"Architecture / Construction" Essays

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Green Housing Marketplace the Economic and Financial Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (569 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Green Housing Marketplace

The economic and financial crisis that characterizes today's world and the prior circumstances of its establishment has determined significant changes in the housing sector. For example, the traditional construction sector has slowed down, while green housing is currently experiencing a boom period (McLaughlin, 2007).

As a consequence, the green construction sector's rapid growth and development has led to increased competition among the companies that provide green construction services, especially global ones, but also among raw materials suppliers (Carlton, 2007).

The evolution of the housing market competition is a normal one. The high prices of traditional housing that many individuals cannot afford during the crisis and the financial advantages provided by green housing have determined more and more customers to address this type of construction.

In a market with many buyers, it was only natural that the number of competing companies would increase. This is very helpful for buyers, since increased competition leads to reduced prices. This way, green housing intensifies its advantages.

The core competencies of large construction companies are numerous. They include: experience, highly skilled and trained personnel, a series of innovations they have managed to develop and implement.

Large construction companies have a worldwide experience that recommends them for projects regarding green housing. Their tradition in the industry is proof of their abilities and competencies in the field. It is quite difficult for customers to trust a new, small construction company that may have lower prices, but it does not have the experience required by such construction projects.

The human resources employed by large companies are probably the most important resource and competence the customers can benefit from. The financial status of large construction companies allows them to select…… [read more]

Green Housing Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (317 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Green housing is probably the most important trend that currently characterizes the housing sector. Green housing presents certain advantages, like the reduced maintenance costs for medium term and for long-term. The financial investment is therefore smaller than in the case or regular housing. The positive environmental effect is probably the most important advantage of green housing.

But the situation is also accompanied by certain risks. For example, building a green house may require larger quantities of materials used in the actual construction. This may lead to increased construction costs. This reduces the financial efficiency of building a green house.

Other risks are related to living conditions. Green houses built with polyethylene, called polyhouses, provide reduced light conditions in winter and increased humidity in comparison with other types of houses (WVU, 2009). Such living conditions would prove to be health-threatening, especially on long-term.

In addition to this, in certain weather conditions polyhouses might collapse under wet snow. This risk…… [read more]

Romanesque Style Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (549 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Romanesque Style


In the southern regions of Lombard in Italy, one finds for the most part the ancient traditions and conservative styles of Romanesque architecture. The buildings of Tuscany seem to adhere more closely than those of any other region in Europe to the traditions of the Early Christian basilica. For example, the cathedral group of the city of Pisa contains conservative qualities and those of the great classical Renaissance of the late 11th and 12th centuries when "architects, craftsmen, poets and philosophers again confronted classical Christian prototypes and then interpreted them in an original yet somehow familiar way" (Smithson, 144). These cathedrals are large and five-aisled and have been influenced by Early Christian churches and overall, they express great verticality and non-classically styled pointed arches which were probably inspired by Islamic architecture as found in Spain circa 900 a.D.

One particular Tuscan church, San Miniato al Monte in the city of Florence, recalls Early Christian architecture externally, but internally, the church is timber-roofed as are most Tuscan Romanesque churches, and the nave is divided into three equal compartments by diaphragm arches that rise from compound piers. These piers alternate with simple columns in a sort of "a-b-b -- a rhythm that reminds one of abbey churches located in Germany" (Smithson, 145). The diaphragm arches which appeared in Tuscany sometime before 1060 had multiple functional and aesthetic purposes, mainly to support the high, thin walls and to provide fire-breaks within the wooden roof structure. These arches also compartmentalized the basilican interior in a manner so popular with most Romanesque builders in Tuscany.

In contrast to the regions of…… [read more]

Richardsonian Romanesque House Styles Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,819 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Art History

The Lure of Eclecticism:

Richardsonian Romanesque Houses in Nineteenth Century America

The Nineteenth Century was a period of considerable historicism in art and architecture. As Americans and Europeans struggled to come to terms with the effects of growing industrialization, they liked to the past, to earlier times for models that seemed both familiar and satisfying. The lure of… [read more]

Type Program Event Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (592 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Program and Event

One of the key aspects of Rem Koolhaas's architecture practice and theory is the Program. The Program, as defined by Koolhaas, has become synonymous with the rise of Modernist architecture throughout the 20th century. The Program is rooted in the idea of acting to edit function and human activities. Louis Sullivan was the first to popularize the idea of a Program in his famous maxim "form follows function." Koolhaas would come to interrogate the notion of the Program in his landmark work Delirious New York, in which he analyzed high-rise architecture in New York City. One of the diversions Koolhaas attempted to introduce to his practice early on was "cross-programming" - that is, introducing unexpected functions in room programs so as to disrupt the "natural" order of things. In a recent work, for example, Koolhaas attempted to incorporate hospital rooms for the homeless into his building for Seattle's public library - a proposal that was ultimately rejected.

Whereas Koolhaas predicates much of his design theory on this notion of the Program, Bernard Tschumi is more concerned with what he terms the "event." According to Tschumi, there is no space without event. For this reason, each architectural design should reinvent one's notion of living, rather than attempting to repeat or affirm established aesthetic or symbolic aspects of design. As such, Tschumi uses architecture as a means for framing what he terms "constructed situations" - a notion that was largely inspired by the Situationist International.

In their own respective ways, both Koolhaas and Tschumi are attempting to refute totalizing notions of a final architectural product. They want their buildings to reflect a reflexive environment that will not only frame events, but serve as a place for thinking about architecture and meditating on the very notion…… [read more]

Antoni Gaudi Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,093 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Antonio Gaudi source (http://updatecenter.britannica.com/eb/Image?binaryId=83861&rendTypeId=4)

Antoni Gaud's Expiatory Temple of the Holy Family (Sagrada Fam'lia), Barcelona, Spain

Background and formative years

Antonio Gaudi was born in 1852 province of Tarragona in southern Catalonia, Spain. He was the last of five children born to Antonia Cornet and Francisco Gaudi. Possibly the earlier influences that may have led towards his career in architecture was the fact that the family consisted mainly of artisans involved in metalworking. As a child, the young Antonio suffered from arthritis, which affected his school attendance to a certain extent. However, this also provided him with more time for the observation of forms in nature that were to have an influence on his career. His grades at school were not exceptional but he did excel in geometry, poetry and Greek. (a BIOGRAPHY of ANTONIO GAUDI)

An extremely important part of his formative influences was his penchant for religious and spiritual views of life. As one commentator on the influences on his work states;

his religious nature probably came from his schooling with the Escolapius Fathers. At this school, he came to recognize the "value of the divine history of the salvation of man through Christ incarnate, given to the world be the Virgin Mary." Then, later in his life as he worked on the Sagrada Familia, he incorporated many of these beliefs into the architecture.


Another aspect that should be noted is the individualistic and original nature of his work, which was evident from the early years. When be began his architectural education in Barcelona in 1873, his drawing and design were described as both "insane " and "genius." (a BIOGRAPHY of ANTONIO GAUDI) He graduated in 1878 and began his career as an accredited architect.

An important aspect of his development as an architect was the influences that he imbibed for the world around him. Commentators note that he received inspiration for his architectural designs from disparate sources, such as medieval and gothic art as well from the organic forms in nature. He was also influenced by sculpture, monuments and music. A major influence in his life was the English social and art critic, John Ruskin. Ruskin's view that, "ornament [is] the origin of architecture" was to have an impact on Gaudi's work. (Antoni Gaud' I Cornet 1852-1926) Gaudi was also influenced the French architect Eugene Viollet-le-Duc, who was a Gothic revivalist. A very significant aspect in his work is the focus on traditional Catalan architecture.

2. Architectural works

Barcelona at the beginning of the Twentieth century has been described as a "...perfect place for a young Gaudi to thrive... "(Resources - Antoni Gaud'). This is largely due to the fact that Catalan independence was emerging in Barcelona as a result of the distancing from the control and authority of Madrid. (Resources - Antoni Gaud'). This creative and independent atmosphere provided the underlying impetus and the opportunity for the original vision that Gaudi brought to architecture. There were also numerous business opportunities and projects… [read more]

Concrete Why These 3 Pieces Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (380 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Why these 3 pieces of concrete equipment are so important to the concrete industry

Concrete batch plants mix the materials that are turned into concrete. Mobile concrete batch plants enable the concrete to be mixed at a construction site. The use of mobile batch plants reduces costs for setup and trucking. Portable plants, an even smaller kind of mobile batch plant, can be assembled in a matter of hours. "Having the ability to break down the plant and quickly move to another location has significant benefits, particularly when dealing with larger or longer jobs. Mobile batch plants can cut the haul distance, which saves money, wear and tear, and means fewer trucks to further disrupt an already congested stretch of roadway (Paving the way with better batch plants," 2003, Concrete Construction). Cement mixers are usually built in the traditional 'revolving drum' style, when less concrete is at the construction site.

Why reinforcing concrete is so important

Concrete is always subject to the wear and tear of the environment. Thus reinforcing the concrete with rods, usually of some noncorrosive material such as steel, is essential. Chemical treatment of the concrete…… [read more]

Brick Market in British Columbia the Demand Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,289 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Brick Market in British Columbia

The demand for construction materials including concrete pipe, bricks and blocks, which together comprise NAICS 32733 industrial codes throughout British Columbia continues to experience consistent growth, year over year, beginning in 2000. There are several catalysts that are fueling the growth of demand for pipe, bricks and blocks, and the focus of this analysis will specifically be on demand for bricks in the British Columbia province. The goal of this report is to analyze the specific catalysts that are fueling the growth of construction in general and brick demand specifically, also taking into account the implications labor force growth necessary to support the projected increase in production as well.

Construction Demand Increasing in British Columbia

The first and most significant growth catalyst influencing the demand for bricks is the 45.1% growth between 2004 and 2005 alone, not taking into account significant projected demand from the construction necessary for the 2010 Olympic Games in Vancouver. Table 1 presents an analysis by Statistics Canada which shows the relative rate of historical growth of office building construction by major metro area.

Table 1: Value of investment in office building construction in Canadian Major Metro Areas: 2000-2005 (Dollars in Billions)



In addition to office building construction, investment is up in shopping centres, warehouses, hospitals, educational institutions and government-sponsored facilities. Table 2 illustrates total value of investment in British Columbia for the years 2000-2005 for non-residential construction.

Table 2:

Value of investment in non-residential building construction, by province and territories, 2000-2005 (Dollars in Millions)



When the above data sets are analyzed using moving average analysis, the following forecast is derived, shown in Table 3. Taking into account higher spending in 2010 for the Olympics by $900M (based on estimates from BCStat) the total available market for non-residential building construction is projected to be $11B in 2010.

Table 3:

Value of investment in non-residential building construction, by province and territories, 2006-2010 (Dollars in Millions)

British Columbia

Today 12% of total Canadian construction spending is in British Columbia, as is computed from Figure 2. This is expected to increase to between 14 and 16% of total Canadian construction spending by 2010.

Forecasting Brick Demand

In forecasting demand for all products in the NAICS 32733 classification then breaking down the forecast specifically to bricks, the three steps shown in the previous section were critical as they showed the rate of historical growth by period and the significant change projected to occur in the 2007-2010 timeframe. Taking the rate of change in construction spending in British Columbia based on the forecast in Table 3, when applied to the figure of $671M of all manufacturing shipments from Strategis (see Appendix 1) the following forecast for NAICS 32733 is derived:

Table 5: Forecast of Spending for NAICS 32733 (Dollars in Millions)

British Columbia

According to Hanson (2007) and Lafarge Canada, both companies report that 30% of total demand for their products that compete in the NAICS 32733 industrial classification are brick products.… [read more]

Sustainable Design Companies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (926 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Sustainable Building Design

According to the National Park Service, an estimated 26 billion tons of topsoil are lost beyond the ability to replace it every year. In addition, out underground water tables are not contaminated in 32 American states. Water tables are dropping as our consumption of these resources climbs faster than the earth's capacity to replace them. The impact the humans have on the environment is staggering. There is now a movement to help reduce the impact that we have on the environment by using sustainable techniques in new building design. The following will compare two companies and their ability to meet these goals in their design program.

Sustainable Company

Helmuth & Bicknese is a sustainable design architecture firm that follows the entire building process from site selection to final specifications. They begin by analyzing the site to determine the impact that the building will have on the environmental resources on the site. They design the building so that it will have the minimal impact on the environment and the people that will occupy it. Sustainable design tries to consider every aspect of the building, both inside and out. It considers the impact of building systems, such as heat and water, choosing the method that has the least impact.

Helmuth & Bicknese perform a detailed analysis and attempt to consider every part of the building. Their approach appears to be detailed and methodical. On several places on their website, they mention the LEEDS system, which assigns a sustainability rating to the building. They appear to be knowledgeable and thorough in their approach to sustainable building design. It is likely that this company accomplishes its goal in designing low impact buildings.

Non-Sustainable Company

Cumberland Design & Building Company, Inc. offers full-scale services from concept to project competition. They specialize in large corporate office complexes. The key point stressed on their website is efficiency and their ability to deliver what the customer wants. They have an extensive portfolio of past projects.

Cumberland Design & Building Company uses the Butler Manufactured Building system. This building design is a prefabricated metal building. There is no mention of sustainability on their website. They emphasize project delivery and quality. Their experienced staff and extensive portfolio are their main selling points. This company does not state any environmental goals and therefore should not be used when environmental issues are a concern. The key concern of this company was that they are able to meet the customer's needs and make their bottom line. They have no environmentally related goals, therefore they meet their goals.

Government standards are beginning to recognize the necessity of protecting our natural resources. Companies such as this will eventually have to pay attention to the concept of sustainability in their designs. At this point, there are…… [read more]

William Sumner Appleton and Norman Morrison Isham Their Approach to Historic Preservation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,629 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Preservation of historic sites and of vintage architecture has become a major focus for many in the contemporary period, but the idea of preservation is much older than that. Preservation is not simply a matter of saving everything that is old or unique, and there are always a number of decisions to make as to what to preserve and how… [read more]

Robert Adam Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,279 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Robert Adam

Adam's Compelling Designs

Robert Adam was a style-setter and leader in the classical antiquity movement in England during the 1700's.

Robert Adam is considered Scotland's most famous architect. But Adam was better known as the most popular designer in London and throughout England, sought after for the sophisticated and pleasant atmospheres that the rooms he decorated imbued. He… [read more]

Bohemia Architect Influence Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,072 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Bohemia Art

While there are many interesting and historical sites within the city of Prague, it is the city it's self that is perhaps the most artistic. The buildings of Prague are visual by nature, representing painting, sculpture, mosaic, glasswork, ironwork, and many architectural styles from centuries of artists and builders. Rather than paintings on canvas in museums, Prague's artistic styles lie often within the buildings themselves. From the churches to public and private buildings, the architecture of Prague is one which has withstood centuries (Meilach, 55).

Within this vast array of architectural style, one can easily see many influences the artists used to create their wonderful structures. One particular style stands out in buildings from before the fourteenth century through current day structures, that of the art of Bohemia. The art styles of the Bohemian culture are prominent in many of the architectural greats within Prague (Robbins, 317). This paper will discuss some of those sites, and will show how Bohemian art styles have influenced those particular buildings.

During the mid-fourteenth century, the royalty of Europe began to foster ideas that the architecture of certain areas should not only represent the artistic styles of the era, but also those styles occurring within individual regions. As such, Bohemian painting quickly rose to the front of the artistic scene of Europe. Paintings within architecture quickly rise in popularity. Panel art prior to the Bohemian influence was characterized by softly modeled three-dimensional beings, generally consisting of bulky figures and a natural presentation. This art was typical of painters such as Master Bertram of Hamburg (Radocsay, 25).

Bohemian style panel paintings were far different than these predecessors. The bulky figures of the French artists turned into slight, slender representations of human figures, many of whom were religious in origin. Often clouded in semi-darkness and mystical scenes, these representations were a part of the Bohemian style, and quickly made their way in to the architectural design of Prague (Radocsay, 32).

Bohemian art styles of this period sought to find connections between phases of development. Combining naturalism and Byzantine icons into architecture, the city of Prague brought together some of the main styles of Bohemian culture within their structures (Kren, "Bohemia"). Panel paintings, such as the Madonna of the St. Vitus Cathedral, show distinct influence by Bohemian art. The image, contained within an ornate frame as a panel of the cathedral, is a full half-length representation of the Virgin holding her Child. While the figure, slender and slight, shows a distinctly Bohemian nature, the manner in which Mary is showing her child is Roman. However, further Bohemian representation can be found in the gentle posture of Mary, and the radiated light of her Child (Marx, "The Madonna of St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague").

In addition to this type of artwork representation within the architecture of Prague, Bohemian sculpture art can also be seen as a distinct influence. Bohemian sculptures at the time began to separate the light from the dark, in terms of color. Firmer,… [read more]

Art in Town Planning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,141 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Living the Good Life:

Art and Aesthetics in Town Planning

Suburban sprawl. Urban blight. The Failure of Modern Architecture. Each one of these phrases could easily head an article on the modern-day city. Wherever one looks, one seems to be confronted with the failure of some "modern" idea or plan. Government officials, architects, and academicians shake their collective head,… [read more]

Systems Integration Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (424 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Systems Integration is the unification of all existing subsystems into one system sharing the same user interface. The five-step methodology involved in systems integration is usually accomplished in two engagements. The first two steps involve defining the current nature of the system and creating a blueprint for the first stages of the new architecture. The definition and architecture steps help to uncover all systemic needs and identify all technical considerations as well as provide detailed project specifications. The next engagement phase involves the building, testing and deploying stages. These involve the actual creation of the integrated system, the testing of the system, and the performance deployment of the system, as the project is then executed according to its final scope and budget.

One common myth of systems integration, according to John Stiernberg of Sound and Contractor Magazine is that pre-determined industry standards are always necessary before systems integration can become a reality. The reality is that the lack of a single technical standard, such as Ethernet, CEBus or BACnet, actually validates the role of the systems integrator. Subsystems can be made to work together in a variety of ways. (Stiernberg, 2005) a second myth is that systems integration and automation are the same thing and that systems integration opens up a system…… [read more]

Fire Safety Management Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (4,998 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Modern day buildings are generally constructed to be more heat and fire resistant. In times of old buildings would generally go up in flames at a moments notice so to speak. Many buildings were poorly constructed to retard fire. Among the problems with early systems, other than the lack of adequate fire suppression systems, include… [read more]

Eiffel Tower Modern National Monuments Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (632 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Further, many consider that its, rather humble beginnings as a World Fair publicity stunt have been replaced by its current position of the symbol of France itself -- a monument that millions of returning French soldiers from World Wars have personally identified as a symbol of home.


The Eiffel Tower is undoubtedly the most prominent symbol of France, as well as the mental representation of all things French across the world. However, one could argue that its position as a great building has more to do with circumstance than with actual merit. Indeed, many Parisians contemporary to its creation considered the building to be ugly and industrial -- a blight on the elegance of the Parisian skyline. I am inclined to agree. To be sure, the building is industrially inspired, and speaks to the industrial and commercial background of its builder. One has to imagine that the main reason the Eiffel Tower gained prominence is due to its very size (the tallest building at the time of its creation), as well as its incongruous "sore thumb" appearance that could not help but be noticed by the millions visiting Paris every year.


The Eiffel Tower is a monument that has captured the collective imagination of the world. It is without doubt, the symbol of Paris, as well as the whole of France. However, the Tower itself is extremely industrial in appearance and construction, and has gained acceptance over many years. Today, many could not imagine a Paris devoid of the structure. However, one has to wonder if this is due to actual architectural merit, or simple circumstance.

Levin, Miram R., When the Eiffel Tower Was New. South Hadley: University of Massachusetts Press, 1989.

Eiffel Tower," Encyclopedia Americana. Volume 10.

Eiffel Tower," World Book Encyclopedia. Volume 6.

Gustave Eiffel," the Hutchinson Encyclopedia. Helicon.…… [read more]

Residential Fire Sprinklers Fire Administration Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (828 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Once the ordinance is passed, there will be careful site planning to do, to give the good protection for the whole community.

The U.S. Fire Administration has identified that "in 1996, the loss of home fire had claimed 5000 lives, injured over 25000 people and caused damage to over 9 billion dollars property." Then they announced that according to NFPA, about "57% fire deaths per 1000 fires was reduced in home with sprinklers from 1983 to 1992." Dewar (2001) predicts it will reduce about 87% fire deaths (and property loss) with the advancement in technology.

Cost is still a major issue in the effectiveness of the installation; but even now sprinklers can be installed for about 1% of the building cost (The Fire Officials Guide to Fire Sprinkler Facts, 2002). It must be noted that researches will soon identify "system combining in home plumbing, streamlining design and permit process, accepting building code alternatives, and site plans redesigning" that will simplify the mass construction process, the U.S. Fire Administration said. It is expected that good price and safety will find a place under the same roof.


Ballanco, J., and Smith, S. Jul 03, 2002. Multipurpose Protection: A Growing Trend in Residential Sprinkler Installations. Plumbing and Mechanical Magazine (online edition). http://www.pmmag.com/CDA/ArticleInformation/features/BNP__Features__Item/0,2379,80246,00.html.(Oct 02, 2002).

Dewar, B. Feb 25, 2001. Residential Fire Sprinklers for Life Safety: An Economic and Insurance Perspective. U.S. Fire Administration

http://www.nfsa.org/info/residential/econsprinklers.pdf.(Oct 02, 2002)

Fire Marshal's Association of Minnesota and Minnesota State Fire Chief's Association. Feb 28, 2002. The Fire Officials Guide to Fire Sprinkler Facts. http://www.fmam.org/Spr_Facts.htm.(Oct 02, 2002).

Holdgate, R. (Sep, 2001). A Mandate for Sprinklers. Fire Prevention - Fire Engineers Journal. http://www.firesprinklers.org.uk/Mandate%20for%20sprinklers1.pdf.(Oct 02, 2002).

Karter, M.J. Jr. Sep, 1994. Fire Loss in the United States in 1993. NFPA Journal. September/October 1994. Pages 57-65. In U.S. Fire Administration. Reducing America's Fire Losses with Residential Fire Sprinkler Systems.

Koski, J. Aug 29, 2000. Residential Fire Sprinklers: Is Dramatic Growth at Hand? PM Engineer Magazine. http://www.pmengineer.com/CDA/ArticleInformation/features/BNP__Features__Item/0,2732,9503,00.html.(Oct 02, 2002).

Mader, R.P. Dec 01, 2001. Residential sprinkler ordinance passes. Contractor Magazine.

PR Newswire Association. Jan 27, 2000. Sprinklers Cut Loss From Fires at Home and Work; Fire Sprinklers Reduce Chances of Loss of Life and Property by More Than 50%. American Fire Sprinkler Association.

US Fire Administration. Nov 09, 1998. Home Fire Safety - Residential Sprinklers. http://www.usfa.fema.gov/dhtml/public/sprinklers.cfm.(Oct 02, 2002).

US Fire Administration. The Case for Residential Sprinklers. http://www.nfsa.org/info/thecase.html.(Oct 02, 2002).… [read more]

Structural Engineers Were Stunned Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,630 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Large areas of fireproofing appear to be missing from the core columns in some photographs, according to architect Roger G. Morse, a consultant in Troy, N.Y. Mr. Morse has said his photos have shown the fireproofing did not properly stick. (Business Wire 2001) Maintenance companies have stated however, that the swaying of the buildings in the wind and the impact of elevator cables against the beams caused the fireproofing problems. Windstorms would rock the building back and forth, knocking down fireproofing. Mr. Morse disagrees however, saying problems were far more widespread than that, probably because the fireproofing had been applied improperly to rusty steel. . However, while the debate rages as to whether the fire proofing was missing, destroyed by winds, or applied improperly is the suspicion that perhaps no fireproofing, however formidable, could have been of much help in such a fire.

No one believes the collapse of the World Trade Center towers signals the end of tall building development. The terroristic attack on the World Trade Center was not because it was tall, but more likely because it was the symbol of economic might. While Americans and possibly all humans will never forget this outrageous attack, tall building design will move on Robertson, Scott . "AISC gathers team to probe World Trade Center collapse.." American Metal Market. Sept. 14, 2001.

Engineer finds clues in WTC wreckage. 2/10/02 .

Crosbie, Micheal. Engineering Forensics of Collapse. 2/9/02 .

Wright, Gordon. "Unthinkable nightmare." Building Design & Construction. Oct., 2001.

Terrell, Kenneth. "Out of the Ashes." U.S. News and World Reports. Oct. 2001.

"Heat Caused the Twin Towers to Collapse, Experts Say.." Business Wire. Sept. 17, 2001.

Gold, Jeffery. Towers Collapsed From Fire. 2/10/02 .

Structural Engineers Offer Insight On World Trade Center CollapseE

. .

Post, Nadine. Massive Assault Doomed Towers. 2/9/02 .

Wright, Gordon.…… [read more]

Citicorp Center Made Me Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (792 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


6.1aNo, it is not, although he or she may work with previous customers he or she does not lure away.

b The engineer must not use proprietary knowledge regardless of the status of the employer if he or she signs a confidentiality agreement -- there are no universal ethical standards, although agreements may vary from employer to employer. In general, barring such an agreement, the informal standard would be if the original organization would be harmed by the disclosure of such knowledge.

6.5. The unique automatic train control required fail-safe mechanisms to ensure that when certain aspects of the system failed, other parts of the system could take over, or, shut the system down in a safe manner.

6.7. Yes, the technical problems they determined were serious and discounted by managers for political rather than legitimate technical reasons.

6.8 Yes, the three engineers in question lost their jobs for being honest and forthright, in addition to the concerns raised by their allegations.

6.10. Engineers are professionals, and like lawyers and doctors possess an ethical responsibility to the public that goes beyond their personal self-interest.

Rights: As a member of the state's environmental protection agency, I must protect the rights of the environment and citizens. All citizens have an equal right to enjoy a healthy and safe environment. Also, I am a spokesperson for the rights of being who cannot speak, such as the animals harmed by the spill.

Duty: As the CEO of XYZ, it is my duty to ensure that the company is profitable, so I can enrich the shareholders and also ensure that employees that work here have work. This duty goes above all other possible duties I might have as a citizen.

Utilitarian: Attorneys at XYZ who handle environmental affairs might think that they have finite resources to pursue environmentally-related cases, and must pick and choose their battles when bringing prosecution.

Utilitarian: Other industries faced with similar environmental problems might think that the less regulations the better for all members of all affected industries.

Virtue: Members of the community whose health may be adversely affected if XYZ and other industries do not responsibly handle environmental problems would likely feel that it is immoral to…… [read more]

Life Safety in a Government Building Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (682 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Life Safety in a Government Building

Hawaii has an extensive building code that is designed to protect against various damages resulting from: natural and manmade disasters. Where, a number of sub-sections are implemented, to address the specific threats that could affect the island's distinctive buildings. One such structure is the Territorial / Kekuanao'a Building. Where, this historic site played a unique role in the island's history, since it was constructed in 1926. (Fisher, 2010) However, to fully understand how the code can protect a number of different structures requires examining this building by looking at: the fire / safety systems, if the system meets the needs / uses of the structure, if they conducted various safety procedures (such as fire drills) and the overall assessment of property. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights, as to how the fire safety code protects a number of different structures throughout Hawaii.

What is the total fire and life safety systems built into the structure?

Under the Hawaii safety code the Territorial / Kekuanao'a Building would be qualified as a historical structure. Especially, when you consider the building's age and what it was used for in the past. In the case of this building, it would be subject to the traditional requirements of fire / safety standards this includes: installing fire alarms, fire hydrants / fire extinguishers, ventilators, having sprinklers installed throughout the structure and there must be multiple points of exiting the building. Once these various safety procedures have been implemented, the owner of the building must ensure that all fire safety equipment is in proper working order. This is important, because it establishes a foundation, for being able to slow the ability of the fire from spreading and it allows everyone to safely evacuate the structure, in the event of an emergency. ("State of Hawaii Fire Code," 2010)

Does the system meet the life safety needs and use of this structure?

Yes. The reason why, is because these basic provisions of the building code will protect the structure, against any…… [read more]

Sustainability and the Building Environment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (606 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Ventilation

With oil topping a hundred dollars a barrel, it is not surprising that engineers and architects are seeking better designs for structures of all types. Such "greening" efforts extend across-the-board in architectural design today, and the authors of "Natural Ventilation" report that significant innovation has been accomplished in recent years in improving the ventilation of buildings. Certainly, modern heating and ventilation systems have allowed humans to expand the range of habitable climates to include sites such as Las Vegas and Phoenix that were formerly hostile to people because of their harsh temperatures and arid conditions. Many of the buildings that emerged from these expansions into these inhospitable regions precluded the use of any natural ventilation techniques because they were closed systems that relied on massive mechanical systems that were effective at conditioning air but at an a high price in terms of human productivity and rising energy costs.

By sharp contrast, the authors of "Natural Ventilation" emphasize that the introduction of computer-based technologies has provided opportunities for the use of both passive and active systems that take maximum advantage of the natural ventilation that is always available to some extent. The techniques involved in optimizing natural ventilation are also fairly straightforward and a part of the continuing drive to make buildings more cost-efficient for their owners and comfortable for their occupants. Furthermore, natural ventilation systems can be used by themselves or as part of a building's existing or planning ventilation system.

In fact, the use of such systems provides a number of cost-saving advantages from start to finish. The article reports that the integration of systems such as building envelope (this is the view of the entire building as an integrated and interrelated whole), massing, glazing and internal loads, these techniques represent an integral part of a comprehensive architectural-engineering approach…… [read more]

My Future Career Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (677 words)
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¶ … Career in Civil Engineering

To me, no career could be more interesting than one that lets me serve larger society by pursuing my passion for the design of objects on a large scale. It is this attraction to the inner workings of complex everyday objects like busy roadways and towering skyscrapers that draws me to civil engineering as a career. The importance of civil engineering to society will also allow me to serve the greater good. On a more practical note, the strong continuing job prospects and financial rewards of civil engineering are excellent, furthering my desire to choose a career among the design of amazingly intricate objects like airports, sewage systems, roads, and airports.

First, it is the importance of civil engineering to society that makes civil engineering an intriguing career choice for me. Civil engineers are responsible for the design and supervision of tunnels, dams, bridges, airports, sewage systems, roads, and airports would never have been built. Without the civil engineer, we would not be able to drive to work on a well-designed freeway, enjoy efficient sewage systems, or even work in the high-rises that grace most cities worldwide.

Because civil engineering is one of the most important careers in modern society, it appeals strongly to my desire to contribute to larger society. As a civil engineer, I would have the opportunity to design buildings that keep their inhabitants comfortable and safe, or to build roadways that are efficient and structurally sound. I am strongly drawn to the idea of being one of the forces responsible for ensuring our day-to-day lives are efficient and productive. One of the greatest accomplishments that I can imagine would be to see the efforts of my job enjoyed by thousands of people on a daily basis.

The second important draw of a civil engineering career is the practical financial and career aspects of the job. The U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics notes that the median annual wage for civil engineers in 2002 was $60,000. Although…… [read more]