierless corners reflect the cantilevers of the International Style and whose richly modeled aluminum spire is the nearest equivalent to European Art Deco" (Roth 245).

Van Alen was never paid for his work on the building, because of a dispute with owner William Chrysler. He designed few buildings after the Chrysler. Today, it is still one of the most stylish and striking buildings in the world.

Clearly, the Chicago School influenced skyscraper construction in New York. They gave them the techniques to build tall buildings, in another city where space was at a premium. However, New York architects took skyscrapers… [read more]

John Ruskin/S Beliefs Term Paper

… In Seven lamps of Architecture, Ruskin describes several elements that he contends are needed for a building to be good architecture. The elements are: Sacrifice, Truth, Power, Beauty, Life, Memory, and Obedience. For years discussion has revolved around these beliefs of Ruskin and his statements that only truly free people can create good architecture. The question has been asked: "Why can't good architecture be considered independently of the life circumstances surrounding those who build it?" The answer, according to Ruskin and those who agree with him, is a free spirit and soul are needed for true freedom and creative ability. Those who are not free hold certain preconceived desires to please their masters regardless of their own beliefs, and those desires to please carry over into the architecture world. In addition those who are not free have stress that a true artist cannot live with. A truly free person can look at the empty sky and create a building in his mind, which compliments and dovetails with the surrounding objects and ambiance. Ruskin believed that the soul and body of architectural greatness reflects the soul and body of an ideal society (Ruskin, 1990). How then, he reasons, can we expect any excellence from someone who is not free? They are not living the life of an ideal society and their best efforts will fall woefully short of excellence and perfection.

While Ruskin is often criticized for what looks like a simplistic viewpoint the foundation of his argument is steeped in truth. For one to be a true creator of beauty and art one must be free of bondage, both physically and mentally. The free man can create without fear while the non-free man must be ever mindful of the possible repercussions of his mind and soul. Therefore a free man might create where an owned man will mimic, and true art, whether it is in the beauty of a building or the paints on a canvass must come from the heart and soul, not the mind.


Ruskin, John. The Seven Lamps of… [read more]

Indian Art Essay

… Indian Art

The Taj Mahal is "a supreme culmination of many experiments that went before, and that's why it's so perfect," (cited in "Architectural Antecedents to the Taj Mahal," n.d.). Primary precursors to the Taj Mahal include the Mughal architecture… [read more]

Issues With Design Build Contracts Essay

… However, recent trends have begun to favor design build set ups, where a single firm takes control over both the design and the construction. This is essentially a way to speed up the entire process and reduce potential risks in having to use two separate entities on a single project.

Additionally, there is the issue of working within the context of military contracts as well. 10 USC 2862 states that "The Secretary concerned may use one-step turn-key selection procedures for the purpose of entering into contracts for the construction of authorized military construction projects," with the term one-step turn-key meaning "procedures used for the selection of a contractor on the basis of price and other evaluation criteria to perform, in accordance with the provisions of a firm fixed-price contract, both the design and construction of a facility using performance specifications supplied by the Secretary concerned" (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2006). However, the main issue here is that there is a fixed price within the negotiations, which often causes issues for firms within the industry (Napier et al., 1988). If there snags or hiccups along the way, the architectural firm is left having to pay any extra costs based on the fixed price negotiations with the U.S. Military. This often can result in losses for the firm, which is a negative impact to the overall industry.


There are options for firms wanting to circumnavigate such conflicting Federal law statutes. However, it just takes the knowledge and skill to get the right authorization and permissions. It is thus a recommendation that firms have at least one person that is knowledgeable in working towards gaining the right authorization for design build contracts. In regards to the military y bids, team members must be highly skilled in negotiating contracts that will include room for mishaps within the fixed budget provided.


American Institute of Architects. (2007). Federal government design-build laws. AIA. Web.

American Institute of Architects. (2013). Building & Contract Negotiation. Emerging Professional's Companion. Web.

Napier, Thomas P., Holcomb, Timothy D., Kapolnek, Robert G., & Rivas, Abelardo. (1988). Six case studies on alternative construction methods: One-step "turnkey" facility acquisition and architectural fabric structure technology. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Web.

U.S. Government Printing Office. (2006). 10 USC 2862 turn key selection procedures. United States Code. Web. [read more]

Shah Signature, Navi Mumbai Essay

… The iconic sail of the form of this building is a representation of the local context in the past as well as its futuristic bend that appears in the present context for the site of the project which is located in the twenty-first century of the Navi Mumbai city. The form centric design of the building as it was conceptualized for the project was quite appealing to the client immediately it was presented. There were different options that were put into consideration in the pre-design stage and the design was finalized eventually based on the concept as well as better energy performance vis-a-vis form and orientation (NBM Media Pvt. Ltd., 2010).

The building is a mixed-use high rise one, referred to as a signature tower is made up of offices on upper floors while retail shopping activity taking place within the basement and lower floors. The location is on the corner plot hence the open space found on the ground is well utilized since it acts as an open deck for the public spill -- over from the existing retail mall which is a good change for vicinity that is otherwise crowded. The special facade structure of the building is determined to be designed on the basis of a grid concept that lends it to the two way curve form that it takes. The intention of the warp form is to act as an outer layer of the building envelope that reduces heat ingress and not daylight hence minimizing load on air-conditioning. This form when compared to the normal box building is quite imposing but not unwieldy at the same time is more appropriate when it comes to handling winds at levels that are higher. The visualization of this curve building facade that was reducing of the plan of going higher was carried out at various stages until they achieved the outcome which was most satisfactory. Currently the team is trying to determine if this unique facade grid could be made parametric in order to accommodate change incase approval of the higher FSI is made by development control authorities. Structural consultant as well as the MEP consultant is sharing information from BIM model that is in the form of 3d files in order to bring out an integrated design in their structures as well as the services. The MEP services of this building are designed in such a way that they minimize energy as well as the conception of water (NBM Media Pvt. Ltd., 2010).


NBM Media Pvt. Ltd., (2010). The Firm Sustainability Intrinsic to Good Design. Retrieved March31, 2014 from

Dsouza, B.(2012). Shah Signature at Vashi by Shah Group in Navi Mumbai. Retrieved March31,2014 from

Kalpana Struct.(2012). Shaha Signature-commercial Building construction. Retrieved March31, 2014 from [read more]

Building in India Term Paper

… 5. It's not had to imagine the potential patron, the designer, the builder of this edifice.

Patron and designer were presumably part of the British Raj, hence the overwhelmingly British appearance of the structure. They must have built it as a school for the education of British children resident in the subcontinent.

The patron might very well have been a committee of British officers or bureaucrats, who sensed a need for a school building for the children of the increasingly large British presence in India. In such a case, the money for erecting the building might have been raised by subscription, or by the solicitation of richer patrons back in England.

Design was presumably done by someone back in England, who had a description of the plot of land secured for the purpose.

The actual building and bricklaying were more likely to have been done by locals.

6. The only other building in the surrounding location that can be glimpsed in the most recent of the photos shows an uneasy relation between the boxy white post-WW2 structure that has popped up behind our building.

The contrast isn't too horrible but it is noticeable. The white building seems like it's probably an apartment block.

It seems like, over time, there has been more development of the immediate surrounding area. It is now more crowded, more urbanized, and probably altogether less tidy than it was when our building was first constructed.

7. The general style and building materials used would seem to indicate late nineteenth or early twentieth century British architecture.

Within that context we would need a more detailed guide to Victorian and Edwardian architectural style to be able to specify a decade. Comparable brick Victorian buildings are likely to be even more ornate than this one -- however the level of ornament is still pretty high to seriously consider early twentieth century. It seems more like a late nineteenth century building.

8. Overall we may combine the observations in the previous answers to hazard some gueses about this building.

It's historical context would seem to be the British Raj. The brick construction with the stone trimmings and slate roof appear distinctly British.

The form is distinctly nineteenth century. The setting appears to be a relic of the nineteenth century also, as it appears the immediate vicinity must have changed between the time this building was built and the present: increased development has led to an encroachment upon the actual plot of land that our building inhabits.

Purpose is necessarily more speculative but the sheer size of the building certainly indicates a relatively large number of people could be expected to use the building, although without a glimpse inside it's not possible to know if people were housed here too -- the best guess we can make is that the topmost layer with… [read more]

St. Patrick's Cathedral: Field Trip Essay

… For a small donation, visitors were allowed to light a candle. Although I took some photographs of the cathedral and its interior, there were some parts of the church like the gift shop where photography was not allowed. One of the areas within the Cathedral that I found most aesthetically inspiring was the baptistery. I also took some photographs of the main entrance's bronze doors. In the bronze doors' facades are figures that represent prominent people in the church's history.

Apart from the spectacular architectural design of the building (both internal and external), quite a number of other aspects of the Cathedral deserve a mention. For instance, from what I gathered, the Cathedral's great organ has more than seven thousand pipes. Further, in addition to having a total of 19 bells, the Cathedral has a spectacular and breathtaking Rose Window - which I have already mentioned in this text (although not clearly visible due to the scaffolding). The said window has a diameter of 26 feet. The other exceptional details of the Cathedral which I observed during my visit include but they are not limited to its stained glass, vaulted ceilings, interior woodwork, and narrow windows.

The Cathedral also has incredibly high arched ceilings that make it look and feel so exquisite and large. This is regardless of the fact that over time, many of the skyscrapers that have been erected in the Cathedral's neighborhood have effectively dwarfed this architectural masterpiece despite the tall spikes that characterize its external appearance. Complete with the tall and impressive stained glass windows, the carved stone walls of the Cathedral are reminiscent of most Gothic-styled churches. To me, St. Patrick's Cathedral is… [read more]

Construction Project Management Essay

… ¶ … Hearst Tower on 57th and 8th in Midtown Manhattan

The Hearst Corporation is a media conglomerate that owns or controls newspapers, magazines, television stations, and cable networks. The company has been around since the early 20th century, and so has the base of the building, which was built in 1928 at the cost of $2 million then. The base of the building is a designated historic landmark. It has six stories, and comprises 40,000 square feet. Originally, a skyscraper was intended to emerge from the six-story building but the Great Depression caused the Hearst Corporation to postpone the project. It was postponed until 2006. The new tower built in 2006 was the first to be built in Manhattan since the terrorist attacks of September 11. The finished product is 46 stories tall, and offers 860,000 square feet of office space. Its defining external feature is its diagrid, made of 9500 metric tons of structural steel. It received the Emporis Skyscraper Award in 2006, the year it was completed. Moreover, the Hearst Tower is of note because it was the first "green" high rise office building in New York City. The Hearst Tower was constructed around the historical facade, a design approved by the Landmark Preservation Commission. The tower cost about $500 million to construct.

LEED Gold and Platinum Designations

The diagrid construction permits a great deal of external light to penetrate the offices inside, reducing dependence on artificially powered light. The building uses 26% less energy than the minimum average in the city. Special "low-E" windows also contribute to maximal external light, but also minimize the input of heat radiation to keep the building cool and prevent the need for air conditioning. In addition to being "green," the building's high degree of natural light is also beneficial for workplace… [read more]

Curatorial Project Term Paper

… Curation

Beyond Function: Form for Form's Sake

Architecture occupies a unique place in the art world because architecture possesses a practical dimension that few other art forms possess. The interface between form and function is classic and endemic to the study, practice, art, and science of architecture. Even the most cursory survey of architecture throughout human history reveals the ways architects transcend the need-driven function of form, to create forms with cultural, symbolic, and emotional content. "The poetic experience of space, light, and form remains the subject of architecture," (Hill 4). This poetry of architectural experience is evident in the art of the 20th century, and especially in the curvilinear and whimsical creations of Frank Gehry and Antonio Gaudi. Both Gehry's Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao and Gaudi's Casa Milo Apartments in Barcelona reveal ways architects use form to communicate culture, which is why they are included in the Beyond Function: Form for Form's Sake special collection.

Gehry's iconic museum in Bilbao, Spain houses the Peggi Guggenheim collection of art. The structure transformed an otherwise industrial town into one that fuses art and science (Van Buggen and Gehry). In fact, the placement of the Frank Gehry museum symbolizes the spirit of architecture itself: a blend of form and function that is at once aesthetically appealing, culturally relevant, and historically meaningful. Designed to function as a museum of art, the architect had the opportunity to create a structure to match the magnitude of the collection within. Gehry affirms fully the role of the architect in doing more than just creating four walls and a shelter from the elements. Instead, Gehry states, "I'm interested in architecture as a work of art, and whether it will hold up as art," (cited by Cuff 37). Indeed, the Gehry Guggenheim museum achieves this lofty goal. It is remarkably curvilinear and fluid, and yet also has a solid, reliable… [read more]

Project Management, Sustainability and Whole Term Paper

… Signifying the city's rapid transition from a mining boomtown to a modern metropolis, Freed wrapped the classical Beaux-Arts inspired cornice around the south side of the building, before suddenly revealing a modern facade of strikingly austere steel windows and stone walls.

For visitors to the San Francisco Main Public Library, the architectural skill of Freed can be felt through a variety of subtle design features. Many observers have lauded the inclusion of a towering atrium as a beautiful and effective means to facilitate natural lighting and climate control, and as the design firm responsible for the atrium's inclusion states proudly, "internal organization centers around a monumental open staircase and a five-story atrium, 60 feet in diameter, that provides a luminous hub of orientation" (Pei, Cobb, Freed & Partners, 2001). Although public appraisal has been nearly unanimous that the "library's huge, multistory atrium gives the building a soaring, open feel," many critics have remarked that this design feature has sacrificed functionality for form, decrying the fact that "the $137 million building seems to have been designed more as an architectural masterwork than as a working library" (Wildermuth, 2000). Nonetheless, with an abundance of perfectly integrated bridges and elevators to assure a smooth flow of traffic for library patrons, as well as a cleverly designed network of entrances and exits that integrates the building into the surrounding cityscape, the San Francisco Main Public Library stands as a testament to the success that can be achieved by blending historical and modern architectural styles.


Muschamp, H. (1996, May 12). Architecture view: Room for imagination in a temple of reason. The New York Times. Retrieved from temple-of-reason.html

Pei Cobb Freed & Partners. (2001, April 17). San francisco main public library. Retrieved from

San Francisco Public Library. (2013, January 11).Architecture of the main library. Retrieved from

Wildermuth, J. (2000, January 05). Cost of redoing s.f. main library put at $28 million / report notes lacks of shelf space read more: redoing-s-f-main-library-put-at-28-2785880.php [read more]

Coed Darcy the Urban Village Research Paper

… This is being considered as a sustainability agenda that helps define the company the behavior of their clients. Needless to say, carbon forms the main constituent of the greenhouse gases that are considered responsible for the changes in the climate.… [read more]

Gaudi's Works Antonio Research Paper

… They made sure that they made their work stand out and look amazing with the use of simple ornaments like plaster and brick. Surely, one can imagine that the use of luxurious items like marble and gold has always been… [read more]

Sign and Symbol, by John Essay

… , and elevation to heaven

Paris 12-13th centuries -- new School of Paris -- Gothic emphasizing "mystical signification" more lightness in the design, less materiality

Also shift away from Roman style, which symbolized paganism

Pointed forms, evoking "convergence of branches," capitals and pinnacles with leaves, now flower symbolizes living church

15th century Italy starts to abandon Gothic architecture

16th century shift of economic, political power away from church -- impacted architecture-made it more geometric, rigid to impart law and order -- symbolizing the keeping in check of economic and political power

19th century, After 1800- France uses Egyptian symbols in cemeteries bc symbolize death; Islamic symbols in England represent "wayward lifestyle" -- diverse styles used

20th century -- International Movement, Le Corbusier -- concrete, steel, lack of ornament

1980s -- architects, patrons want return to… [read more]

Sustainable Energy for Low Carbon Term Paper

… It is a Government owned national standard intended to encourage continuous improvement in sustainable home building. It has a rating scale of one to six stars (Code Level 6 is the government target for 2016) and contains some mandatory levels in key areas like energy and water.BRE Global act as advisors on issues related to maintenance and development of the technical contents of the CSH standard and manage implementation of the scheme under contract to the Department of Communities and Local Government (DCLG)." (BREEAM, 2012) The report states that the Code for Sustainable Homes is much like BREEAM "in that the Green Guide to Specification is the mechanism Code Assessors use to measure the environmental impact of specifications for key building elements. Manufacturers choose to obtain a Certified Environmental Profile as a way of demonstrating their environmental performance and to obtain specific Green Guide ratings to be used within the Code." (BREEAM, 2012)

Best practices therefore can be concluded to be inclusive of the use of suitable materials that meet specifications and codes set out for sustainable structures. As well best practices include the elements listed in the following illustration published by Constructing Excellence in the South East in its "Guide to Bet Practice in Construction."

Source: Constructing Excellence in the South East (2012)

Sustainable construction is reported to address in a cohesive manner the "triple bottom line" or that of the "social, economic, and environmental performance of the industry including the following action areas:

(1) Being more profitable and competitive. It is recognized that businesses need higher profits to intelligently invest in its people, products, and processes to improve their competitiveness; (Construction Excellence in the Southeast, 2012)

(2) Delivering buildings and structures that provide greater satisfaction, well-being and added value to customers and users; (Construction Excellence in the Southeast, 2012)

(3) Respecting and fairly treating employees and the wider community. This includes improving health and safety, enhancing site and welfare conditions, and avoiding noise and dirt, which would inconvenience local residents; (Construction Excellence in the Southeast, 2012)

(4) Enhancing and protecting the natural environment, including protecting habitats, trees, waterways and other natural features; (Construction Excellence in the Southeast, 2012)

(5) Minimizing consumption of natural resources and energy during the construction phase and throughout the life of the facility. The buildings should be energy efficient and utilize energy from renewable resources by specifying recycled materials and renewable energy sources and considering the buildings' future use; (Construction Excellence in the Southeast, 2012) and (6) Reducing waste and avoiding pollution during the construction process. 70% of landfill is reportedly generated through construction activity. (Construction Excellence in the Southeast, 2012)

Summary and Conclusion

This study has examined the materials for use… [read more]

Niosh Report -- Fire Safety Essay

… A parapet wall has little, if any, lateral stability and will present a high potential for collapse (Malanga, 1996). These structures can be easily identified because of the signs or awnings that may be attached. It is safe to assume that the parapet wall has not been engineered to take the weight and forces being applied by additional dead and live loads as a result of a fire (Dunn, 2006).

To properly establish a collapse zone, multiply the height of the building times 1 1/2 to account for falling and scattered debris (Fornell, 1995). Another critical element in preventing parapet-related firefighter deaths is preplanning. Size-up needs to start even before the run goes out. Crews should identify occupancies that present additional risk to life, safety, and property in our response area, and establish plans for that specific target hazard. It is also advised that crews should identify the age of structure, its integrity, the type of roof and interior structures and supports, building materials, and building class to make proper assessments for next steps (Dunn, 2006).

Case #3 - Explain the hazards that lightweight wooden trusses with gusset plate connectors present to firefighters working inside a structure fire.

Lightweight truss construction often includes gusset plates and other metal joints. A gusset plate is a stamped metal plate with raised teeth that is embedded in lightweight wood truss joints at the panel joints to hold the individual truss members together. The gusset teeth usually penetrate the wood members approximately 3/8-inch. When subjected to fire these components burn and fail faster than traditional wood lumber -- they do not have the fire stopping capabilities that wood lumber has (Fornell, 1995). If firefighters do not identify that a house is constructed with these types of materials, they could be endangered by floors that will collapse faster than traditionally constructed floors, and ceilings and roofs that will fail quickly when exposed to high heat conditions (Dunn, 2006). One of the problems associated with manufactured wood trusses is the improper installation of nailing or gusset plates (Malanga, 1996). A gap of 1/6-inch between the gusset plate and the wood can reduce connection strength by up to 50%.


Dunn, V. (2006). Collapse of burning buildings: A guide to fireground safety. Princeton, NJ: Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic.

Fornell, D. (1995). Don't trust… [read more]

Frank Lloyd Wright Was Born in 1867 Research Paper

… Frank Lloyd Wright was born in 1867 on a farm in Richland, Wisconsin where he spent most of his youth. He was originally named Frank Lincoln Wright but when his parents divorced and he had designed his first building, he decided to change his middle name to Lloyd. When he as 12 years old he and his parents moved to the larger city of Madison, Wisconsin where he attended high school but never graduated.

Wright's initial interest in architecture developed during his high school years and this interest led to his taking a job with the Dean of the University of Wisconsin's College of Wisconsin. The requirements of the job dictated that he quit high school but he did find time to take several courses in civil engineering.

After working at the University of Wisconsin for several years, Wright moved to the City of Chicago where he began working for local architect, Joseph Lyman Silsbee. Under Silsbee's tutelage Wright had the opportunity to design his first building. This building, known as the Lloyd-Jones family chapel, did not reveal any of the characteristics that ultimately defined Wright's unique style or construction concepts. This development would occur later as Wright took a new job with the Adler and Sullivan architectural firm.

The firm had already adopted the policy that "Form follows function" and Wright altered that policy to state that "Form and Function are one." Like his new mentors Wright was of the strong belief that American architecture needed to develop its own identity and divorce from the architectural styles that were popular in Europe.

It was while Wright was employed with Adler and Sullivan that he began to develop his own design style. Wright's architectural style was not the only change that occurred during his tenure with Adler and Sullivan. During this time he also fell in love and married Catherine Tobin. It was shortly after getting married that Wright and his wife built their house in Oak Park, Illinois which remains a heavily visited tourist attraction. In this house the couple raised their five children.

While his roots were there in the mid-West, his life led him to the biggest cities in America. His work embodied a spirit that was both personal and affirmative. His religious beliefs were informed in his childhood by his parents' Unitarianism: That same sense of and obsession with unity would shape the way Wright constructed -- from the uniformity of line in Robie House to the uniformity of curve and color in the Guggenheim Museum. Wright was keenly aware of all things working and fitting together

While Wright excelled as… [read more]

Forces on Buildings When Constructing Essay

… The third potential problem is the roof-renovation. Again, depending on the status of the renovation, the building's structure could be weakened do the lack of a roof providing structural support. The construction materials used for the renovation could also pose potential hazards to fire fighters and rescuers. Heavy materials on the roof or stored on the upper floors could foster floor or structural collapse; the materials could block pathways rescuers could need to save lives and property; and lastly, the materials could clutter areas around the building in such a manner as to impede firefighting or rescue efforts. The placement of construction materials should be such that they do not interfere with any type of emergency service. The roof may also have "open areas" that could allow inclement weather in, for example, rain or drizzle somehow sparking an electrical fire.

As I previously discussed, the loads of heavy furniture and appliances make the building "top heavy" and can foster building collapse where collapse otherwise would not occur. All heavy furniture and appliances should be placed on the ground and lower floors. As far as the composite materials go, generally they will strengthen the structure and provide insulation against a spreading fire. The whole building should be renovated with composites to bring it up to contemporary fire and structural safety codes and regulations. Loads in appliance and furniture stores usually require man-power using dollies and pallet jacks and because of this, there needs to be clear pathways and passages for both employees and rescue workers so there is a safe and secure working environment; and in the event of a disaster, there is an environment that can facilitate rescue and firefighting efforts. [read more]

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