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Public Art and Public Spaces

While the political content of public art has lessened to some extent in more recent decades, it remains in general inherently more subversive than unifying. Rachel Whiteread's 1993-4 sculpture, titled "House." The concrete piece replaces what was once an actual Victorian home with a solid block that cannot be entered, that cannot give shelter, that cannot do any of the…

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Bust of Antinous the Piece

These works of art contributed to society in general because they were often displayed publicly so the people could admire them, and people decorated their homes and buildings with them, adding to an overall cultural appreciation of the arts and sculpture. In earlier cultures, there was little "spare" time to create beautiful works of art simply for their enjoyment, so these delicate and detailed works of art indicate there was more leisure time -- time to enjoy art for art's sake, and time for members of society to create it. People were interested in creating beautiful places to live and work, instead of simply surviving. In addition, the fact that so much Roman sculpture, like this piece, have survived to this day illustrates how important these artworks were to the people and the Roman culture. They preserved them……

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Art History and Contemporary Art

Perhaps this is the genesis of the very nature for humans that we need to continuously explore and explain the unknown. And, different cultures in time and location find different approaches and solutions to this -- but in similar ways that lead us to believe that there is perhaps more to this myth and realization of myth through art than simple repetitions of archetypal themes. In a sense, then, it is necessary for us to continually recraft the past so that we may acculturate towards the future. Art then, in its many forms, serves as the catalyst for this journey. We can certainly understand this if we look at the global oral tradition that turns into folk art as an expression of culture -- with many of those folk themes speaking to similar issues between people as they do today; certainly pointing out the universality of art and being. The late 20th and early 21st centuries then brought us moving from dismantling the history of art as globalism progressed to defending the reasons for art in the first place. The arts are an important part of our culture, a vital part of our society, and a vehicle for communication that expresses more than words or language -- and are timeless. As the process of globalization brings us closer as humans -- so does the realization that it is art that helps us retain and regain our humanity. As technology advanced, though, we remain tied to the past through the cultural aspects of the common themes that are present in almost every society -- the certain unconscious forces that originate both at the individual and cultural level as a way to learn how we adapted and must continue to adapt. REFERENCES Bittarello, M.B. (2008). "Re-Crafting the Past: The Complex Relationship Between Myth and Ritual." Pomegranate: The International Journal of Pagan Studies. 10(2): 214. Croucher, Globalization and Belonging: The Politics of Identity in a Changing World. New York: Roman and Littlefield, 2004. Fraser, A. "From the Critique of Institutions to an Institution of Critique." Artforum. 44 (1): September, 2005, Retrieved from: http://occupymuseums.org/press/Andrea-Fraser_From-the-Critique-of-Institutions-to-an-Institution-of-Critique.pdf Hauser. B. "From Oral Tradition to 'Folk Art' -- Reevaluating Bengali Scroll Paintings. Asian Folklore Studies. 61 (1): 105-22, 2002. Kwon, M. "Itinerant Artists," in One Place After Another. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002. Smith, C. International Trade and Globalization. New York: Stokesfield Press, 2007. Tolstoy, L. (n.d.) "What is…

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Diane Blake Art Exhibition King

Summative assessment (if time) with critique paragraph on other student's artwork. Relation to the Gallery Experience: Students will glean experience in viewing non-traditional art and the vocabulary to explain what they see and feel. Using Bloom's taxonomy, the importance of this lesson is moving from rote knowledge up the pyramid through explaining about the art; applying their vocabulary and experience to other artwork; analyzing what the artist did; evaluating their work and other student's; and creating something new based on past knowledge. Reflection: This is a lesson in which so many other multidiscipline parts of the curriculum could be interwoven: music, history, social studies, science, etc. The success of the lesson is based on an experimental paradigm; one in which the individual looks beyond the obvious and leans to use constructivism to interpret and describe nonlinear and non-tangible environmental issues. The personal pedagogical value is focused on helping students develop and hone their analytical skills, and teaching them how to appreciate artistic concepts. REFERENCES Art with Al. (2013). King Island, Bass Strait by Dianne Blake. Artwithal.com. Retrieved from: http://www.artwithal.com.au/exhibitions/king_island_bass_strait/artwork/ Board of Studies, NSW. (2006) Creative……

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Whitney Collection, What Qualities Do

These elements are important, because they are showing how art is heading in a direction of capturing these images. As a result, this is giving the viewer a sense of appreciation for them and ideas that they will see. Where, they are able to transcend the time when they were created, which is showing a sense of realism and how various shifts could be occurring. Once this takes place, it is giving everyone a sense of awareness and enlightenment about these events. ("Whitney Collection") At the same time, modern art is heading in a direction that is taking on more abstract concepts. Two examples of this can be seen in the works that were created by: Jessica Stockholder and Pat Steir. In both pieces of art, there is the utilization of various dark and light colors on the canvas, to shape how it is being interpreted by the viewer. In the case of Stockholder, her canvas is untitled to show how she is allowing the audience to make their own interpretations about the underlying meanings. While at the same time, Steir is taking this concept and is applying it to the universe through the use of: a blue background, with grey and red overlapping it. Even though this may not be an actual depiction of the Milky Way, the utilization of this technique is allowing the viewer to open their minds. This is important, because it is taking these ideas and recreating them in such a way, to instill a unique interpretation in the minds of the individual. Once this occurs, everyone will be able to have their own views of the work and its underlying meaning. ("Whitney Collection") When you step back and analyze the direction that modern art is going, it is clear that there are two major influences that have been quickly emerging (realism and abstract concepts). Realism is used to show the various images of contemporary society by: highlighting how this is shaping the way the audience is looking at everyday events. Once this occurs, the reader will have a greater sense of appreciation for these images and their underlying meanings. While the different abstract concepts, are being utilized to shape how someone is interpreting a wide variety of events. As, the artists are using different colors to: create a kaleidoscope of light and dark images (which is a reflection of various concepts). These elements are…

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Russian Constructivism Artistic and Architectural

11). The largest peaks for the success of women artists developed in the pre-revolutionary period and during the Constructivist period of the 1920's. As Yablonskaya notes, during the late 1920's and early 1930's, women artists led two contrary developments, "one of an intimate and personal character, as with the art of Antonia Sofronova, and the other more publicly affirmative as…

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Art Paintings and Analysis

¶ … works of art. The two pieces I have selected for comparative analysis are Water Lilies by Claude Monet, and Day of the God by Paul Guaguin. The criteria of my analytic comparison are going to be based on artistic qualities such as perspective/flatness, color, materiality, technique, and lines. Day of the God Day of the God (Mahana no…

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Portraiture: Van Eyck, Van Der Weyden and

Portraiture: Van Eyck, Van Der Weyden and Fouquet Jan van Eyck, (1390-1441), has been touted as the pioneer of Dutch fine painting and the preeminent orchestrator of the oil painting technique; although some argue that he did not invent it but rather tested the possibilities of not allowing one color to totally dry prior to another application. One of van…

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Renaissance Art Renaissance Literally Means

" (Murray: 7) Renaissance in Art is marked by extreme emphasis on the human body and the individual. The material world was the sole focal point of artistic expression during this period. Human anatomy became a favorite subject of interest and thus we find more nudes under this movement than any other in art history accentuating humanism and individualism that marked the period. Everything took on new meaning as painters focused on the material world, sensations, sensuality and man's connection with the obvious. Even old Christian beliefs had lost their spiritual touch and were no longer being painted with the religious zeal of the Middle Ages: In the Renaissance, the material world for the first time became the sole inspiration for plastic and pictorial invention. For example, Gothic artists attempted portraiture and the nude as incidental parts of their paintings, but only in the Renaissance could Pollaiuolo create a group of nudes as the sole interest of his picture. The artistic content should be carefully distinguished from the subject matter. The Renaissance, except for the introduction of certain classical and poetic themes, continued to paint the Christian subjects but the artistic content was no longer Christian." (Sarton et al. 107) Renaissance preoccupation with the material world resulted in the development of sensuousness in art. Man and his world became the ultimate as spirit took a back seat for nearly two hundred years. But this period also marked the existence of art as a separate trade. In the Middle Ages, art was primarily used in cathedrals and altarpieces but with Renaissance, art gained prominence as a separate field and was no longer an extension of theology. Some famous pieces of Renaissance include Boticelli's The Birth of Venus (1484) and The Judith, Da Vinci's Mona Lisa (1404) and The Last Supper (1495), Durer's Night, Death and Devil (1513), Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel (1508-1512) and Raphael's Madonna with Christ and St. John the Baptist. References Peter Murray, The Art of the Renaissance. Praeger: New York 1963 George Sarton, Ferdinand Schevill, James Westfall Thompson; The Civilization of the Renaissance. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1929 Renaissance Artists": Retrieved online 9th October 2004: http://www.mce.k12tn.net/renaissance/renaissanceartists.htm Anatomy in the Renaissance" Retrieved online 9th October 2004: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/anat/hd_anat.htm…

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Cubism Cubist Sculpture Cubist Sculpture and Its

Cubism Cubist sculpture Cubist sculpture and its significance in the development of art Cubism as an art movement is considered one of the most revolutionary in art history. It was part of the modernist art movement during the Twentieth Century which altered the principles of art that had been dominant for centuries. Art previous to the cubism movement was traditional…

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Body and Nudity in the Nineteenth Century Art

¶ … Body in 19th Century Art Throughout the course of the 19th century, representations of the body - particularly the nude body - shifted considerably. As we will see in this paper through an examination of three paintings from different periods, the 19th century witnessed a remarkably fast transition, from the neoclassicism of Ingres to the realism of Courbet, and on to the modernism of Picasso. Through tracing the evolution of the way in which the nude female body was portrayed during this key period in the history of art, we will show how each artist under scrutiny responded to the innovations of earlier eras in rendering their own signature innovations. We will begin with an examination of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres's La Grande Odalisque. Painted in 1814, this work exemplifies Ingres's neoclassical tendencies - his desire to conserve traditional values of the nude in art. At the same time, it represents a shift towards the Romantic values that would come to signify a new tendency in Western art. It also represents the influence of the Mannerists, such as Parmigianino, in its distortion of the figure's anatomical form; for this reason, it could also be said to predict future experimentations with form in the work of modern painters such as Pablo Picasso. The painting depicts an odalisque, or a concubine. Unlike traditional nudes, Ingres's Grande Odalisque depicts the concubine with extra vertebrae, making her back look abnormally long. For a long time, this was believed to be an error, but it was later discovered in studies that Ingres drew in preparation that he had intended this all along. As her back is to us, it forms the foreground of the picture. Thus, what we find in La Grande Odalisque is an exoticization of the woman's nude body, rather than a realistic depiction. This makes sense, as the concubine's vocation is purely sexual. This fact is emphasized by the blank facial expression on the concubine's face as she stares out at the viewer. Gustave Courbet's the Sleepers was completed in 1866. By this point, painting had largely moved on from the neo-classical and romantic efforts of painters like Ingres, in favor of realism, a form of art that was meant to be faithful to everyday experience. The subject of the painting, two nude women holding each other in a post-coital embrace, shocked the French public when it was first completed,…

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Basic History of Western Art

¶ … History of Western Art Donatello's David is a clear influence of the classical style over the Renaissance art. The sculpture features a nude representation of carefully studied anatomy that depicts a certain level of feminity. It reminds of the Greek pursuit for beauty and realistic representation of the human figure, as well as the illustration of a major…

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19th Century Art First Question - Three

19th Century Art FIRST QUESTION - THREE PHASES OF CUBISM Considered one of the most influential art movements of the twentieth century, Cubism defined not only a transformative period of art but influenced the careers of the individual artists who directed the movement as well. Cubism is traditionally divided into three phases: The proto-cubist, or Cezanne Phase, when Picasso and…

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Conceive of a Work of Art

Art Conception: Early Renaissance Imagine a statue of Pallas Athena, the ancient goddess of wisdom and the protector of the city of Athens being born, as was alleged, from the skull of her father Zeus, or Jove (as the ancient Romans preferred to call the King of the gods). According to legend, Zeus feared that the daughter of one of…

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Dynamics Between Art & Technology

There are buildings in Japan that withstand earthquakes while sustaining minimal damage compared to buildings which are not constructed by the same methods. That is an example of advancement in architecture. Sculptors have a greater range of materials to choose from because of the kinds of tools that exist now as well as the materials that they may not have had access to before commercial airlines, the Internet, and other technologies. Art and technology of the 20th century were additionally influenced by increased contact and communication among the international communities and the rising strength of feminism in the latter part of the 20th century. Many of the most celebrated art forms of the 20th century came from within specific cultural groups such as Jazz, Rock and Roll, Cubism, Nouvelle Vague, and post modernism. Without the convergence of, diversity of, and massive expressions of the many minority groups including women, the art of the 20th century would not have reached the historical heights as it did. In many instances, the oppression and injustice the minority groups faced expressed itself as new art forms such as hip hop and feminism. There is always an ongoing conversation between art and popular culture. Many professionals in the art community traditionally separate art from popular culture. Art is supposed to be more thought provoking, non-traditional, and reaches a niche audience. Popular culture is mainstream, appeals to a wide audience, and stereotypically does not engage the intellect, other abstractions, nor does it function on a semiotic level. Art in the 20th century subsumed popular culture. The result was art that was both art and popular culture, creating an intriguing intersection. Andy Warhol was a Slovakian American artist who is famous for blurring these lines between art and popular culture. Art and technology separately as well as when they intersect have many effects upon society including the ways in which we perceive ourselves and perceive reality. References: Benjamin, W. (1935) The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction. Available from design.wishiewashie.com/HT5/WalterBenjaminTheWorkofArt.pdf. 2012 June 15. National Endowment for the Arts. (2009) Audience 2.0 -- How Technology Influences Arts Participation. National Endowment for the Arts, Available from www.nea.gov/research/new-media-report/New-Media-Report.pdf. 2012 June 17. Thakur, M.K. (2010) How technology influences arts and creativity. International Business Times, Available from http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/79404/20101107/digital-technology-art-dulwich-picture-gallery-iguides-iPod-touch-technology-austin-museum-of-digita.htm. 2012 June 16.…

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Sculpture an Unconventional Equestrian Statue

Moreover, the man's musculature is as chiseled and well defined as the horse's. The horse has met his match; free trade has met its match wit the FTC. Using the geometric forms common to socialist art, Lantz also offers a rather compelling view of American commerce at the height of Roosevelt's New Deal. "Man Controlling Trade" has few absolute parallels in the world of public art and sculpture. Most equestrian statues are rendered to glorify military leaders rather than to impart a democratic political message. A case in point is Andrea del Verrocchio's fifteenth century equestrian monument of Bartolommeo Colleoni, Campo dei Santi Giovanni e Paolo, in Venice, Italy. The very pedestal upon which the bronze statue is placed is much higher than that used by Lantz and the Federal Trade Commission in Washington. Whereas Lantz conveys the glory of the polis over unmitigated human greed, Verrocchio's monument depicts the singular glory of a military leader. In spite of their different themes, both statues do point out the importance of human endeavor: whether in the battle over territorial dispute or the battle over the right to remove barriers to market entry. Verrocchio is able to insinuate that a struggle has occurred prior to the victory scene he depicts; for if the soldier were not victorious, he would be immortalized on his trusty horse. Verrocchio's equestrian monument depicts both man and horse in perfectly poised positions. Also a sculpture in the round, the Verrochio monument can be viewed from all angles to appreciate the artist's intent. The horse is completely disciplined, evident in its erect and stately gait. This is completely counter to the compromised position of Lantz's horse. Like Lantz's horse, Verrocchio's is in motion, but he walks and does not struggle against his human rider. The rider and the horse are in harmony and symbiosis. Moreover, the horse in Verrocchio's statue is adorned with equestrian decor befitting a military man. The man wears armor including a helmet. Neither horse nor human in Lantz's statue wear any adornments. In Lantz's statue, the human and the horse are engaged in an epic battle and thus are disengaged from the viewer. In Verrocchio's, on the other hand, the horse and the rider both have their gaze proudly set on the onlookers below. The man and horse in the Venetian statue are relaxed and at ease; their muscles are not bulging as are…

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Art in Daily Life I Am Fortunate

Art in Daily Life I am fortunate to be able to say that I have art in almost every part of my daily life. For example, I wake up in the morning to music instead of the sound of an alarm, so my first moments of each day celebrate art and creativity. I find the transition from sleeping, dreaming, and imagination to the reality of daily life is eased by incorporating art into that routine. My morning art experience is continued over breakfast, because I read the comics while eating my breakfast. Although defining comics as fine art may be controversial, some of the drawings and artistic techniques in the funny pages are breathtaking, and the storylines in other strips, like Funky Winkerbean, tackle serious issues in a manner that is similar to a serious movie, though the presentation is somewhat slower. Even when I am not seeking out art in my daily life, it bombards me. Though their primary purpose is commercial, the advertisements that one sees every day on billboards or in magazines offer good examples of art. The photographers use light, shadow, and color to attract interest, making products……

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What Is Art Now?

¶ … art now? What is Art Today? One of the questions that the Art Now series brought to the table was "What is art today?" Today, it doesn't seem like there is a lack of art anywhere in the world. However, what constitutes 'real' art? And when we think of art, do we also have to think of its…

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Hellenistic Sculpture

¶ … sculpture from the Hellenistic period of Greek art called the "Kritios Boy" which was discovered in the late 1800s by archaeologists in the ruins of the Greek acropolis in Athens. The artist who created it is unknown. This statue represents Greek culture, especially the Hellenistic period in a variety of ways and styles. The "Kritios Boy" is a…

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David Notable Religious Events and

His version of the statue is a masterpiece because it is an amalgamation of his four strengths. Had he not be a Renaissance man of many talents, perhaps the statue would have reached the heights, fame, and adoration that it still enjoys in the modern period. David was not his final work by the least, but certain it was one of his greatest achievements and greatest exemplars of what Renaissance art & achievement overall. Michelangelo's David proves to be quite innovative from the other statues and from other forms of Renaissance art. For Michelangelo David proved to be a defining moment in his artistic career…Michelangelo was only twenty-six years old when he won the contract for David. He began work on Monday September 13th 1501 and it would take him two years to turn the marble block into the iconic image that we know and admire today…Michelangelo's David differs from earlier versions (see the three David's) in that it does not show the severed head of Goliath, instead the artist has depicted the moment before the young shepherd begins his battle with the giant Philistine. (Italian Renaissance-Art.com, 2012) Therefore one clear difference is the material which Michelangelo used over the other artists. He used marble that was intentionally aged for the purposed of sculpture. The other statues are bronze. Certainly another difference is that Michelangelo composed his work in a new century. The Renaissance period extends over a portion of the 15th and the 16th centuries. As those of us who have lived in the 20th and 21st centuries can attest to, every aspect of culture changes when the times change, even within the same movement, art form, organization, country, culture, even economic systems such as capitalism. David is shown alone in a relaxed pose without Goliath's head in Michelangelo's version. This moves the focus less upon the famous deed David is known for and more upon the man David and all he represented including as well as outside of his triumphant moment over Goliath. Furthermore, of the three veresions, Michelangelo's took the longest duration of time to compose. This meticulous attention to detail and craft additionally distinguishes this version from the other great versions of the statue. The story of David comes from the section of the Bible called the book of Samuel. David is an Israelite and Goliath was the greatest warrior on the opposing side of the…

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Lighting Techniques in Art the

An example of this are the sculpted figures in the portal of the cathedral at Reims, where the figures are not so much a part of the architecture, but rather independent sculptures of their own accord, which are worked into the building. The mannerisms of human forms were exaggerated greatly into a very elegant style, and realism in subjects came…

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Art as Political Statement it

As such, Marc's animals appeared in non-naturalistic colors, which has symbolist qualities such as blue for masculinity, while red and yellow stood for femininity. To depict yellow as a joyous color, Marc created The Yellow Cow in order to show the happiness and the female depicted by the cow leaping through the air (Pioch). As the political situation however worsened with the advent of the First World War, Marc's paintings reflected his fears. His animals became smaller and spread out, losing their qualities of calm and contemplation. In this way Marc makes the statement that even the artist as expressionist is not completely immune from the outside influence of fear and doubt (Pioch). Fauvism Fauvism was a mostly Parisian movement that did not last long, but had an intense influence on the art world. The use of color by fauvists is reminiscent of Marc's, as non-natural colors are used to depict emotion and style. Color was used as more than a mere means of shaping forms on canvass, however. Instead, colors were used in an almost barbaric manner, not entirely giving from to forms, but rather expressing the emotions of the painters. The style was rougher than that of Marc, almost to the extent where it was clumsy. Indeed, for artists such as Henri Matisse and Andre Derain, color became a force in itself, rather than a secondary form of shaping outlines. Color was thus used as an expression not only of an idea, but of the very emotion behind the idea. The result was complete artistic freedom in terms of using color. This was reflective of the variety of emotions experienced during this time in France. Artists turned away from the external situation towards the inner world, and used their emotions to make political comments ("Andre Derain"). Much like Marc above, for example, Vlaminck used color to depict his contrasting moods. An example is "The River" where the surface appears at peace, but the viewer is aware of an intense inner storm brewing. Derain's Charing Cross Bridge also depicted primitivism through the use of natural images in his paintings. The color and shape used in these works show a turning away from political turmoil and trouble to a wished for situation that may never depict itself. In this way the surface calm of "The River" represents the peace that is wished for, but that does not exist without the…

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Religious Art Works of Religious

Leonardo used a new and startling type of composition that was done in a realistic way. The central point of his perspective is Jesus Christ and uses lines in the architecture in order to create depth. His work transformed the last supper as a stronger and more realistic scene (Essential humanities, 2013). The Baroque period In this period we look at Tintoretto 'a.k.a' Jacopo Comin work of religious art .the particular work of art on focus is his painting on the last supper. This work of art was done between 1592 and 1594.the medium that was used in this painting was oil on canvas. The current location of the painting is Basilica di san Giorgio Maggiore, in Venice (Art and the Bible, 2012). Tintoretto did not use perfectly proportioned and symmetrical compositions that were used in High Renaissance instead he used energetic and dramatic compositions. He creates depth and drama in this painting through use of diagonal lines.in the painting he uses mannerist devices noticeably radically asymmetrical and complex composition. Religious art has gone through several changes as evident from these three works of art. These three paintings are of the same thing the last supper however they have been portrayed in different ways by the different artists. There is a difference in the paintings and elements used for instance creation of depth have been achieved differently in all these three paintings. Art has ben going through numerous transformations over the past as evidenced from the different art periods. The historical events that are behind these changes are the development and emergence of different art periods. This is because as the art periods emerged there were changes in the way art was done hence a contributing factor to these changes (Essential humanities, 2013). References Art and the Bible.(2012). The Last Supper. Retrieved February 24, 2014 from http://www.artbible.info/art/last-supper.html Essential humanities.(2013). Renaissance Painting. Retrieved February 24, 2014 from……

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Art Had Been Taken to a Whole

Art had been taken to a whole new level during the Renaissance period, which lasted from 1400 to 1600. People had been determined to change mostly everything in the time's society in order for it to become better and more pleasant to the ordinary individual. Artists have paid great attention to the great classics of Greek and Rome and to everything related to the human nature and anatomy. Consequently with the Renaissance artists coming forward in order to claim their values, the world had become keen on gathering as much information as it could about the planet. While artists have been considered to be simple manufacturers until the time, society learnt that they too could be comparable and even greater to writers or poets. Painting, sculpture, and architecture had evolved to the point where artists attempted to make their works perfect. The fact that wealthy Italian families were willing to sponsor education had provided a great advantage for the artists of the time. Strong-minded on having their own people creating art for them, rich families had invested large sums of money into having people of all social classes become educated. Art was no longer seen as something of little importance, as paintings and sculpture amazed people with their remarkable details. Artists experimented with new methods and incorporated rationality and proportionality into their works. Great attention had been paid to art in order for it to perfectly reproduce reality. Leonardo Da Vinci emerged as a great artist during the second phase of the Renaissance: the High Renaissance. Society had already been prepared to witness the creation of master pieces during the Early Renaissance period. The philosophical texts found in his father's home, and, the fact that his family had had a tradition in painting had made it possible for Da Vinci to interact with art. The artist proved his talent from an early age, when he would often surpass his master, Andrea del Verrochio, in craftiness. Being willing to have his works appreciated by all people, regardless of their backgrounds, Da Vinci sought to make his paintings and sculpture as real as he could, hoping that faithful reproductions of real life events would raise artistic sentiments in everyone. His paintings had three dimensional perspectives, as the artist went at providing his works with realism by giving them depth. According to Da Vinci, a great painter did not only need to have…

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Italian Baroque

Italian Baroque Art is the expression of artistic vision that carries the sign of the period of time when it was created. Baroque was born Italy from where it spread to France, Germany, Netherlands and Spain. The term "Baroque" was coined by 19th century critics, and refers to the period that started in late 16th century and ended towards the…

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Stylistic Elements of Art

Stylistic Elements of Art Jan Brueghel and Peter Paul Rubins "Allegory of Sight" depicts a painting of many paintings, sculptures, and other objects that relate to the visual world. A goddess or a muse sits in the picture's foreground. She has a piece of cloth draped over her shoulder, like a Grecian statue. A small, cupid-like figure addresses her in gesture as they both look at the same work of art. "Allegory of Sight" is a work of art that depicts artworks primarily of the human form and the sculptures and the faces from the paintings appear to gaze upon the figures, and seem almost as alive as the Grecian woman and child. The woman looks like a subject of art in her manner of dress, like a painting or sculpture come to life more than a woman. The title of the work indicates the symbolic nature of the painting. This work is a visual allegory, not a depiction of real life, something the artist has actually seen. For so many great works to reside in the same area of an artist's studio would be improbable. There are also less prominent objects in the studio that relate to the medium of sight, like a telescope and a globe, that seem out of place in an artist's studio. The scene is everyday in the sense that it could be an attic, but the prominence of great works of art, all housed together, and the dim light that contrasts with the stark light upon the woman and child's flesh takes the work completely out of the realm of the everyday. The lighting also makes the strange whiteness figures more prominent and the gaze of the paintings more lifelike. The vastness of the amount of works that are sprawled within the room makes the space seem huge and vast, as infinite as the nature of the sense of sight that it seeks to depict. The painting strives for a timeless quality, but it seems squarely located in late Renaissance ideals of allegorical painting, and holds true to traditional……

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Paintings Sculpture

Rodin, David It is amazing how much of a personal impact a sculpture can make, especially when that work of art is something like Auguste Rodin's "The Thinker." Unfortunately, because his sculpture is so well liked, many companies have reproduced it over and over again in smaller versions. Imagine what he would say when seeing all these replicas lined up in a store. It is believed that the Thinker was Rodin's favorite sculpture, so perhaps he would not have been upset. Originally, the work was called "The Poet" and commissioned by the Museum of Decorative Arts in Paris as part of a series for Dante's the Divine Comedy where each piece was to represent another of the characters in the epic. The statue was to show Dante reflecting on what he saw below. Yet, it is believed that Rodin considered the figure in a broader viewpoint with wider concepts. It is a man who is deep in contemplation with his hand in his chin, right elbow on the left knee and curved position to give a feeling of and stillness and motion at the same time (Chilvers 524) What is also incredible is that the Thinker was Rodin's first public piece. It was placed in front of the Pantheon in 1906 during an unstable political time, which turned it into a socialist symbol. In 1922, with the excuse that the statue created a hindrance during public ceremonies, it was sent to the garden of the Hotel Biron that had changed its name to the Rodin Museum. Another example was placed over the tomb of Rodin in Meudon. When Rodin began doing his sculptures, they were often seen as "shocking," because of their realism and ability to move people emotionally. Very few artists for hundreds of years had been able to catch the bodily form as he did with a crossover into the artistic stages such as Post-impressionism, Symbolism and Art Nouveau (Selz 113). Rodin was very protective of the Thinker, which he had spent considerable time producing. First, he experimented with the seated figure, including a complete turning form with modeling that followed a Michelangelo style. He also had a large-scale torso of his own Ugolino in the studio that he used as a guide. The first stages and a small scale "maquette" were made in 1880. The hair still has the cap portrayed with Dante, while the lower section…

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World of Art

¶ … art, especially the visual arts, the artist presents the audience with a specific view of his or her personal world. In other words, the world according to the perception of the artist (the Visual World 10). The artist therefore tends to explain and delineate the world according to his or her own reactions to and perceptions not only of the landscape, but also of the social world and time period in which he finds himself. This is true of every period in art, and perhaps most notably in the Renaissance period. The Renaissance marks a complete change of direction in art. As such, the total change in perception of the world and art itself makes this period one of the most colorful and interesting in the history of the visual arts. In this, the artists of the time were dynamic in their perceptions and revelations of the "new" world as they saw it (the Visual World 16). According to Mark Harden, the word "Renaissance" was coined for the first time during the 19th century. Meaning "rebirth," it describes the general revival in intellectual and artistic circles, which is based upon a revival in the study of Classical literature and art. This revival began in Italy during the early 14th century, and spread to Europe during the following two centuries. As a result of works such as the Da Vinci Code and the film based upon it, it is little wonder that Da Vinci is probably the most prominent artistic figure of the Renaissance period. This reputation is well deserved. Although from an insignificant background, Leonardo was a man of many and various talents. Indeed, according to Harden, he was almost too gifted, leaving him with little time to truly develop any one gift to its true potential. His superlative male beauty, excellent singing voice, mathematical prowess and scientific daring combine to leave the world with a heritage that has outlasted his own and many successive lifetimes. He did however tend to treat his painting lightly, preferring to pay more attention to his mathematical and scientific endeavors. Nonetheless, works that do survive, such as the Mona Lisa, is truly indicative of the artist's skill as well as the spirit of the age. Another iconic artist of this age was Michelangelo. Like Da Vinci, Michelangelo was also multitalented, although he concentrate his work in the arts and construction rather than…

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Painting Conversion of Saul

In terms of dramatic presentation, it is abundantly clear that Michelangelo's rendering of the CONVERSION OF SAUL is far superior to that of Caravaggio's rendering of the same painting. This superiority is based upon several facts. First, Michelangelo has long been considered as the quintessential genius of the Renaissance, whether in painting, sculpture or architecture. Second, it was well-known during his lifetime that Caravaggio cared little for the classical masters as compared to Michelangelo. Thus, he drew bitter criticism from many of his contemporaries. One unknown critic even went so far as to called Caravaggio "the Anti-Christ of painting" (Horst de la Croix, 594). This view of Michelangelo's superiority related to the CONVERSION OF SAUL can be supported by comparing several artistic qualities of both artists. With Caravaggio, his rendering of the CONVERSION OF SAUL was refused on the grounds that it lacked propriety, meaning that the overall presentation of Saul's conversion is more of an accident than a great miracle. The young man who has obviously drunk too has fallen from his horse, yet Caravaggio provides no indication……

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Art One-Point Linear Perspective in

Conclusion The conventions of single point perspective are often presumed to be essential to a 'good' work of art. However, this is only relatively true for a brief period in Western history. The reason for the acceptance of this convention is linked to the rise of science, the secular spirit of the Renaissance and ideals of a detailed representation of reality, among many other factors and variables in Western history. However, this convention has been deeply questioned by modern artists, especially if we take into account the rise of abstract art in the Twentieth Century. The history of art is however not simple or linear. While perspective has been critiqued by modern artists who wish to extend the boundaries of perceived reality and its representation, perspective is still used and accepted by many artists today. Perspective has in some cases been used to distort conventional ideas of reality and to suggest other levels of meaning. On the other hand many artists and artistic movements have rejected single-point perspective as inadequate in the creation of a relevant and meaningful artistic space. References Edgerton, S. ( 2006). Picturing the Mind's Eye. Tampa University. Journal of Art History, 1. Retrieved from http://journal.utarts.com/articles.php?id=4&type=paper Op Art History Part I: A History of Perspective in Art. Retrieved from http://www.op- art.co.uk/history/perspective/ Reverspective. Retrieved from http://www.msichicago.org/scrapbook/scrapbook_exhibits/reverspective/history.html Littler, S. ( 2004). A Linear Perspective to Art. Retrieved from http://www2.hmc.edu/www_common/hmnj/littler.pdf What Is Perspective? Retrieved from http://www.artic.edu/aic/education/sciarttech/2d1.html'…

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U.S.A., Germany and England Were the Industrial

¶ … U.S.A., Germany and England were the industrial and technological centers in the nineteenth century, than France was the dictator of culture and art tendencies that set cultural standard of the modern world in art, literature, sculpture and fashion. French painters and artists experimented with colors, shape and themes of works presenting works that reflected different aspects of every day life. Still the main merit of French painters of the nineteenth century and in general of most of their contemporaries is that they developed and established a new concept of art, which was democratic, available and understandable by representatives of different classes as it demonstrated universal values and had a universal esthetic meaning. The paper discusses two paintings of French artists that refer to different historical periods of art history, to different art styles and that present different themes. The first painting is "Liberty Leading the People" by Eugene Delacroix, work that glorified French revolution of 1830; and the second one is Claudet Monet's "Boulevard des Capucines," which showed the daily life of Paris center of art and culture. The first painting refers to French progressive Romanticism, and the second one to Impressionism. Eugene Delacroix, was born April,26-1798. He studied art in 1818-22 in Paris. In his painting he presented progressively new themes (from history, literature), full of dramatism and realism which embodied ideals of freedom, liberty on the hand with firm and courageous characters. He contributed to French art by presenting impulsive manner of painting characterized by unusual expressiveness of color, diversity of semitones and reflexes. (according to Painting and the Journal of Eugene Delacroix) In 1831 Eugene Delacroix showed his "Liberty Leading the People" in Paris salon, which was dedicated to "three glorious days" of July revolution, 1830. The power, democratic manner and brave artistic manner of the painting caused shock and admiration of viewers. The painting was quickly returned to Delacroix as government officials were afraid of its revolutionary appeal. It was returned to public in 1855 when it came to Louvers. Inspired by the revolutionary events of 1830, Delacroix decided to reflect his impressions in the painting that would demonstrate the main value of the nation the seek of freedom and democracy. This power is presented in the image of young beautiful woman, who leads the crowd of rise. Her fine image, energy and internal freedom may compare her to Greek goodness of victory Nica.…

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Early Renaissance

Western Civilization The Early Renaissance The word Renaissance means "rebirth" and people living during the time began to see themselves as "reborn" from medieval, feudal times. The Early Renaissance formed the backbone for the movement that continued through several centuries, and it was encouraged by a new interest in learning about the ancient Greeks and Romans and their teachings, their democracy, and their thirst for knowledge. In fact, leaders of the movement designed Florence as a "new Athens" after discovering many books and writings from ancient times. The characteristics of this early movement were nearly all intellectual. People read more, patronized and supported the arts, and encouraged learning, personal and civic growth, and generally emerged from the "dark ages." The arts flourished during this time, and no one really knows why. However, numerous artists rose to prominence during the Early Renaissance, and influenced those who came after. Public buildings were adorned with carvings and sculpture, painting thrived, and churches were decorated with paintings, frescoes, sculpture, and beautiful decorations inside and out. The Renaissance celebrated beauty and intellect, and the two combined to produce some of the best artwork and craftsmen the world has……

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Art Culture: Public Space Art

This is because the 20th century public sphere constitutes organized individuals that exert their influence over public debate and sphere institutionally. This public cannot appreciate the placement of public art in the public sphere, unlike the 18th century public. According to Habermaes, public art gained popularity in the 18th century, since the public was subject to political decisions and interests.…

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Metropolitan Museum of Art: Analysis

Three questions which arise from this work are: Why was Godelieve specifically chosen for this altarpiece, versus Christ, Mary, or other saints? Why were these specific incidents from Godelieve's life chosen for the different 'comic strip' panels of the work? And to what extent is the design of the overall work reflective of the conventions of the period -- and to what extent is the style or content unique? One possible paper topic would be to compare this depiction of Godelieve with the lives of other saints depicted on altarpieces created by other Flemish painters of the same era, comparing both their similarities and differences. Little is known about this relatively obscure saint by contemporary viewers of the work and a comparison with similar works would help illuminate some of these questions about her significance. Another possible paper topic would be to compare the work with altarpieces from the Italian Renaissance or different locations and eras of history, to highlight the uniqueness of the style of the work. A final, related but slightly different paper topic would be to examine the significance of food in the lives of female saints. As seen in the depiction of Godelieve, women are often shown feeding people, and examining how this motif was treated by artists of the Middle Ages, versus depictions of male saints and their relationship with food, would help to better understand how female holiness in relationship to the female body and feminine nurturing qualities was viewed during this period of Christianity. Works Cited Pioch, Nicholas. "Altarpiece." Web Museum. 14 Oct 2002. [19 Feb 2013]

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Last Supper Leonardo Divinci Analysis

Conclusion It can be concluded from the above discussion that the Leonardo tried to incorporate numerological clues to indicate that the room reflects the universe that is visible to man at whom the Christ is at the center. The three windows behind them provide an idea into the world of eternity or paradise and the Christ is at the perspective center of this point as well. Judas having a knife in his back is considerably saved by Leonardo as the knife is another traditional element in Last Supper paintings, which indicates the hostility of man to the traitor (Schramm, Schwarte and Lazardzig 2008, Veltman 2008, Dominiczak 2012). It further suggests the fact that Judas would die soon but at the first look, the hand holding the knife belongs to no one in the painting and Peter is restraining it from the murderous action. It can be concluded that Leonardo appears to deliver by placing Judas with the remaining Apostles in the painting that there is an element of evil in every human being and the people are required to accept it just like they have accepted the fact of death and suffering (Schramm, Schwarte and Lazardzig 2008, Dominiczak 2012, Rosenberg 2002, Veltman 2008). It is the matter of the fact that the painting is considerably a grand complication for the entire globe as there is so much meaning with different layers of complexity apparent that can be reinterpreted by the modern pales in comparison. It is also found in the paper that the Jesus Christ is having a facial expression of resigned sadness along with the assured and regal poise. The movement as observed in the painting has isolated Jesus while leaving him alone at the center of the composition (Veltman……

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Renaissance Art Patrons and Their

Modern art has more generally been funded by the artist before it is sold, but there are still individual patrons who want to see the great arts continued. "Collectors Friedrich and de Menil established the Dia Art Foundation in 1974 to support contemporary art, especially large-scale minimalist works by West Coast "light and space" artist James Turrell and New York light and sculpture artist Dan Flavin" (Sassi), so the spirit of patronage continues. There are many galleries which continue to function as patrons by commissioning the works of established and up-and-coming artists, so their galleries will become well-known and patronized by wealthy art collectors. So, the idea of patronage is alive and well, it has just shifted in form. But, the great works that are presently being created may one day hang in a museum next to the "Mona Lisa." Works Cited Jones, Jonathon. "Arts Cuts? Pah -- Let's Hear it for Patrons." Guardian, 9 June, 2010. Web. Reiss, Sheryl E., & David G. Wilkins. Beyond Isabella: Secular Women Patrons of the Art in Renaissance Italy, 2009. Kirksville, MO: Truman State University Press. Sassi, Janet. "Art Patronage Played Role in 20th Century Minimalist Movement." Inside Fordham. Web. Stockton. "Survey of Western Art: Baroque Art." 2010. Web. Zwanger, Meryl. "Women and Art……

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Visual Arts Salvador Dali -

Dali believed that Surrealism operated on the plane of reality itself, liberating the consciousness by releasing thought and desire through acts of moral and aesthetic subversion. Moreover, Dali separated imagination from inspiration, saying, "Imagination is something which is put together in a more or less inspired way...is the spout whose force obeys our will....inspiration is something involuntary, like the geyser which bursts forth unexpectedly...raising its salty and boiling jet to unexpected heights of passion" (Lubar 12). In the words of Donald Kuspit, a new art "must first show that it has democratic appeal...to those generally unschooled in art or not professionally interested in it. Then it must suffer a period of aristocratic rejection by those schooled in an accepted and... traditional form of art...those with vested interest in a known art and concerned with protecting it at all costs" (History pg). Such was the career of Salvador Dali, to establish a new art form, expressing more than mere feelings and realistic images on canvas. In 1944, Jackson Pollock expressed, "...how little contemporary action artists really understood the creative, intellectual explorations that Dali undertook to create 'something new'" (Lubar 8). The importance of Dali's imagery and unique realism upon the world of art cannot be overestimated. His paintings capture one's attention and hold the imagination with their eerie and wholly believable quality perhaps more than any other artist. Many have expressed that each time they view a painting, they find something new they had missed before. Limp watches, figures and forms melting and melding into the canvas amid eerie landscapes are his most recognizable images. Regarding the metaphysical ponderings of symbolism, Dali said, "Things have no meaning whatever beyond their strictest objectivity...herein lies their miraculous poetry" (Lubar 11). Dali probed a deeply erotic dimension through his work, exploring his own psyche and dreams in his painting, sculptures, jewelry, furniture designs, and movies (Tansey 1076). He will forever be regarded as one of the great masters of Surrealism. Works Cited History of Surrealism. http://www.applied-psychology.org/005_the_gallery.html. A accessed 10-02-2002). Lubar, Robert S. Dali: The Salvador Dali Museum Collection. Bulfinch Press Book. 1993; pp.8,11,12. Morse, Reynolds A. Salvador Dali 1910-1965. First Edition. New York Graphic Society. 1965; pp.9,11. Tansey, Richard G.; Kleiner, Fred S. "Early Twentieth Century: The Establishment of Modernist Art: Salvador Dali (1904-1989)." Gardner's Art Through The Ages. Tenth Edition. Harcourt Brace College Publishers. 1996; p.1076.…

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Renaissance Sculpture the Division of

Michelangelo's David seems completely serene and confident. Donatello did not carve detail in the eyes of David, while Michelangelo did render the iris. Moreover, Donatello found it striking to have David proudly display the vanquished Goliath. This echoes the classical stance of victor standing atop the vanquished. While both Davids are influence heavily by the classical arts and humanist philosophy, it is clear that by Michelangelo's time, all Gothic remnants were cast off of Italian sculpture. Michelangelo ascribed to what Trewin Copplestone calls "the criteria of classical excellence," (21). The art of the High Renaissance was a culmination and successful combination of the classics and Christianity. Moreover, art became endowed with spiritual power during this time. Just as Vasari deferred to Michelangelo as "Il Divino," the artist was generally likened to God, just as God was the artist of mankind. Michelangelo's contribution to the divinely-inspired art of the sixteenth century was his "intense emotional involvement" with his work (Avery 168). This corresponded with the increasing attention paid to the names and personas of the artists themselves (Copplestone 21). For all his contributions to the sculptural arts of Italy, Donatello was never quite recognized as a god in his time. This probably reflects the changing social function of art from Donatello's time in the early Renaissance to Michelangelo's time in the so-called High Renaissance. Some art historians go so far as to suggest that the works of Donatello and Michelangelo resonate with "political symbolism," (Sullivan). In any case, Donatello paved the way for Michelangelo and other Renaissance artists to express a humanist, classical vision within Christian terms. Works Cited Avery, Charles. Florentine Renaissance Sculpture. London: Charles Avery, 1970. Copplestone, Trewin. Michelangelo. New York: Regency House, 1996. Olson, Roberta J.M. Italian Renaissance Sculpture. London: Thames and Hudson, 1992. Sullivan,……

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Humanities Terminology Humanities: Humanities Refer

" (See reference 3) But style is not limited to the field of writing alone though it may be more pronounced here. Style can be seen in almost everything that forms creative expression; in fact even the way someone talks, walks or conducts himself becomes his or her unique style. It is due to this style that we can tell people apart or enjoy one's company and avoid another's. It is style that makes a writer popular. For example there are thousands of ghost and magic stories around but there was something about J.K Rowling's writing style that led to the massive success of her Harry Potter series. Culture: Culture refers to art, literature and social norms, almost everything that reveals something special or unique about a group or society. Culture is a set of principles, traditions, practices and values that sets one group or society apart from another. When we say that African-Americans have a culture distinctly different from that of White Americans, what we are referring to is the long history and heritage that gives both these groups their distinct identity. Culture is therefore everything about a group that makes it unique among host of other groups in the world. For example Irish people would have certain customs and traditions that people in Africa might find unique and fascinating and vice versa. These customs lay the foundation of a culture but culture also includes all forms of art. When we study British literature, we notice that it is distinctly different from Russian literature or German books for that matter, this is because of the influence of culture only. A difference in the literature or art of the same group is then due to style and not culture. It is important to bear in mind so we can clearly understand the differences in various cultures. Genius: Genius refers to intellect of a very high order. It is due to this intellect that we are introduced to something new and different in the otherwise old and dull fields. For example every painter can paint but if Michelangelo was a genius because he brought a fresh perspective to painting. Similarly every person who is regarded as a genius is something with extraordinary intellect and a unique passion for his work. References Aiken (1998): Nancy Aiken, The Biological Origins of Art, London: Praeger, 1998 Gombrich (1995): E.H. Gombrich, The Story of Art,…

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Baroque Period Annotated Bibliography Chaffee,

The naturalism and dramatic impact of Caravaggio's work, coupled with his insistent realism, are what made his artwork so famous. Martin, John Rupert. Baroque. New York: Harper & Row, 1977. This is an introductory book for understanding Baroque artists and their tremendous variety. Martin defines the Baroque characteristics and how powerful naturalism and the acceptance of sensual experience dominated the…

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