"Architecture / Construction" Essays

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Fire Protection Specialist Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (618 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Fire Protection Specialist

It takes a special kind of person to be an effective fire protection specialist. It takes extensive knowledge and the ability to communicate well with others. The skills needed and knowledge requirements are strict and numerous and for good reason. Currently, fire protection specialists are charged with filling three major roles. These roles include fire inspector, fire plan examiner, and fire investigator. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) is the organization that sets the minimum standards for these fields and the standards are carefully scrutinized before being adopted. Both NFPA 1031 and NFPA 1033 are specific sets of standards required to become certified in the areas of fire Inspector, plan examiner, and fire investigator. These standards define exactly what the roles and responsibilities of the fire protection specialist are.

According to the National Fire protection Association, the responsibilities of the fire inspector are numerous, but the basic functions of a level one fire inspector include "inspecting public, commercial, and residential structures for compliance with applicable laws" (NFPA 2009). In 1031 of NFPA, the guidelines, responsibilities, requisite knowledge, and required skills are spelled out in great detail. Suffice it to say that the 'core responsibilities include inspecting buildings for compliance with all applicable fire codes and laws, inspecting underground storage tanks, addressing complaints with inspections, identifying corrective actions, assisting in fire code interpretation, issuing fire code violations, and testifying in court regarding fire code violations' (NFPA 2009).

1031 of the National Fire Protection Association also addresses the functions and responsibilities of the plan examiner. The association identifies the core functions of the plan examiner as being "responsible for examining plans, fire protection system plans, and specifications for compliance with applicable fire code laws" (NFPA 2009). The duties of a plan examiner include ' preparing variances and appeals to be presented to the building standards commission, attending meetings…… [read more]

Sealed Bids vs. Competitive Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (651 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


This is in contrast to competitive proposals where other reasons apart from price could easily allow for the selection of the second best offer.

Further, in contrast to sealed bidding, competitive proposals require bidders to specifically demonstrate not only their knowledge but also their expertise in the area of interest. In that regard, while sealed bids could benefit new entrants, more established firms are more likely to sail through in a competitive proposal. Thus from a contractor's perspective, the most advantageous method in this case could largely be dependent on a number of factors including but not limited to the competitiveness (in terms of experience and expertise) of the firm concerned.

It can also be noted that the selection of either method could benefit or complicate a contractor's situation. For instance, while contractors in the construction industry would favor sealed bids, contractors in research and development fields may find competitive proposals more favorable. This is more so the case given that when it comes to research and development contracts, specifying associated costs could be somewhat challenging.

In the final analysis, the relevance of utilizing the most appropriate method of conducting procurement cannot be overstated. Applying one method in place of another could harm the interests of either the contractor or the contracting party.


In conclusion, it is important to note that typically, both competitive proposals and sealed bids attract a significant number of bidders. Maximum competition is more often than not a common feature of both methods. From a contracting party's perspective, having many proposals or bids to select from effectively increases the likelihood that the services or goods supplied will be of stellar quality.


Murphy, J.E. (2009). Guide to Contract Pricing: Cost and Price Analysis for Contractors, Subcontractors, and Government Agencies (5th ed.). Virginia: Management Concepts.

Sollish, F. & Semanik, J. (2012). The Procurement and Supply Manager's Desk Reference (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ:…… [read more]

Personal Statement Supplement Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (617 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Inventor in New York City

If I had the opportunity to spend a day in New York City, I would ideally spend it with Elisha Otis. Elisha Otis is credited with inventing the elevator, but this is actually incorrect. He invented the modern brake which made elevators safer and instilled a greater degree of public confidence in them. This was something that was absolutely crucial for more people to accept elevators as a modern device to make life more practical and convenient. Elevators of all kinds existed for centuries and centuries, but human beings still tended to create building that were on average three floors high. Just because elevators were invented wasn't enough to make people use them. People had to feel confident about them or else they were just sophisticated gadgets that no one had any faith in.

One of the reasons I would want to spend time in New York City with Otis is because one of the things that New York is most famous for is its skyline: New York has a tremendous amount of truly glorious buildings that act as jewels against the night sky. The skyscrapers of New York truly are triumphs and signs of the progress of mankind and what human beings are able to accomplish. I would talk with Otis about how none of these skyscrapers would ever have existed if not for his mechanical brake. Without the mechanical brake that Otis invented, who knows if people would ever have quite accepted elevators. There might have always been a fear attached to riding in elevators which would have no doubt made people reluctant to use them. This would absolutely have made the creation of tall buildings like skyscrapers something that was considered undesirable. People wouldn't want to walk up ten flights of stairs, much less 60. Otis, by demonstrating…… [read more]

Frank Lloyd Wright's Works Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (728 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Frank Lloyd Wright

A case could be made that Frank Lloyd Wright was the greatest architect in the history of the United States. There is no doubt that he is the most well-known and revered of all American architects. This paper reviews two of his most noted works, Fallingwater, and Taliesin West. How do these two iconic buildings reflect on Wright's life? That question will also be explored.


At seventy-seven years old, Wright's Fallingwater home in western Pennsylvania is still a "breathtaking" place to visit, according to an article in the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (Carpenter, 2011). It was designed by Wright in 1935 and built in the years 1936-1939, and a guest house was built in 1939 (Fallingwater.org). Fallingwater's original cost was $155,000 (that included $8,000 for Wright's architecture fee and $4,500 for walnut furnishings). The main house takes up 5,330 square feet (2,445 of that area is made up of terraces) and the guest house is 1,700 square feet (Fallingwater.org).

Fallingwater was build for the Edgar J. Kaufmann family, owners of Kaufmann's Department Store in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. Edgar, his wife Liliane, and their son Edgar Kaufman Junior lived in the Fallingwater home; Liliane died in 1952, Edgar Sr. died in 1955, and Edgar Jr. (who lived in the house until 1963) died in 1989.

Wright went to the trouble to make water "…a part of the house," said Lynda Waggoner, who is vice president of the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy and director at Fallingwater (Carpenter, 2011). Hence, Wright designed a system in which water is piped in from the stream and it "trickles through the stone" inside the house; "It's such a full-blown example of his genius," Waggoner explained. The house and the splashing water sounds are the ideal expression of "organic architecture," Waggoner continued, asserting that Fallingwater was just a weekend home for the Kaufmann family and it worked well in that context. The fact that the house is preserved in its natural world setting has been one of the positives for its legacy; indeed, the house is "…surrounded by 5,000 protected acres of pristine woodland" (Carpenter, p. 2).

How does Fallingwater reflect on Frank Lloyd Wright's life?

Wright was a man who…… [read more]

Sustainable Design Is the Smart Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,227 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


" BSRIA - Providing Consultancy, Instruments, Test and Research in Building Services and Construction - Market Research Reports, Product Testing, Information and Membership. Web. 19 May 2011. .]

ESTIDAMA, the word meaning 'sustainability' in Arabic, is the green design standard for the city of Abu Dhabi, in the United Arab Emirates, ESTIDAMA, and particularly the Pearl Rating System used to rate sustainability in ESTIDAMA, was created in advance of Abu Dhabi's 2030 vision for the creation of a modern global capitol city. Although a similar system to the other two, there are a few major differences. ESTIDAMA places far more emphasis of its credit distribution on water usage, and less on energy usage, as this is a critical part of Abu Dhabi's development and need for clean water to be recycled as efficiently as possible. Energy is plentiful in the Middle East, and much of the development built in this region is a result of its fortunate energy supply.[footnoteRef:2] This problem of water usage, however, is not applicable to the rest of the world, and therefore shows why ESTIDAMA was created in the first place, because LEED and BREEAM simply could not readily adapt themselves to the particular conditions of Abu Dhabi. [2: "Comparing Estidama's Pearls Rating Method to LEED and BREEAM." Carboun. Web. 19 May 2011. .]

As far as accreditation is concerned, ESTIDAMA takes a hybrid approach between BREEAM and LEED, urging the use of a dedicated professional onsite to evaluate as progress moves, as BREEAM does, but also requiring the oversight of a "Pearl Qualified Professional" to complete the final inspection. This process is extremely thorough in its approach, and to have two checks is a valuable tool against cheating and corruption, which may seep into the competitive world of construction in the other two standards. This method of double checks however could be prohibitively bureaucratic in a democracy setting, which ESTIDAMA does not operate in currently. ESTIDAMA is certainly just as important to the field of sustainable design as the larger rating systems are, as it brings much of the same professionalism to the task, ESTIDAMA is however tinkered to appeal to its local market in the Middle East, and this is apparent in the breakdown of the evaluation process.

In conclusion, it is foreseeable that buildings will reach a near-zero release of carbon during their complete phase, and a lot less energy will be used during the buildings construction. In this way, all three sustainable standards will play their part, and will have brought good policy to a controllable environment of office space and residential construction. I, however, believe that the LEED standard is the best standard to follow, as it is best understand around the world and by architects, does not require specialization within countries, which would only dilute the strength of LEED's simplicity, and does not allow any individual to make evaluations, only the Green Building Council itself. This disallows cheating and presents a balanced and expert opinion of what LEED's standards ought… [read more]

Master Builders Today, the Professions Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


By the time of 700 B.C. And the inscriptions of Sennacherib, much more detail is provided about the temple construction and the use of these structures in feasts and celebrations. Esarhaddon (681 to 669 BC), who was Sennacherib's son and successor of king of Assyria, tells of his interest to rebuild Babylon and its temple to the appearance of "favourable signs in the heaven and on earth" (Luckenbill 260) He proceeded cautiously by asking an oracle if he was making the correct decision: "To (await) the decision of Shamash and Adad, I prostrated myself reverently; to (learn) their final decree, I arranged the soothsayers at the entrance to the Bit-mummu. I saw a vision concerning Assur, Babylon and Nineveh. (For guidance) concerning the artificers who should accomplish the work and carry out (lit. bring in) the (divine) decree…" (ibid). When Esarhaddon received positive confirmation, he hired "wise architects and skillful builders," laid the walls of the foundation in "choice oil, honey, butter, wine of the mountain," and spanned the roof "with beams of cedar, the product of Mount Amanus" (ibid 250-251).


The concept of builder in Egypt encompassed the positions of architect, engineer, and builder. There was no distinction between the three roles, and all were normally conducted by one person: the master builder. This concept lasted for some time until more complex structures and construction techniques led to the disciplines becoming separated (Jackson 5). At first, the architects and engineers of Egypt (and Rome) belonged to the priesthood or were closely related with it. This idea is based on the fact that the Latin word pontaifex or "bridge builder" designated a priest (Straub 32). As time passed, along with the growing initiation and supervision of the construction of temples, aqueducts and roads, specific people needed to be designated in charge. In Egypt, the quarrying of stone material and its transport from the quarry to the site, the removal of the huge blocks including the hardest granite, the organization and catering for the tremendous numbers of labour forces that were required at the edge of the desert all caused considerable challenges and difficulties that could only be handled by those who had specific knowledge (ibid 9).

One such "master builder" was the Egyptian polymath Imhotep (2650 -- 2600 BC), who served during the third dynasty of King Djoser and is the first such individual whose name was thus recognized (Osler 12). Imhotep was also considered a genius in many other fields, including medicine, mathematics, astronomy and poetry, which demonstrates the level of intellect of this new architectural role. He held the titles of high priest of Ptah, chancellor, palace administrator, builder, and sculptor and was later defied and worshipped as the god of medicine in both Egypt and Greece (Quatman 23). His cult reached its peak during Greco-Roman times when he was identified with the Greek god of medicine Asclepius.

Imhotep was idealized… [read more]

Residential Fire Sprinklers Fire Administration Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (828 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Once the ordinance is passed, there will be careful site planning to do, to give the good protection for the whole community.

The U.S. Fire Administration has identified that "in 1996, the loss of home fire had claimed 5000 lives, injured over 25000 people and caused damage to over 9 billion dollars property." Then they announced that according to NFPA, about "57% fire deaths per 1000 fires was reduced in home with sprinklers from 1983 to 1992." Dewar (2001) predicts it will reduce about 87% fire deaths (and property loss) with the advancement in technology.

Cost is still a major issue in the effectiveness of the installation; but even now sprinklers can be installed for about 1% of the building cost (The Fire Officials Guide to Fire Sprinkler Facts, 2002). It must be noted that researches will soon identify "system combining in home plumbing, streamlining design and permit process, accepting building code alternatives, and site plans redesigning" that will simplify the mass construction process, the U.S. Fire Administration said. It is expected that good price and safety will find a place under the same roof.


Ballanco, J., and Smith, S. Jul 03, 2002. Multipurpose Protection: A Growing Trend in Residential Sprinkler Installations. Plumbing and Mechanical Magazine (online edition). http://www.pmmag.com/CDA/ArticleInformation/features/BNP__Features__Item/0,2379,80246,00.html.(Oct 02, 2002).

Dewar, B. Feb 25, 2001. Residential Fire Sprinklers for Life Safety: An Economic and Insurance Perspective. U.S. Fire Administration

http://www.nfsa.org/info/residential/econsprinklers.pdf.(Oct 02, 2002)

Fire Marshal's Association of Minnesota and Minnesota State Fire Chief's Association. Feb 28, 2002. The Fire Officials Guide to Fire Sprinkler Facts. http://www.fmam.org/Spr_Facts.htm.(Oct 02, 2002).

Holdgate, R. (Sep, 2001). A Mandate for Sprinklers. Fire Prevention - Fire Engineers Journal. http://www.firesprinklers.org.uk/Mandate%20for%20sprinklers1.pdf.(Oct 02, 2002).

Karter, M.J. Jr. Sep, 1994. Fire Loss in the United States in 1993. NFPA Journal. September/October 1994. Pages 57-65. In U.S. Fire Administration. Reducing America's Fire Losses with Residential Fire Sprinkler Systems.

Koski, J. Aug 29, 2000. Residential Fire Sprinklers: Is Dramatic Growth at Hand? PM Engineer Magazine. http://www.pmengineer.com/CDA/ArticleInformation/features/BNP__Features__Item/0,2732,9503,00.html.(Oct 02, 2002).

Mader, R.P. Dec 01, 2001. Residential sprinkler ordinance passes. Contractor Magazine.

PR Newswire Association. Jan 27, 2000. Sprinklers Cut Loss From Fires at Home and Work; Fire Sprinklers Reduce Chances of Loss of Life and Property by More Than 50%. American Fire Sprinkler Association.

US Fire Administration. Nov 09, 1998. Home Fire Safety - Residential Sprinklers. http://www.usfa.fema.gov/dhtml/public/sprinklers.cfm.(Oct 02, 2002).

US Fire Administration. The Case for Residential Sprinklers. http://www.nfsa.org/info/thecase.html.(Oct 02, 2002).… [read more]

Fire Safety Management Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (4,998 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Modern day buildings are generally constructed to be more heat and fire resistant. In times of old buildings would generally go up in flames at a moments notice so to speak. Many buildings were poorly constructed to retard fire. Among the problems with early systems, other than the lack of adequate fire suppression systems, include… [read more]

Eiffel Tower Modern National Monuments Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (632 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Further, many consider that its, rather humble beginnings as a World Fair publicity stunt have been replaced by its current position of the symbol of France itself -- a monument that millions of returning French soldiers from World Wars have personally identified as a symbol of home.


The Eiffel Tower is undoubtedly the most prominent symbol of France, as well as the mental representation of all things French across the world. However, one could argue that its position as a great building has more to do with circumstance than with actual merit. Indeed, many Parisians contemporary to its creation considered the building to be ugly and industrial -- a blight on the elegance of the Parisian skyline. I am inclined to agree. To be sure, the building is industrially inspired, and speaks to the industrial and commercial background of its builder. One has to imagine that the main reason the Eiffel Tower gained prominence is due to its very size (the tallest building at the time of its creation), as well as its incongruous "sore thumb" appearance that could not help but be noticed by the millions visiting Paris every year.


The Eiffel Tower is a monument that has captured the collective imagination of the world. It is without doubt, the symbol of Paris, as well as the whole of France. However, the Tower itself is extremely industrial in appearance and construction, and has gained acceptance over many years. Today, many could not imagine a Paris devoid of the structure. However, one has to wonder if this is due to actual architectural merit, or simple circumstance.

Levin, Miram R., When the Eiffel Tower Was New. South Hadley: University of Massachusetts Press, 1989.

Eiffel Tower," Encyclopedia Americana. Volume 10.

Eiffel Tower," World Book Encyclopedia. Volume 6.

Gustave Eiffel," the Hutchinson Encyclopedia. Helicon.…… [read more]

Steel Connections Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (939 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Rivets have the lowest strength of all three connection types, and thus are not as strong as bolted connections. Moreover, rivets cost more and are less effective overall.

There are mathematical formulas that are necessary to calculate the proper load put on steel connections. If stress exceeds a certain amount, the steel connections will ultimately falter, causing the potential to generate serious damage to the overall structure and potentially even collapse (Steel Construction, 2014). For the purpose of understanding how much load is appropriate for connections, fabricators must use the following formulas for bearing and bolted steel connections.

(Design of Steel Transmission Pole Structures Standards Committee, 2011, p 13)

(Design of Steel Transmission Pole Structures Standards Committee, 2011, p 13)

There are a wide number of connections designs that incorporate bolts, rivets, and welds.

Beam to Beam Connections

Beam to beam connections are typically bolted in. They require between three to four pairs of bolts at each connection point that attach the beams vertically (Alduri, 2012).

(Alduri, 2012)

Beam to Column Connections

When connecting beams to columns, developers have to be very careful to allow for joint flexibility. Otherwise, the joints will begin to bend at dangerous angles under the pressure of the force.

In bolted connections, there needs to be bending allowed in order to transfer the tensile force (Alduri, 2012).

This angled connection allows for better transferring of the load weight, making it stronger design than if there were no angle bending at all.

When using rigid joints, it is crucial that "stiffner plates are used to shore up the column flanges against the forces transmitted by the beam flanges," (Alduri, 2012). These stiffners may only be part of the column width or be the entire length of the column. Essentially, stiffners help redistribute the force of the load so that the connection zone does not bend or warp under the pressure.

(Alduri, 2012)

Column Base Plates

Anchors are used to hold down bolts connecting the steel and the concrete base plates. These anchors are a number of shapes, depending on the force of the load. They typically are an L. shape, hooked, or a cross shape and are embedded deep within the concrete base plates (Steel Construction, 2014).

(Alduri, 2012)

Gusset Plate Connections

Gusset plate connections feature a bolted connection between the steel set between angles (Alduri, 2012).

This angle helps bear the load of the steel and is often used with diagonal bracing for steel plates.

(Alduri, 2012)


(Alduri, 2012)


Alduri, Seshu. (2012). Typical steel connections. Memorial University. Web. http://www.engr.mun.ca/~adluri/courses/steel/ppt%20files1/Topic%20-Connections%20-typical%20joints.pdf

Design of Steel Transmission Pole Structures Standards Committee. (2011). Design of Steel Transmission Pole Structures Standards Committee: Standard 48-11. ASCE Publications.

Institute for Steel Development & Growth. (2013). Bolted connections. Teaching Material. Web. http://www.steel-insdag.org/TeachingMaterial/chapter33.pdf

Steel Construction. (2014). Simple connections. Resources.…… [read more]

Bauhaus Remains Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (944 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The 1925 edifice in Dessau encapsulated the culmination of Bauhaus work until that time. As a large rectangle, the Bauhaus building signaled simplicity of form. Yet other conjoining rectangles are emerging from the central rectangle, like Bayer's drafts. The bisecting lines form the rooms inside. Written vertically along the side of the building, the word "Bauhaus" appears in all uppercase using the sans-serif font that became characteristic of the movement.

Dessau was where Bauhaus incorporated business strategies into its overall mission (Meggs & Pervis, n.d.). Bauhaus members realized the importance of designing for the newly emerging mass consumption market. Previously, works of art, design, and furniture were produced one at a time by artisans. Now, the Bauhaus organization could design a prototype or a plan and offer that plan to the manufacture. The manufacturer would then be able to mass-produce many items in exactly the same way. Thus, the Bauhaus mentality was "art for the masses," bringing sensible and attractive design to the common person. This is why so many Bauhaus designs are for practical objects rather than useless ones.

The Dessau Bauhaus also changed the materials with which things were made. Steel and other modern materials became incorporated into household furniture. Breuer's original char design from his Weimar years evolved to incorporate steel in his "tubular steel chair" designs. These were similar to his Weimar chairs, but are actually more streamlined and elegant with a greater surface area of the material used to support the back and behind. Aluminum also became a common Bauhaus material during the productive Dessau years.

Dessau Bauhaus is characterized by a greater productivity rate, and a greater emphasis on designing items that could be mass produced. During the Weimar years, this end goal of Bauhaus had yet to be fully realized. Moreover, in Dessau the Bauhaus movement more fully embraced its role in typeface design and the design of print materials for final publication such as magazines. The Bauhaus influence on magazine publications was palpable, as Bauhaus impacted every element of the finished product including layout and typeface. Architecturally, the Bauhaus designs flourished in Dessau, beginning with the Dessau Bauhaus office building and extended beyond that to the incorporation of curvilinear elements. Such curvilinear elements are evident especially in the exported Bauhaus designs that can be seen for example in the apartment buildings in Tel Aviv.



1923 logo: http://www.proprofs.com/quiz-school/upload/yuiupload/1294752936.jpg

1919 Bauhaus logo: http://www.thefactoryhair.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Bauhaus_1919_Logo_by_neuwks.jpg

Marcel Breuer: http://www.tomorrowstarted.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Marcel-Breuer-armchair-original-chair-1920-weimar-Bauhaus-design.jpg

Griffith Winton, Alexandra . "The Bauhaus, 1919 -- 1933." In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000 -- . http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/bauh/hd_bauh.htm (August 2007)


Meggs, P.B. & Pervis, A.W. (n.d.). Chapter 16. Retrieved online: https://www.inkling.com/read/history-of-graphic-design-philip-meggs-5th/chapter-16/the-bauhaus-at-dessau… [read more]

Nostalgia According to Lowenthal Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (608 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Nostalgia goes against the very concept of progress, as progress is conceived as time moving forward in a linear direction.

Another dimension of nostalgia is embedded in architectural design. As Lowenthal points out, each era of architecture's past is anchored in time. The creation of an idealized sense of an era, such as Tudor or Renaissance, guides real estate values and property development in addition to new architectural design. Looking back to a nostalgic past, the consumer idealizes old homes and uses labels like "heritage" and "character" to signify nostalgia. Homes are particularly susceptible to a pathological nostalgia, as home buyers project their idealized childhood on new home purchases. The nostalgia in homes can lead to irresponsible purchasing of homes that have "character" but that fall apart almost immediately.

Of course, there are virtues to nostalgia. A balance is needed, especially in the realms of architecture, urban planning, and design. It is just as wrongful to tear down wantonly old buildings and show disrespect for the past as it is to overly fetishize or idealize anything that is from the past. A person is just as neurotic fantasizing perpetually about the future as one who idealizes the past too much. The past is often warped through the lens of nostalgia, but the future can be as well. If a person has an irrational self-concept formed of nostalgia for the past, it will impact how that person lives in the present and what the future will bring.

Therefore, it is important to understand the function and phenomenon of nostalgia. Nostalgia influences design decisions, from the embrace of art deco to the infatuation with Tudor homes. Designers can capitalize on nostalgia by incorporating key elements from the past. Fashion designers especially need to pay attention to the themes trending that can be used to invoke…… [read more]

Challenges in Building T5 Heathrow Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (495 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Second Process

While Just in Time logistics is an effective way to deal with the logistics part of the project, all bodies involved need to be well-acquainted with the exact strategies they need to employ in order to know when it is important for them to perform the next step in the program. Having materials and components lying around is not beneficial for the enterprise as a whole just as not having these materials when they are needed can bring on further issues.

By using ProjectFlow, individuals in the projects can have a complex understanding of their mission in general and can thus take efficient decisions when this is needed. The application provides users with the power to coordinate everything in the project ranging from what teams work in what parts of the program to what materials are being delivered to each individual team. The fact that LOR came across the possibility of not being able to deliver the product on time meant that the project needed to be completed alongside of Mott MacDonald. Both bodies would have to cooperate in spite of their differences and were practically left with no alternative but to get actively involved in the project without risking the project's failure.

Works cited:

Leonardi, P.M. (2012). Materiality and Organizing: Social Interaction in a Technological World. Oxford University Press.

Rios, R. & Rios-Solis, Y. (2011).…… [read more]

Lightweight Concrete Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,427 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Structural Performance of Lightweight Concrete

The Pantheon, built 18 centuries ago, demonstrates the structural performance of lightweight concrete to be superior to many contemporary building materials. In time, the use of lightweight concrete has spread across the U.S., the UK, Sweden and a number of other countries. The performance of the muti-faceted building material, nevertheless, depends on a myriad of… [read more]

Post Tensioned Concrete Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,646 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Post-tensioned concrete forms one of the most important mixtures that form the basis of most structural engineering works. Extant literature has been dedicated to the study of post-tensioned concrete. In this paper we analyse the various forms and types post-tensioned concrete and the ideal mix ratio that result in the most durable post-tensioned concrete. Our major aim is to improve… [read more]

Fire Protection Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,119 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Fire protection is a perpetual need, requiring continual vigilance and improvements to products, infrastructure, and response protocols. In "State of the Market: Fire Protection," Klotz-Young (2013) discusses overall growth in the fire protection industry, highlighting pending changes. Klotz-Young (2013) discusses three main areas of growth in the fire protection industry, including construction outfitting and retrofits, innovative new technologies, and improvements in mass communications infrastructure and methods. Within the discussion, Klotz-Young (2013) also addresses codes, standards, and the regulatory environment that impacts the fire protection industry. The article includes references to survey data and marketing research.

First, the author points out the intimate connection between the construction industry on the one hand, and the fire protection industry on the other. Real estate development trends and new construction incorporate new fire protection technologies such as fire alarm systems. Spending trends in both residential and commercial construction reveal an increase in overall spending on fire alarm systems. This includes a promising trend toward the retrofitting of older buildings to ensure they conform to current codes and bylaws. Moreover, Klotz-Young (2013) highlights methods by which manufacturers work with developers to come up with cost-effective solutions for fire protection needs, especially in geographic areas experiencing rapid growth. New technology itself has also boosted sales, as developers want to remain on the cutting edge of providing fire safety for their clients. In particular, Klotz-Young (2013) focuses on the increasing popularity of aspirating spoke detectors, which have the strongest rate of growth among all fire detection technologies. Klotz-Young (2013) includes a special focus report on aspirating fire detection technology to highlight the potential for commercial growth in this area. Alterations to building codes also create the opportunity for new product design and innovation with partnerships between fire protection manufacturers and the construction industry.

Special attention is also provided to the mass communications systems, and the need to rely on fire protection signals for natural and terrorist disasters. NFPA-72 requirements have been improved, and the changes have included more strident standards for UL systems including UL 2572. However, local infrastructure has not always kept up with needed changes to fire alarm systems. Communities with outmoded POTS lines are struggling to keep up with the fire protection industry, as POTS lines are gradually being phased out in many areas. The industry is thus designing its equipment to work with IP/GSM, which has been and is still being phased in for signal transmission. The challenges of helping communities upgrade their essential infrastructure present unique opportunities for the fire protection industry. Communities relying almost exclusively on volunteer fire response teams tend to be more critically disadvantaged in that they lack the needed resources to promote infrastructure changes, or perform inspections on a full-time basis. Training opportunities are the key, and the fire protection industry can offer training to local personnel to keep them abreast of technological innovations. Training programs can be offered free of charge, serving essentially as marketing opportunities that simultaneously promote fire safety goals.

Certification programs are another way… [read more]

Star Home Improvement 5582 Secor Rd Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,291 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Star Home Improvement

5582 Secor Rd

Mrs. Lindsey Dimick

2379 Woodlawn

Mr. Simpson

To Repair the Garage Entrance for Dimick Household

Mrs. Lindsey Dimick, Homeowner

Simpson, Chief Engineer

Star Home Improvement

Figure 1, Garage Opening

Figure 2, Uncovered System

Figure 3, View A Construction

Figure 4, View B. Construction

Figure 5, View A Completion

Figure 6, View B. Completion

This final report covers the actions taken by Star Home Improvements to make structural changes to a residential home for flood protection. It details structures and dry floodproofing methods incorporated in restricting water from entering the home. The report also includes an executive summary which outlines approved budget estimations.

Background & Statement of Problem

The client, Mrs. Dimicks, owns a home within a potential flood area. Openings and crevasses in the housing structure allow water to inundate the garage and subsequently the basement. Mrs. Dimicks has contracted Star Home Improvement to make structural changes to her home in order to reduce or eliminate the entrance of flood water.

Proposed Plan

Star Home Improvement plans to significantly reduce or eliminate the entrance of water into the home through use of dry floodproofing methods. Its structural team plans to take advantage of the synergistic effects of combining multiple methods. Plans include the use of continuous impermeable walls, sealants for openings, flood shields for openings in exterior walls, and drainage systems. Star Home Improvements endeavors for the system to restrict the water from 0 inches to 0.5 inches into the garage. The team anticipates that restriction of water into the garage will relieve any drainage into the basement.

Costs & Timeline

The approved project estimate ranges from $8,205 to $17,645. The client increased the overall budget to implement a more comprehensive solution over a four-week period. The project was completed in four weeks.


Mrs. Lindsey Dimick would like to maintain and improve the market value of her home. The garage and basement of her home become inundated with water during storms. Mrs. Dimick has contracted Star Home Improvement to make structural improvements to her home. Such improvements would prevent the entrance of flood waters into the home and its accompanying damage and negative impaction.

Expected Outcome

Star Home Improvement established the expected outcome based on standards cited by FEMA (2014): "The minimum performance requirement for dry floodproofing measures is a space that is protected by walls that are substantially impermeable and resistant to flood loads (FEMA, 2014)" FEMA (2014) notes that "a substantially impermeable wall should limit water accumulation of four inches in a 24-hour period." "However, the minimum performance requirement can be exceeded with proper planning, design, and materials." Given flooding occurs at 2 inches of water accumulation, Star Home Improvements expects to exceed the minimum standards, accordingly. Star Home expects to completely eliminate flooding or reduce flooding to no more than 0.25-inch over an eight hour period. This maximum allotment for water accumulation will thwart the passage of flooding to the basement and reduce the overall potential for water damage in… [read more]

Asian African and Australian Neolithic Technology Multiple Chapters

Multiple Chapters  |  4 pages (1,809 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Neolithic Tools

Zhang, J., Harbottle, G., Wang, C. & Kong, Z. (1999). Oldest playable musical instruments found at Jiahu early Neolithic site, China. Nature. Vol. 401 (23 Sept 1999) 366-368.

This article reports on the findings of playable multi-note instruments dated 7000 BC to 5700 BC. These included six flutes made from the ulnae of the red-crowned crane and have… [read more]

Life Safety in a Government Building Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (682 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Life Safety in a Government Building

Hawaii has an extensive building code that is designed to protect against various damages resulting from: natural and manmade disasters. Where, a number of sub-sections are implemented, to address the specific threats that could affect the island's distinctive buildings. One such structure is the Territorial / Kekuanao'a Building. Where, this historic site played a unique role in the island's history, since it was constructed in 1926. (Fisher, 2010) However, to fully understand how the code can protect a number of different structures requires examining this building by looking at: the fire / safety systems, if the system meets the needs / uses of the structure, if they conducted various safety procedures (such as fire drills) and the overall assessment of property. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights, as to how the fire safety code protects a number of different structures throughout Hawaii.

What is the total fire and life safety systems built into the structure?

Under the Hawaii safety code the Territorial / Kekuanao'a Building would be qualified as a historical structure. Especially, when you consider the building's age and what it was used for in the past. In the case of this building, it would be subject to the traditional requirements of fire / safety standards this includes: installing fire alarms, fire hydrants / fire extinguishers, ventilators, having sprinklers installed throughout the structure and there must be multiple points of exiting the building. Once these various safety procedures have been implemented, the owner of the building must ensure that all fire safety equipment is in proper working order. This is important, because it establishes a foundation, for being able to slow the ability of the fire from spreading and it allows everyone to safely evacuate the structure, in the event of an emergency. ("State of Hawaii Fire Code," 2010)

Does the system meet the life safety needs and use of this structure?

Yes. The reason why, is because these basic provisions of the building code will protect the structure, against any…… [read more]

Sustainability and the Building Environment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (606 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Ventilation

With oil topping a hundred dollars a barrel, it is not surprising that engineers and architects are seeking better designs for structures of all types. Such "greening" efforts extend across-the-board in architectural design today, and the authors of "Natural Ventilation" report that significant innovation has been accomplished in recent years in improving the ventilation of buildings. Certainly, modern heating and ventilation systems have allowed humans to expand the range of habitable climates to include sites such as Las Vegas and Phoenix that were formerly hostile to people because of their harsh temperatures and arid conditions. Many of the buildings that emerged from these expansions into these inhospitable regions precluded the use of any natural ventilation techniques because they were closed systems that relied on massive mechanical systems that were effective at conditioning air but at an a high price in terms of human productivity and rising energy costs.

By sharp contrast, the authors of "Natural Ventilation" emphasize that the introduction of computer-based technologies has provided opportunities for the use of both passive and active systems that take maximum advantage of the natural ventilation that is always available to some extent. The techniques involved in optimizing natural ventilation are also fairly straightforward and a part of the continuing drive to make buildings more cost-efficient for their owners and comfortable for their occupants. Furthermore, natural ventilation systems can be used by themselves or as part of a building's existing or planning ventilation system.

In fact, the use of such systems provides a number of cost-saving advantages from start to finish. The article reports that the integration of systems such as building envelope (this is the view of the entire building as an integrated and interrelated whole), massing, glazing and internal loads, these techniques represent an integral part of a comprehensive architectural-engineering approach…… [read more]

Citicorp Center Made Me Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (792 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


6.1aNo, it is not, although he or she may work with previous customers he or she does not lure away.

b The engineer must not use proprietary knowledge regardless of the status of the employer if he or she signs a confidentiality agreement -- there are no universal ethical standards, although agreements may vary from employer to employer. In general, barring such an agreement, the informal standard would be if the original organization would be harmed by the disclosure of such knowledge.

6.5. The unique automatic train control required fail-safe mechanisms to ensure that when certain aspects of the system failed, other parts of the system could take over, or, shut the system down in a safe manner.

6.7. Yes, the technical problems they determined were serious and discounted by managers for political rather than legitimate technical reasons.

6.8 Yes, the three engineers in question lost their jobs for being honest and forthright, in addition to the concerns raised by their allegations.

6.10. Engineers are professionals, and like lawyers and doctors possess an ethical responsibility to the public that goes beyond their personal self-interest.

Rights: As a member of the state's environmental protection agency, I must protect the rights of the environment and citizens. All citizens have an equal right to enjoy a healthy and safe environment. Also, I am a spokesperson for the rights of being who cannot speak, such as the animals harmed by the spill.

Duty: As the CEO of XYZ, it is my duty to ensure that the company is profitable, so I can enrich the shareholders and also ensure that employees that work here have work. This duty goes above all other possible duties I might have as a citizen.

Utilitarian: Attorneys at XYZ who handle environmental affairs might think that they have finite resources to pursue environmentally-related cases, and must pick and choose their battles when bringing prosecution.

Utilitarian: Other industries faced with similar environmental problems might think that the less regulations the better for all members of all affected industries.

Virtue: Members of the community whose health may be adversely affected if XYZ and other industries do not responsibly handle environmental problems would likely feel that it is immoral to…… [read more]

My Future Career Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (677 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Career in Civil Engineering

To me, no career could be more interesting than one that lets me serve larger society by pursuing my passion for the design of objects on a large scale. It is this attraction to the inner workings of complex everyday objects like busy roadways and towering skyscrapers that draws me to civil engineering as a career. The importance of civil engineering to society will also allow me to serve the greater good. On a more practical note, the strong continuing job prospects and financial rewards of civil engineering are excellent, furthering my desire to choose a career among the design of amazingly intricate objects like airports, sewage systems, roads, and airports.

First, it is the importance of civil engineering to society that makes civil engineering an intriguing career choice for me. Civil engineers are responsible for the design and supervision of tunnels, dams, bridges, airports, sewage systems, roads, and airports would never have been built. Without the civil engineer, we would not be able to drive to work on a well-designed freeway, enjoy efficient sewage systems, or even work in the high-rises that grace most cities worldwide.

Because civil engineering is one of the most important careers in modern society, it appeals strongly to my desire to contribute to larger society. As a civil engineer, I would have the opportunity to design buildings that keep their inhabitants comfortable and safe, or to build roadways that are efficient and structurally sound. I am strongly drawn to the idea of being one of the forces responsible for ensuring our day-to-day lives are efficient and productive. One of the greatest accomplishments that I can imagine would be to see the efforts of my job enjoyed by thousands of people on a daily basis.

The second important draw of a civil engineering career is the practical financial and career aspects of the job. The U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics notes that the median annual wage for civil engineers in 2002 was $60,000. Although…… [read more]