Study "Art / Painting / Sculpture" Essays 551-604

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Art the Lady or the Angel Rembrandt Term Paper

… Art

The Lady or the Angel

Rembrandt's portrait, Woman with a Pink, is a dark, yet very warm portrait of a woman holding a pink carnation. The background is very dark, though we can see a hint of wainscoting on the wall. The woman seems to be lost in thought and thinking deeply on something, quietly contemplating, almost sad. Her large eyes look down and not at the "camera," as if she is quite alone. She is richly dressed, especially for the austere Dutch culture in which she must have lived, so we assume she is an important personage. Her jewelry, clothing embroidery and headdress appear to be gold, but we cannot really even guess at the material of her gown, as it fades into the darkness.

The artist's use of color is very limited to browns, golds and various shades of rose, with the exception of her almost alabaster skin. Her face has no rosiness, and her cheeks seem quite flat, so we can assume she used no cosmetics at all, and did not pinch her cheeks. The only hint of cheek bone isw the shadow on her right cheek. We don't even see her neck as it is mostly lost in the shadow. All the colors used appear to be warm as there is not a hint of blues or greens anywhere, yet there is also no pink at all in her skin. We cannot see her ear, but the earring glows brightly, setting off the three-quarter face and balancing the forehead decoration onm her very high forehead. We cannot see her hair enough to guess the color, though we know it is not black and not platinum either. The brush strokes are quite visible, more so on her deep rose gown than on her skin, especially her face. They make her appear rustic and a little severe, as the finish is slightly mottled. Her heart shaped face and very straight roman nose would have made her quite a beauty of her day.

The balance of the canvas is not quite symmetrical, as she occupies more than half of it. Her body occupies the lower right diagonal and her head covers part of the other half. I wonder about the artist's choice to place the wainscoting right at a lever with her nose and eyes, as I found it a bit distracting. However, this portrait is captivating all the same in the power it ascribes to the subject, setting her out from the dark background and painting her as if we are peeking in on a solitary moment of thought. The light seems only to fall on her, and we are so close to her, it seems as if she should notice us, but she is lost in thought. Most of the visible…… [read more]


Kerry James Marshall Term Paper

… Kerry James Marshall

Who is Kerry James Marshall and what brought him into the world of art? Marshall was born in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1955. He received a BFA (Bachelor of Find Arts) and an honorary doctorate from the Otis… [read more]


Claude Monet Bridge at Giverny Term Paper

… ¶ … art masterpiece "Bridge at Giverny" by Claude Monet

Claude Monet's "The Bridge at Giverny" is a study in cool colors. The bright, icy blue of the bridge creates a curving, half-moon image over the muted greens and pale cream colors of the water. The bridge is interlaced with railings that give an impression of symmetry to its oval, overreaching quality.

Although the central blue of the bridge is likely the area of the painting to which the viewer's eye is first directed, the interlocking, lattice-like texture of the water lilies across the reflecting green surface below gives additional texture to the painting. The crisscrossing of the interlocking images of the flowers is a contrast with the linear, curving lines of the bridge. The natural shades of the water, the artificial blue of the bridge, and the occasional warm, colorful peep of yellow of the flowers make a simple study of bridge and water highly complex to the eye.

In the foreground of the water, a bit of the reflected bridge is visible. In the background, the green, spiky frond-like flowers, which have yellow blossoms like the water lilies of the 'ground' or surface of the painting stand out. The pinpoints of yellow are particularly striking, given their contrast with the other colors of the painting. Some warmth is evident in the colors of the green, a salmon-like pink, but for the most part the colors relax rather than assault the viewer.

19th century Impressionism began, partly as a response to Neo-Classicism and the realism of photography, as a way of justifying the existence of painted art. Impressionism conveys the impression of the artist, and is a depiction of the artist's inner life and thoughts, it does not aim to provide a realistic view of the painting's subject. Monet intended to convey a moment in time, not a literal depiction of the bridge or the water. The bridge is clearly located in the 'eye' of…… [read more]


Cheat With the Ace of Clubs Late 1620s Term Paper

… Art

Cheat with Ace of Clubs

Georges de La Tour, a French artist who lived from 1593-1652, pained this work. He painted this work, "The Cheat with the Ace of Clubs" in the late 1620s, in the Baroque style. It is oil on canvas, sized 38-1/2 x 61-1/2 inches.

This interesting painting contains a scene with four people. Three of these people are involved in cheating the fourth at a game of cards. A man with a pile of coins in front of him plays a card, while a servant pours wine and a woman uses her eyes to tell her accomplice to play the ace he had hidden in the back of his belt. All this goes on in front of the victim's eyes, and yet he does not suspect anything. The lines of the painting are smooth and rounded, giving the appearance of well-fed, comfortable people.

The motion of the painting is subtle and very elegant. The maidservant is clearly in the act of serving wine, and the painting seems like a snapshot, stopping the motion for just a second. The cheat moves gracefully while distracting the victim and all of the motion seems orchestrated together to create the scene. Thus, there is implied motion even though the moment seems caught in time and frozen in space. The shape and overall effect of the painting is round or oval. The lines and edges all suggest roundness, plumpness, and fullness, and because of this, opulence or at least contentedness. Most of the painting is filled up with the figures and the scene, so the overall mass is full and heavy. The overall effect of the painting is wealth, as almost all the figures are richly dressed and seem prosperous.

The lighting of the work is natural, and the cheat is hidden in shadow (as he should be). The woman who seems to be orchestrating the entire cheating scheme seems almost spotlighted, and overall, the lighting is natural and quite pleasant. The lighting adds to the overall value of the scene and helps the viewer understand the theme and idea behind the painting, which is that people should not allow themselves to be overcome by vices. The value of the lighting is not bright, but realistic and certainly not dark…… [read more]


Benjamin West Term Paper

… Benjamin West

Portrait of Benjamin West

The Death of General Wolfe

Touch of Bright

Death on a Pale Horse

Who Immortalized Whom?

Personal Reflections

Present Treasures

Benjamin West

Portrait of Benjamin West

"Art is not a treasure in the past… [read more]


Creative Arts Therapy 1 Discussion Term Paper

… Creative Arts therapy 1 discussion of the creative process in your life

The creative process from my point-of-view is part of a larger and extremely important spiritual awareness. The creation of art and artworks therefore has an underlying spiritual basis… [read more]


Picasso 1932-1935 Term Paper

… Picasso 1932-1935

The renowned art critic Hebert Read characterizes this period in Picasso's life as a period of intense creativity and psychological change and growth. It is also seen a period of soul-searching and a change in style, which is… [read more]


Artwork Piece at a Museum Essay

… Another thing that impresses is the way in which the water is perceived by its properties of reflection, and not by colour. The lilies seem to float peacefully across a tranquil surface of water that captures a detailed rendition of the surrounding trees and bushes. Their color is in contrast with the deep greens of the landscape, making their presence an event worth capturing on canvas.

Because of the colors used, the atmosphere of the painting is not so exuberant, but it doesn't seem sad either. It seems tranquil, and lush in all its greenness, even wild. The greens and browns tone down the joyfulness of the painting, and the eye-catching elements are the brighter colours of the flowers, which present themselves as spikes of energy for the ensemble.

The element most impressive is the brushwork, and how outlines are created without delineating clearly the elements of the composition, in pure impressionistic style. "Contemplating the sky reflected in the water lead Monet to turn his back on realistic outlines and took him to the verge of abstraction. Perspective and space, that once were so important to him a few years before, disappeared from his paintings. He stopped looking at the Japanese bridge, the flowers and plants and immersed himself in the contemplation of water mirroring clouds in the sky" In his later works the abstraction of the elements is more final. "Shapes and space have disappeared after Monet has finally wrought a complete transmutation of colours and elements so that the sky, the earth, water and plants intermingle in paintings very near abstraction." This painting, however, isn't that abstract, and the elements of the composition don't require much thought for identification. Still, the water, the sky and the vegetation seem to continue as one, and the brushwork supports that idea.

This painting may not be one of the most known of Monet's, but it carries all his trademarks, and is just as beautiful and striking as any other made by him. As with other impressionist works, the striking element remains the brushwork, and the way in which the mixing of vibrant colours on the canvas creates shapes and feelings alike inside the viewer.

Sources:

Author not available, "Monet, the Seine and Normandy," "Vernon, Giverny... passionately" Copyright vernon-visite.org 2005, May 2005, retrieved July 28th, 2006

http://www.vernon-visite.org/rgb3/monet_seine_normandy.htm

Author not available, "MONET, CLAUDE," The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2006, Copyright 2006 Columbia University Press, retrieved July 28th, 2006 http://www.highbeam.com/ref/doc3.asp?docid=1E1:Monet-Cl&refid=gg_x_01

Author not available, "Impressionism," Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, July 27, 2006. Retrieved: July 28th, 2006. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impressionism

Author not available,"Sights and Activities- Denver Art Museum," Fodor's Destinations-Denver, Fodor's Travel, a division of Random House, Inc., retrieved July 28th, 2006. http://www.fodors.com/miniguides/mgresults.cfm?destination=&cur_section=sig&property_id=140951 picture reproduction: Le Bassin des Nympheas 1904, Claude Monet. Collection of the Denver Art Museum © Denver Art Museum 1997, retrieved July 28th, 2006. http://www.denverartmuseum.org/pub/fut_1.cfm http://www.fodors.com/miniguides/mgresults.cfm?destination=&cur_section=sig&property_id=140951

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impressionism

http://www.highbeam.com/ref/doc3.asp?docid=1E1:Monet-Cl&refid=gg_x_01 idem http://www.vernon-visite.org/rgb3/monet_seine_normandy.htm idem… [read more]


Botticelli Sandro Term Paper

… Botticelli, Sandro

Sandro Botticelli

Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi or Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510), as he was known, was a Florentine artist who painted during the early Renaissance period. (Sandro Botticelli:Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi) He was renowned and extremely popular particularly for… [read more]


Abstract Art and Surrealism Term Paper

… Abstract Art Surrealism

Abstract Art and Surrealism

Abstract are and surrealism at first glance appear very similar. Many use the terms abstract art and surrealism simultaneously to depict works of art that attempt to represent intangible or non-representational objects. On closer examination however one can see that abstract art and surrealism are in fact very different. The primary difference is that abstract art attempts to define some object, event or circumstance interpretively while surrealism attempt to produce works of art that result from the artists vision rather than from reality. It is important that artists understand the difference between the two so they can interpret works of art objectively.

Surreal and abstract art are similar in that one can't measure how realistic the artwork is or use real objects to reference when interpreting art. Realistic material tends to reference objective material, events or circumstances, and one can determine how closely an artist comes to depicting reality, whereas in both surreal and abstract art there is no standard object of measurement one can use to define art. Abstract and surrealist art may also reflect in some obtuse manner events, situations or objects that may or may not occur in real life, but at first glance one would not be able to automatically conclude that a work of art was derived from a realistic object, event or situation. Abstract art and surrealist art are both very subjective and prone to much interpretation from the world at large, and only the artists in both cases would be able to clearly define the scope and purpose of a particular artwork.

Despite many similarities, abstract art differs from surrealism. Surrealists tend to create a work or art using some vision often developed during the artistic process. The goal of the artist is to recreate this vision on paper. This vision is solely the construct of the…… [read more]


Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility Term Paper

… ¶ … Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility

Walter Benjamin was a critic of the arts; he made some proofs on the transformation of fine arts to modernized interpretation of art. There are five main ideas to his analysis of "The Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility," based on Benjamin (1937):

To an ever greater degree the work of art reproduced becomes the work of art designed for reproducibility.

The film responds to the shriveling of the aura with an artificial build-up of the "personality" outside the studio.

The equipment-free aspect of reality here has become the height of artifice; the sight of immediate reality has become an orchid in the land of technology.

Magician and surgeon compare to painter and cameraman.

By close-ups of the things around us, by focusing on hidden details of familiar objects, by exploring commonplace milieus under the ingenious guidance of the camera, the film, on the one hand, extends our comprehension of the necessities which rule our lives; on the other hand, it manages to assure us of an immense and unexpected field of action. With the close-up, space expands; with slow motion, movement is extended.

The history of art has different meaning when reproduced because it will be based on the interpretation of how each individual understand the situation. The "Mona Lisa" has been reproduced several times but the original art of Mona Lisa has been kept and every time a person looks at it and scrutinized a different interpretation will come up. In our modern world of today, the authenticity were being checked because only one unique work is valid and cannot be equally reproduced.

As Benjamin (1937) quoted, "War is beautiful because it enriches a flowering meadow with the fiery orchids of machine guns." With the writings of Benjamin, war gave us way to realized that there are many forms of arts and one of this is an art can be reproduce even a hundred of times with an exact copy of each one of them to the original one. People created several machine guns to survive during the made. They made replications and such reproductions helped in enhancing and modernizing machine guns. During the medieval times, only one is responsible for its own work of art and it is hard to replicate it but through developments and technology it can be traced copied and multiplied. Through a mass reproduction of machine guns during the war, the existence of the original loose its uniqueness but then it has been enhance to its thus giving them other form of art. War gave artists different kinds of perceptions and they created these perceptions through writing their experiences and knowledge. It was the time that many art forms created and interpreted.

Art became part of the fascism in terms of political repression. Benjamin (1937) once quoted that "Fascism sees its salvation in giving these masses not their right, but instead a chance to express themselves." This was the… [read more]


William Bouguereau Term Paper

… Yet, from the beginning of World War I to the 1980's, the number of people in America and Europe who had ever been exposed to the name of William Bouguereau, much less see his work, was extremely rare (Bartoli pp). In fact, only a handful of people had ever had the opportunity to see a single photograph of his work, let alone the real thing (Bartoli pp). As Damien Bartoli points out, references to his work could only be found in tiny black -- and white images offered in old dictionaries and art books (Bartoli pp). Moreover, among the scarce paintings in French public collections, none were exhibited, but rather they were rolled up or carelessly stored with other equally despised academic paintings (Bartoli pp).

"A Young Girl Defending Herself against Eros" was probably painted around 1880, and is an oil on canvas, measuring 31 1/4 x 21 5/8 inches (Young pp). The painting depicts a young nude woman, sitting with her arms outstretched, as if she is pushing away the winged boy, Eros, or Cupid (Young pp). The god of love is holding up an arrow that is aimed directly at the young woman, who looks as if she is trying to defend herself against him, but at the same time is smiling, suggesting that her struggle is merely pretend (Young pp). This painting is a beautiful example of Bouguereau's love of Greek mythology and his trained artistic skill, as evident in the portrayal of Eros and the subtle Arcadian landscape in the background (William pp). It is said that he made this composition in his studio, using the neighboring French countryside for the landscape and supposedly one of his favorite models (William pp). Although the painting is intended to be Eros attempting to prick the young woman with his arrow, the posture of the subjects also resemble a young child trying to climb into his mother's lap. If the wings and arrow were removed from Eros, the painting might well portray a young mother and child, and the child, perhaps still playful from a bath, is demanding his mother's attention. In fact, the drape across the young woman's legs even looks like a towel that she has just used to dry herself. And although, still joyful herself, she is discouraging her child from further play. There is such distinction, such clarity, and such perfection in detail, that this painting deceives the eye that it could be a photograph.

With the exception of Alexandre Cabanel, William-Adolphe Bouguereau was the most influential advocate of French academic art, who… [read more]


Should Society Support the Arts Term Paper

… ¶ … Society Support the Arts: why and how?

Society should support the arts because art inspires humankind. All civilizations have depended on art and metaphor to illuminate the meaning of life, and when a society loses its central metaphors it weakens and eventually dies (Sweet pp). Moreover, people should be encouraged to create, not be just mere observers, because the creative process, not the end product, actually becomes the teacher (Sweet pp). Although it may often appear silly, art lends drive and purpose to what would otherwise be insignificant lives (Sweet pp).

For example, the pyramids might seem ridiculous given that pharaohs devoted a large percentage of the country's gross national product in order to be immortal (Sweet pp). In contrast, the United States spends billions to stockpile a nuclear arsenal that is capable of obliterating the earth many times over (Sweet pp). Humans instinctively turn to pictures and images for purpose and meaning to their lives, as well as for political stability, order and ethics (Sweet pp). Humans are tribal, and exile is a slow and predictable death of body and spirit, thus artistic expression is a practical necessity because it is the foundation of tribal identity, purpose and cohesion (Sweet pp). If humans do not cohere, they die, art as a metaphor is tantamount to survival (Sweet pp). A society is as strong as the belief in its metaphors permits, and it lasts as long as that belief continues (Sweet pp). Because metaphors are images, and images are pictures, and pictures can be made of or evoked through words, paint, clay and sound, then art must be viewed as a fundamental means of sustaining existence and identity (Sweet pp).

Most cultures have assumed the primacy of art from the Cro-Magnons of the Lascaux caves, through the fifth century B.C. Athens, to the Florence of Michelangelo and Da Vinci (Sweet pp).

When a general such as Sophocles wrote plays and popes knew power to be maintained via images, one has to assume they were aware that fighting and praying were dependent on the metaphor and not the other way around, as today's culture would have it (Sweet pp). Humans were born to be symbol and image producers, thus they should be allowed to be symbol and image producers, however today's culture often gives short shrift (Sweet pp).

Today, the relatively new field of art therapy is one of the few acknowledgments that art is not merely decoration for the rich or the academic elite…… [read more]


Sistine Modonna and the Swing Term Paper

… After a brief stint in Italy, where he admired the work of Tiepolo and the late Baroque, he returned to Paris and changed from the erotic imagery responsible for his destitution to the en vogue fame of which The Swing… [read more]


20th Century Genius Term Paper

… Perhaps his most famous work is "The Guernica," initially a mural painted for the Spanish Republican Building at the Paris World's Fair of 1937, but later a painting that contained some of his best work, both artistically and politically.

Guernica… [read more]


Butoh Dance Butoh Is a Japanese Art Term Paper

… butoh DANCE

Butoh is a Japanese art form that emerged in 1959 as a response to western oppression. Western political dominance had a serious impact on aesthetic sense of dancer Tatsumi Hijikata who developed a new form of dance that… [read more]


Leonardo Davinci the Name Leonardo Da Vinci Term Paper

… Leonardo DaVinci

The name Leonardo Da Vinci, these days, conjures up more than simply a vision of some famous artworks, the most famous arguably the Mona Lisa. Because of the popular novel, the DaVinci Code by Dan Brown, the name… [read more]


Cubist Ideas and the Modernist Term Paper

… He brought the music, dance, art and style of his Russia to the Parisians in the years before World War One. His collaborations with Stravinsky are perhaps his greatest accomplishments, and one can see in the composer's music how he embraced the clean, angular aesthetic of the cubists as his own. In a book published in 1968 by Stravinsky and his companion Robert Craft, entitled Dialogues and a Diary, the composer goes as far as to suggest that he was responsible for the birth of "cubist" or "neo-classicist" music single-handedly:

I played the Polka (from "Eight Easy Pieces" 1915) to Diahilev and Alfredo Casella in a hotel room in Milan in 1915, and I remember how amazed both men were that the composer of "Le Sacre du Printemps" should have produced such a piece of popcorn. But for Castella a new path had been indicated, and he was not slow to follow it; so called neoclassicism of a sort was born in that moment ( 41 ).

That this piece of cubist "popcorn" contained the kernel of neoclassicism is highly dubious and must be put down to Stravinskian hyperbole and not a little conceit. The Polka may well have triggered the composer Casella toward the production of his many neoclassical and cubist works, but it must be remembered that the Polka was the outgrowth of many similarly constructed pieces that Satie and Debussy had been writing in France.

Perhaps the most famous of the cubist work Satie was involved in at this time was the ballet Parade. Diaghilev, Satie, Massine, Picasso and Cocteau all had a hand in this colossal collaboration. Satie was able to incorporate such a wide scope of styles and colors as to include: jazz, folk songs, choral work, ragtime, cabaret song, fugal forms, and everyday sounds from the real world. As Roger Shattuck describes it, the work:

leaves the impression ....of a great number of small units ....the mosaic-like texture ....his economical orchestration corresponds to the cubists restraint in using color; and his raucous noise effects corresponds to their experiments with new surface textures (123).

This juxtaposing of small units of contrasting sounds and scenes can be seen in the art of the time in its use of what was to be called the "collage" technique. This invention would obviously have a major influence on subsequent film applications, as well as in other art forms. Neil Cox claims that this technique revolutionized cubism, and opened up "many of the avenues explored subsequently in twentieth-century art and ... inspired an entirely new departure in sculpture" (161).

The application of these ideas into the film genre was natural for modernist minded artists. Many tried to create what David Bordwell in Film Art: An Introduction, calls "abstract form" (48). This is when the filmmaker, "creates a series of changing shapes and colors which have there own interest ... (as) constantly appearing and shifting strokes of colored paint in patterns juxtaposed with a musical track" (48). The use of cubist… [read more]


Art the Portrait of Joseph Term Paper

… In the portrait, Kahlo is represented as a woman, with recently shorn hair, dressed in man's clothing. The portrait was painted immediately after Kahlo's divorce from her philandering husband, and can be seen as a renouncement of the traditional gender role and a rejection of the role her husband previously held in her life. In fact, Kahlo makes this clear, by incorporating a lyric about love and hair in a portrait of her with cropped hair. However, given Kahlo's rejection of traditional gender roles, as depicted by her shorn hair and men's clothing, it is difficult to determine her group identity from this work.

Joseph Cornell's Bebe Marie is a doll in a box covered with twigs. At first glance, the image is disturbing and seems to hint at misogyny. However, when looking again, one can see that the work is ripe with symbolism. The doll is not just any doll, but a Victorian doll. The Victorian era represented the ultimate repression of sexuality in women. To reinforce the ideas of both sexual repression and otherness, Cornell has placed the doll in a box. To demonstrate that the box is not of the woman's creating, Cornell has obscured the doll with the branches of a tree. On the surface, Cornell's work does not appear to have the same relationship to his personal experience as the other works examined. In fact, he represents dolls rather than humans. However, while Van Gogh, Kahlo, and Picasso are as famous for their lives as for their works, Cornell is famous for his lack of a life. Therefore, the representation of a doll in a box may not be a commentary on the role of women in society, but on the lack of reality experienced by the artist in his own life.… [read more]


Impressionism: Claude Monet's Impressions Term Paper

… Even the use of the term 'impressionist' was controversial within the movement. The critical and descriptive word "impressionist" was taken up with pride by Monet and his followers. Monet used this term to call the next exhibit of the impressionists, called the Exposition des Impressionnistes because he was proud that his work gave impressions of inner life, rather than outer reality. When it was adopted by the artists many disliked the label and it was dropped from two of the subsequent exhibitions as a result of disagreements. (Pioch, "Impressionism," 2004)

Monet always said he painted this first impressionistic picture of the sun as seen through mist at the harbour of Le Havre when he was staying there in the spring of 1872. He said that as soon as he saw the sun, he made a sketch to catch the atmospheric moment. Thus, the work was catalogued as "Impression: Soleil Levant" 1872, even though the final product was only exhibited in 1874. He wished to record the date of the conception of the work, he said, rather than of the final execution because for Monet, impressionistic art was always 'about' the moment of creation in the artist's life and memory. Claire Wilson (2004) has called Monet's facination for gardening and horticultural as typical of the evolving age, where political and intellectual life was elevating the middle-class love of gardening, flowering, and the cultivation of the private and interior sphere, as well as the world of the public sphere and society. Thus, Monet's impressions of the sunrise, though derided when first exhibited, was to become the pictorial voice of the age.

Works Cited

Herbert, Robert. Impressionism: Art, Leisure, and Parisian Society. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991.

Kelder, Diane. The Great Book of French Impressionists. New York: Abbeville Press, 2000.

Pioch, Nicolas. "Impressionism." 14 Oct 2004. Web Art: Paris.

http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/glo/impressionism/

Pioch, Nicolas. "Impression: Soleil Levant" 14 Oct 2004. Web Art: Paris. http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/monet/first/impression/

Wilson, Claire. In the Gardens of Impressionism. Glasgow: Vendome Press,…… [read more]


Caravaggio and Bosch Term Paper

… ¶ … lived and created in different periods and although their styles and creations are as different as any can request, Hieronymus Bosch and Caravaggio have one thing in common: the revolutionary creations and approach to painting they have brought… [read more]


Picasso and Braque Cubism Research Paper

… Picasso and Braque

Cubism refers to a revolutionary style of art that emerged in Paris during the early part of the twentieth century, 1907 through 1914, and is credited to the creations of two particular painters, Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque (Cubism pp).

The major characteristic of the Cubist style is the rejection of the traditional techniques of perspective, foreshortening, modeling, and chiaroscuro and ignoring the accepted theories that art must imitate nature (Cubism pp). Instead, the artists chose to emphasize the flat two-dimensional surface of the picture plane and refused to be bound to copy form, texture, color and space, but rather present reality in a new way that showed fragmented objects, "whose several sides were seen simultaneously" (Cubism pp).

Georges Braque was born May 13, 1882, in Argenteuil-sur-Seine and by 1902 he had moved to Paris to study the art of painting (Georges pp). In 1905, impressed by the exhibition, "Fauves," that included work by Henri Matisse and Andre Derain, who used brilliant colors and loose forms, Braque adopted Fauvism from 1906 through 1907 (Georges pp). However, by the following year he had shifted his interests to the paintings of Paul Cezanne, whose strange and distorted forms and "unconventional perspective" led Braque to begin painting in the style that came to be known as cubism (Georges pp). From 1908 to 1913, he studied the effects of light and perspective and questioned the majority of artistic conventions (Georges pp). For example, in his village scenes, he often reduced an architectural structure to a geometric form or rectangular prism and applied shading to make it look both flat and three-dimensional, thus drawing attention to the "very nature of visual illusion and artistic representation" (Georges pp).

In 1909, Braque began working closely with Pablo Picasso, who "had been developing a similar approach to painting," and both produced work of "neutralized color and complex patterns of faceted form," now referred to as analytic cubism, 1910-1912, and can be seen in Braque's "Violin and Pitcher" (Georges pp). Moreover, both artists experimented with collage, a medium of using materials such as paper or fabric to create an image (Georges pp). The working collaboration between Braque and Picasso continued until 1914, when Braque enlisted in the French army in World War I, where he was severely wounded (Georges pp).

In 1917, after returning from the war, Braque worked alone and developed a more personal style that was "characterized by brilliant color and textured surfaces" and returned to the human figure as a subject (Georges pp). Painting many still lifes, he maintained his emphasis on structure, producing numerous paintings, graphics and sculptures during his lifetime (Georges pp). He died in 1963.

The term, cubism, is said to have come from the remarks by Matisse and critic Louis Vauxcelles as they described Braque's 1908 "Houses at L'Estaque," a work composed of cubes (Cubism pp). In this work, "the volumes of the houses, the cylindrical forms of the trees, and the tan-and-green color scheme" resemble Cezanne's landscapes (Cubism… [read more]


Netherlandish Art Term Paper

… ¶ … Rhetoric of the Image' (1964) is one of the more accessible expositions of Roland Barthes's theorization of word-image relations and the operation of systems of signs. The theory of signs was fundamental to Barthes's approach to cultural production… [read more]


Persistence of Memory Term Paper

… Dali was only 27 when he painted this classic, but his obsession with decay and death -- as with the ants and the fly alighting on one of the watches -- already was strongly becoming an integral part of his… [read more]


Artforum Magazine Term Paper

… Artforum magazine five-year-old book about Artforum, Challenging Art: Artforum 1962-1974 by Amy Newman, attempted to define the magazine's place in the world of art. While it is sufficiently amazing that any book would be written about an art magazine, it is even more astonishing that a book about just 12 years of the magazine's existence should run to more than 500 pages. Doubtless that says more about Artforum's place in the cultural world than the "inconclusive truism" reached by Newman: "it meant many different things to many different people (Allen, 2002).

Artforum was founded in 1962 when several people in San Francisco, who knew nothing about art or the art world, began a journal as an outgrowth of a printing company. It was heavy on publishing technology at first, and it still maintains a larger-than-normal footprint, being square rather than rectangular.

In 1965, the publication moved to Los Angeles, and in 1967, to New York. It never acquired, however, the 'old money' patina one might expect from a New York publication; on the other hand, it does not display an 'out there' West Coast image, either. What it does present, if the February 2005 cover is typical, is a nod to the 1960s and a wave to the current day. The cover is an image of MoMA after its recent renovation. Two pieces of sculpture are photographed against the windows of the museum; the lighting produces a greenish cast that is reminiscent of hospital walls. But the central objects are framed in silhouettes created by solid walls and extending traceries of ivy, all in black. The magazine logo appears in an almost putrid yellow, almost.

This cover might be taken as a metaphor, in fact, for the editorial stance of the magazine: it is not avant garde, exactly, nor does it uphold traditional forms of art, exactly. That it appeals to a wide segment of the art-loving world is not surprising. It is mildly quirky, but not aggressively so. It is mildly supportive of modern art traditions, if that oxymoronic phrase is plausible, but does not insist on any particular approach to modernism.

Allen (2002) notes that Newman's book is "as much about their (the founders' and early editors') passage from innocence to maturity as the art world's." It employed the art critic Clement Greenberg, who had both friendships and fallings out with several Artforum staff members (Allen, 2002), as well as shedding controversial light on various artists and movements. Arguably, although he died a couple of years ago, the magazine's second editor, John Coplans, set a tone for the magazine that remains.

Coplans took on leadership of the magazine after several other careers, including curator of the Pasadena Art Museum in the mid-1960s; there, he championed Pop art and was extremely supportive of the work of Roy Lichtenstein and Andy Warhol. Coplans, a Jewish South African, had also worked as a photographer and brought some exotic, third-world and slightly hair-raising exploits with him (Banks, 2004).

It is not surprising,… [read more]


Art as Experience by John Term Paper

… He further defines art as " ... something with some physical material ... And with a view to production of something visible, audible, or tangible" (47). Works of art are not alien forms of human production and expression, but are subjective interpretations of an individual-creator experiencing a unique experience in a particular moment in time. In effect, Dewey tries to make sense of the reality that art should be a familiar concept to all of us humans, and not an autonomous one, leaving art theorists and critics at a loss for words to further describe the motivation, reason, or simply describe the process of creation embedded within a particular work of art.

The functional nature of art is manifested if put in the proper context. That is, a work of art or any material or object that is man-made is given function if one can identify and trace the origin and purpose of its production. In his Parthenon example, Dewey makes clear that this famous work of art is more than a symbol of a great civilization in early human history. Further, the Parthenon is a product of early Athenian society, a product of human thinking at the time combined with the social, economic, and political forces that inevitably affects human life. From this example, function and its meaning in the book becomes clear: every art object is made with a purpose and function. Embedded in its purpose and function is the unique experience of its human creator(s) (231).

Evidently, Dewey's framework differs radically from the now prevalent concept of postmodernism. However, looking at his arguments in the book, there is evidence of postmodernism in his assertion that art is a product of human experience. But instead of making this 'product of human experience' indiscernible, Dewey explains it, makes this human experience manifest and understandable. In effect, Dewey 'demystifies' works of art, gives them a new role in humanity's life, and re-joins them (art objects and materials) to its creators -- human society.

As a final note, the author provides his readers with a discussion about how the study of art and fine art products themselves can be re-experienced and demystified, paving the way for further understanding of human society specifically. The author asserts, "[w]ere art an acknowledged power in human association and not treated as the pleasuring of an idle moment or as a means of ostentatious display ... The problem of the relation of art and morals would not exist" (348). In sum, John Dewey in "Art as Experience" is a sudden respite from aesthetic theory, wherein art is continually mystified and made inaccessible and incomprehensible to human society.

Work cited…… [read more]


Maurice Merleau-Ponty Term Paper

… Maurice Merleau-Ponty

Philosophy of Art: What is the function of art in Maurice Merleau-Ponty's essay "The Intertwining -- the Chiasm" from the Visible and the Invisible

In his essay the Intertwining -- the Chiasm" from the Visible and the Invisible Maurice Merleau-Ponty writes against the conventionally conceptualized function of art that constructs an artifact as an subject to be gazed at by the objective, cool, and distanced eye viewer. Before the deconstructionists began their philosophical work in unpacking the relationship between art and gazer, the functionality of art was seen as something that was a tool of humans, not a tool that worked upon the human consciousness. But Maurice Merleau-Ponty argues that the relationship of the two, of art and artist, and art and appreciator of art is intertwined, not polarized.

The relationship between the two, suggests Merleau-Ponty is much like a person being touched by the hand of another person. The eye of the viewer touches the painting, for example, yet the subject of the painting touches and changes the objective eye of the viewer. The act of creating a work of art changes the artist, as the artist after the work's creation is not the same artist, before the process took place.

Moreover, once one has been touched, and then the hand has been withdrawn, the sensation of change that has occurs only comes after the termination of the touch, the gaze. For example, "either my right hand really passes over into the rank of the touched, but then its hold on the world is interrupted, or it retains its hold on the world, but then I do not really touch it." (148) in other words, I am only conscious of having been touched if I remember the moment before the moment of the touching occurred. Then, the hand of the other person is withdrawn after the 'touching' experience, and then I realize something has transpired and that a change has occurred.

Similarly, after the viewer walks away from a work of art, he or she realizes that his or…… [read more]


Catalogue Entry Auctions Term Paper

… Catalogue

Sotheby's Catalogue entry on Godward's "Idleness"

When evaluating the 1907 painting entitled "Idleness" by William Godward the Sotheby's online catalogue enthuses that the work is "technically superb, with gorgeous color and a sensual suggestion of carefree harmony and hedonistic pleasures." But the sexual and fulsome nature of this prose seems to be rather inappropriate, given the heavily draped figure of the matronly young Victorian girl of the actual illustration. The girl looks somnolent rather than carefree, and over decorated with drapery rather than harmonious with nature. The reader suspects he or she is being sold a work of dubious aesthetic value for the contemporary eye, financial possibilities aside.

The catalogue seems to further belie any attempt at objectivity when it goes on to day that "Idleness" exemplifies "the very best of Godward, an artist who over the last few years has become one of the most highly sought after Victorian artists." If everyone else is buying the firsthand works of Godward, so should you, as a good investment, this phrase decorously implies. From a perspective of taste, he love of the artist for his models, and for feminine beauty and color is the primary means by which the catalogue entices the onlooker to buy the original work, as the catalogue also states that "John William Godward devoted his entire career to the depiction of feminine beauty, painting favorite models again and again." Buy this work of Godward, suggests the catalogue, and buy a piece of this Victorian love of feminine beauty, an age now past.

Again and again, the financial trendy-ness of Godward as an investment and his larger career as a Victorian artist of note comes to the forefront of the catalogue text, rather any enthusiasm about the actual work of "Idleness." This may be partly due to the fact that the artist has produced other, superior words of art to "Idleness." It may also be that luxurious, feminine indolence is no longer an idealized value of the 21st century, as it was when the author created the image, and thus the artist himself becomes the focus of…… [read more]


Vasily Kandinsky a True German Expressionist Term Paper

… Vassily Kandinsky: A True German Expressionist

Russian-born abstract expressionist painter Vasily Kandinsky (1866-1944) whose "explorations of the possibilities of abstraction make him one of the most important innovators in modern art the father of abstract expressionism" is considered a leading… [read more]


Warhol and Koons Term Paper

… Warhol and Koons:

How does the work of Andy Warhol and Jeff Koons refer to consumerism and a consumer society?

How does the work of Andy Warhol and Jeff Koons refer to consumerism and a consumer society? How does one… [read more]


Speech: Museum's Bid for Bodies Term Paper

… It no longer matters that promoters have to stoop so low or choose an easy way out

It does not take a genius to sell shock value hidden as an educational experience or an artistic endeavor

I feel I most close with these points: (pause)

This exhibit has been built on a premise that death is more fascinating than life and that these cadavers are should be of great interest in death even though they may not have been in life.

This exhibition in my opinion blurs a fine line between arts and a freakish side show or circus of the dead. The promoters of this event should be considered as grave robbers, maniacs, and lunatics pretending to be pro-life or pro-science art enthusiasts.

References

I need you to organize this speech - grammar and sentence structure my speech is about provocative questions - please correct the question (grammar)but don't omit them and make some order, that it flows the topic is about body world (and exhibition of cadavers in California-- the web site is www.bodyworlds.com) it's gruesome -- the article is from plain dealer-- the headline is anatomy of competition 2 museums bid for bodies and if you can elaborate little be more by asking questions about the morals of the people who are behind this morbid business, you don't have to add a lot just elaborate on what I have written and organize it more -- note: I need this essay by 3pm today 12/14/04 I want you to…… [read more]


Nostalgia Term Paper

… The figures are dressed in generalized medieval or classical draperies; the buildings behind them have the appearance of ancient Roman or early medieval structures; the whole has the impression of another time and another place, without being specific, but a… [read more]


Art and Science Term Paper

… Art and Science: One in the Same or Not?

That art is concerned with finding beauty one cannot argue. Most people that claim to be artists spend their lifetime dedicated to the pursuit of beauty. They constantly aspire to create something from nothing. Beauty in the sense of art comes from many things, but primarily comes from within. Art is generally considered with the experiences of an individual rather than society as a whole. This is not to say however that art is not explicitly linked to society. Art also affects the people that view it, albeit in different ways.

Art is in part concerned with finding what is considered beautiful to a unique individual. This generally varies from person to person. The quest to find what is 'beautiful' often causes one to seek what is 'true' in life, or in living, at least from a personal perspective. What is art for one person may not be considered art to another. In fact there are many instances where something proclaimed to be 'art' is not interpreted equally as 'art' by all who observe it.

This is not the case with science, which is generally more concerned with finding universal truths about life and things in general. Science is considered with many things, among them finding truth. For the most part the pursuit of truth involves concrete logical and cognitive approaches to a problem. In this respect science seems very different from art or the pursuit of beauty, which is much more abstract than concrete in nature.

Most scientists will reveal however that the process of exploration and uncovering truth for them is in essence, a form of art. When the truth about something is revealed, for the researcher a certain 'beauty' about an object or at the very least something unique (which may be considered beautiful) is…… [read more]


Eval and Comparison Term Paper

… Bronze Sculpture Art of the Etruscans

During early Roman times, the Etruscans were the well-known masters of the art of bronze sculpture, and were praised for this art by writers Greek and Roman alike. One does not see much of the bronze work of the Etruscans today, since much of it was melted into coins. More of their terracotta statues remain.

Etruscan Civilization was developed in the now recognized Tuscany region of Italy. The Etruscans created artistic objects primarily for religious purposes. A significant aspect of their art is connected with funerary traditions. Most of these were entirely impersonal, and did not resemble the deceased individuals. Even the portraits are quite crude. Due to sizeable amounts of ore deposits, the Etruscans established the art of bronze and raised it to a very high level of artistry. Their work in some fashion is very extravagant in material and design. However, it is also a very close copy to the art created by the Greeks, with whom they had close contact. It did not have the strong structural compositions of the Greek bodies.

It is accepted by many art historians that the Roman bronze artwork, especially in the early years including the Augustan period, was closely linked with both the Etruscan and Greek traditions. It is even argued by some scholars that the Roman bronze sculptors were descended from the Etruscan artists.…… [read more]


Artist Zwelethu Mthethwa Zwelethu Mithethwa Term Paper

… It is a composite of images in black and white and sepia-brown tones. The images themselves and the arrangement of them are meant to convey the silent voices of the children of South Africa. In the lower left is a composite of five photographs of a child's ear - zooming larger in each shot with the last shot being just the ear itself. The child's ear perhaps represents the act of waiting - waiting to hear some positive news for the future - waiting for help - waiting for prayers to be answered. Above this and taking up the center of the print is a striped blanket stretched across the canvas, perhaps representing the blanket of oppression due to the poverty and the epidemic of AIDS so prevalent to the region. Or the blanket might also represent the 'covering-up' of the ills surrounding the social conditions. In the top right, Mthethwa has placed the image of an out-stretched hand, most likely representing the cry for help that goes unanswered - always an empty hand. In the right top of the print is the image of an individual from the waist down that is casting a full shadow on the ground behind him. This might represent the feeling of living in the shadows and the reality of living as half a human being. This print is very powerful in imagery and requires time to fully appreciate the details that Mthethwa includes. It is a striking political and social representation.

Mthethwa's 2001 'Where Angels Fear to Tread IV' is a 105 x 140cm pastel on paper. It is both a portrait of a black male and female figure, and a still-life as well. The colors are vivid reds and blues. The male figure appears seated in a chair, hands folded in his lap as if helpless, eyes glancing to the side expectantly. The female figure is standing slightly behind him clutching a shawl around her as if for protection, eyes looking straight ahead. These figures dominate the print against a red background. To the left a teakettle sits with its steam rising up towards a square of blue in the upper right corner of the print - perhaps representing the soul rising to the heavens or perhaps it represents the light of hope reaching for the blue of daylight. The colors and images of this piece create a haunting portrait of intimate and spiritual proportions.

In an article for 'African Arts' Kristina Van Dyke described Mthethwa's work as portraits that "do not aim to characterize their subjects as victims but rather as individuals who make creative choices that result in unique domestic spaces" (Van Dyke Pp). Jed Perl writes of Regarding Mthethwa's "Flex" which was shown in the first International Center of Photogrpahy's 'Strangers' exhibition, Jed Perl writes that this series of black and white "close-ups of African men...has a boldness that recalls avant-garde silent films" (Perl Pp). Sarah Caylor writes that "much of the meaning lies in the intense examination of… [read more]


Visiting an Exhibition Term Paper

… Visiting the Exhibition -- Becoming a Part of an Interactive Exhibition

FIELD TRIP to the SANTA MONICA MUSEUM of ART to SEE the PAT O'NEILL EXHIBITION

Go to the Santa Monica Museum of Art From September 11 through November 13, 2004 to see -- a film? An artistic exhibition? Or both? The museum, when faced with the challenge of presenting Pat O'Neill: Views from Lookout Mountain, was forced to contemplate how to present the works of an area artist who is both an artist and a filmmaker, a producer of plastic and static as well as moving celluloid material, someone who is still alive and producing engaging works, yet has a considerable history as an artist in the state and in this country.

Normally, when one presents paintings in a museum, the gazer moves and the pictures are static. In a film, the gazer is static and the images move. However, this exhibition is designed to illustrate, by the way the spectator can move through the space of the museum's main gallery, according to his or her own whims and will, and also the ways he or he is forced to remain still, to enjoy the full, the pluralistic range of O'Neill's art. The gazer must stand still to look at movies, and yet can move about in a wide space to view the paintings in the order he or she chooses, or to proceed along the chronology of the wall.

The exhibitor can see the films or the paintings first, depending on his or her choice. The exhibit combines a range of media-sculpture, photography, photographic composite prints, film projection, film installation, drawing, and even makes use of an interactive DVD-ROM. Thus, Pat O'Neill: Views from Lookout Mountain enables the spectator to become a creator in his or her experience of the exhibit, as well as merely warehouses and catalogues in any particular, pre-determined order, this artist's major works from the early 1960s to the present.

Because this is a community museum, with strong ties to the local, California community, the museum stresses on its website that it is the first…… [read more]


Michelangelo and Leonardo Da Vinci Term Paper

… ¶ … Judgements of Art

How does one judge a work of art? One could come to blows upon this topic regarding modern art, yet the reputation of Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci as masters of their respective crafts seems secure. Michelangelo's "David" is an almost perfect specimen of humanity. Yet beneath the rippling muscle, the uncertainty of pose and poise of the young man also communicates the artist's core message, the callowness and fear of the young warrior, not yet a king, who is about to slay Goliath with his small slingshot. This is why "Michelangelo's figures are both animated and restrained, and seem to possess great spiritual energy. His work presses toward the extremes of heroism and tragedy but is never false or artificial." (Summer, "Michelangelo," 2004)

Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" is not as beautiful as "David," yet it stands tall as a strong work of portraiture. The "Mona Lisa's" smile captivates because its ambiguity of expression seems so real. "Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa is probably the most famous portrait ever painted," yet the woman herself remains inscrutable and private to the viewer in terms of her true nature, even in an era where painting was the record-keeping visual art of its day,…… [read more]


Olive Trees With Yellow Sky Term Paper

… The blue of the mountains are foreshadowed as it were by the shadows on the foreground earth. Furthermore distance is depicted both by the trees and the mountains. There appears to be a forest of trees reaching up to the distant mountains. In this way the reader appears to make an impossibly long journey to once again reach the overwhelmingly bright sun.

Contrasts of bright, somber colors, as well as rough and smooth texture, are all composed in a connected fashion in order to provide the reader with a circular journey. This journey begins and ends with the sun. The time during which Van Gogh created this work was also a time during which he was particularly enamored with especially the color yellow.

Interpretation

The scene in the painting is a depiction of a natural setting, free of any human creation or indeed human beings altogether. This, together with the cyclic fashion in which it can be viewed, can be interpreted as a depiction of life and its adaptation to its environment. Life is also cyclic, beginning with birth, ending with death, and perpetuated in this manner through births and deaths. The absence of humanity in the painting then indicates the absence of individuality in its depiction of life. Life is cyclic when viewed in a collective manner.

In general, the painting strikes me as positive in its general mood. The striking yellow of the sun appears warm and joyous rather than harsh and dry. It is only when seeing the twisted branches of the trees and the dryness of the earth when this illusion is punctuated with reality. Yet it appears that life itself is irrepressible, as is the possibility in the face of harshness. The leaves of the trees are green, with the twisted branches the only indication of the harshness of life for these trees.

The tendency towards a positive outlook in the face of difficult circumstances may be indicative of the enjoyment Van Gogh derived from nature at this time. Nature, the artist seems to say, can teach the viewer a variety of lessons. Adaptation is one of them. Like the olive trees, human beings have many difficulties to cope with in life. These difficulties however can be seen as symbolized by the simultaneously destructive and life-giving force of the sun. How this force manifests in life depends upon the adaptability of the individual.

It is unfortunate that Van Gogh seems to have been unable to adapt to the difficulties he faced. Succumbing to his growing psychosis, Van Gogh committed suicide. Perhaps then the reader is to learn not only from his work, but also from his life. In this way "Olive Trees with Yellow Sky and Sun" can be applied to life: adaptation turns problems into challenges.

Bibliography

Kaldy, Joanne. "Olive Trees With Yellow Sky and Sun (1889); Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890)." Minneapolis Institute of Art, 1999. http://www.amcp.org/data/jmcp/vol5/num3/impressions.html

National Gallery of Art. "Exhibition Brochure." National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C., 2004. http://www.nga.gov/exhibitions/vgbro.htm

Shinn, Matt. "Vincent's… [read more]


Artistic Representations of the Divine Term Paper

… One of the most interesting aspects of Julius II and Michelangelo's relationship regarding the latter's most famous commission the commission to paint the Sistine Chapel, was that Julius had to virtually force Michelangelo to paint the ceiling. At the time, Michelangelo saw himself more as a sculptor, not a painter.

The painting took more than forty years, on and off, with Julius' prodding. However, the humanistic vision of Julius II had connected with the intensely anthropomorphic sculptural visions of Michelangelo and the pope would not relent in his influence of Michelangelo. Ultimately, Julius admired the human-like constructions of Michelangelo's Biblical sculptured figures. Julius' own influence as a warrior pope can be seen in Michelangelo's final image of Christ, seen by individuals leaving the Chapel. Christ is not depicted as a bearded and beatific figure in the Judgment Day portrait of the Chapel, but as a young, almost warrior-like figure more of Roman antiquity than conventional images of Biblical representation of the savior.

Michelangelo commissioned and was drawn to Rome first by the will of Pope Julius II in 1505. The Pope first commissioned him to build, over the course of five years a tomb, for Julius' final resting place. The pope was quite specific as to what the tomb should entail, including forty life-sized statues. It is notable that the tomb was to appear more along the lines of old classical models, along the lines free-standing structure, showing the pope's expansive humanistic philosophy yet again, as well as the role of the church leadership in quite specifically delegating the formal structure and function of artistic works.

However, the proposed work also was to have had intense array Christian iconography, even if constructed for the memory of only one man. According to the iconographic map, reconstructed from correspondence between pontiff and artist, the tomb was to contain in its structure an outline of the Christian world. The lower level was dedicated to the spirit of humanity, of "man." The middle level would be dedicated to Biblical figures of the prophets and saints. The top level would depict the Last Judgment to come. At the summit of the monument, there was to have been a portrayal of two angels leading the Pope out of his tomb on the day of the Last Judgment. However, this last judgment was to emerge only upon the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and instead the most memorable vestige of the Pope's commission is the image of the horned patriarch Moses.

Michelangelo was thus inspired to stretch his self-conception as an artist, including in his vision himself as a painter as well as a sculptor, due to his service of the papacy and Julius II's patronage. The role of the artist was expanded rather than limited by the patronage and commissions of the papacy, and rather than embodying narrow religious ideals, the works of Michelangelo as well as others were prodded to create expansive, complex renderings of Biblical figures as both human and divine in nature. Although… [read more]


Egyptian Art's Influence Term Paper

… Geometric lines became inherent to the Art Deco design. Objects were simpler than earlier, more decadent styles such as the art of art nouveau. Lines streamlined and elegant in their angular forms and unnatural vibrant colors. Thus, the human home reflected the idealized human form of the era. Greater standardization also made primitive designs more important, as they could be factory generated. (Collectics, 2004)

The influence of art deco's primitivism and standardization of design can be seen as late as Andy Warhol's stress upon standardization and form over detail and embedded meaning.

Repetition of stylized images, much as with hieroglyphics, communicates meaning rather than a clear delineation of the individual style (The Andy Warhol Museum, 2002) However, the style still possessed some aspects of creativity and individualism -- cubism, in the works of Picasso, showed how stylized images could communicate powerful meanings and images in his works such as "Guernica." There was also an intellectual aspect to the rise of art deco. For instance, yet another reason for the stress upon Egyptian stylization during the era was historical -- King Tut's tomb was opened in 1922. (Art Deco, Antique Jewelry Online, 2004)

Today, the exterior and interior of Chrysler Building in New York City skyline exists as a reminder of the influence of Egypt on art deco designs. The structure's ornamental gargoyles and silver spires reminiscent of giant sunbeams harkens the popular Art Deco theme that reflected the Egyptian stress upon sun death and refers directly to the sun god's death and rebirth in Egyptian cosmology. Thus, so long as these structures remain around us, the influence of art deco will resonate in our contemporary culture, as it continues to affect young artists today. "In fact, many of the most famous designs of the 20th century were designed in the Deco style." Such designs include Rockefeller Center, the Golden Gate Bridge, movie theaters, gas stations, bus stations, diners, the S.S. Normandie, Greyhound buses, Air-King radios, and the Electrolux vacuum cleaner. Designers of Art Deco furniture embellished and sometimes entirely covered their pieces in exotic materials such as mother-of-pearl, sharkskin, snakeskin, gold and silver leaf, crushed eggshell lacquer and ivory. These materials usually formed some type of pattern such as flowers or a geometric motif." As the Egyptian sun god died and was reborn in perpetuity, in the beauty of his unnaturalness, so the Egyptian influence on art and interior design is reformulated and reborn in contemporary art motifs.

Works Cited

The Andy Warhol Museum. 2002. http://www.geocities.com/warholmuseum/index.html

Art Deco." Antique Jewelry Online. 2004. Antique Jewelry Online.com

Art Deco: Architecture." Retropolis. 2004

http://www.retropolis.net/history.html

Collectics. "Art Deco Design -- History of Collectibles." 2004. http://www.collectics.com/education_deco.html

Pile, John. History of Interior Design. 2nd Edition. New York: Wiley Publishers, July 2004.… [read more]


Art and Music Term Paper

… It is because of this that thinking about what is good and bad becomes very difficult. Something seen as bad at first glance may be seen as good when it is examined more closely and someone who has said how bad something is may have to admit that they were wrong in the future and no one likes to admit that they are wrong. It seems that the tone of the article is encouraging people to look at art and other issues in a way that they do not normally do. In other words, they need to truly look at something instead of just glancing at it and when they do this they will see it for what it is really instead of what it only looks like on the surface. By doing this they will be able to make an honest and fair judgment about whether it is really bad…… [read more]


Italian Renaissance ("Rebirth Term Paper

… For instance, he is believed to have picked up the philosophy of Neoplatonism (which regards the body as a trap for a soul longing to escape and return to God) at the time. Many of Michelangelo's works are believed to… [read more]


Sandro Botticelli's Painting, "Mars Term Paper

… Interpretation and Judgment

At a first glance, Botticelli's "Mars and Venus" seems to be a simple depiction of the god Mars relaxing, while Venus lounges nearby, relaxed and serene. However, a closer look shows Venus to be alert and worried as she studies Mars. This may represent her concern that her conquest over Mars is temporary, and that he will awaken and resume his violent life.

Mars' sleep seems so deep as to be almost unnatural, and the satyrs seem to be mischievous and troublesome. Venus is clearly composed, with her hair and garment perfectly smooth, while Mars is rumpled and disarmed by his liaison with Venus. While the painting clearly depicts Venus' triumph over Mars, there is an undertone suggesting that her triumph may be short-lived, and that there is more to the liaison than appears at a casual glance.

Botticelli's depictions of Mars, Venus and the satyrs in this painting are almost luminous and radiant, with exquisite detail and life-like skin coloration. The painting has the aura of a dream or fantasy, with its muted colors and soft shades. The painting is finely detailed, with careful and fine outlines.

Overall, "Mars and Venus" is a delicate and playful work that showcases Botticelli's fine and careful workmanship. The painting is luminous and dreamlike, showing Botticelli's skill at recreating an ethereal atmosphere. The painting is a fine example of the classical Roman and Greek themes of the Italian Renaissance, which also depicted pagan themes.

Conclusion

In conclusion, "Mars and Venus" by Sandro Botticelli is a typical example of the art of the Early Italian Renaissance. The painting depicts the relaxed goddess of love, Venus, looking over the sleeping form of Mars, the god of war; showing the power of love to conquer violence and war. "Mars and Venus" falls neatly within the themes of the Italian Renaissance, which focused on the classical works of both Greek and Roman material. The painting also illustrates Botticelli's ability to capture muted skin tones and create a fantastic and dreamlike atmosphere.

Works Cited

The National Gallery of London. Collection at a Glance. 18 March 2004.

http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/collection/glance.htm

WebMuseum, Paris. Botticelli, Sandro. ibiblio.com. Chapel Hill, North Carolina,

U.S.A.http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/botticelli/

Wikipedia. The Italian Renaissance. 21 March 2004.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_Renaissance… [read more]


American Splendor Term Paper

… One panel depicts the character in positive friendships in his the neighborhood, and this panel is drawn with Charlie Brown like clarity. Another panel which depicts his neighborhood, and describes it as a multicultural collection of old, young, minority and Caucasian, the buildings, cars and details are out of focus, like a camera picture taken with a lens covered in a slight coating of Vaseline.

The main character lives thorough a range of emotions over the course of the 2 dozen panels. In frames in which the character is happy, and satisfied, he is in a bright room, with windows on one wall and clear shadows on the other. In another panel in which the character receives a rejection notice in the mail, he is at the center of a bull's-eye, with indistinct rockets racing toward him.

In each of these cartoons, and by each of the artists, they use different tools to communicate the emotion of the character. Without this talent, the reader would not connect with the talent of either of the writer or artist. The cartoon would simply be a black and white drawing, rather than a page out of the life of the artist.

Resources

Pekar, H. Off the Streets of Cleveland comes American Splendor: The life and times of Harvey Pekar. New York: Doubleday and co. 1986.

Pekar, H. American Splendor #2, Harvey Pekar. 1977

Pekar, H. American…… [read more]


Life With a Hare Term Paper

… One feels, upon viewing the picture, that one could reach right out and feel the crisp fur of the hare and its stiff body, the supple leather of the hunting bag, and the smooth surface of the powder horn.

Chardin accomplishes this effect by carefully exploring various materials, brushstrokes and textures, as well as studying the play of light. The light appears to be coming down on the hare from above and gives the impression of firelight rather than natural light or oil light. The background was most likely done with a larger brush, and the effect created is almost like the sponge-painting technique or washing technique often employed in rooms to give a measure of depth and texture to a wall. This, naturally, causes the background to have some depth. The hare contains the most amount of detail, with the powder horn receiving a little bit less, and the hunting bag is practically in shadow; one has to look hard to make it out in the bottom right-hand corner of the frame. This could only be accomplished by using small, fine-tipped brushes, and one can almost see the brushstrokes delineating the rabbit's wispy fur on its stomach; again, the effect is one that causes the viewer to imagine that he or she can touch that fur. Overall, the painting has a calm and soothing effect on the viewer. Granted, that might sound like an odd thing to say upon viewing a picture of a dead creature, but Chardin has portrayed it in such a beautiful, simple way that the naturalness of it all can't help but be…… [read more]


Vincent Van Gogh, Frank Lloyd Term Paper

… Iron and Steel were used in order to open up the interior of buildings to an unprecedented scale. Architect Arthur Heygate Mackmurdo was one of the first to implement Oriental aspects into designs, using black and white, asymmetry and plant… [read more]


Classic View of the Matisse/Picasso Term Paper

… But Picasso, having a different sensibility, could not as easily do this - he could not ignore the ugliness and threats which abounded ("Art Giants"). Sarah Milroy explains it by contrasting Matisse's "open-air delight in visual pleasure to Picasso's "congested… [read more]


Life of Famed Painter Vincent Term Paper

… vangoghgallery.com/misc/bio.htm)."

He loved the area and chose a life of poverty instead of returning home. For more than a year he lived from day-to-day trying to survive.

One day Vincent felt compelled to visit the home of Jules Breton, a… [read more]


Van Gogh Was Born Term Paper

… This idea of social critique becomes most clear, not only through the scene depicted and the title, which suggests poverty, but also by the very technique Van Gogh applied and the overall vision that often strays from reality. The faces… [read more]


Leonardo Da Vinci Term Paper

… With regards to Mona Lisa's face, it seems to change with this variation in position, since even in her features the two sides do not relatively match.

Nevertheless, with all these highly developed skills of art, there exists a possibility that Leonardo might have produced a clever piece of conjure instead of a great artwork. But this possibility could have been applicable had Leonardo not recognized precisely how further he could go, and had he not balanced his bold divergence from nature by nearly an astounding depiction of the living flesh. This is evident in the manner in which he has fashioned the hand; even the sleeves with their diminutive folds.

Leonardo Da Vinci was as meticulous and patient in observing nature as any of his predecessors. The only difference stood at the point where the artist was no more simply a loyal servant of nature. In the earlier days, people used to look at portraits with trepidation, since they presumed that in conserving the resemblance of the original person, the artist had preserved the soul of the person he portrayed in one way or another. Through Mona Lisa, the great scientist and artist - Leonardo - had made a few of the dreams and fears of the early image-makers, a reality. One can rightly say after witnessing Mona Lisa that Leonardo knew the spell that could instill life into the colors smoothed out by his supernatural brushstrokes.

Works Cited

Freud, Sigmund. Leonardo Da Vinci: A Psychosexual Study of an Infantile Reminiscence. (tr. Brill, Abraham Arden). New York: Moffat, Yard & company, 1916.

Richter, J.P. (ed.) The Notebooks of Leonardo Da Vinci. (2 Volumes) Columbia University Press, 1970

Sirben, Osvald. Leonardo Da Vinci: The Artist and the Man. (rev. William Rankin). New…… [read more]


Decentralization of Cultural Arts Funding Term Paper

… With funding from the National Endowment for the Arts, state and local Arts Council funding, as well as other foundation and corporate funding, YA/YA, is now a non-profit organization (Young Aspirations / Young Audiences) which guides students from the L.E.… [read more]


Visual Imagery and Qualitative Dimensions Term Paper

… Only to be revived during the great Renaissance. It was not only the rebirth of art and literature but that of Man himself... It was a new world for him altogether and with this came a new philosophy altogether known… [read more]


Vincent Van Gogh: Woman Term Paper

… "

Van Gogh painted for ordinary people, not art connoisseurs. His appeal like his subjects was for the common people. No body had to be an art major to understand a painting by Van Gogh. His brushwork is really thickly laid on and very expressive. He draws with the paint in a dramatic and expressive way. His paintings are both moving and decorative.

Van Gogh's appeal lies in the chance to experience vicariously what he experienced. Unlike Tissot he communed with the natural way of life and his work is then not heavily laden with symbolism.

They are direct, forceful, colorful, and his portraits have great humanity. They are accessible in ways that he intended them to be. Though it is true that many people will be drawn to Van Gogh because of the "myth of the unappreciated genius," the fact is that the greater familiarity breeds greater appreciation of any artist's work.

Van Gogh's thinking, decisions, and those frenetic brushstrokes were intended to help him reach his ultimate goal, to "immortalize the people of his time," and to communicate the essential qualities that project a sense of human dignity. The woman with the spade stands tall and becomes a motif for all the peasants that dedicate their life to hard work without acknowledgement or tribute. Especially in face of the post revolutionary era in Europe.

Works Cited

http://www.vangoghgallery.com/letters/sketches/main.htm

Van Goghs Found Hidden Under Van Gogh Paintings; Newsday REUTER; 04-13-1994

http://www.vangoghgallery.com/misc/bio.htm

http://www.the-wallace-collection.org.uk/e_n/e/f_d_w/ashmolean.htm

Hubert de Santana, Retracing an artist's footsteps., The Toronto Star, 03-02-2002. http://www.vangoghgallery.com/letters/sketches/main.htm http://www.vangoghgallery.com/misc/bio.htm

Van Goghs Found Hidden Under Van Gogh Paintings; Newsday REUTER; 04-13-1994

http://www.the-wallace-collection.org.uk/e_n/e/f_d_w/ashmolean.htm

Hubert de Santana, Retracing an artist's footsteps., The Toronto Star, 03-02-2002.… [read more]


Painting "The Artist's Studio Term Paper

… Courbett rebelled against the rigid rules of the time and passionately believed "painting is an essentially concrete art, and can consist only of representation of real and existing things."

When Coubett started to depict stark realism in his paintings by painting everyday subjects and improvished peasants, he shocked many people and was harshly criticized by the establishment. This hostile mood of the establishment was reflected in the rejection of his The Artist's Studio by the jury for the 1855 Universal Exposition that forced the artist to set up his own exhibition, Le Realisme, in a tent alongside the "official" exhibition. Courbett thus became a rallying point for the movement for realism in painting.

The series of landscapes and seascapes painted by Courbett in the later part of his life paved the way for an even more influential and important genre of paintings that came to be known as impressionism, which reproduced the color and light reflected by an object rather than its strict linear shape.

He taught the coming generation of painters, not to idealize reality but to depict it accurately.

This perhaps, is the greatest legacy of the artist.

Bibliography

Cullen, Allison. (2000). From The Trivial to The True: The French Revolution and Painting

Retrieved on February 27, 2002 from http://www.kirschnet.com/bome/cities/paris/hband/painting_essay.html

"Gustave Courbet": French Painter, Draftsman. (2000). From the Getty Museum Web Site. Retrieved on February 27, 2002 from http://www.getty.edu/art/collections/bio/a369-1.html

"Gustave Courbet." The Artist's Studio.(1998). Eds. Musee d'Orsay and Decan. Retrieved on February 27, 2002 from http://www.musee-orsay.fr:8081/ORSAY/orsaygb/COLLEC.NSF/e285dbff73cc5aed802563cd00524868/34be5cc76cfc8577802563ce00365ccd?OpenDocument

Fernier, Robert J. (2002). "Gustave Courbet." Article in Encyclopedia Britannica-2002. CD-ROM

Fernier. (2002). "Gustave Courbet." Article in Encyclopedia Britannica

Gustave quoted in Gustave Courbet: The Artists Studio. From www.musee-orsay

Ibid.

Fernier. (2002). "Gustave Courbet." Article in Encyclopedia Britannica

Ibid.

Cullen. (2000). From the Trivial to the True

Quoted in Getty Museum Collection Web site

Fernier. (2002). "Gustave Courbet." Article in Encyclopedia Britannica

Ibid.… [read more]

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