"Architecture / Construction" Essays

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Notre Dame Cathedral Paris Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (718 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris

The Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris

The Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris is a gothic cathedral. it's found on the Eastern side of Paris but the main way to get in is on the West side of the building (Myers, 1957). it's also the seat for the Archbishop of Paris. Viollet-le-Duc is the architect who saved and restored it so that people could still go and see it today. He was very famous in France during his lifetime and most people there still know who he is today. In French, "Notre Dame" means "Our Lady." Notre Dame was among the first of the gothic cathedrals and building it happened over almost the entire gothic period. There is a lot of stained glass in the Cathedral because it was influenced heavily by naturalism (Myers, 1957). It makes it different from the Romanesque architecture that took place earlier in time, and it helps Notre Dame to be distinct and easy to recognize.

The Cathedral has arched supports for the exterior (Michelin, 2003). They are called flying buttresses and they weren't supposed to be there originally but the walls kept getting taller and there were stress cracks starting, so the building needed more support. During the French Revolution in the 1790s the cathedral was desecrated and a lot of the religious images were destroyed or damaged (Michelin, 2003). They were fixed in the 19th century with a big restoration project that brought the Cathedral back to how it looked before. The layout of the Cathedral hasn't changed even when the Cathedral was damaged and then rebuilt. Instead, the damage was just fixed so that the Cathedral looked like it did in the past. Original building of the Cathedral started in 1163. This was the official timeline for construction:

1160 Maurice de Sully, the Bishop of Paris, ordered the original cathedral torn down.

1163 the cornerstone was laid for Notre Dame de Paris.

1182 the apse and the choir were completed.

1196 the nave was completed. Bishop de Sully died.

1200 Work began on the western facade.

1225 the western facade was completed.

1250 the western towers and north…… [read more]

Schinkel Pugin Viollet-Le-Duc Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,055 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Architecture History - Schinkel, Pugin, and Jefferson

According to David Watkin, "The time period in which an architectural work of art is created has everything to do with the way it looks. In other words, the style of an architectural work is a function of its historical period." 1 Thus, works of architecture, much like sculptures and paintings, are arranged into specific stylistic classes based on their appearances and the times or periods when they were constructed. Also, as a fundamental hypothesis of architectural history, buildings and other structures created at about the same time and in the same basic geographical location generally share common stylistic traits, such as those constructed during the Romantic Period in England which generally exhibit traits linked to the Gothic style or in France during the Baroque Period with its Rococo style. Therefore, architects must consider the historical period in which they live when designing a building and then decide whether to adhere to modern architectural principles or those from the past.

In many instances, architects have their own ideas related to designing a building or structure, yet at the same time, they must consider their own personal viewpoints on history as it relates to style and architectural genres. As Joseph Rykwert points out, whether hundreds of years ago or in our modern age, architects "are heavily influenced by architectural notions from long ago which helps them to visualize what the past was like and then contemplate the present and the future" in relation to how a building or other structure will be seen by those today and those in the distant future. 2 in addition, architects almost always strive to reflect their own nationalism when it comes to designing a building or other structure, such as the Eiffel Tower in Paris, the Taj Mahal at Agra in India, or the great Houses of Parliament in London, England.

In the mind of German architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel (1781 to 1841), considered as the most important architect of the Neoclassicism style and a staunch proponent of Greek Revivalism, 3 the historical past of ancient Greece played a major role in determining how Western society came about and from the viewpoint of an architect, ancient Greece manifested "a noble simplicity and quiet grandeur." 4 Schinkel also uncompromisingly designated Greek art and culture as "the most perfect from the hands of man and the only architectural model to be followed," 5 particularly in Prussia, his native land. As an architect, Schinkel also felt that the Gothic style, so evident in his Friedrichswerder Church, represented the summit of achievement for unified Christendom in Europe, symbolized the synthesis of religion, philosophy and art and made possible the first firm formation of the various European states that brought about modern history. As to nationalism, Schinkel "accounts for the origins of Gothic as the fusion of universal Christianity and native Germanic genius;" thus, the Gothic style "is not only specifically Christian, it is also specifically German." 6 in essence, the art of… [read more]

Key West Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,396 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … West

The Architectural Styles of Key West

Many houses in Key West are said to be of the conch style, but if you are not familiar with what a conch house is, that wouldn't be helpful. So, what is a conch house? When the early settlers from the Bahamas and the Florida Keys created their homes they used… [read more]

11th and 12th Century Romanesque Architecture Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (1,978 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


1th and 12th Century Romanesque Architecture

The term Romanesque architecture applies to the various stages of European architecture that were influenced by both Carolingian architecture and the diffusion of Latin civilization following the break-up of the Roman Empire up to the end of the 12th century. While there has been a modest resurgence in interest in Romanesque architectural style in… [read more]

Monadnock Building Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,104 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Monadnock Building

House Divided:" the Monadnock Building


Today, the Monadnock Building's location in Chicago, Illinois' downtown Loop district places it squarely in the heart of the financial section of the city. However, at the time this section of Chicago was still expanding and "few Chicagoans had faith in the proposal to locate a new building so far south" of what was then the existing commercial core of the city in 1884, when the construction of the office building was first proposed ("Monadnock Building," Commission on Chicago Historical and Architectural Landmarks, 2008, p.1). Not until 1889 were the plans to build in the area finalized, after skyscrapers began to creep into the district.

The aspirations that brought the building into being were artistic as well as commercial -- to create an architectural spectacle and also draw tenants and make revenue for the Boston-based developers brothers Peter and Shepard Brooks. The Monadnock's period and design locate it at the tail end of 19th century architectural grandeur, because of its impressive size and its elaborately crafted south half. But its older northern half, with its subtly curving lines and faint traces of Egyptian architecture act as a harbinger of the later modernist period and the Frank Lloyd Wright Chicago School. The lack of breaks and projections and utter continuity of line makes this part of the building look much younger than its construction date (Roth 176).


The Chicago-based architectural firm of Burnham and Root was selected to design the new building. "Burnham and Root had previously done two other [successful] commercial projects for [Peter] Brooks and [his agent Owen] Aldis: the Montauk Building in 1882 and the Rookery Building in 1886" ("Monadnock Building," Commission on Chicago Historical and Architectural Landmarks, 2008, p.1). The primary architects, John Welborn Burnham and Daniel Hudson Root, originally wanted to create a tall, pylon structure of Egyptian design, with elaborate ornamentation and different shadings of surface texture and materials similar to but even more ambitious than the Montauk, but Peter Brooks insisted on an utterly Spartan concept (Roth 176). Brook's one concession to practicality was to allow the inclusion of bay windows when Owen Aldis pointed out that this would make the building more marketable, given that employees within the structure were likely to want more light while working ("Monadnock Building," Commission on Chicago Historical and Architectural Landmarks, 2008, pp.3-4).

Later Citations

The ultimate fusion of spare grandeur combined with slight curves that still reflect the original 'pylon' design are what make the north half Monadnock so revolutionary. It was originally supposed to be even taller but Brooks finally settled on a sixteen story structure, with a seventeenth 'attic' floor in the Southern parapet ("Monadnock Building," Commission on Chicago Historical and Architectural Landmarks, 2008, p.3). Its north side design is both subtle yet oddly haunting. The final overall result, because of the fusion of styles, is holistically something both prototypically modernist and classical at once, a jarring juxtaposition of forms. The distinct differences in style reflect… [read more]

Adolf Loos Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,176 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Adolf Loos (1870-1933) is considered by many to be one of the foremost pioneers and inventive spirits in modern architecture. His reputation is based largely on a number of controversial and creative essays that include views on architectural theory and praxis. The buildings that he constructed and envisaged were, "....rigorous examples of austere beauty, ranging from conventional country cottages to… [read more]

Monadnock Building Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,411 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Monadnock Building:

Prototypical Melding Of Architectural Forms And Styles

Architect, Patron, Historical Context

Although it is hard to believe today, given the collective cultural memory of the Twin Towers and the still awesome presence of the Empire State Building, at the time of its construction during the 1890s, the Monadnock office building seemed awesome in its height, sprawl and its… [read more]

Local Land Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,053 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Local Land Use Little Rock

This report is on the local land development process for the city of Little Rock, Arkansas, a city that is also the Capital City for the State of Arkansas. The city is found in Pulaski County. The city has fourteen different departments and more than 2,500 employees, including in the police and fire departments (City of Little Rock, 2005).


Little Rock, Arkansas

Mayor-City Council form of government

Land Use Proposals and Plans

Development in the Little Rock regio is much affectied by zoning considerations, as discussed below. Development under the heading of Planned Zoning Development is a process for owners/developers to use when it is desirable to present a unified site plan for city reviews. There are four Planned Unit Development districts used in this process for multi-use developments. These are as follows:

PRD" Planned Residential

This district is used when residential uses are proposed in a development of mixed uses permitted.

POD" Planned Office

This district is used when office development is the intended principal use. Some commercial and residential is permitted when made a part of the review process.

PCD" Planned Commercial

This district is used when commercial mixed use development is proposed. A mix of residential, office and commercial is permitted.

PID" Planned Industrial

This district is used when warehousing, manufacturing or similar uses are proposed in a mix of uses.

Planned Development

This is a process using the same submittal and review procedures as a "PUD" except that this process permits development of single use projects exclusively in one of several districts (Zoning Definitions, 2007).

Documents are to be filed with the Little Rock Planning Commission. The Commission then holds hearings as needed. The Planning and Development Department has three divisions: Building Codes, Zoning & Subdivision, and Planning (Planning and Development, 2005). The planning process is described by the city as follows:

The Planning Division provides mid and long-range planning as well as technical support to the city. The Division prepares neighborhood plans and reviews/drafts amendments to the existing plans. This includes reviewing and development of staff reports for Land Use amendments, Master Street Plan amendments, and review of zoning changes requested by various groups. The staff of the Planning Division responds to requests for statistics, graphics and GIS products (Planning, 2005).

The City Land Use Plan and Map provides the proposed pattern for future land use and serves as a guide for making zoning decisions if there is a request for reclassification.

Environmental Concerns

The state as a whole has certain environmental issues and policies to address those issues. The state's population density is 45 people per square mile, and the overall risk to ecosystems is considered moderate. Population density has increased 4% since 1982, and the amount of developed land increased 8% between 1982 and 1992. The tall grass prairie in the Grand Prairie area of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain is virtually gone given then only 500 acres remain, and some 72% of the state's wetlands have been… [read more]

Deutscher Werkbund and Bauhaus Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,410 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … architectural and design movements that played central roles in the evolution of Modernism as a whole and in the development of German culture in particular throughout the first half of the 20th century. While a proper comparative analysis of the Deutscher Werkbund and the Bauhaus is difficult, if not impossible, to undertake, owing to the fact that the… [read more]

Victor Horta and the Art Nouveau Movement Term Paper

Term Paper  |  18 pages (4,788 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Victor Horta: Art Nouveau Movement

How Does Victor Horta's Work Reflect the Aesthetics of the Art Nouveau Movement and What Were Some of the Limitations of the Art Nouveau Movement?

The enduring popularity of some older architectural works makes them stand out from their less attractive contemporary counterparts, and the art nouveau-inspired works by Victor Horta stand out among these.… [read more]

15th Century Art Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (803 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Gothic Architecture in the Romantic Period

Between 1750 and 1850 in Europe, a new artistic style arose and prospered in Europe, one which is now referred to as the Romantic Period. This period originated toward the end of the 18th century in Germany, where critics wished to distinguish between "modern" traits and "classical" traits, such as those found in ancient Greek and Roman art forms. At this time, many artisans and supporters of the arts in Europe, particularly in England where Romanticism in literature began, revolted against the observable regularity of classical art and moved instead toward a style that had its beginnings some four hundred years before during the Medieval Era.

In architecture, this movement away from classical designs was aimed at showing that architecture did not necessarily have to contain elements of harmonious proportion and correct detail as illustrated in ancient Greek and Roman designs. Overall, the artists and architects of the Romantic Period desired to arouse pleasant and at times startling emotions in the beholder; thus, architecture, especially that based on the Gothic style, was a stimulus for new emotions and responses.


One of the first examples of this "natural" Gothic style in architecture in England occurred in 1718 when John Vanbrugh, the architect of the Baroque Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire, designed his own personal house to look like a Gothic castle, replete with spires, thin, latticed windows and very masculine lines among its numerous portices. This house is not, however, a pure expression of the Gothic, for it still retains some the designs and styles most closely associated with ancient Greek and Roman temples. At about the same time, the desirous qualities of the Gothic were just beginning to be appreciated by not only artists and architects but also the common people who lived and worked in the towns and villages that usually surrounded the vast estates of the aristocracy. As George M. Wedd points out, the uniqueness of the Gothic revival in 18th century England "was founded on and proclaimed moral values" and symbolized a retreat from religious styles; thus, "the Gothic style exactly fit the ideals" of those architects who sought a new means of physical expression (September 1997, 143).


For many architects in England, the combination of the terms "Romantic" and "Gothic" were most closely linked to "ruins and other reminders of past grandeur and of the melancholy passage…… [read more]

Marcel Breuer Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,349 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4



Architect Marcel Breuer

Modernist architect Marcel Breuer is well-known for his emphasis on the technical and structural aspects of his buildings. A focus on structure is also apparent in his furniture design. Additionally, his architecture is recognized for its attention to light and shading, particularly in the use of tinted or shaded windows and overhanging elements. Again, cantilevered design is also apparent in his furniture. Developing these visions early in his career, Breuer made himself known as an architect in the design of both public and private spaces. His work with fellow architect Herbert Beckhard illuminates many of Breuer's ideas, as both men focused on similar concepts in their work. This is perhaps nowhere more apparent than in their dual design of the McMullen Beach House in Mantoloking, New Jersey.

Born in Pecs Hungary in 1902, Marcel Breuer attended university at the newly formed Weimar Bauhaus, attracted to the promises of new architectural and artistic approaches (Marcel Breuer: architect biography, par. 1). He attended the Bauhaus in the early twenties and taught there after finishing his studies. Though the Bauhaus did not yet offer architecture when he began there, Breuer, aided by Georg Muche, began to study housing anyway. He had a particular interest in high-rise structures and soon after developed a seven-story apartment block that would be mass-produced in the years to come (Marcel Breuer: architect biography, par. 1). Following his time at the Bauhaus, Breuer spent time traveling and then trying to establish a practice in Berlin. However, this did not materialize and he was forced to flee from Germany during the Nazi era; emigrating to America, he taught at the Harvard School of Architecture (Marcel Breuer, par. 1).

Though he was accepted as a prominent teacher and architect within professional circles, his earliest mainstream popularity came from his work designing furniture. Inspired by his own bicycle, Breuer began to experiment with tubular steel furniture. One such chair that became widely popular was the "Wassily" chair; made for general residential use, it revolutionized the way that many people viewed their home furnishings (Marcel Breuer, par. 3). Obviously inspired by bicycle handlebars, the Wassily chair's mental tube design was indicative of Breuer's later building style as it emphasized the structure in a stark and minimalist way (Marcel Breuer, par. 3).

Working with fellow Harvard professor Walter Gropius, Breuer completed many significant projects during the 1930s. Among these was the well-known New Kensington, PA housing project for defense industry workers, which "established a new high standard of design for the federal government" (Marcel Breuer: architect biography, par. 2). Their work was also highlighted at the 1939 World's Fair, as they had designed an interior for the Pennsylvania Pavilion. Breuer and Gropius also built a number of houses in New England during this time, including their own. In 1941 he ended his partnership with Gropius, leaving Harvard five years later (Marcel Breuer: architect biography, par. 2).

In the early fifties, Breuer began working in partnership with a number of other… [read more]

CPM the Critical Path Method Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (964 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


There should be a single starting point and ending point, although some nodes may not have any contingent successors and predecessors (for example, the marketing of a group of development houses may be ongoing, and not necessarily dependent upon the project's physical construction, other than the need for its completion).

CPM is a useful part of the planning process of a construction project because it allows the involved parties to estimate which project are 'critical' in the sense that they must be completed on time, or else result in costly delays. Construction projects are easily stymied and can run months, even years over the estimated duration simply because one or two critical elements take longer than expected. (An excellent example of this is the infamous 'Big Dig' construction project in Boston, which was beset by delays during critical junctions of the construction process).

Once the most critical components of the project are determined, "if you put in information about the cost of each activity, and how much it costs to speed up each activity, CPM can help you figure out whether you should try to speed up the project, and, if so, what is the least costly way to speed up the project" (Baker 2004). A cost-benefit analysis of speed vs. financial outlays must always be conducted. A slower project costs more in labor, for example, but hiring additional workers and equipment may ultimately not save money for the project managers in the long run. Optimal use of CPM allows managers to find a balance between the scope of the project, its budget, and the best ways to use labor, equipment, and capital.

Even under the best of circumstances, however, projects can become conflicted. "The owner may expect the project to be completed on-time and on-budget. The general contractor has to finish within the allotted time, ensure its profit margin, manage relationships with subcontractors, and manage its relationship with the owner. Subcontractors require an efficient work environment so that productivity factors can be maintained" (About CPM, 2011, PMSB). The larger the project and the greater the number of subcontractors with potentially divergent interests (their phase of the project, for example, might simply be one project amongst many under the direction of the firm) the greater the risk of delays and in-fighting. But even when interpersonal conflicts occur, as they often do in the construction industry, knowledge is always power, and the CPM process gives managers the knowledge to more effectively negotiate a compromise between competing interests in the project.


About Critical Path Method (CPM). Project Management Services Bureau (PMSB). Retrieved

May 4, 2011


Baker, Samuel. (2004). Critical Path Method (CPM). Retrieved May 4, 2011


CPM. (2011). Net MBA. Retrieved May 4, 2011 at http://www.netmba.com/operations/project/cpm/

CPM. (2011). UGDSB. Retrieved May 4, 2011 at http://www.ugdsb.on.ca/jfr/ICS4M/cpm.pdf… [read more]

Artist and Art Work Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,937 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Frank Lloyd Wright, Robie House, And the Guggenheim

Frank Lloyd Wright was an architect of the modern era -- an architect who, not unlike Marcel Breuer, was as modern in his ideas as the age that saw him create his most acclaimed works of architecture. For Wright, "Love of an idea (was) love of God" (Secrest 4) -- a caption… [read more]

Architectural Principles of the Medieval Period Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (919 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Architectural Principles of the Medieval Period

There is a very close connection that can be seen between the architectural efforts and achievements of medieval cultures and the cultural visions and experiences that these architectural constructions were intended to express. The astounding structures that were fashioned by medieval cultures also show evidence of certain architectural principles and techniques that were central to building and construction at that time. Architectural principles and design techniques have developed constantly as humankind has utilised the tools necessary to complete such construction projects.

The architectural principles found during this time show evidence of the connection between architecture and religious themes and principles that were dominate at the time. This time frames ranges from the Byzantine Empire to the Gothic Period. Each period represents a major step in the development of fundamental architectural concepts that have proven vital for the development of Western architecture. There were many essential periods within each medieval historical context that highlight the main developments that have fostered the extension and evolution of architectural principles throughout the various historical frameworks.

The Byzantine architects incorporated the advanced usage of science based on sophisticated principles of physics and mathematics in order to create their churches. An increase use of brick and plaster together with more geospatial complexity in the design and construction of the architecture in addition to stone were incorporated into the development of public infrastructure at the time. The architecture of this time period incorporated very specific dimensions and angles as to emphasize certain features of the design. The cross-in-square was the dominant architectural form of middle Byzantine churches, which marked a decided departure from the oblong ground plan of the basilica, which had been seen previously. This architectural influence was pandemic in its effectuating influence all through the known world.

Likewise, Islamic architecture also contributed to the advancement of design and architectural principles that were then employed in later European architecture. Islamic architecture represented the connection between the secular and religious. The architectural styles were not separate in these two arenas. Islamic architectural style is embodied in structures that benefited society the most. This architectural style with its recurring mathematical designs is easily recognizable even today. The essential structures of Islamic architecture were introduced previous to the seventh century. Essential features of Islamic architecture include the crescent arch, the vault, the dome, buttresses, columns, and beams. These features are what distinguished Islamic building construction from Christian building construction. However, Islamic architecture also had an influence on some types of buildings in Europe.

The history of castles has a substantial level of association with the Crusades and the exchange of architecture amid the disparate cultures which co-existed in the Holy Land throughout that time period. Castles were mainly made out of stone,…… [read more]

Specific Architectural Ornamentation by Louis Sullivan Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,931 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Louis Sullivan

"Form Follows Function" in Sullivan's Guaranty Building

"It is the pervading law of all things…that form ever follows function," Louis Sullivan stated in "The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered."

Once upon a time recognized as the "father of skyscrapers," Sullivan and his influence would indeed leave their stamp on the next generation of architects like Frank Lloyd Wright.… [read more]

Light Gauge Steel Studs Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (938 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … light gauge residential and commercial stud available and why-Is it strength? Durability? Weight that makes them the best?

The best light guage residential and commercial steels available are gauged according to load. They are strong -- anywhere from 20 guage to 12 guage in thickness, have a thicker galvanized coating, and are made from higher-strength steel. These do not -- like the regular steel -- come from lumber yards or drywall supply houses, but are made to order by a roll-former company. Their strength, durability, and weight all make them superior and better for use in construction.

What company(s) produce this stud?

The following companies produce information about this stud and produce it:

California Steel Framing Alliance (www.casfa.org)

Hawaii Pacific Steel Framing Alliance (www.hawaiisteel.com)

Light Gauge Steel Engineers Association (www.lgsea.com)

Steel Framing Alliance (www.steelframingalliance.com)

Steel Stud Manufacturers Association (www.ssma.com)

Tri-Chord Steel Systems, Inc. (www.tri-chordsteelsystems.com)

(Macerewich, http://bestdrywall.com/files/Switchingto%20Steel.pdf)

Why is it better than wood?

There are several reasons why steel is preferable to wood:

Steel framing material is far stronger than wood. It has the highest strength-to-weight ratio of any residential building material .

It is safer in earthquakes since it can withstand the highest seismic rating. This is due in part to its strength and resiliency as well as to the way that it is fastened to the base of t he building it is unaffected by changes in weather and therefore won't erode, bulge, blemish, sag, or squeak (and so forth) as wood does.

It won't fuel a fire therefore in some areas a steel-constructed house may even incur lower Homeowners and builder's risk insurance easier remodeling: renovations are far easier than with wood for you can simply screw or unscrew certain parts together rather than rip apart

Consistent quality: the wall and all appurtenances are straight. There is a strength and consistency that does not appear in wood.

Conservation of resources: Steel is the most recycled material far more than wood. It is best, therefore, on the environment.

(Excalibur. http://www.excalibursteel.com/better.htm)

- What are the new innovations in steel studs? In the last say 5 years? Is it a new design? Is it something that other studs can do like contain precut holes for electrical?

In the last five years there has been an exponential growth of new connectors made for cold-formed steel. In fact, some manufacturers have separate catalogs just for selling connectors.

Manufacturers also developed new steel making techniques with, for instance, developing floor systems that had additional material at the flange, in order to increase moment capacity and provided larger, stiffened holes in the web. Other techniques were also developed for wall stud framing.

Some stud manufacturers have been putting slits in their studs to cut down on the thermal heat transfer; others have used stiffened holes for the same reason.

There are also…… [read more]

Firefighters Structural Analysis and Design of High Rise Buildings Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,088 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Firefighters Structural Analysis and Design of High Rise Buildings

Twin Towers of New York

Building Construction Trends

Truss Construction

Fire Fighters Structural Analysis

Firefighters Structural Analysis and Design of High Rise Buildings

This report attempts to examine why fire fighters have voiced concerns regarding the ever increasing size of skyscrapers. When the World Trade Centre Twin Towers, which were at… [read more]

Frank Lloyd Wright Was Born in 1867 Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Frank Lloyd Wright was born in 1867 on a farm in Richland, Wisconsin where he spent most of his youth. He was originally named Frank Lincoln Wright but when his parents divorced and he had designed his first building, he decided to change his middle name to Lloyd. When he as 12 years old he and his parents moved to the larger city of Madison, Wisconsin where he attended high school but never graduated.

Wright's initial interest in architecture developed during his high school years and this interest led to his taking a job with the Dean of the University of Wisconsin's College of Wisconsin. The requirements of the job dictated that he quit high school but he did find time to take several courses in civil engineering.

After working at the University of Wisconsin for several years, Wright moved to the City of Chicago where he began working for local architect, Joseph Lyman Silsbee. Under Silsbee's tutelage Wright had the opportunity to design his first building. This building, known as the Lloyd-Jones family chapel, did not reveal any of the characteristics that ultimately defined Wright's unique style or construction concepts. This development would occur later as Wright took a new job with the Adler and Sullivan architectural firm.

The firm had already adopted the policy that "Form follows function" and Wright altered that policy to state that "Form and Function are one." Like his new mentors Wright was of the strong belief that American architecture needed to develop its own identity and divorce from the architectural styles that were popular in Europe.

It was while Wright was employed with Adler and Sullivan that he began to develop his own design style. Wright's architectural style was not the only change that occurred during his tenure with Adler and Sullivan. During this time he also fell in love and married Catherine Tobin. It was shortly after getting married that Wright and his wife built their house in Oak Park, Illinois which remains a heavily visited tourist attraction. In this house the couple raised their five children.

While his roots were there in the mid-West, his life led him to the biggest cities in America. His work embodied a spirit that was both personal and affirmative. His religious beliefs were informed in his childhood by his parents' Unitarianism: That same sense of and obsession with unity would shape the way Wright constructed -- from the uniformity of line in Robie House to the uniformity of curve and color in the Guggenheim Museum. Wright was keenly aware of all things working and fitting together

While Wright excelled as…… [read more]

Le Corbusier Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,415 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Le Corbusier

Charles Edouard Jeanneret-Gris, was born on October 6, 1887 in Switzerland in the small town of La Chaux-de-Fonds. (Le Corbusie: Wikipedia) He later became known under the pseudonym Le Corbusier. Le Corbusier was one the creators of the International style in architecture and also designed furniture. He was an innovator and, with other architects such as Walter Gropius… [read more]

Brownfield Land, it Is Vitally Important Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (671 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … brownfield land, it is vitally important to consult the necessary experts in order to determine the profitability of buying such land for new housing developments. As an adviser to the buyer then, I would consider the current status of the land, the extent of clean-up that is necessary, and also the possible safety hazards as a result of still existing contaminants.

My first recommendation would then be to consult environmental investigation agencies to determine the extent of contaminants still present on the site. As the adjacent site previously held factory premises, it is likely that contaminants may still be present in the environment. The new housing close to the premises however also suggests that such contaminants may be minimal, or indeed sufficiently absent to proceed with building.

In addition to contaminants, building materials from the adjacent housing and buildings previously existing on the site may also be present. These would have to be investigated to determine its usability or its need to be disposed of.

Prior to buying the land then, I would recommend assessing the cost of removing both hazardous and non-hazardous but unwanted waste from the premises. If such costs are too high, it may be wiser to search for development land elsewhere. However, the nearby housing suggests that this may not be the case, and I do recommend that such a survey be carried out thoroughly before making a decision.

The safety of construction workers as well as future inhabitants of the project will also have to be taken into consideration, as this could prove expensive in terms of possible legal liability. The land should then be examined in terms not only of hazardous waste, but also in terms of stability. Undetected hazardous chemicals could for example have fatal consequences when explosives are used for excavation purposes. Furthermore the cost of safety measures and training should also be taken into consideration. If construction workers need to take special measures in terms of clothing, equipment, or training in order to ensure…… [read more]

Critique a Building After 1400 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,483 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … architecture of the Alamo in San Antonio Texas from Michelangelo's point-of-view. Specifically it will critique the building from the point-of-view of architect Michelangelo, who is totally unrelated to the building's design. Michelangelo will critique the building according to his own architectural values and beliefs. The Alamo is one of the most famous American buildings. Parts of the original… [read more]

Frank Gehry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,824 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


. . With Walt Disney Concert Hall as its crown jewel, Los Angeles' Grand Avenue will become the center for the performing arts, culture and education in Southern California."?

With this new structure Gehry has become one of America's leading architects, matching his achievement in Bilbao in many ways and contributing to the aesthetics and economy of another city at the same time.


Arnold, Dana. Art History: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Ballantyne, Andrew. Architecture: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Bletter, Rosemarie Haag. "Frank Gehry's Spatial Reconstructions." In The Architecture of Frank Gehry. New York: Rizzoli, 1986.

Celant, Germano. Frank Gehry: Buildings and Projects. New York: Rizzoli, 1985.

Hackett, Regina. "Artist Builds on His Experience: Striking an Artistic Chord." The Seattle Post-Intelligencer (22 June 2000), p. C1.

McGuigan, Cathleen. "From Bauhaus to Fun House," Newsweek (11 July 1988), pp. 64-65.

McCoy, Esther. Case Study Houses, 1945-1960. Los Angeles:, 1977.

Upton, Dell. Architecture in the United States. New York: Oxford, 1998.

"Walt Disney Concert Hall Dedication Unveils a New Cultural Jewel for the Music Center and Los Angeles." Business Wire (20 Oct. 2003), p. 3.

Cathleen McGuigan, "From Bauhaus to Fun House," Newsweek (11 July 1988), pp. 64-65.

Andrew Ballantyne, Architecture: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), p. 104.

Ibid., p. 104.

Dana Arnold, Art History: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), p. 56.

Germano Celant, Frank Gehry: Buildings and Projects (New York: Rizzoli, 1985), p. 5.

Ibid., p. 5.

Ibid., p. 6.

Rosemarie Haag Bletter, "Frank Gehry's Spatial Reconstructions," in The Architecture of Frank Gehry (New York: Rizzoli, 1986), p. 25.

Ibid., p. 26.

Bletter, p. 51.

Ibid., p. 32.

Esther McCoy, Case Study Houses, 1945-1960 (Los Angeles:, 1977), p. 118.

Dell Upton, Architecture in the United States (New York: Oxford,…… [read more]

Santiago Calatrava's Name Is Synonymous Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,224 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


With this one major project under his belt, Calatrava quickly began exploring foreign frontiers. He first tried Europe and then went on to influence the rest of the world. His first few structures include the Alamillo Bridge and viaduct (World's Fair in Seville, Spain), the Campo Volantin Footbridge (Billbao, Spain), the Alameda Bridge and underground station in Valencia, Spain. The one design that earned his international acclaim and recognition was Bach de Roda Bridge project for the Olympic Games Barcelona Spain, 1984.

'For Calatrava, bridges go literally to the heart of many of the cities of Europe."Cities like London or Paris or Cologne or Valencia had Roman names once. The Romans arrived at a river and used it as a natural frontier. They put up a military camp, then they built a bridge, and a fortress on the other side of it to protect the bridge and to collect a toll. If you go to these cities now you can find where the center was. Today, bridges belong both to the art of construction and also to the art of cultural expression. We have a lot of resources and materials that did not exist 100 years ago. It is a flourishing period for bridging." (Usher, 2001)

Bridges are important exhibits for demonstration of Calatrava's distinctive style. They usually have asymmetrical embellishments such as the slender tail fin that operates as a sundial in $23.5 million glass-and-steel footbridge in Redding, California. Calatrava feels asymmetrical add-ons help him accentuate some key features of the structure, such as its position against the sea or its location in the city. Redding's bridge is an important recent structure because it is his first bridge in the United States. The bridge that many feel has exceptionally modern design spans 720 feet over the Sacramento River. Redding bridge is part of a massive project worth $84 million that includes a natural history museum and botanical gardens. Talking about mirrored backgrounds in bridges, Paula Deitz (2001) writes in The Architectural Review:

" ... nowhere were mirrors more effective than in the gallery of bridges, where each of the 16 models in white tubing appeared to float above its double reflected in a river of mirrors. It is difficult to travel around Europe, especially in Spain, without crossing a Calatrava bridge, and almost every major city has had one proposed if not constructed. If in Japanese culture the bridge is symbolic of the time it takes to cross from one place to another, for Calatrava, the bridge becomes a destination in itself, a link that is also a gathering place."

Calatrava is not only an accomplished architect but is also a linguist with command over seven languages. Both aspiring and established architects hang on to his words when he talks about his designs and the inspiration behind them. But Calatrava doesn't really need to say much for twelve honorary degree and numerous awards speaks volumes about his work. Some of these prestigious awards include Academy of Achievement Gold Plate… [read more]

Brunelleschi -- San Lorenzo Filippo Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (611 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Architecturally, the church of San Lorenzo is square in plan and forms a perfect cube in volume, covered by a Classical hemispherical dome supported by ribs, much like some earlier Gothic cathedrals which pre-dated Brunelleschi by two hundred years.

Brunelleschi's design and construction of the church at San Lorenzo became a motivating force for the re-design of the entire church along Renaissance lines instead of traditional Gothic influences. In addition, Brunelleschi's plan for the church was the forerunner for all future systems that came about in the late Renaissance and later Baroque buildings. According to Leon Battista Alberti (1407-1472), one of Brunelleschi's imitators, "the genius and creative energy required to achieve new social and intellectual status was no better represented by Brunelleschi whose San Lorenzo reflects the mind of a brilliant Renaissance man, his universal interests and love for beauty" (Hyman 245).

The church at San Lorenzo exemplifies the ultimate mastery of architecture during the Renaissance Era and as a truly iconographic structure, it reflects the religiosity of the period through its advanced use of the Gothic style. As Cosimo De Medici allegedly once said, the church of San Lorenzo and all similar buildings "not only honor God but likewise honor the architect and even those that enter the holy places of the church, for they are closer to the creator and to eternity" (Fanelli 312).


Battisti, Eugenio. Brunelleschi: The Complete Works. UK: Thames & Hudson, 1981.

Fanelli, Giovanni. Brunelleschi. New York: Scala Books, 1980.

Frey, Dagobert. Architecture of the Renaissance: From Brunelleschi to Michelangelo. Netherlands: The Hague,…… [read more]

Peter Behrens Born in Hamburg Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (792 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The photographs used in the catalogs were directly linked to the new AEG logo that was also designed by Behrens, a hexagonal comprised of nothing but the three letters (Sachsse pp). There was no allegory, floral or female figure designed in this logo, it simply consisted of the letters (Sachsse pp). This was in itself a revolution in graphic design and created a corporate identity, thus, AEG became synonymous with the label, Made in Germany (Sachsse pp).

AEG's history spans over 100 years, from the founding of AEG with the purchase of the German license for Edison patents to the first electrical appliances created by Behrens, the father of design (AEG pp). At the beginning of the twentieth century, AEG was the first industrial company that employed a designer, Behrens, and in 1907, he was commissioned not only to design new factories but also appliances (AEG pp).

The turbine hall for the AEG in Berlin-Moabit, 1909, represented the culmination of Behrens efforts to give architectural dignity to a workplace, similar to the achievement of Frank Lloyd Wright with the Larkin Building in Buffalo, New York (A.E.G. pp). Behrens created a plastic effect and a dynamic form of construction of the trusses that were pulled to the outside as well as through the tapering iron trusses and the glass areas that were drawn towards the inside (A.E.G pp). Although many criticized the building, Le Corbusier, however, admired the structure as being a charged center that represents the integral architectonic creations of modern society, with rooms of admirable moderation and cleanness, and magnificent machines that set impressive accents (A.E.G. pp). Behrens industrial work for A.E.G. has received praise from historians of the modern style and industrial design (Peter pp).

From 1922 to 1936, Behrens taught architecture at the Vienna Academy and in 1936 conducted architectural master-classes at the Berlin Academy, and from 1936 until his death in 1940, he was director of the department of architecture at the Prussian Academy in Berlin (Peter pp).

Work Cited

AE.G. High Tension Factory Commentary


AEG Appliances


Sachsse, Rolf. "Made in Germany as Image in Photography and Design."

Journal of Popular Culture; 12/22/2000; pp.

Peter Behrens. A Page for Graphic Designers

http://www.complink.net/greg/designsite/behrens.htm… [read more]

Older and Modern Plan for a College Campus Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (597 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Way of Life in Search of an Architecture"

Cistercian architecture reflected the identity of a group of monks who wanted to reform the excesses of the church, which they regarded as inhibiting the spiritual life. They sought to establish a way of life that was simple and humble and devoid of distractions. These monks believed that elaborate architecture and highly embellished designs would distract from worship. They believed it was important to avoid distraction because it would lead to pride. Cistercians put down their roots in aesceticism which demanded withdrawal from the world, poverty, and discipline. Their communities called for an self-sufficient agrarian life in an isolated area. They renounced cash because business dealings would lead to contact with the outside world. They rearranged and reshaped their daily lives apportioning time for reading, manual labor, and prayer. They left behind lives as intellectuals and took up farming.

An efficient centralized government was set up with a clear chain of command ("a masterpiece of mideval planning" p. 6) to ensure austerity and simplicity. Their early buildings reflected both, and the names of their houses usually cited some characteristic of the land upon which they were built. The order grew rapidly, in fact, at an unprecedented rate. New abbeys were established and procedures for choosing new sites upon which to build became more and more elaborate. This was because sometimes in their zeal to establish a new abbey, they overlooked features of the site that would eventually cause them to fail and have to move to a new place. There were many rules for decorating the interiors of the churches, all aimed at simplicity and limiting embellishments. At first, there were not a lot of rules for architecture, but a general understanding apparently prevailed. Their architecture reflected sensory disengagement…… [read more]

Seagram Building by Mies Van Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,747 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Seagram would look like a black glass tower when seen from one angle, and like a highly polished bronze tower from another angle. And even more amazingly, the color and the pattern would be subject to change, depending on the angle seen, and the lighting of the building when it is being viewed. For example, a brown can become… [read more]

Stylistic and Cultural Comparison Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (371 words)
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Stylistic and Cultural Comparison of St. Peter's Basilica and The Taj Mahal

One of the eight wonders of the modern world, the Taj Mahal is regarded as one of the eight wonders of the world. There are some who feel that the beauty of the building and its architecture can never be surpassed. The building is made entirely of white marble, built by a Muslim Shah in memory of his wife and queen. A fusion of the Muslim influence and Indian culture, sometimes called an elegy in marble, the Taj Mahal (which means crown palace) was the burial place of Queen Mumtaz Mahal and later her husband Shah Jahan. The Taj stands on a raised, square platform (186 x 186 feet) with its four corners truncated, forming an unequal octagon. The architectural design uses what is called the interlocking arabesque concept, meaning that there is perfect integration of each element within the main structure and an element of self-replicating geometry and symmetry inherent to the architectural elements. The building incorporates features which can be attributed to ritual, which permeates the Islamic religion. The large rectangular…… [read more]

Construction Project Management Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (603 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Hearst Tower on 57th and 8th in Midtown Manhattan

The Hearst Corporation is a media conglomerate that owns or controls newspapers, magazines, television stations, and cable networks. The company has been around since the early 20th century, and so has the base of the building, which was built in 1928 at the cost of $2 million then. The base of the building is a designated historic landmark. It has six stories, and comprises 40,000 square feet. Originally, a skyscraper was intended to emerge from the six-story building but the Great Depression caused the Hearst Corporation to postpone the project. It was postponed until 2006. The new tower built in 2006 was the first to be built in Manhattan since the terrorist attacks of September 11. The finished product is 46 stories tall, and offers 860,000 square feet of office space. Its defining external feature is its diagrid, made of 9500 metric tons of structural steel. It received the Emporis Skyscraper Award in 2006, the year it was completed. Moreover, the Hearst Tower is of note because it was the first "green" high rise office building in New York City. The Hearst Tower was constructed around the historical facade, a design approved by the Landmark Preservation Commission. The tower cost about $500 million to construct.

LEED Gold and Platinum Designations

The diagrid construction permits a great deal of external light to penetrate the offices inside, reducing dependence on artificially powered light. The building uses 26% less energy than the minimum average in the city. Special "low-E" windows also contribute to maximal external light, but also minimize the input of heat radiation to keep the building cool and prevent the need for air conditioning. In addition to being "green," the building's high degree of natural light is also beneficial for workplace…… [read more]

Curatorial Project Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (625 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Beyond Function: Form for Form's Sake

Architecture occupies a unique place in the art world because architecture possesses a practical dimension that few other art forms possess. The interface between form and function is classic and endemic to the study, practice, art, and science of architecture. Even the most cursory survey of architecture throughout human history reveals the ways architects transcend the need-driven function of form, to create forms with cultural, symbolic, and emotional content. "The poetic experience of space, light, and form remains the subject of architecture," (Hill 4). This poetry of architectural experience is evident in the art of the 20th century, and especially in the curvilinear and whimsical creations of Frank Gehry and Antonio Gaudi. Both Gehry's Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao and Gaudi's Casa Milo Apartments in Barcelona reveal ways architects use form to communicate culture, which is why they are included in the Beyond Function: Form for Form's Sake special collection.

Gehry's iconic museum in Bilbao, Spain houses the Peggi Guggenheim collection of art. The structure transformed an otherwise industrial town into one that fuses art and science (Van Buggen and Gehry). In fact, the placement of the Frank Gehry museum symbolizes the spirit of architecture itself: a blend of form and function that is at once aesthetically appealing, culturally relevant, and historically meaningful. Designed to function as a museum of art, the architect had the opportunity to create a structure to match the magnitude of the collection within. Gehry affirms fully the role of the architect in doing more than just creating four walls and a shelter from the elements. Instead, Gehry states, "I'm interested in architecture as a work of art, and whether it will hold up as art," (cited by Cuff 37). Indeed, the Gehry Guggenheim museum achieves this lofty goal. It is remarkably curvilinear and fluid, and yet also has a solid, reliable…… [read more]

Project Management, Sustainability and Whole Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (709 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Signifying the city's rapid transition from a mining boomtown to a modern metropolis, Freed wrapped the classical Beaux-Arts inspired cornice around the south side of the building, before suddenly revealing a modern facade of strikingly austere steel windows and stone walls.

For visitors to the San Francisco Main Public Library, the architectural skill of Freed can be felt through a variety of subtle design features. Many observers have lauded the inclusion of a towering atrium as a beautiful and effective means to facilitate natural lighting and climate control, and as the design firm responsible for the atrium's inclusion states proudly, "internal organization centers around a monumental open staircase and a five-story atrium, 60 feet in diameter, that provides a luminous hub of orientation" (Pei, Cobb, Freed & Partners, 2001). Although public appraisal has been nearly unanimous that the "library's huge, multistory atrium gives the building a soaring, open feel," many critics have remarked that this design feature has sacrificed functionality for form, decrying the fact that "the $137 million building seems to have been designed more as an architectural masterwork than as a working library" (Wildermuth, 2000). Nonetheless, with an abundance of perfectly integrated bridges and elevators to assure a smooth flow of traffic for library patrons, as well as a cleverly designed network of entrances and exits that integrates the building into the surrounding cityscape, the San Francisco Main Public Library stands as a testament to the success that can be achieved by blending historical and modern architectural styles.


Muschamp, H. (1996, May 12). Architecture view: Room for imagination in a temple of reason. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/1996/05/12/arts/architecture-view-room-for-imagination-in-a- temple-of-reason.html

Pei Cobb Freed & Partners. (2001, April 17). San francisco main public library. Retrieved from http://www.pcf-p.com/a/p/8908/s.html

San Francisco Public Library. (2013, January 11).Architecture of the main library. Retrieved from http://sfpl.org/index.php?pg=2000023201

Wildermuth, J. (2000, January 05). Cost of redoing s.f. main library put at $28 million / report notes lacks of shelf space read more: http://www.sfgate.com/education/article/cost-of- redoing-s-f-main-library-put-at-28-2785880.php… [read more]

Coed Darcy the Urban Village Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,964 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


This is being considered as a sustainability agenda that helps define the company the behavior of their clients. Needless to say, carbon forms the main constituent of the greenhouse gases that are considered responsible for the changes in the climate. 77% of the greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide. Other gases that contain carbon and constitute the greenhouse gases are methane,… [read more]

Gaudi's Works Antonio Research Paper

Research Paper  |  12 pages (3,787 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


They made sure that they made their work stand out and look amazing with the use of simple ornaments like plaster and brick. Surely, one can imagine that the use of luxurious items like marble and gold has always been used to make a building pretty. Gaudi paid extra attention to the simpler and cheaper materials as well. Nevertheless, his… [read more]

Sign and Symbol, by John Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (428 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


, and elevation to heaven

Paris 12-13th centuries -- new School of Paris -- Gothic emphasizing "mystical signification" more lightness in the design, less materiality

Also shift away from Roman style, which symbolized paganism

Pointed forms, evoking "convergence of branches," capitals and pinnacles with leaves, now flower symbolizes living church

15th century Italy starts to abandon Gothic architecture

16th century shift of economic, political power away from church -- impacted architecture-made it more geometric, rigid to impart law and order -- symbolizing the keeping in check of economic and political power

19th century, After 1800- France uses Egyptian symbols in cemeteries bc symbolize death; Islamic symbols in England represent "wayward lifestyle" -- diverse styles used

20th century -- International Movement, Le Corbusier -- concrete, steel, lack of ornament

1980s -- architects, patrons want return to…… [read more]

Sustainable Energy for Low Carbon Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (936 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


It is a Government owned national standard intended to encourage continuous improvement in sustainable home building. It has a rating scale of one to six stars (Code Level 6 is the government target for 2016) and contains some mandatory levels in key areas like energy and water.BRE Global act as advisors on issues related to maintenance and development of the technical contents of the CSH standard and manage implementation of the scheme under contract to the Department of Communities and Local Government (DCLG)." (BREEAM, 2012) The report states that the Code for Sustainable Homes is much like BREEAM "in that the Green Guide to Specification is the mechanism Code Assessors use to measure the environmental impact of specifications for key building elements. Manufacturers choose to obtain a Certified Environmental Profile as a way of demonstrating their environmental performance and to obtain specific Green Guide ratings to be used within the Code." (BREEAM, 2012)

Best practices therefore can be concluded to be inclusive of the use of suitable materials that meet specifications and codes set out for sustainable structures. As well best practices include the elements listed in the following illustration published by Constructing Excellence in the South East in its "Guide to Bet Practice in Construction."

Source: Constructing Excellence in the South East (2012)

Sustainable construction is reported to address in a cohesive manner the "triple bottom line" or that of the "social, economic, and environmental performance of the industry including the following action areas:

(1) Being more profitable and competitive. It is recognized that businesses need higher profits to intelligently invest in its people, products, and processes to improve their competitiveness; (Construction Excellence in the Southeast, 2012)

(2) Delivering buildings and structures that provide greater satisfaction, well-being and added value to customers and users; (Construction Excellence in the Southeast, 2012)

(3) Respecting and fairly treating employees and the wider community. This includes improving health and safety, enhancing site and welfare conditions, and avoiding noise and dirt, which would inconvenience local residents; (Construction Excellence in the Southeast, 2012)

(4) Enhancing and protecting the natural environment, including protecting habitats, trees, waterways and other natural features; (Construction Excellence in the Southeast, 2012)

(5) Minimizing consumption of natural resources and energy during the construction phase and throughout the life of the facility. The buildings should be energy efficient and utilize energy from renewable resources by specifying recycled materials and renewable energy sources and considering the buildings' future use; (Construction Excellence in the Southeast, 2012) and (6) Reducing waste and avoiding pollution during the construction process. 70% of landfill is reportedly generated through construction activity. (Construction Excellence in the Southeast, 2012)

Summary and Conclusion

This study has examined the materials for use…… [read more]

Niosh Report -- Fire Safety Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (808 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


A parapet wall has little, if any, lateral stability and will present a high potential for collapse (Malanga, 1996). These structures can be easily identified because of the signs or awnings that may be attached. It is safe to assume that the parapet wall has not been engineered to take the weight and forces being applied by additional dead and live loads as a result of a fire (Dunn, 2006).

To properly establish a collapse zone, multiply the height of the building times 1 1/2 to account for falling and scattered debris (Fornell, 1995). Another critical element in preventing parapet-related firefighter deaths is preplanning. Size-up needs to start even before the run goes out. Crews should identify occupancies that present additional risk to life, safety, and property in our response area, and establish plans for that specific target hazard. It is also advised that crews should identify the age of structure, its integrity, the type of roof and interior structures and supports, building materials, and building class to make proper assessments for next steps (Dunn, 2006).

Case #3 - Explain the hazards that lightweight wooden trusses with gusset plate connectors present to firefighters working inside a structure fire.

Lightweight truss construction often includes gusset plates and other metal joints. A gusset plate is a stamped metal plate with raised teeth that is embedded in lightweight wood truss joints at the panel joints to hold the individual truss members together. The gusset teeth usually penetrate the wood members approximately 3/8-inch. When subjected to fire these components burn and fail faster than traditional wood lumber -- they do not have the fire stopping capabilities that wood lumber has (Fornell, 1995). If firefighters do not identify that a house is constructed with these types of materials, they could be endangered by floors that will collapse faster than traditionally constructed floors, and ceilings and roofs that will fail quickly when exposed to high heat conditions (Dunn, 2006). One of the problems associated with manufactured wood trusses is the improper installation of nailing or gusset plates (Malanga, 1996). A gap of 1/6-inch between the gusset plate and the wood can reduce connection strength by up to 50%.


Dunn, V. (2006). Collapse of burning buildings: A guide to fireground safety. Princeton, NJ: Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic.

Fornell, D. (1995). Don't trust…… [read more]

Forces on Buildings When Constructing Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (623 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The third potential problem is the roof-renovation. Again, depending on the status of the renovation, the building's structure could be weakened do the lack of a roof providing structural support. The construction materials used for the renovation could also pose potential hazards to fire fighters and rescuers. Heavy materials on the roof or stored on the upper floors could foster floor or structural collapse; the materials could block pathways rescuers could need to save lives and property; and lastly, the materials could clutter areas around the building in such a manner as to impede firefighting or rescue efforts. The placement of construction materials should be such that they do not interfere with any type of emergency service. The roof may also have "open areas" that could allow inclement weather in, for example, rain or drizzle somehow sparking an electrical fire.

As I previously discussed, the loads of heavy furniture and appliances make the building "top heavy" and can foster building collapse where collapse otherwise would not occur. All heavy furniture and appliances should be placed on the ground and lower floors. As far as the composite materials go, generally they will strengthen the structure and provide insulation against a spreading fire. The whole building should be renovated with composites to bring it up to contemporary fire and structural safety codes and regulations. Loads in appliance and furniture stores usually require man-power using dollies and pallet jacks and because of this, there needs to be clear pathways and passages for both employees and rescue workers so there is a safe and secure working environment; and in the event of a disaster, there is an environment that can facilitate rescue and firefighting efforts.… [read more]

Frank Lloyd Wright Design Theory Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,756 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Kroll (2011) points out that "Similar to all of Wrights projects, every aspect of design and detail of the project was given particular attention by Wright." He designed the lighting and plumbing fixtures that were to go with the building, the style of windows, even, sometimes, the window treatments. He was not just interested in the outward look of the building and the inward space, he wanted the entire design, whether it be interior/exterior or structural, to flow as if it came from one palette.


Frank Lloyd Wright was a brilliant architect who took the designs offered at the end of the nineteenth century and expanded them. His influences may have been A mixture of Queen Anne and Sillsbee (Hurder, 2001), but he developed something that was many years ahead of its time. He was among the first designers who was concerned with the natural aesthetics of his projects. He wanted the perfect blend between what was natural and what was functional. He achieved his goal by going beyond what people thought could be done with the present construction materials (and they his detractors were sometimes correct), and incorporating as many natural elements as possible.


Aikens, J. (2009). Fallingwater: The story of a country house. AIArchitect, 16.

Hurder, S. (2001). Brief biography of Frank Lloyd Wright. Retrieved from http://www.oprf.com/flw/bio/

Kroll, A. (2011). AD classics: Taliesin West/Frank Lloyd Wright. Arch Daily. Retrieved from http://www.archdaily.com/123117/ad-classics-taliesin-west-frank-lloyd- wright/

Peponis, J., & Bellal T. (2010). In Fallingwater: Spatial structure at the scale of quasi- synchronic perception. Georgia Institute…… [read more]

Fire Department Reviewing and Changing Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (2,442 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Another factor that need to be taken into consideration here and that has also been agreed by a lot of authors such as: Dunn, 2000; Carter, 1992; Chapman, 1995, is that the stairwells in the high rise buildings can be used for the purpose of evacuations as well as ventilation. The thing that needs to be done here is, making… [read more]

St. Patrick's Cathedral: Field Trip Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (562 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


For a small donation, visitors were allowed to light a candle. Although I took some photographs of the cathedral and its interior, there were some parts of the church like the gift shop where photography was not allowed. One of the areas within the Cathedral that I found most aesthetically inspiring was the baptistery. I also took some photographs of the main entrance's bronze doors. In the bronze doors' facades are figures that represent prominent people in the church's history.

Apart from the spectacular architectural design of the building (both internal and external), quite a number of other aspects of the Cathedral deserve a mention. For instance, from what I gathered, the Cathedral's great organ has more than seven thousand pipes. Further, in addition to having a total of 19 bells, the Cathedral has a spectacular and breathtaking Rose Window - which I have already mentioned in this text (although not clearly visible due to the scaffolding). The said window has a diameter of 26 feet. The other exceptional details of the Cathedral which I observed during my visit include but they are not limited to its stained glass, vaulted ceilings, interior woodwork, and narrow windows.

The Cathedral also has incredibly high arched ceilings that make it look and feel so exquisite and large. This is regardless of the fact that over time, many of the skyscrapers that have been erected in the Cathedral's neighborhood have effectively dwarfed this architectural masterpiece despite the tall spikes that characterize its external appearance. Complete with the tall and impressive stained glass windows, the carved stone walls of the Cathedral are reminiscent of most Gothic-styled churches. To me, St. Patrick's Cathedral is…… [read more]

Frank Lloyd Wright Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,672 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Fallingwater Conservancy has thus commissioned a restoration project that includes shoring the weaker balconies and waterproofing the entire house (Silman).

Wright's other controversial monuments include the Guggenheim Museum in New York City. Because of its radical spiral ramp form, the museum's construction was delayed for years until it finally opened in 1959. Instead of a museum of separate square rooms, Wright designed a spiral ramp that visitors traversed to view the collection. This spiral extends from a domed skylight to an open central court (Hart 138).

Critics charge that the museum's curved walls make it unsuitable for displaying larger paintings. However, the buildings organic design has proved ideal for its purpose and it is now recognized as Manhattan landmark.

IV. Innovations and Contributions

Wright has made several important contributions to the way people view architecture and interior space. His early works, such as Taliesin and the Prairie Houses, broke the Victorian mold of dark, box-like living spaces. In doing so, he also ushered in the use of innovative material, such as poured concrete, textile masonry and steel.

Wright later introduced ways to incorporate elements of nature - light, greenery, water - into indoor spaces. He believed that people should stay close to nature and thus designed houses that embraced the earth or brought nature inside.

Wright believed that a building is more than just a living or a working space. It was also, in his words, "a way to be." For these reasons, Wright strived to design spaces that would allow people to commune with nature and with one another, in ways that were not possible before ("Frank Lloyd Wright"). By changing the spaces in which people lived and congregated, Wright may have also changed the way America lived.

Works Cited

Constantino, Maria. The Life and Works of Frank Lloyd Wright. New York: Courage Books, 1998.

Frank Lloyd Wright: The Man." Biographical Sketch. February 2003.. Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation. 8 April 2003 .

Hart, Spencer. The Wright Space. San Diego: Thunder Bay Press, 2001.

Hanks, David A. The Decorative Designs of Frank Lloyd Wright. Toronto: Dover Press, 1999.

Larkin, David. Frank Lloyd Wright: The…… [read more]

Walter Gropius Germany's High Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,619 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Following the archetypal Taylorist logic, he further observed: "Precise numerical records by the famous American scientific managers Taylor and Gilbreth, show that the average American bricklayer is not more productive than the German bricklayer. Rather, the reason for the astonishing double efficiency in the United States lies in the adoption of appropriate building methods" (Gropius, 1927).

Gropius and his collaborators… [read more]

Arch of Constantine Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (445 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Constantine was the first Christian emperor of Rome, and the arch, although erected to commemorate a military triumph, is more modest in nature to the earlier Roman Pantheon and the Coliseum. Like earlier, more florid displays of Roman architecture, however, the Arch makes substantial use of Greek motifs such as columns and symmetry in its design. The decorative nature of its relief structure and its highly ornamental quality both signal the still-flowering presence of Grecian ornamental influence in Roman architecture, the existence of triumphal Roman military glory, as well as the ambiguity of an end of a pagan era and the introduction of a Christian one.

Works Cited

Arch of Constantine." Great Buildings Online. Retrieved on March 6, 2004 at http://www.greatbuildings.com/cgi-bin/glk-http://sights.seindal.dk/sight/299.html

Benton and DiYanni. Arts and Culture. New York: Prentice Hall, 1988.

Planter and Ashby. "The Arch of Constantine." From A Topological Dictionary of Ancient Rome. Oxford University Press, Oxford: 1929. Retrieved on March 6, 2004 at http://www.ukans.edu/history/index/europe/ancient_rome/E/Gazetteer/Places/Europe/Italy/Lazio/Roma/Rome/Arch_of_Constantine/home.html… [read more]

Le Corbusier, Frank Lloyd Wright Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (679 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Of the homes that Le Corbusier did complete, two of the most noted were the Ozenfant (1922), and the Roche home (1923). Both followed the characteristics devised by Le Corbusier, and were striking in their austerity and geometric lines. In short, both homes, as well as his later projects would become the benchmark of modernity.

Finally, the work of Louis Isadore Khan is perhaps the most revolutionary of the three (perhaps indicated by the fact that most of what he designed during his lifetime was never built). Although his design style is characterized as "classically romantic," featuring sometimes towering stairwells and air ducts planted in the midst of main areas, many consider his designs and buildings to be "impractical," and "unorthodox."

To be sure, Wright's "organic style," and Le Corbusier "modernism" were revolutionary as well -- however, buildings such as the Yale Art Gallery (1953), as well as the National Assembly Buildings in Dhaka, Pakistan, are particularly striking in their unusual use of concrete and brick -- especially in their ability to answer Khan's belief that "structure is the giver of light." Indeed, one can see that in both buildings, the geometric, almost chunky style seems to give way to showers of soft light transmitted through precise positioning of windows, openings, and special partitions.

In closing, all three architects revolutionized aspects of the concept of design -- developing the organic, modern, as well as, well, unorthodox, in heretofore, rigid design environments. Indeed, it could even be said that each architect not only paved the way for the possibility of the creation of new design innovations, but also opened the door for further design exploration today. In this way, the three are inexorably linked -- with each other, and with the modern architecture…… [read more]

Florence Baptistery North Doors Lorenzo Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,130 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The steps leading up to the doorway are also in the form of semi-ovals and echo the rhythms of the flanking walls, which are concave in form. There is thus an interplay of concave and convex elements which express the oval plan of the interior and create a focus upon the doorway itself and the formal axis of the church to which it gives access. Above the porch is a great semicircular window framed by a deep entablature. The door itself is framed by a portico of a great triangular pediment supported by Corinthian columns.

The entrance to Sant' Andrea provides some interesting points of contrast to the doorway to the Florence Baptistery discussed earlier in this paper. The circumstances of the creation of each structure were very different; in the case of Florence, Ghiberti was adding doors to a structure that already existed, whereas in the case of Sant' Andrea the entire building was designed as a whole by Bernini. As a result the entrance to the latter is both an integrated element of the entire design and a focal point of the conception of the building, while the former takes its place as one element among several and is so formed as to exist in a relationship of balanced harmony with the rest of the structure. Furthermore, the Baptistery was then believed to be an ancient Roman structure, making adherence to the ideals of classicism all the more important. The very different spirit of the baroque architecture within which Bernini was working, compared to the gothic and renaissance styles of Ghiberti, is also very clear in the free use of form and space - and above all in the deployment of ovals and curves - in Bernini's scheme. Ghiberti's north doors are part of one doorway among three, giving entrance to a symmetrical building form, whereas Bernini's church has just one main entrance that is located on the central axis of a building planned with a very clear focus; the main axis leads from the entrance directly to the high altar, which itself uses the curving masses and forms of the entrance porch to echo and develop its own architectural scheme.

The doorway as a whole expresses very powerfully a sense of the sacred space of the church; it is not merely an entrance but a portal through which the divine can be accessed. By mounting the steps and passing beneath the portico and through the door itself, visitors to the church are transported from the realm of the mundane into the realm of the sacred. The architectural forms, sculpture, decoration and composition of the door and the porch are deployed to create this effect of transcendence and sacredness. In this respect, Bernini's work is very different from the urbane, harmonious, classically-inspired civic humanist architecture of Ghiberti's work at the Florence Baptistery.

Baroque architecture relies on dynamic uses of space, fluid forms and compositions, and the dramatic employment of light; it is an architecture of drama and expression.… [read more]

Acceptance to the Master Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (305 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


For me, obstacles in life are simply opportunities to explore new avenues. I have never been one to shy away from challenges and actually thrive in competition. No matter the challenge, accomplishment and achievement are always my goal.

I take great pride in my work and although I am quite satisfied with my current employment position, my long-term goal is to open my own firm someday.

A understand that this is a very competitive field of study, however I am extremely confident that I am more than capable of accepting the challenge. Moreover, there is a certain pride that comes with this profession and I very much desire to become a part of this unique field.

Arizona State University has always been my first choice. To be accepted at this fine institution would be an extreme honor. Please accept this essay and application for…… [read more]

Building in India Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,002 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


5. It's not had to imagine the potential patron, the designer, the builder of this edifice.

Patron and designer were presumably part of the British Raj, hence the overwhelmingly British appearance of the structure. They must have built it as a school for the education of British children resident in the subcontinent.

The patron might very well have been a committee of British officers or bureaucrats, who sensed a need for a school building for the children of the increasingly large British presence in India. In such a case, the money for erecting the building might have been raised by subscription, or by the solicitation of richer patrons back in England.

Design was presumably done by someone back in England, who had a description of the plot of land secured for the purpose.

The actual building and bricklaying were more likely to have been done by locals.

6. The only other building in the surrounding location that can be glimpsed in the most recent of the photos shows an uneasy relation between the boxy white post-WW2 structure that has popped up behind our building.

The contrast isn't too horrible but it is noticeable. The white building seems like it's probably an apartment block.

It seems like, over time, there has been more development of the immediate surrounding area. It is now more crowded, more urbanized, and probably altogether less tidy than it was when our building was first constructed.

7. The general style and building materials used would seem to indicate late nineteenth or early twentieth century British architecture.

Within that context we would need a more detailed guide to Victorian and Edwardian architectural style to be able to specify a decade. Comparable brick Victorian buildings are likely to be even more ornate than this one -- however the level of ornament is still pretty high to seriously consider early twentieth century. It seems more like a late nineteenth century building.

8. Overall we may combine the observations in the previous answers to hazard some gueses about this building.

It's historical context would seem to be the British Raj. The brick construction with the stone trimmings and slate roof appear distinctly British.

The form is distinctly nineteenth century. The setting appears to be a relic of the nineteenth century also, as it appears the immediate vicinity must have changed between the time this building was built and the present: increased development has led to an encroachment upon the actual plot of land that our building inhabits.

Purpose is necessarily more speculative but the sheer size of the building certainly indicates a relatively large number of people could be expected to use the building, although without a glimpse inside it's not possible to know if people were housed here too -- the best guess we can make is that the topmost layer with…… [read more]

Shah Signature, Navi Mumbai Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (969 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


The iconic sail of the form of this building is a representation of the local context in the past as well as its futuristic bend that appears in the present context for the site of the project which is located in the twenty-first century of the Navi Mumbai city. The form centric design of the building as it was conceptualized for the project was quite appealing to the client immediately it was presented. There were different options that were put into consideration in the pre-design stage and the design was finalized eventually based on the concept as well as better energy performance vis-a-vis form and orientation (NBM Media Pvt. Ltd., 2010).

The building is a mixed-use high rise one, referred to as a signature tower is made up of offices on upper floors while retail shopping activity taking place within the basement and lower floors. The location is on the corner plot hence the open space found on the ground is well utilized since it acts as an open deck for the public spill -- over from the existing retail mall which is a good change for vicinity that is otherwise crowded. The special facade structure of the building is determined to be designed on the basis of a grid concept that lends it to the two way curve form that it takes. The intention of the warp form is to act as an outer layer of the building envelope that reduces heat ingress and not daylight hence minimizing load on air-conditioning. This form when compared to the normal box building is quite imposing but not unwieldy at the same time is more appropriate when it comes to handling winds at levels that are higher. The visualization of this curve building facade that was reducing of the plan of going higher was carried out at various stages until they achieved the outcome which was most satisfactory. Currently the team is trying to determine if this unique facade grid could be made parametric in order to accommodate change incase approval of the higher FSI is made by development control authorities. Structural consultant as well as the MEP consultant is sharing information from BIM model that is in the form of 3d files in order to bring out an integrated design in their structures as well as the services. The MEP services of this building are designed in such a way that they minimize energy as well as the conception of water (NBM Media Pvt. Ltd., 2010).


NBM Media Pvt. Ltd., (2010). The Firm Sustainability Intrinsic to Good Design. Retrieved March31, 2014 from http://www.nbmcw.com/articles/architects-a-project-watch/5533-the-firm-a-multi-design-practice-offering-architecture-interiors-and-landscape.html

Dsouza, B.(2012). Shah Signature at Vashi by Shah Group in Navi Mumbai. Retrieved March31,2014 from http://masssnews.weebly.com/4/post/2012/05/shah-signature-at-vashi-by-shah-group-in-navi-mumbai.html

Kalpana Struct.(2012). Shaha Signature-commercial Building construction. Retrieved March31, 2014 from http://www.kscpl.com/ongoing/shah-signature-commercial-building-construction/… [read more]

Issues With Design Build Contracts Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (876 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


However, recent trends have begun to favor design build set ups, where a single firm takes control over both the design and the construction. This is essentially a way to speed up the entire process and reduce potential risks in having to use two separate entities on a single project.

Additionally, there is the issue of working within the context of military contracts as well. 10 USC 2862 states that "The Secretary concerned may use one-step turn-key selection procedures for the purpose of entering into contracts for the construction of authorized military construction projects," with the term one-step turn-key meaning "procedures used for the selection of a contractor on the basis of price and other evaluation criteria to perform, in accordance with the provisions of a firm fixed-price contract, both the design and construction of a facility using performance specifications supplied by the Secretary concerned" (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2006). However, the main issue here is that there is a fixed price within the negotiations, which often causes issues for firms within the industry (Napier et al., 1988). If there snags or hiccups along the way, the architectural firm is left having to pay any extra costs based on the fixed price negotiations with the U.S. Military. This often can result in losses for the firm, which is a negative impact to the overall industry.


There are options for firms wanting to circumnavigate such conflicting Federal law statutes. However, it just takes the knowledge and skill to get the right authorization and permissions. It is thus a recommendation that firms have at least one person that is knowledgeable in working towards gaining the right authorization for design build contracts. In regards to the military y bids, team members must be highly skilled in negotiating contracts that will include room for mishaps within the fixed budget provided.


American Institute of Architects. (2007). Federal government design-build laws. AIA. Web. http://www.aia.org/aiaucmp/groups/ek_public/documents/pdf/aiap016823.pdf

American Institute of Architects. (2013). Building & Contract Negotiation. Emerging Professional's Companion. Web. http://www.aia.org/aiaucmp/groups/aia/documents/pdf/aiab097629.pdf

Napier, Thomas P., Holcomb, Timothy D., Kapolnek, Robert G., & Rivas, Abelardo. (1988). Six case studies on alternative construction methods: One-step "turnkey" facility acquisition and architectural fabric structure technology. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Web. http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a196929.pdf

U.S. Government Printing Office. (2006). 10 USC 2862 turn key selection procedures. United States Code. Web. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/USCODE-2010-title10/html/USCODE-2010-title10-subtitleA-partIV-chap169-subchapIII-sec2862.htm… [read more]

Indian Art Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,908 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Indian Art

The Taj Mahal is "a supreme culmination of many experiments that went before, and that's why it's so perfect," (cited in "Architectural Antecedents to the Taj Mahal," n.d.). Primary precursors to the Taj Mahal include the Mughal architecture of Central Asia prior to the irconquest of India; pre-Mughal Muslim Indian architecture in the Delhi region, and also earlier… [read more]

History of Furniture Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,411 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Windsor chair created by furniture maker Joseph DeGant, circa 1810. The Windsor chair has a long history, and it traveled from England to North American in the 18th century. A classic chair design, it is still one of the most popular types of chairs today, used often as a side chair or dining table chair.

This particular Windsor… [read more]

Interior Design Visual Planning Book Report

Book Report  |  6 pages (1,883 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6



Book: Visual planning and the picturesque Pevsner, Nikolaus (1949/2010)

Footnote all direct quotes, whether by the book author or another author you might quote in relation to the book.

Structure the report so that it develop logically and make it coherence and interesting reading

Be selective in the points for comments, don't be a full summary or cover every… [read more]

Atlanta High Rise Office Fire Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (824 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Atlanta High Rise Office Fire

The case of Atlanta High Rise Office Fire that broke on June 30, 1989 in Atlanta, Georgia because of an electric fault is significant because it was the first reported case of multiple deaths in U.S. due to a fire accident at a high-rise office building. Five people were killed, and 23 civilians and six fire fighters were injured severely. The building was located at 1720 Peachtree Street and was commonly known as Peachtree 25th Building. (Jennings, 1989)

The main fire protection features of the building were limited. There were manual fire alarm stations located at each exit of the building along with a system of Class III standpipe with 6-inch standpipe risers located in each stairwell, and at each stairway, an occupant use hose station in the interior corridors was situated. During the renovation of the building, two of the floors of the building were equipped with smoke detectors. In the South Tower of the building, the elevators were equipped with automatic fire fighter service features along with automatic recall. Yet, there was no such fire fighter feature on the floor that caught the fire except one elevator in the North Tower. For the purpose of fire fighting, there was proper provision of emergency power and the stairways were also equipped with emergency lighting system. (Jennings, 1989)

The building was properly designed and erected in accordance with the City of Atlanta Building Code. The minimum fire resistance rating for the building was two hours for the concrete floor and three-hours for the columns of the building. It was noticed that no code for fire resistance and protection was violated by the builders. (Jennings, 1989)

The fire that erupted due to an electric fault on the sixth floor was very severe that caused an untenable atmosphere on the sixth floor of the building. The fourth, fifth and seventh floor of the building also suffered minor smoke and fire damage while the sixth floor suffered huge fire damage. The situations were so threatening that a worker jumped out of the sixth floor in order to strive for her survival. No unusual toxic material or gas was reported to erupt due to the electric arcing that caused the fire. (Jennings, 1989)

Some of the occupants on the sixth floor tried to take refuge in the farthest offices from the electric compartments. Most of them broke the windows of the offices that helped them to survive in dense smoke while…… [read more]

Beguinage Church in Brussels Belgium Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,271 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Beguinage Church in Brussels, Belgium (Eglise du Beguinage) 1676 ("Brussels" Europe-cities) or possibly 1656 as is noted by Gilliant-Smith in the Story of Brussels (235) to replace a much more demure church built in the 13th-14th century for the Beguinage, is attributed to the Flemish Baroque sculptor and architect Luc Faydherbe (1617-1697), who was a student of Rubens and therefore had significant Italian influences. ("Luc Faydherbe" Larrousse Encyclopedia) Though I have not seen the work in person the depictions of the work represent to some degree how moving the work is and why it has continued throughout the centuries to draw both the faithful and the non-faithful tourist to its doors. The work is a striking and thought provoking example of the Baroque architectural tradition and its exterior is visible for miles in its grand representation.

The greatest attraction of the Beguinage Church of St. John the Baptist is its amazingly elaborate facade, widely regarded as being one of the most beautiful in the country. It is spread over three gables of varying heights and flanked by an octagonal tower. The church has a simple Latin cross design, typical of Gothic architecture, while the onion-shaped steeples are characteristic of Flemish Baroque style popular in the 17th Century. ("Brussels" Europe-cities)

The work is a blend of styles, and has historical underpinnings of a church built specifically for the largest Beguinage in the world. The Beguinage is a monastic tradition for women, both nuns and unmarried laywomen that lived around the church and in a monastery that is no longer on the site. During the period when the church was built the Beguinage is said to have had 1250 members, clearly a community that could be served by and support such a large and grand church as its center of worship and community. ("Brussels" Europe-cities) the two styles noted within the above citation are Latin in the form of the church shape and Flemish Baroque, which was the overriding architectural and artistic style of the 17th century period. There is a clear demonstration of movement toward heaven, such as is seen in many period churches as well as other buildings of state. The facade is elaborate and demonstrates the combination of building materials, stones of various colors with the darker being found nearer the ground (supporting the weight and the structure of the church and the facade) while the upper tiers of the building are lighter stone that plays off the striking ornamentation carved within it. The striking red metal doors of the church are also highly decorated and ornamental and contrast with the lighter colored stones used to build the church.

It is also noted that the square where the church is centered is very serene and centralized to several streets, at one time there were many other buildings supporting the Beguinage as well as gardens and homes for the sisters, yet Gilliant-Smith notes that during the French revolution the Beguinage was suppressed a great deal and lost a good deal… [read more]

Lend Lease Australia the Green Building Strategy Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,020 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 6



Lend Lease Australia: the green building strategy

In an increasingly carbon conscious world, there has been a lot of emphasis on the creation of new green buildings and infrastructure. But, with 98 per cent of Australia's existing office buildings built without sustainability considerations, people are starting to recognize the importance of improving this space, rather than using lots of energy to build new buildings (Taylor, 2009). A sustainable building that has a high degree of durability can help to decrease the amount of materials that end up in landfills and use of resources within the community when disasters occur. "The ordinances often provide mandatory requirements for increased resistance to natural disasters with the goal of reducing the number of destroyed buildings while protecting property and saving lives" (Document Helps Implement Green Building Codes, 2009).

There has also been an increase in Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) that requires an understanding of the entire life cycle of products by manufacturers in order for them to undertake effective product stewardship or extended producer responsibility (EPR) programs. Through the LCA, it is hoped that business will determine the most effective developments it can make in order to minimize its impact and to utilize resources efficiently. It is thought that by the year 2050, 85% of Australia's total carbon emission budget will be needed to combat landfill's that are emitting very high levels of methane gas (Neales, 2007).

Green buildings are a relatively new thing in Australia. In 1992 there were many issues that were highlighted as being problems. These issues include: shortages of water, transportation congestion and an increasing demand on energy. The early focus of green buildings in Australia has been mainly in the residential sector. It has taken more than a decade for the ideas of sustainable cities and green buildings to become a main focus of the government (Hubbard, Rice and Beamish, 2008).

Lend Lease which is a leading real estate services business was founded in 1951 in Australia. Their key operating behaviors revolve around the improvement, building and management of real estate properties in both the public and private sectors. The founders of Lend Lease seem to have an authentic aspiration to make valuable and profitable contributions to society through their everyday business activities. They are devoted to meeting the social, cultural and environmental demands that have been set forth in order to create complete and sustainable communities (Hubbard, Rice and Beamish, 2008).

In 2000 and 2001 Lend Lease went through a down period where they were loosing money. It was at this time that they initiated a review process that led to The Bond project. The Bond was designed to enhance the communication that took place between the occupants and the community. Lend Lease made a commitment to engage the community during the development and construction phases while making the decision making process as transparent as possible. The intention of The Bond was to an ecologically sustainable structure along with a socially sustainable environment for both the occupants… [read more]

Fire Technology Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,929 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Duct Smoke Detectors: The Impact of Various Factors on Their Effectiveness," Construction Technology Update No. 72, December 2008 by G.D. Lougheed

The use of smoke detectors in heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) ducts is a requirement of a majority of building codes in North America, including the National Building Code of Canada (NBC). As part of this… [read more]

Impact of Nightclub Fires on the Fire Service Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (2,983 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Nightclub Fires on the Fire Service

This is a guideline and template and should not be used as a final turn-in paper.

Natchez, Mississippi, April 24, 1940. The Rhythm Nightclub fire lasted just 15 minutes. In that quarter of an hour, 212 African-Americans had been burned alive, trampled or had suffocated from smoke inhalation. There was only one… [read more]

Green Housing Marketplace the Economic and Financial Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (569 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Green Housing Marketplace

The economic and financial crisis that characterizes today's world and the prior circumstances of its establishment has determined significant changes in the housing sector. For example, the traditional construction sector has slowed down, while green housing is currently experiencing a boom period (McLaughlin, 2007).

As a consequence, the green construction sector's rapid growth and development has led to increased competition among the companies that provide green construction services, especially global ones, but also among raw materials suppliers (Carlton, 2007).

The evolution of the housing market competition is a normal one. The high prices of traditional housing that many individuals cannot afford during the crisis and the financial advantages provided by green housing have determined more and more customers to address this type of construction.

In a market with many buyers, it was only natural that the number of competing companies would increase. This is very helpful for buyers, since increased competition leads to reduced prices. This way, green housing intensifies its advantages.

The core competencies of large construction companies are numerous. They include: experience, highly skilled and trained personnel, a series of innovations they have managed to develop and implement.

Large construction companies have a worldwide experience that recommends them for projects regarding green housing. Their tradition in the industry is proof of their abilities and competencies in the field. It is quite difficult for customers to trust a new, small construction company that may have lower prices, but it does not have the experience required by such construction projects.

The human resources employed by large companies are probably the most important resource and competence the customers can benefit from. The financial status of large construction companies allows them to select…… [read more]

Green Housing Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (317 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Green housing is probably the most important trend that currently characterizes the housing sector. Green housing presents certain advantages, like the reduced maintenance costs for medium term and for long-term. The financial investment is therefore smaller than in the case or regular housing. The positive environmental effect is probably the most important advantage of green housing.

But the situation is also accompanied by certain risks. For example, building a green house may require larger quantities of materials used in the actual construction. This may lead to increased construction costs. This reduces the financial efficiency of building a green house.

Other risks are related to living conditions. Green houses built with polyethylene, called polyhouses, provide reduced light conditions in winter and increased humidity in comparison with other types of houses (WVU, 2009). Such living conditions would prove to be health-threatening, especially on long-term.

In addition to this, in certain weather conditions polyhouses might collapse under wet snow. This risk…… [read more]

Romanesque Style Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (549 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Romanesque Style


In the southern regions of Lombard in Italy, one finds for the most part the ancient traditions and conservative styles of Romanesque architecture. The buildings of Tuscany seem to adhere more closely than those of any other region in Europe to the traditions of the Early Christian basilica. For example, the cathedral group of the city of Pisa contains conservative qualities and those of the great classical Renaissance of the late 11th and 12th centuries when "architects, craftsmen, poets and philosophers again confronted classical Christian prototypes and then interpreted them in an original yet somehow familiar way" (Smithson, 144). These cathedrals are large and five-aisled and have been influenced by Early Christian churches and overall, they express great verticality and non-classically styled pointed arches which were probably inspired by Islamic architecture as found in Spain circa 900 a.D.

One particular Tuscan church, San Miniato al Monte in the city of Florence, recalls Early Christian architecture externally, but internally, the church is timber-roofed as are most Tuscan Romanesque churches, and the nave is divided into three equal compartments by diaphragm arches that rise from compound piers. These piers alternate with simple columns in a sort of "a-b-b -- a rhythm that reminds one of abbey churches located in Germany" (Smithson, 145). The diaphragm arches which appeared in Tuscany sometime before 1060 had multiple functional and aesthetic purposes, mainly to support the high, thin walls and to provide fire-breaks within the wooden roof structure. These arches also compartmentalized the basilican interior in a manner so popular with most Romanesque builders in Tuscany.

In contrast to the regions of…… [read more]

Richardsonian Romanesque House Styles Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,819 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Art History

The Lure of Eclecticism:

Richardsonian Romanesque Houses in Nineteenth Century America

The Nineteenth Century was a period of considerable historicism in art and architecture. As Americans and Europeans struggled to come to terms with the effects of growing industrialization, they liked to the past, to earlier times for models that seemed both familiar and satisfying. The lure of… [read more]

Type Program Event Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (592 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Program and Event

One of the key aspects of Rem Koolhaas's architecture practice and theory is the Program. The Program, as defined by Koolhaas, has become synonymous with the rise of Modernist architecture throughout the 20th century. The Program is rooted in the idea of acting to edit function and human activities. Louis Sullivan was the first to popularize the idea of a Program in his famous maxim "form follows function." Koolhaas would come to interrogate the notion of the Program in his landmark work Delirious New York, in which he analyzed high-rise architecture in New York City. One of the diversions Koolhaas attempted to introduce to his practice early on was "cross-programming" - that is, introducing unexpected functions in room programs so as to disrupt the "natural" order of things. In a recent work, for example, Koolhaas attempted to incorporate hospital rooms for the homeless into his building for Seattle's public library - a proposal that was ultimately rejected.

Whereas Koolhaas predicates much of his design theory on this notion of the Program, Bernard Tschumi is more concerned with what he terms the "event." According to Tschumi, there is no space without event. For this reason, each architectural design should reinvent one's notion of living, rather than attempting to repeat or affirm established aesthetic or symbolic aspects of design. As such, Tschumi uses architecture as a means for framing what he terms "constructed situations" - a notion that was largely inspired by the Situationist International.

In their own respective ways, both Koolhaas and Tschumi are attempting to refute totalizing notions of a final architectural product. They want their buildings to reflect a reflexive environment that will not only frame events, but serve as a place for thinking about architecture and meditating on the very notion…… [read more]

Antoni Gaudi Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,093 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Antonio Gaudi source (http://updatecenter.britannica.com/eb/Image?binaryId=83861&rendTypeId=4)

Antoni Gaud's Expiatory Temple of the Holy Family (Sagrada Fam'lia), Barcelona, Spain

Background and formative years

Antonio Gaudi was born in 1852 province of Tarragona in southern Catalonia, Spain. He was the last of five children born to Antonia Cornet and Francisco Gaudi. Possibly the earlier influences that may have led towards his career in architecture was the fact that the family consisted mainly of artisans involved in metalworking. As a child, the young Antonio suffered from arthritis, which affected his school attendance to a certain extent. However, this also provided him with more time for the observation of forms in nature that were to have an influence on his career. His grades at school were not exceptional but he did excel in geometry, poetry and Greek. (a BIOGRAPHY of ANTONIO GAUDI)

An extremely important part of his formative influences was his penchant for religious and spiritual views of life. As one commentator on the influences on his work states;

his religious nature probably came from his schooling with the Escolapius Fathers. At this school, he came to recognize the "value of the divine history of the salvation of man through Christ incarnate, given to the world be the Virgin Mary." Then, later in his life as he worked on the Sagrada Familia, he incorporated many of these beliefs into the architecture.


Another aspect that should be noted is the individualistic and original nature of his work, which was evident from the early years. When be began his architectural education in Barcelona in 1873, his drawing and design were described as both "insane " and "genius." (a BIOGRAPHY of ANTONIO GAUDI) He graduated in 1878 and began his career as an accredited architect.

An important aspect of his development as an architect was the influences that he imbibed for the world around him. Commentators note that he received inspiration for his architectural designs from disparate sources, such as medieval and gothic art as well from the organic forms in nature. He was also influenced by sculpture, monuments and music. A major influence in his life was the English social and art critic, John Ruskin. Ruskin's view that, "ornament [is] the origin of architecture" was to have an impact on Gaudi's work. (Antoni Gaud' I Cornet 1852-1926) Gaudi was also influenced the French architect Eugene Viollet-le-Duc, who was a Gothic revivalist. A very significant aspect in his work is the focus on traditional Catalan architecture.

2. Architectural works

Barcelona at the beginning of the Twentieth century has been described as a "...perfect place for a young Gaudi to thrive... "(Resources - Antoni Gaud'). This is largely due to the fact that Catalan independence was emerging in Barcelona as a result of the distancing from the control and authority of Madrid. (Resources - Antoni Gaud'). This creative and independent atmosphere provided the underlying impetus and the opportunity for the original vision that Gaudi brought to architecture. There were also numerous business opportunities and projects… [read more]

Concrete Why These 3 Pieces Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (380 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Why these 3 pieces of concrete equipment are so important to the concrete industry

Concrete batch plants mix the materials that are turned into concrete. Mobile concrete batch plants enable the concrete to be mixed at a construction site. The use of mobile batch plants reduces costs for setup and trucking. Portable plants, an even smaller kind of mobile batch plant, can be assembled in a matter of hours. "Having the ability to break down the plant and quickly move to another location has significant benefits, particularly when dealing with larger or longer jobs. Mobile batch plants can cut the haul distance, which saves money, wear and tear, and means fewer trucks to further disrupt an already congested stretch of roadway (Paving the way with better batch plants," 2003, Concrete Construction). Cement mixers are usually built in the traditional 'revolving drum' style, when less concrete is at the construction site.

Why reinforcing concrete is so important

Concrete is always subject to the wear and tear of the environment. Thus reinforcing the concrete with rods, usually of some noncorrosive material such as steel, is essential. Chemical treatment of the concrete…… [read more]

Brick Market in British Columbia the Demand Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,289 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Brick Market in British Columbia

The demand for construction materials including concrete pipe, bricks and blocks, which together comprise NAICS 32733 industrial codes throughout British Columbia continues to experience consistent growth, year over year, beginning in 2000. There are several catalysts that are fueling the growth of demand for pipe, bricks and blocks, and the focus of this analysis will specifically be on demand for bricks in the British Columbia province. The goal of this report is to analyze the specific catalysts that are fueling the growth of construction in general and brick demand specifically, also taking into account the implications labor force growth necessary to support the projected increase in production as well.

Construction Demand Increasing in British Columbia

The first and most significant growth catalyst influencing the demand for bricks is the 45.1% growth between 2004 and 2005 alone, not taking into account significant projected demand from the construction necessary for the 2010 Olympic Games in Vancouver. Table 1 presents an analysis by Statistics Canada which shows the relative rate of historical growth of office building construction by major metro area.

Table 1: Value of investment in office building construction in Canadian Major Metro Areas: 2000-2005 (Dollars in Billions)



In addition to office building construction, investment is up in shopping centres, warehouses, hospitals, educational institutions and government-sponsored facilities. Table 2 illustrates total value of investment in British Columbia for the years 2000-2005 for non-residential construction.

Table 2:

Value of investment in non-residential building construction, by province and territories, 2000-2005 (Dollars in Millions)



When the above data sets are analyzed using moving average analysis, the following forecast is derived, shown in Table 3. Taking into account higher spending in 2010 for the Olympics by $900M (based on estimates from BCStat) the total available market for non-residential building construction is projected to be $11B in 2010.

Table 3:

Value of investment in non-residential building construction, by province and territories, 2006-2010 (Dollars in Millions)

British Columbia

Today 12% of total Canadian construction spending is in British Columbia, as is computed from Figure 2. This is expected to increase to between 14 and 16% of total Canadian construction spending by 2010.

Forecasting Brick Demand

In forecasting demand for all products in the NAICS 32733 classification then breaking down the forecast specifically to bricks, the three steps shown in the previous section were critical as they showed the rate of historical growth by period and the significant change projected to occur in the 2007-2010 timeframe. Taking the rate of change in construction spending in British Columbia based on the forecast in Table 3, when applied to the figure of $671M of all manufacturing shipments from Strategis (see Appendix 1) the following forecast for NAICS 32733 is derived:

Table 5: Forecast of Spending for NAICS 32733 (Dollars in Millions)

British Columbia

According to Hanson (2007) and Lafarge Canada, both companies report that 30% of total demand for their products that compete in the NAICS 32733 industrial classification are brick products.… [read more]

Sustainable Design Companies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (926 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Sustainable Building Design

According to the National Park Service, an estimated 26 billion tons of topsoil are lost beyond the ability to replace it every year. In addition, out underground water tables are not contaminated in 32 American states. Water tables are dropping as our consumption of these resources climbs faster than the earth's capacity to replace them. The impact the humans have on the environment is staggering. There is now a movement to help reduce the impact that we have on the environment by using sustainable techniques in new building design. The following will compare two companies and their ability to meet these goals in their design program.

Sustainable Company

Helmuth & Bicknese is a sustainable design architecture firm that follows the entire building process from site selection to final specifications. They begin by analyzing the site to determine the impact that the building will have on the environmental resources on the site. They design the building so that it will have the minimal impact on the environment and the people that will occupy it. Sustainable design tries to consider every aspect of the building, both inside and out. It considers the impact of building systems, such as heat and water, choosing the method that has the least impact.

Helmuth & Bicknese perform a detailed analysis and attempt to consider every part of the building. Their approach appears to be detailed and methodical. On several places on their website, they mention the LEEDS system, which assigns a sustainability rating to the building. They appear to be knowledgeable and thorough in their approach to sustainable building design. It is likely that this company accomplishes its goal in designing low impact buildings.

Non-Sustainable Company

Cumberland Design & Building Company, Inc. offers full-scale services from concept to project competition. They specialize in large corporate office complexes. The key point stressed on their website is efficiency and their ability to deliver what the customer wants. They have an extensive portfolio of past projects.

Cumberland Design & Building Company uses the Butler Manufactured Building system. This building design is a prefabricated metal building. There is no mention of sustainability on their website. They emphasize project delivery and quality. Their experienced staff and extensive portfolio are their main selling points. This company does not state any environmental goals and therefore should not be used when environmental issues are a concern. The key concern of this company was that they are able to meet the customer's needs and make their bottom line. They have no environmentally related goals, therefore they meet their goals.

Government standards are beginning to recognize the necessity of protecting our natural resources. Companies such as this will eventually have to pay attention to the concept of sustainability in their designs. At this point, there are…… [read more]

William Sumner Appleton and Norman Morrison Isham Their Approach to Historic Preservation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,629 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Preservation of historic sites and of vintage architecture has become a major focus for many in the contemporary period, but the idea of preservation is much older than that. Preservation is not simply a matter of saving everything that is old or unique, and there are always a number of decisions to make as to what to preserve and how… [read more]

Robert Adam Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,279 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Robert Adam

Adam's Compelling Designs

Robert Adam was a style-setter and leader in the classical antiquity movement in England during the 1700's.

Robert Adam is considered Scotland's most famous architect. But Adam was better known as the most popular designer in London and throughout England, sought after for the sophisticated and pleasant atmospheres that the rooms he decorated imbued. He… [read more]

Comparison of Cable Stayed and Suspension Bridges Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  10 pages (3,177 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Cable-Stayed and Suspension Bridges

Case Studies-

Of the different types of bridges the comparison between the suspension bridge and the cable stayed bridge is feasible because of the similarities. There are other types of bridges that are widely used. For example, the Arch Bridge which is found from prehistoric times. The arch sustains heavy loads and the arches… [read more]

Adopted Fire Prevention and Life Safety Codes for Buildings Structures Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,703 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Fire Prevention Code for the City of Dallas

The adoption of the International Fire Code and International Building Code by the city of Dallas marks a huge step for the city in the area of public safety. There have been numerous public safety incidents related to building fires in particular. Building fires are especially dangerous in the context of multi-level… [read more]

Structural Engineers Were Stunned Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,630 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Large areas of fireproofing appear to be missing from the core columns in some photographs, according to architect Roger G. Morse, a consultant in Troy, N.Y. Mr. Morse has said his photos have shown the fireproofing did not properly stick. (Business Wire 2001) Maintenance companies have stated however, that the swaying of the buildings in the wind and the impact of elevator cables against the beams caused the fireproofing problems. Windstorms would rock the building back and forth, knocking down fireproofing. Mr. Morse disagrees however, saying problems were far more widespread than that, probably because the fireproofing had been applied improperly to rusty steel. . However, while the debate rages as to whether the fire proofing was missing, destroyed by winds, or applied improperly is the suspicion that perhaps no fireproofing, however formidable, could have been of much help in such a fire.

No one believes the collapse of the World Trade Center towers signals the end of tall building development. The terroristic attack on the World Trade Center was not because it was tall, but more likely because it was the symbol of economic might. While Americans and possibly all humans will never forget this outrageous attack, tall building design will move on Robertson, Scott . "AISC gathers team to probe World Trade Center collapse.." American Metal Market. Sept. 14, 2001.

Engineer finds clues in WTC wreckage. 2/10/02 .

Crosbie, Micheal. Engineering Forensics of Collapse. 2/9/02 .

Wright, Gordon. "Unthinkable nightmare." Building Design & Construction. Oct., 2001.

Terrell, Kenneth. "Out of the Ashes." U.S. News and World Reports. Oct. 2001.

"Heat Caused the Twin Towers to Collapse, Experts Say.." Business Wire. Sept. 17, 2001.

Gold, Jeffery. Towers Collapsed From Fire. 2/10/02 .

Structural Engineers Offer Insight On World Trade Center CollapseE

. .

Post, Nadine. Massive Assault Doomed Towers. 2/9/02 .

Wright, Gordon.…… [read more]

Romantic and Modern Design Styles Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,568 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The material itself being the focus meant Wright used a limited color palette in his designs, using a very muted, intimate and warm palette that came straight from nature. (Pile, 1997) Not until Postmodernism in the 1960s would architects and designers start to experiment beyond the bounds of Frank Lloyd Wright's choices.


Romanticism and Modernism were two design movements that could not have been more different in their conception and their purpose. The choice to build with a romantic, neoclassical or beaux-art design was based on the wealth of the client, and the exceptional circumstances of the turn of the century. With the onset of the First World War in 1914, and the deaths of millions of young individuals in Europe, a new tone was struck and the world could not simply go back to the way it had been during the height of the 19th century. Machine guns, poison gas, airplanes, and tanks had destroyed the beauty of the age. Modernism was a harsh reaction to this, creating a somber, and sober outlook to the world. It coincided with the rise of America, and the rise of Frank Lloyd Wright, and guided the world of design in the post World War II era.

Works Cited:

1. Customer Notes -- Provided by Customer from Academic Notes and Books

2. Britannica Encyclopedia, (2012). Interior Design: The Romantic Movement and the Battle of the Styles. Retrieved from, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/290278/interior-design/74226/The-Romantic-movement-and-the-battle-of-the-styles-1835-1925

3. Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation, (2012). Wright's Life and Work. Retrieved from, http://www.franklloydwright.org/web/Home.html

4. Pile, J. (1997). Color in Interior Design.…… [read more]

Cantilever &amp Cable Stayed Bridges Essay

Essay  |  9 pages (2,971 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


¶ … Cantilever Bridges

Page 4 Advantages of Cantilever Bridges

Page 5 Top 5 Longest Cantilever Bridges

Page 6 Cable Stayed Bridges

Page 8 Advantages of Cable Stayed Bridges

Page 8 Top 5 Longest Cable Stayed Bridges

Page 8 Comparison: Cable Stayed with Cantilever

Cantilever and Cable Stayed Bridges

There are major differences between a cantilever bridge and a cable… [read more]

Systems Integration Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (424 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Systems Integration is the unification of all existing subsystems into one system sharing the same user interface. The five-step methodology involved in systems integration is usually accomplished in two engagements. The first two steps involve defining the current nature of the system and creating a blueprint for the first stages of the new architecture. The definition and architecture steps help to uncover all systemic needs and identify all technical considerations as well as provide detailed project specifications. The next engagement phase involves the building, testing and deploying stages. These involve the actual creation of the integrated system, the testing of the system, and the performance deployment of the system, as the project is then executed according to its final scope and budget.

One common myth of systems integration, according to John Stiernberg of Sound and Contractor Magazine is that pre-determined industry standards are always necessary before systems integration can become a reality. The reality is that the lack of a single technical standard, such as Ethernet, CEBus or BACnet, actually validates the role of the systems integrator. Subsystems can be made to work together in a variety of ways. (Stiernberg, 2005) a second myth is that systems integration and automation are the same thing and that systems integration opens up a system…… [read more]

Bohemia Architect Influence Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,072 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Bohemia Art

While there are many interesting and historical sites within the city of Prague, it is the city it's self that is perhaps the most artistic. The buildings of Prague are visual by nature, representing painting, sculpture, mosaic, glasswork, ironwork, and many architectural styles from centuries of artists and builders. Rather than paintings on canvas in museums, Prague's artistic styles lie often within the buildings themselves. From the churches to public and private buildings, the architecture of Prague is one which has withstood centuries (Meilach, 55).

Within this vast array of architectural style, one can easily see many influences the artists used to create their wonderful structures. One particular style stands out in buildings from before the fourteenth century through current day structures, that of the art of Bohemia. The art styles of the Bohemian culture are prominent in many of the architectural greats within Prague (Robbins, 317). This paper will discuss some of those sites, and will show how Bohemian art styles have influenced those particular buildings.

During the mid-fourteenth century, the royalty of Europe began to foster ideas that the architecture of certain areas should not only represent the artistic styles of the era, but also those styles occurring within individual regions. As such, Bohemian painting quickly rose to the front of the artistic scene of Europe. Paintings within architecture quickly rise in popularity. Panel art prior to the Bohemian influence was characterized by softly modeled three-dimensional beings, generally consisting of bulky figures and a natural presentation. This art was typical of painters such as Master Bertram of Hamburg (Radocsay, 25).

Bohemian style panel paintings were far different than these predecessors. The bulky figures of the French artists turned into slight, slender representations of human figures, many of whom were religious in origin. Often clouded in semi-darkness and mystical scenes, these representations were a part of the Bohemian style, and quickly made their way in to the architectural design of Prague (Radocsay, 32).

Bohemian art styles of this period sought to find connections between phases of development. Combining naturalism and Byzantine icons into architecture, the city of Prague brought together some of the main styles of Bohemian culture within their structures (Kren, "Bohemia"). Panel paintings, such as the Madonna of the St. Vitus Cathedral, show distinct influence by Bohemian art. The image, contained within an ornate frame as a panel of the cathedral, is a full half-length representation of the Virgin holding her Child. While the figure, slender and slight, shows a distinctly Bohemian nature, the manner in which Mary is showing her child is Roman. However, further Bohemian representation can be found in the gentle posture of Mary, and the radiated light of her Child (Marx, "The Madonna of St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague").

In addition to this type of artwork representation within the architecture of Prague, Bohemian sculpture art can also be seen as a distinct influence. Bohemian sculptures at the time began to separate the light from the dark, in terms of color. Firmer,… [read more]

Art in Town Planning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,141 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Living the Good Life:

Art and Aesthetics in Town Planning

Suburban sprawl. Urban blight. The Failure of Modern Architecture. Each one of these phrases could easily head an article on the modern-day city. Wherever one looks, one seems to be confronted with the failure of some "modern" idea or plan. Government officials, architects, and academicians shake their collective head,… [read more]

Behavioral Sciences and Architectural Theory Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (923 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Behavioral Sciences and Architectural Theory

In this chapter, the author discusses the behavioral sciences and their relationship to architecture and design. The various behavioral sciences are discussed. The author states that "this book focuses on the subject of the above that is concerned with the nature of human habitats and the relationship between the physical structure of the world and human activities and values" (Lang, 1987). The combination of these two fields of study has many names: M-ER (man-environment relations), environmental sociology, human ecology, and the person-environment theory (term used here in this book). It is important to note that psychology has generally been concerned with the environment on a molecular level which is of no use in design. However, Gestalt psychology does focus on it and has thus been latched onto by many architects and designers (for better or worse). Sociology has spent a great deal of time in consideration of group processes and the environment. However, anthropology has spent considerable time on the settings of primitive societies and is now expanding that area to include more modern societies.

Behavioral Sciences: Include anthropology, sociology and, psychology. Economics and political science are sometimes included. These, 'fields of study are dedicated to understanding human activities, attitudes, and values' (Lang, 1987).

The concerns of the behavioral sciences: There is a "utility gap" between the behavioral sciences and environmental design (Lang, 1987). This is because the behavioral sciences follow the scientific method as closely as possible and are focused on facts. They are focused on facts to achieve their goal of building positive theory. It allows them to predict patterns of activities and values. If a behavioral scientist then uses the information and states a preference for an outcome, he/she is no longer a scientist. The problem is that empirical data does not guide practice. Only Theory can guide practice and this needs to be addressed to close the "utility gap" (Lang, 1987).

The concerns of design: To understand the relationship between the two areas, one needs to consider the concerns of designers. There are multiple descriptions given historically, but for the purposes of this book, the author has taken a normative philosophy about which a designer should be concerned.. He states that the model used here is from the humanist psychologist Abraham Maslow (1954) (Lang, 1987).. It states, "The built environment, if properly configured, can meet aspects of human needs for survival, security, affiliation, esteem, learning, and aesthetics" (Lang, 1987).

The nature of design problems: The nature of the design problem is that it is not usually well defined or articulated. However, the designer should strive to create an environment that meets all the needs of all the people utilizing that environment. The behavioral sciences are helping to achieve that end.…… [read more]

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