"Art / Painting / Sculpture" Essays

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Comparing and Contrasting Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (878 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … shield is oblong; almost a perfect oval shape except the top half is slightly narrower than the bottom half. There is a figure of a human in the center of shield that looks almost like a prophet of some sort because of the way the arms are held upward and to the side. It also looks like he is wearing a robe of some sort. The main colors of the piece are brown, black, gold, tan and dark orange. The central human figure takes up the majority of the shield. There are a lot of uneven lines going around the perimeter of the shield, and there are bunch of short lines grouped together at the bottom of the shield underneath where the human figure is standing. There is also a grouping of lines above the head of the figure, but not as many as are below. Most of the lines in the bottom part of the shield are curved lines, while the ones that are going up the sides of the shield are straight lines.


Lines play a significant role in this piece. The straighter lines going up the left and right side of the shield are in alignment with the shape of the sides of the piece. The curved lines at the top and the bottom are in alignment with the curved shape of these parts of the shield. This helps to create a sense of balance and symmetry even though the lines themselves are uneven. In regard to the different tones in the different areas of the shield, the darker (black) shapes are in perfect symmetry as they designate the right and left side of the robe worn by the human figure. The brighter, 'shinier' hues (gold and orange) are used to flank the main figure, helping the dark areas to 'pop'. The gold areas are must less solid and more wispy than the other tones, giving the shield a more majestic feeling than it would have if the gold had been left out of it. The form is a combination of open and closed because although the lines around the perimeter of the shield create a sense of enclosure of the human figure, at the same time they are broken lines, so there is a sense of openness as well. Overall, the piece is very solid and has a heavy volume.


I believe that the artist is trying to show that a person can have power and be regal, but still can feel somewhat trapped by his responsibilities and duties to the people he rules. I have made this interpretation based on…… [read more]

Preschoolers Drawing Development Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,518 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Preschoolers Drawing Development

Artistic development: Preschool children

As both funding and time grows scarce within the public school system, arts education is often shelved in favor of more conventional academic subjects. Even preschool age children are often subject to preparation for kindergarten, rather than allowed to explore and 'make a mess' with artistic materials. However, just like language, art is… [read more]

International of Music Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,176 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


International of Music

Under the circumstances in which globalization has opened the barriers between geographical frontiers and has basically created a sort of unique international market, it is useless to say that this market is worth entering due to the numerous opportunities it present. The opportunities are available for any type of product or service, including a singer. Nevertheless it… [read more]

Francois Boucher the Toilet of Venus Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,067 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Toilet of Venus

Francois Boucher's rich and brilliantly detailed Toilet of Venus capture the goddess in the midst of her morning preparations. Three small cherubs, typical in their depiction as toddlers with wing, are engaged in making Venus look pretty -- one does her hair, another is on his belly retrieving what appears to be a string of pearls, presumably to adorn her with. The third cherub's task is less obvious and explicit. He is grasping a length of blue ribbon, which is also draped around the neck of a dove and clasped by Venus herself as she stares dreamily off to her right and down. Another dove is at her feet, and both birds appear to be full of movement. The entire scene takes place on a richly appointed bed with the heavy curtains behind it partially open to reveal an open patio and a blue though cloudy morning sky, and the bed on which Venus and her attendants sit is richly carved and gold in color, and golden urns lie carelessly about the floor where they mingle with flowers and Venus' jewelry. The more opulent details of this painting definitely reflect the time and place from which the painting springs; it was painted in France just decades before the French Revolution ended the extreme excesses of the monarchy when it came to luxury.

The combination of subject elements makes this painting difficult to classify; the goddess and cherubs are typical of Renaissance paintings, but the partial landscape visible behind the main scene, and the complexities of color, shadow, and texture -- in the wrinkled curtain and bedclothes, the various treasures scattered about, the birds wings, etc. -- all belong more to the eighteenth century to which the painting actually belongs. The goddess herself is obviously the center of attention, however, and her presence and far-off expression characterize the piece as a sort of snapshot or un-posed portrait typical of Renaissance paintings depicting gods, goddesses, and heroes. The brief stripe of landscape running vertically through the center of the painting remains calm and pleasant looking despite the large and darkening cloud that feature so prominently in it, hinting at the beginnings of naturalism. The richness of color and general brightness overrides the darkness of the cloud and even the possible pensiveness in Venus' brow, tough, ultimately characterizing the painting as a happy and not incredibly profound portrayal of the subject.

The painter mainly employs linear perspective, though due to the proximity of the viewer to the piece it is hard to tell. Boucher seems to almost purposefully have avoided any use of parallel lines, which makes linear perspective difficult -- if not impossible -- to perceive. Atmospheric perspective tends to bend the scene together, however, ending equal focus to each constitutive element in the painting, and this does not appear to be the case here. There is the suggestion of atmosphere brought in by the bit of landscape, and in the way that the figures -- and… [read more]

Self-Destructive Behavior Depicted in Kafka's the Metamorphosis Thesis

Thesis  |  15 pages (4,103 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Self-Destructive Behavior Depicted in Kafka's

The Metamorphosis" and "A Hunger Artist"

Self-destructive behavior is not always obvious, especially to the one practicing it. Many people find themselves feeling that the only way that they can live on this earth is if they are experiencing some soft of difficulty or hardship and if the world does not freely provide them with… [read more]

Nuit Blanche Was Founded in 2002 Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (738 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Nuit Blanche was founded in 2002 in Paris and has grown rapidly since. In 2006, the Deputy Mayor of Paris, Christophe traveled to Toronto and helped set up the first official North American edition of the event. Held September 30, 2006, the event was a huge success and has become a Toronto tradition. Based on the success of the Toronto event, the Nuit Blanche has since been expanded into several other North American cities.

With the event having so quickly become ensconced in the fabric of Toronto life, it is worth exploring the history of the Nuit Blanche, to see just how and why this event became so successful. From its origins in Paris, to the unique way in which it treats art as an accessible public object free from boundaries of the mind, Nuit Blanche has tapped into something at the core of Torontonians outlook on life.

The history of Nuit Blanche can be explored from several perspectives. There is the consideration of the close relationship between the cities of Toronto and Paris that helped bring the event to North America in 2006. There is the philosophy behind the art that makes it to accessible to the public. There are also many logistical considerations to be considered when translating an event from Paris to Toronto and then doubling its size within two years. All of these collectively form the history of the Nuit Blanche in Toronto.

No author. (2008). "Event History." Scotiabank Nuit Blanche. Retrieved November 2, 2008 from http://www.scotiabanknuitblanche.ca/eventHistory.shtml

This article outlines the history of the event in Toronto. It outlines both the 2006 and 2007 events, their economic impact, their attendance and their overall success. There is a section that explains the history of the event globally, from its inception in Paris in 2002 until today. The article also delves into some of the key success factors that have helped it spread - the quality of the art combined with its accessibility and the event's uniqueness.

Whyte, Michael. (2008). "Is it art? Nuit Blanche brings question to the fore" Toronto Star. Retrieved November 2, 2008 from http://www.thestar.com/printArticle/511763

This article discusses some of the conceptual underpinnings of the Nuit Blanche concept. It explores the nature of conceptual…… [read more]

Schn's Thinking to the Ideas Covered Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (483 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Schn's thinking to the ideas covered so far in this course concerning research and knowing through research?

Research can be active and engaging. Schn presents a whole new vision of research that is more applicable to the arts than most models of research are. Research models that emphasize science or even literature are based on limited activities. The research that Schn describes is more comprehensive. The artist takes more responsibility for exploring the subject matter with multiple senses: hearing, sight, touch, smell, and taste as well as analysis and reflection. Using symbols and other visual emblems is also part of knowing through research: gathering data from multiple sources and synthesizing it into a new whole.

How does his "knowing in action" and "reflection in action" relate to a graphic designer's practice and ways of designing?

Schn refers to knowing in action as any act that embodies wisdom and knowledge. Therefore, an artist's work is always knowing in action because the artist is executing based on prior accumulated knowledge about his or her subject matter or media selection. Similarly, artists use reflection in action all the time to convey their subjective realities. When, as Schn suggests, a graphic designer encounters a surprise then reflection is absolutely necessary to discover ways of working around it.

How do Frayling's 3 ways of researching connect to Schn's? Are they compatible or incompatible?

Frayling's 3 ways of researching connect to Schn's theories of knowing…… [read more]

Comics With Scott Mccloud's 1993 Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (629 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Comics with Scott McCloud

Scott McCloud's 1993 illustrated work of non-fiction is an unusually clever approach to its selected subject matter. It has a meta-reference quality to it, offering a professional overview of the art of comics, using comic illustrations and linguistic nuances in order to provide a text which is equally explanatory and demonstrative in its approach.

Based on the content and resolutions raised in Chapter Seven, McCloud's book may be assessed as an active blueprint for understanding both the process and the emphasis which enter into the art form. The topic of this chapter is the Six Steps to effective comic art. This gives McCloud the chance to delineate his assessment that such matters as Idea and Form help to justify and classify art and artists. In the field of comics, the emphasis taken by the artist on one or the other, McCloud contends, will help to define this comic artist with the context of his medium.

This is an assessment with McCloud seems to offer to the newcomer in the field. For such an individual, the premise is that a preeminent interest in form, for instance, is found in cartoonists who "are often pioneers and revolutionaries -- artists who want to shake things up." (McCloud, 179) This explanation underscores the author's purpose, which is to help comic artists or prospective comic artists to identify the connections between comic art theory and the manner in which these individuals pursue the mode of expression. This discussion finds that in Chapter Seven, the author succeeds at offering a step-by-step explanation of the elements which constitute an artistic theory on the subject.

This discussion is given greater foundation by the definitional intent of Chapter One. In the first chapter of this text, McCloud introduces both his subject and his purpose, cleverly delineating the definition of comics through the medium itself. There is a…… [read more]

Jirobo - Famous Ceramic Mugs/Cups Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (2,950 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Jirobo - Famous Ceramic Mugs/Cups

Jirobo is one of the first Raku ware tea drinking bowls that were created by Chojiro. Though there is no available dating for the piece, Tanaka Chojiro was alive from 1516-1592. His work was chosen as the new style that should be used in the traditional tea ceremonies of Japan in the late 1500s. Sen… [read more]

Universal Themes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (586 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Western Civilization

Life, Death, and Transcendence in 20th Century Western Art

The 20th century in the West will always be remembered as the century that gave us Modernism, a significant arts movement that simultaneously asserted the need to "make it new" while looking to the traditions of the past. Central to the Modernist cause was the theme of life, death, and transcendence - a universal theme that is often overlooked in favor of loftier ambitions of unraveling the Modernist puzzle. In this brief essay, I will investigate the trajectory paved by this spiritual theme through one of the more significant Modernist movements of the 20th century - abstract expressionism. Specifically, I will evaluate the role that life, death, and the yearning for transcendence played in the life and work of one of its central artists, Mark Rothko.

In his book New Art City, Jed Perl argues that the paradox that lies at the heart of the New York School of painters (from which abstract expressionism was born) was the desire for transcendence in a work of art.

It is [the] inward or ideal world which constitutes the content of the romantic sphere," Hegel had written; "romantic art must be regarded as art transcending itself, albeit... In the form of art itself." What Hegel was suggesting was that the artist's immersion in motifs and materials and methods - all the physical characteristics of the work - became the vehicle for an expression so exalted that it defied the physicality of the work that had precipitated it. And if that was a paradox, it was the paradox at the heart of the School of New York (Perl 160).

Of course, the paradox of transcendence in art that the New York School painters contended with extended…… [read more]

Narrative and Craft Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,389 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Narrative and Craft

On a world history scale, written narrative is a fairly recent phenomenon. It only developed after human beings had existed for thousands of years. No written narrative of the ancient past is therefore available to the investigator of history, and different means of narrative construction becomes necessary. The discipline of archaeology has brought about a connection between… [read more]

Kori Newkirk Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (329 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Kori Newkirk

Recently, the young artist Kori Newkirk had a retrospective at the Studio Museum of Harlem. The Studio Museum of Harlem describes itself as "the nexus for black artists locally, nationally, and internationally, and for work that has been inspired by black culture. It is a site for the dynamic exchange of ideas about art and society."

This Museum is a fitting place for a large-scale exhibition of Newkirk's works, as Newkirk is considered to be one of the most important African-American artists working today. The show, which covers ten years of his artistic output, features self-portraits, big beaded curtains made out of fake hair and pony beans, as well as suburban cityscapes. One of the things that distinguishes Newkirk from other artists is his unusual choice of materials. He is not even afraid to use pomade in some of his works. Of course, the choice of pomade links Newkirk's work to the African-American tradition of using this waxy substance as a means…… [read more]

Geisha From Japan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,706 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Geisha From Japan

The image of a "geisha" for the country where the art of geisha was born and developed is the equivalent of the Eiffel Tour symbol for France, the Statue of Liberty for the United States of America or the Tower Bridge for UK. Unlike these symbols for the afore mentioned countries, the concept of geisha remains hidden… [read more]

Buddha Two Images Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (741 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Two Images of Buddha

The recent filed trip to the Metropolitan Museum was a remarkable experience, especially when considering these two rendering of the Miroku Bosatsu, in Sanskrit the Maitreya Bodhisattva. The first is a hanging scroll and the second is a statue, both are of the same image of the Future Buddha seated in the lotus position with his hands in a classic mudra, or spiritual hand gesture of mediation. This is the Buddha that will return to the world and teach the Dahhma, the spiritual way of Buddhism. These images are also interesting from a dimensional perspective as well. Although both are of the same almost identical subject, one is a two dimensional representation as a portrait and the other is a three dimensional representation, as a statue.

At first glance the sheer size of the statue is quite impressive. The texture is the next intrinsic element. Not only of the undulating lines of the robe and the features on the face of the sculpture but also of what time has done to deliver a beautiful patina to the surface of the metal. The feeling of age is something that cannot be duplicated exactly by its two dimensional counterpart. However, the colors of the scroll have probably faded somewhat over time and the reddish hue that is left may be the result that time has impressed upon it.

Both Bodhisattvas are seated on a lotus fountain, the detail in the statue is to scale and quite remarkable. One can feel the image of the Buddha in a serene and peaceful state, and there is somehow the presence of a peaceful courtyard imagined around it. There is, however, also a feeling of heaviness that this statue projects and while this adds to the overall impression of a sculpture, in this case the heaviness seems to take away from the lightness of features and the serenity the sculptor was trying to project. However, this is not the case with the image on the scroll.

The figure on the scroll seems to completely project the energy and lightness of the Maitreya Bodhisattva. This medium also allows a little more input by the artist. While the statue certainly has a realistic…… [read more]

Titian's the Pastoral Concert and Matisse Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (861 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Titian's the Pastoral Concert and Matisse's the Joy of Life

Although painted some 400 years apart by painters having little in common in terms of artistic conception, society in which they lived or creative credo, Titian's "Pastoral Concert" and Matisse's "The Joy of Life" are nevertheless incredibly similar in terms of the message passed on, in the way the main characters populate the picture or in the attention shown towards human nature, in all its different perspectives and manifestations.

Titian's painting was painted some time around 1510, when the artist was supposed to have been under the artistic patronage and influence of Giorgione, one of the best and innovative Italian painters of the Renaissance. In the forefront of the painting, the artist depicts an elegant young nobleman (most likely, given his clothes and his elegant posture) and a poor shepherd. There communication is tacit, one doesn't expect to have them converse, but the glances they exchange are eloquent that they are already establishing a level of communication.

The other two characters in the painting are two nude women, most likely nymphs. One of them seems to participate in the communication scheme between the two young men, but the other one is turned away from the entire scene, facing the audience rather than the small group. This oblique turning away seems to be an aesthetic approach as well, a mean to juxtapose the other characters in the painting.

On the other hand, Matisse's painting has all the stylized perspective of the beginning of the 20th century. His aesthetic leaves very much to the viewer to actually interpret and associate meaning to his painting. His characters are not completely drawn, but barely sketched, in different colors and shapes, but again, barely defined otherwise. The painting shows a large number of individuals in the nature, somewhere between a forest and a meadow, all involved in different static and dynamic acts that include dancing, standing, communicating. Despite the fact that the characters are not drawn in their entirety, each individual in the painting stands alone as a remarkable character in itself. Whether through movement or gesture or pose, they each seem to express something in their own right.

This is perhaps the first great similarity between the two paintings. Despite the fact that they would describe a basically static image (a painting of nature populated by individuals), both paintings are extremely expressive and dynamic in the way the characters manifest themselves, even without actually moving. This is perhaps even more obvious in Titian's painting, because all the four characters, except maybe the…… [read more]

Hunger Artist Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,321 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Hunger Artist

Barred in a cage, like a show animal, the hunger artist fasts for forty days, as long as he is allowed (although he would like to do longer). At first, he is the "star," and people come from far and wide to buy tickets and watch him. They do not believe that he can go so long without eating, and make sure that he does not cheat by watching him day and night. The hunger artist loves this attention and the starvation, itself.

However, with anything new and exciting, the hunger artist's act becomes old and boring. With time, no one wants to watch him anymore. People are moving on to new attractions. The hunger artist joins a circus and stays in a cage by the animals, so people have to pass him by before going to see the other animals. After a while, they do not even stop to see him, because they do not understand what he is doing. The hunger artist goes longer and finally dies from starvation.

Kafka writes in such detail in the "here and now," and starting with the present tense, that the reader is quickly swept into the story and forgets that it is an allegory and not really taking place. The descriptions, "the children stood openmouthed, holding each other's hands for greater security, marveling at him as he sat there pallid in black tights, with his ribs sticking out so prominently, not even on a seat but down among straw on the ground..." are so vivid, that the reader becomes a voyeur, as well.

The hunger artist is a person who loves attention and being in control. He uses his fasting art as a means of power over others. That is why he is so upset when they make him eat after 40 days; he has to relinquish his power. "Why should he be cheated of the fame he would get for fasting longer..." he questions. It is this fame that fills him, instead of food. He thrives on the people who come closest to the cage to see him.

The people that Kafka writes about are the same today, as they were then. The news and television shows cover the worst aspects of humanity, and people love to watch. Increasingly, the reality shows are becoming more base. In Sweden, the producers want to do a show where men and women with disfigured faces meet one another, so they, too, can date and have a normal life. Look at the amount of people who watched the trials about Anna Nicole Smith for hours at a time. While other stories came out about Iraq, Iran, President Bush and Scooter Libby, people were more interested in what was happening with Anna Nicole. However, the attention span does not remain long, people quickly move on to other stories, which are more gruesome. They relish in the fact that "it's them, not me." That is why news is told in "bites," so viewers can… [read more]

Franz Kafka's a Hunger Artist Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,469 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Franz Kafka's "A Hunger Artist"

Another symbol for alienation, along so many others in Kafka's work, a Hunger Artist is one of the most explicit stories related to the condition of the artist in a world he does not feel he belongs to. It is also a reflection on the condition of the artist constantly needing attention, exhibitionist, but also… [read more]

Hunger Artist Published in 1924, Franz Kafka Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,198 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Hunger Artist

Published in 1924, Franz Kafka's 'The Hunger Artist' is an unforgettable story that recounts the pain and anguish of an artist who earns through public fasting. The mordent tale is highly symbolic in nature and signifies the rapid though subtle death of the artist and his art. The story revolves around a fasting artist who recalls the times when people would pay tribute to public fasting feats by visiting the artist on every single day till he broke his fast in style. In those days, "there was good money to be earned putting on major productions of this sort under one's own management" (1) but he sadly agrees that, "interest in hunger artists has declined considerably." (1)

The feat is no longer fascinating to the crowd as they have stopped visiting the artist and are more interested in other activities at the circus. Even the management doesn't really care anymore since the hunger artist is making much. The large crowds at the circus hardly notice his dull and solitary cage but if they did, the artist would consider it an honor. He was grateful for all the other activities at the circus that drew large crowds. "....he had the animals to thank for the crowds of visitors among whom, here and there, there could be one destined for him." In the end, in order to prove his worth or rather to end his sorry existence, the artist performs the feat for one last time and dies. The administration quickly replaced him with a panther - which was clearly a more lucrative option.

The story, on the surface, recounts the tale of a suffering artist but it is actually symbolic of art in general in this rapidly commercializing world. The artist represents every artist with a serious love for his talent and profession who is gradually losing his worth and value in a world that has become too materialistic and commercialized. The story may make you wonder why would an artist starve to earn? But it is not actually starvation; the story is symbolizing the starvation afflicted on every artist today. Remember the artist is not starving consciously but the society is no longer taking care of his needs as the artist in the story tells his supervisor: "...I couldn't find a food which I enjoyed. If had found that, believe me, I would not have made a spectacle of myself and would have eaten to my heart's content, like you and everyone else."

The artist also shares a weird relationship with the public. This is an interesting point to understand. The artist is in love with his profession but his love is fleeting. It is not based on his true passion for his art but on the fact that it gives him public adulation and respect. He is craving for public's love and when that love is taken away, his passion for his art diminishes to the point that it becomes non-existent. Kafka is trying to explain that… [read more]

Kafka's Hunger Artist the Hunger Artist,' True Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,542 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Kafka's Hunger Artist

The Hunger Artist,' true to Kafkan form, is a deeply ironic narrative that pairs the struggles of the individual with the whims of the larger world. In a maze characterized by consumption and self-satisfaction, the hunger artist seemingly bravely rebukes the quotidian luxuries of the masses in favor of some higher glory: the satisfaction of the fast.… [read more]

Hunger Artist Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,281 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Hunger Artist

Let's face it: nowadays, people are not interested anymore in professional fasting, while some years ago, everybody bought tickets only to watch a starving artist in his public cage. This is only a starting idea in a row of even stranger ideas and mixtures between the real and the surreal in Kafka's short story, a Hunger Artist, written in 1922.

The plot structure of the story is divided into three parts and each of them stands for a metaphoric profound meaning. At the very beginning, everybody wanted to see the artist in his cage and there were even permanent watchers to ensure that he was not cheating and secretly eating. Besides, others tried to leave him alone for some moments, because they thought he would eat something in this time. Yet, he likes talking to people at night, being an insomniac, and also seeing people's joy when having breakfast at his expense. He sees such pleasure in fasting, that he would do it all the rest of his life. But his impresario has other plans for him: his fasting is allowed only for forty days. When the time comes, two ladies escort the artist to a luxuriant rich meal. Nevertheless, he remains on his position: he would not eat for anything in the world. Faced with his firm attitude, the impresario forces him to swallow some larder; the watchers leave satisfied, and the artist is left alone and dismal, as always.

During the years to come, the artist continues his public fasting and his manager starts to lie the audience, sustaining that not eating causes a deep tremendous sadness. but, one day, people left, attracted by other strange things. The artist was left alone with his impresario, who tried to reinstate his client's fame, by proposing a European continental tour. But nothing works. The artist is forced to get employed in a circus and removes himself from his impresario.

At the circus, he places his cage near the animals, so that people, when passing by the animals, would see him too. But an old man stops by and tells the children around him the hunger artist's unusual story. The notice board indicating the length of the fast is not updated, so the hunger artist simply continues to fast so that he may be breaking records, but no one, including him, knows. If someone accuses the hunger artist of cheating, he feels it is the "stupidest lie," since it is he who is being cheated when deprived of his "reward."

After a long time of disregard, the circus' staff remembers the artist and asks him if he is still fasting. He confirms and begins to ask the people around to forgive him, because, if he, some time ago, tried to convince everybody to admire him for his fasting, he must admit now that they shouldn't. The artist says that he didn't eat only because he didn't find any food to really like; otherwise, he would have eaten.… [read more]

Hunger Artist Is a Strange and Compelling Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,273 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Hunger Artist is a strange and compelling short story, which revolves around the themes of artistic alienation and suffering. The story is characteristic of Kafka's work in that it seems both fantastic and real at the same time. The narrative deals with the life and death of a hunger artist or a man who fasts as an art form. The structure story can roughly be divided it three sections.

In the first section we encounter the hunger artist at the height of his fame and renown. He is admired for his profound fasting ability and the people stream to see him. As in many of Kafka's stories, there is a sense of irony and paradox which permeates the text. The hunger artist in fact enjoys his fasting and his suffering. The emphasis on suffering also shows how different and opposite to society the artist is. In many ways he is in conflict with the views and norms of the society. In his representation of the hunger artist, Kafka makes the abnormal seem to be normal in a certain sense. This can be seen in the obvious reality that the hunger artist is in actually starving himself - a fact that is contrary to the norms or usual ways in human society.

This conflict within the story is aided by the realistic tone and detail that are used to describe the hunger artist. For example, the following extract clearly describes the hunger artist as a real person. "...he sat there pallid in black tights, with his ribs sticking out so prominently, not even on a seat but down among straw on the ground, sometimes giving a courteous nod, answering questions with a constrained smile, or perhaps stretching an arm through the bars so that one might feel how thin it was..." (a Hunger Artist)

The second part of the story begins with a sudden decline in the popularity of the hunger artist and his profession. People no longer admire of find his art interesting, or his ability to go without food impressive. As a result he has to resort to commercializing his art and is forced to join a circus. However, even in the circus his "talents' are not appreciated and he is placed next to the animals. He finds that the audience moves quickly past his performance area to the animals, hardly pausing to notice him.

The relationship between the audience and the artist is also a theme that Kafka explores in this story. There is reciprocity between the two and the hunger artist is dependent on the public appreciation of his suffering. However this relationship breaks done in the circus and the artist is given only a small glimpse of hope and a fading recollection of his previous glory. He is aware that the public is no longer interested in his particular art form, what did they care about fasting?" (a Hunger Artist)

He is only slightly encouraged by younger members of the public who "...showed by the brightness… [read more]

Where Do Ideas Come? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (308 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … arises in the mind. Ideas give rise to concepts, which are the basis for knowledge. The artistic notion of ideas is that they do not evolve from previous experience; they are the birth of something totally new. But, ideas don't just happen. Perhaps preconceptions are pushed aside, but when devising an idea people think about their past experience and what want in the future. This is not to say that the creative process does not involve original thinking, but it is based on prior knowledge.

According to Wallas (1926), one of the first to explore the creative process, there are four sequential steps in the creative process. The first is the creative process in which a deficiency or a gap in knowledge is sensed. The second stage is incubation in which information is acquired, ideas are explored and solutions begine to be formulated. Next, illumination happens. In this third stage, there is…… [read more]

Museum Displays, According to Thelma Thomas Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (314 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Museum displays, according to Thelma Thomas, can significantly detract from an object's inherent cultural and historical meaning. Placing an object out of context means that the viewer ceases to take into account issues such as religiosity, sacredness, emotional content, cultural relevance, and historical context. Thomas focuses her article "Understanding Objects" on the importance of creating apt and meaningful display environments for medieval objects in particular.

Thomas implies that the work of museum cataloging needs to become more multi-disciplinary in its approach. Rather than noting the size, medium, and date of production, a curator must also take into account the ritualistic, sociological, or commercial uses for the particular object. As a result, the emphasis is on the relationship between the object and its contemporary human beings, rather than only on the object itself.

Displaying a medieval or any other object with respect to its cultural and historical contexts can greatly enhance the modern art historian's understanding…… [read more]

Convergence by Jackson Pollock Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (333 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


This sense of sprawl and splash is the result of the artist's higher consciousness and deliberation in his use of color and line. Convergence and a sense of disconnection, does not merely emerge from every canvas with a few haphazard colors trailed across its surface.

Secondly, artistic technique is used to convey a clear and unifying artistic idea. Pollock's masterpiece of abstract style, of multicolored drippings and splashes of paint with no points of emphasis or identifiable parts for the whole canvas deliberately gives the viewer a sense of the meanderings of his or her own existence, or wanderings through teaming modern life. "Convergence" uses painterly technique in an interpretable fashion to convey chaos and a lack of connection rather than harmony -- no one could walk away from the canvas, even one who did not understand the work, feeling more comfortable and at home in his or her surroundings

Works Cited

Pollock,…… [read more]

Romney and Raphael the Portrait Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,234 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Both are painted in oils, and they are even of a roughly similar size, both being approximately 3 feet tall by 2 feet in width. If we look a little deeper we can find further relationships between the two. Both artists were clearly setting out in these works to create pictures of women that emphasized their physical attractiveness (from a male point-of-view, and both artists were, of course, men). There is a similar visual vocabulary of physical/sexual allure in each picture: large eyes, full lips, smooth skin, finely contoured oval face, straight nose, long neck, full bosom. The nudity of the Raphael allows for a fuller display of the subject's bodily attractions, but Romney's Emma, although clothed, is represented in a powerfully alluring way, with a large percentage of bare skin on display and the low neckline of her dress emphasizing the curves of her body. The natural setting of each figure, with green leaves much in evidence, further suggests the notions of fertility associated with the depiction of woman.

There are also notable and significant points of contrast between the pictures. The stylistic approach in each case is representative of the era in which the artist was working. The Raphael was painted over 260 years before the Romney; Raphael was working within the tradition of the Italian Renaissance, with its formalism, its idealization of forms, and classicizing context. Romney was at work in the late eighteenth century, the period of romanticism, individualism, and the worship of 'nature'. 'La Fornarina' is a much more formal composition than Romney's work. The subject is posed stiffly in the center of the picture, her body turned at a slight angle to the picture plane, her posture upright and symmetrical. The formality of her pose is in contrast to her nakedness, and the cool distance Raphael has created between the subject and the viewer seems paradoxical given the frank appeal of her physical presence, emphasized by the warm tones of her flesh and the alluring sideways glance of her large dark eyes. There is a tension between the female figure as a classical goddess, against a background of evergreen laurel, and the human appeal of the young attractive woman who was Raphael's model, and perhaps his intimate companion. In the case of Romney's 'Lady Hamilton' there is no such tension -- the whole image is in harmony with the conception of Emma Hamilton as a spirit of nature itself. Her off-center positioning, the suggestion of movement the position of her body and the tilted poise of her neck reveal a living, lively figure at one with the windblown romantic landscape behind her. She is not a threatening presence, however; she beckons the (male) onlooker with her bright eyes, direct gaze and laughing mouth to a realm of the delights of nature, apprehended through the delights of the senses. In a way, the onlooker is invited to become her companion in the same way as her little dog, who also looks straight at the viewer… [read more]

Edward Feels Trapped Because He Creates Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,870 words)
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Edward feels trapped because he creates his own problems. When he starts going to church and saying that he believes in God, he does it only because he wants to be with Alice and have her love him. She is cool to him and does not permit him to have sex with her, because she believes it to be a… [read more]

Keats John Keats' Poem Ode Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (705 words)
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The image on the proverbial urn, can never age, nor can his or her lyre ever go out of tune, or pipe ever get weary. For that matter the passage of time can never turn the spring to fall and therefore the image and the imagined music can be forever in their apex.

Keats ideal of beauty is probably the most profound of the thematic messages within the work. His message seems to be that the figures on the Urn are the ideal of beauty but are vague enough that the viewer can behold the beauty as he or she sees fit to meet his or her own ideal. Therefore the work will always encompass beauty. "When old age shall this generation waste, Though shalt remain, in midst of other woe / Than ours, a friend to man, to whom thou say'st, / "Beauty is truth, truth beauty, -- that is all / ye know on earth, and all ye need to know." (lns 46-50)

Keating, in this work an intense sense of the positive aspects of art, and especially ancient art, that art that cannot be explained or interpreted by any living soul. Furthermore the messages of the work are as enduring as the Urn itself, though only from memory Keats' demonstrates the ideal of the Grecian Urn as well as the ideal of human love and beauty. The silence of the works demonstrate an image of that which cannot be corrupted, the messages are so ancient that the beautiful pastoral locations are unknown and the peoples feats can only be idealized. The reader leaves with an sense of enduring hope that ideal beauty is in the eye of the beholder and even though real beauty, love and silence are corrupted on this corporeal earth their images in ancient history can always remain ideal.

RPO John Keats "Ode to a Grecian Urn" 2003, Retrieved July, 20, 2004 at http://eir.library.utoronto.ca/rpo/display/poem1129.html.… [read more]

Desire Is to Continue Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (688 words)
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No artist can simply give up when something goes wrong, or they will never be able to create anything worthwhile at all. I learn from my mistakes instead of allowing them to get the best of me.

Through the ability to create something out of ceramic, I am able to express things that I cannot express in mere words. There are some things in life that speak to the heart rather than to the mind, and for me ceramics is a way to show those things that are directed at emotions and feelings, rather than logic and intellect. That does not mean that people who enjoy ceramics are not intelligent, it only means that there are other ways to express feelings than by a specific choice of words. Sometimes, feelings are so deep that words simply cannot get across what the meaning should be. Art work is another way of expressing the feelings that words just can't get at.

The main reason that I hope to be accepted into graduate school to study Fine Art is not for the professional and social connections it will provide me, although those are significant and important. Mostly, this graduate degree is for me. It is not something to show the world; it is something to show myself, and to remind me to believe it myself and my abilities when I question them.

With this degree, I will have more confidence in the fact that not only do I have the knowledge and skills to create the kinds of work that I wish to create, but that I have been given this knowledge and taught the skills by some of the best individuals who are qualified to do so. With this footing beneath me, I will have stronger belief in my own abilities, and I will also have the opportunity for others who desire to work with ceramics as much as I do to examine my work and pass critical judgment on it, so that I may continue…… [read more]

Particularly What You Have Done Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (689 words)
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A really enjoy drawing each other in class. We see each other in class as both artist and subject and this makes for very interesting perceptions. One thing I have learned in class is that seeing and perception can be very different from each other. Perception really involves a direct experience with who or what we are seeing.

I think that's one of the other reasons why I like charcoal as a mode of expression. Although using color can be a vibrant addition to expressing what you see, I feel that charcoal and pencil in some cases can concentrate on the features of your subject. It can be a medium that allows you to blend imagination and form and expression with a passion that does not elicit itself in paint.

Drawing really allows us to translate what we see by constructing an image that goes beyond what would be captured by a camera. The great part about drawing each other in class is that we also have a sense of who is behind the face and the form that we draw. This takes on a very different persona than drawing famous people that we don't really know. Although that provides a different form of expression, it is less internalized than drawing from real life.

There is no one thing I can pinpoint as not particularly liking. Perhaps working in just the medium I like best but than I would not be exposed to other possibilities and forms of expression. For the most part, class has been a good experience and has provided me with an opportunity to test my skills, determine my style and express myself through lines and form.

For me, drawing is a manifestation of several things -- my inner self, my sense of what art is, what I see through the naked eye and my subject. It is a complimentary blend of all these factors that contribute to the eventual drawing that I complete. It is the opportunity to make something…… [read more]

Metaphors, Similes, Analogies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (376 words)
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Art, often described by many as 'a pillar of the community,' was arrested last Friday night after police caught him driving like a bat out of hell down Elm Street. This was undoubtedly the darkest day of Art's life. Handcuffed and badly shaken, he was taken to the local cooler where he was left like so much flotsam until his old lady, Brandy, posted bond in the wee hours of the following morning. It is speculated that the reason Brandy took her sweet time in dragging her can to the cooler, is that Art had been up to his armpits with an enormous assortment of gold-digging girlfriends. Looking sheepish as he was released from a jail of metal bars and taken into the custody of his marital warden, the arrest undoubtedly clipped his wings, at least for the time being.

It is through the use of familiar symbols that metaphors, similes and analogies can be used to not only paint a very clear picture, but to create a unique writing style.… [read more]

1809, by Adolf Loos Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (782 words)
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His work is influenced by a number of other German thinkers as well. Adorno acknowledged the emancipatory potential of art through his aesthetic theory. According to this theory art offers a vision of a different world. However, it is pointed out that only the sovereign art can offer this opposition. The essay 'Functionalism Today' is Adorno's debate on the issue of architecture and reveals the inconsistency in Adolf Loo's treatment of functionalism. He argues that the purposive and purpose-free arts are logically related and cannot be treated as entirely separate. Even the purpose free art has some social purpose hidden in it which is not materialistically apparent.

…..'The absolute rejection of style', Adorno concludes famously, 'becomes itself a form of style.'

While commenting on functionalism, Loos argues that ornament cannot be regarded as a depraved product of erotic symbolism. However, Adorno comments that even the functional may attract the symbolic. In his article Adorno expresses doubt on the assumption made by Loos that while an artwork need not appeal to anyone, a house is responsible to each and everyone. He expressed discontent on the German style of reconstruction. Adorno thinks that the nature of artworks requires the essential and necessary elements to be present in them and to question the presence of unessential elements. However, the judgment of right and wrong is now to be made by itself on the basis of forthcoming logic regardless of whether it was motivated by some external logic. He further argues that in any given product, freedom from purpose and purposefulness can never be absolutely separated from one another. The two notions are historically interconnected. According to him the ornaments, after all, which Loos expulsed with an enthusiasm quite out of character, are often actually leftovers of outmoded means of production. On the other hand, Loos argues that and the philosophy in the early period of functionalism, purposeful and aesthetically autonomous products were separated from one another by absolute fact. This separation, which is in fact the object of our reflection, arose from the contemporary polemic against the applied arts and crafts. He further comments that the practical reorientation of purpose-free art would eventually subordinate it to the destructive autocracy of profit, which even arts and crafts, at least in their beginnings, had…… [read more]

Road Construction in the US Equipment and Materials Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,390 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Equipment and Materials: Road Construction in the U.S.

Road Construction in the U.S.: Equipment and Materials

Roads have been in existence ever since man began to see the need for transportation. Traditionally, however, most roads were made out of dirt, and were easily damaged by strong rains. Today, the roads are much wider, solid and stronger. This text examines the various equipment, materials, and procedures used in the construction of modern-day roads in the U.S.

Road Construction in the U.S.

Roads have been in existence since time immemorial. However, changing modes of transport have prompted changes in the modalities of road construction over the centuries. Before the 1920s, roads in the United States were largely built from dirt -- the process of road construction involved pressing the dirt on the surface evenly and removing the rocks and vegetation in between. However, such roads were difficult to maintain as they were easily damaged by strong rains and heavy vehicles (InnovateUs Inc., 2013). The roads had to undergo huge changes to become more solid and better able to support the modern-day buses and trucks. Road construction today differs from that of the olden days in the materials and equipment used, as well as in the overall procedure of construction.

Materials used in Road Construction

The materials used in construction differ based on the type of road being constructed. Concrete roads are made out of concrete, which is produced by mixing Portland, cement, rock, sand and water (InnovateUs Inc., 2013). These roads are often very strong, and are usually constructed in busy commercial places and areas of high traffic (InnovateUs Inc., 2013). Asphalt roads are also very popular, and are built by mixing tar seal and gravel (Gartner, 1989). The two components are first mixed by hand and the mixture laid down on the surface. Later on, the uneven surfaces are pressed to smoothen the road surface, and the road is then left to dry (InnovateUs Inc., 2013). Asphalt roads are not as strong as concrete roads, although they are still very common in urban commercial areas, main streets of cities, and busy roads (InnovateUs Inc., 2013). They are ideal for motorways, although concern has been raised that they could cause vehicles to lose grip during the rainy season (InnovateUs Inc., 2013). The last common type of road in the U.S. is the chip seal road, which is constructed using gravel and tar (InnovateUs Inc., 2013). A layer of tar is poured on the surface, and fine gravel is then pressed on to it using a steam roller (InnovateUs Inc., 2013). The excess of gravel is brushed aside so that it does not cause obstructions. Chip seal roads are less strong than asphalt and concrete roads, and are usually built on less busy streets such as residential streets (InnovateUs Inc., 2013).

Based on the type of road, therefore, the road construction process involves a series of steps that include (Nova Scotia Transportation and Infrastructure Renewal, n.d.):

i) Clearing of shrubs and trees

ii)… [read more]

Literary Comparison of the Da Vinci Code and the Conspiracy Theory Movie Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (889 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Conspiracy films generally succeed in captivating audiences and in having people actively engaged in trying to determine the bodies behind elaborate schemes meant to harm society as a whole. Ron Howard's the Da Vinci Code and Richard Donner's Conspiracy Theory both attempt to provide viewers with intricate scripts that they have to untangle on their own before they eventually come to gain a more complex understanding of the conspiracies as the motion pictures end. The two motion pictures focus on constantly tricking viewers in thinking that particular characters are not exactly what they seem to be. While some might be inclined to say that the Da Vinci Code is less intriguing because of the false religious messages it appears to send, one can still appreciate its storyline as long as he or she refrains from being influenced by religious concepts while trying to understand it.

Peter Langdon is the central character in the Da Vinci Code and his expertise as a symbologist and his curious yet courageous nature makes it possible for viewers to appreciate his general character. Similarly, even with the fact that many viewers are probable to consider that Jerry Fletcher in Conspiracy Theory is mentally deranged in the beginning of the film, most are likely to express particular interest in this character as the storyline progresses and as he manages to captivate people through his absorbing personality. The two main characters seem to be unlikely heroes and this is what makes them attractive, considering that numerous viewers can identify with them and can start to think that even teachers and taxi drivers can save the world if they are determined (or forced, at times) to do so.

While both conspiracies are controlled by antagonists who are willing to do everything in their power in order to put down anyone who suspects them, it is difficult to determine the degree to which these plans affect society as a whole. Religious individuals are probable to regard Langdon as the ultimate superhero because he is in charge of protecting a person that descends directly from Jesus. This means that the conspiracy in the Da Vinci Code is considerable and that the powers behind it are far stronger than anyone might suspect. The ultimate aim of the conspiracy in Donner's film deals with the U.S. President and with how he is going to be the victim of an anonymous group of specially-trained individuals. These people are apparently concerned about achieving their goals through removing influential persons who act in disagreement with the group's agenda.

In contrast to Jerry, Langdon is from the first few moments a sober individual who appears to be capable to bring…… [read more]

Actor as a Scenographic Instrument Focusing Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,847 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … actor as a scenographic instrument focusing on the work of Robert Wilson

The concept of the actor as a scenographic instrument is often associated with the new perceptions and expressionism that stems out of the modern and contemporary theatre, probably because it represents such an antithetical approach to the naturalistic perspective of 19th century theatre.

In this context,… [read more]

Political Cartoon Analysis Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (321 words)
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Political Cartoon

The claim of the cartoon is that the stimulus package may not be working fast enough or, if it is, that Americans must be patient. Supports offered for the claim are few in the cartoon. The main support offered is that the economic meltdown is potentially as deadly as jumping from an airplane without a parachute. At the same time, the artist sketches several different parachutes, one for each letter of the word "stimulus." By showing a number of different parachutes, the artist infers that the stimulus plan is multifaceted and involves different economic sectors. To cry "Faster!" To the parachutes is unnecessary as some have already inflated and others will eject in their own time. The warrant of the political cartoon is that Americans are extremely worried about the economic crisis but are too impatient to wait for the results of the stimulus plan. Also, the artist assumes that the stimulus package is already working because the…… [read more]

Professional Design Practice in the Chapter Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (329 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Professional Design Practice

In the Chapter, Paul J. Nini emphasizes the importance of various research processes in graphic design work. He compares this research process with the practical example of an axe being sharpened for cutting a tree. The woodcutter would ensure that the tools of his trade are in optimal condition in order to perform his work in the most adequate manner. To do the same for graphic design, Nini suggests three different research paradigms that can be applied to the graphic design process to different degrees. These include survey research, behavioral research, and participatory research. All these focal points of research include the audience, who is the ultimate recipient of the graphic design product. Specifically, research is what connects the self-expression of the designer with the requirements and expectations of the audience. This interaction between professional and recipient is what determines the ultimate success of the project, as Nini demonstrates by using examples of specific designs and audiences.

2. I…… [read more]