Study "Architecture / Construction" Essays 166-220

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Frank Lloyd Wright Design Theory Term Paper

… Kroll (2011) points out that "Similar to all of Wrights projects, every aspect of design and detail of the project was given particular attention by Wright." He designed the lighting and plumbing fixtures that were to go with the building, the style of windows, even, sometimes, the window treatments. He was not just interested in the outward look of the building and the inward space, he wanted the entire design, whether it be interior/exterior or structural, to flow as if it came from one palette.


Frank Lloyd Wright was a brilliant architect who took the designs offered at the end of the nineteenth century and expanded them. His influences may have been A mixture of Queen Anne and Sillsbee (Hurder, 2001), but he developed something that was many years ahead of its time. He was among the first designers who was concerned with the natural aesthetics of his projects. He wanted the perfect blend between what was natural and what was functional. He achieved his goal by going beyond what people thought could be done with the present construction materials (and they his detractors were sometimes correct), and incorporating as many natural elements as possible.


Aikens, J. (2009). Fallingwater: The story of a country house. AIArchitect, 16.

Hurder, S. (2001). Brief biography of Frank Lloyd Wright. Retrieved from

Kroll, A. (2011). AD classics: Taliesin West/Frank Lloyd Wright. Arch Daily. Retrieved from wright/

Peponis, J., & Bellal T. (2010). In Fallingwater: Spatial structure at the scale of quasi- synchronic perception. Georgia Institute… [read more]

Light Gauge Steel Studs Research Paper

… ¶ … light gauge residential and commercial stud available and why-Is it strength? Durability? Weight that makes them the best?

The best light guage residential and commercial steels available are gauged according to load. They are strong -- anywhere from 20 guage to 12 guage in thickness, have a thicker galvanized coating, and are made from higher-strength steel. These do not -- like the regular steel -- come from lumber yards or drywall supply houses, but are made to order by a roll-former company. Their strength, durability, and weight all make them superior and better for use in construction.

What company(s) produce this stud?

The following companies produce information about this stud and produce it:

California Steel Framing Alliance (

Hawaii Pacific Steel Framing Alliance (

Light Gauge Steel Engineers Association (

Steel Framing Alliance (

Steel Stud Manufacturers Association (

Tri-Chord Steel Systems, Inc. (


Why is it better than wood?

There are several reasons why steel is preferable to wood:

Steel framing material is far stronger than wood. It has the highest strength-to-weight ratio of any residential building material .

It is safer in earthquakes since it can withstand the highest seismic rating. This is due in part to its strength and resiliency as well as to the way that it is fastened to the base of t he building it is unaffected by changes in weather and therefore won't erode, bulge, blemish, sag, or squeak (and so forth) as wood does.

It won't fuel a fire therefore in some areas a steel-constructed house may even incur lower Homeowners and builder's risk insurance easier remodeling: renovations are far easier than with wood for you can simply screw or unscrew certain parts together rather than rip apart

Consistent quality: the wall and all appurtenances are straight. There is a strength and consistency that does not appear in wood.

Conservation of resources: Steel is the most recycled material far more than wood. It is best, therefore, on the environment.


- What are the new innovations in steel studs? In the last say 5 years? Is it a new design? Is it something that other studs can do like contain precut holes for electrical?

In the last five years there has been an exponential growth of new connectors made for cold-formed steel. In fact, some manufacturers have separate catalogs just for selling connectors.

Manufacturers also developed new steel making techniques with, for instance, developing floor systems that had additional material at the flange, in order to increase moment capacity and provided larger, stiffened holes in the web. Other techniques were also developed for wall stud framing.

Some stud manufacturers have been putting slits in their studs to cut down on the thermal heat transfer; others have used stiffened holes for the same reason.

There are also… [read more]

Fire Department Reviewing and Changing Research Proposal

… Another factor that need to be taken into consideration here and that has also been agreed by a lot of authors such as: Dunn, 2000; Carter, 1992; Chapman, 1995, is that the stairwells in the high rise buildings can be… [read more]

Specific Architectural Ornamentation by Louis Sullivan Research Paper

… Louis Sullivan

"Form Follows Function" in Sullivan's Guaranty Building

"It is the pervading law of all things…that form ever follows function," Louis Sullivan stated in "The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered."

Once upon a time recognized as the "father of… [read more]

Architectural Principles of the Medieval Period Essay

… Architectural Principles of the Medieval Period

There is a very close connection that can be seen between the architectural efforts and achievements of medieval cultures and the cultural visions and experiences that these architectural constructions were intended to express. The astounding structures that were fashioned by medieval cultures also show evidence of certain architectural principles and techniques that were central to building and construction at that time. Architectural principles and design techniques have developed constantly as humankind has utilised the tools necessary to complete such construction projects.

The architectural principles found during this time show evidence of the connection between architecture and religious themes and principles that were dominate at the time. This time frames ranges from the Byzantine Empire to the Gothic Period. Each period represents a major step in the development of fundamental architectural concepts that have proven vital for the development of Western architecture. There were many essential periods within each medieval historical context that highlight the main developments that have fostered the extension and evolution of architectural principles throughout the various historical frameworks.

The Byzantine architects incorporated the advanced usage of science based on sophisticated principles of physics and mathematics in order to create their churches. An increase use of brick and plaster together with more geospatial complexity in the design and construction of the architecture in addition to stone were incorporated into the development of public infrastructure at the time. The architecture of this time period incorporated very specific dimensions and angles as to emphasize certain features of the design. The cross-in-square was the dominant architectural form of middle Byzantine churches, which marked a decided departure from the oblong ground plan of the basilica, which had been seen previously. This architectural influence was pandemic in its effectuating influence all through the known world.

Likewise, Islamic architecture also contributed to the advancement of design and architectural principles that were then employed in later European architecture. Islamic architecture represented the connection between the secular and religious. The architectural styles were not separate in these two arenas. Islamic architectural style is embodied in structures that benefited society the most. This architectural style with its recurring mathematical designs is easily recognizable even today. The essential structures of Islamic architecture were introduced previous to the seventh century. Essential features of Islamic architecture include the crescent arch, the vault, the dome, buttresses, columns, and beams. These features are what distinguished Islamic building construction from Christian building construction. However, Islamic architecture also had an influence on some types of buildings in Europe.

The history of castles has a substantial level of association with the Crusades and the exchange of architecture amid the disparate cultures which co-existed in the Holy Land throughout that time period. Castles were mainly made out of stone,… [read more]

Artist and Art Work Term Paper

… Frank Lloyd Wright, Robie House, And the Guggenheim

Frank Lloyd Wright was an architect of the modern era -- an architect who, not unlike Marcel Breuer, was as modern in his ideas as the age that saw him create his… [read more]

CPM the Critical Path Method Research Paper

… There should be a single starting point and ending point, although some nodes may not have any contingent successors and predecessors (for example, the marketing of a group of development houses may be ongoing, and not necessarily dependent upon the project's physical construction, other than the need for its completion).

CPM is a useful part of the planning process of a construction project because it allows the involved parties to estimate which project are 'critical' in the sense that they must be completed on time, or else result in costly delays. Construction projects are easily stymied and can run months, even years over the estimated duration simply because one or two critical elements take longer than expected. (An excellent example of this is the infamous 'Big Dig' construction project in Boston, which was beset by delays during critical junctions of the construction process).

Once the most critical components of the project are determined, "if you put in information about the cost of each activity, and how much it costs to speed up each activity, CPM can help you figure out whether you should try to speed up the project, and, if so, what is the least costly way to speed up the project" (Baker 2004). A cost-benefit analysis of speed vs. financial outlays must always be conducted. A slower project costs more in labor, for example, but hiring additional workers and equipment may ultimately not save money for the project managers in the long run. Optimal use of CPM allows managers to find a balance between the scope of the project, its budget, and the best ways to use labor, equipment, and capital.

Even under the best of circumstances, however, projects can become conflicted. "The owner may expect the project to be completed on-time and on-budget. The general contractor has to finish within the allotted time, ensure its profit margin, manage relationships with subcontractors, and manage its relationship with the owner. Subcontractors require an efficient work environment so that productivity factors can be maintained" (About CPM, 2011, PMSB). The larger the project and the greater the number of subcontractors with potentially divergent interests (their phase of the project, for example, might simply be one project amongst many under the direction of the firm) the greater the risk of delays and in-fighting. But even when interpersonal conflicts occur, as they often do in the construction industry, knowledge is always power, and the CPM process gives managers the knowledge to more effectively negotiate a compromise between competing interests in the project.


About Critical Path Method (CPM). Project Management Services Bureau (PMSB). Retrieved

May 4, 2011

Baker, Samuel. (2004). Critical Path Method (CPM). Retrieved May 4, 2011

CPM. (2011). Net MBA. Retrieved May 4, 2011 at

CPM. (2011). UGDSB. Retrieved May 4, 2011 at [read more]

History of Project Management at the Dawn Essay

… History of project management at the dawn of civilization can be looked at from two different civilisations -- Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. In this section both of these civilsations will be looked at from the perspective of cconstruction technology, architectural… [read more]

Twenty Building Projects Discussed Below Represent Essay

… ¶ … twenty building projects discussed below represent the project activities of the periods discussed and provide supporting examples for the historical evidence. They represent the application of the areas of expertise to project activities from the dawn of civilisation… [read more]

Engineering and Architectural Features of the Millau Viaduct in France Article

… Milau Viaduct

Stepping Out on a Twenty-First Century Bridge in the Sky: The Milau Viaduct Over the River Tarn

The World's Tallest Bridge

With a central pier stretching three-hundred and forty meters above the floor of the valley carved by… [read more]

U.S. Green Building Leed Design Thesis


Increasingly, the drive to develop green construction in the United States has grown from a small number of architects and contractors, who are responding to concerned consumers, to an actual trend that extends nationwide and includes mandated green buildings… [read more]

Form Follows Function Thesis

… ¶ … Function: The Implications as Seen Through Key Structures

Physical surroundings are a determinant factor in the defining the human experience. The communities, neighborhoods and buildings where we find familiarity and comfort are also those same hosts upon which we rely for sustenance, socialization and survival. And to that end, the interaction between man and nature defines the shape taken by each of these pursuits. Though such is a premise which has always persisted as an overarching theme in the infinite architectural philosophies that have adorned and scarred the earth, today's architectural dilemmas suggest that the emphases on nature and humanism have become destructively obscured by economic factors.

Some historical examples of architecture, such as the Colloseum in Rome and the proposed 1 World Trade Center are a direct reflection of this condition while others, such as the Basilica of St. Sernin in Toulouse, France and Fallingwater in rural Pennsylvania.

The Colloseum is likely the most prominent of these instances, with its sheer enormity implicating its function as a meeting place for sport, spectatorship and public gathering. The circular form and the cleared out arena tell a crucial narrative about both Roman society and the architectural capabilities which it had attained. We may observe that form follows function here with its grandness today denoting as much about the people who used it as about its modes of usage.

The basilica of St. Sernin is another particularly compelling example of this because its form deviates so particularly from the parameters of Christian architecture even as it is designed for many of the same purposes. The distinguishing feature of this structure is its relative enormity, making it an anomaly in 1060 when it first rose to its peak elevation. Its vaulted ceilings and the various satellite chapels which flank the grand sanctuary are a demonstration of the increasing proliferation of Christianity. The scale of the… [read more]

Querini Stampalia Foundation Venice Italy Carlo Scarpa Research Proposal

… Querini Stampalia Foundation

At first glance, the Querini Stampalia Foundation in Venice, Italy, designed by architect Carlos Scarpa, is not an especially impressive edifice. Its muted brown tones and its very rectangular structure make the building appear almost industrial, and though it blends in quite well with the surrounding buildings it is neither especially evocative of Venetian history or a groundbreaking departure into new forms and styles of architecture. In short, the building appears rather plain and ordinary when first viewed. It does not grab the viewer's attention, but glides past like so much gondola on the canal. There is something to be said for this quality of blending in; certainly something more audacious, even if conceived on purely historical terms, would be more an interruption of the city's basic landscape than an addition to it. Yet the almost boring first impression of this building's facade quickly fades upon closer examination.

The outside of the building provides many of the details that make the Querini Stampalia Foundation stand out as an excellent example of historical integration without constraint in modern architecture. The arched windows and their metal greats give the building a much older feel, recalling a time when buildings in the powerful city-state of Venice might need to safeguard themselves against invading armies or militant merchants. Even the surrounding brickwork, which on one hand lends to the industrial and rather plain feeling of the building, helps to create this impression of age and solidity. This perspective gives the building an incredibly solid and fortified appearance, which the canals of Venice help to accentuate both by appearing as a sort of moat, and by providing a contrast in both color and solidity to the building itself. The way the building matches and flows into its neighbors can also… [read more]

Florence Train Station Term Paper

… Inside, traditional green and white marble make up the floors, adding a splash of color to the bright interior, and mirroring the interior of the nearby church, as well. This is really the only nod to history the designers employed, and it would probably not be apparent to most of the people who bustle through the terminal today. However, architects and experts recognize the importance and implications for historic design in the materials. In addition, it was one of the first truly modern buildings constructed in Florence, so its' design set it even more apart from the surrounding buildings, almost as if it was flaunting the historic symbolism of its' surroundings.

The concourse inside the building resembles a broad boulevard, and it was designed to become a gateway to the center of Florence, connecting one side of the city to the other in every way. It runs perpendicular to the train tracks, and is lined with shops along with ticket counters and information booths. Above the facades of the shops are a long row of black and white illustrations of the surrounding area, adding a bit of artwork to the modernity of the station.

In conclusion, the Florence Train Station is an excellent example of modern architecture in Italy, and it marks Italy's entrance into the modernism movement. Mussolini supported it because he was pushing for Italy to modernize and grow more efficient, and his acceptance of the building marked a definite shift in Italian architecture. The building is sleek, modern, open, and most of all efficient, which may be one reason that it has stood for so long. The design is still beautiful after all these years, and it is still a spectacular use of light, space,… [read more]

Actions Had a Profound Impact on Others Admission Essay

… ¶ … actions had a profound impact on others in an organization (school, place of employment, extracurricular activity). What personal attributes were most helpful in addressing this situation? Did this experience involve any self-realization or self-actualization?

"The numbers just don't add up."

Few activities in life are as satisfying as building -- and few things are more frustrating.

Recently, I had the privilege of acting as project manager on joint venture that was contracted on behalf of employer, All American Flooring, and its sister company Quality Remodeling Design. Working on the project, a major addition on a house, gave me the joy of overseeing a major contract from its birth to its completion. The work began with my inspection of the job site and project materials, analyzing the architect's drawing and reviewing the permits needed to begin the job. Few people understand that the planning process of building a house or an addition is in many ways even more complicated than the physical construction of the structure itself. I gained a new appreciation of the importance of proper attention to detail -- especially when reviewing the architect's plans.

The most difficult part of the project was undoubtedly when the work of the lead architect had to be challenged. I discovered he had ignored vital details of the project -- quite simply, the numbers did not add up. Had I not double-checked his figures and asked to the architect to review his work, the project would have been delayed and my company could have suffered a tremendous loss of time and money. At first the architect questioned my reasoning and expertise, but after I demonstrated how and why he was in error, he was forced to concede my point and comply. Fortunately, I had… [read more]

Greek and Roman City Essay

… Architecture

Greek and Roman City

The study of ancient Mesopotamian architecture is based on the archaeological evidence that is available. This includes pictorial representations of buildings and texts on building practices. Scholarly literature usually focuses on temples, palaces, city walls… [read more]

Integrated Project Teams Research Proposal

… Integrated Project Teams

Sir John Egan's reports "Rethinking Construction" (1998) and "Accelerating Change" (2002) identified the importance of the integrated process and supporting integrated teams for national and international projects. Compare and contrast the issues surrounding integrated project teams. Give… [read more]

Romanesque Church Essay

… Romanesque Church

Art in the Middle Ages was inseparable from religion, and it relied heavily on spiritual symbolism. The purpose of art was to inspire the viewer by representing the grandeur of God, and to serve as a material symbol of people's beliefs. From this point-of-view, the mission of the sculptor, painter, or architect was to decorate as well as to educate. The artist brought Biblical themes to life but during the Romanesque era, sculpture burst and developed more than the other branches of visual arts with little regard to classical conventions of proportion of figures. The term "Romanesque" was coined in 1818 by Charles-Alexis-Adrien de Gerville to describe the form of art and architecture that preceded Gothic. As the name indicates, Romanesque art was chiefly inspired by Roman architecture. Similarities between Roman and Romanesque include round arches, stone materials, and the basilica-style plan (used for secular purposes by the Romans). But the influences that led to the development of what we now refer to as 'Romanesque style' are far more complex, as Romanesque architecture, for instance, also reveals influences from Visigothic, Carolingian, Byzantine and Islamic architecture.

The Romanesque period cannot be precisely defined but Romanesque architecture generally dates from 1000 to 1150, when Gothic began to take over. Romanesque was at its height between about 1075 and 1125. Churches were important to any town, and towns in general took pride in the glory of their religious constructions. Money for these constructions usually resulted from the sale of indulgences by the Catholic Church, fund raising caravans of saints' relics, parish contributions, as well as generous contributions from local noblemen. Moreover, people would frequently volunteer their labor to the construction of the church which reduced costs although much of the work was carried on by skilled workmen along with the head mason and the architect. Some of the most famous examples of… [read more]

St. Patrick's Cathedral 1858 78 Thesis

… Saint Patrick's Cathedral

Building History

The Cathedral was begun in 1858 by Archbishop John Hughes to replace the original St. Patrick's Cathedral, which is used today as a parish church in New York. The cornerstone was laid, August 15, 1858, with construction stopping temporary during the Civil War. Work resumed in 1865 and the cathedral opened its doors in May, 1879.

In 1888, the towers on the West Front were added and in 1901 the east addition was started, including the Lady Chapel. An extensive renovation of the interior took place between 1927 and 1931 when the great organ was installed and the sanctuary was enlarged.

Both interior and exterior were completely restored to their original beauty during the 1970's. Extensive renovations were made to the structural integrity of the building during the mid-80's and earlier 90's, including replacement of much of the roof, exterior steps, and replastering of the walls.

Architect James Renwick, Jr. designed what is considered his finest achievement with St. Patrick's Cathedral. It is the largest decorated Neo-Gothic-style Catholic Cathedral in the United States.

What Characteristic of this Stylistic Movement does the Building Exhibit?

St. Patrick's Cathedral was built in the Gothic Revival style also known as Neo-Gothic style which is an architectural movement that began in England around the mid-1700's. Its acceptance grew swiftly in the early nineteenth century. This stylistic movement was a return to Gothic architectural building styles that date back to the twelfth through sixteenth centuries.

Some of Gothic Revival architecture characteristics include: large stained glass windows that colorfully brighten the interior… [read more]

Notre Dame Cathedral Paris Thesis

… Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris

The Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris

The Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris is a gothic cathedral. it's found on the Eastern side of Paris but the main way to get in is on the West side of the building (Myers, 1957). it's also the seat for the Archbishop of Paris. Viollet-le-Duc is the architect who saved and restored it so that people could still go and see it today. He was very famous in France during his lifetime and most people there still know who he is today. In French, "Notre Dame" means "Our Lady." Notre Dame was among the first of the gothic cathedrals and building it happened over almost the entire gothic period. There is a lot of stained glass in the Cathedral because it was influenced heavily by naturalism (Myers, 1957). It makes it different from the Romanesque architecture that took place earlier in time, and it helps Notre Dame to be distinct and easy to recognize.

The Cathedral has arched supports for the exterior (Michelin, 2003). They are called flying buttresses and they weren't supposed to be there originally but the walls kept getting taller and there were stress cracks starting, so the building needed more support. During the French Revolution in the 1790s the cathedral was desecrated and a lot of the religious images were destroyed or damaged (Michelin, 2003). They were fixed in the 19th century with a big restoration project that brought the Cathedral back to how it looked before. The layout of the Cathedral hasn't changed even when the Cathedral was damaged and then rebuilt. Instead, the damage was just fixed so that the Cathedral looked like it did in the past. Original building of the Cathedral started in 1163. This was the official timeline for construction:

1160 Maurice de Sully, the Bishop of Paris, ordered the original cathedral torn down.

1163 the cornerstone was laid for Notre Dame de Paris.

1182 the apse and the choir were completed.

1196 the nave was completed. Bishop de Sully died.

1200 Work began on the western facade.

1225 the western facade was completed.

1250 the western towers and north… [read more]

Schinkel Pugin Viollet-Le-Duc Research Proposal

… Architecture History - Schinkel, Pugin, and Jefferson

According to David Watkin, "The time period in which an architectural work of art is created has everything to do with the way it looks. In other words, the style of an architectural… [read more]

Key West Thesis

… ¶ … West

The Architectural Styles of Key West

Many houses in Key West are said to be of the conch style, but if you are not familiar with what a conch house is, that wouldn't be helpful. So, what… [read more]

11th and 12th Century Romanesque Architecture Research Proposal

… 1th and 12th Century Romanesque Architecture

The term Romanesque architecture applies to the various stages of European architecture that were influenced by both Carolingian architecture and the diffusion of Latin civilization following the break-up of the Roman Empire up to… [read more]

Monadnock Building Term Paper

… Monadnock Building

House Divided:" the Monadnock Building


Today, the Monadnock Building's location in Chicago, Illinois' downtown Loop district places it squarely in the heart of the financial section of the city. However, at the time this section of Chicago… [read more]

Adolf Loos Term Paper

… Adolf Loos (1870-1933) is considered by many to be one of the foremost pioneers and inventive spirits in modern architecture. His reputation is based largely on a number of controversial and creative essays that include views on architectural theory and… [read more]

Monadnock Building Term Paper

… Monadnock Building:

Prototypical Melding Of Architectural Forms And Styles

Architect, Patron, Historical Context

Although it is hard to believe today, given the collective cultural memory of the Twin Towers and the still awesome presence of the Empire State Building, at… [read more]

Local Land Development Term Paper

… Local Land Use Little Rock

This report is on the local land development process for the city of Little Rock, Arkansas, a city that is also the Capital City for the State of Arkansas. The city is found in Pulaski… [read more]

Deutscher Werkbund and Bauhaus Term Paper

… ¶ … architectural and design movements that played central roles in the evolution of Modernism as a whole and in the development of German culture in particular throughout the first half of the 20th century. While a proper comparative analysis… [read more]

Victor Horta and the Art Nouveau Movement Term Paper

… Victor Horta: Art Nouveau Movement

How Does Victor Horta's Work Reflect the Aesthetics of the Art Nouveau Movement and What Were Some of the Limitations of the Art Nouveau Movement?

The enduring popularity of some older architectural works makes them… [read more]

15th Century Art Term Paper

… Gothic Architecture in the Romantic Period

Between 1750 and 1850 in Europe, a new artistic style arose and prospered in Europe, one which is now referred to as the Romantic Period. This period originated toward the end of the 18th century in Germany, where critics wished to distinguish between "modern" traits and "classical" traits, such as those found in ancient Greek and Roman art forms. At this time, many artisans and supporters of the arts in Europe, particularly in England where Romanticism in literature began, revolted against the observable regularity of classical art and moved instead toward a style that had its beginnings some four hundred years before during the Medieval Era.

In architecture, this movement away from classical designs was aimed at showing that architecture did not necessarily have to contain elements of harmonious proportion and correct detail as illustrated in ancient Greek and Roman designs. Overall, the artists and architects of the Romantic Period desired to arouse pleasant and at times startling emotions in the beholder; thus, architecture, especially that based on the Gothic style, was a stimulus for new emotions and responses.


One of the first examples of this "natural" Gothic style in architecture in England occurred in 1718 when John Vanbrugh, the architect of the Baroque Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire, designed his own personal house to look like a Gothic castle, replete with spires, thin, latticed windows and very masculine lines among its numerous portices. This house is not, however, a pure expression of the Gothic, for it still retains some the designs and styles most closely associated with ancient Greek and Roman temples. At about the same time, the desirous qualities of the Gothic were just beginning to be appreciated by not only artists and architects but also the common people who lived and worked in the towns and villages that usually surrounded the vast estates of the aristocracy. As George M. Wedd points out, the uniqueness of the Gothic revival in 18th century England "was founded on and proclaimed moral values" and symbolized a retreat from religious styles; thus, "the Gothic style exactly fit the ideals" of those architects who sought a new means of physical expression (September 1997, 143).


For many architects in England, the combination of the terms "Romantic" and "Gothic" were most closely linked to "ruins and other reminders of past grandeur and of the melancholy passage… [read more]

Marcel Breuer Term Paper

… Architecture

Architect Marcel Breuer

Modernist architect Marcel Breuer is well-known for his emphasis on the technical and structural aspects of his buildings. A focus on structure is also apparent in his furniture design. Additionally, his architecture is recognized for its… [read more]

Stylistic and Cultural Comparison Term Paper

… Stylistic and Cultural Comparison of St. Peter's Basilica and The Taj Mahal

One of the eight wonders of the modern world, the Taj Mahal is regarded as one of the eight wonders of the world. There are some who feel that the beauty of the building and its architecture can never be surpassed. The building is made entirely of white marble, built by a Muslim Shah in memory of his wife and queen. A fusion of the Muslim influence and Indian culture, sometimes called an elegy in marble, the Taj Mahal (which means crown palace) was the burial place of Queen Mumtaz Mahal and later her husband Shah Jahan. The Taj stands on a raised, square platform (186 x 186 feet) with its four corners truncated, forming an unequal octagon. The architectural design uses what is called the interlocking arabesque concept, meaning that there is perfect integration of each element within the main structure and an element of self-replicating geometry and symmetry inherent to the architectural elements. The building incorporates features which can be attributed to ritual, which permeates the Islamic religion. The large rectangular… [read more]

Seagram Building by Mies Van Term Paper

… The Seagram would look like a black glass tower when seen from one angle, and like a highly polished bronze tower from another angle. And even more amazingly, the color and the pattern would be subject to change, depending on… [read more]

Older and Modern Plan for a College Campus Term Paper

… Architecture

Way of Life in Search of an Architecture"

Cistercian architecture reflected the identity of a group of monks who wanted to reform the excesses of the church, which they regarded as inhibiting the spiritual life. They sought to establish a way of life that was simple and humble and devoid of distractions. These monks believed that elaborate architecture and highly embellished designs would distract from worship. They believed it was important to avoid distraction because it would lead to pride. Cistercians put down their roots in aesceticism which demanded withdrawal from the world, poverty, and discipline. Their communities called for an self-sufficient agrarian life in an isolated area. They renounced cash because business dealings would lead to contact with the outside world. They rearranged and reshaped their daily lives apportioning time for reading, manual labor, and prayer. They left behind lives as intellectuals and took up farming.

An efficient centralized government was set up with a clear chain of command ("a masterpiece of mideval planning" p. 6) to ensure austerity and simplicity. Their early buildings reflected both, and the names of their houses usually cited some characteristic of the land upon which they were built. The order grew rapidly, in fact, at an unprecedented rate. New abbeys were established and procedures for choosing new sites upon which to build became more and more elaborate. This was because sometimes in their zeal to establish a new abbey, they overlooked features of the site that would eventually cause them to fail and have to move to a new place. There were many rules for decorating the interiors of the churches, all aimed at simplicity and limiting embellishments. At first, there were not a lot of rules for architecture, but a general understanding apparently prevailed. Their architecture reflected sensory disengagement… [read more]

Brunelleschi -- San Lorenzo Filippo Term Paper

… Architecturally, the church of San Lorenzo is square in plan and forms a perfect cube in volume, covered by a Classical hemispherical dome supported by ribs, much like some earlier Gothic cathedrals which pre-dated Brunelleschi by two hundred years.

Brunelleschi's design and construction of the church at San Lorenzo became a motivating force for the re-design of the entire church along Renaissance lines instead of traditional Gothic influences. In addition, Brunelleschi's plan for the church was the forerunner for all future systems that came about in the late Renaissance and later Baroque buildings. According to Leon Battista Alberti (1407-1472), one of Brunelleschi's imitators, "the genius and creative energy required to achieve new social and intellectual status was no better represented by Brunelleschi whose San Lorenzo reflects the mind of a brilliant Renaissance man, his universal interests and love for beauty" (Hyman 245).

The church at San Lorenzo exemplifies the ultimate mastery of architecture during the Renaissance Era and as a truly iconographic structure, it reflects the religiosity of the period through its advanced use of the Gothic style. As Cosimo De Medici allegedly once said, the church of San Lorenzo and all similar buildings "not only honor God but likewise honor the architect and even those that enter the holy places of the church, for they are closer to the creator and to eternity" (Fanelli 312).


Battisti, Eugenio. Brunelleschi: The Complete Works. UK: Thames & Hudson, 1981.

Fanelli, Giovanni. Brunelleschi. New York: Scala Books, 1980.

Frey, Dagobert. Architecture of the Renaissance: From Brunelleschi to Michelangelo. Netherlands: The Hague,… [read more]

Peter Behrens Born in Hamburg Term Paper

… The photographs used in the catalogs were directly linked to the new AEG logo that was also designed by Behrens, a hexagonal comprised of nothing but the three letters (Sachsse pp). There was no allegory, floral or female figure designed in this logo, it simply consisted of the letters (Sachsse pp). This was in itself a revolution in graphic design and created a corporate identity, thus, AEG became synonymous with the label, Made in Germany (Sachsse pp).

AEG's history spans over 100 years, from the founding of AEG with the purchase of the German license for Edison patents to the first electrical appliances created by Behrens, the father of design (AEG pp). At the beginning of the twentieth century, AEG was the first industrial company that employed a designer, Behrens, and in 1907, he was commissioned not only to design new factories but also appliances (AEG pp).

The turbine hall for the AEG in Berlin-Moabit, 1909, represented the culmination of Behrens efforts to give architectural dignity to a workplace, similar to the achievement of Frank Lloyd Wright with the Larkin Building in Buffalo, New York (A.E.G. pp). Behrens created a plastic effect and a dynamic form of construction of the trusses that were pulled to the outside as well as through the tapering iron trusses and the glass areas that were drawn towards the inside (A.E.G pp). Although many criticized the building, Le Corbusier, however, admired the structure as being a charged center that represents the integral architectonic creations of modern society, with rooms of admirable moderation and cleanness, and magnificent machines that set impressive accents (A.E.G. pp). Behrens industrial work for A.E.G. has received praise from historians of the modern style and industrial design (Peter pp).

From 1922 to 1936, Behrens taught architecture at the Vienna Academy and in 1936 conducted architectural master-classes at the Berlin Academy, and from 1936 until his death in 1940, he was director of the department of architecture at the Prussian Academy in Berlin (Peter pp).

Work Cited

AE.G. High Tension Factory Commentary

AEG Appliances

Sachsse, Rolf. "Made in Germany as Image in Photography and Design."

Journal of Popular Culture; 12/22/2000; pp.

Peter Behrens. A Page for Graphic Designers [read more]

Frank Gehry Term Paper

… . . With Walt Disney Concert Hall as its crown jewel, Los Angeles' Grand Avenue will become the center for the performing arts, culture and education in Southern California."?

With this new structure Gehry has become one of America's leading architects, matching his achievement in Bilbao in many ways and contributing to the aesthetics and economy of another city at the same time.


Arnold, Dana. Art History: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Ballantyne, Andrew. Architecture: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Bletter, Rosemarie Haag. "Frank Gehry's Spatial Reconstructions." In The Architecture of Frank Gehry. New York: Rizzoli, 1986.

Celant, Germano. Frank Gehry: Buildings and Projects. New York: Rizzoli, 1985.

Hackett, Regina. "Artist Builds on His Experience: Striking an Artistic Chord." The Seattle Post-Intelligencer (22 June 2000), p. C1.

McGuigan, Cathleen. "From Bauhaus to Fun House," Newsweek (11 July 1988), pp. 64-65.

McCoy, Esther. Case Study Houses, 1945-1960. Los Angeles:, 1977.

Upton, Dell. Architecture in the United States. New York: Oxford, 1998.

"Walt Disney Concert Hall Dedication Unveils a New Cultural Jewel for the Music Center and Los Angeles." Business Wire (20 Oct. 2003), p. 3.

Cathleen McGuigan, "From Bauhaus to Fun House," Newsweek (11 July 1988), pp. 64-65.

Andrew Ballantyne, Architecture: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), p. 104.

Ibid., p. 104.

Dana Arnold, Art History: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), p. 56.

Germano Celant, Frank Gehry: Buildings and Projects (New York: Rizzoli, 1985), p. 5.

Ibid., p. 5.

Ibid., p. 6.

Rosemarie Haag Bletter, "Frank Gehry's Spatial Reconstructions," in The Architecture of Frank Gehry (New York: Rizzoli, 1986), p. 25.

Ibid., p. 26.

Bletter, p. 51.

Ibid., p. 32.

Esther McCoy, Case Study Houses, 1945-1960 (Los Angeles:, 1977), p. 118.

Dell Upton, Architecture in the United States (New York: Oxford,… [read more]

Santiago Calatrava's Name Is Synonymous Term Paper

… With this one major project under his belt, Calatrava quickly began exploring foreign frontiers. He first tried Europe and then went on to influence the rest of the world. His first few structures include the Alamillo Bridge and viaduct (World's… [read more]

Critique a Building After 1400 Term Paper

… ¶ … architecture of the Alamo in San Antonio Texas from Michelangelo's point-of-view. Specifically it will critique the building from the point-of-view of architect Michelangelo, who is totally unrelated to the building's design. Michelangelo will critique the building according to… [read more]

Brownfield Land, it Is Vitally Important Term Paper

… ¶ … brownfield land, it is vitally important to consult the necessary experts in order to determine the profitability of buying such land for new housing developments. As an adviser to the buyer then, I would consider the current status of the land, the extent of clean-up that is necessary, and also the possible safety hazards as a result of still existing contaminants.

My first recommendation would then be to consult environmental investigation agencies to determine the extent of contaminants still present on the site. As the adjacent site previously held factory premises, it is likely that contaminants may still be present in the environment. The new housing close to the premises however also suggests that such contaminants may be minimal, or indeed sufficiently absent to proceed with building.

In addition to contaminants, building materials from the adjacent housing and buildings previously existing on the site may also be present. These would have to be investigated to determine its usability or its need to be disposed of.

Prior to buying the land then, I would recommend assessing the cost of removing both hazardous and non-hazardous but unwanted waste from the premises. If such costs are too high, it may be wiser to search for development land elsewhere. However, the nearby housing suggests that this may not be the case, and I do recommend that such a survey be carried out thoroughly before making a decision.

The safety of construction workers as well as future inhabitants of the project will also have to be taken into consideration, as this could prove expensive in terms of possible legal liability. The land should then be examined in terms not only of hazardous waste, but also in terms of stability. Undetected hazardous chemicals could for example have fatal consequences when explosives are used for excavation purposes. Furthermore the cost of safety measures and training should also be taken into consideration. If construction workers need to take special measures in terms of clothing, equipment, or training in order to ensure… [read more]

Le Corbusier Term Paper

… Le Corbusier

Charles Edouard Jeanneret-Gris, was born on October 6, 1887 in Switzerland in the small town of La Chaux-de-Fonds. (Le Corbusie: Wikipedia) He later became known under the pseudonym Le Corbusier. Le Corbusier was one the creators of the… [read more]

Acceptance to the Master Term Paper

… For me, obstacles in life are simply opportunities to explore new avenues. I have never been one to shy away from challenges and actually thrive in competition. No matter the challenge, accomplishment and achievement are always my goal.

I take great pride in my work and although I am quite satisfied with my current employment position, my long-term goal is to open my own firm someday.

A understand that this is a very competitive field of study, however I am extremely confident that I am more than capable of accepting the challenge. Moreover, there is a certain pride that comes with this profession and I very much desire to become a part of this unique field.

Arizona State University has always been my first choice. To be accepted at this fine institution would be an extreme honor. Please accept this essay and application for… [read more]

Firefighters Structural Analysis and Design of High Rise Buildings Term Paper

… Firefighters Structural Analysis and Design of High Rise Buildings

Twin Towers of New York

Building Construction Trends

Truss Construction

Fire Fighters Structural Analysis

Firefighters Structural Analysis and Design of High Rise Buildings

This report attempts to examine why fire fighters… [read more]

Florence Baptistery North Doors Lorenzo Term Paper

… The steps leading up to the doorway are also in the form of semi-ovals and echo the rhythms of the flanking walls, which are concave in form. There is thus an interplay of concave and convex elements which express the oval plan of the interior and create a focus upon the doorway itself and the formal axis of the church to which it gives access. Above the porch is a great semicircular window framed by a deep entablature. The door itself is framed by a portico of a great triangular pediment supported by Corinthian columns.

The entrance to Sant' Andrea provides some interesting points of contrast to the doorway to the Florence Baptistery discussed earlier in this paper. The circumstances of the creation of each structure were very different; in the case of Florence, Ghiberti was adding doors to a structure that already existed, whereas in the case of Sant' Andrea the entire building was designed as a whole by Bernini. As a result the entrance to the latter is both an integrated element of the entire design and a focal point of the conception of the building, while the former takes its place as one element among several and is so formed as to exist in a relationship of balanced harmony with the rest of the structure. Furthermore, the Baptistery was then believed to be an ancient Roman structure, making adherence to the ideals of classicism all the more important. The very different spirit of the baroque architecture within which Bernini was working, compared to the gothic and renaissance styles of Ghiberti, is also very clear in the free use of form and space - and above all in the deployment of ovals and curves - in Bernini's scheme. Ghiberti's north doors are part of one doorway among three, giving entrance to a symmetrical building form, whereas Bernini's church has just one main entrance that is located on the central axis of a building planned with a very clear focus; the main axis leads from the entrance directly to the high altar, which itself uses the curving masses and forms of the entrance porch to echo and develop its own architectural scheme.

The doorway as a whole expresses very powerfully a sense of the sacred space of the church; it is not merely an entrance but a portal through which the divine can be accessed. By mounting the steps and passing beneath the portico and through the door itself, visitors to the church are transported from the realm of the mundane into the realm of the sacred. The architectural forms, sculpture, decoration and composition of the door and the porch are deployed to create this effect of transcendence and sacredness. In this respect, Bernini's work is very different from the urbane, harmonious, classically-inspired civic humanist architecture of Ghiberti's work at the Florence Baptistery.

Baroque architecture relies on dynamic uses of space, fluid forms and compositions, and the dramatic employment of light; it is an architecture of drama and expression.… [read more]

Le Corbusier, Frank Lloyd Wright Term Paper

… Of the homes that Le Corbusier did complete, two of the most noted were the Ozenfant (1922), and the Roche home (1923). Both followed the characteristics devised by Le Corbusier, and were striking in their austerity and geometric lines. In short, both homes, as well as his later projects would become the benchmark of modernity.

Finally, the work of Louis Isadore Khan is perhaps the most revolutionary of the three (perhaps indicated by the fact that most of what he designed during his lifetime was never built). Although his design style is characterized as "classically romantic," featuring sometimes towering stairwells and air ducts planted in the midst of main areas, many consider his designs and buildings to be "impractical," and "unorthodox."

To be sure, Wright's "organic style," and Le Corbusier "modernism" were revolutionary as well -- however, buildings such as the Yale Art Gallery (1953), as well as the National Assembly Buildings in Dhaka, Pakistan, are particularly striking in their unusual use of concrete and brick -- especially in their ability to answer Khan's belief that "structure is the giver of light." Indeed, one can see that in both buildings, the geometric, almost chunky style seems to give way to showers of soft light transmitted through precise positioning of windows, openings, and special partitions.

In closing, all three architects revolutionized aspects of the concept of design -- developing the organic, modern, as well as, well, unorthodox, in heretofore, rigid design environments. Indeed, it could even be said that each architect not only paved the way for the possibility of the creation of new design innovations, but also opened the door for further design exploration today. In this way, the three are inexorably linked -- with each other, and with the modern architecture… [read more]

Arch of Constantine Term Paper

… Constantine was the first Christian emperor of Rome, and the arch, although erected to commemorate a military triumph, is more modest in nature to the earlier Roman Pantheon and the Coliseum. Like earlier, more florid displays of Roman architecture, however, the Arch makes substantial use of Greek motifs such as columns and symmetry in its design. The decorative nature of its relief structure and its highly ornamental quality both signal the still-flowering presence of Grecian ornamental influence in Roman architecture, the existence of triumphal Roman military glory, as well as the ambiguity of an end of a pagan era and the introduction of a Christian one.

Works Cited

Arch of Constantine." Great Buildings Online. Retrieved on March 6, 2004 at

Benton and DiYanni. Arts and Culture. New York: Prentice Hall, 1988.

Planter and Ashby. "The Arch of Constantine." From A Topological Dictionary of Ancient Rome. Oxford University Press, Oxford: 1929. Retrieved on March 6, 2004 at [read more]

Walter Gropius Germany's High Culture Term Paper

… Following the archetypal Taylorist logic, he further observed: "Precise numerical records by the famous American scientific managers Taylor and Gilbreth, show that the average American bricklayer is not more productive than the German bricklayer. Rather, the reason for the astonishing… [read more]

Frank Lloyd Wright Term Paper

… The Fallingwater Conservancy has thus commissioned a restoration project that includes shoring the weaker balconies and waterproofing the entire house (Silman).

Wright's other controversial monuments include the Guggenheim Museum in New York City. Because of its radical spiral ramp form, the museum's construction was delayed for years until it finally opened in 1959. Instead of a museum of separate square rooms, Wright designed a spiral ramp that visitors traversed to view the collection. This spiral extends from a domed skylight to an open central court (Hart 138).

Critics charge that the museum's curved walls make it unsuitable for displaying larger paintings. However, the buildings organic design has proved ideal for its purpose and it is now recognized as Manhattan landmark.

IV. Innovations and Contributions

Wright has made several important contributions to the way people view architecture and interior space. His early works, such as Taliesin and the Prairie Houses, broke the Victorian mold of dark, box-like living spaces. In doing so, he also ushered in the use of innovative material, such as poured concrete, textile masonry and steel.

Wright later introduced ways to incorporate elements of nature - light, greenery, water - into indoor spaces. He believed that people should stay close to nature and thus designed houses that embraced the earth or brought nature inside.

Wright believed that a building is more than just a living or a working space. It was also, in his words, "a way to be." For these reasons, Wright strived to design spaces that would allow people to commune with nature and with one another, in ways that were not possible before ("Frank Lloyd Wright"). By changing the spaces in which people lived and congregated, Wright may have also changed the way America lived.

Works Cited

Constantino, Maria. The Life and Works of Frank Lloyd Wright. New York: Courage Books, 1998.

Frank Lloyd Wright: The Man." Biographical Sketch. February 2003.. Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation. 8 April 2003 .

Hart, Spencer. The Wright Space. San Diego: Thunder Bay Press, 2001.

Hanks, David A. The Decorative Designs of Frank Lloyd Wright. Toronto: Dover Press, 1999.

Larkin, David. Frank Lloyd Wright: The… [read more]

Asian African and Australian Neolithic Technology Multiple Chapters

… Neolithic Tools

Zhang, J., Harbottle, G., Wang, C. & Kong, Z. (1999). Oldest playable musical instruments found at Jiahu early Neolithic site, China. Nature. Vol. 401 (23 Sept 1999) 366-368.

This article reports on the findings of playable multi-note instruments… [read more]

Star Home Improvement 5582 Secor Rd Term Paper

… Star Home Improvement

5582 Secor Rd

Mrs. Lindsey Dimick

2379 Woodlawn

Mr. Simpson

To Repair the Garage Entrance for Dimick Household

Mrs. Lindsey Dimick, Homeowner

Simpson, Chief Engineer

Star Home Improvement

Figure 1, Garage Opening

Figure 2, Uncovered System

Figure… [read more]

Fire Protection Article Review

… Fire protection is a perpetual need, requiring continual vigilance and improvements to products, infrastructure, and response protocols. In "State of the Market: Fire Protection," Klotz-Young (2013) discusses overall growth in the fire protection industry, highlighting pending changes. Klotz-Young (2013) discusses… [read more]

Challenges in Building T5 Heathrow Term Paper

… Second Process

While Just in Time logistics is an effective way to deal with the logistics part of the project, all bodies involved need to be well-acquainted with the exact strategies they need to employ in order to know when it is important for them to perform the next step in the program. Having materials and components lying around is not beneficial for the enterprise as a whole just as not having these materials when they are needed can bring on further issues.

By using ProjectFlow, individuals in the projects can have a complex understanding of their mission in general and can thus take efficient decisions when this is needed. The application provides users with the power to coordinate everything in the project ranging from what teams work in what parts of the program to what materials are being delivered to each individual team. The fact that LOR came across the possibility of not being able to deliver the product on time meant that the project needed to be completed alongside of Mott MacDonald. Both bodies would have to cooperate in spite of their differences and were practically left with no alternative but to get actively involved in the project without risking the project's failure.

Works cited:

Leonardi, P.M. (2012). Materiality and Organizing: Social Interaction in a Technological World. Oxford University Press.

Rios, R. & Rios-Solis, Y. (2011).… [read more]

Nostalgia According to Lowenthal Essay

… Nostalgia goes against the very concept of progress, as progress is conceived as time moving forward in a linear direction.

Another dimension of nostalgia is embedded in architectural design. As Lowenthal points out, each era of architecture's past is anchored in time. The creation of an idealized sense of an era, such as Tudor or Renaissance, guides real estate values and property development in addition to new architectural design. Looking back to a nostalgic past, the consumer idealizes old homes and uses labels like "heritage" and "character" to signify nostalgia. Homes are particularly susceptible to a pathological nostalgia, as home buyers project their idealized childhood on new home purchases. The nostalgia in homes can lead to irresponsible purchasing of homes that have "character" but that fall apart almost immediately.

Of course, there are virtues to nostalgia. A balance is needed, especially in the realms of architecture, urban planning, and design. It is just as wrongful to tear down wantonly old buildings and show disrespect for the past as it is to overly fetishize or idealize anything that is from the past. A person is just as neurotic fantasizing perpetually about the future as one who idealizes the past too much. The past is often warped through the lens of nostalgia, but the future can be as well. If a person has an irrational self-concept formed of nostalgia for the past, it will impact how that person lives in the present and what the future will bring.

Therefore, it is important to understand the function and phenomenon of nostalgia. Nostalgia influences design decisions, from the embrace of art deco to the infatuation with Tudor homes. Designers can capitalize on nostalgia by incorporating key elements from the past. Fashion designers especially need to pay attention to the themes trending that can be used to invoke… [read more]

Bauhaus Remains Essay

… The 1925 edifice in Dessau encapsulated the culmination of Bauhaus work until that time. As a large rectangle, the Bauhaus building signaled simplicity of form. Yet other conjoining rectangles are emerging from the central rectangle, like Bayer's drafts. The bisecting lines form the rooms inside. Written vertically along the side of the building, the word "Bauhaus" appears in all uppercase using the sans-serif font that became characteristic of the movement.

Dessau was where Bauhaus incorporated business strategies into its overall mission (Meggs & Pervis, n.d.). Bauhaus members realized the importance of designing for the newly emerging mass consumption market. Previously, works of art, design, and furniture were produced one at a time by artisans. Now, the Bauhaus organization could design a prototype or a plan and offer that plan to the manufacture. The manufacturer would then be able to mass-produce many items in exactly the same way. Thus, the Bauhaus mentality was "art for the masses," bringing sensible and attractive design to the common person. This is why so many Bauhaus designs are for practical objects rather than useless ones.

The Dessau Bauhaus also changed the materials with which things were made. Steel and other modern materials became incorporated into household furniture. Breuer's original char design from his Weimar years evolved to incorporate steel in his "tubular steel chair" designs. These were similar to his Weimar chairs, but are actually more streamlined and elegant with a greater surface area of the material used to support the back and behind. Aluminum also became a common Bauhaus material during the productive Dessau years.

Dessau Bauhaus is characterized by a greater productivity rate, and a greater emphasis on designing items that could be mass produced. During the Weimar years, this end goal of Bauhaus had yet to be fully realized. Moreover, in Dessau the Bauhaus movement more fully embraced its role in typeface design and the design of print materials for final publication such as magazines. The Bauhaus influence on magazine publications was palpable, as Bauhaus impacted every element of the finished product including layout and typeface. Architecturally, the Bauhaus designs flourished in Dessau, beginning with the Dessau Bauhaus office building and extended beyond that to the incorporation of curvilinear elements. Such curvilinear elements are evident especially in the exported Bauhaus designs that can be seen for example in the apartment buildings in Tel Aviv.



1923 logo:

1919 Bauhaus logo:

Marcel Breuer:

Griffith Winton, Alexandra . "The Bauhaus, 1919 -- 1933." In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000 -- . (August 2007)


Meggs, P.B. & Pervis, A.W. (n.d.). Chapter 16. Retrieved online: [read more]

Steel Connections Research Paper

… Rivets have the lowest strength of all three connection types, and thus are not as strong as bolted connections. Moreover, rivets cost more and are less effective overall.

There are mathematical formulas that are necessary to calculate the proper load put on steel connections. If stress exceeds a certain amount, the steel connections will ultimately falter, causing the potential to generate serious damage to the overall structure and potentially even collapse (Steel Construction, 2014). For the purpose of understanding how much load is appropriate for connections, fabricators must use the following formulas for bearing and bolted steel connections.

(Design of Steel Transmission Pole Structures Standards Committee, 2011, p 13)

(Design of Steel Transmission Pole Structures Standards Committee, 2011, p 13)

There are a wide number of connections designs that incorporate bolts, rivets, and welds.

Beam to Beam Connections

Beam to beam connections are typically bolted in. They require between three to four pairs of bolts at each connection point that attach the beams vertically (Alduri, 2012).

(Alduri, 2012)

Beam to Column Connections

When connecting beams to columns, developers have to be very careful to allow for joint flexibility. Otherwise, the joints will begin to bend at dangerous angles under the pressure of the force.

In bolted connections, there needs to be bending allowed in order to transfer the tensile force (Alduri, 2012).

This angled connection allows for better transferring of the load weight, making it stronger design than if there were no angle bending at all.

When using rigid joints, it is crucial that "stiffner plates are used to shore up the column flanges against the forces transmitted by the beam flanges," (Alduri, 2012). These stiffners may only be part of the column width or be the entire length of the column. Essentially, stiffners help redistribute the force of the load so that the connection zone does not bend or warp under the pressure.

(Alduri, 2012)

Column Base Plates

Anchors are used to hold down bolts connecting the steel and the concrete base plates. These anchors are a number of shapes, depending on the force of the load. They typically are an L. shape, hooked, or a cross shape and are embedded deep within the concrete base plates (Steel Construction, 2014).

(Alduri, 2012)

Gusset Plate Connections

Gusset plate connections feature a bolted connection between the steel set between angles (Alduri, 2012).

This angle helps bear the load of the steel and is often used with diagonal bracing for steel plates.

(Alduri, 2012)


(Alduri, 2012)


Alduri, Seshu. (2012). Typical steel connections. Memorial University. Web.

Design of Steel Transmission Pole Structures Standards Committee. (2011). Design of Steel Transmission Pole Structures Standards Committee: Standard 48-11. ASCE Publications.

Institute for Steel Development & Growth. (2013). Bolted connections. Teaching Material. Web.

Steel Construction. (2014). Simple connections. Resources.… [read more]

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