Study "Art / Painting / Sculpture" Essays 606-657

X Filters 

How the Houses of Vilamajo and Villanueva Are Similar and Different Research Paper

… Julio Vilamajo and Carlos Villanueva: Houses of Architects

The Latin American architecture of Carlos Raul Villanueva from Venezuela and Julio Vilamajo from Uruguay is a combination of several different influences and ideologies, from Bauhaus to Utopianism to Latin American culture,… [read more]

Manet and the Idea of Nudity in French Painting Essay

… Manet, Dejuner sur l'Herbe

Manet's legendary 1863 painting "Le Dejeuner sur L'Herbe" -- or "The Lunch on the Grass" -- is painted in a style that, to the viewer in 2015, looks like straightforward photographic realism with a somewhat odd choice of subject. It can therefore be difficult, a century and a half later, to understand the way in which Manet originally seemed shocking. But to his contemporaries in 1863, he was very shocking, because Manet must be understood as making a total break with the Neo-Classicism that had dominated French painting for centuries. Historical context here is crucial: one of the most fascinating things about French Neo-Classical painting is to watch how the same basic style and philosophy of painting survives massive political changes in France, so that Boucher could paint Neo-Classical nudes to glorify the King of France as easily as David could paint Neo-Classical nudes to glorify the Revolutionaries who beheaded the King of France. In the Classical Greco-Roman art that the French had been imitating for at least two centuries before "Dejeuner sur'Lherbe" there is nothing shocking about nudity per se. The naked nymph depicted in Watteau's 1708 "Quellnymphe," the naked goddess depicted in Boucher's 1751 "Toilette de Venus," and the radically political bare-breasted depiction of the allegorical goddess of liberty Marianne in Delacroix's 1830 "La Liberte Guidant Le Peuple" are all experiencing a severe wardrobe malfunctions, yet each of those paintings was hailed as culturally central in 1708, 1751, 1830. What then is different about the nudity in Manet's painting, to make it so shocking in 1863?

What is shocking is how the nudity is used. The historical image of bare-breasted Marianne is important: painters after the French Revolution…… [read more]

Gender and Art Term Paper

… (Campbell, 2013)


Clearly, understanding gender and modern art requires instilling a deeper connection with the individual. This is taking place by focusing on them and teaching them the importance of key concepts. These elements will offer a better understanding of key shifts and the influence they are having on stakeholders. Moreover, modern art helps everyone to forge opinions about themselves and who they are. These insights are important, as they are showing how modern art is a way of assisting the person to grow. This means that there are changes in the way gender is represented in a host of works.


Adams, E. (2007). After the Rain. Ann Arbor, MI: Proquest.

Barnes, R. (2002). Teaching Art to Young Children. New York, NY: Springer.

Barniskis, S.C. (2013). Teaching art to teens in public libraries. Teaching Artist Journal,

11( 2), 81-96

Campbell, K. (2013). The Forgotten History of Modern Art. Gizmodo. Retrieved from:

Caroll, N. (2000). Theories of Art. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Garber, M. (1992) Vested Interests: cross dressing & cultural anxiety. London: Routledge.

Malossi, M.G., (1999) Material Man -- masculinity, sexuality, style. New York: Abrams.

Morgan, D. (1999). Visual Piety. Berkley, CA: University of California Press.

Lazzari, M.…… [read more]

Modern Artistic Expression Essay

… Art for Art's Sake

The beauty of art as a concept is the many different interpretations that it might invite. Indeed, no two people looking at the same work will interpret it quite the same way. This is the tendency that gave rise to the idea of "Art for Art's Sake." The root meaning refers to the need to divorce art from any particular meaning or purpose; it should be free from the demands imposed by meaning and purpose, whether imposed by a certain ideology or movement at any given time period. The idea of art for art's sake was what several author refer to as a "rallying cry" that knew its best days towards the end of the 19th century and the start of the 20th. It is also true, however, that it can still carry significant meaning today. [1]

Towards the end of the 19th century, the concept of art for art's sake was not only a cry for freedom within the arts, but also a deliberate attempt to rebel against the common bourgeois sensibility of the time. One of the greatest figures in this attempt was James Abbott McNeill Whistler, a progressive modernist painter. [1] He suggested that art should "stand alone" only as a work of art, in that it appeals only to the senses. As such, color, form, and the aesthetic was to take precedence over "deeper" and more vicarious associations such as love, patriotism, devotion, or any other concept that might be prevalent at any given time. As such, art should present only what the audience can see and should be appreciated for that.

Whistler's painting "Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket (1874), for example, demonstrates this idea. The mood and color of the painting show its concern with the visual being presented by the painter rather than an attempt to represent something in the world or life. [1] Furthermore, the title of the painting, beginning with "Nocturne," a musical term. This suggests a relationship with the arts themselves, perpetuating the idea of art for art's sake, divorced from interpretation.

The writer Oscar Wilde also promoted the ideal of art for art's sake. [3] For Wilde, an artist created art solely for his or her…… [read more]

Contrasting Two Contemporary Artists: Kote and Berdann Essay

… Realism vs. Romanticism in Modern Art

Romanticism in Art -- Josef Kote

Josef Kote was born in the seaside city of Vlore in Albania in 1964, and he was clearly influenced by the water-themed scenes around the Mediterranean Sea. His paintings show a well-honed technique of mixing light and color to draw the eye into the painting. The colors that he uses -- acrylic on canvas in most all of his work -- are based on the colors that he saw in real life growing up by the sea. Kote was drawing skillfully at the age of 13 and he got into the "National Lyceum of Arts" in Tirana; and by the age of 20, he was studying in the "Academy of Fine Arts" in Tirana. He has worked and shown his art in New York City, Toronto, Greece and elsewhere.

In the Addison Gallery, for example, the fourteen paintings are all scenes of rowboats or sailboats in still, romantically stunning blue waters. His painting "Day Dreaming" is a scene with a rowboat that has a red stripe down the side and the reflection in the water distorts that stripe and makes it mesh with the still waters.

In "Always Ready" Kote has created a small boat listing slightly in the sand, two oars sticking out from the port side and multicolored images on the right side of the boat as though the shadow has turned into strokes of vibrant and contrasting colors. In fact the place on the painting that would be a shadow (based on where the sun is casting its light) seems to be a village, a port village most likely. Buildings vaguely familiar can be seen just to the right of the boat. The work is brilliant, it shimmers and glows with energy because of the juxtaposition of color and light and context.

Kote's work is radically different from Elizabeth Berdann's work. His is reflective, soft and sweet, and his use of light and color is very friendly to the viewer's eye. Kote has painted many nautical scenes with tremendous skill, but a viewer doesn't have to care an iota about water to admire and be soothed by his work.

Realism in Art -- Elizabeth Berdann

Elizabeth Berdann was born in 1956 in Allentown Pennsylvania, and she lives and works in New York City. She went through her…… [read more]

Poverty and Art Essay

… Global Issues and Art: Art and Poverty

The urban poor have often rendered into art in two equally incomplete ways: either they are rendered silent and ignored as mere background images or they are objectified. The aim of my art project was to let the poor speak on their own terms, using clothespins and traditional, humble artifacts found in urban enclaves of the poor to create beauty. Although so-called slums are often thought of as miserable places lacking in any aesthetic value, to their inhabitants this is not the case. To deny potential beauty is merely to engage in objectification of the poor, rather than to show real respect for those living in poverty who are striving to elevate their circumstances. The bright colors of the clothespins reflect the brightness inhabitants invest into their existence and renders the unseen beauty and joy seen in the context of the artwork.

The theoretical framework of objectification of the poor is similar to those which attempt to critically analyze the objectification of women and other bodies deemed to be 'other' and wrong. All forms of objectification involve the individual being treated as an object rather than a human being with his or her own perspective: "as a body (or a collection of body parts) valued predominantly for its use to (or consumption by) others."[footnoteRef:1] The poor have often literally been reduced to commodities on a physical level, not simply as laborers in the fields or in factories but also in art. They are viewed as 'representing' something (usually something negative, depressing, and bankrupt) rather than simply being themselves. For example, in medieval and Renaissance art in the West, images of the poor (created by the non-poor) depicted beggars either very negatively or as holy images, with little in between. [footnoteRef:2] My work of art is an attempt to counterbalance such notions. [1: Barbara Fredrickson & Tomi-Ann Roberts, "Objectification theory," Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21 (1997): 174. Available: [4 Nov 2014]] [2: Tom Nichols, The Art of Poverty: Irony and ideal in 16th century beggar imagery (Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1997).]

The appropriation of poverty, specifically by fashion designers, has become so notable in recent years, it has even spawned its own world, that of 'favelization.' Regarding the appropriation of Brazilian slums, in her book Favelization, Adriana Kertzer writes: "Today, both Brazilian and foreign designers, marketing professionals, and filmmakers interpret and appropriate favelas, often producing something hybrid, something that merely touches on reality but does not reproduce it." [footnoteRef:3] Regarding her work on the favelas, Kertzer wrote: "The trend of favelization leads to a consideration on the ethics of design. Being often -- maybe even always -- political, design not only reflects but also affects power relations and human relationships. Design projects that employ favelization reflect and affect existing hierarchies of power as well as interactions between individuals of different social status."[footnoteRef:4] In other words, the phenomenon reflects the fact that art is often what is done 'to' the poor, rather than… [read more]

Art the Material Image Reaction Paper

… Several pieces that are significantly smaller than the large one above the mantle help to accentuate the main image, and encourages flow of traffic in the room. Footsteps creaking on the wooden floorboards, and the smooth feel of the dark wood bannister on the spiral staircase add a tangible dimension. With sonic and touch dimensions, The Material Image has a multisensory impact when it is on display at the Marianne Boesky Gallery.

Still, the visual dimension of The Material Image is tantamount. One piece contains geometric images such as horizontal and vertical lines that impart the sense of a grid. The grid parallels the staircase bannisters. Similarly, one image that has human subject graces a room and makes it seem like the person is actually present. Artists like Michele Abeles and Lucas Blalock do challenge notions of what it means to be, and to look, human. The only limitation of the Marianne Boesky Gallery is the lack of seating in the rooms that would enable a deeper analysis and contemplation on the works of art displayed. The confluence of natural and artificial light also begs the question of how different types of lighting might impact the viewer's experience. In one room, a large bay window floods the space with light and enhances the images there. Yet work displayed in the hallway are bereft of natural light.

Although all the artists left an impact on me, I especially appreciated the work by Barbara Kasten and Jason Loebs. Barbara Kasten's work has a futuristic and digital feel due to its extreme abstraction. The colors and the illumination in Kasten's work were eye-catching as soon as I entered the room. On the other hand, Jason Loeb's work is more traditional photography capturing landscapes and imagery from around the world, some of which I recognized instantly, making me feel at home.… [read more]

One Religious Image as Depicted by Three Different Artists Essay

… But perhaps the most striking realism of the work is its portrait of Christ who looks like a real baby, tended to by his mother, in contrast to the young divinity standing proud on a throne in the Masaccio. Botticelli's work is a depiction of the Virgin in a true, intimate and domestic scene as a human mother.

Botticelli's Virgin shows a clear shift in favor of the humanism characteristic of the Renaissance era: "Classical Greek philosophy was also consistent with the new mood of 'Humanism' which arose in Italy at this time. Humanism was a way of thinking which attached more importance to Man and less importance to God. Although Christianity remained the only religion, Humanism reinterpreted it so as to give it a human face. Thus, for example, religious figures like Evangelists, Saints, Apostles and the Holy Family were portrayed as real-life people, rather than stereotyped and idealized figures" ("Early Renaissance Art (Italy) (1400-1490)," Early Renaissance Art History). Clearly, religiosity was still important to the figures of this era and the Church played a central role in patronizing the art. But the ways in which religious figures took central focus had shifted in a manner that gave, however subtly, equal significance to the human as well as to the divine.

But this humanism is perhaps most starkly manifest in the work of Filippo Lippi, a former Carmelite monk who left his order and later married. His Virgin is clearly a woman, not a symbolic depiction of femininity. "The Virgin Mary is depicted in profile, praying in front of the Child supported by two angels whose faces actually make them look like two rascals or young boys. Behind them is a beautiful landscape inspired by Flemish paintings. The Virgin's hairstyle is very elegant and embellished with pearls and veils" (Lippi, Madonna with Child and Two Angels). It was rumored that the model for the portrait was Lippi's wife. The Virgin's hair is artfully piled and she has the freshness and vigor of a young girl, underlining her innocence but also her youthful beauty. The boys supporting Christ look playful rather than solemn.

This humanistic work is relatively devoid of the symbolism of Lippi's contemporaries. The boys, rather than sporting halos, look playful and mischievous. "The sweetness of the composition, as well as the gracefulness of the veils and the woman's hairdressing would later become a model of elegance" (Lippi, Madonna with Child and Two Angels). The work is as much a celebration of beauty, the body, and the natural world as it is of religion and the Christ child reaches for his mother rather than anything symbolic of his fate. The angels strain to hold the baby comically, rather than easily bear him aloft.

The degree to which domesticity is emphasized in these different works varies greatly as does the extent to which the Virgin and Christ are humanized. Overall, there was a break between Early and Late Renaissance in the greater emphasis placed upon the humanity of religious… [read more]

Monuments to History: Vietnam Veterans Memorial and the Raft of the Medusa Term Paper

… Without going into the history of how this raft was set afloat off the coast of Africa in July of 1816, and why cannibalism was carried out by some of the 147 people on that ill-fated raft, the painting reflects realism in the genre of the actual color of the skin of the dying and of the dead. It is a romantic painting, following fairly closely the "Neoclassical and Romantic movement" which was part of the creative scene in nineteenth century France, according to Steve Durbin, writing in Art & Perception (2007).

The style that Gericault used was "strongly influenced by Michelangelo," and relies on the "drama and fluidity of the Baroque movement" by using "loose brushstrokes, a strong palette," and a dramatic juxtaposition of "light and dark" (Durbin, p. 2). The bodies of the dead and dying on the raft certainly were not, in reality, very attractive, given that they were without food and water for many days; but the painting (which reflected "idealized, muscular bodies") stayed true to the Neoclassical / Romantic work of Michelangelo and showed musculature on the bodies (Durbin, p. 2). One quite interesting feature of the painting is the "interlocking triangles"; also, the person waving a flag of some kind to a distant ship, is African, which is curious given that Africans were seen as slaves at that time (Durbin, p. 2).

There are four distinct groups in the painting, Durbin explains. There are the dead and dying in the center; those "struggling to stand up"; three are huddled together by the mast; and the fourth group surrounds the African with the flag. "Deep anguish" is on the faces of the dying and other faces are "blurred or hidden in shadow" (Durbin, p. 2). The purpose that drove Gericault to create this art was to generate discussion, to make a name for himself, to launch his career as a painter. What does the work say about French society and how it chooses to commemorate to national events? Author Julian Barnes says it represents (existentially) the fact that the French were "all lost at sea, washed between hope and despair, hailing something that may never come to rescue us" (Durbin, p. 3). Initially the buyer for this painting planned to cut it up and sell pieces of it, but the French Government saved it from desecration and put it into the Louvre as an historical depiction of a tragedy.

Works Cited

Beverly Vietnam Veterans. (2001). Locating a Name (on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial).

Retrieved May 27, 2014, from

Durbin, S. (2007). Gericault's The Raft of the Medusa. Art & Perception. Retrieved May 27,…… [read more]

Sacred and Secular in Warhol's Campbell's Soup Cans Essay

… But of course Warhol's technique here consists in capturing the mundane in a completely realist fashion and lending it a numinous significance. Thus the repeated pattern of the soup cans actually comes to resemble some kind of significant seal -- after so much repetition, it comes to resemble the weird art on the dollar bill, or the official seal on a college diploma -- it seems invested with a meaning larger than what it literally represents.

Of course the meaning is simple: Warhol is taking not a profane subject, but an ordinary one, and treating it as though it were sacred. His depictions of celebrities are more obviously closer to Christian icon art, because they resemble the repeated depictions of saints (always identifiable by some sort of sign). Whereas the Cambell's Soup Cans are more like the Christian symbology: repeated depictions of the cross, or the fish symbol used by early Christians to identify each other. The formal repetition appears to give the cans meaning, and the red, white, silver, and gold of the cans come to seem like almost royal colors invested with pomp, the colors of an official crowning or of religious artifacts. Warhol is also playing upon the viewer's sense of familiarity with the design, so that it is like seeing a sculpture of Christ on the cross that is also twelve feet high: the viewer recognizes the symbol, but also recognizes that part of the art is the enlargement, which stands in for an obvious marker of significance. Each of the cans is just short of two feet high -- it is vastly enlarged from the size of an actual can of soup. And yet the design is so stark and repetitive we do not mistake it for advertising. Instead it seems like a promise of bounty and signficance, with a deceptive surface…… [read more]

Mary Heilmann: Contemporary Artist Term Paper

… The glorious off-ness of her color rattles shapes like shards in a kaleidoscope."

She is well-known of combining elements of abstraction and conceptual art with the bright colors, wit, as well as playfulness of the best Pop artist. Caught up in the middle of the finest painters of that generation, she involved herself in creating works that tend to be formally adventurous and richly evocative, which are marked by bold patterning and loose brushwork. On top of painting work, she made her way into sculpture world where she created small ceramic works echoing the bold palette of her canvases. In her statement, she says "I'm not adverse to gorgeousness; I just want it to look like it happened without a struggle." thereby incorporating her own chairs with her own design and installations of her works, so that she encourages her viewers to conceive of them as all-encompassing environments.

Various works done by Heilmann have been the subject of many exhibitions, such as in 2007-2008 traveling retrospective 'Mary Heilmann: To Be Someone,' which happened to appear at the New Museum of Contemporary Art, the Wexner Center for the Arts, the Orange County Museum, and the Contemporary Art Museum. Heilmann was also included in the 2008 and 1989 Whitney Biennials as well as the landmark exhibition 'WACK! Art and the Fenminist Revolution' (2007-2008) that took place at Los Angeles Museum of Contemporary Art and MoMA PS1.

Other artists, mainly critics, resort to athletic metaphor just to describe Heilmann's work, indicating a pretence move to show that what she was doing could be too easy. The organizer of the exhibition for the Orange County Museum of Art, Elizabeth Armstrong, in Newport Beach, Calif, the place where Heilmann was a curator until August and where previous year there was a show, went ahead and invoked her brief foray into competitive diving at age 12. Armstrong sees Heilmann's newest work in her catalog essay as 'the rush of the high diver, who must achieve utter precision in order to let go.'

On the part of critic Dave Hickey, the relevant sport, as well from Heilmann's California girlhood, is surfing. His catalog essay with the title 'Surfing on Acid' using one of her paintings, he present an observation from her works that "embody the surfer's ethic of finding the moment to fall and never trying too hard to save your life." Moreover, the sport metaphors was meant to as well guard against suspicion that Heilmann's art might not be too easy but also too calculated. Though she may look natural, she is also a female dandy whose apparently ingenuous way of printing masks a highly greater sophisticated sense of style.

Heilmann is described as a Postmodernist scavenger; however, unlike Peter Halley and Sherrie Levine, whose periodic abstractions deconstruct Modernist myths, Heilmann takes 20th century history of art as her personal toy box. She gives, just painterly Pop artist, a vibrant new life to standard forms of 20th century visual culture. Think of the Ramones covering Cole… [read more]

Portrait of a Woman With a Man at a Casement: Fra Filippo Lippi Term Paper

… ¶ … Renaissance Portrait: Portrait of a Woman With a Man at a Casement by Fra Filippo Lippi

The objective of this study is to analyze a Renaissance portrait. For this purpose the work of Fra Filippo Lippi, Portrait of… [read more]

Glenn Ligon Term Paper

… Glenn Ligon

Malcom X (Moran, N.d.)

Glenn Ligon is a conceptual artist that has produced many works on a range of different subjects. He is a contemporary artist that was born in the 1960s in the New York projects. However, because of his intelligence he got to go to some prestigious schools to earn an extraordinary education. There are several aspects to Ligon's life that are portrayed through his works. One example of his personality as a gay African-American is illuminated throughout many of his works. His collection of art includes many different formats including sculptures, prints, drawings, and even neon signs. Ligon is not afraid to use his imagination to let his work follow different directions.

Some of Ligon's more controversial pieces are pornographic in nature. Ligon produced a series of pornographic artworks that portrayed black males that was portrayed in a book where the pictures are illustrated in horizontal rows. These shots also cover more controversial themes than just pornography, such as race, AIDS, and politics. These photos often…… [read more]

Rosso Florentino's "The Descent From the Cross Essay

… The Perception of the Viewer

Viewing the work of Rosso 'The Descent from the Cross' gives the viewer a sense of having intruded upon a very sacred and very private scene and in fact, gives the viewer an almost voyeuristic feeling as though they are watching something that is an intimate scene that only those very close should view as the body of Jesus Christ, scarred, beaten, bruised, and finally in death is removed from the torturing device used to end his life.


The ladders are juxtaposed with one on either side of the cross giving the appearance of a ladder leading up to and a ladder leading down from the cross. This appears to relate some important truth about the life of Christ although the viewer is unsure of the precise message that Rosso is attempting to convey.


The lighting in Rosso's painting the 'Descent from the Cross' appears to be harsh and almost unnatural lighting as though it is coming from somewhere above or even outside of the scene that is taking place as Christ is being removed from the cross following his death.

Other Information

The figures in this painting include that of a woman who is at the feet of Mary, the mother of Jesus as well as other men who appear to be disciples of Christ. This scene is very detailed and expressive and filled with hurry, grief, emotion and urgency. Rosso has managed to capture the intense emotions that those removing Christ from the cross are feeling and to have captured the frenzied and hurried activity that took place that terrible day.

Rosso seems to have captured just the right amount of darkness and light to create the somber mood while emphasizing what is a very holy scene to the Christian viewer and to enlighten the viewer of the tragedy and the triumph of what this scene of Christ being removed from the cross following his grueling death really means in terms of the salvation and grace that is to follow upon the resurrection of Christ that took place on the third day.

Summary and Conclusion

Rosso's painting the 'Descent from the Cross' evokes in the viewer deep emotions and more full realization of the sacrifice of God of his only Son for the salvation of mankind and the raw and cutting reality of what took place when Christ died upon the cross. Rosso's work offer the viewer an intimate view into the life of Christ and his followers and the sufferings that took place at the time of Christ's…… [read more]

Vincent Van Gogh Sol Lewitt Essay

… There is no observable order to the manner in which the lines are orchestrated, other than to reveal the artist's very personal vision.

In stark contrast, LeWitt's work looks very mannered and heavily influenced by lithographs and other forms of mass-produced art. LeWitt's use of line is clean, versus the messy and infinitely fascinating sprawl of lines in Van Gogh. While a gazer might think he can easily understand a LeWitt at a glance, it is possible to look for hours at a Van Gogh and see new configurations of lines that suggest alternative interpretations of the various objects that are displayed.

Beneath the surfaces of both men's works is a clear architecture of underlying shapes: in the case of Van Gough the oval dominates, given the circular, swirling nature of the bright unnatural hues in his paintings. In LeWitt's constructions it seems to be the rectangle or square. Even works which contain circles have those circles sharply superimposed against straight lines. There is a sense of order and organization in his vision, versus the spontaneity evident in the unexpected curves of a Van Gogh.

Both men were great artists in their own respective times, with visions which would later be regarded as cutting-edge. After seeing either men's works, the gazer goes back at 'real' life slightly differently: aquiver with feeling after gazing at a Van Gogh and with a sense of respect for organization and planning after…… [read more]

Christie's Education Application Ultimately Application Essay

… It is a powerful piece, one which could signify the media's manipulation of its news coverage, like a musician handling the strings on his or her instrument, in order to get a very calculated and fine tuned message. Pieces like these are especially interesting to me, but they also are a new branch of art, one that is often misunderstood or misjudged by the art dealers currently on the market. I would love to use by knowledge gained from an education at Christie's in order to help light a better path for such innovative artists, and ensure them the same types of protection over their art as other, more traditional artists see.

I have a number of deep passions within the field of artistic expressions, and I know these passions will help shape my future career and professional development. I understand that the ethics of art are extremely complicated, but want to use my potential time here at Christie's to study the notion of ethics in art dealing, so that I can practice the best possible business in the art field, without piercing the sanctity of the art that I may find myself dealing with. Art dealers find themselves facing clear ethical issues on a daily basis. From deciding profit margins to marking the true value of the art being offered, ethics in art dealing can get quite confusing. As such, I hope to use my time spent at Christies in fine tuning my own ethical judgment, as based on theory, in order to practice ethically. The ethical standard should be based on providing clients with the best quality, and with the greatest level of assurance that the art is genuine and not stolen. An education at Christie's will help provide the tools in which I need to do so.… [read more]

Innovative Qualities of Impressionist and Realist Painters Essay

… ¶ … innovative qualities of Impressionist and Realist painters' works, together with outlining the connection with Modern art and its implications in specific examples.

Realism appeared as a reaction to Romanticism and Classicism, by forsaking previous reliance on artifice and emotion in favor of unaltered objectivity. Admittedly, the current strived to offer truthful, accurate portrayals of everyday life instances which surrounded the artists. In this sense, Edouard Manet's Le Dejeuner sur L'Herbe and Goustave Courbet's the Stone Breakers are exponential for the purity of their rendition of quotidian routine, namely leisure enterprises and respectively people at work. The influence of realist principles can be clearly traced to modern photography, a form of visual art which brought the artist's yearning to create real representations even further, and a meaningful example for this is the 1978 Untitled Film Still #21 by Cindy Sherman.

Impressionism was radically distinct through its attempt to capture the general impression that a scene or object provoked, by means of short strokes which served to emphasize a dynamic reflection of light on various surfaces, leaving the 1870s critics outraged and feeling that the paintings were not finalized. The Rehearsal on Stage by Edgar Degas, Moulin de la Galette by Pierre Auguste Renoir and Mother and Child by Mary Cassatt altogether illustrate the impressionist ephemeral light-play which can be linked to modernity through its rejection of the eternal and portrayal of temporary commonplace scenes and daily middle class people's activities.

Post-impressionists such as Georges Seurat - a Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte - and Paul Cezanne - Mont Saint-Victoire - deemed the Impressionist technique limited and struggled to bring new elements, such…… [read more]

Picasso Pablo Picasso Was a Painter, Sculptor Research Paper

… Picasso

Pablo Picasso was a painter, sculptor, ceramicist and stage designer who belonged to Spain but lived most of his life in France. He was one of the most influential and known artist of his age and had gone to… [read more]

Art, the Author Sol Lewitt Term Paper

… When making a piece of conceptual art, the artist has to consider many things and plan them all out before they start working on it. For example, the artist has to think about the size of the piece and how that relates to the message that they want to relate. Like if a piece is too big then that will be impressive itself and that could make the message harder to see or if they piece is too small then maybe the artist is saying that their piece is not very important. Something that you would not even really think makes a big difference which is the size actually makes a really big difference. Also, they have to consider their materials and the way in which they will represent that theme; like they have to determine if they want to make the piece two-dimensional or three-dimensional. The amount of space that a piece of conceptual art takes up is also important and the author here says to also take into account the space between the specific objects within a work of art because even space which is actually nothing can have a meaning in art.

In addition to this, the materials that an artist chooses will also have a factor in how the artwork is understood by the people who view it. This author thinks that traditional materials are best. The people, who use new materials, just because they are new, tend to lose sight of what it is that they were trying to accomplish through their art in the first place. So it is for the best to use materials which have already been around for a long time. Then you show that you know how to use these materials in a new way, that no one has ever through about before and this shows that you are very creative. It is harder to do that with material that is new because the people looking at it might just focus on the material and not what the artist is trying to show in the art.

Works Cited

LeWitt, Sol. "Paragraphs on Conceptual Art."…… [read more]

Man Ray and Gerald Murphy Term Paper

… ¶ … American Artists in Paris

Europe had given the United States so much in terms of cultural achievements over the centuries; but the dawn of the twentieth century saw the United States giving cultural gifts back into Europe. Man Ray and Gerald Murphy were both American artists who took up residence in Paris in the early twentieth century. Together with other American artists, they helped modernize the art scene in Europe, bringing with them abstract concepts and practices that forever influenced European art.

The first artist to be explored in this analysis is Man Ray, originally born Emmanuel Radnitzky in 1890. Man Ray began to show artistic talent very early on. He was educated within traditional fine arts, a basis for his later artistic expression that broke the rules but with regard to artistic licensing. In fact, Man Ray's first career choice was to actually be an architect (Baum et al., 1989). In the United States, he worked as a commercial artist as well. During his time in the States, Man Ray's primary medium was oil paint (Bizardel, 1960). He later moved to Paris very early on in his artistic career in 1921, where he helped popularize the Dada and Surrealist movements (Turner et al., 1996). Here, art was turned upside down and correlated with multi-media artistic influences. Man Ray toyed with abstract photography, manipulating images and generating artistic expression in a new field. Using his newly created solarization techniques which he often used in his portraits, Man Ray revolutionized how film could be manipulated into artistic expression (Baum et al., 1989). At the end of the 1920s, Man Ray began experimenting with film more and more, straying away from his roots as an oil painter. His many short films broke the mold in terms of genre and presented a new way to utilize film as an artistic medium.

Gerald Murphy was another American from the East Coast that ended p far away from home, making a name for himself and his art in France. Murphy spent most of his time on the French Rivera,…… [read more]

Salvador Dali a Critical Analysis Term Paper

… The bricks are meant to imitate atoms since none of them are actually touching each other similar to how the particles move within an atom. The pictures portrays a scene that is flooded and both the portions above and below the water are visible which might represent the human psyche and the relativity of time. The work is suggestive that by possessing such a power as nuclear technology that they are now capable of self-destruction. Some of the other elements are rather odd, such as the floating fish; however this is entirely consistent with the surrealist perspective.

Soft Watch at the Moment of First Explosion

Salvador Dali

About the work

The work was produced in 1954 and has themes of time and how the relate to psychoanalysis -- one of Dali's interests.

From the Work

Although the work does have some strong lines in the background, the focal point is the watch and is composed of very soft and flowing lines implying that time can bend in some circumstances.

Woman, Old Man and Flower-Femme, viellard et fleur

Max Ernst

About the Work

This work is another example of a surrealism scene. It depicts childhood memories of Ernst and was produced in 1923.

From the Work

The painting uses soft lines and low light to portray a scene involving a young woman with her buttocks showing and wearing a hat that resembles a flower. Her arms are drawn as transparent outlines and a section of here upper body is transparent as well.

Works Cited

Choudhury, J. (2010, September 15). Salvador Dali's The Disintergration of the Persistence of Memory. Retrieved from Art is never finished, only adandoned:

The Dali Museum. (N.d.). The Disintegration of Persistence of Memory. Retrieved from The Dali Museum:

Wiki Paintings. (N.d.). The Disintegration of the Persistence of Memory. Retrieved from Wiki Paintings:… [read more]

Statues Ancient Greece Essay

… There remains a line along the neck showing where the two pieces were put together.

Unlike the straight and stoic position of the kourus the "Kritian Boy" statue is not posed in a straight line. According to art historians, "The… [read more]

German Expressionism vs. Surrealism in Art and Film Term Paper

… The actual visual texture of the work is very conventional and realistic, but the actual images shown are not, such as a lion's head pasted on top of a cut-out image of Napoleon, a man with a raven's head, or a city gentleman with bat's wings kissing a fine lady in a drawing room. These potentially disturbing images are presented in a very matter-of-fact manner, which create a humorous and ironic impression. The fact that a collage of real-life images that were produced 'seriously' are used to create absurd images highlights Surrealism's connection to Postmodernism and other artistic movements dependent upon irony and inversion for their verbal language.

Unlike the tortured view of the city seen in the world of Expressionism, surrealists saw the urban world as a place of creative possibilities. This was also true of the films that were highly influenced by the movement For example, Louis Malle's 1960 Zazie in the Metro shows a little girl getting joyously lost in Paris while visiting her uncle. At one point, the little girl is shown holding a giant magnet, trying to pull a pedestrian toward her with its pull, as if this was the most natural thing to do in the world. Although Zazie is clad in bright red, like some of the figures from Kirchner's Berlin Street Scene, her attitude of joy is entirely different to the urban world around her. It is a playground, not a prison.

Works Cited

Ernst, Max. Une Semaine De Bonte: A Surrealistic Novel in Collage.

Dover Publications, 1976.

Pioch, Nicholas. "Expressionism." Web Museum. 14 Oct 2002. 9 Feb 2013.

Kirchner, Ernst Ludwig. Berlin Street Scene, 1913. 9 Feb 2013.Available:

Hobbs, Robert C. "Early Abstract Expressionism and Surrealism." Art Journal, 45. 4 (Winter,

1985): 299-302:

Malle, Louis. Zazie Dans La Metro. 1960. Featured on The Criterion Collection. 2012.

9 Feb 2013.

Voorhies, James. "Surrealism." In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The

Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000 -- . Oct 2004. 9 Feb 2013.… [read more]

Artworks Subject Matter, the Artist Research Paper

… Reminiscent of much of Manet's style, we see the realism of the worker, or the Parisian lay person, in the nightclub or the working environment with bright colors but with the glamor stripped away. The mood focuses on the essence of the person and on the underlying mood which is sometimes cynical and depressed, and frequently lonely. The mood is highly existentialist.

Lautrec exceled, too, in creating crowd scenes with individuals singled. He gained a reputation of being both detached and sympathetic to his characters.

His paintings have often been described as drawings in colored paint; his paint was applied in long thin brushstrokes with much of the canvass showing through.

A Woman Resting (1889)

We see Lautrec's style exemplified most vividly in one his image titled A Woman Resting (1889) (J. Paul Getty museum). The image painted in tempera or casein with oil is of a young woman sitting in a chair that appears to me to be draped with a white furry blanket. We see her from behind, and this viewpoint emphasizes her submissiveness and the spectator's control over subject. A part of her left breast is exposed. It could mean that she's a nude model and she's on the set of the shoot, that she's a prostitute resting from a long day at work (and Lautrec, indeed, became acquainted with one of his famous prostitutes around this time, a woman in Montmartre called Marie-Charlotte (Milner, 1992)) or it could be her way of relaxing. The row of green small round tables and chairs further indicate that she may be a prostitute and that this may be a brothel since the setting seems less of a home and… [read more]

Theodore Gericault's "The Raft Essay

… From a simple look a person is likely to observe sentiments like horror, optimism, and pessimism after seeing the painting. It is somewhat visible that Gericault consulted eye-witnesses before going through with painting "The Raft of the Medusa." It would have been impossible for someone to be able to paint such truthful feelings without actually being familiarized with what these people have been going through for most of the episode.

One of the most interesting things about the painting is that it inspires hope. It is surely difficult to think about the probability of such a picture putting across concepts related to hope, especially considering that it is meant to discuss the horrible death of more than one hundred people. However, when considering the black person rising above the others with the purpose of waving to the ship in the distance, it appears that the painting is meant to highlight the fact that one should never lose hope and that people need to focus on trying to exploit the desperate situations they are in regardless of circumstances.

The Louvre is known as one of the most complex museums in the world and seeing it from the perspective of a hurried tourist is actually sad. One is probable to express disappointment concerning the very little time he or she has available to look at the artwork that it holds. It would probably take several weeks, months, or even years for a person to be able to carefully look at and understand each artwork in the Museum.… [read more]

Joan Miro's Detailist Period Term Paper

… Joan Miro's Detailist Period

Joan Miro was born on April 20, 1893 and began drawing classes in 1900 (Fundacio Miro, p.1). By his early teens, his skill as an artist was already becoming apparent and he enrolled in the School… [read more]

Artist: Wassily Kandinsky the Spiritual Essay

… Wassily Kandinsky is a noted painter and clearly as evidence by his life's works. His works reflect the kind of man he was: mathematical, analytical, human, deep, and semiotic. He had a great deal of formal training and he additionally placed value in his life experiences. He tried to remain open to what life could communicate to him as well as to humanity in general. His life took him around the world, including to places like Germany, France, Britain, and MAerican. His work is definitely considered abstract, yet he is also categorized as cubist and impressionist, specifically German impressionism. He perceived himself as a prophet of art, spirituality, and humanity. His life, with respect to his artistic career, is often divided into several sections including The Blue Rider Period, The Bauhaus, and The Synthesis.


ABC Gallery. (2012) Wassily Kandinksy. Web, Available from: 2012 November 18.

Artcyclopedia. (2012) Wassily Kandinsky. Web, Available from: 2012 November 18.

Encyclopedia Brittanica. (2012) Wassily Kandinsky. Web, Available from: 2012 November 18.

German (2012) Wassily Kandinsky Biography. Web, Available from: 2012 November 18.

The Art Story. (2012) Wassily Kandinsky. Web, Available from: 2012 November 18.

Wassily (2012) Kandinksy -- The Biography. Web, Available from: 2012 November 18. (2012) Wassily Kandinksy and his Paintings. Web, Available from: 2012 November 18.… [read more]

Leonardo Da Vinci Research Paper

… One of Leonardo's lesser known interests was music. He received formal musical training and was a gifted lyre player and vocalist.

List some of Leonard's controversial works and explain in what way they are controversial. Does this say anything about Leonardo?

Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper painting is often cited as being one of his most controversial works. It is widely speculated that he makes inference to Mary Magdalene in the piece as being the wife of Jesus Christ. She is seated at the last supper to the right of Jesus. No other artists of the time had ever questioned that the Apostle John was seated to the right of Jesus. Leonardo's odd depiction of a woman has been hotly debated. Many Christians consider this an attack on the divinity of Christ. However, there is speculation as to what exactly Leonardo intended by interjecting this image in the painting. Some argue this could merely be an attempt to feminize John who the Bible describes as Jesus' "beloved one." Leonardo was not intimidated by challenging convention and thinking in new directions. He made bold and strategic use of light and shadow in his work and played with concepts and topics many others considered taboo. Whatever the intent, his work was successful in spurring interest and inciting debate.

Why did Leonardo finish so few projects?

Due to his constantly evolving interests in many divergent areas, Leonardo left many paintings, manuscripts and inventions unfinished. He was often eager to move on to other tasks and would abandon a project whenever he was struck with inspiration for another. In addition, he rejected the status quo and pre-existing research and conclusions on subjects, preferring instead to conduct his own investigations. This consumed considerably more time, but he insisted on uncovering all "truth" for himself. He was also known to be a perfectionist and would spend a great deal of time mulling over the finer details of his works before he would consider them sufficient and complete.

How has the perception of Leonardo changed over time? Why is he still important today?

Perceptions about Leonardo da Vinci have evolved over time. Today, he is celebrated and acknowledged for his contributions to art, history, and philosophy. He is considered a creative genius due to his ability to excel at both technical and creative endeavors. Appreciation for his visionary mind has grown over time. He is still considered relevant today because of his curious nature and desire to learn. He was resilient even when his attempts, experiments and theories failed to bear fruit. He once stated, "Obstacles cannot crush me. Every obstacle yields to stern resolve. He who is fixed to a star does not change his mind." Today he is regarded as a pioneer. He challenged convention, believed in critical thinking, and questioned norms. As a result, he was able to create innovative ideas and theories that we continue to use today.


Vezzosi, Alessandro. Leonardo Da Vinci (New Horizons). London: Thames &…… [read more]

Charles Rennie Mackintosh Essay

… Charles Rennie Mackintosh, a Scottish architect was born on 7th June 1868 in Glasgow and died 10th December 1928 in London (Davidson, 2010). He was interior, furniture and textile designer, artist and a watercolourist. He entered the Glasgow school of art and design gained recognition by the school director because of his great work of art. He became part of the Art and Craft movement as a designer and the main representative of the Art Noouveau in the United Kingdom. He was of great influence to the European designs till his death. One of his philosophies was the creation of functional and practical designs. The main concept that he had was to develop innovative ideas. He wanted designs that were concerned with the present and the future and not history and tradition as the previous works of other architects. His ideas were based on building around an individuals needs and he viewed art work as a need for life but not machines. He believed that an architect was responsible for every aspect of the commissioned work. He was a visionary designer through his urge to make designs that would be relevant in the modern movement. His designs were greatly influenced by industrial revolution, Asian style and the modernist ideas that were emerging.

His commissions include; in 1895 he entered a competition where he submitted his designs. He registered success and became the winning entrant after announcement of the results he then began the construction work of the new the Glasgow school of Art that took place in stages between1896 and 1909 (Davidson, 2010). This new school had a demonstration of his freshness of style and is a representation of a fascinating into the turn of modernism of the century. The designed it in such a way that the west wing and the right wing of the school were situated on a steep hill running down toward the Sauchiehall street and sloping away from the main north. This was indeed a splendid job presented by him. This was his first major building commission whose design was quite revolutionary and was unlike anything that had been put…… [read more]

Leger City an Analysis of Fernand Essay

… Leger City

An Analysis of Fernand Leger's the City (1919)


In the early 20th century, American and European painters alike were understandably transfixed by the effects of modernity and industrialization on the human condition. French painter Fernand Leger was a significant figure among them, with many of his works standing as uniquely representative of this impulse. In works such as 1919's the City, the abstract painter would depict the cluttered, asymmetrical and chromatically hard features of the evolving urban landscape. The City appears as a horizontal gallery of densely packed and irregular geometric shapes, dominated by an off-white backdrop and cut-through by sharp reds, blues and violets.

Fine or Popular Art:

By its intent, the Leger work is inherently Fine Art. The painter would produce his works using the philosophical pretenses of many of the more academic traditions preceding him. According to Horsley (1998), Leger was highly conscious of the non-commercial influences that gave way to his work. Here, Horsley quotes a critic who observes that "Leger's interests encompassed a dizzying variety of early-20th-century-isms: Fauvism, Orphism, Futurism, Purism, Neo-Classicism and Neo-Plasticism."


This Fine Art tag is only further cemented by the function of the work, which is as a critical assessment of the impact of modernity and industrialization on man's experience. In this, it accomplishes the twin goals of reflecting in horror and in marvel of man's accomplishments. In this way, Leger suggests both an alienation of man and an evolution by which he becomes a symbiotic part of this mechanistic way of life. The garish coloring, reflective of the sharp primaries found in…… [read more]

Graffiti: An Anthropological Analysis Research Paper

… Some graffiti on signs has a very specific political purpose, of course, such as graffiti defacing signs promoting a particular politician or cause. In the 'No Parking' case, the intentions behind the creator's actions are ambiguous. Sometimes the meaning of graffiti is intentionally elusive, though, and designed to communicate only to some people, not everyone who looks at the image. A good example of this is gang-related graffiti, which is often used to communicate to rival gangs. In Los Angeles, for example, the 'Bloods' and the 'Crips' street gangs were famous for their use of rival graffiti: "Gang graffiti in Los Angeles serves as an important text to understanding these groups, as the graffiti delineates space, and reemphasizes existing territory. It also serves as a tool of communication, as it constantly challenges the hegemonic discourses of the dominant, and it aids understanding the social and cultural meaning of these marginalized groups" (Alonso 1998:3).

An example of 'Bloods' graffiti in a photograph entitled "Denver Lane Blood gang graffiti near 109th and Figueroa in 1996" depicts a pointed finger in the air, in the unmistakable colors of the Bloods. The red of the image is a stark contrast against the white background, and the image is deliberately designed to communicate to other Bloods and Crips a specific message [URL:]. Gang graffiti often has an ironic undertone: on one hand, it is very public and designed to mark territory, while on the other hand it is very private, given that non-gang members may not find its meaning intelligible and simply see red or blue markings.

The potential for graffiti to give voice to extra-legal impulses, either through gangs or simply by defacing public property, has caused many cities to devote considerable time and effort to expunging it. Some theories of criminology, such as 'broken window' theory, suggest that when small crimes show a lack of respect for the law, as in the case of graffiti, then overall disrespect for the law increases in the area. "Broken Window Theory suggests that the prevention of crime will be accomplished by steps like painting over graffiti, keeping buildings in good repair, maintaining clean streets and parks and responding effectively to petty street crime (Zimbardo 2012).

Even though the 'No Parking' is not explicitly political like the Bloods graffiti, it is located in a fairly public area and designed to be noticed, which gives it some of the elements of political works. Rather than political or gang-related, it can best be described as existential graffiti: "Existential graffiti is the most common form of graffiti, and similar to political it follows an open system. They contain individual personal commentaries, and it is sometimes referred to as expressive graffiti" (Alonso 1998:7). These forms of graffiti are self-referential, and contain a private language intelligible more to the self than any outside observer.

However, even the most private non-gang-related graffiti still has a political overtone, particularly when using a sign as a medium. It is defiance of the law, and… [read more]

Museum Exhibition in New York City Research Proposal

… Museum Exhibition in New York City

The Metropolitan Museum of Art


The Steins Collect: Matisse, Picasso, and the Parisian Avant-Garde

Visiting the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New Your City is an excellent excursion for our class. From February 28th through June 3rd oine of the most interesting exhibitions this year is happening at the museum. It is called the Steins Collect: Matisse, Picasso, and the Parisian Avant-Garde. This is an exhibition of 200 paintings collected by noted literary critic and writer Gertrude Stein and her brothers Leo and Michael. The 200 paintings provide a fascinating glimpse into the art being produced during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Admission to the museum is $25 for adults, $12 for students and the operating hours are Tuesdays through Thursdays from 9:30am to 5:30pm, with the operating hours being 9:30am to 9pm Friday and Saturday. On Sunday the museum is open from 9:30am to 5:30pm.

Why This Exhibition Is a Good Idea for the Class

Gertrude Stein knew Pablo Picasso personally and often watched him paint the works shown in this exhibition. There are a few self-portraits of Gertrude Stein as well in the collection. In 1903 Gertrude Stein arrived in Paris and opened her bookstore on the South Bank of Paris. Over time she made friends with the leading artists living in and around Paris, including Henri Matisse and Pablo Picasso. Both of them were unknown and struggling to make ends meet, often painting pictures of wealthy Parisians for pay, staying with Gertrude Stein and her brothers when they could not afford their own apartments. it's stories like this that make…… [read more]

Argue Against the Censorship of the Arts Essay

… Censorship

Anyone who genuinely believes that art has something worthwhile to contribute to the world must necessarily believe that the censorship of art is an inherently destructive and dangerous thing, but this has not stopped powerful individuals from purporting to see a cultural value in art while simultaneously decrying particular works or collections of works which challenge their ideological authority. Purporting to retain the authority to determine what is and is not worthwhile or legitimate art, as in the 1999 case of then-Mayor Rudy Giuliani vowing to withhold funding from the Brooklyn Museum of Art, contradicts the very thing about art which makes it useful, which is its ability to challenge and disrupt. Thus, genuine respect for art means respecting it as the legitimate expression of any and all possible human expression, regardless of whether or not that expression agrees with one's political, cultural, or ideological assumptions.

In his preface to the Picture of Dorian Gray, Oscar Wilde pinpoints the essential nature of art, and the reason why it must never be censored, when he states that "the artist can express everything. / Thought and language are to the artist instruments of an art. / Vice and virtue are to the artist materials for an art" (Wilde 588). Wilde notes that by definition, the potential scope of art as such is the entirety of possible human expressions, and thus "those who find ugly meanings in beautiful things," and would subsequently argue for the censorship of those perceived ugly meanings, "are corrupt without being charming" (Wilde 588). Put another way, when received by someone who appreciates the central function of art, which is to challenge assumptions by revealing some kind of truth, art can only produce "beautiful meanings," so anyone seeking to censor art has already by definition failed to appreciate art correctly.

In 1999, in response to an exhibition of young British artists, Rudy Giuliani embodied the notion of "corrupt without being charming" perfectly when he threatened to cut off funding for the Brooklyn Museum of Art over what he called "sick…… [read more]

Applying a Reading Essay

… And it reveals Van Gough's inner self, given that his sense of warmth derived from the world as well as cafe's anonymous nature and the focus upon drinking and gambling are simultaneously depicted in the envisioned world. "The eye of the Impressionist only beholds, it does not speak" (Bahr 118). Bahr calls Impressionist paintings merely a gramophone, or a reproducer of the experiences of others, while Expressionism attempts to deeply explore the artist's self.

Looking at Van Gough's angst-ridden swirls, it is easy to see this notion of art as an expression of the self, rather than a recorder. Van Gough, even though he is not actually depicted in the painting, is clearly not a mere dispassionate observer but actively involved in the world because of the emotions it calls forth within him. Also, his decision to include specific persons in the cafe -- a couple talking, a man bent over a bottle in despair, two splayed-out men sitting together, drunk, and a man in white at the pool table, shows the diverse range of emotions, from lust to disgust, within the artist. The portrayal of these indistinct figures in the smoke reveals just as much about Van Gough's inner state as it does about the people or even the cafe.

By selecting a particular place to portray, Van Gough reveals where he is emotionally, not simply physically. Previously, Impressionist paintings, like Monet's study of water lilies, showed how light could make the same object look different, depending upon the time of day. Van Gough's works go deeper, and suggest that how we look at the world says more about who we are, psychologically, as it does about the visual complexities of life. The fact that one person perceives the light of a smoky room differently, or takes particular notice of the unhappy figures in a room does not mean that the cafe is necessarily an unhappy place; rather it is a revelation of the soul of the gazer. This, says Bahr, is what is powerful about art. Van Gough's efforts are not depressing, but rather liberating, as it releases aspects of the self that might not otherwise be seen, and makes real, meaningful communication between the artist and the…… [read more]

Leonardo Da Vinci the Comparison Essay

… Due to the advances of technology and education, more people than ever before can become thoroughly familiar with da Vinci's works without having to travel thousands of miles to Paris or Rome. However, with all this information readily at hand, questions still remain about the legend. Kemp tried to answer questions about his daily life, Rubin tried to answer questions about his status as an infamous figure in history, "Seven Functions" tried to answer questions about his religious works, while Zollner tried to answer the big question: who is the Mona Lisa? With all of these questions, I only have one: if da Vinci were alive today, what would he be doing? Painting, philosophizing, inventing, solving the world's problems with his genius?

Of course, with art historians only so much can be fact, while much of it is interpretation, and a portion of it is assumption. If historians assume much about his past, why not assume about his future. As a man with such infinite prestige, why not speculate about how the world would be today with him in it. My theory would be that da Vinci would be heavily involved with the environment and helping the world get to its goal quicker of not being dependent on fossil fuels, and being independent on alternative energy. He would find a way to make solar energy affordable to make cars that are completely electric that can go for miles without recharging (and be affordable!). He would find a way to reorganize how food is grown and consumed, in an efficient, intuitive way. Yes, I believe the next article written about da Vinci shouldn't be about his past, but as a truly speculative text on his future.

Works Cited

Kemp, Martin. "Your Humble Servant and Painter': Towards a History of Leonardo Da Vinci in his Contexts of Employment." Gazette des Beaux-Arts. 140. (2002): 181-194. Print.

Rubin, Patricia. "What Men Saw: Vasari's Life of Leonardo da Vinci and the Image of the Renaissance Artist." Art History. 13.1 (1990): 34-43. Print.

"Seven Functions of the Hands of Christ." 139-150. Print.

Zollner, Frank. "Leonardo's Portrait of Mona Lisa…… [read more]

Dadaism in the Modern World Term Paper

… In their encounters with these iconic identities, the duo undertakes efforts to erase the distinction between the depersonalized production and the personalized promotion of industrial food. (PICA TBA 2011)

This work is an open air performance that is dependent on… [read more]

Kant, Hanslick and Music Term Paper

… Once it is determined what makes a specific work of art or piece of music beautiful, then it must determined what kind of pleasure is derived from experiencing the work of art. When the pleasure that is derived from music is identified, attention is shifted from the composer, who determined the structure of the piece, to the listener who is then tasked with identifying what pleasure is derived based upon personal (and possibly social) standards and to what extent the pleasure is derived (Graham, 78).

During the 19th century, music structures began to change and a new set of standards by which music was aesthetically judged had to be formed. Classic 19th century music built upon the style and the formal procedures that had been established during the 18th century and was usually structured in sonata form, whereas the emerging "avant-garde" music of the era utilized an individualistic approach to musical expression ("Classicism and the Avant-Garde in 19th-Century Music"). The sonata was based upon "principles of repetition, contrast, and return of musical materials" and solely took into account musical considerations ("Classicism and the Avant-Garde in 19th-Century Music"). Such musical considerations included exposition, development, modulation, and recapitulation. The major composers of this classical school of composition included Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven, and Brahms. On the other hand, avant-garde music, or music that did not follow the structure that had been established in the 18th century and applied to the classical compositions, was used to express ideas and to tell stories through music. It was through experimentation with traditional musical structure that the program symphony and the symphonic poem arose. Also, unlike classical music, avant-garde music was often accompanied by a written explanation of what the musical elements represented ("Classicism and the Avant-Garde in 19th-Century Music"). Major composers that utilized this avant-garde approach to music included Berlioz, Liszt, and Wagner.

It can therefore be argued that avant-garde composers of the 19th century can be defined as geniuses through the application of Kant's beliefs. Kant argued that genius "1) is a talent for producing that for which no definite rule can be given, and not an aptitude in the way of cleverness for what can be learned according to some rule; and that consequently originality must be its primary property. 2) Since there may also be original nonsense, its products must at the same time be models…be exemplary; and consequently, though not themselves derived from imitation, they must serve that purpose for others" (Kant, 60). Furthermore, Kant contends that "it cannot indicate scientifically how it brings about its product, but rather give the rule as nature" (60). By defying conventions, yet establishing a new structure that can be followed, these avant-garde composers fall into the category of genius.

Music's uniqueness requires that a different set of standards be used to determine how beauty and the pleasure derived from the art can be assessed. Despite any given art works structure, the beauty of that work will be subjective because of an individual's preconceived and pre-formed… [read more]

Realism and Impressionism Throughout History Essay

… At the same time, he is focusing on: actual places, people and events. Evidence of the can be seen with the Spring Bouquet, as he is using these concept to highlight the beauty of the flowers and the vase. This helps to give everyone a sense of appreciation about what they are seeing. While the Dance at the Moulin De La Galette, Claude Monet Painting in his Garden at Argenteul and the Dance at Bougival are all illustrating a sense of realism (based on the subject matter) along with impressionism (through the use of colors / texts). These elements are important they are showing how Renoir is using impressionism to add more emotions and feelings to his art. While he is simultaneously, focusing on real subjects and events. This is giving his work that sense of realism. ("Dance at the Moulin," 2011) ("Spring Bouquet," 2011) ("Claude Monet Painting," 2011) ("Dance at Bougival," 2011)


In the case of Manet, he was focused on using realism and impressionism to highlight how the world was changing. Four of this works where this can be found include: Music in the Tuileries Gardens, Battle of the Kearsarge and the Alabama, Masked Ball at the Opera and Luncheon on the Grass. In each of these canvases he is contrasting how the world is evolving by covering current events (i.e. Battle of the Kearsarge and the Alabama and Masked Ball at the Opera). He is then showing, how people are actually living their lives in the late 19th century (which is highlighted in Luncheon on the Grass and Music in the Tuileries Gardens). These different paintings are important because they are highlighting how Manet is talking about the changes that are occurring and what daily life is like during his time. ("Music in the Tuileries Gardens," 2011) ("Battle of the Kearsarge," 2011) ("Masked Ball at the Opera," 2011) ("Luncheon on the Grass," 2011)


Argenteuil. (2011). Claude Monet Gallery. Retrieved from:

The Artists Family in the Garden. (2011). Claude Monet Gallery. Retrieved from:

Battle of the Kearsarge.(2011). Edourad Manet. Retrieved from:'Kearsarge'-and-the-'Alabama'.html

The Boardwalk on the Beach. (2011). Claude Monet Gallery. Retrieved from:

Claude Monet Painting. (2011). Pierre Renoir. Retrieved from:

Dance at Bougival. (2011). Pierre Renoir. Retrieved from:

Dance at the Moulin. (2011). Pierre Renoir. Retrieved from:

Impression at Sunrise. (2011). Claude Monet Gallery. Retrieved from: -- Sunrise.html

Luncheon on the Grass. (2011). Edourad Manet. Retrieved from:

Masked Ball at the Opera. (2011). Edourad Manet. Retrieved from:

Music in the Tuileries Gardens. (2011). Edourad Manet. Retrieved from:

Spring Bouquet. (2011). Pierre Renoir. Retrieved from:… [read more]

Photography (It's a Way of Life) (Rag-Pickers) Research Paper

… Photography

(It's a Way of Life) (Rag-pickers) (Children at Play)

Henri Cartier-Bresson: Urban Photographic Legend

"the photograph itself doesn't interest me. I want only to capture a minute part of reality"

(Henri Cartier-Bresson).

Henri Cartier-Bresson was reportedly born to a… [read more]

Difficult to Write in Prose Term Paper

… ¶ … difficult to write in prose about certain aspects of art and music. The emotions that one feels based on the experience of art often do not translate into prose, yet it is important to be able to share one's experiences to lay and scholarly audiences both. One technique, called formal analysis, is not meant to evoke the work of art in the audience's mind, but instead, to explain structure and the way visual or musical elements have been arranged by the artist and how they function within a certain composition. The main idea of this format is to find a more factual way of describing the work(s) so that the reader could imagine them prior to experiencing the pieces themselves.

In order to construct a formal analysis, one must assume that a work of art is: 1) somehow constructed by humans; 2) has a stable meaning, and 3) that the meaning might be explained by studying the relationship between individual elements within the work. We must be able to quantify elements within the work: shape, color, texture, technique, volume, tonality, etc. The artwork must also be representative enough of the particular genre that the terms used to describe it are familiar enough with the general public that they can easily understand the work and appreciate what is happening artistically

Too, a formal analysis is not a description, for a description is once again more quantitative than anything. A description is more impersonal, and simply inventories the work: "the piece shows a woman in a white dress sitting at a table," "the piece is in the key of f-minor and in sonata form," or "the table is highly polished and appears to be an expensive wood." Instead, what formal analysis is trying to do is to get behind the obvious and help the reader understand and reveal a more thorough analysis of the piece. The analysis must be more of a thesis, meaning the writer must take a stance on the piece for the benefit of the analysis, and then communicate that cogently to the audience.

Response- It is interesting to note that descriptions of art seem to go through their own set of interpretations, too. During the last century, for instance, even the interpretation of art has undergone a different set of theories and ideas based on what art even…… [read more]

Temptation of St. Anthony an Analysis Essay

… Temptation of St. Anthony

An Analysis of Teniers the Younger's Temptation of St. Anthony

David Teniers the Younger did a number of highly allegorical paintings depicting the Temptation of St. Anthony. The oil on copper dated 1647 presents the saint in a cave being visited -- as is typically shown -- by a host of demons and temptations. This paper will provide a detailed description of the painting by discussing the artist's use of light, space, texture, color and line.


What is perhaps most striking about Teniers' painting is not, as one would think, St. Anthony, who kneels at his stone altar deep in prayer. It is, rather, the artist's use of space. Front and center in the spacious cave is a woman in black silk who stands opposite Anthony and holds a white kerchief in her right hand. Her position in the lower center of the portrait provides the viewer with the proper perspective: we look to her to see where we are to direct our gaze -- and her gaze is fixed on the saint. The space of the entire painting seems to revolve around her and her gaze.

Who is this woman? According to custom it is "a portrait of the painter's first wife, Anne Brueghel" (Teniers 36). This would explain the prominence she is given in the painting, and it reveals the respect the artist had for his wife. That she should be the viewer's guide tells us that the woman -- unlike the demons and peasants (who linger further off, gaping at the scene rather disrespectfully) -- the lady in black has a calmness and presence of mind about her: her demeanor is proper; she is emotionally involved; she understands the burdens and trials of the saint. She alone is unmoving while the rest of the space around her is swirling with motion.

The space of the painting is filled with activity, and all of the activity becomes a distraction or temptation for the still and prayerful saint: and yet there is a kind of humor about the entire scene, as F.T. Kugler states (Masters in Art 29). While, indeed, a variety of monstrous forms assail the hermit who has sought refuge from the world in his cave, there is something of the Flemish painter's sense of humor that allows the scene to retain a mirthful quality. It is as though the devilish temptations, so frightening and severe, are still nothing in the light of God's grace. How this grace is expressed is another story -- but it is suggested through the use of light and shadow.

Light and Color

The darkest recesses of the cave occupy the corners of the picture, while the opening of the cave gives view of a blue-white sky. The saint kneels and prays in this direction and in between the saint and heaven is, of course, a cross affixed to the stone altar. The cross apparently acts as both inspiration and intercessor, while the demons of hell all… [read more]

Biography About Robert Beer Term Paper

… Robert Beer

British artist and author Robert Beer is recognized for his significant contribution to the world of Tibetan Art, considering that his studies in the domain and his collaboration with some of the best Newar artists and thangka painters have practically boosted the field's reputation. His work in the area is not necessarily focused on generating art, as he is also interested in promoting this art form and in having people acknowledge its cultural and artistic importance. Beer's work is somewhat surprising, especially given that he is a westerner and has little to no cultural connection to the art that he is addressing. He dedicated more than forty years of his life to preserving and supporting Tibetan art, but he did not ignore other forms of art that he discovered on the Asian continent. In order to be constantly in touch with the art that he was writing about, Beer traveled on a yearly basis to countries where it was present. He concentrates on having the West understand this form of art and of encouraging Newar artists in pursuing their dreams.

Robert Beer was born in Cardiff, South Wales, in 1947, and was uncertain regarding the spiritual side of his personality until he reached the age of fourteen. It was then that he had a profound spiritual experience that influenced his later life. He experienced the sixties from a first person perspective, as he was heavily influenced by revolutionary attitudes in following his dream of being a painter regardless of the fact that he was colorblind. Eastern culture started to seem appealing to him during the late sixties and this feeling was fueled by the psychedelic experiences that he went through during the period. He lived in India and Nepal from 1970 to 1976 and gathered a lot of information regarding Buddhist artwork. In spite of his dedication, he had little success in making a living in the UK by selling…… [read more]

Contrast the Portrait Styles and How Does Each Artist Address the Concept of Portraiture Research Paper

… Northern Renaissance Portraiture

Contrast the portrait styles and how does each artist address the concept of portraiture.

Portraiture in Jan van Eyck, Rogier van der Weyden, and Jean Fouquet

The Northern Renaissance, like the Italian Renaissance, was an age of great artistic development. However, there were considerable differences between the Northern and Italian styles in terms of the quality of portraiture. "The Italians used perspective to 'keep the beholder at a respectful distance' while the Northern artists aimed at 'admitting him to the closest intimacy'" (Held 1955: 207). The Italianate style was idealistic and highly influenced by the classics, the Northern style was more realistic. "Similarly, light as conceived by the Italians is 'quantitative and isolating' while with the transalpine painters it is 'qualitative and connective'" (Held 1955: 207). The aim of this greater connection is manifested in the desire to invest the ordinary world with symbolic intensity, as manifested in the portraiture of Jan van Eyck and Rogier van der Weyden, while the Northern Renaissance painter Jean Fouquet adopted the Italian attitude into his style. Van Eyck and to a lesser extent Van der Weyden use symbolism as a way of conveying to the viewer truths about the condition of humanity, and encourage gazers to 'read' their paintings, much as one might 'read' a text. This paper will examine the significance of symbolism in these artists' works (or lack thereof). Van Eyck and Van der Weyden urge the reader to 'read' the painting and the world from a Christian perspective, while Fouquet is more concerned with presenting an idealized rendering of humanity.

Much has been written of Jan van Eyck's use of symbolism, particularly in his most famous work, the Arnofini Marriage Portrait. "Because of the close relationship of structure and concept, God's plan of salvation appears to be woven into the very fabric of reality and to become visible in the transcendent state of meditation, at times with the force of sudden revelation," such as the nature of marriage in the symbolism of the dog, the carved gargoyle in the background, the mirror, and the clothing of the bride which is draped to suggest pregnancy in a manner common to how the Virgin was depicted in many contemporary works of art (Ward 1994: 45). Sacredness is thus manifest in the very human institution of marriage.

Van Eck used material symbols to flesh out the meaning of his works: for example, in his portrait The Virgin with Canon van der Paele, the holy man apprehends the Virgin holding the infant Christ either as he meditates or has a vision. Christ gives a nosegay of flowers to the Virgin: "the red symbolizing Christ's love, shown in the shedding of his blood, the white his purity and the dark his humility" and holds a parrot (Ward 1994: 24). Parrots were not a symbol usually associated with Christ, but the inclusion of the bird seems to be a referent to the commonly-held notion at the time that parrots said ave as a… [read more]

Giuliano Bugiardini and Roger Van Essay

… The work of both these artist have sufficed in doing just that! They have given the world their own version of the events which they never witnesses, but on a human level, were able to understand the importance of and the meaning of it for those who were close to the subject -- Jesus!

The paintings in no way deviate from reality -- instead they just show the human reality and not the reality that the Church offered to the people for so long!

Works Cited

Farber, Dr. Allen. Early Christian Art - An Introduction (Part 2). n.d. (accessed Sept 10th, 2011).

General Characteristics of Renaissance. n.d. (accessed Sept 10th, 2011).

Glover, Michael. Great Works: The Deposition (1436), Roger van der Weyden. August 28, 2009. (accessed Sept 10th, 2011).

Smith, Keith Martin-. On the Future of Art and Art Criticism: Beyond Post-Modernism in the 21st Century. n.d. (accessed Sept 10th, 2011).

Web Gallery of Art. Weydan, Rogier van der . n.d. (accessed Sept 10th, 2011).… [read more]

Vincent Van Gogh Research Paper

… Van Gogh

In Search of Illumination: An Analysis of the Life and Work of Vincent Van Gogh

If, as Richard Williamson (2010) says, art is a skill and that skill is the "expression of the soul," Vincent Van Gogh's artistic… [read more]

Human Nature to Want to Project Essay

… ¶ … human nature to want to project our personal and societal values on others, there must be some cultural areas that are protected from our tendency to impose moral restrictions. Art is one of those areas. It is the role of art not only to reflect the society in which it is produced, but also to question that society and push the boundaries of accepted ideas. For this reason, it is important for the law to protect works of art and the artists who create them from censorship. Unfortunately, this leads to a constant tension between the avant-garde of the art world and the moralists who seek to protect the values that they consider inviolable. The recent attack on the Gauguin painting at the National Gallery and other recent attacks on art in museums around the world highlight the need to consider the relationship between public art and public morality.

There is some question as to whether or not public funds and public spaces should be used to support and display art that is morally controversial. The National Endowment of the Arts is under constant pressure to withhold support for art that could be seen as indecent (Biscupik). While not supporting this art with public funds does not violate the right to freedom of expression because it does not stop the artists from creating it, withholding such support would limit the livelihood of artists who create these works and would limit the availability of an audience for these works. I believe that this in itself constitutes censorship -- not of the artists themselves, but of the concept of public art. Because public art plays an important role in the questioning and advancement of the social status quo, it is my opinion that the concept of public art must be legally protected from censorship as much as the individual art itself, and public funds and spaces should be legally protected in their ability to support and display art that some might consider offensive.

Question 2. Censorship by the government is not the only threat to art. Vandalism by individuals who are offended by the art or artist is also a method of censorship, and art must be physically protected against censorship through vandalism just as it is constitutionally protected from government censorship. Measures like Plexiglas barriers and extra security personnel can be effective for art that can be recognized as potentially offensive in advance by museum personnel. However, it is not feasible to put all art under such security measures, and there is always some risk that someone will attempt to vandalize a piece of art that does not strike most people as offensive. Clear laws against vandalism, adequate surveillance technology, and consistent consequences for those who break the laws can act as a deterrent in these situations.

Question 3: Two Tahitian Women with Mango Blossoms is a fascinating combination of elements from several different styles. Its formal composition is an even blend between a primitive type of naturalism and… [read more]

Mary Cassatt and Impressionism Essay

… Mary Cassatt produced some of the most interesting Impressionist and post-Impressionist works precisely because she was so ideally situated to capture the evolving artistic and societal assumptions and standards of her time, so that by examining one of her later works, The Boating Party, it becomes possible to see both the influence of Japanese prints and the rise of the female subject embodied in a single image, itself inspired by an earlier Impressionist work. Thus, by comparing The Boating Party to Boating, one may ultimately see, in stark contrast, the artistic and societal changes undergone in the nearly twenty intervening years, demonstrating Cassatt's function as cultural historian and critic, carefully considering the myriad ambiguities and pitfalls the newly liberated woman was forced to navigate at the end of the nineteenth century.

Works Cited

Cassatt, M. (1893-1894/2011). The boating party. National Gallery of Art. Retrieved from

Lewis, R, & Lewis, S.I. (2009). The power of art. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Metropolitan Museum of Art. (1997). Mary cassatt. Retrieved from

National Endowment for the Humanities. 'The boating party'. Picturing America Artwork,

Essays, and Activities, Retrieved from


Pioch, N. (2002, August 19). Cassatt, mary. Retrieved from… [read more]

Artistic Expression a Comedian Named Essay

… Senator Helms proposed that the entire endowment be shut down, that every artist be punished for something one artist did that he did not like. If this is not the actions of a tyrant, what is?

Serrano's artwork may be considered vulgar or blasphemous to some, but with all due respect, so what. The government was not created to make certain that certain religious beliefs were not insulted. Freedom of speech and expression is not limited to what one religious group thinks is appropriate. If anyone objects to this artwork, they do not have to view it. But if they want to have a National Endowment for the Arts, then they have to tolerate artistic expression that they may feel is "objectionable." The government must be fair and equal in it's appropriations and grants, and cannot pick and choose what artwork they will support. Freedom of expression must be freely expressed, or it is not free.

However free a society may be, it is only free for those who are capable of making decisions: Adults. In every society there is a point where an individual becomes an adult, where they gain all the privileges of adulthood, but also must take on the responsibility. In the United States this age is generally regarded as 18 years of age. For those under this age, American society retains a certain amount of authority over them, restricting their actions and privileges.

This is also the case when it comes to artistic expression; the United States has a rating system for movies which restricts viewer ship by age. American society, while allowing pornography for adults, limit's the exposure to children under a certain age. This is the only acceptable type of censorship which can be allowed in the United States: the censorship of adults over children. The young in society sometimes need to be protected from things like alcohol, guns, pornography, and threats to a child's psyche. But when it comes to an adult, Americans expect, no they demand, that they be allowed to express themselves as they see fit with no interference from tyrannical government officials.

Works Cited

Andreas Serrano, letter to Hugh Southern (1989), acting chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts. In Stilesk, and Selz. "Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art, A sourcebook of Artists Writings." University of California Press, 1996.

"Senator Helms Objects to Taxpayers' Funding for Sacrilegious Art." Congressional Record. Washington D.C., 18 May 1989, vol. 135, no 64.

Smothers, Tommy. "Quotations…… [read more]

Louvre: Influences of an Art Research Paper

… In fact, while the French, of all social and economic status', hailed the freedom of art along with the freedom of individual interest and political importance:

"The English ruling class [felt] there was political room neither for the kind of art collection that the people could meaningfully nationalize, nor for the kind fo monarch would could meaningfully nationalize it himself" (35).

Thus, the English gave less power to both the citizens and the government, in order to maintain a more balance relationship between the two. Yet without this exuberance toward individual empowerment for its citizens, England remained in a sort of antiquated-political modality. Perhaps France's genius in restructuring the Louvre to serve all people lies in its willingness to grow and change with the times; thus allowing themselves to respond lively to the spirit of the time, and remain a nation of social, as well as political, humanitarianism.

In conclusion, the Louvre became the world's literal and figurative symbol for freedom to its nation's citizens, in addition to equal respect to citizens apart from social and economic status as well. This political change in France started a domino-effect unto many other countries' attitudes toward their people, such as America. Moreover, following the French Revolution and the reimagining of art/art museum's role to a nation, the field of Art History was created and sustained to the present day. Indeed, "[n]ow presented as public property, they [art museums] became the means through which a new relationship between the individual as citizen and the state as benefactor could be symbolically enacted" (24). Thus, the Louvre has been a major political player in the modern world for its contribution to…… [read more]

Home: Influence on Formal Landscape Design Research Paper

… Home: Influence on Formal Landscape Design

Throughout history, the private home, villa, or estate commission, has served as an important laboratory for formal innovations and the development of new paradigms in design. Elizabeth Barlow (2001) tells us that "human interaction… [read more]

Oil Canvas Artwork. As Both Are Incorporating Term Paper

… ¶ … oil canvas artwork. As both are incorporating women as the subject matter, but the artists portray them in distinct ways. Contrasting this is: John Henry Fuseli's the Nightmare with Edouard Manet's Olympia. As they are highlighting the changes in: style, message and regions to define how art is transformed (from the period of Romanticism to the progressive era).

At the heart of their works, are: the female body as popular subject matter for many artists. While ideal forms of the body usually are portrayed, artists incorporate numerous attributes to: make their work unique and inherently different from others. To achieve this objective they will often integrate many techniques into their paintings. Below we will compare the stylistic qualities of: The Nightmare and Olympia with one another. Once this takes place it will provide the greatest insights, as to the similarities and differences of the two artists.

Stylistic Qualities

The oil canvas painting, the Nightmare, was created by John Henry Fuseli in 1781. He assisted in making the period of Romanticism more popular in the 19th century. An Anglo-Swiss artist, Fuseli incorporated the concepts of Romanticism. This is also known as neo-Gothic art of: imagination, deep emotion and fantasy in many of his works (including the Nightmare) (Stokstad, 2011, pg. 928). Currently presiding at the Detroit Institute of Art, the Nightmare shows a woman sprawled out on a divan. She is in a deep slumber with a ghoulish incubus, crouched on top of the woman. While at the same time, a horse (with bulging eyes) is looking at the incubus on top of the woman (Stokstad, 2011, pg. 928).

Olympia is an oil canvas painting that was created in 1863 by Edouard Manet. He was a Parisian artist contributing to the Realist period, as Manet was known for his nude paintings, like Olympia, and shared in criticism from conventional artists / critiques (like Fuseli) (Stokstad, 2011, pg. 978). The painting is currently located at the Musee du Louvre in Paris. It is showing a nude woman, lying on a couch and looking down at the viewer. While, a black woman is in the background with: a bouquet of flowers and a cat is arching its back (Flescher, 1985, pg. 28).

Stylistic Similarities

Both Manet and Fuseli were not well received by conservative critics. Manet was forced to exhibit many of his pieces at a site rented near Salon when his work was rejected (Stokstad 978). The disturbing image of the incubus, Fuseli, ignited English critics to coin the artist as: a "Painter to the Devil" and "the Wild Swiss" (Stokstad, 2011, pg. 928). While, Manet's Olympia is: much more realistic and Fuseli's the Nightmare is a dark version of a dream. as, both artists exude a sexual theme in their pieces. The Nightmare's woman appears to be troubled by the incubus and entirely under its control. The nude woman in Olympia projects control over the situation, but still is being presented as free from clothing.

Also similar in both… [read more]

Icons and Early Modern Portraits Article Review

… The first is Botticelli's Portrait of a young man holding a medallion, from around 1485. Here the artist has deliberately inserted a representation of an icon held by the subject of the paitning. The disjunction in visual style between nthe two is great: Nagel claims that it is included as "an image that speaks the language of antiquity." Within Botticelli's own depiction it is possible to see how the physical icon had been altered and shaped by Renaissance owners. Nagel seems accurate that Botticelli is showing the way in which Renaissance portraiture is itself a restaging of earlier modes of devotional picture-making -- he includes the depiction of the icon itself within a type of painting, the chest-length portrait bust cut off cleanly at the bottom, which itself has derived from icons in the first place. But Nagel makes a larger and more contentious suggestion, in linking the icon of Saint Luke located at Santa Maria Maggiore with not only Leonardo's written comments about the icon -- Nagel notes that Leonardo elsewhere tells a story about an "erotically wayward religious icon," a devotional image purchased solely for its comeliness by a sexually-motivated connoisseur -- but with Leonardo's own Mona Lisa. Nagel suggests that the reason for thie elevation of this "fairly standard portrait commission" from 1503 into a canonical masterpiece has something to do with Leonardo's central aesthetic concerns in the work, which rely on making the familiarity of icon portraiture into something overall more solid and realistic. I am inclined to agree with this hint towards a new interpretation of the Gioconda and Leonardo in general -- Nagel's belief that it represents a secularization of earlier iconographic portraits of the Virgin Mary seems entirely plausible, purely on…… [read more]

NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.