Study "Art / Painting / Sculpture" Essays 1-55

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Public Art and Public Spaces Term Paper

… While the political content of public art has lessened to some extent in more recent decades, it remains in general inherently more subversive than unifying. Rachel Whiteread's 1993-4 sculpture, titled "House." The concrete piece replaces what was once an actual… [read more]

Bust of Antinous the Piece Term Paper

… These works of art contributed to society in general because they were often displayed publicly so the people could admire them, and people decorated their homes and buildings with them, adding to an overall cultural appreciation of the arts and sculpture.

In earlier cultures, there was little "spare" time to create beautiful works of art simply for their enjoyment, so these delicate and detailed works of art indicate there was more leisure time -- time to enjoy art for art's sake, and time for members of society to create it. People were interested in creating beautiful places to live and work, instead of simply surviving. In addition, the fact that so much Roman sculpture, like this piece, have survived to this day illustrates how important these artworks were to the people and the Roman culture. They preserved them… [read more]

Diane Blake Art Exhibition King Essay

… Summative assessment (if time) with critique paragraph on other student's artwork.

Relation to the Gallery Experience: Students will glean experience in viewing non-traditional art and the vocabulary to explain what they see and feel. Using Bloom's taxonomy, the importance of this lesson is moving from rote knowledge up the pyramid through explaining about the art; applying their vocabulary and experience to other artwork; analyzing what the artist did; evaluating their work and other student's; and creating something new based on past knowledge.

Reflection: This is a lesson in which so many other multidiscipline parts of the curriculum could be interwoven: music, history, social studies, science, etc. The success of the lesson is based on an experimental paradigm; one in which the individual looks beyond the obvious and leans to use constructivism to interpret and describe nonlinear and non-tangible environmental issues. The personal pedagogical value is focused on helping students develop and hone their analytical skills, and teaching them how to appreciate artistic concepts.


Art with Al. (2013). King Island, Bass Strait by Dianne Blake. Retrieved from:

Board of Studies, NSW. (2006) Creative… [read more]

Art History and Contemporary Essay

… Perhaps this is the genesis of the very nature for humans that we need to continuously explore and explain the unknown. And, different cultures in time and location find different approaches and solutions to this -- but in similar ways… [read more]

Whitney Collection, What Qualities Essay

… These elements are important, because they are showing how art is heading in a direction of capturing these images. As a result, this is giving the viewer a sense of appreciation for them and ideas that they will see. Where, they are able to transcend the time when they were created, which is showing a sense of realism and how various shifts could be occurring. Once this takes place, it is giving everyone a sense of awareness and enlightenment about these events. ("Whitney Collection")

At the same time, modern art is heading in a direction that is taking on more abstract concepts. Two examples of this can be seen in the works that were created by: Jessica Stockholder and Pat Steir. In both pieces of art, there is the utilization of various dark and light colors on the canvas, to shape how it is being interpreted by the viewer. In the case of Stockholder, her canvas is untitled to show how she is allowing the audience to make their own interpretations about the underlying meanings. While at the same time, Steir is taking this concept and is applying it to the universe through the use of: a blue background, with grey and red overlapping it. Even though this may not be an actual depiction of the Milky Way, the utilization of this technique is allowing the viewer to open their minds. This is important, because it is taking these ideas and recreating them in such a way, to instill a unique interpretation in the minds of the individual. Once this occurs, everyone will be able to have their own views of the work and its underlying meaning. ("Whitney Collection")

When you step back and analyze the direction that modern art is going, it is clear that there are two major influences that have been quickly emerging (realism and abstract concepts). Realism is used to show the various images of contemporary society by: highlighting how this is shaping the way the audience is looking at everyday events. Once this occurs, the reader will have a greater sense of appreciation for these images and their underlying meanings. While the different abstract concepts, are being utilized to shape how someone is interpreting a wide variety of events. As, the artists are using different colors to: create a kaleidoscope of light and dark images (which is a reflection of various concepts). These elements are important, because they are showing how the future of art is embracing these ideas to create another way of understanding these works. ("Whitney Collection")


"Doug Aitken." Whitney Collection, 2011. Web. 23 Jun. 2011

"John Coplans." Whitney Collection, 2011. Web. 23 Jun. 2011.

"Whitney Collection." Whitney Collection, 2011. Web. 23 Jun. 2011 [read more]

Art Paintings and Analysis Essay

… ¶ … works of art. The two pieces I have selected for comparative analysis are Water Lilies by Claude Monet, and Day of the God by Paul Guaguin. The criteria of my analytic comparison are going to be based on… [read more]

Russian Constructivism Artistic and Architectural Term Paper

… 11).

The largest peaks for the success of women artists developed in the pre-revolutionary period and during the Constructivist period of the 1920's. As Yablonskaya notes, during the late 1920's and early 1930's, women artists led two contrary developments, "one… [read more]

Portraiture: Van Eyck, Van Der Weyden Research Paper

… Portraiture: Van Eyck, Van Der Weyden and Fouquet

Jan van Eyck, (1390-1441), has been touted as the pioneer of Dutch fine painting and the preeminent orchestrator of the oil painting technique; although some argue that he did not invent it… [read more]

Renaissance Art Term Paper

… " (Murray: 7)

Renaissance in Art is marked by extreme emphasis on the human body and the individual. The material world was the sole focal point of artistic expression during this period. Human anatomy became a favorite subject of interest and thus we find more nudes under this movement than any other in art history accentuating humanism and individualism that marked the period. Everything took on new meaning as painters focused on the material world, sensations, sensuality and man's connection with the obvious. Even old Christian beliefs had lost their spiritual touch and were no longer being painted with the religious zeal of the Middle Ages:

In the Renaissance, the material world for the first time became the sole inspiration for plastic and pictorial invention. For example, Gothic artists attempted portraiture and the nude as incidental parts of their paintings, but only in the Renaissance could Pollaiuolo create a group of nudes as the sole interest of his picture. The artistic content should be carefully distinguished from the subject matter. The Renaissance, except for the introduction of certain classical and poetic themes, continued to paint the Christian subjects but the artistic content was no longer Christian." (Sarton et al. 107)

Renaissance preoccupation with the material world resulted in the development of sensuousness in art. Man and his world became the ultimate as spirit took a back seat for nearly two hundred years. But this period also marked the existence of art as a separate trade. In the Middle Ages, art was primarily used in cathedrals and altarpieces but with Renaissance, art gained prominence as a separate field and was no longer an extension of theology.

Some famous pieces of Renaissance include Boticelli's The Birth of Venus (1484) and The Judith, Da Vinci's Mona Lisa (1404) and The Last Supper (1495), Durer's Night, Death and Devil (1513), Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel (1508-1512) and Raphael's Madonna with Christ and St. John the Baptist.


Peter Murray, The Art of the Renaissance. Praeger: New York 1963

George Sarton, Ferdinand Schevill, James Westfall Thompson; The Civilization of the Renaissance. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1929

Renaissance Artists": Retrieved online 9th October 2004:

Anatomy in the Renaissance" Retrieved online 9th October 2004: [read more]

Dynamics Between Art and Technology Essay

… There are buildings in Japan that withstand earthquakes while sustaining minimal damage compared to buildings which are not constructed by the same methods. That is an example of advancement in architecture. Sculptors have a greater range of materials to choose from because of the kinds of tools that exist now as well as the materials that they may not have had access to before commercial airlines, the Internet, and other technologies.

Art and technology of the 20th century were additionally influenced by increased contact and communication among the international communities and the rising strength of feminism in the latter part of the 20th century. Many of the most celebrated art forms of the 20th century came from within specific cultural groups such as Jazz, Rock and Roll, Cubism, Nouvelle Vague, and post modernism. Without the convergence of, diversity of, and massive expressions of the many minority groups including women, the art of the 20th century would not have reached the historical heights as it did. In many instances, the oppression and injustice the minority groups faced expressed itself as new art forms such as hip hop and feminism.

There is always an ongoing conversation between art and popular culture. Many professionals in the art community traditionally separate art from popular culture. Art is supposed to be more thought provoking, non-traditional, and reaches a niche audience. Popular culture is mainstream, appeals to a wide audience, and stereotypically does not engage the intellect, other abstractions, nor does it function on a semiotic level. Art in the 20th century subsumed popular culture. The result was art that was both art and popular culture, creating an intriguing intersection. Andy Warhol was a Slovakian American artist who is famous for blurring these lines between art and popular culture. Art and technology separately as well as when they intersect have many effects upon society including the ways in which we perceive ourselves and perceive reality.


Benjamin, W. (1935) The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction. Available from 2012 June 15.

National Endowment for the Arts. (2009) Audience 2.0 -- How Technology Influences Arts Participation. National Endowment for the Arts, Available from 2012 June 17.

Thakur, M.K. (2010) How technology influences arts and creativity. International Business Times, Available from 2012 June 16. [read more]

Sculpture an Unconventional Equestrian Statue Essay

… Moreover, the man's musculature is as chiseled and well defined as the horse's. The horse has met his match; free trade has met its match wit the FTC. Using the geometric forms common to socialist art, Lantz also offers a rather compelling view of American commerce at the height of Roosevelt's New Deal.

"Man Controlling Trade" has few absolute parallels in the world of public art and sculpture. Most equestrian statues are rendered to glorify military leaders rather than to impart a democratic political message. A case in point is Andrea del Verrocchio's fifteenth century equestrian monument of Bartolommeo Colleoni, Campo dei Santi Giovanni e Paolo, in Venice, Italy. The very pedestal upon which the bronze statue is placed is much higher than that used by Lantz and the Federal Trade Commission in Washington. Whereas Lantz conveys the glory of the polis over unmitigated human greed, Verrocchio's monument depicts the singular glory of a military leader. In spite of their different themes, both statues do point out the importance of human endeavor: whether in the battle over territorial dispute or the battle over the right to remove barriers to market entry. Verrocchio is able to insinuate that a struggle has occurred prior to the victory scene he depicts; for if the soldier were not victorious, he would be immortalized on his trusty horse.

Verrocchio's equestrian monument depicts both man and horse in perfectly poised positions. Also a sculpture in the round, the Verrochio monument can be viewed from all angles to appreciate the artist's intent. The horse is completely disciplined, evident in its erect and stately gait. This is completely counter to the compromised position of Lantz's horse. Like Lantz's horse, Verrocchio's is in motion, but he walks and does not struggle against his human rider. The rider and the horse are in harmony and symbiosis. Moreover, the horse in Verrocchio's statue is adorned with equestrian decor befitting a military man. The man wears armor including a helmet. Neither horse nor human in Lantz's statue wear any adornments. In Lantz's statue, the human and the horse are engaged in an epic battle and thus are disengaged from the viewer. In Verrocchio's, on the other hand, the horse and the rider both have their gaze proudly set on the onlookers below. The man and horse in the Venetian statue are relaxed and at ease; their muscles are not bulging as are the muscles in Lantz's statue.

Both Verrocchio's and Lantz's equestrian monuments are sculptures in the round that are rendered on a massive scale and placed prominently in public places. Both sculptures depict the relationship between a man and a horse, a relationship with symbolic as well as literal meaning. However, the form, style, and political intent of the two monuments vary considerably. [read more]

Cubism Cubist Sculpture Term Paper

… Cubism

Cubist sculpture

Cubist sculpture and its significance in the development of art

Cubism as an art movement is considered one of the most revolutionary in art history. It was part of the modernist art movement during the Twentieth Century… [read more]

Body and Nudity in the Nineteenth Century Art Term Paper

… ¶ … Body in 19th Century Art

Throughout the course of the 19th century, representations of the body - particularly the nude body - shifted considerably. As we will see in this paper through an examination of three paintings from different periods, the 19th century witnessed a remarkably fast transition, from the neoclassicism of Ingres to the realism of Courbet, and on to the modernism of Picasso. Through tracing the evolution of the way in which the nude female body was portrayed during this key period in the history of art, we will show how each artist under scrutiny responded to the innovations of earlier eras in rendering their own signature innovations.

We will begin with an examination of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres's La Grande Odalisque. Painted in 1814, this work exemplifies Ingres's neoclassical tendencies - his desire to conserve traditional values of the nude in art. At the same time, it represents a shift towards the Romantic values that would come to signify a new tendency in Western art. It also represents the influence of the Mannerists, such as Parmigianino, in its distortion of the figure's anatomical form; for this reason, it could also be said to predict future experimentations with form in the work of modern painters such as Pablo Picasso. The painting depicts an odalisque, or a concubine. Unlike traditional nudes, Ingres's Grande Odalisque depicts the concubine with extra vertebrae, making her back look abnormally long. For a long time, this was believed to be an error, but it was later discovered in studies that Ingres drew in preparation that he had intended this all along. As her back is to us, it forms the foreground of the picture. Thus, what we find in La Grande Odalisque is an exoticization of the woman's nude body, rather than a realistic depiction. This makes sense, as the concubine's vocation is purely sexual. This fact is emphasized by the blank facial expression on the concubine's face as she stares out at the viewer.

Gustave Courbet's the Sleepers was completed in 1866. By this point, painting had largely moved on from the neo-classical and romantic efforts of painters like Ingres, in favor of realism, a form of art that was meant to be faithful to everyday experience. The subject of the painting, two nude women holding each other in a post-coital embrace, shocked the French public when it was first completed, and was banned from public display for a number of years. The realist school was opposed to the formal posing of nudes that the neo-classical and romantic artists employed. Instead, they wanted their scenes to… [read more]

Conceive of a Work of Art Term Paper

… Art Conception: Early Renaissance

Imagine a statue of Pallas Athena, the ancient goddess of wisdom and the protector of the city of Athens being born, as was alleged, from the skull of her father Zeus, or Jove (as the ancient… [read more]

Basic History of Western Art Term Paper

… ¶ … History of Western Art

Donatello's David is a clear influence of the classical style over the Renaissance art. The sculpture features a nude representation of carefully studied anatomy that depicts a certain level of feminity. It reminds of… [read more]

19th Century Art First Question - Three Term Paper

… 19th Century Art


Considered one of the most influential art movements of the twentieth century, Cubism defined not only a transformative period of art but influenced the careers of the individual artists who… [read more]

Religious Art Works Essay

… Leonardo used a new and startling type of composition that was done in a realistic way. The central point of his perspective is Jesus Christ and uses lines in the architecture in order to create depth. His work transformed the last supper as a stronger and more realistic scene (Essential humanities, 2013).

The Baroque period

In this period we look at Tintoretto 'a.k.a' Jacopo Comin work of religious art .the particular work of art on focus is his painting on the last supper. This work of art was done between 1592 and 1594.the medium that was used in this painting was oil on canvas. The current location of the painting is Basilica di san Giorgio Maggiore, in Venice (Art and the Bible, 2012).

Tintoretto did not use perfectly proportioned and symmetrical compositions that were used in High Renaissance instead he used energetic and dramatic compositions. He creates depth and drama in this painting through use of diagonal the painting he uses mannerist devices noticeably radically asymmetrical and complex composition.

Religious art has gone through several changes as evident from these three works of art. These three paintings are of the same thing the last supper however they have been portrayed in different ways by the different artists. There is a difference in the paintings and elements used for instance creation of depth have been achieved differently in all these three paintings.

Art has ben going through numerous transformations over the past as evidenced from the different art periods. The historical events that are behind these changes are the development and emergence of different art periods. This is because as the art periods emerged there were changes in the way art was done hence a contributing factor to these changes (Essential humanities, 2013).


Art and the Bible.(2012). The Last Supper. Retrieved February 24, 2014 from

Essential humanities.(2013). Renaissance Painting. Retrieved February 24, 2014 from… [read more]

David Notable Religious Events Research Paper

… His version of the statue is a masterpiece because it is an amalgamation of his four strengths. Had he not be a Renaissance man of many talents, perhaps the statue would have reached the heights, fame, and adoration that it still enjoys in the modern period. David was not his final work by the least, but certain it was one of his greatest achievements and greatest exemplars of what Renaissance art & achievement overall.

Michelangelo's David proves to be quite innovative from the other statues and from other forms of Renaissance art.

For Michelangelo David proved to be a defining moment in his artistic career…Michelangelo was only twenty-six years old when he won the contract for David. He began work on Monday September 13th 1501 and it would take him two years to turn the marble block into the iconic image that we know and admire today…Michelangelo's David differs from earlier versions (see the three David's) in that it does not show the severed head of Goliath, instead the artist has depicted the moment before the young shepherd begins his battle with the giant Philistine. (Italian, 2012)

Therefore one clear difference is the material which Michelangelo used over the other artists. He used marble that was intentionally aged for the purposed of sculpture. The other statues are bronze. Certainly another difference is that Michelangelo composed his work in a new century. The Renaissance period extends over a portion of the 15th and the 16th centuries. As those of us who have lived in the 20th and 21st centuries can attest to, every aspect of culture changes when the times change, even within the same movement, art form, organization, country, culture, even economic systems such as capitalism. David is shown alone in a relaxed pose without Goliath's head in Michelangelo's version. This moves the focus less upon the famous deed David is known for and more upon the man David and all he represented including as well as outside of his triumphant moment over Goliath. Furthermore, of the three veresions, Michelangelo's took the longest duration of time to compose. This meticulous attention to detail and craft additionally distinguishes this version from the other great versions of the statue.

The story of David comes from the section of the Bible called the book of Samuel. David is an Israelite and Goliath was the greatest warrior on the opposing side of the Philistines. No other soldier was brave enough to face Goliath but David. David was too young to formally join the fight against Goliath, but he faced the challenge regardless. He did not have military training; he herded sheep as his vocation. David even refused to the armor and traditional weaponry for Israelite soldiers at the time. Again, he confronts the enemy with only his slingshot. Striking Goliath in the head with stones, he stuns the oversized man long enough to use his own sword to decapitate him. Everyone present at the battle believes David's strength from directly from God. This… [read more]

What Is Art Now? Term Paper

… ¶ … art now?

What is Art Today?

One of the questions that the Art Now series brought to the table was "What is art today?" Today, it doesn't seem like there is a lack of art anywhere in the… [read more]

Art in Daily Life I Am Fortunate Term Paper

… Art in Daily Life

I am fortunate to be able to say that I have art in almost every part of my daily life. For example, I wake up in the morning to music instead of the sound of an alarm, so my first moments of each day celebrate art and creativity. I find the transition from sleeping, dreaming, and imagination to the reality of daily life is eased by incorporating art into that routine. My morning art experience is continued over breakfast, because I read the comics while eating my breakfast. Although defining comics as fine art may be controversial, some of the drawings and artistic techniques in the funny pages are breathtaking, and the storylines in other strips, like Funky Winkerbean, tackle serious issues in a manner that is similar to a serious movie, though the presentation is somewhat slower.

Even when I am not seeking out art in my daily life, it bombards me. Though their primary purpose is commercial, the advertisements that one sees every day on billboards or in magazines offer good examples of art. The photographers use light, shadow, and color to attract interest, making products… [read more]

Hellenistic Sculpture Term Paper

… ¶ … sculpture from the Hellenistic period of Greek art called the "Kritios Boy" which was discovered in the late 1800s by archaeologists in the ruins of the Greek acropolis in Athens. The artist who created it is unknown. This… [read more]

Art as Political Statement Term Paper

… As such, Marc's animals appeared in non-naturalistic colors, which has symbolist qualities such as blue for masculinity, while red and yellow stood for femininity.

To depict yellow as a joyous color, Marc created The Yellow Cow in order to show the happiness and the female depicted by the cow leaping through the air (Pioch).

As the political situation however worsened with the advent of the First World War, Marc's paintings reflected his fears. His animals became smaller and spread out, losing their qualities of calm and contemplation. In this way Marc makes the statement that even the artist as expressionist is not completely immune from the outside influence of fear and doubt (Pioch).


Fauvism was a mostly Parisian movement that did not last long, but had an intense influence on the art world. The use of color by fauvists is reminiscent of Marc's, as non-natural colors are used to depict emotion and style. Color was used as more than a mere means of shaping forms on canvass, however. Instead, colors were used in an almost barbaric manner, not entirely giving from to forms, but rather expressing the emotions of the painters. The style was rougher than that of Marc, almost to the extent where it was clumsy. Indeed, for artists such as Henri Matisse and Andre Derain, color became a force in itself, rather than a secondary form of shaping outlines. Color was thus used as an expression not only of an idea, but of the very emotion behind the idea. The result was complete artistic freedom in terms of using color. This was reflective of the variety of emotions experienced during this time in France. Artists turned away from the external situation towards the inner world, and used their emotions to make political comments ("Andre Derain").

Much like Marc above, for example, Vlaminck used color to depict his contrasting moods. An example is "The River" where the surface appears at peace, but the viewer is aware of an intense inner storm brewing. Derain's Charing Cross Bridge also depicted primitivism through the use of natural images in his paintings. The color and shape used in these works show a turning away from political turmoil and trouble to a wished for situation that may never depict itself. In this way the surface calm of "The River" represents the peace that is wished for, but that does not exist without the certainty of further trouble to come (Hughes).

Henri Matisse was the leader of the Fauvist movement, pursuing the expressive power of color throughout his career. His influences were derived from the French Riviera, Nice and Vence. Again, Matisse seemed to turn inward, away from the political situation of his time to focus on himself in the depiction of his work. Matisse then simply concentrated on the glory of the colors around himself to create his sensual works. When duodenal cancer for example permanently place him in a wheelchair during the year 1941, he finished the Chapel of the rosary in… [read more]

Lighting Techniques in Art Term Paper

… An example of this are the sculpted figures in the portal of the cathedral at Reims, where the figures are not so much a part of the architecture, but rather independent sculptures of their own accord, which are worked into… [read more]

Art the Metropolitan Museum Term Paper

… It was shocking to see the geographic range of where the pieces were from, and it showed how vast the trade networks were in the classical era. This exhibit also showed how the arts evolved concurrently with, yet largely independent of, Greece and Rome. Furthermore, some works in this collection showed how Assyrian art influenced ancient Rome. For example, the headless statue of a man with jewelry is reminiscent of classical Roman statuary but was created centuries before the peak of the Roman Empire.

The Leonard A. Lauder collection of cubist art includes work from some of the most famous artists in this genre: Georges Braque, Juan Gris, Fernand Leger, and Pablo Picasso. This collection was more diverse than expected, and showed the evolution of the cubist aesthetic from the late nineteenth through the early twentieth century. The works of art in this collection included some unusual pieces such as Braque's "Terrace at the Hotel Mistral" from 1907. This painting is more colorful than the bulk of Braque's portfolio. It almost resembles a stained glass window. In terms of color palette, "The Castle of La Roche-Guyon" has some rich jewel tones but has fewer dark outlines to the forms. Most of Braque's other works in the collection have an earth tone or even a monochromatic look to them. His signature cubist still life paintings were on display, too, such as the "Violin and Sheet Music." Juan Gris's palette is likewise dull and earthy with a few notable exceptions like "Checkerboard and Playing Cards," and "Still Life with Checked Tablecloth." Like Braque, Gris seemed infatuated with the concept of breaking down visual reality and rendering it in untraditional ways. Cubism permits the artist to present the world as it is, from multiple dimensions and perspectives, rather than from the biased eye of a single viewer. Some of Leger's paintings veer on the totally abstract, which causes the viewer to start questioning the boundary between what is representative art, and what is simply in the imagination of the artist. Picasso is remarkable in that his work transcends the gap between the represented and the abstract. Classically trained, Picasso has developed many paintings revealing naturalistic forms. When he presents those forms in cubist manner, the result is a minimalist rendition in which the human body and its surroundings are stripped of extraneous features. For instance, "Head of a Man," "Standing Female Nude," and "Head of a Nude" all show impeccable proportions of the human form. There is no doubt that Picasso could deconstruct and reconstruct reality and then present the results on canvas. There is something unsettling about cubism, and yet something also that is liberating at the same time. These three special exhibits at the Metropolitan Museum of Art were unique, and offered insight into the wide range of artistic expressions and encounters around the world. I appreciated being able to learn about tapestry, ancient artifacts, and cubism all under one roof.


The Metropolitan Museum of Art. [Personal… [read more]

Art Culture: Public Space Term Paper

… This is because the 20th century public sphere constitutes organized individuals that exert their influence over public debate and sphere institutionally. This public cannot appreciate the placement of public art in the public sphere, unlike the 18th century public. According… [read more]

Metropolitan Museum of Art: Analysis Essay

… Three questions which arise from this work are: Why was Godelieve specifically chosen for this altarpiece, versus Christ, Mary, or other saints? Why were these specific incidents from Godelieve's life chosen for the different 'comic strip' panels of the work? And to what extent is the design of the overall work reflective of the conventions of the period -- and to what extent is the style or content unique?

One possible paper topic would be to compare this depiction of Godelieve with the lives of other saints depicted on altarpieces created by other Flemish painters of the same era, comparing both their similarities and differences. Little is known about this relatively obscure saint by contemporary viewers of the work and a comparison with similar works would help illuminate some of these questions about her significance. Another possible paper topic would be to compare the work with altarpieces from the Italian Renaissance or different locations and eras of history, to highlight the uniqueness of the style of the work. A final, related but slightly different paper topic would be to examine the significance of food in the lives of female saints. As seen in the depiction of Godelieve, women are often shown feeding people, and examining how this motif was treated by artists of the Middle Ages, versus depictions of male saints and their relationship with food, would help to better understand how female holiness in relationship to the female body and feminine nurturing qualities was viewed during this period of Christianity.

Works Cited

Pioch, Nicholas. "Altarpiece." Web Museum. 14 Oct 2002. [19 Feb 2013]

[read more]

Last Supper Leonardo Divinci Analysis Essay

… Conclusion

It can be concluded from the above discussion that the Leonardo tried to incorporate numerological clues to indicate that the room reflects the universe that is visible to man at whom the Christ is at the center. The three windows behind them provide an idea into the world of eternity or paradise and the Christ is at the perspective center of this point as well. Judas having a knife in his back is considerably saved by Leonardo as the knife is another traditional element in Last Supper paintings, which indicates the hostility of man to the traitor (Schramm, Schwarte and Lazardzig 2008, Veltman 2008, Dominiczak 2012). It further suggests the fact that Judas would die soon but at the first look, the hand holding the knife belongs to no one in the painting and Peter is restraining it from the murderous action. It can be concluded that Leonardo appears to deliver by placing Judas with the remaining Apostles in the painting that there is an element of evil in every human being and the people are required to accept it just like they have accepted the fact of death and suffering (Schramm, Schwarte and Lazardzig 2008, Dominiczak 2012, Rosenberg 2002, Veltman 2008). It is the matter of the fact that the painting is considerably a grand complication for the entire globe as there is so much meaning with different layers of complexity apparent that can be reinterpreted by the modern pales in comparison. It is also found in the paper that the Jesus Christ is having a facial expression of resigned sadness along with the assured and regal poise. The movement as observed in the painting has isolated Jesus while leaving him alone at the center of the composition (Veltman… [read more]

Art One-Point Linear Perspective Research Paper

… Conclusion

The conventions of single point perspective are often presumed to be essential to a 'good' work of art. However, this is only relatively true for a brief period in Western history. The reason for the acceptance of this convention is linked to the rise of science, the secular spirit of the Renaissance and ideals of a detailed representation of reality, among many other factors and variables in Western history. However, this convention has been deeply questioned by modern artists, especially if we take into account the rise of abstract art in the Twentieth Century.

The history of art is however not simple or linear. While perspective has been critiqued by modern artists who wish to extend the boundaries of perceived reality and its representation, perspective is still used and accepted by many artists today. Perspective has in some cases been used to distort conventional ideas of reality and to suggest other levels of meaning. On the other hand many artists and artistic movements have rejected single-point perspective as inadequate in the creation of a relevant and meaningful artistic space.


Edgerton, S. ( 2006). Picturing the Mind's Eye. Tampa University. Journal of Art History,

1. Retrieved from

Op Art History Part I: A History of Perspective in Art. Retrieved from http://www.op-

Reverspective. Retrieved from

Littler, S. ( 2004). A Linear Perspective to Art. Retrieved from

What Is Perspective? Retrieved from' [read more]

Renaissance Art Patrons and Their Research Paper

… Modern art has more generally been funded by the artist before it is sold, but there are still individual patrons who want to see the great arts continued. "Collectors Friedrich and de Menil established the Dia Art Foundation in 1974 to support contemporary art, especially large-scale minimalist works by West Coast "light and space" artist James Turrell and New York light and sculpture artist Dan Flavin" (Sassi), so the spirit of patronage continues. There are many galleries which continue to function as patrons by commissioning the works of established and up-and-coming artists, so their galleries will become well-known and patronized by wealthy art collectors.

So, the idea of patronage is alive and well, it has just shifted in form. But, the great works that are presently being created may one day hang in a museum next to the "Mona Lisa."

Works Cited

Jones, Jonathon. "Arts Cuts? Pah -- Let's Hear it for Patrons." Guardian, 9 June, 2010. Web.

Reiss, Sheryl E., & David G. Wilkins. Beyond Isabella: Secular Women Patrons of the Art in Renaissance Italy, 2009. Kirksville, MO: Truman State University Press.

Sassi, Janet. "Art Patronage Played Role in 20th Century Minimalist Movement." Inside Fordham. Web.

Stockton. "Survey of Western Art: Baroque Art." 2010. Web.

Zwanger, Meryl. "Women and Art… [read more]

Art Had Been Taken Thesis

… Art had been taken to a whole new level during the Renaissance period, which lasted from 1400 to 1600. People had been determined to change mostly everything in the time's society in order for it to become better and more… [read more]

Italian Baroque Term Paper

… Italian Baroque

Art is the expression of artistic vision that carries the sign of the period of time when it was created. Baroque was born Italy from where it spread to France, Germany, Netherlands and Spain. The term "Baroque" was… [read more]

Stylistic Elements of Art Term Paper

… Stylistic Elements of Art

Jan Brueghel and Peter Paul Rubins "Allegory of Sight" depicts a painting of many paintings, sculptures, and other objects that relate to the visual world. A goddess or a muse sits in the picture's foreground. She has a piece of cloth draped over her shoulder, like a Grecian statue. A small, cupid-like figure addresses her in gesture as they both look at the same work of art. "Allegory of Sight" is a work of art that depicts artworks primarily of the human form and the sculptures and the faces from the paintings appear to gaze upon the figures, and seem almost as alive as the Grecian woman and child. The woman looks like a subject of art in her manner of dress, like a painting or sculpture come to life more than a woman. The title of the work indicates the symbolic nature of the painting.

This work is a visual allegory, not a depiction of real life, something the artist has actually seen. For so many great works to reside in the same area of an artist's studio would be improbable. There are also less prominent objects in the studio that relate to the medium of sight, like a telescope and a globe, that seem out of place in an artist's studio. The scene is everyday in the sense that it could be an attic, but the prominence of great works of art, all housed together, and the dim light that contrasts with the stark light upon the woman and child's flesh takes the work completely out of the realm of the everyday. The lighting also makes the strange whiteness figures more prominent and the gaze of the paintings more lifelike. The vastness of the amount of works that are sprawled within the room makes the space seem huge and vast, as infinite as the nature of the sense of sight that it seeks to depict. The painting strives for a timeless quality, but it seems squarely located in late Renaissance ideals of allegorical painting, and holds true to traditional… [read more]

Paintings Sculpture Term Paper

… Rodin, David

It is amazing how much of a personal impact a sculpture can make, especially when that work of art is something like Auguste Rodin's "The Thinker." Unfortunately, because his sculpture is so well liked, many companies have reproduced… [read more]

World of Art Term Paper

… ¶ … art, especially the visual arts, the artist presents the audience with a specific view of his or her personal world. In other words, the world according to the perception of the artist (the Visual World 10). The artist… [read more]

Painting Conversion of Saul Term Paper

… In terms of dramatic presentation, it is abundantly clear that
Michelangelo's rendering of the CONVERSION OF SAUL is far superior to that
of Caravaggio's rendering of the same painting. This superiority is based
upon several facts. First, Michelangelo has long been considered as the
quintessential genius of the Renaissance, whether in painting, sculpture or
architecture. Second, it was well-known during his lifetime that Caravaggio
cared little for the classical masters as compared to Michelangelo. Thus,
he drew bitter criticism from many of his contemporaries. One unknown
critic even went so far as to called Caravaggio "the Anti-Christ of
painting" (Horst de la Croix, 594). This view of Michelangelo's superiority
related to the CONVERSION OF SAUL can be supported by comparing several
artistic qualities of both artists.
With Caravaggio, his rendering of the CONVERSION OF SAUL was refused
on the grounds that it lacked propriety, meaning that the overall
presentation of Saul's conversion is more of an accident than a great
miracle. The young man who has obviously drunk too has fallen from his
horse, yet Caravaggio provides no indication… [read more]

U.S.A., Germany and England Were the Industrial Essay

… ¶ … U.S.A., Germany and England were the industrial and technological centers in the nineteenth century, than France was the dictator of culture and art tendencies that set cultural standard of the modern world in art, literature, sculpture and fashion.… [read more]

Early Renaissance Term Paper

… Western Civilization

The Early Renaissance

The word Renaissance means "rebirth" and people living during the time began to see themselves as "reborn" from medieval, feudal times. The Early Renaissance formed the backbone for the movement that continued through several centuries, and it was encouraged by a new interest in learning about the ancient Greeks and Romans and their teachings, their democracy, and their thirst for knowledge. In fact, leaders of the movement designed Florence as a "new Athens" after discovering many books and writings from ancient times. The characteristics of this early movement were nearly all intellectual. People read more, patronized and supported the arts, and encouraged learning, personal and civic growth, and generally emerged from the "dark ages."

The arts flourished during this time, and no one really knows why. However, numerous artists rose to prominence during the Early Renaissance, and influenced those who came after. Public buildings were adorned with carvings and sculpture, painting thrived, and churches were decorated with paintings, frescoes, sculpture, and beautiful decorations inside and out. The Renaissance celebrated beauty and intellect, and the two combined to produce some of the best artwork and craftsmen the world has… [read more]

Baroque Period Annotated Bibliography Chaffee Term Paper

… The naturalism and dramatic impact of Caravaggio's work, coupled with his insistent realism, are what made his artwork so famous.

Martin, John Rupert. Baroque. New York: Harper & Row, 1977.

This is an introductory book for understanding Baroque artists and… [read more]

Humanities Terminology Humanities Term Paper

… " (See reference 3) But style is not limited to the field of writing alone though it may be more pronounced here. Style can be seen in almost everything that forms creative expression; in fact even the way someone talks, walks or conducts himself becomes his or her unique style. It is due to this style that we can tell people apart or enjoy one's company and avoid another's. It is style that makes a writer popular. For example there are thousands of ghost and magic stories around but there was something about J.K Rowling's writing style that led to the massive success of her Harry Potter series.


Culture refers to art, literature and social norms, almost everything that reveals something special or unique about a group or society. Culture is a set of principles, traditions, practices and values that sets one group or society apart from another. When we say that African-Americans have a culture distinctly different from that of White Americans, what we are referring to is the long history and heritage that gives both these groups their distinct identity. Culture is therefore everything about a group that makes it unique among host of other groups in the world. For example Irish people would have certain customs and traditions that people in Africa might find unique and fascinating and vice versa. These customs lay the foundation of a culture but culture also includes all forms of art. When we study British literature, we notice that it is distinctly different from Russian literature or German books for that matter, this is because of the influence of culture only. A difference in the literature or art of the same group is then due to style and not culture. It is important to bear in mind so we can clearly understand the differences in various cultures.


Genius refers to intellect of a very high order. It is due to this intellect that we are introduced to something new and different in the otherwise old and dull fields. For example every painter can paint but if Michelangelo was a genius because he brought a fresh perspective to painting. Similarly every person who is regarded as a genius is something with extraordinary intellect and a unique passion for his work.


Aiken (1998): Nancy Aiken, The Biological Origins of Art, London: Praeger, 1998

Gombrich (1995): E.H. Gombrich, The Story of Art, 16th Edition, London: Phaidon, 1995 (1950)

E.B. White and Katherine Ann quotes taken at [read more]

Renaissance Sculpture the Division Term Paper

… Michelangelo's David seems completely serene and confident. Donatello did not carve detail in the eyes of David, while Michelangelo did render the iris. Moreover, Donatello found it striking to have David proudly display the vanquished Goliath. This echoes the classical stance of victor standing atop the vanquished. While both Davids are influence heavily by the classical arts and humanist philosophy, it is clear that by Michelangelo's time, all Gothic remnants were cast off of Italian sculpture.

Michelangelo ascribed to what Trewin Copplestone calls "the criteria of classical excellence," (21). The art of the High Renaissance was a culmination and successful combination of the classics and Christianity. Moreover, art became endowed with spiritual power during this time. Just as Vasari deferred to Michelangelo as "Il Divino," the artist was generally likened to God, just as God was the artist of mankind. Michelangelo's contribution to the divinely-inspired art of the sixteenth century was his "intense emotional involvement" with his work (Avery 168). This corresponded with the increasing attention paid to the names and personas of the artists themselves (Copplestone 21). For all his contributions to the sculptural arts of Italy, Donatello was never quite recognized as a god in his time. This probably reflects the changing social function of art from Donatello's time in the early Renaissance to Michelangelo's time in the so-called High Renaissance. Some art historians go so far as to suggest that the works of Donatello and Michelangelo resonate with "political symbolism," (Sullivan). In any case, Donatello paved the way for Michelangelo and other Renaissance artists to express a humanist, classical vision within Christian terms.

Works Cited

Avery, Charles. Florentine Renaissance Sculpture. London: Charles Avery, 1970.

Copplestone, Trewin. Michelangelo. New York: Regency House, 1996.

Olson, Roberta J.M. Italian Renaissance Sculpture. London: Thames and Hudson, 1992.

Sullivan,… [read more]

Visual Arts Salvador Dali Term Paper

… Dali believed that Surrealism operated on the plane of reality itself, liberating the consciousness by releasing thought and desire through acts of moral and aesthetic subversion. Moreover, Dali separated imagination from inspiration, saying, "Imagination is something which is put together in a more or less inspired the spout whose force obeys our will....inspiration is something involuntary, like the geyser which bursts forth unexpectedly...raising its salty and boiling jet to unexpected heights of passion" (Lubar 12).

In the words of Donald Kuspit, a new art "must first show that it has democratic those generally unschooled in art or not professionally interested in it. Then it must suffer a period of aristocratic rejection by those schooled in an accepted and... traditional form of art...those with vested interest in a known art and concerned with protecting it at all costs" (History pg). Such was the career of Salvador Dali, to establish a new art form, expressing more than mere feelings and realistic images on canvas. In 1944, Jackson Pollock expressed, " little contemporary action artists really understood the creative, intellectual explorations that Dali undertook to create 'something new'" (Lubar 8).

The importance of Dali's imagery and unique realism upon the world of art cannot be overestimated. His paintings capture one's attention and hold the imagination with their eerie and wholly believable quality perhaps more than any other artist. Many have expressed that each time they view a painting, they find something new they had missed before. Limp watches, figures and forms melting and melding into the canvas amid eerie landscapes are his most recognizable images. Regarding the metaphysical ponderings of symbolism, Dali said, "Things have no meaning whatever beyond their strictest objectivity...herein lies their miraculous poetry" (Lubar 11). Dali probed a deeply erotic dimension through his work, exploring his own psyche and dreams in his painting, sculptures, jewelry, furniture designs, and movies (Tansey 1076). He will forever be regarded as one of the great masters of Surrealism.

Works Cited

History of Surrealism.

A accessed 10-02-2002).

Lubar, Robert S. Dali: The Salvador Dali Museum Collection. Bulfinch Press Book.

1993; pp.8,11,12.

Morse, Reynolds A. Salvador Dali 1910-1965. First Edition. New York Graphic Society.

1965; pp.9,11.

Tansey, Richard G.; Kleiner, Fred S. "Early Twentieth Century: The Establishment of Modernist Art: Salvador Dali (1904-1989)." Gardner's Art Through The Ages. Tenth Edition. Harcourt Brace College Publishers. 1996; p.1076. [read more]

Art and Modernism Greenberg Essay

… Art and Modernism

Greenberg's Modernism and Art

Expressionism of art from historic times till present is a representation of human creativity and significance of visually articulating an imagination on hardcopy. In relation to historical art, Greenberg, an art influent, constantly inscribed on essays the importance of pictorial art, their history and nature. While growing up, Greenberg's interests and perception concerned historic painters whose work continued his proposition on modernism. It is evident that modernist paintings of art have had an impact in advancing other varieties of artistic media and disciplines. In addition, Greenberg identified philosophers that integrated modernism in their criticisms and development of theorems, an instant is Kant.

Modernism entails a deep expedition and critic of a discipline upon a solid foundation and comprehension of logic boundaries. According to Kant, the jurisdiction of modernism is dependent of the limits of logic in order to define the competency of a discipline, especially to those that affect art work. As opposed to Enlightenment, modernism follows procedures of the criticized subject. Pictorial art faces a lot of criticism, but its rational fit to modernism ought to interpret an all round philosophy, especially through Kantian theories that Greenberg referred to.

Most people perceive that art is an assimilation of entertainment, which is an element that assimilates the importance of art in modernism. Greenberg revoked this ideology of art assimilation by demonstrating credible artistic experience that cannot be provided by other affiliate activities. Several art pieces have been exhibited, being selected from many pieces drawn… [read more]

Statues of David I Choose Term Paper

… The right side shows David's movement, his stride is almost a leap as he aims his sling; seen from the front the pose is frozen, just one second before the fatal shot, and seen diagonally there is a rhythmic balance… [read more]

Reality Is Relative Upon Viewing Research Paper

… Whatever messages the artists are trying to convey must be hidden in the "backgrounds" of these images as they leap out at even the most casual observer. Both seem to point to man's insignificance. The village is so small and docile when compared to the stars and the swirling "winds" in the painting. And, in the photograph, the gentleman is so small in relation to the huge chain. Both artists have captured an exaggerated representation of normal things to draw attention away from that which would normally draw the eye.

Realism captures objective reality, in a way that reflects objective reality without any type of embellishment or interpretation. A photograph is generally a good example of realism. That would seem to imply that a photograph is not open to interpretation, it is simply an image which was captured by the click of a button. However, when viewing this particular photograph, one may certainly interpret its meaning through imagination and symbolism. How objective is a photo when it is viewed with the eyes and the imaginations of many? Each person who looks upon this photograph will come away with a different impression. Thus, Realism

begins to blur with Post Impressionism, despite the fact that Realism is concentrated on the realistic portrayal of its subject.

Post Impressionism is more difficult to define. That is due to the diversity in Post Impressionistic artists. Each of them was known for his individual technique for style. Van Gogh's style is very recognizable. He used vibrant colors, thick paint, and worked on canvas. His brushstrokes are energetic. In other words, Van Gogh built on earlier Impressionist art. So, in order to understand Post Impressionism one must define Impressionism. Impressionism was an art movement in France in 1870, which was practiced by painters, and depicted natural objects in an unrealistic manner- usually dabs or strokes of paint that would simulate light.

Interestingly, The Starry Night is said to depict the view outside of Van Gogh's sanitarium window. Obviously, since the painting was produced from a memory, it cannot fall under the category of Realism. It is not an objective representation of reality. It is however, one man's presentation of his own perception of reality and like Isambard Kingdom Brunel and the Launching Chains of the Great Eastern it is open to interpretation by each and every individual who views it.

Thus, one can see that art is always subjective. The artist may use varying devices to try and convey exactly what he or she was thinking at the time. These devices may include color, texture, light, brushstrokes, and roughness to try and capture either an objective piece of reality or a subjective interpretation of the night from a sanitarium but, the end result is that no two people will see the same thing and interpret the meaning exactly the same regardless if it is categorized as Realism or Post Impressionism. [read more]

Art of Michelangelo in Relation to the Earlier Florentine Tradition Term Paper

… ¶ … Michelangelo on the art and culture of Florence during the 16th century one cannot ignore the corresponding influence of Medici family. The Medici family's power and influence in Florence and Renaissance Italy in general cannot be overstated. The… [read more]

Art After 1980 Term Paper

… Whereas McCarthy focuses his attention on the perversion of the world underlying the clean veneer of mythology, Kruger is far more concerned with the iconography of popular culture and the detrimental effect it has on humanity. The thesis of Kruger's… [read more]

Oscar Wilde and the New Aesthetics Term Paper

… Nature Imitates Art Imitating Nature

In Oscar Wilde's the Decay of Lying, one character, Vivian, claims that life and nature imitate art far more than art imitates either life or nature. This is of course dubious to the extreme, so… [read more]

Roman Gothic and Early Middle Ages Essay

… Art

Roman, Islamic and Early Middle Ages

Roman, Islamic, and Early Middle Ages

Art: Roman, Islamic, and Early Middle Ages

Art forms and styles differ from period to period and for culture to culture. They often display different characteristics that… [read more]

Moma Ref.: The Artistic Importance Research Proposal

… MoMA

REF.: The artistic importance of "The Persistence of Memory"

The aim of this memorandum is to prove to the board the importance of Dali's greatest painting, "The Persistence of Memory," for the artistic development of the 20th century and as a notable work of art in itself. The memorandum will focus on two different levels. The first part of the memorandum will include a descriptive approach to the painting, while the second part will look at the painting from an interpretive perspective, one that will also include some historical and philosophical background to the work of art.


The painting contains several watches and clocks in an apparently desolated landscape. The clocks and watches are melting or rather have a fluid consistency, different than that in reality, which allows the painter to place them in different locations and positions throughout the painting, such as in what appears to be a crutch or a tree in that form. Another of the clocks/watches is slowly crawling off the table in the forefront of the work of art.

There are several other elements that appear to make no sense, although this memorandum will later show in the interpretative part what their meaning actually is. There are several worth mentioning. In the center part of the painting, there is an unidentified creature, painted in an open nuance. At the same time, there are two elements dominating the left part of the painting, other than the watches: a number of ants and the crutch/tree.

There are a couple of other observations that are worth mentioning from a descriptive perspective and which will help the point of this memorandum in explaining to the Board why this is an important and precious work of art. The painting follows an almost geometrical division between the sky, the water and the land. The land occupies approximately two thirds of the painting, while the rest is divided (not equally, but similarly geometrically) between water and air. The entire landscape is extremely interesting because it appears desolated, helping to build on the message that the painters wishes to convey to the rest.

II. Interpretative

First of all, one should note that Dali's work is eloquent for the period in art and literature history referred to as Surrealism. This current is characterized by an inclination towards the use of different symbols, many of them from the dream world, and by an extreme creative liberty that is fully reflected in Dali's painting. Indeed, even the elements that have been previously mentioned in the descriptive part… [read more]

Johannes Vermeer's the Milkmaid on Special Exhibition Research Proposal

… ¶ … Johannes Vermeer's the Milkmaid on special exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art

One of the featured works of art currently being showcased at the Metropolitan Museum of Art is that of Johannes Vermeer's the Milkmaid (1657-1658). Even… [read more]

Vocabulary of Art Essay

… Art

Line: Not all artwork contains lines, and those that do not seem extraordinary because of the presence of line in almost everything we look at. In fact, the following image of a painting by Jackson Pollock is composed of paint splatters that seem like lines to our eyes but which are in fact not:

The difference between Pollock's work and the following Picasso drawing is that the latter uses line to convey a specific form. In this case, the artist paints a face:

Line can be understood as "outline" when it conveys the essential features of an object. When a line exists just for the sake of being a line, as in many abstract works of art, the concept of line is deconstructed entirely. A line can be straight or curved and can flow from any one point to any other. Few artists convey the essential features of line as well as Mondrian, evidenced in the following painting:

Shape: A shape can be anything, including a line. Shapes can and often do represent familiar objects such as in a still life painting. In abstract works of art, shapes are non-representational. The following still life by Cezanne is replete with a variety of different shapes, converging to convey the idea of objects on a table:

The human eye creates a gestalt image based on the way the artist places shape on the canvas. Shapes in an abstract work of art may contain colors or textures but do not generally suggest any object with which we are familiar in our daily lives.

Mass: Mass can be suggested on a two-dimensional surface as in the above-mentioned still life. In Cezanne's painting, the orbs of onion symbolize their mass. However, mass is best conveyed in three-dimensional and multimedia works of art. The following sculpture of an elephant and its baby seems to possess volume and weight: the essential features of mass:

Light can be no better explained than through the works of Dutch painter Rembrandt. In "St. Joseph's Dream," an angel hovers in the center of the composition. The angel is a source of light; light emanates from the angel. Rembrandt achieves the effect via the use of color:$File/Rembrandt%20-%20St.%20Joseph%27s%20Dream.JPG

The dark areas of the painting are monotonously brown, especially those farthest from the angelic source of light. Rembrandt uses shades of white to depict the source of light, and uses shades of dark brown to convey the parts of the scene not touched by that source. Therefore, "St. Joseph's Dream" demonstrates how… [read more]

Influence of Photography in Art Term Paper

… ¶ … Photography in Art

The first thing that the mind conjures is the meaning of art. Art can be defined as any human creativity, skill, any craft or profession or its ideals, an assemblage of things having form and… [read more]

Georgia O'Keeffe Term Paper

… Georgia O'Keeffe

Georgia O'Keefe's "Lake George Autumn" and "Church Steeple"

Georgia O'Keefe's artwork has always been of great interest to journalists, critics and scholars who follow famous and talented people. But her many paintings and drawings - from New Mexico,… [read more]

Italian Renaissance Term Paper

… Italian Renaissance was the beginning of the Renaissance, a period of achievements and cultural changes that extended from the late XIV century until about 1600, constituting the transition between the Middle Ages and modern Europe.

The word Renaissance has a… [read more]

Post-Modern Art Term Paper

… Post Modern Art

By definition fine arts refer to the kind of visual arts that are created mainly for the purpose of satisfying aesthetic needs. They require a certain discipline, training and technique. The fact that they are not intended as utility purposes differences them from the craftwork or applied arts. Painting is one of the disciplines considered to be part of the elite of fine arts. The definition of painting is the art of applying color on a surface, usually following a drawing or mimetic image that represents one very specific picture. Because of this 'representative' nature of painting, many arguments have raised, since the appearance of abstract painting, about its eligibility to be considered 'fine art'.

The strongest argument is that painting is not the mere coloration of a drawing, but the expression of the artist's feelings and ability to handle the basic techniques of the painting. There is also the argument about how stylized an image is allowed to be in order to be considered 'figurative', since many distortions are allowed on a picture before it is judged as being completely abstract. Often, the human eye can make sense out of images by associating lines with familiar shapes. Likewise the most accurate portrait can be accused… [read more]

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