"Art / Painting / Sculpture" Essays

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Fallout of the 1913 Armory Show Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (749 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Fallout of the 1913 Armory Show -- the development of a unique new sensibility in American modern art

Our modern media culture moves so quickly it is easy to forget that at the turn of the 20th century America was relatively isolated from the seismic cultural developments that had shaken all of Europe. The first Picasso came to this country smuggled in the bag of an American artist, Max Weber in 1909 ("Picasso's Influence on American Artists," CBS News, 18 Jan 2007 26 Oct 2007). However, the level of American exposure to Modern European art increased exponentially after the 1913 Armory Show.

The impact of the show upon contemporary culture is evident in the way that it was portrayed in the media of the day. The New York Times called show a "bomb" into the world of the American art establishment and the Sun said that the "Cubist, Futurists, and Post Impressionists" had 'won' the first engagement, as if aesthetic taste between old and young, America and Europe was a battle (Staples, "As Avant-Garde as the Rest of Them," an Introduction to the 1913 Armory Show, 2007). Art Institute of Chicago students actually burned Matisse Paintings in effigy, because Matisse's colorful, enthusiastic and distorted visions of the human form were deemed immoral, even by art students (Staples, "As Avant-Garde as the Rest of Them," an Introduction to the 1913 Armory Show, 2007).

To downplay the significance of the 1913 show, some modern art critics have noted that many of the most notable artists that were exhibited were European Old Masters, like Van Gough, who had already passed into the 'cannon' of what was considered great works of art, and few American artists sold their works at high prices. But the financial accessibility of American art was part of the exhibit's power. Because ordinary people could afford works priced at $400, America's reputation as a place where people were willing to collect and display art, in public and private collections began to grow and bolster its artistic culture (Staples, "Marketing Modern Art in America, an Introduction to the 1913 Armory Show, 2007). Perhaps the most immediately obvious effect was the rise of the Art Deco movement in America. Although the show's influence took…… [read more]

Victor Margolin's Struggle for Utopia Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (555 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Victor Margolin's Struggle for Utopia is a study of three artists whose output during the years of high Modernism was centered on effecting social change. The aesthetic and political aspirations of Rodchenko, Lissitzky, and Moholy-Nagy are examined in detail in what is essentially a comparative approach to the left-wing ambitions of all three artists, who felt that they could change the world they lived in through the creation of works of art.

Margolin argues that in the beginning, Rodchenko's political views were a tad more conservative than those of Lissitzky. Rodchenko's public information kiosk designs are analyzed alongside Lissitzky's revolutionary designs for books as well as his paintings from this period. By implication, we gather from Margolin's reading of these early pieces that Lissitzky was attempting to break new ground in both his artwork and his politics by forging revolutionary new forms, while Rodchenko was taking a more paradigmatic, restrained approach by subtly molding the society around him.

Margolin goes on to outline Lissitzky's move from the Soviet Union to Berlin, where he became aligned with the German constructivists. Margolin focuses his analysis on Lissitzky's work from this period alongside that of his counterpart Laszl Moholy-Nagy. He also explores the theoretical differences between each artist's beliefs in the social implications of their works. While such an approach as Margolin's is certainly useful in shedding new light on the work of Rodchenko, Lissitzky, and Moholy-Nagy, the real political content in their work is rather elusive to a contemporary eye, as it must have been at the time. As this aspect of their work is really contingent on the artists' own discursive explanations, it remains situated outside of the…… [read more]

Valuation of Priceless Historical Cultural Artifacts Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,352 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7



The objective of this work is to discuss the valuation of historical cultural artifacts that are from cultures for which there have been no market sales of said artifacts. The article should progress through the three traditional valuation techniques including comparable market value, asset value, and the income method, to applicable techniques..

The valuation… [read more]

Inigo Jones Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,101 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Inigo Jones (1573-1652) was the first and perhaps the greatest of English Renaissance architects who left a profound influence on the course of British art and architecture. Before being elevated to the post of Surveyor General in 1615 by James I and designing a number of architectural projects, Jones' prodigious artistic talent was recognized by the wife of King James I, Queen Anne of Denmark, who hired him to design costumes and settings for court masques. Jones collaborated with another immensely talented artist, the poet and playwright Ben Jonson, to produce a number of highly acclaimed masques until an acrimonious falling out with his friend in 1631. This paper briefly discusses Inigo Jones life and his contribution to the court masque, his relationship with Ben Jonson, and their collaborations.

Brief Biography

Jones was born shortly before July 19, 1573, the recorded date of his baptism, in Smithfield, London. He was the son of a cloth worker -- also named Inigo. Not much is known about his early life or education, but it is almost certain that he traveled to Italy at the end of the 16th century and acquired considerable skill as a draftsman and architect. In 1605, he was hired by the wife of King James I, Queen Anne, to provide costumes and settings for a masque at court, something he continued to do even after he started receiving architectural commissions and his appointment as Surveyor General by King James I in 1615 ("Inigo Jones." Historic Figures -- BBC.co.UK).

Apart from his innovative work in designing of court masques, Inigo Jones undertook a number of notable architectural projects. These include the Queen's house in Greenwich, which was modeled on an Italian palace; remodeling of the Banqueting Hall in Whitehall; design of the Queen's Chapel at St. James Palace, and his restoration work on old St. Paul's Cathedral in London. Jones's employment as the court surveyor ceased with the outbreak of the Civil War in 1642. He died at his Somerset House lodgings on July 21, 1652 ("Inigo Jones" -- Britain Express; "Inigo Jones" -- Biography Greenwich 2000).

Contribution to Court Masque and Collaboration with Ben Jonson

Anne of Denmark, the queen consort of James I, was a passionate lover of all artistic enterprise and was most responsible for reviving the tradition of the court masque and taking it to its height of popularity in the early part of the 17th century (Lees-Milne 25). She commissioned the foremost artists of the time to produce masques of high artistic quality by ensuring that the artists were not handicapped by lack of funds or bothered by undue interference. Two Englishmen of exceptional abilities were chosen by the Queen -- namely, the poet and playwright Ben Jonson for scripting the masques and the budding architect, Inigo Jones, to design the stage effects and costumes for the masque.

The first of a long series of masques produced by the incomparable Jones-Jonson partnership was the performance of "The Masque of Blackness" on the "twelfth night… [read more]

Criticism and Self-Criticism in German Modernism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (360 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Self-Criticism in German Modernism," author Alan Colquhoun explores the dynamics of architectural movements in the first thirty years of the 20th Century. In other words, what occurred in the arts and contemporary design in the thirty years of industrialization prior to the advent of fascism and Hitler is of interest today because art and architecture are inevitably fused with social and political institutions and changes. Interestingly, Colquhoun (page 27) offers the idea that the role of the arts and the artist - "in forming a concept..." - was just as pivotal in creating machine / industrial production as it was in the creation of art and crafts. Hence, Colquhoun is alleging that there was a commonality between the artist and the industrial world of economics and society, and this helps historians understand the past as well as the present and perhaps the future.

More specifically, Colquhoun alludes to the influence that European painting genres had on architectural design in the second decade of the 20th Century. To wit, Cubism, futurism and especially expressionism - seen as a repudiation…… [read more]

Nam June Paik Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,006 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Nam June Paik

Artist Nam June Paik

Nam June Paik, known to many in the art world as the first "video artist" (Strosnider, 2006), passed away in January 2006. He was a Korean-born innovator who left his homeland in 1950 due to the Korean War. He studied music history and composition at the University of Tokyo and later at the University of Munich and Freiberg Conservatory he took up additional studies in music theory, music history and piano technique, according to the article in the journal Afterimage.

How did Paik get started in his unique art form? It is reported that American composer John Cage - who had become friends with Paik in Germany - encouraged Paik to "...explore radical experimentation in his composition work," Strosnider writes. Paik apparently took Cage's suggestion to heart, because by 1960, the Korean-born artist was blending "avant-garde performance art" with piano pieces. In one instance, the artist played a piece by Frederick Chopin and when it was completed, he leaped into the audience and much to the shock and surprise of those in attendance, he took scissors and cut off John Cage's necktie.

From there, Paik left the building and went to a corner bar, from where he called the venue he had just performed in and notified management that the performance had ended. One might say that Paik was learning how to become a trailblazer in the world or art. According to the piece by Luke Strosnider, Paik's latest video work (a "retrospective") was shown in the Guggenheim Museum in New York City in 2000. Prior to that, Paik had become an international icon in the progressive art world, and one of his more noted projects was "TV Buddha" which, Strosnider writes, "commented on the transcendental nature of modern media" by putting an "ancient Buddha statue" directly in front of a video camera. The live feed was sent to a TV monitor sitting in front of the Buddha, and hence, the Buddha could (in an artistic sense) "contemplate" the image of itself.

Meanwhile, the Buddha project has been written about extensively; in the journal, Religion and the Arts (Smith, 2000), the writer explains that beyond entertaining and provocative art, the TV Buddha is perhaps a "complex and theological and metaphysical construct." And as meaningful as the Buddha work is, Smith claims that commentary on the project is "surprisingly sparse." One of the critiques of the Buddha that Smith alludes to is that of John Hanhardt, who wrote in 1982 that the Buddha "...contemplates itself, a self-portrait, which fulfills a meditative stare inward to the self."

Another critique of the Buddha alluded to by Smith originates with Patricia Mellencamp (in a 1995 article she wrote) and references Zen Buddhism. Mellencamp takes a position that Western criticism of Paik's work gives a token "nod" to the "premises of Eastern philosophical and spiritual beliefs," but the truth is that references to Paik's epiphanies and transcendence "are often tossed off" by Western critics "rather glibly." In other… [read more]

Krasner's Cornucopia and Diebenkorn's Ocean Park: Comparison/Contrast Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (392 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0




In the first example, Cornucopia by Lee Krasner, the wife of Jackson Pollack, a.k.a. "Jack the Dripper" and rendered in 1958, the visual form is extremely random and is filled with pale tones of brown, blue, green and pink, along with some dark red. One can barely make out three lines that run vertically from the bottom of the work, left to right; there are also swirls of color and a number of trapezoid/oblong forms mixed in with these swirls. Overall, this painting reflects feelings of disparity, confusion and detachment, at least from the perspective of the viewer. The personality of the painter is obviously similar to the above characteristics, due in part that Krasner was the wife of Pollack. Possibly, this painting was done on either an easel in the traditional way or on the floor, much like Pollack who dripped or swirled paint from a brush or some other type of object not usually used in painting. The title Cornucopia suggests that this painting is a mixture of many things, a conglomerate of ideas, feelings and expressions. This may account for the non-objective nature of this piece,…… [read more]

Design and Designers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (736 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Designers

During the second half of the 19th century two artistic movements appeared almost in parallel, as a response to the long period of artistic sterility imposed by the historicism that only tried to recover movements from the past. The ideology of those past tendencies had promoted into the western world a wave of "neo" styles: Neoclassicist, Neogothic, Neorenaissance. The revolution occurred from the modernists' irritation towards the excessive technique that killed the esthetic spontaneity, bringing forth the phenomenon known as Art Nouveau. The new style combined the industrial production with the esthetic pursuit of art, including the artistic dimension into the every-day modern life. The enthusiasm over decoration acquired a different dimension and the functional blended with the esthetic satisfaction. Its main manifestations occurred in the world of architecture and graphic design. The style used modern techniques such as mechanical reproduction, printing and xylography. The intention was to create a new esthetic expression, inspired in nature, but incorporating novelties from the industrial revolution. In architecture it was frequent the use of iron and glass. Some of the most representative artists of this period were Aubrey Beardsley,

Gustav Klimt,

Alphonse Mucha and the American glassmaker

Louis Comfort Tiffany.

Art Nouveau was based on the ideas of John Ruskin and William Morris, a book designer, that declared that art should be made accessible to everybody and give an esthetic value to even the most common objects. This was made possible by the new techniques of mass reproduction of the industrial era. By the mid 19th century the Victorian design fashion in Europe was very heavily decorated. The Arts and Crafts movement intended to oppose that opulent style with simplicity and good design. It appeared as an attempt to combat the cold machine age, where industrial revolution was believed to be the cause of the growing insensitivity in people's minds, and eliminate the machinery from the artistic production, in an attempt to return to the hand manufacture.

The fascination towards the new art was also influenced by the cinema, and the world of publicity, reaching every side of modern life. The decorations seen in the houses portrayed in films, that reached every corner of society, made this new…… [read more]

Bach Fugue in G Minor Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (417 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1



As we listen to this music, I wonder if we can imagine the architectural design that fits with it....which of the following 'interiors' would more closely connect with the Fugue in terms of style and feeling (oh, and why)

An architectural representation of the Bach Fugue in G Minor would be a small, dignified country church. The arched ceiling of the small place of worship would be high, as if the maker of the church reaching to God. This would reflect orderly procession of the notes and the focused, intense organization of the composition. The composition suggests that the composer aspires to create a piece as orderly as God's creation of the world. But the church would be small, intimate, and individualistic to reflect the greater focus of the Baroque period upon the individual, rather than upon institutions as was common in the Renaissance. The piece grows more ornate as it evolves, without breaks in the composition, and thus the church would have small pockets of beautiful ornate sculpture and stained glass that took the gazer by surprise. The pews would be orderly in their arrangement, so everyone could look upon the minister as he gave his sermon from a plain pulpit.

How do we treat the…… [read more]

Bosch's Garden of Earthly Delight Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (357 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Garden of Earthly Delights

Bosch's triptych is certainly a striking one. I am not however sure that I entirely agree with Williams' view of the painting from a modern viewpoint, or more specifically that Bosch was unwittingly "predicting" the horrors of modern times. My first problem with such an interpretation is the fact that the whole work should be seen not only in the context of each other - Paradise, the Garden, and Hell - but also in the context of the time when it was created. Bosch painted with a certain ideology and social construct in mind. Sex and all pleasures of the flesh were sinful and abhorrent. The Garden of Earthly Delights, the main painting, is therefore both an almost sad assessment of the world in its current state and a warning to the citizens of the world. Sin leads to Hell. The Garden of Earthly Delights is therefore meant to shock; a feeling of which the painting of Hell is then a culmination.

When viewed from a modern context, I believe that the Earthly Delights…… [read more]

High Renaissance and Northern Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (714 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Southern and High Northern Renaissance

From the end of the 14th through the 15th century, the Renaissance age flourished in first Italy, specifically, and then Northern Europe. By investigating the artists who were instrumental in this era, as well as the cultures of the regions, one begins to see the similarities and differences between the Early Southern Renaissance and the Northern Renaissance. This paper will compare and contrast these two views by making reference to Shakespeare, Pico, Michaelangelo, and Durer.

Shakespeare's Hamlet's soliloquy that begins...What a piece of work is man... illustrates the conflicted nature not only of the character Hamlet himself, but of the Renaissance culture, in general, for both the Southern and Northern Renaissance.

Both regions enjoyed an explosion of artistic expression in art, writing, performance, and music, unlike anything experienced previously. The limits of this expression seemed infinite. Yet, despite all of this beauty being created, both Italy and Northern Europe were in political and religious turmoil. It is as if, through Hamlet, Shakespeare is saying, "What does all of this beauty and art matter with the struggles and the strife surrounding us?"

Shakespeare called for human dignity and reason above all else, even religion, and this was common of both the Southern and Northern Renaissance's dedication to humanism. and, notes the tendency for Northern Renaissance artists to express their doubt regarding the state of humanity.

Giovanni Pico della Mirandola's change in life course echoes the Renaissance philosophy. Named as a papal protonotary at the age of 10, he studied canon law, but then renounced it following the death of his mother and began to study philosophy.

Pico theorized that God had created Man specifically to admire his work on Earth. In his thesis, Oration on the Dignity of Man, he states that God created Heaven and Earth and all its creatures, "but when this work was done, the Divine Artificer still longed for some creature which might comprehend the meaning of so vast an achievement, which might be moved with love at its beauty and smitten with awe at its grandeur" (Pico della Mirandola).

It was this quest for knowledge and…… [read more]

Mona Lisa Conspiracy Few People Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (616 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Mona Lisa Conspiracy

Few people in the civilized world would fail to recognize the famous Mona Lisa in a painting replica or a print. Most of those people would also be able to name Leonardo Da Vinci as the artist that placed her on the history making canvas, however not many people are able to address the conspiracy issues that have surrounded the painting since its creation. The painting, arguably the most famous painting in history, has created debates worldwide with regard to the meaning behind its initial appearance. Everything from secrets of Jesus, to it being a self-portrait of the artist have been examined and argued with little conclusive evidence. There are several conspiracy theories with regards to the Mona Lisa though none of them have been proven.

One of the most popular theories of consipiracy when it comes to the Mona Lisa was triggered with the publication of the Da Vinci Code. The novel sparked a movie and the two made history when they brought up the possibility to the world that Jesus had a wife and that the smirk on Mona Lisa's face was because she was aware of such an important secret.

Another popular theory about the Mona Lisa and conspiracy is the belief that the Mona Lisa smirk has to do with the blending of two genders into one being. The conspiracy alleges that the Mona Lisa is an androgynous being, that melds a female and a male being together into one single sexuality (Why The Mona Lisa Smirks A Book Review of The Da Vinci Code by Rev. Marty Fields (http://www.thirdmill.org/newfiles/mar_fields/CH.Fields.WhyTheMonaLisaSmirks.7.9.04.html).The theory comes from the rumor that the artist of the Mona Lisa, DaVinci was actually a believer in a God and a Goddess, not just a God.

The theory is that he believed in both deities and provided evidence of it…… [read more]

Counter Culture 1955-1975 Pamphleteering Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,071 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Counter-Culture (1955-1975) Pamphleteering

Between the mid 50s and mid 70s the western world went through a series of radical changes, which had their epicenter in America. As an answer to the conventional traditions of the late 19th and early 20th century, and all the political and social containment that developed until the decade of the 50s, U.S. went through a… [read more]

Leo Tolstoy to Leon Tolstoy Recently Happened Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,293 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Leo Tolstoy

To Leon Tolstoy recently happened to come across your celebrated work entitled What is Art?, and I think that the ideas about art as expressed there do not offer a complete understanding of what art is or what it should be. Sure enough, as you yourself observe, this a very controversial question, that has been tackled by all of the best and most renowned philosophers or artists. According to you, art is neither the manifestation of an abstract and absolute idea such as beauty, or the spirit, or God, nor simply something created to give pleasure, as it was generally purported by most of the thinkers and philosophers so far. Instead it should be something intimately connected with the religions of every age and of every people, and the moral values these hold to be true.

Your argument is true insofar as both religion and art can share some common views about life, such as the intimation that there is something beyond immediate material reality, something that has a divine absolute nature. Both art and religion can reveal a different, absolute reality. But it cannot be agreed that good art should strictly follow religious and moral values. Art is such a vast territory that modernism has been able to add new esthetic values, such that are also mentioned in your work, through the poetry of Bauldelaire or Mallarme, or through the music of Wagner. These new esthetic values propose that art does not necessarily have to originate in such sources as the conventional idea of beauty, and that there can exist an aesthetics of the ugly.

According to you, these new ideas about art are the production of the rich class of society, a class that is bored and that does not believe in the moral values proposed by religion anymore. You argue against the new art that prefers non-sense to sense and confusion to meaning, because good art should do exactly the contrary, that is, offer a revelatory experience and an understanding of a certain fact or aspect of life.

But the discovery that the new art has made in the realm of aesthetics consists precisely of this, namely of the fact that art meaning can be transmitted by means of confusion, and, in the same way, that there can be beauty in the ugly.

As you say it yourself, art can serve to unite people and to realize that brotherhood of man, just like religion, through its ideas of goodness and morality. But it is likewise obvious that good art can give an account of the varied human experience and if it speaks, as you say, of nudity, sexuality or adultery, it does nothing more than to relate about human passions or emotions. I think the subject of a certain piece of art should not be confused with its final purpose. And it is to be noticed that a piece of literature, for example, which is replete with "immoral" ideas can produce the same state of… [read more]

History of Graphic Design Technology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,422 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


History Of Graphic Design Technology

In today's world, everything seems to be easily done with the use of computers. From writing stuffs, to presentation and even communication, computers really paved the way. One of the latest movements in computer technology use is the introduction of graphic designs.

Graphic designing is the 'art and profession' of choosing and organizing visual elements… [read more]

Andy Warhol and the Birmingham Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,871 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Birmingham riot was only one episode in the American Civil Rights saga but the images that resulted from this incident served not only to show the cruelty of the police actions but also revealed that there was something amiss beneath the glossy and harmonious exterior of the country that was presented by the authorities and media. This was the artistic impulse that led Warhol to use the Life Magazine images as a foundation for Birmingham Race Riot

The Birmingham Race riot was not the only work that was created by Warhol which referred to the social injustice and the degradation of society in general. The Birmingham Race riot was part of the Warhol's Death and Disaster series. This series is considered by some as the " one of the greatest artistic contributions to the 20th Century," (Warhol race painting fetches $15m. BBC News.) These works include. Most Wanted Man No. 1, John M. (1964) and the various creations of Little Electric Chair (1965), which expose and interrogate the issue of crime and punishment in the United States. (Warhol race painting fetches $15m. BBC News.) Warhol also dealt with other social issues as can be seen in his famous Mao (1973), The American Indian (Russell Means) (1976), and Shah of Iran (1978) These artworks deal with, among others, the problem of international cultural struggle. (The Social Consciousness in Art: Andy Warhol and Robert Gwathmey ) Critics are of the opinion that "....it cannot be disputed that his works have given us a relatively objective portrait of many aspects of U.S. culture during the '60s, '70s, and '80s." (The Social Consciousness in Art: Andy Warhol and Robert Gwathmey) However the Birmingham Race riot was the only truly overt political issue that Warhol was to deal with in his work,


Andy Warhol (1928-1987) November 1, 2005. http://www.balloon-painting.de/ewarhol.htm

Andy Warhol. October 31, 2005. http://www.geocities.com/Paris/Metro/5252/warhol.htm

Lindsay T. Segregation Protests in Birmingham, Alabama. November 1, 2005 http://www.gfsnet.org/msweb/sixties/birmingham.htm

Birmingham -- 1963. October 31, 2005.


Birmingham Race Riot, 1964 October 31, 2005 http://www.speedmuseum.org/warhol_n.html

The Social Consciousness in Art: Andy Warhol and Robert Gwathmey. October 31, 2005. http://museumnetwork.com/features/07_06_highlight_warhol.asp

Warhol race painting fetches $15m. BBC News. October 31, 2005.…… [read more]

Visited the Institution Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (985 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


With an adequate marketing campaign, it can turn more towards the business facility it can become.

The second strength resides in the personnel: understanding the mission of the institute is perhaps the first step towards achieving it. Art passionate, they are keen to discover new artists and new artistic ideas, to promote cultural events and to raise money for contributions destined to encourage young artists.

Among the weaknesses, strangely enough, the main one comes from this ambiguity between the facility's mission and the fact that it cannot afford to overlook any of its economic performances, as it also functions as a business body, destined to go bankrupt unless it is able to support its activities with a proper business plan and the proper resources.

As a second weakness, we may refer to the rather ambiguous mechanism that determines which of the artists receives grants or are picked out to have an exhibition with the facility. The idea here is not necessarily that the mechanism is wrong, but rather that the mechanism does not always facilitate the best picks, because this is what happens when the decision is taken only by a few individuals. In this sense, it may be advisable that, given the close connection with the community that the ThINC programs imply, the members of the community should be given a choice on what exhibitions they want to see, what workshops have greater attendance even with the non-artist group etc.

The second recommendation is in the marketing area. As previously described, the facility has already begun successful marketing campaigns, aimed at a national and international distribution to exceed the local scale. I would also suggest at least a presentation website that will give people outside the community more information about what the art facility is planning to do and what it can bring to their lives. This campaign may include occasional online exhibitions that may stimulate the interest for art in Syracuse, but also the interest of possible investors and charitable individuals.

A third recommendation is aimed at financial levels. Besides the marketing plan that is likely to boost presence at exhibitions and workshops, the institution can continue in the sense of contracting successful artists for a percentage of what is obtained by selling their work on the gallery's premises. Several other financing methodologies can be thought out in order to ensure financing.

The main question, as we have previously seen, is the way the institution is able to maintain a clean balance between its mission and the activities aimed at ensuring financing for this mission. So far, the art facility has been able to promote contemporary art in the city and has increased its economic potential by the marketing and expansion plans it has.

On the Internet at http://www.thinc.org/about/index.htm… [read more]

Profession of Illustration: A Metaphor the Creation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (684 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Profession of Illustration: A Metaphor

The creation of visual art, including my own profession of illustration, is often used as a metaphor in literature, film, and television. Illustration and art in general might seem like an ideal metaphor for creativity. However, not all authors view all forms of illustration, or all illustrators, in the same fashion. Bad illustrators and bad illustration can also be powerful negative metaphors, metaphors for the willingness to create fictional pictures or propaganda for a corrupt world. Such illustrations become metaphors for the illustrator's own artistic bankruptcy.

Consider An Artist of the Floating World by Kazuo Ishiguro. This book tells the tale, not of a comic book illustrator or a storybook illustrator, but a Japanese silkscreen illustrator named Masuji Ono. The illustrator's pictures become metaphors for the artist's mistaken view of his country, his narrow view of his family, and his own existence. Ono is not a great illustrator because he depicts life in a controlled and unoriginal fashion. During the war, he also allowed his silk screens to be used as propaganda by the military regime ruling Japan.

This mistaken use of illustration becomes a metaphor for Ono's life. It is a metaphor for the way Ono depicts life, in a stiff and a stereotyped fashion. It is also metaphor for how Ono views other people. Ono sees other human beings as if they were like the rigid and stereotyped figures on the Japanese screens he paints. The painter even views his daughters Setsuko and Noriko in a similarly formal way. The book takes place after Japan's defeat. Ono is trying to marry off Setsuko. Noriko's fiancee ended her engagement because of Ono's involvement with the military government. But Ono refuses to see that his wartime work has ruined his children's chances for happiness.

His sons died during the war. Ono cannot find a way to come to terms with this fact, that he was complicit with a government that started a war that killed his children.

Ono's screen paintings now seem 'dead.' Ono will…… [read more]

History of Modern Design: Examples Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (704 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


(Schwartz, 1996)

Deutscher Werkbund, rather than to create innovative art stressed the effort integrate traditional crafts and industrial mass-production techniques on a hands-on level. While it shared the 'crafts-based,' reproductive style with the Wiener Werkstatte as well, the fact that Weiner Werkstatte had more individual craftspeople meant that the works often had more idiosyncrasies in their design, particularly in terms of less abstract figures. However, Weiner Werkstatte was an independent effort of progressive artists and designers, and the Deutscher Werkbund was a state-created effort designed to improve the artistic and manufacturing areas of Germany economically as well as artistically, thus this is to be expected. (Schwartz, 1996)

Both movements embodied the idea that art was not something to be relegated to higher and decorative aspects of aristocratic life, but should be functional. Both movements attempted to take earlier traditions and reconfigure them in new and useful ways for modern life. For example, a postcard of the Wiener Werkstatte could contain a beautiful and memorable image that could be reproduced and purchased for a relatively small and affordable fee, giving the buyer a chance to have something of artistic quality within his or her fee range. ("Introduction to Wiener Werkstatte," 2004) Deutscher Werkbund enabled a German housewife to buy a mass manufactured bowl that could serve her cooking, yet looked like something used by her grandmother in its traditional design -- only perhaps more beautiful. Thus, both movements also had a positive view towards the reproduction of simple images through manufacturing and made use of stylized elements, both movements incorporated practical design materials, such as leather and ceramics into art, and both movements aimed to make beauty and craftsmanship accessible to the masses and a legitimate vehicle for the expression of artistic impulses.

Works Cited

"Introduction to Wiener Werkstatte." Artsmia.org. 2004. http://www.artsmia.org/modernism/rtxt.html

Razerman, David. History of Modern Design. Chapter 5. p.93-96, Chapter 7 p.129-133.

Schwartz, Frederic J. The Werkbund: Design Theory and Mass Culture Before the First World War. New Haven, Conn.:…… [read more]

Work of Salvador Dali Term Paper

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¶ … Salvador Dali

As one of the greatest exponents of surrealism, Salvador Dali's artistic intention was to discover and explore what A. Reynolds Morse describes as "the more real than real world behind reality... The world of psychic experience as revealed by psychoanalytical research by such men as Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung" (78). Thus, Dali's artistic aim was to resolve conscious and subconscious reality into a new and exciting reality, a super-reality and thus reclaim man as a psychological being instead of one made up of anatomy.

For Salvador Dali, his dominant motivation as a surrealist was to bring together into a single painting the various aspects of outer and inner reality, such as those usually found in dreams and nightmares, but to accomplish this, Dali realized that new painting techniques had to be created in order bring about a true pictorial world. Thus, in many of his paintings, Dali created a world without meaning to the common viewer and provoked reactions in the viewer based on his subconscious experiences.

As a new artistic form, surrealism was conceived and adapted from abstraction, and many of the paintings of Dali express this abstraction in powerful and novel ways, especially through his ability to abstract the natural appearance of an object or figures while still retaining some vestiges of their natural shape or form.

In the works of Salvador Dali, the divergent nature of his renderings are full of dream imagery, being "all forms of non-conscious experience, both common and vivid" (Soby, 156) which require a great mastery of abstract design and thought on the part of the artist. In order to project this world of dreams and nightmares on canvas, Dali studied in great detail the masters of 17th century realism, especially the Dutch masters of this genre. Because dreams, objects and situations seems to create and thrive upon constant metamorphoses, Dali utilized multiple images with multiple symbolic meaning to…… [read more]

Vincent Van Gogh's Artwork Term Paper

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Letters to Brother

During Vincent's life he wrote more than 700 letters to his brother Theo. These letters are often considered an "illuminating record" of the artist's life, pain and mental states (MCS, 2005). Through these letters van Gogh describes his more than 750 paintings and 1600 drawings. Holroyd-Reece & Meier-Graefe (1933) suggests that Vincent "Longed for intercourse with people in similar circumstances to himself ... he believed there were such" (p. 28). This longing to be with like-minded people is but one element of his many letters to his brother Theo. It is well-known that Theo sacrificed much of his own "spiritual happiness" to provide for and serve his brother (Holroyd-Reece & Meier-Graefe, 1933).

Vincent became popular only after his death because people found his tragic life experience extraordinary. Some of the pain and emotions he felt are evident through his letters to his brother, while other emotions are evident through the pictures he painted, particularly his self-portrait (Meissner, 1993). People also began to recognize the craftsmanship and skill van Gogh possessed. Many future styles of art drew from some of the techniques evident in van Gogh's early works.


Vincent van Gogh lived a brief and tragic life. However his work will live on for centuries, inspiring artist's young and old alike. Much of his artwork set the foundation for modern forms of art including expressionism and abstraction. Much of van Gogh's work also reflected the inner turmoil he struggled with during his lifetime. His maddening emotions are evident in all of his works, particularly his self-portrait.

His letters to his brother, uncovered after his passing, have also contributed to his fame and glory. Many of these letters contain valuable insights into the artist's style, emotions and desires while painting. While many refer to van Gogh as a "tragic" personality, at the very least one must credit him with contributing much to the world of art in his time and in modern times.

Though van Gogh may have struggled during his lifetime to fit in, today he is among the most popular artists admired the world over. Today van Gogh's paintings sell for some of the highest prices on the market.


Pioch, Nicolas. "Gogh, Vincent van" 2002, Aug. Web Museum. Retrieved August 10,

2005: http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/gogh/

MCS. "Vincent van Gogh." 2005, Aug. Retrieved August 10, 2005:


Holroyd-Reece, J. & Meier-Graefe, J. "Vincent van Gogh: A biographical study." New

York: Harcourt Brace: (1993).

Meissner, W.W. "Vincent: the self-portrait." Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 62.1: (1993): 74.

Wikipedia. "Vincent van Gogh." 2005, Aug. Wikipedia Encyclopedia. Retrieved August

10, 2005:…… [read more]

Jazz and the Culture Industry? Term Paper

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It is easier to appreciate a linear narrative than the strange, harsh images of "The Andalusia dog." Formulaic narratives because they provide an easier kind of comfort, have replaced the more 'difficult' and critical art forms that might lead people to actually question social life and to question the culture industry as a whole.

A counter-argument to Adorno might be that to truly appreciate, for example, Dali and Buenel's masterwork, one must appreciate some of the sentimental images they appropriate in their work of art with humor, such as the horror expressed at the end of the film when the woman 'loses' her armpit hair, the priests pulled by donkeys, or the sentimental tag line about the springtime that is transposed over the corpses of two lover's faces. Also, even jazz, one could argue, plays upon elemental rhythms, and a later connoisseur of 'Bird' might began his or her for jazz-listening career first falling in love with the popular strains of Dizzy Gillespie as a child, singing "It's a Wonderful World," or even the trumpeter doing a guest appearance on "The Muppet Show," and then using such popular and manufactured sites of media and music products to become familiar with the art form in more unique and modern fashions, in ways that transgress rather than validate cultural norms.

The reason Adorno stands so unalterably opposed to what he calls the products of the cultural industry, regardless of the fact that there may be considerably more interplay between popular, modern, and high culture today than he acknowledged when he wrote his seminal works, however, is that manufactured images and art of consumerist culture are always characterized by standardization and similarity, even while they may have aspects of humor and attraction to one's higher impulses. This similarity acts as a kind of sedative rather than a stimulant to the creative process, as well as to the mind of the consumer.

Adorno also stresses that the worst, the very worst aspects of popular culture are not the aspects of culture satirized in "The Andalusia Dog," but the kind of what he calls pseudo-individualization of commodified culture, like many forms of 'popular' jazz or popular but speciously high art, that tricks the unthinking and uncritical consumer as seeing these aspects of so-called art as distinctive, even if the products are not in fact -- for example, the television show "Desperate Housewives" might be seen as a radical critique of suburban culture, even though it is in actuality a commodity of the culture industry, like the Charlie Chaplin films despised by Adorno were seen as radical, even while the films were actually quite sentimental commodity…… [read more]

Georges Seurat's Evening, Honfleur Term Paper

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Van Gogh also used much more distinct colors within The Starry Night, e.g., blues; bluish greens, browns; greenish browns, and both bright and more muted yellows. This is not surprising, for an artist "for whom color was the chief symbol of expression" (Vincent van Gogh: Overview, July 25, 2005). Also, Van Gogh's shapes and outlines, of the cypress; the stars;… [read more]

Minoan and Greek Pottery Term Paper

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This gives a lively impression of an octopus in its natural habitat within a tidal pool. The stirrups are stripped.

The Minoan artist has clearly treated the theme of the vase as something which is filled with life and will be a part of an active and even frenetic living cycle. The ocotopus which adorns it seems to move and also seems not so much to be painted on the surface of the vase as to live within it. The vase-as-vessel is emphasized in that it holds the octopus. It is a microcosm of rocks which encompass the tidal pool and all its inhabitants, and even of the world which encompasses life. The functionality of the vase is also very clear. The two mouths might distract from the vase's purity of form, but they make it fit better into the life of its owners -- it is more functional and it is more real in as much as it is more able to be handled and used. The round shape also adds to its functionality and to its function as a container. The jug-like vase will hold more liquid than would a narrow, curvaceous vase of similar height and it will be less prone to being knocked over and spilt. The theme of vase is, for this artist, the theme of vibrant, moving life which is sustained by the wine and/or oil which proceeds from it.

The Minoan Artist's vibrant motion and solid form may be contrasted with the highly ethereal are stylized work of the attic Hector Painter. The red-figure neck-amphora is a stately, tall vase with intricate curves. Its egg-shaped body tapers out of a small pedestal base, and culminates in long, delicate handles swooping up alone the narrow, feminine neck to a wide mouth. The vase is a soft black with painted with intricate, pale red figures. These figures are confined to the upper body of the vase and boarded with geometrical designs. The neck and the mouth of the vase, as well as the handles and base, have an assortment of delicate geometrical, abstract, or loosely organic shapes that highlight the shape of the pottery without attracting to much attention to themselves. Despite the fact that the red figures appear to be in the foreground and black void space in the background, technically the inverse is true. The actual pottery is red, and the black color a glaze over it, with the clay… [read more]

Cezanne Pissarro Compare and Contrast Term Paper

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" (AP 2005) In such a light, of the two studies of Jallais Hill, Pissarro's main distinction in relationship to his more famous student is perhaps best evidenced through his somewhat lighter palette of his landscape of Jallais Hill. Throughout his career Pissarro remained faithful to painting directly from nature, as did the impressionists before him. However, "Cezanne reacted against the lack of structure in the Impressionist paintings." Cezanne, unlike Pissarro said that he intended to make Impressionism into "something solid and durable, like the art of the museums." In the Cezanne, the rendering of the greenery is both bolder and more realistic than the lines of the Pissarro, thus showing how Cezanne strove to "innovate beyond Impressionism" and unlike his mentor is ranked alongside the Post-Impressionist artists.

Works Cited

Associated Press Wire. "MoMA Exhibit Explores Relationship Between Cezanne, Pissarro." 27 Jun 2005. NBC Entertainment News. http://www.wnbc.com/entertainment/4655350/detail.html

"Paul Cezanne." Biography. Expo. 2005.

http://www.expo-cezanne.com/2.cfm… [read more]

Tony Oursler Term Paper

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Tony Oursler has a very unique way of looking at the world through the lens of art. For example, in 1996 he created a video art exhibition that featured 13 eyeballs that were projected onto globes of white fiberglass. Each eye moved differently and did different things. Some of them wept, others tracked a target, and still others did other things. In addition to these eyeballs there was a sound track that went with them where people were saying different accusatory or pleading comments to those that the eyeballs "looked at."

Also unique to the exhibition were three other pieces of art that dealt with multiple personality disorder as a theme. Many critics found the artwork that dealt with multiple personality disorder to be quite fascinating. Many critics also seem to have the opinion that Oursler is trying to focus in on individuals that are becoming mentally unhinged and having difficulty dealing with the real world. Oursler himself has never specifically said whether this is the case.

When that exhibition was presented in 1996, Oursler was in his thirties. Born in New York in 1957, he created a series that was highly praised and that combined sculpture, video, performance, and conceptual art within the same gallery. Many of the video sculptures that were created by Oursler previously became fixtures within the international exhibition circuit. One of the reasons that he has not been discussed a great deal in the United States is that his work is often much more popular in Europe.

Much of this has to do with the fact that Europeans feel differently about art work and about many other conceptual designs and issues then do Americans. Because of this difference in raising and the way lives are lived in general individuals in Europe are often more receptive to art and design that is difficult to understand and they can better digest much of the art work that Oursler creates. This does not mean to imply that the American people are stupid or that they are uneducated or unworthy when it comes to understanding art. It is simply that European individuals have different ways of looking at the world than do American people, and therefore their appreciation and understanding of artwork is somewhat different from what would be seen in an American observer.

Oursler has been working for quite some time and has also worked with musical and visual artist Mike Kelly since 1978. Both of these individuals started their artistic lives as performers within a musical group entitled the 'Poetics.' They were both also huge fans of fiction writer William S. Burroughs and much of their artistic output builds upon the fiction that he has written.

In 2000, Oursler created a public art exhibition for a series which was called 'target art in the park.' It began in October of 2000 in Madison Square Garden with a nighttime exhibition. The work at that time consisted of ghostly video projections and sounds where faces could be seen on… [read more]

MANET's Innovation Term Paper

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¶ … Innovations of Edouard Manet

With Edouard Manet (1832-1883), the course of modern painting shifted into a new phase which greatly influenced many generations of painters that followed in his footsteps. Almost at the moment when the Realists were discarding romantic subject matter in order to represent what they saw around them, Manet and the Impressionists raised the possibility that what one sees has nothing to do with how one sees it. For Manet, the real world was solid objects moving in space while under the influence of optical sensations of light and color. In a sense, naturalistic Impressionism continued the Romantic preoccupation with the self of the artist while focusing on purely visual sensations. In the mind of Manet, the world was no longer a given order of masses in space but rather the source of sensations of light and color with no fixed order except for that which he created from his own optical experiences.

The best example of these Impressionistic ideals…… [read more]

Norman Rockwell Term Paper

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Interview With Norman Rockwell

The paintings of Norman Rockwell have emerged as some of the most prominent American works that truly capture the American spirit. Since his work was categorized as illustration and was most famously featured on the cover of the Saturday Evening Post, fine art critics were slow to acknowledge the importance of Norman Rockwell as a true… [read more]

Pieta Depicts the Virgin Mary Cradling Term Paper

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¶ … Pieta depicts the Virgin Mary cradling the body of her son after his crucifixion (Pieta pp). The Pieta has been created in numerous forms by various painters and sculptors, however, of all the great art produced, Michelangelo's is the most famous (Pieta pp).

Michelangelo was only in his early twenties and a relative unknown artist when he was commissioned in 1498 to do a life-size sculpture of the Virgin Mary and her son that was to be unveiled in St. Peter's Basilica for the Jubilee of 1500 (Pieta pp). The one the world sees today is the first of four that Michelangelo created, yet the only one he completely finished (Pieta pp). The Pieta was commissioned by the French cardinal De Billheres, a representative in Rome, and was most likely meant to be made for the cardinal's funeral monument, for before it was moved in St. Peter's Basilica during the eighteenth century, it was situated in the S. Petronilla's church where the cardinal is still buried (Michelangelo pp). Probably, the statue was meant to be made for the cardinal's funeral monument, because, before it was moved in St. Peter's Basilica in the 18th century, it was situated in the S. Petronilla's church, where the cardinal is still buried.

It took Michelangelo less than two years to carve from one slab of marble one of the most magnificent sculptures ever created (Pieta pp). What sets his interpretation of the Pieta from previous artists is that he created a young, serene and celestial Virgin Mary, rather than one who is older and broken hearted (Pieta pp).

When it was unveiled, Michelangelo was content and proud until he heard a group of people attributing his work to other artists, causing him to add his name down the sash of the Virgin Mary (Pieta pp). It is said that he later regretted that he allowed his emotions to get the better of him and vowed to never sign another work (Pieta pp)

Michelangelo's Pieta is a work of exceptional beauty and harmony, and depicts the Renaissance idea of classic norm and measure (Michelangelo pp). The sculpture's structure is pyramidal with the vertex coinciding with the Madonna's head, then widening progressively down to the base that falls the drapery (Michelangelo pp). Due to the difficulty of showing a life-size grown man laying full-length in a female's lap, the figures are actually out of proportion (Michelangelo pp). If her son was to be human…… [read more]

Black Figure Panel Amphora Term Paper

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¶ … Black-Figured

Panel Amphora At The Dallas Museum Of Art

An amphora, a tall, two-handled jar for wine or oil containment and with an opening large enough to admit a ladle and usually fitted with a cover, represents the formative phase in Greek art known as the Geometric style, and although certain decorative aspects have been borrowed from earlier sub-Mycenaean styles its composition and execution is more delicate and delineated.

For the most part, amphora from the 6th century B.C.E. exhibit a form of decoration known as the black figure technique. Dark figures are usually silhouetted against a light background of the natural reddish clay; at times, a glaze coating was applied to the amphora before firing in the kiln which resulted in a more orange-like coloration. The details were first incised into the silhouettes with a sharp, pointed instrument in order to expose the red beneath; touches of white and often purple added color to the dominant monochrome decoration. Although the black areas were customarily referred to as glazes, it should be mentioned that the black on these amphora is neither a pigment nor a glaze but engobe, a slip of finely-sifted clay that originally was the same color as the clay of the amphora itself.

In the three-phase firing process used by Greek potters, the first or oxidizing phase turned both the pot and slip red. During the second or reducing phase, the oxygen supply into the kiln was shut off and both the pot and slip turned black, and in the final or re-oxidizing phase, the coarser material of the pot reabsorbed oxygen and became red again while the smoother, silica-laden slip did not and remained black. Thus, after many years of experimentation, Greek potters developed a velvety, jet-black "glaze" of this type. The touches of white or purple were then used more sparingly with the result being that the figures stood in even stronger contrast against their reddish/orange backgrounds. This superb formal control provided the framework for a wealth of naturalistic detail, some of it extremely new and influential.

The number of amphora currently being held in museums around the world is quite staggering, due to the efforts of archeologists and historians since the middle of the 19th century. One of the finest examples can be found in the collection of the Dallas Museum of Art, namely the untitled black-figure panel amphora, made in the last quarter of the 6th century B.C.E. (ceramic, 18 1/4 by 11 1/4 inches, collection # 1965.29.M). As pointed out on the Dallas Museum of Art website, the "panel scenes on either side of this amphora depict armed warriors fighting. The chief scene possibly shows the Greek hero Achilles fighting over the dead body of Antilochus with the Trojan hero Prince Memnon. To either side stand the warrior's mothers as mournful figures." Artistically, this amphora "has an heraldic grandeur and a sharply pointed sense of tragic dignity."

Analytically, this beautiful amphora is very similar…… [read more]

Impressionism Although the Term Impressionism Was First Term Paper

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Although the term "Impressionism" was first used in 1874 by a journalist ridiculing a landscape by Monet, the bitter controversy that raged for twenty years over the merits of Impressionism actually began eleven years earlier in 1863 at the Salon des Refuses, an exhibition held to accommodate the exceptionally numerous works rejected by the jury for the salon that… [read more]

Michelangelo Created the "Madonna Term Paper

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Thus the artist's "Madonna of the Stairs" enjoys a reception as one of the first works of the Renaissance both at the time and centuries after his death. The integrity of this work was thus an accepted given.

After 1550 however, the culmination of the Renaissance came to an end, and criticism came to be leveled against art for issues such as nudity and the portrayal of biblical figures in artistic works. Michelangelo here was also a pioneer, as he is said to be the first artist in conflict with the Counter Reformation movement of the Church. Nonetheless, his Madonna of the Stairs did enjoy the privilege it deserved both at the time and in current artistic circles.


Art History. "Michelangelo." http://en.easyart.com/arthistory/artist/Michelangelo-3351.html

Brunskill, Joan. "Michelangelo, Renaissance Master of all Time." http://www.southcoasttoday.com/daily/08-96/08-20-96/c04li089.ht… [read more]

Works of Jackson Pollock Term Paper

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¶ … Jackson Pollock

Jackson Pollack was of the one of the foremost artistic innovators of the 20th century.

His style and creative techniques inspired a generation of artists and had a lasting and profound affect on contemporary art. His later work is credited with initiating the Abstract Expressionist School of modern art. His style and method of painting was a radical departure from the type of painting that merely represented or "copied" the world and objects that the artist encountered. He developed a technique and approach to painting and produced works of art which were a more subtle and complex expression and response to the world around him and his own psyche.

Jackson Pollack was born in 1912. He studied at the Art Students League in New York City and was influenced and by the work and of Charles Benton. His early works were similar in many ways to the naturalistic style of Benton.

At this early stage of his career he was essentially a representational artist. In other words, his art contained objects and elements that were familiar and recognizable and part of the ordinary world. However, the early half of the Twentieth Century was a time of radical thought and experimentation in modern art and Pollack was influenced by modern experimentation and new trends in art, such as Surrealism and other European art.

He began to adopt a more abstract and "expressive" style of painting, as can be seen in works such as the She-Wolf, painted in 1943. (Jackson Pollack.1912-1956)

Other works such as Pasiphae and Totem 1, painted in 1944, also show the influence of the Surrealists.

The style that was to make him famous and which was responsible for some of his most renowned works was his "action painting." This was to revolutionize the art world of the time and lead to the acceptance of Abstract Expressionism. This style was not representational or conventional and did not simply re-present the world as it was usually seen.

In order to come into deeper contact with the reality of both the outer and inner worlds of his experience, Pollack devised a radical new way of approaching the canvas. His technique was to lay very large pieces of canvas on the ground - not on a conventional easel - and, using sticks and other instruments, he would allow the dripping paint to interact with the surface of the canvas.

He would walk around the canvas while using this technique.

In this way, Pollack claimed, he came more in contact with his medium and was able to express himself in a way that would not have been possible using conventional…… [read more]

Vagina Monologues: A Response Theatrical Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Perhaps it even conveys the reality of female sexual repression to those previously unaware of the problem. However, again, is this art? Of course, two of the most commonly cited references concerning the nature of true art with regard to aesthetic appreciation are Plato and Aristotle. Given their writings on the field of aesthetics -- specifically with their emphasis on "imitation, cognition, and knowledge, form and morality (Giardina, 2004)," one might imagine that Plato would not characterize the work as art (and that, according to him would be a good thing), and that Aristotle might assert that the Monologues are art, indeed.

Although Plato's view of art is hardly simplistic in its philosophical nuance, it is clear that according to him it is pointedly negative the more any particular work of art is removed from the "true reality" embodied by the philosophical model of thought and discourse. According to Plato, the true "reality" is represented by the higher "intelligible world of the changeless and perfect Forms (Giardina)" -- this is the world of philosophical thought and truth. The world of the senses, however, is merely an imperfect imitation of the Forms, and as such is twice removed from "truth." Even worse, is art which is modeled after the world of the senses, which as such is three times removed (and wholly unreliable or useful).

Given, then, that the Vagina Monologues is in essence modeled after a philosophical truth -- as opposed to a physical, written, or spoken performance of the sensory world, it is in some of its aspects more akin to philosophy, and as such is removed from his negative characterization of art. However, one cannot discount the fact that where the Monologues depart from the philosophical purity of meaning into the visual/emotional representation of the physical vagina, that it dips into the realm of art as imitation -- and three times removed at that.

Aristotle's view on the work might be different from Plato in that in as much as the work does represent reality (as opposed to the "impressive distinction between art and life") "as it actually is (Giardina)." This is because for Aristotle, "art not only re-creates reality but it represents it in the way that it might or could be ... Instead of just copying reality as it is perceived by the artist, art represents reality for some specific end or purpose (Giardina)." Thus, in that the Monologues do evoke a sense of a need for some kind of change of perspective concerning societal attitudes surrounding female sexuality (as represented by the vagina in all of its functions). The fact that this message resonates with the audience points to the possibility that the work evokes the true "Forms" of reality somehow forgotten in the world of the senses.

Although opinions certainly differ as to the merit of the Vagina Monologues to society represented by the audience, the aesthetic value of the work definitely seems to have some value according to the models of aesthetics espoused… [read more]

Gerald Jonas' Text Dancing Term Paper

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Despite these differences of movement and musical and personal interpretations of meaning, dance is also a standardized art form. Every ballerina studying the art of ballet has learned the same first position, from 19th century Russian girls to 21st century American children. Also, dance can enact specific cultural courtship rituals that are highly constructed in their nature. Even when not danced by professionals, the minuets and social dances of the 18th century, and the adolescent dances popular in America during the 1950's has to be learned through schooling and observation, even when one put one's individual spin upon those dances.

But even when expressed in an art form, what constitutes good or appropriate dancing also varies from culture to culture. Dancing can function in the context of communal as well as individual expressions, and become a form of enacting religious worship, social order, as well as fulfill the steps of classical and social arts of poise. In these contexts of manner, and expression, doing the steps manners less than doing the dance, such as the ritualistic dances of worship in Africa and India.

The first chapter thus functions as a chapter. It introduces the natural, individualistic, artistic, and cultural aspects of dance, yet it also asks, how can one understand an art form that is so pliable, mutable, and yet is still so powerful today? How can one understand movement in words? Even if the book admits such a challenge is formidable, it suggests that at least asking the questions and posing the challenges can be valuable for a student or critic of dance.

Work Cited

Jonas, Gerald. Dancing: The Pleasure, Power, and Art of Movement. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1998.

Dancing -- the Pleasure, Power, and Art of…… [read more]

Pablo Picasso Term Paper

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Pablo Picasso a Spanish painter and sculptor, is being considered as one of the greatest artists of the twentieth century. (Pablo Picasso: Estate of Pablo Picasso / Artists Rights Society) Picasso had been famous as no artist had been ever, being a pioneer in every discipline he chose, a master and a protean monster, having his influence on every art movement during his time. Not even Michelangelo could be considered as famous as Picasso during his own lifetime. And no one will ever be again as famous as Picasso was. (Artists and Entertainers: Pablo Picasso) He was born in Malaga on October 25, in the year 1881 as the son of Jose Ruiz Blasco, who was an art teacher, and Mar'a Picasso Lopez. Picasso created more than 20,000 works during his lifetime. Picasso was a genius who could be understood from his early years itself, that by the age of 10 he had made his first paintings. (Pablo Picasso: Estate of Pablo Picasso / Artists Rights Society)

Till the year 1898 Picasso had always used his father's name, Ruiz, and his mother's maiden name, Picasso, to autograph his paintings. But by 1901 he started to use only Picasso to sign his pictures. (Pablo Picasso: Estate of Pablo Picasso / Artists Rights Society) Picasso's fan following was several hundreds and millions of people. However Picasso along with his work had always being the centre of criticism. He was a superstitious having a taste for sarcastic tendencies, often against women and had contempt for women artists. Even though the Nazis considered his work as the focus of degenerating art, his popularity gave him protection during the German occupation of Paris, where he had lived. And after the war, Picasso gave uncompromising support to Joseph Stalin, who was a mass murderer even extending that of Hitler, and he was rarely criticized for his actions, even in cold war America. (Artists and Entertainers: Pablo Picasso)

Picasso was considered as an inventor of various forms, as a pioneer of different styles and methods, having mastery over various media, and as one of the significant popular artists in history. (Pablo Picasso: Estate of Pablo Picasso / Artists Rights Society) Picasso is considered equally famous along with Georges Braque, for his thoughts on Cubism. In his life he delivered a wide-ranging variety works, the most popular being the works during the Blue Period which show depictions of harlequins, acrobats, beggars, prostitutes and artists. (Pablo Picasso: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) Picasso, was the first artist to have tasted the obsessive interest of mass media. His output was wide-ranging and he showed his permanent influence on each and every discipline which he chose. Further Picasso was the artist with whom almost all other artists had to reckon with, and it could be said that there was hardly any movement in the 20th century which did not receive his attention and which he did not contribute to. (Artists and Entertainers: Pablo Picasso)

The exception, even though Picasso had not touched… [read more]

Descartes Meditation Mediation in This Book Term Paper

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Descartes Meditation


In this Book 1 meditation on the objective existence of human reality, Descartes takes on the object of the human mind when it is constructing a fantasy world. "Let us suppose, then, that we are dreaming, and that all these particulars -- namely, the opening of the eyes, the motion of the head, the forth- putting of the hands -- are merely illusions; and even that we really possess neither an entire body nor hands such as we see." In this supposition, Descartes is responding to his self-created philosophical query, if all of human life is generated in the individual consciousness, perhaps his own consciousness?

Perhaps, in fact, all of life is a dream -- but, "nevertheless it must be admitted at least that the objects which appear to us in sleep are, as it were, painted representations which could not have been formed unless in the likeness of realities; and, therefore, that those general objects, at all events, namely, eyes, a head, hands, and an entire body, are not simply imaginary, but really existent." In other words, even in dreams, dreams correspond to another source of truth, namely what Descartes considers the objective reality of the physical world.

Even when he doubts the body as part of his philosophy, as a mental exercise, the proof in the existence of the physical world lies in this sameness between dreams and real life. This is also true of art, "for, in truth, painters themselves, even when they study to represent sirens and satyrs by forms the most fantastic and extraordinary, cannot bestow upon them natures absolutely new, but can only make a certain medley of the members of different animals; or if they chance to imagine something so novel that nothing at all similar has ever been seen before, and such as is, therefore, purely fictitious and absolutely false, it is at least certain that the colors of which this is composed are real." An artist attempts to create something imaginary -- but a satyr, for example, is merely a human torso stapled to a horse, both of which exist in nature and thus are mental constructs with correspondents in a reality outside of the mind of the artist. To have a nightmare about appearing in one's underwear in school, one must have a mental representation of what a real school looks like, its discipline, and why this is horrific to…… [read more]

Value Dance Has on Society Term Paper

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Dancer alone feels the tingling tension building, reaching a crescendo in tandem with the music, and then the sudden flurry of release. Only in the dancer's heart, eye, mind, and muscle reside the universal yet too-often ignored impulse to move freely through space, connecting with invisible overwhelming forces of soul and spirit. Answering melody and mental imagery as if engaged in deep conversation, the dancer responds with rehearsed perfection or unconscious recollection of body memory. Through dance, we react to momentary stimuli, willingly acknowledge their power over us and succumb with pleasure. Yet the solid and enduring force of dance thrives precisely because it is a dialogue.

Though often solitary or in monologue form, dance simulates human intimacy and spiritual communion. Dance therefore has value on a personal level: the art form has the ability to transform the mind and body of the performer in ways meaningful only to him or her. Yet any inner transformation creates indelible indirect impacts on the outside…… [read more]

Roman Portraiture Comparison Both the Head Term Paper

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Roman Portraiture Comparison

Both the head of the emperor, and as great a Roman emperor as Marcus Aurelius, could be commemorated in stone, and the head of an anonymous Roman matron. In an age before photography, art was used to both capture the essence of the national leadership of the Roman emperor, and used as a kind of status calling card for the aspiring bourgeois of Rome, within the context of the art galleries of their own homes, to be displayed to ordinary visitors.

In her short chapter, "Portraiture and Commemoration" Eve D'Ambra writes in her book Roman Art notes that the commissioning of a portrait head in marble or stone played a crucial role in Roman society for the aspiring Roman elite. By commemorating one's self in stone, much like an emperor or a great noble, one could make a display of both one's wealth and culture. If one were not wealthy, one would not have the money to employ an artist to carve one's face, nor the time to sit for the bust. If one were not cultured, one would not have the ambition to make one's face and form a work of art. Faces were especially important, as facial configurations, such as the shape of one's nose or forehead, were thought to speak well or ill of one's innate character, and thus the predominance of the bust or facial portraiture.

Commissioning such portraits was a social necessary, according to the author, in the acquisition of social power and also to maintain the image one's self as part of the intellectual and political elite of Rome. Identity was an issue of anxiety for Romans, because of the society's social permeability by freedmen, once they were released from bondage, as well as the fact that so many foreigners were common in Roman and eventually became citizens or at least Latin-speaking persons in the city.

The "Portrait of Marcus Aurelius" in stone is of the emperor during the autumnal flowering of the empire. It is a portrait thus of a man with an already secure and high social position in the Roman social order -- at its very…… [read more]

Renaissance Book Review: Ivor B. Hart Term Paper

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Renaissance book review: Ivor B. Hart, The World of Leonardo da Vinci: Man of Science, Engineer and Dreamer of Flight, (New York, 1962)

The Renaissance was an era of scientific humanism, in contrast to the Medieval and scholastic era that immediately preceded it. Men, and when culture and society permitted, some women, its intellectual life who embodied the ideal of complete learning and eschewed older ideals of religion and theology as the only sources of true human understanding. At least, this is the common conception of the era, still dearly held in the popular cultural imagination to this day.

This common conception is validated and expanded upon in Ivor B. Hart's The World of Leonardo da Vinci. Leonardo da Vinci, according to Ivor B. Hart's text, was a Man of Science, Engineer, and Dreamer of Flight, who embodied the Renaissance ideal because of his scientific as well as his artistic passions. Leonardo's most famous artistic work, the "Mona Lisa," is a secular face of a mysterious, unknown, and aristocratic woman. Even the artist's "Last Supper" shows a very human Jesus, rather than a divine embodiment of beauty or faith. Leonardo's sketches of strapped-on wings for the figures human beings are not angelic in their depiction, but show man-made constructions upon men's arms and backs. His notebooks indicate that these modes of flight were inspired by studying birds for extended periods of time, rather than studying the Bible's angelic figures.

However, despite the ideal of the Renaissance of the 'totally literate' human being, Hart also admits Leonardo's equally impressive contribution to science is a modern rediscovery. His scientific observations of birds were preserved in a vast quantity of notes. But these notes, as well has his anatomical observations of the human frame, became known in the 19th century, and not even very widely known amongst scholars until the 20th century. Leonardo did not publish or otherwise distribute the contents of his notebooks. Most scholars believe that Leonardo wanted to publish his notebooks and make his observations public knowledge. But even this is disputed, because of the coded and backwards way that Leonardo recorded his observations. It could be this was merely a way to make writing with a quill pen swifter for the left-handed artist, or fear that his potentially heretical autopsies and speculations about the human form could endanger his social position by the still powerful Catholic Church hiearchy, a source of patronage for all artists.

Leonardo's careers, as an artist and a scientist, Hart makes quite clear, became fused rather than existed as parallel entities. While Leonardo worked for Duke Lodovico Sforza in as court artist, Leonardo applied his growing knowledge of mechanics to his duties as a civil and military engineer at the duke's estate. During this period of his life the artist took up an interest in growing and…… [read more]

Peter Voulkos, a Clay Sculpturist Term Paper

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The piece is wheel-thrown and built out of four parts.

Looking at the piece, only the top half of the piece reflects its origin on the potter's wheel. The bottom half of the piece is distorted and has had extra pieces of clay added to it, giving it an appearance of randomness. The illusion of randomness is accentuated by the firing method, in a pit. Placed into a pit of burning materials, the flames kissed the piece sporadically, and the combustible materials give off various fumes that color the clay in an unpredictable way. The result is a piece that on the outside looks at first as if it may have been made without a plan. However, the relative symmetry of the top shows that the piece was made with deliberation. Remarkably, the inside of the piece is smooth and finished, demonstrating beyond any doubt that the piece was carefully constructed.

Thus, while some have thought that he may have taken a "hack and slash" approach to his work, (Balistreri, 2002), those who have worked with him explain his process. A number of parts would be created on the wheel including plates, cylinders and other shapes, which were then assembled and altered to create a satisfying final form.

A strong Japanese influence is revealed in his series of teacups made in the Japanese tradition, thick, heavily glazed and distorted (Voulkos & Co., 2003)

He also often fired in an anagama kiln dug into the hillside and stoked with wood over a seven-day period (Slivka, 1999). The ashes from the wood and the slow firing process also provide a relatively uncontrolled final surface to his pieces.

Voulkos did not rely on symmetry to create his pieces, and he stretched the boundaries of the medium, inspiring others to do the same. As he said to an assistant, "We are breaking all the rules, even our own rules, and how do we do that? By leaving room for 'X' qualities." (Balistreri, 2002)

His work is significant because he led modern potters to realize that throwing on the wheel could be only the beginning of creating a work of art, that asymmetry was more interesting than symmetry, and that in a medium such as clay, which invites experimentation, there were many ways to produce an aesthetic work. In looking at Voulkos' work, I developed a new appreciation for how to infuse a three-dimensional piece with dynamic energy, as the pieces force one to consider how it was made as well as what the final result is.


Balistreri, John. 2002. "Peter Voulkos - An Affirmation of Art and Life." Ceramics Art & Perception, May.

Chattopadhyay, Collette. 2001. "Peter Voulkos: Clay, Space, and Time." Sculpture 20:2, March.

Slivka, Rose. 1999. "The Dynamics of Destruction - clay works of Peter Voulkos." Art in America, Jan.

Voulkos…… [read more]

John White Alexander's Blue Bowl Term Paper

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For example, the wrinkles, or pleats, of the bottom of her dress form diagonal lines like the spokes of a wheel. Along with the ruffles on the top part of the dress, these lines converge at her waist, drawing the eye toward the bright blue belt. However, the woman leans to her right, gazing into the blue bowl she holds in her right hand. A diagonal line is formed from the woman's head in the upper-right portion of the canvas, through the belt and down to the lower left of the canvas. The blue headband links with the blue belt to complement the line, and her straightened left arm forms a parallel line.

However, the painting is not skewed nor unbalanced because another diagonal line is formed from the bottom right of the canvas to the upper left. A small splash of burgundy carpet is visible in the lower right corner of the canvas, where the bottom of her dress touches the floor. From where the dress meets the floor to her outstretched left hand and pinky finger, a diagonal line balances the other, creating symmetry in the painting's composition. In fact, the pinky finger points upward slightly to accentuate the angle.

The Blue Bowl" is not an angular, stiff painting, however. Diagonal lines compete with sensuous curves to create the tension necessary to impart movement in the painting's subject. The artist also uses positive and negative space to achieve the painting's dynamism. The top and right borders are dark and the bottom and left borders are light. The darkness of the background is the negative space from which the woman's bright form creates a lively foreground. The woman's face and the blue bowl are obfuscated, in contrast to the neighboring glare on her skin. The artist creates three dimensions by including a shadow beneath the woman's outstretched left arm. Cast onto the nondescript piece of creamy white furniture, the shadow creates negative space behind the woman's body. The use of positive and negative space continues with the bowl itself. Although the bowl appears two-dimensional on the canvas, the right side of the bowl blends into the background of the painting; positive and negative space blend and converge.

The painting's title forces the viewer to seek the blue bowl, which would otherwise be obscured by the heroine's figure. However, her pose suggests the bowl and mimics it in form, line, and color. The woman's figure, taken as a whole, mirrors the bowl, but so too do the individual parts of her body and dress, like her upper back, her arm ruffles, and the billowing bottom of the gown. Moreover, the woman and the bowl are connected through color: both are china-white with blue decorative accents. Both the woman's face and the bowl remain in shadow, which contrasts with the bright dress and creates the balance and rhythm characteristic of John White Alexander's "The Blue Bowl."

Works Cited

John White Alexander." Article online at http://www.artmagick.com/artists/alexander.aspx.… [read more]

River Runs Term Paper

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8). This philosophy is deeply ingrained into the narrative as the theme of art surfaces frequently and author makes a clear effort to show why art was superior to competence. Competence refers to effective and serious learning of skills. A person competent at something is a man with required skills for the job but the same person may or may not be an artist. An artist is a person naturally gifted with the right attitude and aptitude for a certain task and during the course of his life, the task becomes his passion and attaining perfection in his art becomes his most important objective in life. Norman for example is competent where fly-fishing is concerned but Paul is the true artist. But then Norman is an artist where writing is concerned and Paul is not. Paul is however the artist who has been used in the book to describe what real art is and how it is superior to competence. Paul has mastered the art of fly-fishing and his entire body language changes when he is deeply immersed in catching fish.

He steadied himself and began to cast and the whole world turned to water. Below him was the multitudinous fiver, and, where the rock had parted it around him, big-grained vapor rose. The mini-molecules of water left in the wake of his line made momentary loops of gossamer, disappearing so rapidly in the rising big-grained vapor that they had to be retained in memory to be visualized as loops. The spray emanating from him was finer-grained still and enclosed him in a halo of himself. The halo of himself was always there and always disappearing, as if he were candlelight flickering about three inches from himself. The images of himself and his line kept disappearing into the rising vapors of the river, which continually circled to the tops of the cliffs where, after becoming a wreath in the wind, they became rays of the sun. (p. 32-33)

Paul is the perfect artist who is focused on the perfection of his art so much so that being in the presence of this artist makes otherwise competent men feel like dwarfs. Art takes over one's body and soul like a hobby or task can never do. Art becomes the person as we notice in the case of Paul. The author writes: "My brother was only five feet ten, but he had fished so many years his body had become partly shaped by his casting" (p.23). For some reason, a true artist is the reflection of his art as Norman observes when Paul turns to fly-fishing, "He was thirty-two now, at the height of his power, and he could put all his body and soul into a four-and-a-half- ounce magic totem pole" (p.23). Paul and Norman thus represent art and competence respectively and we notice that in the race between competence and art, it is the latter that always emerges as the true winner.


Maclean, Norman. A River Runs Through It… [read more]

Post Impressionism and Toulouse-Lautrec Henri Term Paper

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He created posters to advertise entertainers at the cafes and art exhibitions and was probably the first "serious" painter to work in advertising. His efforts were influential on commercial, or printed, art for many years (U*X*L Biographies, 2004).

The 1890's saw the height of his career. During this time, he produced hundreds of pieces. He worked continuously around the clock visiting cafes for observation and cocktails each night, while also attending the theater and circuses. Occasionally Toulouse-Lautrec visited bordellos, where the prostitutes of the era plied their trade. He befriended and observed the women who lived and worked there and his work depicted the women's lives frankly and straightforwardly, with beautiful colors and inviting composition. The Salon in the Rue des Moulins, a view of a bordello, is considered one of his masterpieces. This artwork is distinguished not only for its portrayal of brothel life but also for its compositional grandeur. Toulouse-Lautrec was somewhat hesitant to exhibit this painting, because he then would have to admit that he had to create the painting with a live nude model, and his written comment to a journalist was simply, "People might think I wanted to create a scandal" (Life, 1992).

Toulouse-Lautrec was typical of the Postimpressionism era. He sought to capture the real world and the reality surrounding real people.

His rebellion against the idealized, carefully finished paintings of the prevailing academic style was typical of the time. Gone were the days of the artists capturing the morality or spiritual focus that was evident in earlier years. As time went on, Toulouse-Lautrec began to spend more time in the world of theaters and nightclubs. His works involved more colors and depicted the lives of people who experienced the "nightlife of Paris."

Toulouse-Lautrec left behind in his art an exciting and colorful world, but one that is also shadowed with loneliness. The man and woman depicted in A la Mie appear tired (Life, 1992), most likely drunk, and seem to have nowhere to go. His depictions of actors, dancers, and music hall singers performing, socializing, or resting backstage were always lively, however, they appear weary. Toulouse-Lautrec painted and drew numerous scenes from the Moulin Rouge and many of his works immortalized the lives of the actress May Belfort, singer Yvette Guilbert, and dancer Jean Avril with their portraits. He depicted the patrons of the nightlife establishments, many of whom were his friends. The cares and emotions on their faces are vivid, and one can detect the mystery, romance, or despair of the person.

After his death, his mother located many of his paintings and donated them to museums. While many Post-Impressionists popularity has dwindled, Toulouse-Lautrec's reputation continues to grow.


Friedman, Ann. "Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri de." World Book Online Reference Center. 2004. World Book, Inc. 25 Mar. 2004. http://www.worldbookonline.com/wb/Article?id=ar562500.

Henri Toulouse-Lautrec." U*X*L Biographies. U*X*L, 2003. Reproduced in Student Resource Center. Detroit: Gale, 2004. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/SRC.(Document Number: CD2108102277).

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec." DISCovering Biography. Online Edition. Gale, 2003. Reproduced in Student Resource Center. Detroit: Gale, 2004. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/SRC.(Document… [read more]

Italian Renaissance Don't Know Where I Got Term Paper

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Italian Renaissance don't know where I got my passion for drawing. It certainly wasn't from my father: he never enjoyed art and thought that artists were only a waste of somebody else's time. He was truly upset when he found out how much you could make on a commissioned painting, he who earned that much in a year. My mother… [read more]

Paul Renner, and His Typography Term Paper

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The Sans Serif family of typefaces has certain characteristics, for example: little or no variation between thick and thin strokes of the character, no serifs on the characters, no stresses in the rounded strokes of characters, and larger x-height than most other characters.

Futura takes the fundamentals of this family, but derives a new expression.

The original idea for Futura was based on the idea that the typographic character could be expressed as a design element; the original design for Futura, therefore, was based on the design philosophy of the artists of the Bauhaus movement: that form should follow function, not vice versa. The design of Futura uses basic shapes, basic geometric proportions, with no stresses on weights, no serifs, no excessive frills: it is a very economical font in a design sense, and is completely devoid of ornamentation.

Futura also has long ascenders, and long descenders, which lend the Futura typeface a certain amount of elegance, when compared with the other Sans Serif fonts, perhaps for which reason, Futura became, and remains, one of the most popular typefaces. The beauty of Futura for many people is that it can be set as short text blocks, due to its wide range of weights, and its condensed faces, which lends the overall look a sleek, and strong, well-organized appearance (many people say a very 'German' appearance). Futura can also be used, and indeed is perfect for, headlines and shorter amounts of text. It is a sparse letterform, ideal for sparse communication (short, compact, bursts of text).

Further characteristics of the Futura font also lend the impression of being a 'rational' font to the typeface. It was one of the first typefaces to omit the difference in form between upper case and lower case, and in so doing transferred modernist, no-nonsense principles of design to the typeface.

The development of the Sans Serif family of typefaces continued after the so-successful launching of Futura, with, for example, Helvetica (designed by Max Meidinger in 1957) and Avant Garde (designed by Herb Lubalin and Tom Carnase, in 1970): Futura, however, remains the most popular Sans Serif font, and the most popular of Renner's fonts.

As many reviews of Christopher Burke's book Paul Renner: The Art of Typography have noted, Paul Renner very often took the middle ground politically, seeing the relationship between book design and political ideology as "the taste for large volumes, which equated weight with prestige, betrayed a potential flaw in the German character: the 'fatal desire for greatness' by which Hitler was also notoriously motivated." It is to the great benefit of all those interested in design, and in the design of typefaces in particular, that Renner took his design responsibilities with more seriousness, producing wonderful fonts with which to grab the attention of the audience, in short sharp bursts. Renner indeed was a modern thinker: in these days of 'spin', where politicians and media moguls have reduced attention spans so far, this type of design is more now than ever necessary.… [read more]

Artwork Entitled "The Judgment Term Paper

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Interestingly, this is one of the most common mythological themes in art and literature, and Cranach painted several different versions of this tale.

Of all incidents in the Trojan War this has been the most continuously stressed in art and literature. It appears in the seventh century B.C., or perhaps a little earlier, on an ivory comb found in Sparta. Homer knew the story, though the Iliad mentions it only in passing as'... The delusion of Paris, who insulted the goddesses when they came to him' (Scherer 10).

The work is extremely typical of German Renaissance painting of the time, which intricately combined medieval detail with ancient tales. Cranach was a popular painter of the time, earning commissions from the Pope, the Duke of Saxony, and many officials in Rome (Scherer 20), so his style of painting was clearly popular and well received. He also taught his son, Cranach II, to paint in the same manner, and it is often difficult to tell the two different painters apart (Editors). Germans especially enjoyed these mythological paintings, and Cranach's style was extremely popular in his native country. The Germans found his work both humorous and naive, but sophisticated in the style and execution (Scherer 20). The three goddesses are a good example of this na vete as they cover themselves modestly, or glance shyly over their shoulder toward the viewer. The coloration of the goddesses is a subtle blending of like shades that create lights and darks, shadows and brightness, adding to their dimension and their impact. It is clear they are the main subject of the painting, while Paris and Mercury, though spectacularly dressed; fade more into the background with their darker shades. They appear almost shadowy compared to the brightly lit goddesses. Thus, the balance of the painting seems lopsided, and yet the details behind the group in the foreground tend to balance out the entire painting. Every part of the canvas is covered in detail, from the rocks beneath the reclining Paris to the clouds in the sky and the buds on the tree. Cranach clearly loved to fill his canvas with natural landscapes and living things, and this painting is a good example of his detailed work.

While Cranach's work is quite typical of the time, it is also quite comparable to other Renaissance artists of the time. Another painting at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, "The Harvesters," painted in 1565 by Pieter Bruegel the Elder shows great similarity in the details, from the wheat harvesters in the foreground, and even down to the buds on the trees. Detail and depth were two of the keys to art during this period, and that is one reason Cranach's work was so popular with the people.

In conclusion, Cranach the Elder's painting of "The Judgment of Paris" is a classic German Renaissance painting combining the great and beautiful details of medieval life with the classic tale of ancient mythology. Using light, balance, and intricate details, he makes… [read more]

Sculptor's Funeral, by Willa Cather Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (741 words)
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Forster calls the past a "series of disorders," (Forster 578), and this is certainly the case in Harvey's life. His past may be disordered and dissonant, but his past is still inside him, and his past lures him home when he dies.

Laird knows that as much as art is created for art's sake, it is not always accepted for art's sake. Harvey brought a small amount of fame to the tiny town of Sand City, but the residents could only talk about Harvey's frailties, they could not accept his for what he was - different from them, but one of them all the same. If Harvey created his art for art's sake, the only person who accepted Harvey for Harvey's sake was Laird, and it tortured him to his death.

Ultimately, this story is as much about going home as it is about art and creativity. While the simple townsfolk of Sand City do not understand what motivates an artist like Harvey Merrick, he still must make his final journey home. As Harvey says about his hometown, "It's not a pleasant place to be lying while the world is moving and doing and bettering, [...] but it rather seems as though we ought to go back to the place we came from in the end" (Cather 610). Forster believes the true artist is an "outsider in the society to which he has been born" (Forster 580), and this describes sculptor Harvey Merrick perfectly. Harvey is a true artist because the small-minded townsfolk where he grew up have nothing good to say about him, and he never went home until he died. His alienation from his roots illustrates the difficulty of the artist, and the paradox of fame vs. acceptance. The townsfolk cannot accept Harvey; he is far too different from them, and the only man who does accept him, does not fit in the small town either. That is the final paradox. Laird has returned home too early, and ultimately, the artist who comes home in death leads to the death of the tortured artist who understood art for art's sake.

Works Cited

Cather, Willa. "The Sculptor's Funeral."

Forster, E.M.…… [read more]

Prolific Artists in Modern History Term Paper

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The sombre feel of these blue period pieces yielded to the slightly more cheerful "rose period," during which Picasso switched his primary palette from blues to beiges and pinks. The Degas-like "Woman in a Chemise" (1904-5) shows the waif-like model in sinewy form and delicate line.

Cezanne's comprehension of the geometry inherent in the physical universe inspired Picasso and Braque to further deconstruct reality on the canvas. The early cubists bordered on total abstraction as they broke apart the essential elements of a material form. "Woman in Green" (1909) is especially three-dimensional in its depiction of the female bust. Lines are straight and geometric, the colors earthy, creating a multifaceted two-dimensional work. Likewise, "Girl with a Mandolin" (1910) uses an earthy palette; the form of the woman is broken down even further into segments. The result is an almost cerebral art, one that relies on conception rather than pure reality. Objects are depicted in a scientific, mathematical manner. Multiple planes and dimensions became even more pronounced in Picasso's collage work. "Glass and Bottle of Suze," (1912) celebrates shape and form in a cut-and-paste version of reality. Picasso continued the cubist trend even as his lines softened and his colors brightened. "Girl Reading at a Table" (1934) is a passionate, almost classical painting. The sensuous lines, although clearly cubist, contain a sense of passion almost absent in his earlier cubist works. Similarly, "Mother and Son" (1938) uses bright colors and curvaceous lines to convey tenderness and love. Picasso's colossal, monochromatic "Guernica" (1939) imparts pain, brutality, and death using cubist elements. The lack of color in "Guernica" is a testament to Picasso's bitterness over the Spanish Civil War. Picasso's late works varied greatly in content and style. His 1972 "Self-Portrait" is a poignant example of the versatility of this magnificent, dynamic artist.


The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2002. http://www.metmuseum.org/home.asp

The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 2002. http://boston.com/mfa/picasso/

"Pablo Picasso." The Artchive. http://www.artchive.com/artchive/P/picasso.html… [read more]

Marcel Duchamp Took a Urinal Term Paper

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Because the aesthetics of the two movements are so very different on the surface, Dadaism and the Arts and Crafts Movement that was on the wane during the brief florescence of Dadaism are not usually compared to each other, but such a comparison is actually quite useful, for the members of both movements understood the real and awful perils that… [read more]

Narcissm Rosalind Krauss Mused on the Aesthetics Essay

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Rosalind Krauss mused on the aesthetics of narcissism, especially as narcissistic values, motifs, and techniques permeated modern art. Written long before new media, "The Aesthetics of Narcissism" could be updated with ample reference to music, street art, and new media. New media is especially ripe with examples of how notions of "mediums," of "self-encapsulation," and mirroring make their ways into new constructive and deconstructive forms. The functions of narcissism in art remain similar to those evident in the 1970s, but the forms self-obsession have taken expand also to include that which passes for journalism. Blogging is, after all, a narcissistic enterprise in which speaker and audience fuse in the same way that Krauss describes the fusion of artist and medium or artist and subject. With new media, bloggers and others in control of their self-expression interject their emotions, thoughts, and opinions into public discourse as if their feelings matter or bear relevance. The implication is of absolute social mirroring: the Other is reflected in the Self and vice-versa.

Nowhere perhaps is the aesthetic of narcissism more evident than with social media. Krauss might have written an entire book on the subject of social media, given the preponderance of examples of how social media belies its very title. The media is genuinely social, and yet it is also morbidly self-referential. The viewer is the exhibitionist, and the exhibitionist is the voyeur. Connecting with others motivates one to reconsider self-image and self-presentation. For artists, this may mean manipulating one's art to meet market needs or to appeal to local, political, or prevailing trends. Musicians likewise present their audible consumables in narcissistic packages, their band photographs self-referential rather than engaging the viewer. Gone are the attitudes and freedom of the 1970s, during which Krauss wrote. Current hipster norms and aesthetics guide a more loathsome brand of narcissism in which preening and grooming are more masturbatory than they…… [read more]

Film the Double Life Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (989 words)
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At one point, it takes indecent exposure to simply ground her enough to stand up and walk again after a musical practice.

In France, Veronique is Weronika's opposite, in that her addiction is to the earth. When she is a young girl, her mother shows her a leaf, examining its details. In contrast to the distant stars and the spiritual, the leaf represents all that is earthly, which can be seen, touched, and described in full detail. This is Veronique's world. She is fully grounded within the earthly realm and matters of the flash.

As one of the symbols of this, sex is used to show adult Veronique in her earthly realm. Significantly, the first scene with Veronique as an adult is while she is having casual sex. It is, however, significant that this encounter is happening at the time of Weronika's death. Feeling this, Veronique becomes overwhelmed with unaccountable sadness and grieves in the middle of her sexual process.

Throughout Veronique's life, she has been free to pursue life in the earthly realm because Weronika provided balance by living almost exclusively in the spirit world. Hence, both women are free to pursue what makes them happiest, because the other provides balance. Weronika's death removes this balance from Veronique, however. This creates a drive in Veronique to search for balance elsewhere. She finds this in the form of Alexandre, the marionette artist.

Alexandre's art represents balance; while it is art, it has a continual earthly component. The art of the marionette does not exist for itself, it needs continuous human involvement to maintain its energy. Hence, for Veronique, this provides the perfect balance between the spiritual beauty provided by art and the grounded nature that the human element provides.

As such, Alexandre's lovemaking is what brings Veronique back to earth when her grief for Weronika threatens to overwhelm her. Her love for the earthy Alexandre and making love to him brings her grief back into control. In this sense, the puppeteer represents balance between Veronique's grief for the loss of her spirit component and her ability to carry on living in the physical world.

This is culminated in the final scene, where Veronique touches a tree as the representative of embodiment. The tree could also be said to symbolize maturity, whereas the leaf her mother showed her represents infancy and the start of her life as a person grounded within the earth.

In conclusion, the themes of the spiritual in balance with the physical are represented in the cinematography as well. The ethereal beauty of the rich gold and green colors Keislowski uses is balanced with the earthly scenes represented in the many natural symbols, including trees, leaves, and buildings. It is a film that provides its audience with a sense of both the spiritual and physical, where a lack of balance can lead to death.


The Double Life of Veronique. Directed by Krzysztof Keislowski… [read more]

Baroque? Thoenes, Christof. St Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  2 pages (594 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


"What is Baroque?" 7-21.

This source attempts to disseminate through all of the confusion regarding the term baroque and to restore order and clarity to its many multi-faceted definitions. The author begins by providing a basic etymology of the term based on its syllables, vowel structures and syllogisms. From there, the term was explicitly used to denote a type of architecture and decoration for that architecture that was somewhat wild and devoid of practical value during the 1700's. This source indicates the fact that as time continued to go by, the expansion of the definition of this term came to include not only architecture but also visual art, as well as non-visual art as well.

The author devotes the majority of this article to explicating the term baroque as related to visual art and to architecture. He emphasizes the fact that when applied to these two realms, the baroque movement was actually a reactionary one to the Renaissance movement which preceded it. Although virtually all periods of art incorporate some aspect of rebellion from the periods which came before them, this fact was especially true of the baroque period and of the architecture and art that was known as mannerism -- which was linked to the Renaissance as well.

Thus, the author provides examples of several artists and their works that were typical of the Renaissance, of mannerism, and of the Baroque period. He denotes specific aspects of their work -- their reliance on dearth of reliance on spatial realty, for instance -- that typifies each of these periods. He also indicates that the fragmentation of Baroque not only extended through different genres of art and time periods, but also through different factions in Europe (such as the term as applied to Italian works vs. other…… [read more]

City Lore and the Municipal Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (537 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The Planetarium has been used in a series of cases with the purpose of providing the U.S. with important information it needed. For example, it represented an important tool for teaching individuals how to navigate and pilot during the Second World War. Technology has brought much change to the Planetarium, as it has now reached a particularly technologically advanced level. "In 2000, Schliemann and Polshek were able to realize the 87-foot-diameter spherical Planetarium, which appears to float in a 95-foot high glass box, and the encircling ramp that is constantly changing in height and radius, because CAD gave them a major advantage over Boullee and Schinkel. Frederick Phineas Rose, the Rose Center's patron, received an engineering degree from Yale in 1944, so he had a special appreciation for their accomplishment." (Hayden Planetarium)

Many argue with regard to how the Planetarium is the most advanced pieced of astronomic technology in the world. Some even relate to it as being a 'cosmic cathedral', thus serving to provide information concerning the theatrical aspect of putting across information. The Hayden Planetarium practically provides information while also making people feel entertained and this makes it possible for them to accumulate the respective information more effectively.

The Hayden Planetarium is more than a planetarium, taking into account that its history, the technology it contains, and the fact that individuals working there are dedicated to present information in an entertaining way all come together in providing visitors with an unique experience.

Works cited:

"Hayden Planetarium," Retrieved October…… [read more]

NYC Architecture the Empire State Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (592 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


How much? The tickets are not cheap! $50 for a ride to the top.

Needless to say, the skyscraper's impact on the street is exciting. For tourists it is a must see. With its unique facade and distinctive design, it catches the eye from afar and lures the traveler to it. All foot traffic seems to be going in its direction, as though everyone on the street were captivated by its presence.

The ticket salesmen are there on the street corners to take advantage of the building's allure.

There are persons below walking around wearing shirts and hats that announce their love for NYC -- a love, one must believe, that is partly established thanks to structures like this one. The skyscraper stands like a lord over all those new to the city. To all those who have lived there and never visited it, it stands like a forbidden mystery. But as one draws nearer to it, one can feel an electricity, a humming activity that seems to emanate from within the building. Workers, businessmen, taxi drivers, commuters, pedestrians, police men, all seem happy just to be in the vicinity of this grand skyscraper and its awesome power.

In conclusion, the Empire State Building brings Midtown to life in a way that other buildings nearby cannot do. It excites the imagination with its inviting promise of a spectacular view from the observation deck. It gives the viewer a feeling of familiarity -- one knows its distinct and iconic facade even if one has never visited the city. And it serves as a kind of centerpiece for travelers -- a landmark in the heart of Manhattan, like a sun in a galaxy: a beacon of light transforming everything around it with warmth and a…… [read more]

Recap of Class Work Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (564 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Alsace -- being a mix of the German and French culture and influenced by Switzerland, its neighbor, Alsace offers multilingual education. Oenology, cross-cultural studies and archeology are just a few of the interesting areas of study there.

Picardy sau Auvergne -- nu stiu ce sa spun in afara de ce am spus mai sus, din pacate, nu gasesc nimic deosebit….:(

4-Video clips

Having looked at the video clips from three different regions (Southern France, Loire, and Champagne), give examples of the types of field study a student could do in at least two of the regions.

The Loire Valley and Champagne provide a wide range of attractions and one is likely to come across a great deal of impressive concepts in these two regions. Ranging from the typical French villages to the imposing chateaux de la Loire, the Loire Valley is certainly superb. Champagne is similarly impressive and the Champagne wine and areas like Reims with its beautiful cathedral.

5-Which region would you like to present? Which region attracts you and why? What would you offer to students as an educational opportunity in your region? Remember, you are not offering them college opportunities, but something they could learn about by being in your region.

Give examples and details to support your ideas.

I would like to present Normandy on account of its history and its attractions. This is a region that is impressive not only because of its beauty, as it is also important when considering the series of important events that happened there throughout time. I would encourage students to look into the architecture, the castles, and the historic locations in the region.… [read more]

Laban Movement Analysis Rudolph Labans Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (470 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Style is a specialized way of performing or moving which goes from unconscious tendencies to conscious ones (Author, year, p. 46). Style is also formed in subtlety -- not what one does by how so. However, Laban believed that true mastery of movement involves incorporating many styles, or at least transcending one's own style. Doing so enables dancers to develop stylistic innovations, which is what audiences gravitate to and ultimately respect.

The dancer and choreographer also believed that synthesizing these various elements of movement -- effort and style -- allowed performers to access different parts of life to fully inform their performances. Thus, performers draw on a wide range of emotions and experiences when mastering the art of movement -- including those which resonate from their audience. Through all of these various inputs, Laban believed that it was the dancers charge to provide performances that were innately unique. To not do so was to merely mimic some past movement, and not fully utilize the elements of style, effort, and all of the totality of human experiences from which truly great artists cull.

Therefore, Laban posited that a true synthesis of the elements involves dancers manipulating elements of flow, time, space, weight, as well as human emotions and experiences. This process should ideally be a natural evolution that changes with each performance.



Aestheticism Artistic Appreciation and Taste in James Spoils of Poynton Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,590 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


James Spoils

People, Things, and Ethics: Perspectives on Collection and Control in Henry James' the Spoils of Poynton

Though not long in words or plot complexity, Henry James' novel the Spoils of Poynton addresses far-reaching and intricately interwoven issues of perception and the human drive to manipulate. The relationship between ethics and aesthetics becomes so pronounced and yet so muddied… [read more]

Deviance in a Police Drama Film Review

Film Review  |  2 pages (699 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This theory involves the idea that crime, or deviance, is a natural part of society, not an aberration, and is really an unorthodox, and socially discouraged means of attaining social success. According to functionalists, there are a set of cultural goals that each society constructs and individuals in that society are encouraged to strive for. These cultural goals, and in this case it was financial and occupational success, were the cultural goals that the forger wanted to receive. He may have realized that he would never be as popular or successful as his former teacher so he found a way to reach those goals nonetheless. But instead of following the institutionalized means of producing his own artwork, the forger decided to use means that were outside societal norms: he faked his master's work. Functionalists see this as a means of obtaining those things that society strives for while not following the prescribed path to obtaining them.

While "White Collar" involves a group of investigators involved in white collar crimes, the FBI really has a team of 14 agents involved in these types of crimes called the "Art Crime Team," which "has recovered more that 2,650 items valued at over $150 million." ("Art Theft") However, the FBI does not employ former or current criminals to aid or assist directly in investigations like the television program portrays. The focus of the Art Crime Team is to investigate art thefts and recover stolen works of art. They rarely engage in the discovery of forgers, however, can aid in the investigation of finding such a criminal. White Collar is a fine television drama with a splash of humor added, however, it is strictly fantasy when it comes to the investigational techniques and regulations.


"Art Theft." The FBI. Retrieved from www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/vc_majorthefts/arttheft/art-crime-team

Eastin, Jeff, Mark Goffman (Writers), & John Kretchmer (Director). (2013).

The Original, White Collar, USA Network. Retrieved from http://www.hulu.com/watch/461720

Henslin, James. (2011). Sociology: A Down to Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn

and Bacon. Print.… [read more]

Originality in Writing Some People Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,053 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


In fact, Goldsmith seems to suggest that the ability to put together others works creates a higher burden for establishing creativity than previously existed. While everyone has been given roughly the same ability to access prior works, not everyone has the same ability to combine it in innovative or revealing ways. Goldsmith firmly believes that quality is still critical to the creative process and to the concept of originality. According to him, "Democracy is fine for YouTube, but it's generally a recipe for disaster when it comes to art. While all words may be created equal, the way in which they're assembled isn't; it's impossible to suspend judgment and folly to dismiss quality" (Goldsmith).

In fact, the recent history of modern art has a significant tradition of large-scale borrowing from artistic predecessors. According to Scroggins, "It all begins with the first generation of Modernist poets and artists" (Scroggins). Moreover, Lethem makes the point that much of modern art is borrowed from others, using Bob Dylan's lyrics as an example of borrowing from earlier works. According to Lethem, "Dylan's originality and his appropriations are as one" (Lethem, p.1). Therefore, so much of what is not only considered art, but what is considered an art form, comes from what has previously been done.

However, it is important to keep in mind that this artistic mimicry goes far beyond the modern age. Ferguson makes the point that artists are trained in how to be artists by copying the works of the great artists who have come before them (Ferguson). For example, Ferguson recites an oft-repeated tale that Hunter S. Thompson typed out The Great Gatsby prior to writing any of his own novels because he wanted to know what it was to write a great novel (Ferguson). Lethem believes this is a universal phenomenon. "Most artists are brought to their vocation when their own nascent gifts are awakened by the work of a master. That is to say, most artists are converted to art by art itself" (Lethem, p.2). If it is the art that creates the artist, then it is impossible for an artist to invent anything wholly new. However, that does not mean that an artist cannot be inventive and creative. Instead, Lethem suggests that, "Invention, it must be humbly admitted, does not consist in creating out of void but out of chaos. Any artist knows these truths, no matter how deeply he or she submerges that knowing" (Lethem, p.2). What is original is how a person chooses to emphasize some details as more important than others and focus on perspectives.

Works Cited

Ferguson, Kirby. "Everything is a Remix: Part 3: The Elements of Creativity." Everything is a Remix. N.p. 2011. Web. 1 Apr. 2013.

Goldsmith, Kevin. "It's Not Plagiarism. In the Digital Age, It's 'Repurposing.'" The Chronicle

of Higher Education. N.p. 11 Sep. 2011. Web. 1 Apr. 2013.

Lethem, Jonathan. "The Ecstasy of Influence: A Plagiarism." Harper's Magazine. 1-11. Feb.

2007. Web. 1 Apr. 2013.

Scroggins, Mark. "Unoriginal Genius: Poetry… [read more]

Eye of the Beholder: Reaction Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (375 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Art must be considered in light of its social context from the point-of-view of a critic and the effect it has upon the spectator. Regardless of the intention of the artist, 'art' is only created at the moment it is looked upon by someone else, and interpreted by someone else.

It is true that from the point-of-view of an artist -- whether a good, mediocre, or bad artist -- art is the final result of a chain of emotions. But the artist cannot anticipate the emotions that the gazer will feel when looking upon the art and the interpretation the spectator will apply to the art. This is why Duchamp says that the creative act is not a solitary act, why so many artists are forgotten after enjoying great fame, and why so many artists who were rejected when alive are later considered great. The art does not change; the artist does not change -- but the spectators do.

Work Cited

Duchamp, Marcel. "The Creative Act." From Robert Lebel, Marcel Duchamp, Grove

Press, New York, 1959,…… [read more]

Outsourcing Decision in the Rondot Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (726 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The technology that is being used is highly experiential in nature. On one hand, e-coating could truly be a cost and time savings. On the other hand, it might present technical complications so unwieldy that the theoretical costs and times savings could be nonexistent. Rondot should also explore other companies that offer similar and different high-tech painting services at a similar cost level, to see if their quality control results are better than or worse than that of Greven's painting.

Q4. Do you think that Rondot should outsource their painting operations completely and dispose of the equipment? Why or why not? Support your answer with analysis and/or published sources.

The e-coating seems to be superior both in terms of cost and quality, compared to what Rondot is currently manufacturing. That is, it is superior if it works consistently. First, Rondot should see if there are other painting companies that offer better or similar quality to Greven at similar or cheaper prices. Greven's technology is unique, but Rondot should calculate if the quality and speed it offers is comparable with other offerings on the market.

A current assessment of the market suggests that Rondot will have to outsource its painting in the future, to remain competitive, given that its own painting technology will have to be upgraded soon or eliminated. However, in the short-term, Rondot should first determine the best company to contract a 'test' batch, and then see if a small order filled with the company truly lives up to quality and cost expectations. The painting operations can then be slowly phased out if the outsourced work is up to standard. Operations should only be shut down entirely if the outsourced company passes tests of quality, reliability, and cost savings. Finally, another reason for slowly phasing in the outsourcing is that the painting company should also fit into the corporate culture and mission of Rondot. The company must be 'easy to work with' and prove itself committed to Rondot's philosophy.… [read more]

Debate on the Body Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (592 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Body Debate

You both focus on the human body for your art, but show a different aspect of the body, please explain your thought process in the way you create art.

Stelarc: Simply put, modern society views the body as another machine. Something to be ripped apart and reconstructed to meet the needs of modern medicine. There no longer seems to be any concept of a soul or even concern for the inner psyche. Instead, medicine is focused on creating bodies that last forever. As I explain in my presentations, we are living in a time of the cadaver, the comatose, the cryogenic, and the chimera.

In my piece "Parasite: Event for Invaded and Involuntary Body" I show the audience how robotics are being used to replace complex body systems including arms, legs and even the heart. There are now robotic hearts that circulate blood throughout the body without producing a heartbeat. So the very fundamental definitions of life are now becoming obsolete.

Janine Antoni: While I would agree that modern society has taken the body to a different level, I don't agree that there is a lack of concern for the modern psyche. In fact, in my art I often express the overwhelming credit that the psyche along with its desires is often given. Criminals are excused from crimes against humanity simply because their psyche is disturbed. In my work "Loving Care" I sought to challenge the modern idea that woman's beauty and power fades over time and therefor signs of aging such as gray hair should be hidden. By the end of this performance, it becomes obvious the true power of a woman's psyche.

Question 2: You both have works that society has considered offensive, how do you address these criticisms?

Janine…… [read more]

Future Born Under Saturn Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (672 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


For example, if a field is given over to common use for sheep, more and more shepherds will use the field for grazing, until it is entirely absent of grass. In contrast, if someone owns the field, he or she will regulate its use to ensure that it is not over-stressed, because the owner feels a sense of responsibility to the field, along with his or her own, personal sheep. The economic interests of the field's owners ensure continued maintenance, while the common, freeloading shepherds only have their own interests at stake.

This can become a grave problem, as is evident when the use of any public resource (even a public bathroom) deteriorates because of a lack of common, social, and civic obligations. The best method to ensure that overconsumption does not take place is to regulate the number of individuals who can use the common resource at any one time, and prevent them from using specific parts of the field so the field can replenish itself. The question of 'needs vs. wants' is less relevant in this particular instance, because it is in reference to a natural resource. It is not that every person has different needs that must be satisfied -- rather, the field has needs that must be honored, and if they are not, then the entire population of sheepherders will suffer.

The use of the World Wide Web or some form of technology, in contrast, is not finite. Access to information and intellectual property that is not physical in nature, and can be replicated indefinitely (presuming that copyright laws are obeyed) does not cause the tragedy of the commons to assert itself. That is what is so unique about the physical, natural environment, and why, despite the mania for recycling today, it can be so hard to reconcile our individualism with our need to curtail our individual wants to preserve the environment. Nature is not the same as something that can be accessed online.… [read more]

Total Eclipse, She Describes Different Things Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (719 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Total Eclipse," she describes different things in order to help shape our experience in the journey that she take us on. Early on in the essay, she describes a clown painting hanging in her hotel room as well as a bird in a cage that is in the hotel's lobby. Later in the essay, she notes a young man's Hasselblad and the way he describes what appeared to him to be a Life Saver up in the sky. This paper will look at some of the people, things, and objects that Dillard uses in her story and attempt to find meaning in their seeming randomness.

In the beginning of Dillard's essay, she describes a painting of clown that is comprised of painted vegetables. While this sounds quite silly (and Dillard seems awe-struck by the fact that she is even giving it any consideration), Dillard goes further to say that she thought that the clown's eyes has the gaze of Rembrandt. She states, "The clown's glance was like the glance of Rembrandt in some of the self-portraits: lively, knowing, deep, and loving" (Dillard 3). Dillard seems to be adding something meaningful to this otherwise pointless painting by noticing something that is unique about it. She is able to see past its garishness and value something in it. Perhaps Dillard is saying that we could all do to spend a bit of time really looking at something rather than just passing it off with a quick gaze. It is something that Dillard never thought she would look at or care about, but it is something that she cannot forget once she does.

Dillard also discusses the men in the hot mines of South Africa, India, and South Dakota. She states that the "gold mines extend so deeply into the earth's crust that they are hot" (Dillard 5). She describes air conditioners having to be installed because of the heat and if it wasn't for them, the miners would die. She also notes how slowly the elevators run in the shafts so that the miners' ears will not pop as they are going up and down. Why does Dillard describe…… [read more]

De Stijl Manifesto 1 And Piet Mondrian Dialogue on the New Plastic Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (626 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Piet Mondrian was trying to get at the inner beauty in the art. He was on a spiritual visionary quest to capture the "deep" essence of reality which was to be found in abstraction. This was what was real about the object that was being represented in the art. Mondrian was heavily influence by Cubism, first in Amsterdam, but especially in his stay in Paris before the First World War. As he says, the plastic relationships are veiled. These are the essence of the piece, sort of like the center of the earth having a molten core. In the case of the earth, this is its essence that gives it life. In this abstract core lay the core that was related intimately related to his spiritual and philosophical studies.

In particular, he found much inspiration in theosophy as a follower of Madame Blavatsky and the Theosophical Society. He joined the Dutch branch, where he ingested much of this philosophy which he sought to express in his art. Blavatsky believed that more could be perceived of nature through spiritual introspection than through empirical data. Under this influence, Mondrian tended to veer away from the concrete into the abstract as his art developed. This approach was very much at odds with other artists who had been influenced by Cubism because he poured this theosophical speculation into his work. It is from this that the art theory expressed by Mondrian in his written piece comes from.

In the opinion of this author, the spiritual speculations would have lead directly to the brush stroke line and color combinations on the white background. This expressed the general beauty of an object, in essence its base colors and textures below all of the other less important forms and colors that obscured and hid this center reality.

The art theory expressed by Piet Mondrian found expression in the De…… [read more]

Similarity and Difference Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,399 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Twilight vs. What Makes Sammy Run

Even though it is presently regarded as one of the most important concepts in the contemporary society, art is perceived differently by individuals depending on their personal convictions and on how they understand it. Anna Deavere Smith's 1992 introduction to the play "Twilight" and Budd Schulberg's 1941 book "What Makes Sammy Run" put across diverging perspectives in regard to the concept of art. To a certain degree, one can believe that Al Meinheim, Kit Sargent, and Sidney Fineman, three secondary characters in Schulberg's book, and Deavere Smith are similar, given that they all acknowledge the importance of originality in a play. However, while Deavere Smith focuses on being solely responsible for producing and promoting her plays, these three individuals adopt a different strategy and consider that it is very difficult for them to make it in a community dominated by concepts like image and glamour.

Although he initially feels that Sammy is one of his best friends, Al Manheim, the narrator in "What Makes Sammy Run," acknowledges the fact that his friend has little to nothing to do with the world of artists. Manheim even contrasts Sammy through his work and through his general approach on life as a whole. In spite of the fact that he is certain in regard to his qualities as a writer, Manheim lack confidence when it comes to his ability to sell his works and loses his self-esteem as a result of this.

By feeling "more than once, an increased humility" (Deavere Smith xxii) at the time when she wrote the play, the playwright/actress expresses her personal convictions and makes it possible for readers to understand where she stands in regard to art. Manheim considers that art is similar to a business where one needs successful people to represent him while Deavere Smith considers that it is a philosophical concept that one needs to address without being interest in profits. In spite of partially agreeing with Sammy when considering the financial aspect of art, Manheim is much more modest than his friend and shares Deavere Smith's convictions concerning an artist's life.

Both Manheim and Sargent are attracted to the glamorous world of Sammy and are even willing to step on their principles in order to do so. It is certainly difficult to determine whether they do it because of the fact that they appreciate Sammy's lifestyle or if they simply want to be close to their friend regardless of his determination to perform immoral acts. It appears that these people are unhesitant about selling themselves to Sammy in spite of the fact that they are well aware that they are worth much more than him as artists because of their dedication to the domain. The two characters perceive Sammy to be more than a simple opportunist and probably consider that he has an artist's personality. This is why they continue to appreciate him in situations when they are disgusted with the choices that he makes.

It… [read more]

Smiley Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (711 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … University Federal Savings and Loan of Seattle launched its "smiley face" advertisement campaign, it generally assumed that the smiley face was a universal sign of happiness. However, when one looks at the use of the smile in art over the course of history, one finds that the smile has not always been associated with happiness. For instance, Da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" has an enigmatic smile that has been interpreted in different ways over the centuries. The smile of the Mona Lisa "enlists the complicity of the beholder and thus has been a sort of Rorschach image onto which succeeding generations have projected their fantasies.[footnoteRef:1] (Lumpkin 1999, 15) However, modern scientists, including Charles Darwin, have begun to recognize the smile as a physiological signal, and have created two categories of smiles: the "true" smile and the "false" smile. But this has not always been the case as demonstrated by the interpretation of smiles on ancient Greek art. Interpretations of the smiles on ancient Greek artwork have generally concentrated on the subject having attained some "transcendent secret knowledge," like the images of smiles on eastern religious figures such as the Buddha.[footnoteRef:2] (Lumpkin 1999, 21) [1: Lumpkin, Libby. Deep Design: Nine Little Art Histories. (Los Angeles: Art Issues, 1999), 15.] [2: Lumpkin, Libby. Deep Design: Nine Little Art Histories. (Los Angeles: Art Issues, 1999), 21.]

The modern artistic interpretation of the smile can be demonstrated by 17th century artist Charles La Brun. He categorized smiles into three categories, smiles generated from: "love, & #8230;joy, [and] & #8230;ecstasy;" but none were directly associated with the expression of the common human emotion of happiness.[footnoteRef:3] (Lumpkin 1999, 23) It was the Dutch painter, Frans Hals, who first transferred the smile in art from an enigmatic display to the reflection of human happiness. Hals painted smiles on the faces of many of his common subjects who were engaged in activities which were generally seen as making people happy. While some reject this interpretation, the idea that happiness generated smiles did seem to be absorbed by many in the Enlightenment, and then associated with the idea that every person was entitled…… [read more]

Chromophobia Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (390 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


In that story the drugs had a link to color and acts as a piece of evidence to Batchelor's thesis.

Favorite Quotes:

1. "Color in painting is an essential, almost indispensible element, since having all Nature to represent, the painter cannot make her speak without borrowing her language" (Batchelor, page 25).

2. "Colour is both secondary and dangerous; in fact, it is dangerous because it is secondary. Otherwise there would be no Fall. The minor is always the undoing of the major" (Batchelor, page 31).


1. When an artist is trying to represent something that exists in real life, then the artist needs to use the colors of the real thing. If he or she doesn't, then it is not a fair representation of the thing that is in nature.

2. The small things will ruin the larger picture. Color can be damaging because people don't think about it. It is the stuff that we tend not to consider as important factors that will wind up determining if the endeavor is successful or not.

Works…… [read more]

Embers, the First Interesting Thing Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (714 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


In failing to feel anything during his narration, Henry failed to make me care about him or his ghosts.

The play "Nightmare," on the other hand, was a little less devoid of life. The thing that struck me most about this play is its effective and sudden changes from scene to scene, just like a dream, or indeed a nightmare. Another interesting thing was the recurrence of elements like the hitting, the man with the black mustache, and the hitting. At first I assumed that Rogers used his fists, but later I was shocked when it was revealed to be a hammer. Furthermore, the ending, where the "truth" is revealed, is also striking, somewhat contributing to the overall nightmare effect.

In terms of whether this piece is "radio art," I would venture to say that it is. While many of the elements can exist in other media, one would have to significantly alter the way in which the scenes are portrayed. The fact that Rogers uses a hammer would, for example, be difficult to conceal in a visual medium. Even if this is accomplished, the sound effects of the hitting and John's reaction would be less intense in a visual medium. In this regard, where radio offers a unique opportunity to create certain effects with sound, it certainly is art. On the other hand, it is also possible for the piece to exist in other media. What makes it art, however, is the fact that there are unique features that can be accomplished with sound, while these cannot be recreated visually.

In general, I enjoyed the "Nightmare" piece more than "Embers," although I can see the artistic value of the latter. In "Embers," the narrator provides a unique vision of the psyche of a man and the way in which his memories affect him. The dichotomy between these and the narrator's current emotionless voice, as well as the "nothing" at the end is truly striking, but not very entertaining. "Nightmare," on the other hand, manages to be both intense, entertaining, and even a…… [read more]

Competitive Advantage Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (691 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Konad: Gaining a Competitive Advantage

Konad Nail Art is a nail art system that allows for effortless, simple application of seemingly complicated nail art through the use of specialized image plates, a rubber stamp and special polishes. Available at www.konadnailart.com, there are a variety of accessories available for this system. A Konad Nail Art kit could have the potential to grow over time, as new accessories and image plates are constantly being added.

It is important to consider that there are other nail art implements out there. This is a relatively small niche that does not reach or interest everyone, so it is important to make sure to gain a competitive advantage with a company like this. This is what will set a company like Konad apart from others like it, because there are others out there that are just like it. Many of the companies out there like Konad are cheaper. Although the products are a bit different, many of them are very similar to Konad products and those who don't know any better and do not see the advantage of Konad products over cheaper alternatives may choose them.

The first and perhaps most important thing to consider for a company like Konad that wants to gain a competitive advantage is the website. Having a website is one of the most important things for a company like Konad, but simply having one is not enough. Anybody who takes a look at the Konad website will see that it is rudimentary at best. From first glance, it appears that an amateur created and optimized the site. Considering that a large portion of the sales that Konad generates are made possible through the Internet, it is important for a company like this to do better in this respect. They would be best served to hire a developer to create a high-end design for their site. Konad is a nail art website, and their online presence should reflect this. A variety of colors, a sleek design that appeals to the eye, and a diverse catalog that provides…… [read more]

Beauty: Being the Outline of Aesthetic Theory Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,275 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … beauty: being the outline of aesthetic theory" is meant to be an account regarding the theory of aesthetics, which is the main topic of discussion throughout the document. While the theory of aesthetics is essential in the world of philosophy, the sense of beauty is indispensable in life. Indeed, beauty is one of the most important things in the world, as one does not necessarily have to have a background in being a scholar in order to appreciate it. One can display an ignorant nature relating to how beauty manifests itself, how it was brought to existence, or how it ends in order to exploit it to its full potential. Most individuals choose to use a scientific approach in their attempt to analyze beauty, but it is also possible (and perhaps even more efficient) if one were to examine beauty from a literary perspective. . Regardless of the circumstances, one should be happy for feeling beauty instead of stressing themselves in order to study their mood. Evidently beauty can easily be associated with domains such as art or literature, with artists being responsible for creating beauty through their works. Art is simply art in is essence. It should not be profaned by trying to find diverse meanings for the feelings one goes through when he or she enjoys it. Mathematics is an exact curriculum, but in spite of its accuracy numerous individuals find it unattractive. When compared to art, a mathematical equation can be considered to be a movie that has an ending which is easy to anticipate. Everyone eventually knows that the problem will be solved, as the people who made it did not want to create something irresolvable. In art, people are likely to appreciate an equation because of the efforts they make in order to solve it, and not for the outcome of their endeavor. Simply put in words, aesthetics should be valued for its beauty instead of being esteemed for all the factors that work together in producing the final sentiment. Even with that, people do not have to believe that by welcoming beauty they will understand it. Nor should they only concentrate on being amazed by beauty, as they should actually try to maintain a balance between enjoying beauty and trying to comprehend it. This is likely to produce an ecstatic feeling, taking into consideration that by doing this one can fully take pleasure in observing beauty. Nonetheless, enjoying beauty should always be a top priority, closely followed to understanding the concept and everything related to it. By dedicating themselves to have the benefit of beauty, individuals avoid having to be drawn into a vicious circle consisting of everything that theories bring forward, thus making life an amalgam of trying to find out what action causes what reaction, not being able to stop in order to see beauty for what it is. Something as important as beauty can be quickly destroyed by an individual who goes further trying to discover a meaning for… [read more]

Passions in Life Article Review

Article Review  |  3 pages (885 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Passions in Life

Elisabeth Bergmann's article "Dancing My Passion" is quintessentially a confession about a woman's knowledge to transform the passion for her work into art. In this article, Elisabeth Bergmann draws the portrait of a woman who is not only passionate about dancing, but also about a country, Trinidad and Tobago, and teaching. but, most of all, Bergmann appears to be passionate about diversity in her fellow humans.

As an artist, she developed a carrier in dancing and teaching that has led her through many places and offered her the occasion to meet diverse people and communities. Her ability to communicate with others and her passion for dancing gave her the ability to create some dancing courses for her students that encouraged them to use dancing not only as a form of self-expression, but also a means to know the world and people around them. The author of the article offers thus a new and interesting perspective on the concept of how one might use one's skills and passions in order to discover entirely different worlds.

Art and culture are according to Bergmann the tow central things in the live of the people in Trinidad and Tobago and as an artist passionate about art and culture she emerged herself into the world of these people. She found them "comfortable within themselves and happy to be contributing members of their society" (Bergmann, 2007), in spite of social and economical inequities. The opportunity to be surrounded by a whole population that shares one's passion is rare and Bergmann counts herself among those lucky enough to have earned a Fulbright scholarship that gave her the possibility to live and work among the people of Trinidad and Tobago.

Elisabeth Bergmann appears to be one of those people whose passions for her art and work are so strong that led her to overcome any obstacle that might interfere with her thirst for living a life driven by those passions. Moreover, these passions doubled by hard work, determination and most of all, by her love of people, allowed her to develop as an artist, a teacher and a lover of creativity.

The author's passion for dance surpasses an artist's love of expression on stage, with or without a public. She is clearly driven by two other passions such as: her passion to teach others and her love for diverse cultures. Trinidad offered her the opportunity to interact with people sharing her love of art and to exchange experiences and knowledge with them.

Artists are usually known to be self-centered and this is something the world around them accepts as being a condition of their very existence. They…… [read more]

Symbolism Explored in "A Hunger Artist" Franz Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (921 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Symbolism Explored in "A Hunger Artist"

Franz Kafka's short story, "A Hunger Artist" explores self-destructive behavior through self-proclaimed artistry. The artist in this story chooses to continue with his art although it is destroying him. He accepts this responsibility by refusing to do anything different that might improve his lot in life. As a result, things only get worse. This artist, however, seems to enjoy his suffering and, indeed, makes an art of it. Even in death, he brings attention to his art but in his death, he is no more gratified than he would be living. Kafka uses powerful symbols to add texture to this story. The artist places himself in a mental and physical cage and his hunger is merely a symbol of dissatisfaction with life in general. Kafka concludes the tale with a bit of irony that makes the reader reconsider his or her initial thoughts regarding the artist. Art cannot be forced upon an audience for that audience is just as fickle as the artist.

Hunger is a powerful symbol in the story. The artist is hungry for attention and recognition but it is worth noting the more successful he becomes, the more dissatisfied he remains. In fact, it is safe to presume the artist spends the majority of his life incredibly unsatisfied. Nothing, good or bad, changes this condition. He is always "unsatisfied" and "troubled in spirit" (Kafka 394). His hunger symbolizes the lifelong yearning that can never be quelched. In his last breaths, he admits, "I have to fast, I can't help it. . . . I couldn't find the food I liked. If I had found it, believe me, I should have made no fuss and stuffed myself like you or anyone else" (401). The artist has more than a dream to fulfill. He had an impossible dream to fulfill. The food he never finds is associated with his inability to simply slow down and enjoy life. He cannot find the spiritual contentment he searches for and eventually resigns himself to misery. The onlookers become less significant as we read the final lines of the story. The artist sacrificed everything for his "art" but in the end, we are faced with an individual hating not only him or herself but the rest of the world as well. He will starve until he is recognized for his greatness but the world sees nothing brilliant in starving. Hunger is a deadly cycle for this artist.

The artist's cage is another powerful symbol in the story. This setting is where he spends his time. It is fitting in that it corresponds with his psychological state. It is dirty and his situation parallels that of the caged animals in the circus. Furthermore, the artist behaves like an…… [read more]

Surrealism and Other French Francophone Intellectual Movements and Anti-Colonialism Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (717 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Surrealism's Other Side

Ratnam, Niru. "Surrealism's other side." Varieties of Modernism. Ed. Paul Wood. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004. 53-70. Ratnam, an art historian, provides information on the little-covered Caribbean Surrealists in the mid-1940s, with input from art historians Robert Linsley and Michael Richardson who had first-hand knowledge of what was taking place at the time. Ratnam expresses that he placed his emphasis on "Surrealism's encounter with 'otherness'" (54) and the artists' anti-colonial stance, rather than on the well-documented Surrealist interest in primitive art. Of considerable interest is the beginning of the chapter that introduced the interaction between Europe and Haiti Surrealists, with Andre Breton perhaps setting off the final spark that led to the revolution. In 1945 Breton spoke at a dinner in his honor. Haitian intellectuals, President Lescot and offcials expected a speech on the role of Latinity in the Americas. Instead, Breton addressed the history of Surrealism and its encounter with Marxism, and what he conceptualized as the natural latent Surrealism in Haiti's culture and people. He added insult to injury by not paying his respects to Lescot. The reactionary Haitian journal, La Ruche ('the Beehive'), used Breton's speech as "a pure and simple call to national insurrection" against Lescot (53). This led to a full-scale general strike, and the military overthrowing the dictatorship. Ratnam then reviews Ethnographic Surrealism in Europe, whose members Breton ousted out of the Parisian Surrealists in 1929, for blatant racism in their journal Documents. The chapter then segways into the Surrealists in Paris and finally to the anti-colonist mentality in the Caribbean.

Once again, the political side of the Surrealists was of personal interest. In 1931, the Parisian Surrealists banned France's International Colonial Exhibition held to "promote the economic mise en valeur (value) of its colonies" (62). Breton saw it as exploitative and destructive capitalism destroying its colonies. Meanwhile, the Caribbean Surrealists were also taking a look at the impact of Imperialism on the cultures being colonized. Richardson said the young Martinique artists turned to Surrealism because it gave them a point of departure for criticizing colonial society and a "Trojan Horse" to "enter the previously impregnable white citadel"…… [read more]

Pencil: An Artist's View of an Implement Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (652 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Pencil:" an Artist's View of an Implement

The pencil is not beautiful. Its pointed, dark grey, graphite nib is as ugly and drab as the lead-tipped pencils of my parent's childhood. It leaves a long, steely trail across the white, heavy-woven page. What will the slashing action of the pencil bring to life? A horse? A mountain? A woman's face? My fingers clasp the wood. Old-fashioned wood. Yellow and thin. Some people my age hardly know how to hold a pencil, even though their fingers dance across a computer's keys with ease. For them, gripping a pencil is like shaking hands with a stranger. They associate pencils with scantron tests that require a No.2 nib or writing thank-you notes to elderly relatives. For me, feeling the pencil is freedom: freedom from technology and linear thought as I draw, engaging in the primal pleasure of all -- making something from nothing.

The pencil can make the images in my mind come to life, although only imperfectly. As a child, I remember trying to copy a "Calvin and Hobbes" cartoon and being frustrated how the lines that looked so simple on the page looked distorted in my rendition. Now I am a better artist, but some things still frustrate me -- I see a landscape in my mind but something goes wrong in the connection between my brain, hand and pencil. The image on the page of my artist's notebook looks fine, but in my mind the image was better than fine. And I cannot blame the pencil for my failure, even though it was the instrument that produced that failure.

With the right control, the images from an artist's pencil can seduce, charm, and repel. I have become familiar with many pencils -- soft No. 1s, medium No.2s, and hard No.3s, as well as colored pencils. All types of pencils produce different lines, shadings, and different qualities of motion and stillness. A duller or shaper…… [read more]