Study "Architecture / Construction" Essays 221-262

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Frank Lloyd Wright's Works Essay

… Frank Lloyd Wright

A case could be made that Frank Lloyd Wright was the greatest architect in the history of the United States. There is no doubt that he is the most well-known and revered of all American architects. This paper reviews two of his most noted works, Fallingwater, and Taliesin West. How do these two iconic buildings reflect on Wright's life? That question will also be explored.


At seventy-seven years old, Wright's Fallingwater home in western Pennsylvania is still a "breathtaking" place to visit, according to an article in the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (Carpenter, 2011). It was designed by Wright in 1935 and built in the years 1936-1939, and a guest house was built in 1939 ( Fallingwater's original cost was $155,000 (that included $8,000 for Wright's architecture fee and $4,500 for walnut furnishings). The main house takes up 5,330 square feet (2,445 of that area is made up of terraces) and the guest house is 1,700 square feet (

Fallingwater was build for the Edgar J. Kaufmann family, owners of Kaufmann's Department Store in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. Edgar, his wife Liliane, and their son Edgar Kaufman Junior lived in the Fallingwater home; Liliane died in 1952, Edgar Sr. died in 1955, and Edgar Jr. (who lived in the house until 1963) died in 1989.

Wright went to the trouble to make water "…a part of the house," said Lynda Waggoner, who is vice president of the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy and director at Fallingwater (Carpenter, 2011). Hence, Wright designed a system in which water is piped in from the stream and it "trickles through the stone" inside the house; "It's such a full-blown example of his genius," Waggoner explained. The house and the splashing water sounds are the ideal expression of "organic architecture," Waggoner continued, asserting that Fallingwater was just a weekend home for the Kaufmann family and it worked well in that context. The fact that the house is preserved in its natural world setting has been one of the positives for its legacy; indeed, the house is "…surrounded by 5,000 protected acres of pristine woodland" (Carpenter, p. 2).

How does Fallingwater reflect on Frank Lloyd Wright's life?

Wright was a man who… [read more]

Personal Statement Supplement Essay

… ¶ … Inventor in New York City

If I had the opportunity to spend a day in New York City, I would ideally spend it with Elisha Otis. Elisha Otis is credited with inventing the elevator, but this is actually incorrect. He invented the modern brake which made elevators safer and instilled a greater degree of public confidence in them. This was something that was absolutely crucial for more people to accept elevators as a modern device to make life more practical and convenient. Elevators of all kinds existed for centuries and centuries, but human beings still tended to create building that were on average three floors high. Just because elevators were invented wasn't enough to make people use them. People had to feel confident about them or else they were just sophisticated gadgets that no one had any faith in.

One of the reasons I would want to spend time in New York City with Otis is because one of the things that New York is most famous for is its skyline: New York has a tremendous amount of truly glorious buildings that act as jewels against the night sky. The skyscrapers of New York truly are triumphs and signs of the progress of mankind and what human beings are able to accomplish. I would talk with Otis about how none of these skyscrapers would ever have existed if not for his mechanical brake. Without the mechanical brake that Otis invented, who knows if people would ever have quite accepted elevators. There might have always been a fear attached to riding in elevators which would have no doubt made people reluctant to use them. This would absolutely have made the creation of tall buildings like skyscrapers something that was considered undesirable. People wouldn't want to walk up ten flights of stairs, much less 60. Otis, by demonstrating… [read more]

Sealed Bids vs. Competitive Term Paper

… This is in contrast to competitive proposals where other reasons apart from price could easily allow for the selection of the second best offer.

Further, in contrast to sealed bidding, competitive proposals require bidders to specifically demonstrate not only their knowledge but also their expertise in the area of interest. In that regard, while sealed bids could benefit new entrants, more established firms are more likely to sail through in a competitive proposal. Thus from a contractor's perspective, the most advantageous method in this case could largely be dependent on a number of factors including but not limited to the competitiveness (in terms of experience and expertise) of the firm concerned.

It can also be noted that the selection of either method could benefit or complicate a contractor's situation. For instance, while contractors in the construction industry would favor sealed bids, contractors in research and development fields may find competitive proposals more favorable. This is more so the case given that when it comes to research and development contracts, specifying associated costs could be somewhat challenging.

In the final analysis, the relevance of utilizing the most appropriate method of conducting procurement cannot be overstated. Applying one method in place of another could harm the interests of either the contractor or the contracting party.


In conclusion, it is important to note that typically, both competitive proposals and sealed bids attract a significant number of bidders. Maximum competition is more often than not a common feature of both methods. From a contracting party's perspective, having many proposals or bids to select from effectively increases the likelihood that the services or goods supplied will be of stellar quality.


Murphy, J.E. (2009). Guide to Contract Pricing: Cost and Price Analysis for Contractors, Subcontractors, and Government Agencies (5th ed.). Virginia: Management Concepts.

Sollish, F. & Semanik, J. (2012). The Procurement and Supply Manager's Desk Reference (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ:… [read more]

Fire Protection Specialist Essay

… Fire Protection Specialist

It takes a special kind of person to be an effective fire protection specialist. It takes extensive knowledge and the ability to communicate well with others. The skills needed and knowledge requirements are strict and numerous and for good reason. Currently, fire protection specialists are charged with filling three major roles. These roles include fire inspector, fire plan examiner, and fire investigator. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) is the organization that sets the minimum standards for these fields and the standards are carefully scrutinized before being adopted. Both NFPA 1031 and NFPA 1033 are specific sets of standards required to become certified in the areas of fire Inspector, plan examiner, and fire investigator. These standards define exactly what the roles and responsibilities of the fire protection specialist are.

According to the National Fire protection Association, the responsibilities of the fire inspector are numerous, but the basic functions of a level one fire inspector include "inspecting public, commercial, and residential structures for compliance with applicable laws" (NFPA 2009). In 1031 of NFPA, the guidelines, responsibilities, requisite knowledge, and required skills are spelled out in great detail. Suffice it to say that the 'core responsibilities include inspecting buildings for compliance with all applicable fire codes and laws, inspecting underground storage tanks, addressing complaints with inspections, identifying corrective actions, assisting in fire code interpretation, issuing fire code violations, and testifying in court regarding fire code violations' (NFPA 2009).

1031 of the National Fire Protection Association also addresses the functions and responsibilities of the plan examiner. The association identifies the core functions of the plan examiner as being "responsible for examining plans, fire protection system plans, and specifications for compliance with applicable fire code laws" (NFPA 2009). The duties of a plan examiner include ' preparing variances and appeals to be presented to the building standards commission, attending meetings… [read more]

Behavioral Sciences and Architectural Theory Essay

… ¶ … Behavioral Sciences and Architectural Theory

In this chapter, the author discusses the behavioral sciences and their relationship to architecture and design. The various behavioral sciences are discussed. The author states that "this book focuses on the subject of the above that is concerned with the nature of human habitats and the relationship between the physical structure of the world and human activities and values" (Lang, 1987). The combination of these two fields of study has many names: M-ER (man-environment relations), environmental sociology, human ecology, and the person-environment theory (term used here in this book). It is important to note that psychology has generally been concerned with the environment on a molecular level which is of no use in design. However, Gestalt psychology does focus on it and has thus been latched onto by many architects and designers (for better or worse). Sociology has spent a great deal of time in consideration of group processes and the environment. However, anthropology has spent considerable time on the settings of primitive societies and is now expanding that area to include more modern societies.

Behavioral Sciences: Include anthropology, sociology and, psychology. Economics and political science are sometimes included. These, 'fields of study are dedicated to understanding human activities, attitudes, and values' (Lang, 1987).

The concerns of the behavioral sciences: There is a "utility gap" between the behavioral sciences and environmental design (Lang, 1987). This is because the behavioral sciences follow the scientific method as closely as possible and are focused on facts. They are focused on facts to achieve their goal of building positive theory. It allows them to predict patterns of activities and values. If a behavioral scientist then uses the information and states a preference for an outcome, he/she is no longer a scientist. The problem is that empirical data does not guide practice. Only Theory can guide practice and this needs to be addressed to close the "utility gap" (Lang, 1987).

The concerns of design: To understand the relationship between the two areas, one needs to consider the concerns of designers. There are multiple descriptions given historically, but for the purposes of this book, the author has taken a normative philosophy about which a designer should be concerned.. He states that the model used here is from the humanist psychologist Abraham Maslow (1954) (Lang, 1987).. It states, "The built environment, if properly configured, can meet aspects of human needs for survival, security, affiliation, esteem, learning, and aesthetics" (Lang, 1987).

The nature of design problems: The nature of the design problem is that it is not usually well defined or articulated. However, the designer should strive to create an environment that meets all the needs of all the people utilizing that environment. The behavioral sciences are helping to achieve that end.… [read more]

Cantilever and Cable Stayed Bridges Essay

… ¶ … Cantilever Bridges

Page 4 Advantages of Cantilever Bridges

Page 5 Top 5 Longest Cantilever Bridges

Page 6 Cable Stayed Bridges

Page 8 Advantages of Cable Stayed Bridges

Page 8 Top 5 Longest Cable Stayed Bridges

Page 8 Comparison:… [read more]

Romantic and Modern Design Styles Term Paper

… The material itself being the focus meant Wright used a limited color palette in his designs, using a very muted, intimate and warm palette that came straight from nature. (Pile, 1997) Not until Postmodernism in the 1960s would architects and designers start to experiment beyond the bounds of Frank Lloyd Wright's choices.


Romanticism and Modernism were two design movements that could not have been more different in their conception and their purpose. The choice to build with a romantic, neoclassical or beaux-art design was based on the wealth of the client, and the exceptional circumstances of the turn of the century. With the onset of the First World War in 1914, and the deaths of millions of young individuals in Europe, a new tone was struck and the world could not simply go back to the way it had been during the height of the 19th century. Machine guns, poison gas, airplanes, and tanks had destroyed the beauty of the age. Modernism was a harsh reaction to this, creating a somber, and sober outlook to the world. It coincided with the rise of America, and the rise of Frank Lloyd Wright, and guided the world of design in the post World War II era.

Works Cited:

1. Customer Notes -- Provided by Customer from Academic Notes and Books

2. Britannica Encyclopedia, (2012). Interior Design: The Romantic Movement and the Battle of the Styles. Retrieved from,

3. Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation, (2012). Wright's Life and Work. Retrieved from,

4. Pile, J. (1997). Color in Interior Design.… [read more]

Adopted Fire Prevention and Life Safety Codes for Buildings Structures Research Paper

… Fire Prevention Code for the City of Dallas

The adoption of the International Fire Code and International Building Code by the city of Dallas marks a huge step for the city in the area of public safety. There have been… [read more]

Comparison of Cable Stayed and Suspension Bridges Literature Review

… ¶ … Cable-Stayed and Suspension Bridges

Case Studies-

Of the different types of bridges the comparison between the suspension bridge and the cable stayed bridge is feasible because of the similarities. There are other types of bridges that are widely… [read more]

Sustainable Design Is the Smart Essay

… " BSRIA - Providing Consultancy, Instruments, Test and Research in Building Services and Construction - Market Research Reports, Product Testing, Information and Membership. Web. 19 May 2011. .]

ESTIDAMA, the word meaning 'sustainability' in Arabic, is the green design standard for the city of Abu Dhabi, in the United Arab Emirates, ESTIDAMA, and particularly the Pearl Rating System used to rate sustainability in ESTIDAMA, was created in advance of Abu Dhabi's 2030 vision for the creation of a modern global capitol city. Although a similar system to the other two, there are a few major differences. ESTIDAMA places far more emphasis of its credit distribution on water usage, and less on energy usage, as this is a critical part of Abu Dhabi's development and need for clean water to be recycled as efficiently as possible. Energy is plentiful in the Middle East, and much of the development built in this region is a result of its fortunate energy supply.[footnoteRef:2] This problem of water usage, however, is not applicable to the rest of the world, and therefore shows why ESTIDAMA was created in the first place, because LEED and BREEAM simply could not readily adapt themselves to the particular conditions of Abu Dhabi. [2: "Comparing Estidama's Pearls Rating Method to LEED and BREEAM." Carboun. Web. 19 May 2011. .]

As far as accreditation is concerned, ESTIDAMA takes a hybrid approach between BREEAM and LEED, urging the use of a dedicated professional onsite to evaluate as progress moves, as BREEAM does, but also requiring the oversight of a "Pearl Qualified Professional" to complete the final inspection. This process is extremely thorough in its approach, and to have two checks is a valuable tool against cheating and corruption, which may seep into the competitive world of construction in the other two standards. This method of double checks however could be prohibitively bureaucratic in a democracy setting, which ESTIDAMA does not operate in currently. ESTIDAMA is certainly just as important to the field of sustainable design as the larger rating systems are, as it brings much of the same professionalism to the task, ESTIDAMA is however tinkered to appeal to its local market in the Middle East, and this is apparent in the breakdown of the evaluation process.

In conclusion, it is foreseeable that buildings will reach a near-zero release of carbon during their complete phase, and a lot less energy will be used during the buildings construction. In this way, all three sustainable standards will play their part, and will have brought good policy to a controllable environment of office space and residential construction. I, however, believe that the LEED standard is the best standard to follow, as it is best understand around the world and by architects, does not require specialization within countries, which would only dilute the strength of LEED's simplicity, and does not allow any individual to make evaluations, only the Green Building Council itself. This disallows cheating and presents a balanced and expert opinion of what LEED's standards ought… [read more]

Beguinage Church in Brussels Belgium Research Paper

… Beguinage Church in Brussels, Belgium (Eglise du Beguinage) 1676 ("Brussels" Europe-cities) or possibly 1656 as is noted by Gilliant-Smith in the Story of Brussels (235) to replace a much more demure church built in the 13th-14th century for the Beguinage,… [read more]

Interior Design Visual Planning Book Report

… Pevsner

Book: Visual planning and the picturesque Pevsner, Nikolaus (1949/2010)

Footnote all direct quotes, whether by the book author or another author you might quote in relation to the book.

Structure the report so that it develop logically and make… [read more]

Master Builders Today, the Professions Literature Review

… By the time of 700 B.C. And the inscriptions of Sennacherib, much more detail is provided about the temple construction and the use of these structures in feasts and celebrations. Esarhaddon (681 to 669 BC), who was Sennacherib's son and successor of king of Assyria, tells of his interest to rebuild Babylon and its temple to the appearance of "favourable signs in the heaven and on earth" (Luckenbill 260) He proceeded cautiously by asking an oracle if he was making the correct decision: "To (await) the decision of Shamash and Adad, I prostrated myself reverently; to (learn) their final decree, I arranged the soothsayers at the entrance to the Bit-mummu. I saw a vision concerning Assur, Babylon and Nineveh. (For guidance) concerning the artificers who should accomplish the work and carry out (lit. bring in) the (divine) decree…" (ibid). When Esarhaddon received positive confirmation, he hired "wise architects and skillful builders," laid the walls of the foundation in "choice oil, honey, butter, wine of the mountain," and spanned the roof "with beams of cedar, the product of Mount Amanus" (ibid 250-251).


The concept of builder in Egypt encompassed the positions of architect, engineer, and builder. There was no distinction between the three roles, and all were normally conducted by one person: the master builder. This concept lasted for some time until more complex structures and construction techniques led to the disciplines becoming separated (Jackson 5). At first, the architects and engineers of Egypt (and Rome) belonged to the priesthood or were closely related with it. This idea is based on the fact that the Latin word pontaifex or "bridge builder" designated a priest (Straub 32). As time passed, along with the growing initiation and supervision of the construction of temples, aqueducts and roads, specific people needed to be designated in charge. In Egypt, the quarrying of stone material and its transport from the quarry to the site, the removal of the huge blocks including the hardest granite, the organization and catering for the tremendous numbers of labour forces that were required at the edge of the desert all caused considerable challenges and difficulties that could only be handled by those who had specific knowledge (ibid 9).

One such "master builder" was the Egyptian polymath Imhotep (2650 -- 2600 BC), who served during the third dynasty of King Djoser and is the first such individual whose name was thus recognized (Osler 12). Imhotep was also considered a genius in many other fields, including medicine, mathematics, astronomy and poetry, which demonstrates the level of intellect of this new architectural role. He held the titles of high priest of Ptah, chancellor, palace administrator, builder, and sculptor and was later defied and worshipped as the god of medicine in both Egypt and Greece (Quatman 23). His cult reached its peak during Greco-Roman times when he was identified with the Greek god of medicine Asclepius.

Imhotep was idealized [read more]

Atlanta High Rise Office Fire Essay

… Atlanta High Rise Office Fire

The case of Atlanta High Rise Office Fire that broke on June 30, 1989 in Atlanta, Georgia because of an electric fault is significant because it was the first reported case of multiple deaths in U.S. due to a fire accident at a high-rise office building. Five people were killed, and 23 civilians and six fire fighters were injured severely. The building was located at 1720 Peachtree Street and was commonly known as Peachtree 25th Building. (Jennings, 1989)

The main fire protection features of the building were limited. There were manual fire alarm stations located at each exit of the building along with a system of Class III standpipe with 6-inch standpipe risers located in each stairwell, and at each stairway, an occupant use hose station in the interior corridors was situated. During the renovation of the building, two of the floors of the building were equipped with smoke detectors. In the South Tower of the building, the elevators were equipped with automatic fire fighter service features along with automatic recall. Yet, there was no such fire fighter feature on the floor that caught the fire except one elevator in the North Tower. For the purpose of fire fighting, there was proper provision of emergency power and the stairways were also equipped with emergency lighting system. (Jennings, 1989)

The building was properly designed and erected in accordance with the City of Atlanta Building Code. The minimum fire resistance rating for the building was two hours for the concrete floor and three-hours for the columns of the building. It was noticed that no code for fire resistance and protection was violated by the builders. (Jennings, 1989)

The fire that erupted due to an electric fault on the sixth floor was very severe that caused an untenable atmosphere on the sixth floor of the building. The fourth, fifth and seventh floor of the building also suffered minor smoke and fire damage while the sixth floor suffered huge fire damage. The situations were so threatening that a worker jumped out of the sixth floor in order to strive for her survival. No unusual toxic material or gas was reported to erupt due to the electric arcing that caused the fire. (Jennings, 1989)

Some of the occupants on the sixth floor tried to take refuge in the farthest offices from the electric compartments. Most of them broke the windows of the offices that helped them to survive in dense smoke while… [read more]

Lightweight Concrete Research Paper

… Structural Performance of Lightweight Concrete

The Pantheon, built 18 centuries ago, demonstrates the structural performance of lightweight concrete to be superior to many contemporary building materials. In time, the use of lightweight concrete has spread across the U.S., the UK,… [read more]

Post Tensioned Concrete Research Paper

… Post-tensioned concrete forms one of the most important mixtures that form the basis of most structural engineering works. Extant literature has been dedicated to the study of post-tensioned concrete. In this paper we analyse the various forms and types post-tensioned… [read more]

History of Furniture Essay

… ¶ … Windsor chair created by furniture maker Joseph DeGant, circa 1810. The Windsor chair has a long history, and it traveled from England to North American in the 18th century. A classic chair design, it is still one of… [read more]

Lend Lease Australia the Green Building Strategy Research Proposal

… Business

Lend Lease Australia: the green building strategy

In an increasingly carbon conscious world, there has been a lot of emphasis on the creation of new green buildings and infrastructure. But, with 98 per cent of Australia's existing office buildings… [read more]

Fire Technology Research Proposal

… ¶ … Duct Smoke Detectors: The Impact of Various Factors on Their Effectiveness," Construction Technology Update No. 72, December 2008 by G.D. Lougheed

The use of smoke detectors in heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) ducts is a requirement of… [read more]

Impact of Nightclub Fires on the Fire Service Thesis

… ¶ … Nightclub Fires on the Fire Service

This is a guideline and template and should not be used as a final turn-in paper.

Natchez, Mississippi, April 24, 1940. The Rhythm Nightclub fire lasted just 15 minutes. In that quarter… [read more]

Green Housing Marketplace the Economic and Financial Research Proposal

… Green Housing Marketplace

The economic and financial crisis that characterizes today's world and the prior circumstances of its establishment has determined significant changes in the housing sector. For example, the traditional construction sector has slowed down, while green housing is currently experiencing a boom period (McLaughlin, 2007).

As a consequence, the green construction sector's rapid growth and development has led to increased competition among the companies that provide green construction services, especially global ones, but also among raw materials suppliers (Carlton, 2007).

The evolution of the housing market competition is a normal one. The high prices of traditional housing that many individuals cannot afford during the crisis and the financial advantages provided by green housing have determined more and more customers to address this type of construction.

In a market with many buyers, it was only natural that the number of competing companies would increase. This is very helpful for buyers, since increased competition leads to reduced prices. This way, green housing intensifies its advantages.

The core competencies of large construction companies are numerous. They include: experience, highly skilled and trained personnel, a series of innovations they have managed to develop and implement.

Large construction companies have a worldwide experience that recommends them for projects regarding green housing. Their tradition in the industry is proof of their abilities and competencies in the field. It is quite difficult for customers to trust a new, small construction company that may have lower prices, but it does not have the experience required by such construction projects.

The human resources employed by large companies are probably the most important resource and competence the customers can benefit from. The financial status of large construction companies allows them to select… [read more]

Green Housing Research Proposal

… Green housing is probably the most important trend that currently characterizes the housing sector. Green housing presents certain advantages, like the reduced maintenance costs for medium term and for long-term. The financial investment is therefore smaller than in the case or regular housing. The positive environmental effect is probably the most important advantage of green housing.

But the situation is also accompanied by certain risks. For example, building a green house may require larger quantities of materials used in the actual construction. This may lead to increased construction costs. This reduces the financial efficiency of building a green house.

Other risks are related to living conditions. Green houses built with polyethylene, called polyhouses, provide reduced light conditions in winter and increased humidity in comparison with other types of houses (WVU, 2009). Such living conditions would prove to be health-threatening, especially on long-term.

In addition to this, in certain weather conditions polyhouses might collapse under wet snow. This risk… [read more]

Romanesque Style Term Paper

… Romanesque Style


In the southern regions of Lombard in Italy, one finds for the most part the ancient traditions and conservative styles of Romanesque architecture. The buildings of Tuscany seem to adhere more closely than those of any other region in Europe to the traditions of the Early Christian basilica. For example, the cathedral group of the city of Pisa contains conservative qualities and those of the great classical Renaissance of the late 11th and 12th centuries when "architects, craftsmen, poets and philosophers again confronted classical Christian prototypes and then interpreted them in an original yet somehow familiar way" (Smithson, 144). These cathedrals are large and five-aisled and have been influenced by Early Christian churches and overall, they express great verticality and non-classically styled pointed arches which were probably inspired by Islamic architecture as found in Spain circa 900 a.D.

One particular Tuscan church, San Miniato al Monte in the city of Florence, recalls Early Christian architecture externally, but internally, the church is timber-roofed as are most Tuscan Romanesque churches, and the nave is divided into three equal compartments by diaphragm arches that rise from compound piers. These piers alternate with simple columns in a sort of "a-b-b -- a rhythm that reminds one of abbey churches located in Germany" (Smithson, 145). The diaphragm arches which appeared in Tuscany sometime before 1060 had multiple functional and aesthetic purposes, mainly to support the high, thin walls and to provide fire-breaks within the wooden roof structure. These arches also compartmentalized the basilican interior in a manner so popular with most Romanesque builders in Tuscany.

In contrast to the regions of… [read more]

Richardsonian Romanesque House Styles Term Paper

… Art History

The Lure of Eclecticism:

Richardsonian Romanesque Houses in Nineteenth Century America

The Nineteenth Century was a period of considerable historicism in art and architecture. As Americans and Europeans struggled to come to terms with the effects of growing… [read more]

Type Program Event Term Paper

… Program and Event

One of the key aspects of Rem Koolhaas's architecture practice and theory is the Program. The Program, as defined by Koolhaas, has become synonymous with the rise of Modernist architecture throughout the 20th century. The Program is rooted in the idea of acting to edit function and human activities. Louis Sullivan was the first to popularize the idea of a Program in his famous maxim "form follows function." Koolhaas would come to interrogate the notion of the Program in his landmark work Delirious New York, in which he analyzed high-rise architecture in New York City. One of the diversions Koolhaas attempted to introduce to his practice early on was "cross-programming" - that is, introducing unexpected functions in room programs so as to disrupt the "natural" order of things. In a recent work, for example, Koolhaas attempted to incorporate hospital rooms for the homeless into his building for Seattle's public library - a proposal that was ultimately rejected.

Whereas Koolhaas predicates much of his design theory on this notion of the Program, Bernard Tschumi is more concerned with what he terms the "event." According to Tschumi, there is no space without event. For this reason, each architectural design should reinvent one's notion of living, rather than attempting to repeat or affirm established aesthetic or symbolic aspects of design. As such, Tschumi uses architecture as a means for framing what he terms "constructed situations" - a notion that was largely inspired by the Situationist International.

In their own respective ways, both Koolhaas and Tschumi are attempting to refute totalizing notions of a final architectural product. They want their buildings to reflect a reflexive environment that will not only frame events, but serve as a place for thinking about architecture and meditating on the very notion… [read more]

Antoni Gaudi Term Paper

… Antonio Gaudi source (

Antoni Gaud's Expiatory Temple of the Holy Family (Sagrada Fam'lia), Barcelona, Spain

Background and formative years

Antonio Gaudi was born in 1852 province of Tarragona in southern Catalonia, Spain. He was the last of five children… [read more]

Concrete Why These 3 Pieces Term Paper

… Concrete

Why these 3 pieces of concrete equipment are so important to the concrete industry

Concrete batch plants mix the materials that are turned into concrete. Mobile concrete batch plants enable the concrete to be mixed at a construction site. The use of mobile batch plants reduces costs for setup and trucking. Portable plants, an even smaller kind of mobile batch plant, can be assembled in a matter of hours. "Having the ability to break down the plant and quickly move to another location has significant benefits, particularly when dealing with larger or longer jobs. Mobile batch plants can cut the haul distance, which saves money, wear and tear, and means fewer trucks to further disrupt an already congested stretch of roadway (Paving the way with better batch plants," 2003, Concrete Construction). Cement mixers are usually built in the traditional 'revolving drum' style, when less concrete is at the construction site.

Why reinforcing concrete is so important

Concrete is always subject to the wear and tear of the environment. Thus reinforcing the concrete with rods, usually of some noncorrosive material such as steel, is essential. Chemical treatment of the concrete… [read more]

Brick Market in British Columbia the Demand Term Paper

… Brick Market in British Columbia

The demand for construction materials including concrete pipe, bricks and blocks, which together comprise NAICS 32733 industrial codes throughout British Columbia continues to experience consistent growth, year over year, beginning in 2000. There are several… [read more]

Sustainable Design Companies Term Paper

… Sustainable Building Design

According to the National Park Service, an estimated 26 billion tons of topsoil are lost beyond the ability to replace it every year. In addition, out underground water tables are not contaminated in 32 American states. Water tables are dropping as our consumption of these resources climbs faster than the earth's capacity to replace them. The impact the humans have on the environment is staggering. There is now a movement to help reduce the impact that we have on the environment by using sustainable techniques in new building design. The following will compare two companies and their ability to meet these goals in their design program.

Sustainable Company

Helmuth & Bicknese is a sustainable design architecture firm that follows the entire building process from site selection to final specifications. They begin by analyzing the site to determine the impact that the building will have on the environmental resources on the site. They design the building so that it will have the minimal impact on the environment and the people that will occupy it. Sustainable design tries to consider every aspect of the building, both inside and out. It considers the impact of building systems, such as heat and water, choosing the method that has the least impact.

Helmuth & Bicknese perform a detailed analysis and attempt to consider every part of the building. Their approach appears to be detailed and methodical. On several places on their website, they mention the LEEDS system, which assigns a sustainability rating to the building. They appear to be knowledgeable and thorough in their approach to sustainable building design. It is likely that this company accomplishes its goal in designing low impact buildings.

Non-Sustainable Company

Cumberland Design & Building Company, Inc. offers full-scale services from concept to project competition. They specialize in large corporate office complexes. The key point stressed on their website is efficiency and their ability to deliver what the customer wants. They have an extensive portfolio of past projects.

Cumberland Design & Building Company uses the Butler Manufactured Building system. This building design is a prefabricated metal building. There is no mention of sustainability on their website. They emphasize project delivery and quality. Their experienced staff and extensive portfolio are their main selling points. This company does not state any environmental goals and therefore should not be used when environmental issues are a concern. The key concern of this company was that they are able to meet the customer's needs and make their bottom line. They have no environmentally related goals, therefore they meet their goals.

Government standards are beginning to recognize the necessity of protecting our natural resources. Companies such as this will eventually have to pay attention to the concept of sustainability in their designs. At this point, there are… [read more]

William Sumner Appleton and Norman Morrison Isham Their Approach to Historic Preservation Term Paper

… Preservation of historic sites and of vintage architecture has become a major focus for many in the contemporary period, but the idea of preservation is much older than that. Preservation is not simply a matter of saving everything that is… [read more]

Robert Adam Term Paper

… Robert Adam

Adam's Compelling Designs

Robert Adam was a style-setter and leader in the classical antiquity movement in England during the 1700's.

Robert Adam is considered Scotland's most famous architect. But Adam was better known as the most popular designer… [read more]

Bohemia Architect Influence Term Paper

… Bohemia Art

While there are many interesting and historical sites within the city of Prague, it is the city it's self that is perhaps the most artistic. The buildings of Prague are visual by nature, representing painting, sculpture, mosaic, glasswork,… [read more]

Art in Town Planning Term Paper

… Art

Living the Good Life:

Art and Aesthetics in Town Planning

Suburban sprawl. Urban blight. The Failure of Modern Architecture. Each one of these phrases could easily head an article on the modern-day city. Wherever one looks, one seems to… [read more]

Systems Integration Term Paper

… Systems Integration is the unification of all existing subsystems into one system sharing the same user interface. The five-step methodology involved in systems integration is usually accomplished in two engagements. The first two steps involve defining the current nature of the system and creating a blueprint for the first stages of the new architecture. The definition and architecture steps help to uncover all systemic needs and identify all technical considerations as well as provide detailed project specifications. The next engagement phase involves the building, testing and deploying stages. These involve the actual creation of the integrated system, the testing of the system, and the performance deployment of the system, as the project is then executed according to its final scope and budget.

One common myth of systems integration, according to John Stiernberg of Sound and Contractor Magazine is that pre-determined industry standards are always necessary before systems integration can become a reality. The reality is that the lack of a single technical standard, such as Ethernet, CEBus or BACnet, actually validates the role of the systems integrator. Subsystems can be made to work together in a variety of ways. (Stiernberg, 2005) a second myth is that systems integration and automation are the same thing and that systems integration opens up a system… [read more]

Fire Safety Management Term Paper


Modern day buildings are generally constructed to be more heat and fire resistant. In times of old buildings would generally go up in flames at a moments notice so to speak. Many buildings were poorly… [read more]

Eiffel Tower Modern National Monuments Term Paper

… Further, many consider that its, rather humble beginnings as a World Fair publicity stunt have been replaced by its current position of the symbol of France itself -- a monument that millions of returning French soldiers from World Wars have personally identified as a symbol of home.


The Eiffel Tower is undoubtedly the most prominent symbol of France, as well as the mental representation of all things French across the world. However, one could argue that its position as a great building has more to do with circumstance than with actual merit. Indeed, many Parisians contemporary to its creation considered the building to be ugly and industrial -- a blight on the elegance of the Parisian skyline. I am inclined to agree. To be sure, the building is industrially inspired, and speaks to the industrial and commercial background of its builder. One has to imagine that the main reason the Eiffel Tower gained prominence is due to its very size (the tallest building at the time of its creation), as well as its incongruous "sore thumb" appearance that could not help but be noticed by the millions visiting Paris every year.


The Eiffel Tower is a monument that has captured the collective imagination of the world. It is without doubt, the symbol of Paris, as well as the whole of France. However, the Tower itself is extremely industrial in appearance and construction, and has gained acceptance over many years. Today, many could not imagine a Paris devoid of the structure. However, one has to wonder if this is due to actual architectural merit, or simple circumstance.

Levin, Miram R., When the Eiffel Tower Was New. South Hadley: University of Massachusetts Press, 1989.

Eiffel Tower," Encyclopedia Americana. Volume 10.

Eiffel Tower," World Book Encyclopedia. Volume 6.

Gustave Eiffel," the Hutchinson Encyclopedia. Helicon.… [read more]

Residential Fire Sprinklers Fire Administration Term Paper

… Once the ordinance is passed, there will be careful site planning to do, to give the good protection for the whole community.

The U.S. Fire Administration has identified that "in 1996, the loss of home fire had claimed 5000 lives, injured over 25000 people and caused damage to over 9 billion dollars property." Then they announced that according to NFPA, about "57% fire deaths per 1000 fires was reduced in home with sprinklers from 1983 to 1992." Dewar (2001) predicts it will reduce about 87% fire deaths (and property loss) with the advancement in technology.

Cost is still a major issue in the effectiveness of the installation; but even now sprinklers can be installed for about 1% of the building cost (The Fire Officials Guide to Fire Sprinkler Facts, 2002). It must be noted that researches will soon identify "system combining in home plumbing, streamlining design and permit process, accepting building code alternatives, and site plans redesigning" that will simplify the mass construction process, the U.S. Fire Administration said. It is expected that good price and safety will find a place under the same roof.


Ballanco, J., and Smith, S. Jul 03, 2002. Multipurpose Protection: A Growing Trend in Residential Sprinkler Installations. Plumbing and Mechanical Magazine (online edition).,2379,80246,00.html.(Oct 02, 2002).

Dewar, B. Feb 25, 2001. Residential Fire Sprinklers for Life Safety: An Economic and Insurance Perspective. U.S. Fire Administration 02, 2002)

Fire Marshal's Association of Minnesota and Minnesota State Fire Chief's Association. Feb 28, 2002. The Fire Officials Guide to Fire Sprinkler Facts. 02, 2002).

Holdgate, R. (Sep, 2001). A Mandate for Sprinklers. Fire Prevention - Fire Engineers Journal. 02, 2002).

Karter, M.J. Jr. Sep, 1994. Fire Loss in the United States in 1993. NFPA Journal. September/October 1994. Pages 57-65. In U.S. Fire Administration. Reducing America's Fire Losses with Residential Fire Sprinkler Systems.

Koski, J. Aug 29, 2000. Residential Fire Sprinklers: Is Dramatic Growth at Hand? PM Engineer Magazine.,2732,9503,00.html.(Oct 02, 2002).

Mader, R.P. Dec 01, 2001. Residential sprinkler ordinance passes. Contractor Magazine.

PR Newswire Association. Jan 27, 2000. Sprinklers Cut Loss From Fires at Home and Work; Fire Sprinklers Reduce Chances of Loss of Life and Property by More Than 50%. American Fire Sprinkler Association.

US Fire Administration. Nov 09, 1998. Home Fire Safety - Residential Sprinklers. 02, 2002).

US Fire Administration. The Case for Residential Sprinklers. 02, 2002). [read more]

Structural Engineers Were Stunned Term Paper

… Large areas of fireproofing appear to be missing from the core columns in some photographs, according to architect Roger G. Morse, a consultant in Troy, N.Y. Mr. Morse has said his photos have shown the fireproofing did not properly stick. (Business Wire 2001) Maintenance companies have stated however, that the swaying of the buildings in the wind and the impact of elevator cables against the beams caused the fireproofing problems. Windstorms would rock the building back and forth, knocking down fireproofing. Mr. Morse disagrees however, saying problems were far more widespread than that, probably because the fireproofing had been applied improperly to rusty steel. . However, while the debate rages as to whether the fire proofing was missing, destroyed by winds, or applied improperly is the suspicion that perhaps no fireproofing, however formidable, could have been of much help in such a fire.

No one believes the collapse of the World Trade Center towers signals the end of tall building development. The terroristic attack on the World Trade Center was not because it was tall, but more likely because it was the symbol of economic might. While Americans and possibly all humans will never forget this outrageous attack, tall building design will move on Robertson, Scott . "AISC gathers team to probe World Trade Center collapse.." American Metal Market. Sept. 14, 2001.

Engineer finds clues in WTC wreckage. 2/10/02 .

Crosbie, Micheal. Engineering Forensics of Collapse. 2/9/02 .

Wright, Gordon. "Unthinkable nightmare." Building Design & Construction. Oct., 2001.

Terrell, Kenneth. "Out of the Ashes." U.S. News and World Reports. Oct. 2001.

"Heat Caused the Twin Towers to Collapse, Experts Say.." Business Wire. Sept. 17, 2001.

Gold, Jeffery. Towers Collapsed From Fire. 2/10/02 .

Structural Engineers Offer Insight On World Trade Center CollapseE

. .

Post, Nadine. Massive Assault Doomed Towers. 2/9/02 .

Wright, Gordon.… [read more]

Citicorp Center Made Me Essay

… 6.1aNo, it is not, although he or she may work with previous customers he or she does not lure away.

b The engineer must not use proprietary knowledge regardless of the status of the employer if he or she signs a confidentiality agreement -- there are no universal ethical standards, although agreements may vary from employer to employer. In general, barring such an agreement, the informal standard would be if the original organization would be harmed by the disclosure of such knowledge.

6.5. The unique automatic train control required fail-safe mechanisms to ensure that when certain aspects of the system failed, other parts of the system could take over, or, shut the system down in a safe manner.

6.7. Yes, the technical problems they determined were serious and discounted by managers for political rather than legitimate technical reasons.

6.8 Yes, the three engineers in question lost their jobs for being honest and forthright, in addition to the concerns raised by their allegations.

6.10. Engineers are professionals, and like lawyers and doctors possess an ethical responsibility to the public that goes beyond their personal self-interest.

Rights: As a member of the state's environmental protection agency, I must protect the rights of the environment and citizens. All citizens have an equal right to enjoy a healthy and safe environment. Also, I am a spokesperson for the rights of being who cannot speak, such as the animals harmed by the spill.

Duty: As the CEO of XYZ, it is my duty to ensure that the company is profitable, so I can enrich the shareholders and also ensure that employees that work here have work. This duty goes above all other possible duties I might have as a citizen.

Utilitarian: Attorneys at XYZ who handle environmental affairs might think that they have finite resources to pursue environmentally-related cases, and must pick and choose their battles when bringing prosecution.

Utilitarian: Other industries faced with similar environmental problems might think that the less regulations the better for all members of all affected industries.

Virtue: Members of the community whose health may be adversely affected if XYZ and other industries do not responsibly handle environmental problems would likely feel that it is immoral to… [read more]

Life Safety in a Government Building Essay

… Life Safety in a Government Building

Hawaii has an extensive building code that is designed to protect against various damages resulting from: natural and manmade disasters. Where, a number of sub-sections are implemented, to address the specific threats that could affect the island's distinctive buildings. One such structure is the Territorial / Kekuanao'a Building. Where, this historic site played a unique role in the island's history, since it was constructed in 1926. (Fisher, 2010) However, to fully understand how the code can protect a number of different structures requires examining this building by looking at: the fire / safety systems, if the system meets the needs / uses of the structure, if they conducted various safety procedures (such as fire drills) and the overall assessment of property. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights, as to how the fire safety code protects a number of different structures throughout Hawaii.

What is the total fire and life safety systems built into the structure?

Under the Hawaii safety code the Territorial / Kekuanao'a Building would be qualified as a historical structure. Especially, when you consider the building's age and what it was used for in the past. In the case of this building, it would be subject to the traditional requirements of fire / safety standards this includes: installing fire alarms, fire hydrants / fire extinguishers, ventilators, having sprinklers installed throughout the structure and there must be multiple points of exiting the building. Once these various safety procedures have been implemented, the owner of the building must ensure that all fire safety equipment is in proper working order. This is important, because it establishes a foundation, for being able to slow the ability of the fire from spreading and it allows everyone to safely evacuate the structure, in the event of an emergency. ("State of Hawaii Fire Code," 2010)

Does the system meet the life safety needs and use of this structure?

Yes. The reason why, is because these basic provisions of the building code will protect the structure, against any… [read more]

Sustainability and the Building Environment Term Paper

… ¶ … Ventilation

With oil topping a hundred dollars a barrel, it is not surprising that engineers and architects are seeking better designs for structures of all types. Such "greening" efforts extend across-the-board in architectural design today, and the authors of "Natural Ventilation" report that significant innovation has been accomplished in recent years in improving the ventilation of buildings. Certainly, modern heating and ventilation systems have allowed humans to expand the range of habitable climates to include sites such as Las Vegas and Phoenix that were formerly hostile to people because of their harsh temperatures and arid conditions. Many of the buildings that emerged from these expansions into these inhospitable regions precluded the use of any natural ventilation techniques because they were closed systems that relied on massive mechanical systems that were effective at conditioning air but at an a high price in terms of human productivity and rising energy costs.

By sharp contrast, the authors of "Natural Ventilation" emphasize that the introduction of computer-based technologies has provided opportunities for the use of both passive and active systems that take maximum advantage of the natural ventilation that is always available to some extent. The techniques involved in optimizing natural ventilation are also fairly straightforward and a part of the continuing drive to make buildings more cost-efficient for their owners and comfortable for their occupants. Furthermore, natural ventilation systems can be used by themselves or as part of a building's existing or planning ventilation system.

In fact, the use of such systems provides a number of cost-saving advantages from start to finish. The article reports that the integration of systems such as building envelope (this is the view of the entire building as an integrated and interrelated whole), massing, glazing and internal loads, these techniques represent an integral part of a comprehensive architectural-engineering approach… [read more]

My Future Career Term Paper

… ¶ … Career in Civil Engineering

To me, no career could be more interesting than one that lets me serve larger society by pursuing my passion for the design of objects on a large scale. It is this attraction to the inner workings of complex everyday objects like busy roadways and towering skyscrapers that draws me to civil engineering as a career. The importance of civil engineering to society will also allow me to serve the greater good. On a more practical note, the strong continuing job prospects and financial rewards of civil engineering are excellent, furthering my desire to choose a career among the design of amazingly intricate objects like airports, sewage systems, roads, and airports.

First, it is the importance of civil engineering to society that makes civil engineering an intriguing career choice for me. Civil engineers are responsible for the design and supervision of tunnels, dams, bridges, airports, sewage systems, roads, and airports would never have been built. Without the civil engineer, we would not be able to drive to work on a well-designed freeway, enjoy efficient sewage systems, or even work in the high-rises that grace most cities worldwide.

Because civil engineering is one of the most important careers in modern society, it appeals strongly to my desire to contribute to larger society. As a civil engineer, I would have the opportunity to design buildings that keep their inhabitants comfortable and safe, or to build roadways that are efficient and structurally sound. I am strongly drawn to the idea of being one of the forces responsible for ensuring our day-to-day lives are efficient and productive. One of the greatest accomplishments that I can imagine would be to see the efforts of my job enjoyed by thousands of people on a daily basis.

The second important draw of a civil engineering career is the practical financial and career aspects of the job. The U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics notes that the median annual wage for civil engineers in 2002 was $60,000. Although… [read more]

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