"Art / Painting / Sculpture" Essays 1-69

123. . .Last ›
X Filters 

Public Art and Public Spaces Term Paper

… While the political content of public art has lessened to some extent in more recent decades, it remains in general inherently more subversive than unifying. Rachel Whiteread's 1993-4 sculpture, titled "House." The concrete piece replaces what was once an actual… [read more]

Bust of Antinous the Piece Term Paper

… These works of art contributed to society in general because they were often displayed publicly so the people could admire them, and people decorated their homes and buildings with them, adding to an overall cultural appreciation of the arts and sculpture.

In earlier cultures, there was little "spare" time to create beautiful works of art simply for their enjoyment, so these delicate and detailed works of art indicate there was more leisure time -- time to enjoy art for art's sake, and time for members of society to create it. People were interested in creating beautiful places to live and work, instead of simply surviving. In addition, the fact that so much Roman sculpture, like this piece, have survived to this day illustrates how important these artworks were to the people and the Roman culture. They preserved them…… [read more]

Diane Blake Art Exhibition King Essay

… Summative assessment (if time) with critique paragraph on other student's artwork.

Relation to the Gallery Experience: Students will glean experience in viewing non-traditional art and the vocabulary to explain what they see and feel. Using Bloom's taxonomy, the importance of this lesson is moving from rote knowledge up the pyramid through explaining about the art; applying their vocabulary and experience to other artwork; analyzing what the artist did; evaluating their work and other student's; and creating something new based on past knowledge.

Reflection: This is a lesson in which so many other multidiscipline parts of the curriculum could be interwoven: music, history, social studies, science, etc. The success of the lesson is based on an experimental paradigm; one in which the individual looks beyond the obvious and leans to use constructivism to interpret and describe nonlinear and non-tangible environmental issues. The personal pedagogical value is focused on helping students develop and hone their analytical skills, and teaching them how to appreciate artistic concepts.


Art with Al. (2013). King Island, Bass Strait by Dianne Blake. Artwithal.com. Retrieved from: http://www.artwithal.com.au/exhibitions/king_island_bass_strait/artwork/

Board of Studies, NSW. (2006) Creative…… [read more]

Art History and Contemporary Essay

… Perhaps this is the genesis of the very nature for humans that we need to continuously explore and explain the unknown. And, different cultures in time and location find different approaches and solutions to this -- but in similar ways that lead us to believe that there is perhaps more to this myth and realization of myth through art than simple repetitions of archetypal themes. In a sense, then, it is necessary for us to continually recraft the past so that we may acculturate towards the future. Art then, in its many forms, serves as the catalyst for this journey.

We can certainly understand this if we look at the global oral tradition that turns into folk art as an expression of culture -- with many of those folk themes speaking to similar issues between people as they do today; certainly pointing out the universality of art and being.

The late 20th and early 21st centuries then brought us moving from dismantling the history of art as globalism progressed to defending the reasons for art in the first place.

The arts are an important part of our culture, a vital part of our society, and a vehicle for communication that expresses more than words or language -- and are timeless. As the process of globalization brings us closer as humans -- so does the realization that it is art that helps us retain and regain our humanity. As technology advanced, though, we remain tied to the past through the cultural aspects of the common themes that are present in almost every society -- the certain unconscious forces that originate both at the individual and cultural level as a way to learn how we adapted and must continue to adapt.


Bittarello, M.B. (2008). "Re-Crafting the Past: The Complex Relationship

Between Myth and Ritual." Pomegranate: The International Journal of Pagan Studies. 10(2): 214.

Croucher, Globalization and Belonging: The Politics of Identity in a Changing World. New York: Roman and Littlefield, 2004.

Fraser, A. "From the Critique of Institutions to an Institution of Critique." Artforum. 44 (1): September, 2005, Retrieved from: http://occupymuseums.org/press/Andrea-Fraser_From-the-Critique-of-Institutions-to-an-Institution-of-Critique.pdf

Hauser. B. "From Oral Tradition to 'Folk Art' -- Reevaluating Bengali Scroll Paintings. Asian Folklore Studies. 61 (1): 105-22, 2002.

Kwon, M. "Itinerant Artists," in One Place After Another. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002.

Smith, C. International Trade and Globalization. New York: Stokesfield Press, 2007.

Tolstoy, L. (n.d.) "What is Art?" Retrieved from: http://www.csulb.edu/~jvancamp/361r14.html

C. Smith, International Trade and Globalization. (New York: Stokesfield Press, 2007).

S. Croucher, Globalization and Belonging: The Politics of Identity in a Changing World. (New York: Roman and Littlefield, 2004).

Leo Tolstoy. "What is Art?" Retrieved from: http://www.csulb.edu/~jvancamp/361r14.html

Miwon Kwon. "Itinerant Artists," in One Place After Another. (Cambrdige, MA: MIT Press, 2002), p. 49.

M.B. Bittarello, "Re-Crafting the Past: The Complex "Re-Crafting the Past: The Complex Relationship

Between Myth and Ritual." Pomegranate: The International Journal of Pagan Studies. 10(2): 214.

See Beatrix Hauser. "From Oral Tradition to 'Folk Art' -- Reevaluating Bengali Scroll Paintings. Asian Folklore… [read more]

Whitney Collection, What Qualities Essay

… These elements are important, because they are showing how art is heading in a direction of capturing these images. As a result, this is giving the viewer a sense of appreciation for them and ideas that they will see. Where, they are able to transcend the time when they were created, which is showing a sense of realism and how various shifts could be occurring. Once this takes place, it is giving everyone a sense of awareness and enlightenment about these events. ("Whitney Collection")

At the same time, modern art is heading in a direction that is taking on more abstract concepts. Two examples of this can be seen in the works that were created by: Jessica Stockholder and Pat Steir. In both pieces of art, there is the utilization of various dark and light colors on the canvas, to shape how it is being interpreted by the viewer. In the case of Stockholder, her canvas is untitled to show how she is allowing the audience to make their own interpretations about the underlying meanings. While at the same time, Steir is taking this concept and is applying it to the universe through the use of: a blue background, with grey and red overlapping it. Even though this may not be an actual depiction of the Milky Way, the utilization of this technique is allowing the viewer to open their minds. This is important, because it is taking these ideas and recreating them in such a way, to instill a unique interpretation in the minds of the individual. Once this occurs, everyone will be able to have their own views of the work and its underlying meaning. ("Whitney Collection")

When you step back and analyze the direction that modern art is going, it is clear that there are two major influences that have been quickly emerging (realism and abstract concepts). Realism is used to show the various images of contemporary society by: highlighting how this is shaping the way the audience is looking at everyday events. Once this occurs, the reader will have a greater sense of appreciation for these images and their underlying meanings. While the different abstract concepts, are being utilized to shape how someone is interpreting a wide variety of events. As, the artists are using different colors to: create a kaleidoscope of light and dark images (which is a reflection of various concepts). These elements are important, because they are showing how the future of art is embracing these ideas to create another way of understanding these works. ("Whitney Collection")


"Doug Aitken." Whitney Collection, 2011. Web. 23 Jun. 2011

"John Coplans." Whitney Collection, 2011. Web. 23 Jun. 2011.

"Whitney Collection." Whitney Collection, 2011. Web. 23 Jun. 2011

http://whitney.org/Collection/PatSteir/200122… [read more]

Art Paintings and Analysis Essay

… ¶ … works of art. The two pieces I have selected for comparative analysis are Water Lilies by Claude Monet, and Day of the God by Paul Guaguin. The criteria of my analytic comparison are going to be based on… [read more]

Russian Constructivism Artistic and Architectural Term Paper

… 11).

The largest peaks for the success of women artists developed in the pre-revolutionary period and during the Constructivist period of the 1920's. As Yablonskaya notes, during the late 1920's and early 1930's, women artists led two contrary developments, "one… [read more]

Portraiture: Van Eyck, Van Der Weyden Research Paper

… Portraiture: Van Eyck, Van Der Weyden and Fouquet

Jan van Eyck, (1390-1441), has been touted as the pioneer of Dutch fine painting and the preeminent orchestrator of the oil painting technique; although some argue that he did not invent it… [read more]

Renaissance Art Term Paper

… " (Murray: 7)

Renaissance in Art is marked by extreme emphasis on the human body and the individual. The material world was the sole focal point of artistic expression during this period. Human anatomy became a favorite subject of interest and thus we find more nudes under this movement than any other in art history accentuating humanism and individualism that marked the period. Everything took on new meaning as painters focused on the material world, sensations, sensuality and man's connection with the obvious. Even old Christian beliefs had lost their spiritual touch and were no longer being painted with the religious zeal of the Middle Ages:

In the Renaissance, the material world for the first time became the sole inspiration for plastic and pictorial invention. For example, Gothic artists attempted portraiture and the nude as incidental parts of their paintings, but only in the Renaissance could Pollaiuolo create a group of nudes as the sole interest of his picture. The artistic content should be carefully distinguished from the subject matter. The Renaissance, except for the introduction of certain classical and poetic themes, continued to paint the Christian subjects but the artistic content was no longer Christian." (Sarton et al. 107)

Renaissance preoccupation with the material world resulted in the development of sensuousness in art. Man and his world became the ultimate as spirit took a back seat for nearly two hundred years. But this period also marked the existence of art as a separate trade. In the Middle Ages, art was primarily used in cathedrals and altarpieces but with Renaissance, art gained prominence as a separate field and was no longer an extension of theology.

Some famous pieces of Renaissance include Boticelli's The Birth of Venus (1484) and The Judith, Da Vinci's Mona Lisa (1404) and The Last Supper (1495), Durer's Night, Death and Devil (1513), Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel (1508-1512) and Raphael's Madonna with Christ and St. John the Baptist.


Peter Murray, The Art of the Renaissance. Praeger: New York 1963

George Sarton, Ferdinand Schevill, James Westfall Thompson; The Civilization of the Renaissance. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1929

Renaissance Artists": Retrieved online 9th October 2004:


Anatomy in the Renaissance" Retrieved online 9th October 2004:

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/anat/hd_anat.htm… [read more]

Dynamics Between Art and Technology Essay

… There are buildings in Japan that withstand earthquakes while sustaining minimal damage compared to buildings which are not constructed by the same methods. That is an example of advancement in architecture. Sculptors have a greater range of materials to choose from because of the kinds of tools that exist now as well as the materials that they may not have had access to before commercial airlines, the Internet, and other technologies.

Art and technology of the 20th century were additionally influenced by increased contact and communication among the international communities and the rising strength of feminism in the latter part of the 20th century. Many of the most celebrated art forms of the 20th century came from within specific cultural groups such as Jazz, Rock and Roll, Cubism, Nouvelle Vague, and post modernism. Without the convergence of, diversity of, and massive expressions of the many minority groups including women, the art of the 20th century would not have reached the historical heights as it did. In many instances, the oppression and injustice the minority groups faced expressed itself as new art forms such as hip hop and feminism.

There is always an ongoing conversation between art and popular culture. Many professionals in the art community traditionally separate art from popular culture. Art is supposed to be more thought provoking, non-traditional, and reaches a niche audience. Popular culture is mainstream, appeals to a wide audience, and stereotypically does not engage the intellect, other abstractions, nor does it function on a semiotic level. Art in the 20th century subsumed popular culture. The result was art that was both art and popular culture, creating an intriguing intersection. Andy Warhol was a Slovakian American artist who is famous for blurring these lines between art and popular culture. Art and technology separately as well as when they intersect have many effects upon society including the ways in which we perceive ourselves and perceive reality.


Benjamin, W. (1935) The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction. Available from design.wishiewashie.com/HT5/WalterBenjaminTheWorkofArt.pdf. 2012 June 15.

National Endowment for the Arts. (2009) Audience 2.0 -- How Technology Influences Arts Participation. National Endowment for the Arts, Available from www.nea.gov/research/new-media-report/New-Media-Report.pdf. 2012 June 17.

Thakur, M.K. (2010) How technology influences arts and creativity. International Business Times, Available from http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/79404/20101107/digital-technology-art-dulwich-picture-gallery-iguides-iPod-touch-technology-austin-museum-of-digita.htm. 2012 June 16.… [read more]

Sculpture an Unconventional Equestrian Statue Essay

… Moreover, the man's musculature is as chiseled and well defined as the horse's. The horse has met his match; free trade has met its match wit the FTC. Using the geometric forms common to socialist art, Lantz also offers a rather compelling view of American commerce at the height of Roosevelt's New Deal.

"Man Controlling Trade" has few absolute parallels in the world of public art and sculpture. Most equestrian statues are rendered to glorify military leaders rather than to impart a democratic political message. A case in point is Andrea del Verrocchio's fifteenth century equestrian monument of Bartolommeo Colleoni, Campo dei Santi Giovanni e Paolo, in Venice, Italy. The very pedestal upon which the bronze statue is placed is much higher than that used by Lantz and the Federal Trade Commission in Washington. Whereas Lantz conveys the glory of the polis over unmitigated human greed, Verrocchio's monument depicts the singular glory of a military leader. In spite of their different themes, both statues do point out the importance of human endeavor: whether in the battle over territorial dispute or the battle over the right to remove barriers to market entry. Verrocchio is able to insinuate that a struggle has occurred prior to the victory scene he depicts; for if the soldier were not victorious, he would be immortalized on his trusty horse.

Verrocchio's equestrian monument depicts both man and horse in perfectly poised positions. Also a sculpture in the round, the Verrochio monument can be viewed from all angles to appreciate the artist's intent. The horse is completely disciplined, evident in its erect and stately gait. This is completely counter to the compromised position of Lantz's horse. Like Lantz's horse, Verrocchio's is in motion, but he walks and does not struggle against his human rider. The rider and the horse are in harmony and symbiosis. Moreover, the horse in Verrocchio's statue is adorned with equestrian decor befitting a military man. The man wears armor including a helmet. Neither horse nor human in Lantz's statue wear any adornments. In Lantz's statue, the human and the horse are engaged in an epic battle and thus are disengaged from the viewer. In Verrocchio's, on the other hand, the horse and the rider both have their gaze proudly set on the onlookers below. The man and horse in the Venetian statue are relaxed and at ease; their muscles are not bulging as are the muscles in Lantz's statue.

Both Verrocchio's and Lantz's equestrian monuments are sculptures in the round that are rendered on a massive scale and placed prominently in public places. Both sculptures depict the relationship between a man and a horse, a relationship with symbolic as well as literal meaning. However, the form, style, and political intent of the two monuments vary considerably.… [read more]

Cubism Cubist Sculpture Term Paper

… Cubism

Cubist sculpture

Cubist sculpture and its significance in the development of art

Cubism as an art movement is considered one of the most revolutionary in art history. It was part of the modernist art movement during the Twentieth Century… [read more]

Body and Nudity in the Nineteenth Century Art Term Paper

… ¶ … Body in 19th Century Art

Throughout the course of the 19th century, representations of the body - particularly the nude body - shifted considerably. As we will see in this paper through an examination of three paintings from different periods, the 19th century witnessed a remarkably fast transition, from the neoclassicism of Ingres to the realism of Courbet, and on to the modernism of Picasso. Through tracing the evolution of the way in which the nude female body was portrayed during this key period in the history of art, we will show how each artist under scrutiny responded to the innovations of earlier eras in rendering their own signature innovations.

We will begin with an examination of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres's La Grande Odalisque. Painted in 1814, this work exemplifies Ingres's neoclassical tendencies - his desire to conserve traditional values of the nude in art. At the same time, it represents a shift towards the Romantic values that would come to signify a new tendency in Western art. It also represents the influence of the Mannerists, such as Parmigianino, in its distortion of the figure's anatomical form; for this reason, it could also be said to predict future experimentations with form in the work of modern painters such as Pablo Picasso. The painting depicts an odalisque, or a concubine. Unlike traditional nudes, Ingres's Grande Odalisque depicts the concubine with extra vertebrae, making her back look abnormally long. For a long time, this was believed to be an error, but it was later discovered in studies that Ingres drew in preparation that he had intended this all along. As her back is to us, it forms the foreground of the picture. Thus, what we find in La Grande Odalisque is an exoticization of the woman's nude body, rather than a realistic depiction. This makes sense, as the concubine's vocation is purely sexual. This fact is emphasized by the blank facial expression on the concubine's face as she stares out at the viewer.

Gustave Courbet's the Sleepers was completed in 1866. By this point, painting had largely moved on from the neo-classical and romantic efforts of painters like Ingres, in favor of realism, a form of art that was meant to be faithful to everyday experience. The subject of the painting, two nude women holding each other in a post-coital embrace, shocked the French public when it was first completed, and was banned from public display for a number of years. The realist school was opposed to the formal posing of nudes that the neo-classical and romantic artists employed. Instead, they wanted their scenes to…… [read more]

Conceive of a Work of Art Term Paper

… Art Conception: Early Renaissance

Imagine a statue of Pallas Athena, the ancient goddess of wisdom and the protector of the city of Athens being born, as was alleged, from the skull of her father Zeus, or Jove (as the ancient… [read more]

Basic History of Western Art Term Paper

… ¶ … History of Western Art

Donatello's David is a clear influence of the classical style over the Renaissance art. The sculpture features a nude representation of carefully studied anatomy that depicts a certain level of feminity. It reminds of… [read more]

19th Century Art First Question - Three Term Paper

… 19th Century Art


Considered one of the most influential art movements of the twentieth century, Cubism defined not only a transformative period of art but influenced the careers of the individual artists who… [read more]

Religious Art Works Essay

… Leonardo used a new and startling type of composition that was done in a realistic way. The central point of his perspective is Jesus Christ and uses lines in the architecture in order to create depth. His work transformed the last supper as a stronger and more realistic scene (Essential humanities, 2013).

The Baroque period

In this period we look at Tintoretto 'a.k.a' Jacopo Comin work of religious art .the particular work of art on focus is his painting on the last supper. This work of art was done between 1592 and 1594.the medium that was used in this painting was oil on canvas. The current location of the painting is Basilica di san Giorgio Maggiore, in Venice (Art and the Bible, 2012).

Tintoretto did not use perfectly proportioned and symmetrical compositions that were used in High Renaissance instead he used energetic and dramatic compositions. He creates depth and drama in this painting through use of diagonal lines.in the painting he uses mannerist devices noticeably radically asymmetrical and complex composition.

Religious art has gone through several changes as evident from these three works of art. These three paintings are of the same thing the last supper however they have been portrayed in different ways by the different artists. There is a difference in the paintings and elements used for instance creation of depth have been achieved differently in all these three paintings.

Art has ben going through numerous transformations over the past as evidenced from the different art periods. The historical events that are behind these changes are the development and emergence of different art periods. This is because as the art periods emerged there were changes in the way art was done hence a contributing factor to these changes (Essential humanities, 2013).


Art and the Bible.(2012). The Last Supper. Retrieved February 24, 2014 from http://www.artbible.info/art/last-supper.html

Essential humanities.(2013). Renaissance Painting. Retrieved February 24, 2014 from…… [read more]

David Notable Religious Events Research Paper

… His version of the statue is a masterpiece because it is an amalgamation of his four strengths. Had he not be a Renaissance man of many talents, perhaps the statue would have reached the heights, fame, and adoration that it still enjoys in the modern period. David was not his final work by the least, but certain it was one of his greatest achievements and greatest exemplars of what Renaissance art & achievement overall.

Michelangelo's David proves to be quite innovative from the other statues and from other forms of Renaissance art.

For Michelangelo David proved to be a defining moment in his artistic career…Michelangelo was only twenty-six years old when he won the contract for David. He began work on Monday September 13th 1501 and it would take him two years to turn the marble block into the iconic image that we know and admire today…Michelangelo's David differs from earlier versions (see the three David's) in that it does not show the severed head of Goliath, instead the artist has depicted the moment before the young shepherd begins his battle with the giant Philistine. (Italian Renaissance-Art.com, 2012)

Therefore one clear difference is the material which Michelangelo used over the other artists. He used marble that was intentionally aged for the purposed of sculpture. The other statues are bronze. Certainly another difference is that Michelangelo composed his work in a new century. The Renaissance period extends over a portion of the 15th and the 16th centuries. As those of us who have lived in the 20th and 21st centuries can attest to, every aspect of culture changes when the times change, even within the same movement, art form, organization, country, culture, even economic systems such as capitalism. David is shown alone in a relaxed pose without Goliath's head in Michelangelo's version. This moves the focus less upon the famous deed David is known for and more upon the man David and all he represented including as well as outside of his triumphant moment over Goliath. Furthermore, of the three veresions, Michelangelo's took the longest duration of time to compose. This meticulous attention to detail and craft additionally distinguishes this version from the other great versions of the statue.

The story of David comes from the section of the Bible called the book of Samuel. David is an Israelite and Goliath was the greatest warrior on the opposing side of the Philistines. No other soldier was brave enough to face Goliath but David. David was too young to formally join the fight against Goliath, but he faced the challenge regardless. He did not have military training; he herded sheep as his vocation. David even refused to the armor and traditional weaponry for Israelite soldiers at the time. Again, he confronts the enemy with only his slingshot. Striking Goliath in the head with stones, he stuns the oversized man long enough to use his own sword to decapitate him. Everyone present at the battle believes David's strength from directly from God. This… [read more]

What Is Art Now? Term Paper

… ¶ … art now?

What is Art Today?

One of the questions that the Art Now series brought to the table was "What is art today?" Today, it doesn't seem like there is a lack of art anywhere in the… [read more]

Art in Daily Life I Am Fortunate Term Paper

… Art in Daily Life

I am fortunate to be able to say that I have art in almost every part of my daily life. For example, I wake up in the morning to music instead of the sound of an alarm, so my first moments of each day celebrate art and creativity. I find the transition from sleeping, dreaming, and imagination to the reality of daily life is eased by incorporating art into that routine. My morning art experience is continued over breakfast, because I read the comics while eating my breakfast. Although defining comics as fine art may be controversial, some of the drawings and artistic techniques in the funny pages are breathtaking, and the storylines in other strips, like Funky Winkerbean, tackle serious issues in a manner that is similar to a serious movie, though the presentation is somewhat slower.

Even when I am not seeking out art in my daily life, it bombards me. Though their primary purpose is commercial, the advertisements that one sees every day on billboards or in magazines offer good examples of art. The photographers use light, shadow, and color to attract interest, making products…… [read more]

Hellenistic Sculpture Term Paper

… ¶ … sculpture from the Hellenistic period of Greek art called the "Kritios Boy" which was discovered in the late 1800s by archaeologists in the ruins of the Greek acropolis in Athens. The artist who created it is unknown. This… [read more]

Art as Political Statement Term Paper

… As such, Marc's animals appeared in non-naturalistic colors, which has symbolist qualities such as blue for masculinity, while red and yellow stood for femininity.

To depict yellow as a joyous color, Marc created The Yellow Cow in order to show the happiness and the female depicted by the cow leaping through the air (Pioch).

As the political situation however worsened with the advent of the First World War, Marc's paintings reflected his fears. His animals became smaller and spread out, losing their qualities of calm and contemplation. In this way Marc makes the statement that even the artist as expressionist is not completely immune from the outside influence of fear and doubt (Pioch).


Fauvism was a mostly Parisian movement that did not last long, but had an intense influence on the art world. The use of color by fauvists is reminiscent of Marc's, as non-natural colors are used to depict emotion and style. Color was used as more than a mere means of shaping forms on canvass, however. Instead, colors were used in an almost barbaric manner, not entirely giving from to forms, but rather expressing the emotions of the painters. The style was rougher than that of Marc, almost to the extent where it was clumsy. Indeed, for artists such as Henri Matisse and Andre Derain, color became a force in itself, rather than a secondary form of shaping outlines. Color was thus used as an expression not only of an idea, but of the very emotion behind the idea. The result was complete artistic freedom in terms of using color. This was reflective of the variety of emotions experienced during this time in France. Artists turned away from the external situation towards the inner world, and used their emotions to make political comments ("Andre Derain").

Much like Marc above, for example, Vlaminck used color to depict his contrasting moods. An example is "The River" where the surface appears at peace, but the viewer is aware of an intense inner storm brewing. Derain's Charing Cross Bridge also depicted primitivism through the use of natural images in his paintings. The color and shape used in these works show a turning away from political turmoil and trouble to a wished for situation that may never depict itself. In this way the surface calm of "The River" represents the peace that is wished for, but that does not exist without the certainty of further trouble to come (Hughes).

Henri Matisse was the leader of the Fauvist movement, pursuing the expressive power of color throughout his career. His influences were derived from the French Riviera, Nice and Vence. Again, Matisse seemed to turn inward, away from the political situation of his time to focus on himself in the depiction of his work. Matisse then simply concentrated on the glory of the colors around himself to create his sensual works. When duodenal cancer for example permanently place him in a wheelchair during the year 1941, he finished the Chapel of the rosary in… [read more]

Lighting Techniques in Art Term Paper

… An example of this are the sculpted figures in the portal of the cathedral at Reims, where the figures are not so much a part of the architecture, but rather independent sculptures of their own accord, which are worked into… [read more]

Art the Metropolitan Museum Term Paper

… It was shocking to see the geographic range of where the pieces were from, and it showed how vast the trade networks were in the classical era. This exhibit also showed how the arts evolved concurrently with, yet largely independent of, Greece and Rome. Furthermore, some works in this collection showed how Assyrian art influenced ancient Rome. For example, the headless statue of a man with jewelry is reminiscent of classical Roman statuary but was created centuries before the peak of the Roman Empire.

The Leonard A. Lauder collection of cubist art includes work from some of the most famous artists in this genre: Georges Braque, Juan Gris, Fernand Leger, and Pablo Picasso. This collection was more diverse than expected, and showed the evolution of the cubist aesthetic from the late nineteenth through the early twentieth century. The works of art in this collection included some unusual pieces such as Braque's "Terrace at the Hotel Mistral" from 1907. This painting is more colorful than the bulk of Braque's portfolio. It almost resembles a stained glass window. In terms of color palette, "The Castle of La Roche-Guyon" has some rich jewel tones but has fewer dark outlines to the forms. Most of Braque's other works in the collection have an earth tone or even a monochromatic look to them. His signature cubist still life paintings were on display, too, such as the "Violin and Sheet Music." Juan Gris's palette is likewise dull and earthy with a few notable exceptions like "Checkerboard and Playing Cards," and "Still Life with Checked Tablecloth." Like Braque, Gris seemed infatuated with the concept of breaking down visual reality and rendering it in untraditional ways. Cubism permits the artist to present the world as it is, from multiple dimensions and perspectives, rather than from the biased eye of a single viewer. Some of Leger's paintings veer on the totally abstract, which causes the viewer to start questioning the boundary between what is representative art, and what is simply in the imagination of the artist. Picasso is remarkable in that his work transcends the gap between the represented and the abstract. Classically trained, Picasso has developed many paintings revealing naturalistic forms. When he presents those forms in cubist manner, the result is a minimalist rendition in which the human body and its surroundings are stripped of extraneous features. For instance, "Head of a Man," "Standing Female Nude," and "Head of a Nude" all show impeccable proportions of the human form. There is no doubt that Picasso could deconstruct and reconstruct reality and then present the results on canvas. There is something unsettling about cubism, and yet something also that is liberating at the same time. These three special exhibits at the Metropolitan Museum of Art were unique, and offered insight into the wide range of artistic expressions and encounters around the world. I appreciated being able to learn about tapestry, ancient artifacts, and cubism all under one roof.


The Metropolitan Museum of Art. [Personal…… [read more]

Art Culture: Public Space Term Paper

… This is because the 20th century public sphere constitutes organized individuals that exert their influence over public debate and sphere institutionally. This public cannot appreciate the placement of public art in the public sphere, unlike the 18th century public. According… [read more]

Metropolitan Museum of Art: Analysis Essay

… Three questions which arise from this work are: Why was Godelieve specifically chosen for this altarpiece, versus Christ, Mary, or other saints? Why were these specific incidents from Godelieve's life chosen for the different 'comic strip' panels of the work? And to what extent is the design of the overall work reflective of the conventions of the period -- and to what extent is the style or content unique?

One possible paper topic would be to compare this depiction of Godelieve with the lives of other saints depicted on altarpieces created by other Flemish painters of the same era, comparing both their similarities and differences. Little is known about this relatively obscure saint by contemporary viewers of the work and a comparison with similar works would help illuminate some of these questions about her significance. Another possible paper topic would be to compare the work with altarpieces from the Italian Renaissance or different locations and eras of history, to highlight the uniqueness of the style of the work. A final, related but slightly different paper topic would be to examine the significance of food in the lives of female saints. As seen in the depiction of Godelieve, women are often shown feeding people, and examining how this motif was treated by artists of the Middle Ages, versus depictions of male saints and their relationship with food, would help to better understand how female holiness in relationship to the female body and feminine nurturing qualities was viewed during this period of Christianity.

Works Cited

Pioch, Nicholas. "Altarpiece." Web Museum. 14 Oct 2002. [19 Feb 2013]

[read more]

Last Supper Leonardo Divinci Analysis Essay

… Conclusion

It can be concluded from the above discussion that the Leonardo tried to incorporate numerological clues to indicate that the room reflects the universe that is visible to man at whom the Christ is at the center. The three windows behind them provide an idea into the world of eternity or paradise and the Christ is at the perspective center of this point as well. Judas having a knife in his back is considerably saved by Leonardo as the knife is another traditional element in Last Supper paintings, which indicates the hostility of man to the traitor (Schramm, Schwarte and Lazardzig 2008, Veltman 2008, Dominiczak 2012). It further suggests the fact that Judas would die soon but at the first look, the hand holding the knife belongs to no one in the painting and Peter is restraining it from the murderous action. It can be concluded that Leonardo appears to deliver by placing Judas with the remaining Apostles in the painting that there is an element of evil in every human being and the people are required to accept it just like they have accepted the fact of death and suffering (Schramm, Schwarte and Lazardzig 2008, Dominiczak 2012, Rosenberg 2002, Veltman 2008). It is the matter of the fact that the painting is considerably a grand complication for the entire globe as there is so much meaning with different layers of complexity apparent that can be reinterpreted by the modern pales in comparison. It is also found in the paper that the Jesus Christ is having a facial expression of resigned sadness along with the assured and regal poise. The movement as observed in the painting has isolated Jesus while leaving him alone at the center of the composition (Veltman…… [read more]

Art One-Point Linear Perspective Research Paper

… Conclusion

The conventions of single point perspective are often presumed to be essential to a 'good' work of art. However, this is only relatively true for a brief period in Western history. The reason for the acceptance of this convention is linked to the rise of science, the secular spirit of the Renaissance and ideals of a detailed representation of reality, among many other factors and variables in Western history. However, this convention has been deeply questioned by modern artists, especially if we take into account the rise of abstract art in the Twentieth Century.

The history of art is however not simple or linear. While perspective has been critiqued by modern artists who wish to extend the boundaries of perceived reality and its representation, perspective is still used and accepted by many artists today. Perspective has in some cases been used to distort conventional ideas of reality and to suggest other levels of meaning. On the other hand many artists and artistic movements have rejected single-point perspective as inadequate in the creation of a relevant and meaningful artistic space.


Edgerton, S. ( 2006). Picturing the Mind's Eye. Tampa University. Journal of Art History,

1. Retrieved from http://journal.utarts.com/articles.php?id=4&type=paper

Op Art History Part I: A History of Perspective in Art. Retrieved from http://www.op-


Reverspective. Retrieved from http://www.msichicago.org/scrapbook/scrapbook_exhibits/reverspective/history.html

Littler, S. ( 2004). A Linear Perspective to Art. Retrieved from http://www2.hmc.edu/www_common/hmnj/littler.pdf

What Is Perspective? Retrieved from http://www.artic.edu/aic/education/sciarttech/2d1.html'… [read more]

Renaissance Art Patrons and Their Research Paper

… Modern art has more generally been funded by the artist before it is sold, but there are still individual patrons who want to see the great arts continued. "Collectors Friedrich and de Menil established the Dia Art Foundation in 1974 to support contemporary art, especially large-scale minimalist works by West Coast "light and space" artist James Turrell and New York light and sculpture artist Dan Flavin" (Sassi), so the spirit of patronage continues. There are many galleries which continue to function as patrons by commissioning the works of established and up-and-coming artists, so their galleries will become well-known and patronized by wealthy art collectors.

So, the idea of patronage is alive and well, it has just shifted in form. But, the great works that are presently being created may one day hang in a museum next to the "Mona Lisa."

Works Cited

Jones, Jonathon. "Arts Cuts? Pah -- Let's Hear it for Patrons." Guardian, 9 June, 2010. Web.

Reiss, Sheryl E., & David G. Wilkins. Beyond Isabella: Secular Women Patrons of the Art in Renaissance Italy, 2009. Kirksville, MO: Truman State University Press.

Sassi, Janet. "Art Patronage Played Role in 20th Century Minimalist Movement." Inside Fordham. Web.

Stockton. "Survey of Western Art: Baroque Art." 2010. Web.

Zwanger, Meryl. "Women and Art…… [read more]

Art Had Been Taken Thesis

… Art had been taken to a whole new level during the Renaissance period, which lasted from 1400 to 1600. People had been determined to change mostly everything in the time's society in order for it to become better and more pleasant to the ordinary individual. Artists have paid great attention to the great classics of Greek and Rome and to everything related to the human nature and anatomy. Consequently with the Renaissance artists coming forward in order to claim their values, the world had become keen on gathering as much information as it could about the planet.

While artists have been considered to be simple manufacturers until the time, society learnt that they too could be comparable and even greater to writers or poets. Painting, sculpture, and architecture had evolved to the point where artists attempted to make their works perfect. The fact that wealthy Italian families were willing to sponsor education had provided a great advantage for the artists of the time. Strong-minded on having their own people creating art for them, rich families had invested large sums of money into having people of all social classes become educated.

Art was no longer seen as something of little importance, as paintings and sculpture amazed people with their remarkable details. Artists experimented with new methods and incorporated rationality and proportionality into their works. Great attention had been paid to art in order for it to perfectly reproduce reality.

Leonardo Da Vinci emerged as a great artist during the second phase of the Renaissance: the High Renaissance. Society had already been prepared to witness the creation of master pieces during the Early Renaissance period. The philosophical texts found in his father's home, and, the fact that his family had had a tradition in painting had made it possible for Da Vinci to interact with art. The artist proved his talent from an early age, when he would often surpass his master, Andrea del Verrochio, in craftiness. Being willing to have his works appreciated by all people, regardless of their backgrounds, Da Vinci sought to make his paintings and sculpture as real as he could, hoping that faithful reproductions of real life events would raise artistic sentiments in everyone. His paintings had three dimensional perspectives, as the artist went at providing his works with realism by giving them depth. According to Da Vinci, a great painter did not only need to have a vast knowledge of painting, as he or she also needed to master the laws of nature.

Like Leonardo Da Vinci, Niccolo Machiavelli is one of the main people to have become famous during the Renaissance era. Machiavelli's views relating to politics are divisive, and he had often been misunderstood and mistaken for one that supported corruption and totalitarian governments. Because of the problems that he encountered throughout his life, Machiavelli felt compelled to catch the attention of the Medici family by writing a political-based book named The Prince. The book did not have the effect that Machiavelli had wanted… [read more]

Italian Baroque Term Paper

… Italian Baroque

Art is the expression of artistic vision that carries the sign of the period of time when it was created. Baroque was born Italy from where it spread to France, Germany, Netherlands and Spain. The term "Baroque" was… [read more]

Stylistic Elements of Art Term Paper

… Stylistic Elements of Art

Jan Brueghel and Peter Paul Rubins "Allegory of Sight" depicts a painting of many paintings, sculptures, and other objects that relate to the visual world. A goddess or a muse sits in the picture's foreground. She has a piece of cloth draped over her shoulder, like a Grecian statue. A small, cupid-like figure addresses her in gesture as they both look at the same work of art. "Allegory of Sight" is a work of art that depicts artworks primarily of the human form and the sculptures and the faces from the paintings appear to gaze upon the figures, and seem almost as alive as the Grecian woman and child. The woman looks like a subject of art in her manner of dress, like a painting or sculpture come to life more than a woman. The title of the work indicates the symbolic nature of the painting.

This work is a visual allegory, not a depiction of real life, something the artist has actually seen. For so many great works to reside in the same area of an artist's studio would be improbable. There are also less prominent objects in the studio that relate to the medium of sight, like a telescope and a globe, that seem out of place in an artist's studio. The scene is everyday in the sense that it could be an attic, but the prominence of great works of art, all housed together, and the dim light that contrasts with the stark light upon the woman and child's flesh takes the work completely out of the realm of the everyday. The lighting also makes the strange whiteness figures more prominent and the gaze of the paintings more lifelike. The vastness of the amount of works that are sprawled within the room makes the space seem huge and vast, as infinite as the nature of the sense of sight that it seeks to depict. The painting strives for a timeless quality, but it seems squarely located in late Renaissance ideals of allegorical painting, and holds true to traditional…… [read more]

Paintings Sculpture Term Paper

… Rodin, David

It is amazing how much of a personal impact a sculpture can make, especially when that work of art is something like Auguste Rodin's "The Thinker." Unfortunately, because his sculpture is so well liked, many companies have reproduced it over and over again in smaller versions. Imagine what he would say when seeing all these replicas lined up in a store. It is believed that the Thinker was Rodin's favorite sculpture, so perhaps he would not have been upset.

Originally, the work was called "The Poet" and commissioned by the Museum of Decorative Arts in Paris as part of a series for Dante's the Divine Comedy where each piece was to represent another of the characters in the epic. The statue was to show Dante reflecting on what he saw below. Yet, it is believed that Rodin considered the figure in a broader viewpoint with wider concepts. It is a man who is deep in contemplation with his hand in his chin, right elbow on the left knee and curved position to give a feeling of and stillness and motion at the same time (Chilvers 524)

What is also incredible is that the Thinker was Rodin's first public piece. It was placed in front of the Pantheon in 1906 during an unstable political time, which turned it into a socialist symbol. In 1922, with the excuse that the statue created a hindrance during public ceremonies, it was sent to the garden of the Hotel Biron that had changed its name to the Rodin Museum. Another example was placed over the tomb of Rodin in Meudon.

When Rodin began doing his sculptures, they were often seen as "shocking," because of their realism and ability to move people emotionally. Very few artists for hundreds of years had been able to catch the bodily form as he did with a crossover into the artistic stages such as Post-impressionism, Symbolism and Art Nouveau (Selz 113).

Rodin was very protective of the Thinker, which he had spent considerable time producing. First, he experimented with the seated figure, including a complete turning form with modeling that followed a Michelangelo style. He also had a large-scale torso of his own Ugolino in the studio that he used as a guide. The first stages and a small scale "maquette" were made in 1880. The hair still has the cap portrayed with Dante, while the lower section looked something like Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux's Ugolino (Selz 113).

Until he gave the figure to the Alexis Rudier foundry in 1906, Rodin demanded that the bronze version of the original stone of the Thinker be produced by the difficult lost-wax method of casting, which is as old as 6,000 years. Ancient Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Chinese and African artisans used this approach to produce weapons, tools and jewelry in addition to works of art (Hatcher 5). The lost-wax method starts with a sculpture that the artist makes out of a much softer medium like wood, wax or clay. When this prototype is completed,… [read more]

World of Art Term Paper

… ¶ … art, especially the visual arts, the artist presents the audience with a specific view of his or her personal world. In other words, the world according to the perception of the artist (the Visual World 10). The artist therefore tends to explain and delineate the world according to his or her own reactions to and perceptions not only of the landscape, but also of the social world and time period in which he finds himself. This is true of every period in art, and perhaps most notably in the Renaissance period.

The Renaissance marks a complete change of direction in art. As such, the total change in perception of the world and art itself makes this period one of the most colorful and interesting in the history of the visual arts. In this, the artists of the time were dynamic in their perceptions and revelations of the "new" world as they saw it (the Visual World 16).

According to Mark Harden, the word "Renaissance" was coined for the first time during the 19th century. Meaning "rebirth," it describes the general revival in intellectual and artistic circles, which is based upon a revival in the study of Classical literature and art. This revival began in Italy during the early 14th century, and spread to Europe during the following two centuries.

As a result of works such as the Da Vinci Code and the film based upon it, it is little wonder that Da Vinci is probably the most prominent artistic figure of the Renaissance period. This reputation is well deserved. Although from an insignificant background, Leonardo was a man of many and various talents. Indeed, according to Harden, he was almost too gifted, leaving him with little time to truly develop any one gift to its true potential. His superlative male beauty, excellent singing voice, mathematical prowess and scientific daring combine to leave the world with a heritage that has outlasted his own and many successive lifetimes. He did however tend to treat his painting lightly, preferring to pay more attention to his mathematical and scientific endeavors. Nonetheless, works that do survive, such as the Mona Lisa, is truly indicative of the artist's skill as well as the spirit of the age.

Another iconic artist of this age was Michelangelo. Like Da Vinci, Michelangelo was also multitalented, although he concentrate his work in the arts and construction rather than the sciences. As sculptor, painter, architect and poet, Michelangelo was also one of the founders of the High Renaissance, influencing almost all his contemporaries and successors in the various art forms in which he excelled. Michelangelo established his early reputation with the Pieta for St. Peter's during 1498-9. After this harmonious masterpiece, the artist received the commission to complete David, another masterpiece. After further making his name as a spectacularly talented artist, Michelangelo was commissioned to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, a project he began in 1508 and completed by 1512. As his name, Michelangelo's use of the… [read more]

Painting Conversion of Saul Term Paper

… In terms of dramatic presentation, it is abundantly clear that
Michelangelo's rendering of the CONVERSION OF SAUL is far superior to that
of Caravaggio's rendering of the same painting. This superiority is based
upon several facts. First, Michelangelo has long been considered as the
quintessential genius of the Renaissance, whether in painting, sculpture or
architecture. Second, it was well-known during his lifetime that Caravaggio
cared little for the classical masters as compared to Michelangelo. Thus,
he drew bitter criticism from many of his contemporaries. One unknown
critic even went so far as to called Caravaggio "the Anti-Christ of
painting" (Horst de la Croix, 594). This view of Michelangelo's superiority
related to the CONVERSION OF SAUL can be supported by comparing several
artistic qualities of both artists.
With Caravaggio, his rendering of the CONVERSION OF SAUL was refused
on the grounds that it lacked propriety, meaning that the overall
presentation of Saul's conversion is more of an accident than a great
miracle. The young man who has obviously drunk too has fallen from his
horse, yet Caravaggio provides no indication…… [read more]

U.S.A., Germany and England Were the Industrial Essay

… ¶ … U.S.A., Germany and England were the industrial and technological centers in the nineteenth century, than France was the dictator of culture and art tendencies that set cultural standard of the modern world in art, literature, sculpture and fashion. French painters and artists experimented with colors, shape and themes of works presenting works that reflected different aspects of every day life. Still the main merit of French painters of the nineteenth century and in general of most of their contemporaries is that they developed and established a new concept of art, which was democratic, available and understandable by representatives of different classes as it demonstrated universal values and had a universal esthetic meaning.

The paper discusses two paintings of French artists that refer to different historical periods of art history, to different art styles and that present different themes. The first painting is "Liberty Leading the People" by Eugene Delacroix, work that glorified French revolution of 1830; and the second one is Claudet Monet's "Boulevard des Capucines," which showed the daily life of Paris center of art and culture. The first painting refers to French progressive Romanticism, and the second one to Impressionism.

Eugene Delacroix, was born April,26-1798. He studied art in 1818-22 in Paris. In his painting he presented progressively new themes (from history, literature), full of dramatism and realism which embodied ideals of freedom, liberty on the hand with firm and courageous characters. He contributed to French art by presenting impulsive manner of painting characterized by unusual expressiveness of color, diversity of semitones and reflexes. (according to Painting and the Journal of Eugene Delacroix)

In 1831 Eugene Delacroix showed his "Liberty Leading the People" in Paris salon, which was dedicated to "three glorious days" of July revolution, 1830. The power, democratic manner and brave artistic manner of the painting caused shock and admiration of viewers. The painting was quickly returned to Delacroix as government officials were afraid of its revolutionary appeal. It was returned to public in 1855 when it came to Louvers. Inspired by the revolutionary events of 1830, Delacroix decided to reflect his impressions in the painting that would demonstrate the main value of the nation the seek of freedom and democracy. This power is presented in the image of young beautiful woman, who leads the crowd of rise. Her fine image, energy and internal freedom may compare her to Greek goodness of victory Nica. She holds French flag in one hand and a gun in another, Phrygian cap on her head is an ancient symbol of emancipation from slavery. In order to outline her leading image, Delacroix pictured her in the center and made her imaged the lithest in the composition. She is like the source of light, which lights the thirst of freedom in the crowd. The boy, which stands next to the young woman is full of enthusiasm and in his seek for freedom he even forestalls the woman. Realism of the painting is defined by the expressiveness of people, their firm… [read more]

Early Renaissance Term Paper

… Western Civilization

The Early Renaissance

The word Renaissance means "rebirth" and people living during the time began to see themselves as "reborn" from medieval, feudal times. The Early Renaissance formed the backbone for the movement that continued through several centuries, and it was encouraged by a new interest in learning about the ancient Greeks and Romans and their teachings, their democracy, and their thirst for knowledge. In fact, leaders of the movement designed Florence as a "new Athens" after discovering many books and writings from ancient times. The characteristics of this early movement were nearly all intellectual. People read more, patronized and supported the arts, and encouraged learning, personal and civic growth, and generally emerged from the "dark ages."

The arts flourished during this time, and no one really knows why. However, numerous artists rose to prominence during the Early Renaissance, and influenced those who came after. Public buildings were adorned with carvings and sculpture, painting thrived, and churches were decorated with paintings, frescoes, sculpture, and beautiful decorations inside and out. The Renaissance celebrated beauty and intellect, and the two combined to produce some of the best artwork and craftsmen the world has…… [read more]

Baroque Period Annotated Bibliography Chaffee Term Paper

… The naturalism and dramatic impact of Caravaggio's work, coupled with his insistent realism, are what made his artwork so famous.

Martin, John Rupert. Baroque. New York: Harper & Row, 1977.

This is an introductory book for understanding Baroque artists and… [read more]

Humanities Terminology Humanities Term Paper

… " (See reference 3) But style is not limited to the field of writing alone though it may be more pronounced here. Style can be seen in almost everything that forms creative expression; in fact even the way someone talks, walks or conducts himself becomes his or her unique style. It is due to this style that we can tell people apart or enjoy one's company and avoid another's. It is style that makes a writer popular. For example there are thousands of ghost and magic stories around but there was something about J.K Rowling's writing style that led to the massive success of her Harry Potter series.


Culture refers to art, literature and social norms, almost everything that reveals something special or unique about a group or society. Culture is a set of principles, traditions, practices and values that sets one group or society apart from another. When we say that African-Americans have a culture distinctly different from that of White Americans, what we are referring to is the long history and heritage that gives both these groups their distinct identity. Culture is therefore everything about a group that makes it unique among host of other groups in the world. For example Irish people would have certain customs and traditions that people in Africa might find unique and fascinating and vice versa. These customs lay the foundation of a culture but culture also includes all forms of art. When we study British literature, we notice that it is distinctly different from Russian literature or German books for that matter, this is because of the influence of culture only. A difference in the literature or art of the same group is then due to style and not culture. It is important to bear in mind so we can clearly understand the differences in various cultures.


Genius refers to intellect of a very high order. It is due to this intellect that we are introduced to something new and different in the otherwise old and dull fields. For example every painter can paint but if Michelangelo was a genius because he brought a fresh perspective to painting. Similarly every person who is regarded as a genius is something with extraordinary intellect and a unique passion for his work.


Aiken (1998): Nancy Aiken, The Biological Origins of Art, London: Praeger, 1998

Gombrich (1995): E.H. Gombrich, The Story of Art, 16th Edition, London: Phaidon, 1995 (1950)

E.B. White and Katherine Ann quotes taken at http://www.cacoethes-scribendi.com/style.html… [read more]

Renaissance Sculpture the Division Term Paper

… Michelangelo's David seems completely serene and confident. Donatello did not carve detail in the eyes of David, while Michelangelo did render the iris. Moreover, Donatello found it striking to have David proudly display the vanquished Goliath. This echoes the classical stance of victor standing atop the vanquished. While both Davids are influence heavily by the classical arts and humanist philosophy, it is clear that by Michelangelo's time, all Gothic remnants were cast off of Italian sculpture.

Michelangelo ascribed to what Trewin Copplestone calls "the criteria of classical excellence," (21). The art of the High Renaissance was a culmination and successful combination of the classics and Christianity. Moreover, art became endowed with spiritual power during this time. Just as Vasari deferred to Michelangelo as "Il Divino," the artist was generally likened to God, just as God was the artist of mankind. Michelangelo's contribution to the divinely-inspired art of the sixteenth century was his "intense emotional involvement" with his work (Avery 168). This corresponded with the increasing attention paid to the names and personas of the artists themselves (Copplestone 21). For all his contributions to the sculptural arts of Italy, Donatello was never quite recognized as a god in his time. This probably reflects the changing social function of art from Donatello's time in the early Renaissance to Michelangelo's time in the so-called High Renaissance. Some art historians go so far as to suggest that the works of Donatello and Michelangelo resonate with "political symbolism," (Sullivan). In any case, Donatello paved the way for Michelangelo and other Renaissance artists to express a humanist, classical vision within Christian terms.

Works Cited

Avery, Charles. Florentine Renaissance Sculpture. London: Charles Avery, 1970.

Copplestone, Trewin. Michelangelo. New York: Regency House, 1996.

Olson, Roberta J.M. Italian Renaissance Sculpture. London: Thames and Hudson, 1992.

Sullivan,…… [read more]

Visual Arts Salvador Dali Term Paper

… Dali believed that Surrealism operated on the plane of reality itself, liberating the consciousness by releasing thought and desire through acts of moral and aesthetic subversion. Moreover, Dali separated imagination from inspiration, saying, "Imagination is something which is put together in a more or less inspired way...is the spout whose force obeys our will....inspiration is something involuntary, like the geyser which bursts forth unexpectedly...raising its salty and boiling jet to unexpected heights of passion" (Lubar 12).

In the words of Donald Kuspit, a new art "must first show that it has democratic appeal...to those generally unschooled in art or not professionally interested in it. Then it must suffer a period of aristocratic rejection by those schooled in an accepted and... traditional form of art...those with vested interest in a known art and concerned with protecting it at all costs" (History pg). Such was the career of Salvador Dali, to establish a new art form, expressing more than mere feelings and realistic images on canvas. In 1944, Jackson Pollock expressed, "...how little contemporary action artists really understood the creative, intellectual explorations that Dali undertook to create 'something new'" (Lubar 8).

The importance of Dali's imagery and unique realism upon the world of art cannot be overestimated. His paintings capture one's attention and hold the imagination with their eerie and wholly believable quality perhaps more than any other artist. Many have expressed that each time they view a painting, they find something new they had missed before. Limp watches, figures and forms melting and melding into the canvas amid eerie landscapes are his most recognizable images. Regarding the metaphysical ponderings of symbolism, Dali said, "Things have no meaning whatever beyond their strictest objectivity...herein lies their miraculous poetry" (Lubar 11). Dali probed a deeply erotic dimension through his work, exploring his own psyche and dreams in his painting, sculptures, jewelry, furniture designs, and movies (Tansey 1076). He will forever be regarded as one of the great masters of Surrealism.

Works Cited

History of Surrealism. http://www.applied-psychology.org/005_the_gallery.html.

A accessed 10-02-2002).

Lubar, Robert S. Dali: The Salvador Dali Museum Collection. Bulfinch Press Book.

1993; pp.8,11,12.

Morse, Reynolds A. Salvador Dali 1910-1965. First Edition. New York Graphic Society.

1965; pp.9,11.

Tansey, Richard G.; Kleiner, Fred S. "Early Twentieth Century: The Establishment of Modernist Art: Salvador Dali (1904-1989)." Gardner's Art Through The Ages. Tenth Edition. Harcourt Brace College Publishers. 1996; p.1076.… [read more]

Art and Modernism Greenberg Essay

… Art and Modernism

Greenberg's Modernism and Art

Expressionism of art from historic times till present is a representation of human creativity and significance of visually articulating an imagination on hardcopy. In relation to historical art, Greenberg, an art influent, constantly inscribed on essays the importance of pictorial art, their history and nature. While growing up, Greenberg's interests and perception concerned historic painters whose work continued his proposition on modernism. It is evident that modernist paintings of art have had an impact in advancing other varieties of artistic media and disciplines. In addition, Greenberg identified philosophers that integrated modernism in their criticisms and development of theorems, an instant is Kant.

Modernism entails a deep expedition and critic of a discipline upon a solid foundation and comprehension of logic boundaries. According to Kant, the jurisdiction of modernism is dependent of the limits of logic in order to define the competency of a discipline, especially to those that affect art work. As opposed to Enlightenment, modernism follows procedures of the criticized subject. Pictorial art faces a lot of criticism, but its rational fit to modernism ought to interpret an all round philosophy, especially through Kantian theories that Greenberg referred to.

Most people perceive that art is an assimilation of entertainment, which is an element that assimilates the importance of art in modernism. Greenberg revoked this ideology of art assimilation by demonstrating credible artistic experience that cannot be provided by other affiliate activities. Several art pieces have been exhibited, being selected from many pieces drawn…… [read more]

Statues of David I Choose Term Paper

… The right side shows David's movement, his stride is almost a leap as he aims his sling; seen from the front the pose is frozen, just one second before the fatal shot, and seen diagonally there is a rhythmic balance… [read more]

Reality Is Relative Upon Viewing Research Paper

… Whatever messages the artists are trying to convey must be hidden in the "backgrounds" of these images as they leap out at even the most casual observer. Both seem to point to man's insignificance. The village is so small and docile when compared to the stars and the swirling "winds" in the painting. And, in the photograph, the gentleman is so small in relation to the huge chain. Both artists have captured an exaggerated representation of normal things to draw attention away from that which would normally draw the eye.

Realism captures objective reality, in a way that reflects objective reality without any type of embellishment or interpretation. A photograph is generally a good example of realism. That would seem to imply that a photograph is not open to interpretation, it is simply an image which was captured by the click of a button. However, when viewing this particular photograph, one may certainly interpret its meaning through imagination and symbolism. How objective is a photo when it is viewed with the eyes and the imaginations of many? Each person who looks upon this photograph will come away with a different impression. Thus, Realism

begins to blur with Post Impressionism, despite the fact that Realism is concentrated on the realistic portrayal of its subject.

Post Impressionism is more difficult to define. That is due to the diversity in Post Impressionistic artists. Each of them was known for his individual technique for style. Van Gogh's style is very recognizable. He used vibrant colors, thick paint, and worked on canvas. His brushstrokes are energetic. In other words, Van Gogh built on earlier Impressionist art. So, in order to understand Post Impressionism one must define Impressionism. Impressionism was an art movement in France in 1870, which was practiced by painters, and depicted natural objects in an unrealistic manner- usually dabs or strokes of paint that would simulate light.

Interestingly, The Starry Night is said to depict the view outside of Van Gogh's sanitarium window. Obviously, since the painting was produced from a memory, it cannot fall under the category of Realism. It is not an objective representation of reality. It is however, one man's presentation of his own perception of reality and like Isambard Kingdom Brunel and the Launching Chains of the Great Eastern it is open to interpretation by each and every individual who views it.

Thus, one can see that art is always subjective. The artist may use varying devices to try and convey exactly what he or she was thinking at the time. These devices may include color, texture, light, brushstrokes, and roughness to try and capture either an objective piece of reality or a subjective interpretation of the night from a sanitarium but, the end result is that no two people will see the same thing and interpret the meaning exactly the same regardless if it is categorized as Realism or Post Impressionism.


http://www.moma.org/collection/browse_results.php?criteria=G%3AOV%3AE%3A1&page_number=5&template_id=1&sort_order=1?… [read more]

Art of Michelangelo in Relation to the Earlier Florentine Tradition Term Paper

… ¶ … Michelangelo on the art and culture of Florence during the 16th century one cannot ignore the corresponding influence of Medici family. The Medici family's power and influence in Florence and Renaissance Italy in general cannot be overstated. The… [read more]

Art After 1980 Term Paper

… Whereas McCarthy focuses his attention on the perversion of the world underlying the clean veneer of mythology, Kruger is far more concerned with the iconography of popular culture and the detrimental effect it has on humanity. The thesis of Kruger's… [read more]

Oscar Wilde and the New Aesthetics Term Paper

… Nature Imitates Art Imitating Nature

In Oscar Wilde's the Decay of Lying, one character, Vivian, claims that life and nature imitate art far more than art imitates either life or nature. This is of course dubious to the extreme, so… [read more]

Roman Gothic and Early Middle Ages Essay

… Art

Roman, Islamic and Early Middle Ages

Roman, Islamic, and Early Middle Ages

Art: Roman, Islamic, and Early Middle Ages

Art forms and styles differ from period to period and for culture to culture. They often display different characteristics that… [read more]

Moma Ref.: The Artistic Importance Research Proposal

… MoMA

REF.: The artistic importance of "The Persistence of Memory"

The aim of this memorandum is to prove to the board the importance of Dali's greatest painting, "The Persistence of Memory," for the artistic development of the 20th century and as a notable work of art in itself. The memorandum will focus on two different levels. The first part of the memorandum will include a descriptive approach to the painting, while the second part will look at the painting from an interpretive perspective, one that will also include some historical and philosophical background to the work of art.


The painting contains several watches and clocks in an apparently desolated landscape. The clocks and watches are melting or rather have a fluid consistency, different than that in reality, which allows the painter to place them in different locations and positions throughout the painting, such as in what appears to be a crutch or a tree in that form. Another of the clocks/watches is slowly crawling off the table in the forefront of the work of art.

There are several other elements that appear to make no sense, although this memorandum will later show in the interpretative part what their meaning actually is. There are several worth mentioning. In the center part of the painting, there is an unidentified creature, painted in an open nuance. At the same time, there are two elements dominating the left part of the painting, other than the watches: a number of ants and the crutch/tree.

There are a couple of other observations that are worth mentioning from a descriptive perspective and which will help the point of this memorandum in explaining to the Board why this is an important and precious work of art. The painting follows an almost geometrical division between the sky, the water and the land. The land occupies approximately two thirds of the painting, while the rest is divided (not equally, but similarly geometrically) between water and air. The entire landscape is extremely interesting because it appears desolated, helping to build on the message that the painters wishes to convey to the rest.

II. Interpretative

First of all, one should note that Dali's work is eloquent for the period in art and literature history referred to as Surrealism. This current is characterized by an inclination towards the use of different symbols, many of them from the dream world, and by an extreme creative liberty that is fully reflected in Dali's painting. Indeed, even the elements that have been previously mentioned in the descriptive part…… [read more]

Johannes Vermeer's the Milkmaid on Special Exhibition Research Proposal

… ¶ … Johannes Vermeer's the Milkmaid on special exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art

One of the featured works of art currently being showcased at the Metropolitan Museum of Art is that of Johannes Vermeer's the Milkmaid (1657-1658). Even a casual observer simply walking past the museum would know that this masterpiece could be found within the confines of the Met. This is one of the Dutch master's most famous works. The painting is on special loan from the Rijksmuseum to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Henry Hudson's Dutch-commissioned voyage to New York. I naturally felt very excited and lucky to be able to attend the Met at this special time. The anticipation of seeing a great work also invariably impacts the reception of the work itself. I was prepared to see something life-altering as I strolled through the halls of the museum.

The nature of Vermeer's work is small and intimate. The work itself was smaller than some of the posters advertising the exhibition! After first being surprised by what I perceived as the humbleness of the subject and the smallness of the work in relation to the great fanfare about the loan, I began to gain a deeper appreciation for the Milkmaid. Compared with the posters, the actual work's coloring is strange and striking. A room, evidently a kitchen in a Dutch household, is bathed in a kind of eerie golden light that is both realistic, yet like nothing I have ever seen in art before, only in nature. The light from the outside, pouring through the panes of the glass is warm, golden, and illuminating.

The woman at the center of the work is clearly from another time, a servant in a household where she might otherwise go overlooked. To my first glance, the milkmaid's face seemed as heavy and doughy as the breakfast rolls and loaf of bread on the table before her. However, the light gives her clothing and her face a golden, almost angelic glow that makes her seem profoundly significant. This shows how by making even an ordinary person the subject of art, that individual can be rendered into something beautiful. The artist elevates the ordinariness of daily life and forces the viewer to look at common things with new eyes.

The realism of the painting is reinforced by the slightly askew positioning of the maid, standing by the window. She does not seem aware of the light or the artist. Her perspective is entirely focused on her task. This shuts the viewer out of her world, and allows the viewer to watch, rather than feel included, in the scene. The viewer is a kind of voyeur. The plaster of the household where the maid is preparing to serve breakfast is speckled with dirt in some places, and some baskets in the background are carelessly hung on hooks, once again underlining the realism of the piece. The work is quietly dynamic -- although the maid's actions are careful and deliberate, she is… [read more]

Vocabulary of Art Essay

… Art

Line: Not all artwork contains lines, and those that do not seem extraordinary because of the presence of line in almost everything we look at. In fact, the following image of a painting by Jackson Pollock is composed of paint splatters that seem like lines to our eyes but which are in fact not:


The difference between Pollock's work and the following Picasso drawing is that the latter uses line to convey a specific form. In this case, the artist paints a face:


Line can be understood as "outline" when it conveys the essential features of an object. When a line exists just for the sake of being a line, as in many abstract works of art, the concept of line is deconstructed entirely. A line can be straight or curved and can flow from any one point to any other. Few artists convey the essential features of line as well as Mondrian, evidenced in the following painting:


Shape: A shape can be anything, including a line. Shapes can and often do represent familiar objects such as in a still life painting. In abstract works of art, shapes are non-representational. The following still life by Cezanne is replete with a variety of different shapes, converging to convey the idea of objects on a table:


The human eye creates a gestalt image based on the way the artist places shape on the canvas. Shapes in an abstract work of art may contain colors or textures but do not generally suggest any object with which we are familiar in our daily lives.

Mass: Mass can be suggested on a two-dimensional surface as in the above-mentioned still life. In Cezanne's painting, the orbs of onion symbolize their mass. However, mass is best conveyed in three-dimensional and multimedia works of art. The following sculpture of an elephant and its baby seems to possess volume and weight: the essential features of mass: http://www.environmentalcreations.com/files/categories/african_aaaaaaaelephantmama&baby_large.jpg

Light can be no better explained than through the works of Dutch painter Rembrandt. In "St. Joseph's Dream," an angel hovers in the center of the composition. The angel is a source of light; light emanates from the angel. Rembrandt achieves the effect via the use of color:


The dark areas of the painting are monotonously brown, especially those farthest from the angelic source of light. Rembrandt uses shades of white to depict the source of light, and uses shades of dark brown to convey the parts of the scene not touched by that source. Therefore, "St. Joseph's Dream" demonstrates how…… [read more]

Influence of Photography in Art Term Paper

… ¶ … Photography in Art

The first thing that the mind conjures is the meaning of art. Art can be defined as any human creativity, skill, any craft or profession or its ideals, an assemblage of things having form and… [read more]

Georgia O'Keeffe Term Paper

… Georgia O'Keeffe

Georgia O'Keefe's "Lake George Autumn" and "Church Steeple"

Georgia O'Keefe's artwork has always been of great interest to journalists, critics and scholars who follow famous and talented people. But her many paintings and drawings - from New Mexico,… [read more]

Italian Renaissance Term Paper

… Italian Renaissance was the beginning of the Renaissance, a period of achievements and cultural changes that extended from the late XIV century until about 1600, constituting the transition between the Middle Ages and modern Europe.

The word Renaissance has a… [read more]

Post-Modern Art Term Paper

… Post Modern Art

By definition fine arts refer to the kind of visual arts that are created mainly for the purpose of satisfying aesthetic needs. They require a certain discipline, training and technique. The fact that they are not intended as utility purposes differences them from the craftwork or applied arts. Painting is one of the disciplines considered to be part of the elite of fine arts. The definition of painting is the art of applying color on a surface, usually following a drawing or mimetic image that represents one very specific picture. Because of this 'representative' nature of painting, many arguments have raised, since the appearance of abstract painting, about its eligibility to be considered 'fine art'.

The strongest argument is that painting is not the mere coloration of a drawing, but the expression of the artist's feelings and ability to handle the basic techniques of the painting. There is also the argument about how stylized an image is allowed to be in order to be considered 'figurative', since many distortions are allowed on a picture before it is judged as being completely abstract. Often, the human eye can make sense out of images by associating lines with familiar shapes. Likewise the most accurate portrait can be accused…… [read more]

David Caravaggio the Figure of Caravaggio's "Saul Term Paper

… David


The figure of Caravaggio's "Saul" is sensual and a recognizably physical human being. He looks like a man one might see on the street rather than a Biblical prophet who has undergone a profound conversion. Although the focus of the painting is on the figure of Saul, this converted saint's changed inner life is only signified by the softly glowing light on his face, and the name of the painting. By locating Saul in 'reality,' and even suggesting that Saul might have been taken for an ordinary drunk lying in the street, Caravaggio reminds the viewer of the fact that the figures we read about in the Bible are not stick figures, with no human needs and fears or physicality. This is not sacrilegious on the part of the artist. It is a reminder that just as the Bible's truths is present in our ordinary, daily lives; the Bible is populated by recognizable human beings. Caravaggio is not saying that Saul must have been drunk, and not blessed with a divine visitation but the drunk one sees walking home from the bar may have some goodness…… [read more]

American Art Term Paper

… ¶ … Armory Show of 1913 was one of the most influential events in the history of the American artistic movement. The exhibit was special because it contained a myriad of highly controversial paintings. Two specific parts are significant because… [read more]

Rodney Graham Term Paper

… He does not so in image, as his image is mutable, from the country to the city self, to Cary Grant or Kurt Cobain. But the gazer of the work is always aware that he is looking at a representation of the artist rather than the 'real thing,' however seamlessly the real and the false representation may seem to overlap with one another.

The film City Self / Country Self is part of a trilogy with Vexation Island, 1997 and How I became a Ramblin' Man, 1999. The 1999 incarnation of this trilogy embraces the Victorian fascination of the artist with his beloved rock n' roll music, which formed the texture of his adolescence, growing up in Canada. Graham, although a Canadian, stresses the predominance of American popular cultural all over the world, and his status as a Canadian national gives him a unique, betwixt and between perspective of American culture, being of the American language and argot, but slightly distanced from American patriotism and national politics.

All of the recent installations of Graham's work are supposed to deal "with man and nature, city and country." (Lisson Gallery, 2004) The external shaping of Graham's work of the self is what makes his work so emphatically postmodern, as he focuses on the external and surface shifts of the artistic self, rather than internal shifts of consciousness, unlike the beloved Victorians his art is so often in dialogue with. Graham has often taken the study and alteration of classic works of 19th Century culture "as a starting point," but not so much as an inspiration but as a starting point for the 20th and the 21st century instability of fact and fiction. (Lisson Gallery, 2004) Of his own work, Graham has noted "it may be a burden to re-invent oneself every time, but it makes things more interesting. My method of working comes out of a lack of technique because I did not come out of painting, sculpture or photography. I even dropped out of studying art history. Conceptual art and the tradition, established by artists like Judd, of having your work fabricated by someone else, made what I am doing possible." As well as fellow artists such as Judd, Graham cites linguistic experts such as Saussure, whose "book on linguistics to show the arbitrary relation between the so-called signifier and the signified. I was also using a kind of readymade strategy based on the disputable assumption that a photograph is not art but an upside down photo is." (Spria, 2003)

Growing up, Rodney Graham admits that rather than seeing himself as a stable identity, he "never had a clear vision of myself," nor did he have a clear vision of who he was as an artist. "Earlier on I was equally interested in becoming a writer. It was the openness of conceptual art and its incorporation of textual and theoretical elements that emerged during the first years of my university education that opened my eyes to various possibilities. Lenz was the… [read more]

Heidegger Martin Heidegger's the Origin Term Paper

… Thus, we fundamentally misunderstand the purpose of art, and that we must look into the origin or the "authentic" nature of art.

He notes that the artist is the first to try to recognize truth within art, and that it is this truth that is ultimately the key to art. The artist seeks to find of the work "its pure self-subsistence." The activity of the artist is thus crucial to understanding the origin of art.

Ultimately, art is the "becoming and happening of truth." For Heidegger, "The essence of art would then be this: the truth of beings setting itself to work."

Importantly, Heidegger never restricts his conception of art to the modern idea of art as a painting, sculpture, or drawing. Instead, art may be a great number of things: a painting, a song, a poem, or even a building.

The term hermeneutic circle is simply another way of describing Heidegger's circle of interpretation in art. In "The Origin of the Work of Art," Heidegger notes that you cannot fully understand a single part of a work until you understand the whole. Further, he notes that you cannot understand the whole of a work of art until you understand all of the parts of the art. On the surface, Heidegger's circle of interpretation seems tautologous and circular, yet his circle is not a trap.

Instead, Heidegger's circle of interpretation reinforces the idea that understanding of a work of art is an ongoing, gradual process with many important components. This process takes time. Interpretation of art changes when information about a work of art is gained, and this process is ongoing. Certainly, it is possible to argue that the process of interpretation may never end, reducing Heidegger's circle of interpretation to a process with no hope of closure. Thus, the circle of interpretation may actually be a spiral, with layers of interpretation twisting into infinity.

In conclusion, The Origin of the Work of Art provides an invaluable look into the meaning of art itself. Although the text is difficult, Heidegger's analysis of the circle of interpretation alone makes the reading worthwhile.

Works Cited

Heidegger, Martin. The Origin of the Work of Art.

Ross, Stephen David. Art and its Significance, An Anthology of Aesthetic… [read more]

Bramante and Aesthetics of High Renaissance Essay

… High Renaissance


Bramante and the aesthetics of the High Renaissance

Donato Bramante predates Michelangelo as one of the architects whose works represented a profound shift from the Gothic sensibility to that of the Renaissance. Bramante was profoundly interested in the study of classical antiquity and his knowledge of early Greek and Roman art and architecture infuses all of his work. Although he originally trained as a painter, his architecture is considered his greatest contribution to world art. His early studies clearly influenced his later architectural work.

Bramante's painter's eye can be seen in one of his earliest works, the Church of Santa Maria Presso San Satir. "His characteristic style focusing on perspective can be seen in aspects of the building….Bramante's contributions can be seen in the choir area that had to be remodeled. In order to make up for the reduced choir size, Bramante used a perspective painting to make it look bigger than it actually is" in a style that later became known as trompe l'oeil "an art technique that utilizes a realistic painting style to create an optical illusion of three-dimensionality" (Catt 2011). An attempt to create a realistic, anatomical depiction of the human body, as was seen in the art and sculpture of the Renaissance is manifested in Bramante's architecture, which combines a scrupulous attention to detail and uses technical knowledge of mathematics and geometry to create such a 'realistic' optical illusion. The fusion of knowledge of art, science, and geometry in a cross-disciplinary fashion is characteristic of the Renaissance.

Bramante's architectural designs inspired paintings themselves, according to the historian Vasari who "says that Bramante designed the majestic architectural setting of Raphael's fresco The School of Athens in the Vatican Stanze. Certainly Raphael paid tribute to Bramante by introducing his portrait into this painting as the mathematician Euclid. Bramante had an enormous influence as an architect, and his interest in perspective and trompe l'œil left a mark on Milanese painting, notably in the work of his follower Bramantino" (Chilvers 2008). The School of Athens famously celebrates pagan learning, using the exacting artistic style of the Renaissance -- both Biblical and pagan images could be celebrated, so long as they typified what was seen as the best of the human condition.

Bramante's style was a merging of older, classical Greek and Roman knowledge with Christianity in a manner that was likewise characteristic of the High Renaissance. Donato Bramante's greatest completed work is the Tempietto which was constructed to mark the place of St. Peter's martyrdom. "Despite its small size, the Tempietto is often considered the crowning jewel of High Renaissance architecture; it is certainly the most famous religious structure of the period" (Renaissance architecture, 2011, Essential Humanities). But despite the fact that it was designed to mark the passing of a great saint, it used Doric columns and a domed design similar to the Pantheon of Rome.

Bramante would occasionally delve into an older style, but even with his Gothic-influenced Milan Cathedral, the work was still characterized… [read more]

Compare Theatricality Catholic and Protestant Baroque in Northern Europe Essay

… Baroque art is synonymous with theatricality. Even the somberness of Protestant religious expression is imbued with emotionality on the canvas. Both Catholic and Protestant painting during the Baroque period exhibits a vibrant visceral character, a "dynamic composition," and also a "more naturalistic approach" than Renaissance art before it had ("Protestant Baroque"). However, the differences between Catholicism and Protestantism are reflected in their respective arts. Protestant art avoids the direct depiction of crucifixion scenes and other drama that is part and parcel of the Catholic Baroque visual arts. Catholic painting was largely commissioned by the Church, too, which gave rise to a collection of pieces that can be considered akin to religious propaganda. On the other hand, the rise of the middle class and the move away from religious patronage of the arts gave rise to a more pragmatic approach to painting that is quintessentially Protestant. The differences between Catholic and Protestant Baroque painting is especially evident in a comparison between Caravaggio's "The Crucifixion of Saint Peter" and Rembrandt's "The Return of the Prodigal Son."

Caravaggio's "The Crucifixion of Saint Peter" is a hyperrealistic rendition of the martyrdom of Saint Peter. With almost photographic clarity, Caravaggio depicts a moment of sheer pain not just for Peter but for the three men who carry him. All four of the figures featured on the canvas struggle, their muscles tensed. Caravaggio's realism enables the viewer to identify closely with the pain inherent in the painting. Saint Peter struggles against the nails that hold him to the crucifix; three Romans likewise struggle to lift up Saint Peter's crucifix to a vertical position.

The scene in "The Crucifixion of Saint Peter" is unabashedly theatrical. Filled with pathos, the crucifixion scene uses emotion much as an advertiser does to market products. After all, art was a primary propaganda tool for the Catholic Church especially as the Reformation took hold throughout Western Europe ("Baroque Art"). Propaganda is meaningless without emotionality. In this case, the Catholic message is transmitted easily on canvas via an intensely realistic pictorial style.

Caravaggio purposely imbues the canvas with light and shadow to highlight the intensity and pathos of the Biblical scene. The compositional structure is especially striking in "The Crucifixion of Saint Peter," in which an absolute cross is formed via the four figures plus the crucifix as a main axis. The eye is continually drawn back to the center point of the canvas, which is Saint Peter's torso. Caravaggio makes sure to shroud the faces of all three of the Romans as if to point out their relative insignificance. It is Saint Peter who is the highlight of the painting, and of the overall message of the Catholic Church. Saint Peter's white flesh stands out, especially against the darker background colors.

The Romans' body language as they carry Saint Peter is as unnatural as placing a man on a wooden cross. Caravaggio shows that the Romans' physical torment is qualitatively different than the spiritual struggles experienced by Saint Peter on the cross.… [read more]

Ancient Greek and Ancient Roman Term Paper

… Ancient Greek & Ancient Roman Art

This is a guideline and template. Please do not use a final turn-in paper.

It would probably be quite fair to say that Roman art has a "heavy" Greek influence -- in almost every way one might consider the different forms of art. It is difficult to find an article that doesn't mention this influence. And, in many cases, it would not be unreasonable to say that some Roman art and sculpture looks as if it is copied from the Greek. One cannot help but come to the conclusion that perhaps the Greeks were the creative ones.

Greek sculptors were seeking the ideal artistic form while it would seem that, for the most part, Roman artists were set on painting and sculpting decorative and realistic portraits.

During the Greek Hellenistic period in the early 300s B.C., Greek art began spreading to other lands in conjunction with Alexander the Great traveling over and conquering almost all of the known world.…… [read more]

Comparing Arts of Baroque Rococo Neoclassical and Romantic Era Term Paper

… ¶ … Baroque, Rococo, Neoclassical and Romantic Art

Generally speaking, the term "Baroque" is used in current art history studies as a blanket designation for the art created from about 1600 to 1750, but in recent years, art scholars and critics have come to realize that "Baroque is a classification useful in isolating the tendencies and products of stylistic change; thus, traits which are part of the styles of the 17th and 18th centuries are now designated as Baroque." 1 for the most part, the art created during the Baroque Period was spacious and dynamic, brilliant and colorful, theatrical and passionate, sensual and ecstatic, opulent and extravagant, versatile and virtuoso, 2 but as the 18th century began, the Baroque style became more mellow and refined. This was the century of the rise to great power of the maritime British Empire and the spread of new ideas directed at the Church and the State, democratic ideas related to freedom and the equality of all men. Many enlightened monarchs cultivated outspoken men like Voltaire, and reason and common sense were seen as viable alternatives to the ills facing human society. In essence, the 18th century art world and all of Europe "was waiting breathlessly for the tremendous revolutions to come." 3

With this new age cultivated by European monarchies in France, Italy, Spain and Great Britain, came what is known as the Rococo style of art which refers to small stones and sea shells used to decorate the interiors of grottoes and serves as the principle motifs for Rococo ornamentation. Thus, the Rococo style is mainly an interior style related to small works of art, furniture, utensils and other household accessories and all kinds of objects, both useful and decorative, exquisitely wrought in the characteristically delicate and undulating Rococo line. 4 a typical Rococo room can be found in the Salon de la Princesse at the Hotel de Soubise in Paris, decorated by Germain Boffrand (1667 to 1754). With painting, a prime example is Cupid a Captive by Francois Boucher, painted in 1754, which shows "a pyramidal scheme of infant and female flesh, set off against a cool, leafy background" with the figure's nakedness both hidden and revealed by fluttering draperies. With this painting, Boucher used all of the Baroque devices, being "the dynamic play of criss-crossing diagonals, curvilinear forms and slanting recessions." 5

By the middle of the 18th century, the rediscovery of ancient Greek art and architecture turned the artistic tastes of Europe in a brand-new direction which began the style and period known as Neoclassical. Within this period's admiration for the art of Greece, a similar admiration came about for the art of ancient Rome via the excavations of the towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum in the 1730's and 1740's. Several excellent examples of this new style include the portico of the Church of Ste. Genevieve, now known as the Pantheon, in Paris, designed by Jacques…… [read more]

Red Grooms Term Paper

… Red Grooms

the context of Pop art

The movement in modern art towards Pop art, environmental and action art and other forms of expression was in many regards a natural evolution of modernist art forms. By its very nature, art… [read more]

Korean Contemporary Artist Term Paper

… ¶ … video art has become very popular in Korean due to the influence of technology. Many of the best new artists are incorporating this form of art and embedding it deeply into their work. Paik Nam, who is considered the first Korean to use video art in his Cafe a Go-Go exhibit, has now evolved into a new generation of artists. Park Hyun Ki is one of the artists that are now "incorporating images that are highly specific and relevant to a distinctly Korean audience."

Park Hyun Ki was born in 1942 in Seoul, his focus in art is in the link between spirituality and technology. He explains that his particular interest is in finding the balance between industrialization and culture. The deeper undertones of his art is that he finds in Korean culture the economic growth and the social growth from Western countries have changed it away from traditional values. He sees the video art as a method of using video monitor as an art object, however he has evolved to using a more sophisticated "merging of video and nature." His most famous work and the one to be discussed in this paper is his "untitled series (1976-79). He says that he was inspired by Paik's exhibits and he wanted to show the world a new hybrid type of art work.

The untitled series revolves around the "deification" of the video monitor. The art work consists of a monitor that is sandwiched within a column of stones, the actual vertical alignment of the work is reminiscent of the "totemic piles placed on mountainsides across Korea." The concept behind it is that, in traditional Korean culture, it is a "shamanistic custom" where passerby of the totem will make a wish by placing a stone onto of a larger stone to form a "pillar to the gods." The purpose of this work, as explained earlier is to explore the contributing factors of industrialization and modern society along with traditional concepts. The sandwiching of the monitor is symbolic of how Korea no longer depends upon the old beliefs and have cast aside many of its traditions in favor of modern technology. However, that even as Korea continues to adopt culture from the Western world they still keep to some of the traditions of the past. The fusion of these two cultures and time periods is represented in this work. Park explains that in this piece, his specific purpose is to reflect ancestral ideas of beauty. He explains that he "saw an old man piling up stones, like a child, saying that one represented him and the other his hat. The peace and harmony of the stone, the mane and the place where the stone pile was raised, opened my eyes to the beauty of Korean traditions which are based on harmony with nature." Park's focus on how nature and technology can blend just like how tradition and modernization can blend are all important aspects of his artwork and is very important… [read more]

Conversion of Saul Term Paper

… Saul

Could you give us ONE way in which each painting reflects its time period?

Caravaggio's painting is reflective of the Baroque era of its creation because it is more intimate and psychologically complex than Michelangelo's treatment of the same subject. Caravaggio's painting reflects the era's increased focus upon the inner life of individual, rather than on spiritual life in a social context. There are only a few people in the frame of Caravaggio's work. The figures and the spotlighting of Saul's face and arms draw the viewer's attention upon Saul alone. The gazers do not seem to understand what has transpired, and what has taken place within Saul's character. Michelangelo's work shows God acting like a human being in a very physical manner. His work reflects the Renaissance's confidence in the ability of humankind to portray and understand the divine. Saul's conversion is rendered in an active, physical manner, in a way that is clearly seen by the collective sea of humanity in Michelangelo's picture. But Caravaggio's treatment shows how the Catholic faith affected by the Reformation's new…… [read more]

De Stijl (the Style) Movement Term Paper

… Le Corbusier designed an exhibit for a fair in Paris in 1925 (International Exposition on Decorative and Industrial Arts); it was called the "Pavillion de l'Esprit Nouveau," and showcased his interests in modern design and architecture. This "New Spirit" movement had a substantial influence on urban planning and architectural history. It highlighted a pared down, mechanical vocabulary.

The Bauhaus movement was centered in Germany (1919-1930), primarily in the cities of Weimar and Dessau. The leaders Walter Gropius and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe created with their synthesis of technology, functionality and architecture, a powerful movement which profoundly influenced designers for decades; in fact a later branch of Bauhaus was formed in Chicago in 1937, and it had a substantial influence on American artistic design. The main concepts stressed the practicality and usefulness of objects - whether in architecture or industry. Both the neo-plastic and the constructivist movements mentioned earlier were precursors to the Bauhaus, and their influences are evident both in its philosophy and its projects. The "school" stressed the centrality of architecture. They wished to create a unity of forces, in which all pursuits (pottery, furniture making, glass and wood sculpture, weaving etc.) would coexist as a "single form."

Works Cited

Raizman, David. History of…… [read more]

Edgar Degas After the Bath Term Paper

… ¶ … Edgar Degas' After the Bath with respect to his stylistic choices. This paper will discuss the subject matter and analyze formal elements such as composition, line, texture, mass and volume.

How did Degas use color and light in… [read more]

Michelangelo's Zeal for Defying the Norm Research Paper

… Michelangelo's Zeal For Defying The Norm

Michelangelo's enduring influence

Michelangelo's creativity

Michelangelo's Emphasis on Visual Effects

Emotional nature of Michelangelo's effects

Success of visual effects

Beyond Borders

How Michelangelo's work influenced many states

Future Generations Inspired

Michelangelo influenced his younger… [read more]

123. . .Last ›
NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.