"Art / Painting / Sculpture" Essays

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Art the Painting Techniques Thesis

Thesis  |  13 pages (4,005 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Their portraits seem elementary in ways, but they are styled to be so. They embrace the primitivism coming in to vogue at that time.

The core group of Cubists consisted of Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, and Albert Gleizes. Braque's "cubistic" works won for the group the name Cubism. But each of the painters embraced the style, which embodied the primitivism… [read more]

Japanese Art Response Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,033 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


It is obvious that the right rooster is about to win in an impending fight between the two male chickens.

The only thing other than the chickens in the painting is a bit of greenery behind the chickens. From the green leaf shapes and the thin strokes which are used, it looks like the artist was intending to create some bushes or tall grass. Some thin lines also hand down from an unknown distance above where the scroll begins. This is meant to represent a tree perhaps or an overly large bush. Based on their body language and their positioning, it is clear that the roosters are supposed to be very close to the ground. They are against a brown background which might be a mountain or hill or perhaps the wall of a house. The greenery, despite the fact that it hangs above the rooster's heads, cannot be very large because roosters are not very large. Two creatures take up the majority of the silk scroll, but then the viewer needs to remember scale. Large they are, but only in comparison to what else is painted on the scroll. Compared to human beings, roosters are small.

In addition to the natural aspects mentioned, there is also a line which exists because of the contrasts in dark and light browns which the artist uses for the background. It gives the whole of the piece something of a three-dimensional appearance to it with the roosters very much in the foreground and the greenery behind them. Even though it is very minimal, just using a few green streaks and brown lines, the artist effectively lets the viewer of the scroll understand that they are meant to be seeing a scene from the natural world. These chickens and this background could be a part of any Japanese person's home if they lived in a rural area. Although they are flatly painted on the silk screen, they still seem to come out from the scroll. This may or may not be a comment on the importance of these creatures to the society and the inability of most people to closely pay attention to the creatures in their care. These are gamecocks and so they have a function on the farm or in the village, namely to breed more chickens along with a female. Human beings do not consider the birds outside of their personal need for them and so people rarely see any kind of personality or perspective on behalf of the chicken.

In the exhibit at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, there were many paintings to choose from. "Gamecocks" is interesting because at first it just looks like two large roosters set against a plain background. Only by looking deeper at the painting can a deeper meaning be understood. In the case of this work, the painting is not just about two chickens, but based upon the attitudes presented is more about the competition between roosters and the way aggressive behaviors win out…… [read more]

Renaissance and Baroque Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,748 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Renaissance / Baroque

Comparative Analysis of Renaissance and Baroque

What is the Baroque? We use this term to refer to an artistic movement that got started, roughly, at some point in the early seventeenth century and continued for decades, but it is important to recall that successive artistic movements are in many ways indebted to their predecessors: the idea that… [read more]

Figurine of the Goddess Wadjet Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (800 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Her mouth is closed but her eyes are open and facing forward. In sculpting her body, the artist placed the figure in a position where it looks like she has been frozen mid-stride, as if she was taken in the middle of a swift motion. The figure, although stationary, still gives off a sense of motion and movement. Her legs are positioned one in front of the other, but her feet are oddly placed. The back foot is directly behind the front, even though the leg seems to be farther apart. One arm is down at the figure's side while the other is raised. Based on the position of her hand, it is possible that the figure once held a staff or something which has been lost to time.

Another interesting part of the figure's body has to do with the sculpting of the clothing. It seems that Wadjet is fully clothed. Her dress goes down to the bottom of her calves. The two legs are intricately carved so that a shadow is almost perceptible between the legs. Her chest appears to be covered. There is no definition although her breasts are indicated. Yet, her belly button shows. There is no apparent line for her clothing to be separated from body. The goddess's chest is covered, as is her waist, but her navel shows. Since the emphasis of the body is on this noticeable feature, it makes logical sense that the sculptor intended it to be a part of the piece's message. This leads a modern observer to wonder why this is how Wadjet is depicted in this sculpture and whether it has something to do with her function within the society. If, for example, she had something to do with the birth process or motherhood, then her visible navel would make sense.

The Goddess Wadjet stands in her bronze form in the Egyptian wing of the Los Angeles museum. Despite her existence for a matter of centuries, she still serves to entice and intrigue those who came to gaze upon her. Her creation is a supreme piece of artistry that forces the attention of the viewer and makes one question every choice and every detail of the sculpture.

Works Cited:

Janson, H.W. & Janson, A. (2008). Janson's A Basic History…… [read more]

Art Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  3 pages (1,092 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Likewise, the mural located above the transcription of the second inaugural address is intended to reflect the principles that Lincoln outlined in his second inaugural address, the unity of North and South and the continued pursuit of knowledge and education (National Parks Service, 2012). This is represented through an angle protecting symbols that represent art, music, philosophy, music, chemistry, literature, painting, and sculpture.

Likewise, Andy Warhol (1967), like Bacon, took an already existing art form and used it to memorialize a fallen icon. Through his pop art, and specifically, Marilyn Monroe (1967), Warhol combined photography and screen-printing to create a unique work of art (Pearson Publication, Inc., 2009, p. 147). Marilyn Monroe (1967) features a screen-printed photograph of Monroe's head against a hot pink background. The number of colors are used in the print are limited due to technique, however, Warhol's juxtaposition of Monroe's yellow hair against the pink backdrop, helps to frame Monroe's face. Additionally, Warhol's use of bright pink to highlight Monroe's eyes and lips draw the viewers' attention to her face, which is one of the things that is most memorable about the icon. Because of Warhol's technique, he was able to reproduce various versions of the Monroe portrait in a variety of colors. Warhol's approach to art is unique because he was able to take existing images and put his own spin on them and be both commercial and innovative at the same time. Warhol's approach to art, specifically Monroe's images, could be taken to be a commentary on how the public viewed the icon as a commodity and did not take into consideration her personal desires. Moreover, Warhol's ability to mass produce Monroe's portrait, and his ability to change the colors used, can be taken to be representative of a mask, which although changes with each role that Monroe took, underneath, she was still just a woman. Also, the fact that the screen printing is imperfect, as sometimes the colors exceed the boundaries set forth by Monroe's features, also seem to indicate that Monroe was an imperfect person. This image, however, hold special significance for me because it reminds me of my love for pop art and film, as well as my appreciation for Warhol, a man who gained fame and success through his own interpretation of the world and the exploitation of commercialism.

It is interesting to see how each work of art, the Lincoln Memorial and Marilyn Monroe (1967) both attempt to utilize established forms in a new way and how the people and images contained within are immortalized. Furthermore, it is interesting to see how different each of the works are with the Lincoln Memorial being representative of freedom and democracy, whereas Warhol's work appears to be a social commentary on capitalism and commercialism.


National Parks Service. (2012). Lincoln Memorial design individuals. Accessed 21 August 2012,

from http://www.nps.gov/linc/historyculture/lincoln-memorial-design-individuals.htm.

Pearson Publications Inc. (2009). Chapter 5: Art. The Art of Being Human: The Humanities As A

Technique For Living, pp. 114-169.

Warhol, Andy.… [read more]

Paintings Both Salvador Dali Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (991 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Christ is seen more as a volunteer to die for the sins of humanity rather than as a victim of persecution. The difference is palpable, which is why Dali's crucifixion is unique. Moreover, the artist presents Christ as a cultural icon. Unlike Raphael, Dali is not attempting to render Biblical history so much as he is trying to convey the importance of Christ on human consciousness and culture.

Both Raphael's and Dali's compositions help the viewer's eye move around the canvas, mainly towards the heavens. In Raphael's composition, the top panel of the frame depicts a scene that is removed from the main scene below. We see two angels and a male figure, which may be God or another saint. The male figure points upwards to heaven. The angels are flying, which also suggests they are ascended beings. Dali conveys similar sentiments about ascension, but using different symbols and compositional techniques. In "Crucifixion," Dali shows Christ and the cross as being ethereal. They are not touching the ground. Just as Christ floats in front of his cross, the cross floats in front of Gala. The cubes that form the cross correspond with the black and white squares that form the floor beneath. The phrase from the Lord's Prayer, "On earth as it is in Heaven" comes to mind, as what is above (Christ and the cube cross) is as it is below (Gala and the tiled floor). The stark, black, and endless landscape beyond makes the Dali painting also look like a dream. Raphael's painting, on the other hand, seems much more realistic.

In Dali's crucifixion, the horizon is rendered in the lower portion of the canvas. The bulk of the canvas is consumed by the crucifixion scene and Christ's pale body. In Raphael's composition, the Christ baby is a tiny element compared to the other figures. Moreover, the composition is more traditional, in that the foreground depicts the feet and the horizon is about at midpoint. Like Dali, though, Raphael places Christ in the exact center of the canvas.

Therefore, both painters depict biblical stories, but Raphael does so with greater realism than Dali does. Raphael has a more expansive color palette, but both artists consciously capitalize on the use of gold. Gold is the color of Dali's cross: which is the central element in his composition. Its color is echoes below in Gala's robes. Raphael also uses gold liberally in "Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints." For Raphael, the use of gold is reminiscent of Orthodox iconography and other traditional forms of Christian art. For Dali, the use of gold is unconventional, as it is used in the depiction of a three-dimensional cube cross. Both Raphael and Dali create a composition with upward motion to signify heaven in relation to earth.

Works Cited

Dali, Salvador. "The Crucifixion." Painting. 1954

Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio). "Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints." Painting,…… [read more]

Art in "Burial at Ornans Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,411 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Pointillism accesses our brains' capacity to fill in missing or implied information to create a coherent, articulated whole. This anticipates abstractions in form and interaction with the viewer. Reference Signac's "Femmes au Puits" and Seurat's "La Parade de Cirque" as examples of pointillism.

"Salon de la rue des Moulins" is full of saturated reds. The furniture is red, some articles… [read more]

Henri Matisse Still Life Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,567 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" (Matisse Picasso Website, 2002)

VI. Concept of Visual Equilibrium

Matisse writes that if he were to paint upon a white canvas "some sensations of blue, of green, or red, each new stroke diminish the importance of the preceding ones." (1908) The concept of visual equilibrium is addressed in the work of Matisse who states as follows on painting an… [read more]

Art of Colonial Latin America Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (1,933 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Art of Colonial Latin America

In her essay, "Art of Colonial America," Bailey provides a timely overview of 330-year period of Latin American colonial art to the 21st century. The first point made by Bailey is that at no time in history has Latin American art been as relevant and important as today and goes on to support these assertions… [read more]

Art Museum Beauty Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,117 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


I was surprised to find that my impression was quite the opposite of a more traditional interpretation, which is that Renoir's male figure is "tough and tender at once" (Benfey). There are bold contrasts between the woman's white dress and the man's dark suit. This contrast in color mimics their contrast in attitude and her positioning as heroine and his as potential lover, potential threat. Up close, the dimension of the painting truly comes alive and one can see the layers upon layers of pain that Renoir used to create his vision. I could spend hours investigating it.

The other painting I fell in love with is "Two Nudes-Lovers (Self-Portrait with Alma Mahler, 1913)" by Oskar Kokoschka. The painting is also oil on canvas and measures approximately 64" x 38." In some ways Kokoschka's self-portrait with his lover it is quite similar to the Renoir. The main subject is a couple embracing, perhaps in the middle of a dance. Despite their embrace, the two are not looking directly at one another. The woman again has a thousand-yard-stare and her facial expression includes a deep frown, showing her sadness. The man looks worried, almost panicked. And yet they embrace, holding their naked bodies close to one another and pressing their cheeks together. The emotional tension is palpable and is reinforced by the colors used in the piece, blues, purples and browns. "Human beings are not still lifes," Kokoschka said in Vienna in 1912, and this belief shows in his work, where he always attempt to capture not a portrait, but a soul (Delmar). In style, "Two Nudes" could not be further from Renoir's dance. Kokoschka was an expressionist, a modern movement of the early 20th century. Expressionists sought to express meaning and often distorted their subjects for a radical emotional effect or to evoke a mood. The focus is on the soul of the individual subject and expressionism has been characterized as a reaction to naturalism and impressionism. "The Scream" by Edvard Munch is often touted as the prime example of expressionism, and Kokoschka's painting has much in common with this famous work. The figures are the only recognizable detail in the paining. The background is amorphous, broad strokes of the basic color palette of the painting with no actual form or texture. The Despite the beautiful positioning of the figures -- the female in a perfect ballerina position from the waist down -- it is the faces, their souls, which grab us and do not let go. Unlike a 42' tall collection of green glass spikes, this is not a piece of art easily figured our or forgotten.

Works Cited

Barlow, Deborah. "Chihuly at the MFA." Slow Muse. 10 April, 2011. 8 June, 2011.

Benfrey, Christopher. "A Certain Slant of Light" Slate 13 November 1997. 8 June 2011.

"Dance at Bougival." 8 June, 2011.

Delmar, John D."Oskar Kokoschka: Early Portraits from Vienna and Berlin 1909-1914." The City Review. 2002. 8 June, 2011.

Dwyer, John Stephen. "A… [read more]

History of Western Art Since the 15th Century Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,096 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


History Of Western Art Since the 15th Century

History of Western Art since the 13th Century

Throughout the centuries the history of Western art has been continually evolving. Part of the reason for this, is because the different influences would cause a shift in the various impressions that were created. To fully understand how Western art was influenced since the 13th century requires: comparing the stylistic qualities of Lacoon and His Sons to the Weighting of Souls, contrasting the stylistic qualities of the 13th century Bible with Christ Entering Jerusalem, determining the significance of Renaissance confidence and analyzing the canvases of the Bruegel's paintings. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights as to how Western art has evolved since the 13th century.

Compare the stylistic qualities of Laocoon and His Sons, (an ancient Greek sculpture) and the Weighing of Souls (a medieval, French Romanesque relief) both carved in stone.

The stylistic qualities of Laocoon and His Sons are a depiction of him along with his sons being killed by the Greek god Poseidon. This is because he was Trojan priest that was questioning if it was wise to be taking the Trojan horse into Troy. The statue shows the events that are occurring, by embracing a sense of mysticism with realism. This is important, because it helps to give the impression of appreciation and respect for what took place (based upon this realism in the art work itself).

The Weighing of Souls is designed to give similar kind of impression. The difference is that they are using St. Michael looking down at everyone in judgment (during the second coming of Christ). This is important, because it shows how both statues are leaving everyone with the overwhelming feeling of being looked down upon by supernatural deities. (Lanahans, n.d.) (Dobson, 2000)

When you compare the two, they are different in that Laocoon and His Sons is serving as a historical lesson (from ancient Greece). Where, the statue is highlighting a sense of realism and mysticism. While the Weighting of Souls, is designed to create a sense of respect and awe about the future events. As this statute, is designed to create of respect, by intertwining various religious ideals. This is important, because it shows how the Weighting of Souls is focused on future religious events, while Laocoon and His Sons is telling a story of the past (from a mythological perspective).

Compare the stylistic qualities of the 13th Century Bible page showing Louis IX and Blanche Castille, a Gothic work, with Giotto's Christ Entering Jerusalem of the 14th Century. Giotto's work was revolutionary for his time. What are the differences?

The 13th century Bible is taking a more conservative approach when it comes to art. In this case, the emphasis is on how the various images are represented based upon the interpretation of the scripture and religion. At the same time, King Louis IX is trying to show that he is a saint, through placing him on the same level… [read more]

Art in America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (796 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Art in America

There was a move away from a product-based aesthetic in the arts (sculpture, painting, etc.) to event or performance based art in the fifties; cite some examples as to why this occurred. For instance: Was this due to a changing political climate? Was it in reaction to what came before? Be as specific as you can.

The move away from product-based art was partially philosophical, rooted in the move to a more postmodern aesthetic, in which art that impacted the viewer's imagination 'in the moment' rather than art that had to 'stand for all time' became en vogue. After the recent horrors of World War II, the idea of permanence began to seem like a lie to ordinary Americans and American artists alike. However, the fusing of art and performance perhaps first became popularized much earlier, in the 1920s, with the rise of cinema in world culture. This was true not simply in popular cinematic art but in artistic works such as the collaboration of the surrealist artist Salvador Dali with the filmmaker Louis Bunuel in their silent classic "Un Chien Andalou" (1929) and other impressionistic, nonlinear art films. Such films exhibited the potential of living, performance-based art to the new century. Art did not have to exist as a static image.

In the 1950s, photographs and films of the techniques of the American painter Jackson Pollock made 'Jack the Dripper's art more accessible to the public, as it exhibited the process of his abstract impressionism and showed that it had more deliberation than mere splattering. "You cannot imagine the impact these photographs, as distinct from the paintings, had on artists world-wide when they were first published in the fifties, to see a man making up art like this. To see him standing into his canvas, to see him throwing down paint was so radical that the pictures had a huge impact on the popular imagination of Pollock" (Varendoe 1999).

The pictures of Pollock at work took the emphasis off of Pollock's product on a canvas, and diverted the audience's focus to his process as an artist. Gradually, the focus on process increased in the minds of the art-consuming public as a result of the rise of the Pop Art movement of Andy Warhol. While former advertising graphic designer Warhol's earliest works were static graphics, like his representations of Marilyn Monroe and Campbell's Soup cans,…… [read more]

Art Variety and Harmony Are Inherent Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,055 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Variety and harmony are inherent in both Louise Nevelson's 1960 wood sculpture Royal Tide I and in Jan de Heem's 1650 oil painting Still Life with Lobster. Nevelson's composition consists of eighteen distinct units stacked together as a whole: a rectangle divided into eighteen cells. In spite of their individuality, the boxes relate to each other as a harmonious whole. Similarly, de Heem's still life portrays a plethora of disparate items that are unified through color, shape, and theme. Nevelson achieves visual harmony amid diversity via the uniform gold paint that covers the entire composition, uniting disparate elements of the composition. The cells are also neatly stacked and although they suggest hierarchy the units at the bottom are no different with regard to shape, form, color, and theme than those at the top. Moreover, Nevelson imbues the piece with visual harmony by repeating the circle throughout. Circles appear and reappear strategically, drawing the eye toward different points of the piece and creating dynamism and movement. Most notably, the eye is drawn to the third row from the top, the center cell in which a circular object contains within it seven smaller cylindrical items. The harmony Nevelson reates is therefore both visual and conceptual: the artist uses uniform color and repetitive forms to create harmony amid diversity.

Jan de Heem attains a similar visual and conceptual harmony. The elements of the still life are related thematically as emblems of opulence: interestingly similar to the connotation of gold in Nevelson's work. In Still Life with Lobster, an overabundance of fruit spills over a tray on the table while a lobster sits conspicuously in the foreground. de Heem's composition consists of edible items too, imparting a thematic unity. The spherical form is repeated throughout the composition to enhance the piece's overall harmony. Likewise, the lobster's orange color echoes the skin of the peaches and apricots, offering harmony of color as well as form. A string of vine leaves also serves to unite the composition on a horizontal plane. The leaves, distinctly different in terms of shape and color from the central elements of the composition, creates harmony amid variety through the use of line. Thus, the variety inherent in de Heem's still life and in Nevelson's sculpture manifests as a harmonious whole in both.

2. A serpent undulates gracefully, weaving itself between the feet of the enthusiastic dancers. The serpentine form resonates with the curvatures of the dancers' figures, and no straight lines are present in the entire composition. Andre Derain's the Dance is full of motion from the very fact of its theme. Dancing is potentially perpetual, constant motion. The serpent's form is also reminiscent of the swirling shapes that adorn the left-most dancer, whose colors also echo those of the bird's bright plumage. Captured mid-air, in flight, the bird's outstretched wings suggest movement just as the dancers' feet do. The all-red figure in the center of the composition is the anchor for the viewer's eye. She receives the bulk of… [read more]

Venus in Art Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (2,900 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This painting indeed conveys to the viewer feelings of delight and joy.

Another artist who produced works that depicted the birth of Aphrodite was the French painter JA.D. Ingres. Ingres' work is considered more classical in form that Boucher's version and is part of the artistic movement known as Neoclassicism. In addition, Ingres' work draws inspiration from the past as… [read more]

Gender and Western Art: Gentileschi, Picasso, Chicago Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,864 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


But it is worth noting that, unlike older models for a war memorial, Lin is here reincorporating the domestic element: what is included here is a roll-call of names of the dead, the sort of thing that would be put together on the home front by those receiving news that their son had been killed in action. Beyond that, however, Lin's work is remarkably understated -- it effaces grandiose gestures in an effort to register quiet grief and gravitas. It is therefore suited to the contentious Vietnam conflict -- which ended ambiguously, and was conducted under vigorous domestic protest in America -- insofar as it does not heroize or glamorize the dead or the conflict in which they died. Instead it seems like a public record that refuses to take a moral stance one way or the other. And in some sense, Maya Lin's own gender is rendered irrelevant here as well. [6: Kleiner, p.441.] [7: Kleiner, Fig. 25-62.]

In conclusion it is worth noting that, to some extent, depiction of gender in Western Art faces a dichotomy -- either insisting on its relevance and importance, or insisting that the most egalitarian way is to insist on its irrelevance. The first strategy is pursued most obviously by Judy Chicago, although one could argue that Artemisia Gentileschi's insistence on weaving her personal history into a depiction of a Biblical heroine is, implicitly, a statement about the relevance of gender. The second strategy is more obvious in Picasso's depiction of Gertrude Stein or Maya Lin's Vietnam Veterans Memorial -- in these works, the facts of gender (and gender imbalance) are to some degree effaced in the service of a more egalitarian vision.


Elizabeth S. Cohen, "The Trials of Artemisia Gentileschi: A Rape as History." The Sixteenth Century Journal 31.1 (Spring, 2000): 47-75.

Fred Kleiner, Gardner's Art Through The Ages: The Western Perspective, Volume II. 13th Edition. New York: Cengage Learning, 2009. Fig. 9-20.

Woolf, Virginia. Letter to Vita Sackville-West, [13 May 1927]. Woolf Online. http://dhdev.ctsdh.luc.edu/projects/philae/?node=content/contextual/transcriptions&project=1&parent=2&taxa=48&content=6370&pos=23… [read more]

Human Figure in Art Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (668 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The technique appears much more exquisite: parts of the man's face are depicted in the shadow, while the eyes and the faces themselves are almost Asian in their features. It is not only a more accurate representation of the face, but also one that is intriguing for the viewer. Even more than in Giotto's religious painting, the clothes and the surroundings have a clear purpose in emphasizing the figures, placed in the center of the work.

3. The Holy Trinity by Masaccio, from 1425. Fresco from the Church of Santa Maria Novella, in Florence.

This painting is probably best known for the excellent use of perspective. One can notice this not only in the way the figures are situated and presented in the painting, but the architectural elements come to emphasize this: the temple ceiling from behind the crucified Christ is a perfect example in this sense. At the same time, one can notice that the halos above Christ and the saints are still not painted in a perspective manner.

The figures are reflective of religious paintings and particularly of this type of Pieta. One can witness again the somber figures, particularly since God is also represented in the background. Some of the figures are conversational and Masaccio uses several prompts in this sense, including body language (the Virgin Mary, on the left, gestures with her hand etc.).

There is an obvious evolution and development for the figures in these different paintings. Giotto's figures, particularly that of the Virgin Mary, which is so dominant of the painting (both central and large), are still unrealistic, despite his progresses in this direction. His figures appear either unfinished or strange, disproportionate. With Masaccio and, particularly, Van Eyck, the figures are no longer an attempt towards a reasonable representation of reality, but the aim of the artists is to communicate with the viewer, to express something that the viewer can…… [read more]

Art Sacrifice of Isaac Analysis Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,385 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Historians contend that the fierce rivalry and competition between these two artists served as the spark for the entire Renaissance period.

"Sacrifice of Isaac" is considered by historians as one of Ghiberti's masterpieces, as well as a masterpiece representing the whole Early Renaissance movement. He made this piece and won the competition to sculpt the Baptistery when he was in his early twenties. He did not complete the Baptistery doors until he was 45 years old. After receiving the commission for the doors, he enlisted the assistance of several other promising artist of the time, including Donatello. The Baptistery served as a votive that celebrated how Florence was spared (by God from their perspective) from great suffering of the Black Plague, which was spreading wildly across Europe at the time.

The Baptistery consists of 28 panels that depict scenes from the New Testament of the Bible. "Sacrifice of Isaac" consists of two panels and it is from the Old Testament of the Bible. Ghiberti and his rival designed the Baptistery together, but Brunelleschi had too much pride to work on the piece with his rival, so he left for Rome to study architecture, leaving Ghiberti to execute the piece alone. (All-Art)

The only color present is the color of the metal. Despite the lack of color, there is the presence of intensity in the piece. The metal is brighter and duller in certain sections, which create interesting contrast, as well as draw the eye to different areas of the sculpture. This sculpture effectively creates the illusion of motion. Objects are not repeated so much as angles and lines of sight are repeated. This, too, contributes to how the piece directs the eye. There is not much that is regular about this piece, including its rhythm, which could be categorized as eccentric. The simultaneous action draws the eye in many areas and the proportion of the figures is critical to the interpretation of the piece, too.

My personal view of the "Sacrifice of Isaac" is that I am moved by the simultaneous action happening in the piece. I appreciate the attention to detail and how the details contribute to the texture of the sculpture. The piece seems very dimensional and that I would probably be struck by the depth of the sculpture if I could view it in person. "Ghiberti appears to have used figure heights as a kind of module for dividing the relief space into zones or planes. In the Abraham, Noah, and Moses panels, the height of the intermediary zone between figures on different planes is consistently the difference between the size of one figure and the other." (Bloom, "Lorenzo Ghiberti's Space in Relief," 164 -- 165) The piece really resembles a still image of a lot of motion and part of that feeling must be attributed to Ghiberti's use of space, size, scale, and distance.

I also notice all of the different creatures in the piece, such as the angel watching the sacrifice, the horse whose attention… [read more]

Art Time Period -1910) Catches Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (860 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


It is actually probable that his mental state contributed to him adding more emotion to his paintings and turning them into art that can almost speak to individuals seeing it (Crispino 50).

In spite of the fact that the scene apparently displays the view from the hospital window in Saint-Remy-de-Provence, there are also a series of concepts that one could associate with his background. "In Starry Night, Van Gogh seems to be combining reality and imagination, and elements of Provence and his northern homeland" (Crispino 50). It is probable that the fact that he was cut off from his family, country, and artist friends contributed significantly to making him want to introduce his part into Starry Night. In addition to being physically isolated from his background, Van Gogh was also psychologically isolated from the world as a result of his poor mental health.

While there were a series of elements detaching Van Gogh from his past, his love for art made it possible for him to reconnect with his background. The painting of Starry Night actually demonstrated his complex understanding of art, taking into account that he practically devised innovative artistic elements.

One of the first elements that are likely to captivate viewers is the fact that the canvas virtually appears to be moving as a result of the vivid elements it contains. The swirling sky is one of the most imposing characteristics, as the vivid colors it contains put across impressive energy and virtually seem to bring the painting to life. The painter obviously did not go for a realistic impression, as he wanted the painting to be expressive through its dynamism. It practically seems that Van Gogh's inner thoughts have been brought to life and materialized in Starry Night.


Starry Night is not only important because of its imposing appearance, as it is also significant because it was painted during a critical moment in the artist's life. One can practically consider that the artist resorted to creating artwork in order to deal with his mental issues. The fact that his brother (considered by him to be one of his most important critics) did not appreciate the artwork probably had a devastating effect on Van Gogh, taking into account that his poor health alongside with the feeling of being unable to produce beautiful art probably reflected negatively on his self-esteem.

Works cited:

Crispino, Enrica, "Van Gogh," (The Oliver Press, Inc., 2008)

"Vincent van Gogh Biography," retrieved March 29, 2013, from the ariel art galleries Website: http://arielartgalleries.com/Artists/Van%20Gogh%20Starry%20Night.htm

"Vincent Van Gogh: The Starry Night," (The Museum of…… [read more]

Storms Paintings, Watteau Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,519 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


It shows individualism, human centeredness, and acts of heroism. The human activities in the image outplay the natural one, which is the oncoming storm. The characters on the image display act of heroism and self-centeredness. The characters are more concerned with their own activities; the oncoming storm does not deter them from finishing their quests. The interpretations can also aid in grouping the images as either romantic or neo-classic art. The acts of the characters in the first image working together towards the same cause shows that they are selfless. Its interpretation may indicate that they are fighting against oppression and harsh conditions. On the second image, each person is concerned with his or her own work. This may show each individual's determination to fight for what he or she believes in hence doing everything necessary for its achievement. This shows the determination to restore the stipulated ways of art.

Work cited

Martindale, Colin. "Empirical Questions Deserve Empirical Answers." Philosophy and Literature 20.2 (2000): 347-61. ProQuest. Web. 25 Mar. 2013.

Tapert, Annette. "Rare & Refined." Architectural Digest 2011: 130,n/a. ProQuest. Web. 25

Creamer, Noelle. "Through the Eyes of a Collector." Ophthalmology Times 33.12 (2008): 61-

2. ProQuest. Web. 25 Mar. 2013.

Andreae, Christopher. "Two Centures of Romantic Art." The Christian…… [read more]

Art Along With Georges Braque Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (942 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Both Leger and Picasso are concerned with the role geometric forms play in a composition. Arcs and curves, for example, feature prominently in both Picasso's Femme a la mandolin and in Leger's Le modele nu dans l'atelier. The term "cubism" is not an absolute designation that precludes the artist from including curvilinear elements. Rather, the "cube" implies three-dimensionality, and that three-dimensionality can be readily and successfully achieved by depicting rounded objects, spheres, and the natural curves of the human body as well as straight lines. In fact, the more curvilinear elements an abstract work contains, the more organic the overall impression will be due to the fact that the natural universe contains no true straight lines.

Picasso does include a few straight lines in Femme a la mandolin, but those lines represent man-made elements like the piano keyboard and the walls behind the woman. Her head, and the body of the mandolin, are rendered with arcs and curves. In Le modele nu dans l'atelier, Leger presents both straight lines and curves. The curves symbolize the presence of the nude model; while the straight-edged elements symbolize the canvases, walls, and other man-made elements in the artist's studio. Thus, Picasso and Leger use a similar technique to convey different motifs and ideas.

As their respective bodies of work expanded, the artists' individualistic styles began to diverge more. Picasso's characteristic cubism was often minimalistic; whereas Leger drew from his background in architecture and drafting to branch out into a more mechanical, futuristic form of cubism. For example, by 1921, Leger was completing unique work like Three Women, which is fully representational and yet fully cubist at the same time. Leger also exhibited what is known as a more cylindrical or tubular version of cubism because of the artist's emphasis on these rounder three-dimensional objects rather than on straight lines (Dickerman; Lachner et al.).

Although there are clear differences between the individual works of Picasso and Leger; and between their respective canons of work, the two artists are both considered heralds of cubism and abstraction. Their techniques were more similar than they were different, including an appreciation for geometrical and especially three-dimensional forms. Both Picasso and Leger also used the cubist technique to represent what the mind knew was there but the eye could not necessarily see from a singular perspective.

Works Cited

Dickerman, Leah. Inventing Abstraction. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2013.

Fitz, L.T. "Gertrude Stein and Picasso: The Language of Surfaces." American Literature. Vol. 45, No. 2. May 1973.

Lanchner, Carolyn, Leger, Fernand, Hauptman, Jody, Afron, Matthew, and Erikson, Kristen. Fernand Leger. New York: The Museum of Modern Art. 1998.

Spector, Nancy. "Fernand Leger." Guggenheim. Retrieved online: http://www.guggenheim.org/new-york/collections/collection-online/show-full/piece/?search=Nude%20Model%20in%20the%20Studio&page=&f=Title&object=49.1193… [read more]

Renaissance Art an Analysis Research Paper

Research Paper  |  15 pages (4,876 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Hilliard indicated, however, one of the necessary components of the miniature-portraiture, which was the fact that it should use as little shading as possible. Chiaroscuro in such a small frame would take away from the overall visual effect of the miniature. With such a focus on minute detail, the use of light and shade had to be as minimal as… [read more]

Art History Raphael's Career Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,468 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Within the study of art history, it is accepted that one of the defining characteristics of the Renaissance is the use of perspective. Art historians concur that one of the many reasons why Raphael is considered so talented and revered is due to his masterful understanding and use of perspective.

The Renaissance use of perspective reached its apogee at around… [read more]

Humanities the Renaissance Period Changed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,605 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Universities should also upgrade their curriculum and inculcate an interdisciplinary approach covering practical situations according to the ever changing needs and times (Audsburg 2005).

The traditional approach defines of humanities as the study of human condition, using critical speculative or analytical approaches.

An alternate definition can be "Disciplines under Humanities help us comprehend and explain human experience of cultures, history, literature, art and ethics. The examination, review and understanding of an object created by humans or a factor that makes us human, the emerging thoughts and processes that take place within ourselves something deliberated, discussed and opinionated" (Humanities Council 2001).

Many businesses deem interdisciplinary skills not as a "nice to have" but a "must have" these days. Humanities and arts graduates attract employers as they can easily change and have transferable skills making them adjustable to many different job profiles and varying industries. Humanities students posses better communication abilities, effective problem solving skills, competent analytical skills, critical evaluation and people management skills; skills that are valuable for any employer in any industry. The creative acumen of humanities students enables them to resolve and respond to multifaceted problems by thinking out of the box and using an unbiased approach. On the other hand students from specialized disciplines may tend to restrict themselves to their beliefs and knowledge acquired through reading subject matter of only one discipline. This limits their creativity and limits their problem solving and analytical skills (Docherty 2012).

Works Cited

Audsburg, Tanya. Becoming interdisciplinary -- An Introduction To Interdisciplinary Studies. Kendall Hunt Publishing. 2005.

Docherty, David. Employers must help universities deliver interdisciplinary skills. 2012. . 28 September 2012.

Humanities Council, Washington D.C. Defining the Humanities -- A work in Progress. 2001. < http://www.wdchumanities.org/docs/defininghumanities.pdf>. 28 September 2012.

Rolland, Roman. Michelangelo. BiblioLife, LLC. 2009.

Strathen, Paul. The Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance. Vintage.…… [read more]

Renaissance Art Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (985 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Whereas Donatello shows David post-battle, Michelangelo shows David pre-battle. The deliberate distinction serves a formal purpose in the works of these two Renaissance artists. For Donatello, it was more important to capture the satisfaction and victory in the body and form of David. For Michelangelo, showing the uncertainty and realistic tension in the body and mind of David was more important.

As Baskins (1993) points out, the Biblical hero of David "moves from king to lover to penitent," but most artists need to show "selected moments of the narrative," (p. 113). This means that artists like Donatello and Michelangelo choose what face, form, and figure to show in their sculptural work. Donatello chose to show David as the victorious and androgynous universal victor. Michelangelo opted to deliver a David that was different: a David that is totally patriarchal, and ready to exude his sexuality and male power. According to one author, Michelangelo depicts the "strength and anger" within David -- and indeed within all human beings ("Michelangelo's David," n.d.). David is King.

Yet both Donatello and Michelangelo do want their respective David sculptures to have a sensual factor. Donatello's is deliberately androgynous. Baskins (1993) states that Donatello's David has a "voluptuous androgyny," which might indicate an "autobiographic homoerotic desire" of the sculptor (p. 115). Michelangelo's David could certainly say the same thing: its hyper-masculinity speaks of nothing but erotic desire for the male form. Whereas Donatello selected bronze as the medium for his rather petite sculpture of David, Michelangelo opted for the massive marble piece, yielding a larger-than life nude male.

Both Donatello and Michelangelo are depicting a Biblical hero in ways that evoke classical art forms: such an ambition was characteristic of the Renaissance. The tribute to classical art became a hallmark of the intellectual trends of the Renaissance and later, Enlightenment movements in Europe. The stranglehold of religion would give way to a more intellectual, rational, and probing mentality free from the bonds of mental slavery. The same can be said for gender and social norms. Both the Donatello and Michelangelo versions of David are quintessentially Renaissance in their form and character. Both also represent the symbolism of David slaying Goliath. Although Donatello shows David after the fact, Michelangelo shows David making the decision to kill and be victorious, to become a historical hero ("Michelangelo's David," n.d). The two Davids seem visually different because of their different media (bronze vs. marble) and different sizes (life-size vs. larger-than-life size). But Donatello and Michelangelo's sculptures share quite a bit in common in terms of content and contemporary political meaning.


Baskins, C.L. (1993). Donatello's bronze David: Grillanda, Goliath, Groom? Studies in Iconography 15. Retrieved online: http://tufts.academia.edu/CristelleBaskins/Papers/209007/Donatellos_Bronze_David_Grillanda_Goliath_Groom

Hudelson, P. (n.d.). "Donatello's David vs. Michelangelo's David." Retrieved online: http://www2.palomar.edu/users/mhudelson/StudyGuides/DontlovsMichel_WA.html

"Michelangelo's David," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://vlsi.colorado.edu/~rbloem/david.html… [read more]

There Is a Long List Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,082 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


A work of art is never beautiful by decree, objectively and for all" (Tzara 249).


Despite the fact that almost everyone who created and participated in the Movement were really serious, Dada art is completely ridiculous, irrational and senseless to the point of fancy. Dada Art was not founded on any predominant medium. The Dadaists used everything ranging from algebraic textiles, glass, plaster and wooden ornaments. The noticeable fact is that Dadaist Art paved way for the use of "assemblage, collage, photomontage and the use of ready made objects" (Essak). Dada certainly created a lot of subdivisions in everything that had no sensible meaning. Not only did it spawn a number of literary journals, Dada influenced many contemporaneous and coexisting trends in the visual arts, particularly as far as Constructivism is concerned. Dada is known for being responsible for the movement of Surrealism (Essak).

The Dada Movement was, thus, aimed toward abolishing everything associated with comfortable ways of finding the middle ground and good manners. Its creators asked its followers and supporters to bring archaeology, memory, future, prophets, and logic to an end (Tzara 253).

And at the same time as conventional and majority of the artists were seriously considering the movement, Dada dissolved itself in the early 1920s. The movement destroyed itself when there was a danger of its acceptability by masses (Essak).


The commotions under Dada Movement were a lasting and undeviating insurgency of the individual against art, morality, and society. The Dadaists did so by publishing manifestoes, poetry and other forms of writing, paintings, exhibitions, sculptures, and sometimes by means of public demonstrations that were clearly depictions of rebellious character. In fact, its implications were not limited to the art and literature. To cut a long story short, the movement snatched away the mindfulness of an individual and placed him to the ranks of idiocy.

However, this art of protesting against the society's ways ended with an interesting twist. On the other hand, it can be said that the whimsical Dada art is not only colorful, wittily sarcastic but is also absolutely silly (Essak).


"Dada." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2009. Questia. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. .

Duchamp, M. "The Richard Mutt Case." Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art: A Sourcebook of Artists' Writings. Eds. Kristine Stiles, Peter Selz. Berkeley: University of California, 1996. 817. Print.

Essak, S.. "Dada - Art History 101 Basics: The Non-Art Movement (1916-23)." About.com. The New York Times Company, n.d. Web. 24 Apr 2012. .

Hopkins, David. Dada and Surrealism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. Questia. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. .

MobileReference, . Encyclopedia of Philosophy for Smartphones and Mobile Devices - FREE 3 Chapters in the Trial Version. Boston: MobileReference.com, 2007. Web. April 24, 2012. .

Tzara, T. "Dada Manifesto 1918." Art in Theory 1900-1990: An Anthology of Changing Ideas. Eds. Charles Harrison and Paul Wood. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1992. 248-53. Print. Originally published in Dada, no. 3, 1918.… [read more]

Art Comparing Actual Sculpture Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (545 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


A number of her pieces look as if they almost occur naturally; others look as if they perform some utilitarian function. Her works shows great variation in form, materials, and scale. Many of her works are outside and make use of the local environment.

Richard Serra is an epic sculptor who mainly works with metals. His pieces are known to warp and distort a viewer' sense of depth, space, and perspective. Many of his metallic pieces are massive. He creates pieces for both the indoors and the outdoors. Serra smoothes the metal to an almost unreal degree. The metal was originally rough, sharp, and angled; by the time Serra is done, the metal is smooth, curvaceous, and fluid. He too is an artist within Krauss' expanded field.

Alice Aycock is yet another sculptor like Serra that manipulates metals, indoors and outdoors, shaping them into unthinkable curves and spirals. Some of her pieces are both landscape and architecture, resembling formidable metallic mazes. Some of her works also resemble rollercoasters, holes, and obstacle courses. She is another sculptor immersed in the expansive field, redefining sculpture and creating pieces with their own unique logic by which to abide.

Nancy Holt's sculptures resemble objects found in nature such as the sun, the moon, plants, and spirals. Many of her pieces consist of concentric circles, spheres, and/or cylinders. Most of her work must be viewed outdoors due the great scale of her pieces. Holt's pieces could be considered modernist. They also exude the permanence and presence of monuments.


Krauss, R. (1979) Sculpture in…… [read more]

Abstract Expressionist Painting Artistic Research Paper

Research Paper  |  40 pages (12,184 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


[8: Ibid. ]

The following piece is an excellent example of Rothko's reductionist forms. The piece is entitied "White, Red on Yellow" and is an excellent example of reductivism and the use of color to create a dramatic impact. It is a simplistic looking painting upon first glance. However, these paintings were not meant to be viewed in passing. One… [read more]

Art Currently on Loan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,980 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


He is leaving town on some unknown journey. Given that the subject of the painting is likely to be "one of these prosperous bankers or merchants who were eager to have their likenesses immortalized by Memling," the man might be off to make a business deal in a neighboring town. Regardless of where he is actually headed, it does not appear to be a hard journey or even one that has not been undertaken before. The man looks peaceful, calm, and slightly contemplative, and barely concerned. He has a strong sense of presence and confidence. This is not a poor peasant in feudal medieval Europe. After all, this is wealthy Bruges.

The foreground and focal point is consumed by the man's visage. The eye is drawn immediately to the man's nose and mouth, but Memling's linear composition allows the eye to dance around the canvas in a sort of cross formation -- always and ultimately lingering on the portrait visage. The man's dark brown hair is getting long at the ends, as it starts to curl up above the ears and around the neckline. He does not look unkempt, just casual. Otherwise, the hair is cropped short, revealing the man's forehead. He looks like a thinking man. He has recently shaven, though bears some shadow around the mouth and chin. The man's lips are upturned slightly at the edges, as if he gives a soft smile. He has a look of gentle optimism and mild determination on his face. Because his brow is slightly furrowed, the man also appears to be contemplating a hopeful future. Memling also makes it so that his subject's face is naturally asymmetrical; the left eye appears slightly darker and lower than the right. The man's nose is long and aquiline, and his eyebrows are well formed without being bushy. Only the man's left ear is visible beneath his hair.

Memling's deft use of line, color, and composition characterize "Portrait of a Man." The portrait is organic, natural, and alive. Although he does not incorporate some of the lively detail that he might have if it were one of his religious works, Memling's composition also reveals a skillful inclusion of subtle symbolism. The painting is sliced nearly in half by the horizon, imparting a sense of dualism that might reflect life in fifteenth-century Netherlands. Men like the one depicted in the painting -- and Memling himself -- were uniquely poised in an emerging middle class of independent businessmen. Moreover, the man looks away from his past and towards the future; away from the church and towards his business activities. Memling's "Portrait of a Man" exemplifies the social, political, and economic situations that prevailed in the late fifteenth century Dutch society.


"Memling's 'Portrait of a Man' on loan from The Frick Collection." The Norton Simon Museum. Retrieved online: http://www.nortonsimon.org/memling-s-portrait-of-a-man-on-loan-from-the-frick-collection#… [read more]

Art Book Intro and Conclusion Art Compilation Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,061 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Art Book Intro and Conclusion

Art Compilation Book Introduction

Art is taking the archetypical forms of the mind and giving those forms a physical existence. There is no greater example of this truth than modern art. Modern artists challenged the definition of art by removing the expectation of reality and the limitations of society and creating images purely from the mind. These transformations may seem strange or even controversial to many, but that is the intent of the modern artist, to articulate and form the purest archetypical creations imaginable. In doing this, modern art challenges the definitions of form, material, content, and detail to create unimaginable masterpieces.

The primary way that modern artists challenge the societal definition of art is through form. Whereas once artists were considered great because their art took on a life-like quality, modern art removes reality and replaces it with imagination and the psyche. Vincent Van Gough, considered one of the earliest practitioners of modern art, specialized in creating paintings that distorted the natural, physical form and instead replaced it with those images of the mind's eye. Paintings such as "The Scream" by Edvard Munch took this even further by portraying the one things that the mind desires but that cannot be released into the world of reality. Even modern photographic art challenges the conceptions of reality. In Janine Antoni's work "Conduit," the female artist is captured holding male genitals and peeing from a skyscraper. So, the very forms that society considers normal are now challenged and the forms contorted by the artist's mind are exposed and brought full circle.

The second way that modern art has challenged art's very definition is through the materials used. While traditional art used clay, wood, stone and paint to make masterpieces, modern artists use items from everyday life to present art in a new way. Tom Friedman uses everything from sugar cubes to toothpicks in his works to from complex sculptures. Janine Antoni carved sculptures out of soap and "ate" sculptures out of chocolate. Finally, Wolfgang Laib used items as common as milk and pollen in his sculptures that leave his audience speechless.

The third area that modern art challenges is content. Whereas art once only sculpted and painted noble portraits, modern art captures images of the imagination and the socially improper to present an often absurd or even humorous masterpiece. In order to both shock and force his audience to think, Stelarc grafted an artificially grown ear to his arm. In Moor, Antoni makes a long umbilical chord that stretches down the hallways of museums. Edward Wurm has created series of "One Minute Sculptures" with live models covered in hilarious costumes and props.

The final area where modern art has carved out a niche is detail. Whereas once paintings and sculptures were as life-like as could be, modern art explores both the tribal ritualistic tendencies of humans and combines it with the simplicity of mathematics and modern life. In Wolfgang Laib's famous work "Pollen from Hazelnut," the entire… [read more]

Ancient Studies Laura Auricchio Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (968 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Auricchio thinks that one reason why there were mixed feelings from audiences is because the painting is very complicated and ambiguous. In this way, it makes sense that there would be mixed feelings toward a piece of art that is ambiguous. Ambiguous art can be some of the most effective art because there is no one simple answer for the audience. The ambiguous art stays in the minds of the audience because they cannot decided how they feel about it or agree definitively what the art means or says. If this is true for this painting by Adelaide, then she is a successful artist back then and today.

Another aspect of the painting that Auricchio focuses on is the use and style of clothing in Labille-Guiard's paintings, as well as the clothing and style in paintings of eighteenth century France in general. Auricchio identifies many small details about the clothes Labille-Guiard wears in the painting. She notices the color of the fabric, the kind of fabric (silk), and how the clothes sit upon Labille-Guiard's body. Auricchio also notices which of Labille-Guiard's body parts are exposed, and which of her body parts of covered up. She considers what the exposure and hiding of the body could mean in French culture and in art. Auricchio further notices how the clothing Adelaide paints herself wearing models after some of the most popular styles of the time. This could make audiences of the 21st century wonder about billboards and advertising. There are sociologists who study advertising that have tracked the connection between European paintings from the Renaissance to the modern era and how similar the poses and compositions are to fashion advertisements today. We should look at fashion advertisements with the same detail and close attention as Auricchio, a famous art historian and professor, looks at 18th century art.

Additionally, Auricchio sees the way the artist's body is posed as very revealing about the painting. The poses of the bodies within paintings are always important. Whether the person is sitting or standing or otherwise; the distance between or among other subjects in the painting; the quantity of light each subject receives in the painting -- each one of these elements and more can tell the viewer or the art historian a lot of information about the painting. The position of the body can tell us how the person in the painting feels. The position of the body can tell us how important the person in the painting is. Therefore, it is a strong idea for Auricchio to pay close attention to how Labille-Guiard is positioned in the painting. Between knowing about the artist as a person, and looking closely and who the artist is in the painting, we can see there is a lot to learn from this article and from art overall.


Auricchio, Laura. "Self-Promotion in Adelaide Labille-Guiard's 1785 Self-Portrait with Two Students." Art Bulletin,…… [read more]

Modern Art a Primary Concern Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,543 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


This is a purist piece. "Tableu 11" by Mondrian directly addresses the golden ratio and geometry, as it is a series of quadrilaterals of primary colors and black. Mondrian plays with both color and form here. The quadrilaterals without color contextualize the ones with color and the white quadrilaterals balance the work, else it might be overloaded with color, form, and shape. The dispersal of color seems odd, but the overall sense of the work is that it is even (balanced).

Scwitter's "Merzbau" is quite angular and dimensional. There is a lack of curvature and color. This piece is more concerned with movement, shape, and form. Duchamp's "Nude Descending a Staircase" is also primarily concerned with movement and form. Neither piece is focused upon realism. Both pieces want to communicate to the viewer about their respective spaces. Though there is a nude in Duchamp's piece, the piece is more focused on the staircase and the location of the staircase than the nude. "Merzbau" is the place itself and the experience of the place. These pieces are about spaces, dimensionality, and the movement within a space. These works are abstract and subtle. The forms and shapes in the pieces are not inviting, but viewers are drawn in as they endeavor to understand each piece.


arthistory.about.com modernartobsession.blogs.com www.arthistory.net www.modernart.net www.modernartfoundry.com www.theartstory.org

References:… [read more]

Art the French Impressionists Rendered Modern Bourgeois Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,675 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



The French Impressionists rendered modern bourgeois life, often by focusing on gardens and leisure activities. Both Berthe Morisot and Gustave Caillebotte use garden scenery as a background for conveying themes related to modern life in France in the late nineteenth century. Morisot's "The Basket Chair" was painted in 1885, and depicts a mother and her young child in a… [read more]

Art Qs the United States Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (566 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Art Qs

The United States became the focal point of the artistic and painting world following World War II, with the advent of the abstract expressionism school of painting. European paintings remained more tied to traditional roots and still typically depicted scenes, if even abstractly, but American painting moved more towards complete abstraction such as the action paintings of Jackson Pollack and others. The cultural and economic center of the world moved from Europe to the United States during the same period, and this perhaps led to a more intrepid sense of adventure in exploration in American painting, looking towards the new future, while Europeans still tried to make sense of the past that had been lost.


Censorship has long been a major issue in the art world, from at least the time of the Catholic Church's dominance of world affairs if not earlier. In modern times, censorship still exists in regards to limiting the amount of sexuality that can be displayed in certain galleries and other public places, and also in terms of political statements and alternative points-of-view. Art has long been used as a tool for future change, and the expression of unpopular and/or controversial ideas through art has long been one of the checks on society and the measures of its freedom. Censorship in art limits this freedom and so the progress available to a given society.


The Harlem Renaissance was an artistic movement beginning in the 1920s in the predominantly African-American neighborhood of Harlem in New York City. Jazz music, new styles of painting, and evolving types of dance and other performance art all began fomenting in the culture of newfound semi-liberation among the African-American community, which…… [read more]

History of Western Art Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,837 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


History Of Western Art

Looking at the Dutch works, provide some examples where dramatic stylistic elements heighten the power of everyday scenes and still lives. Think about lighting effects, movement, extension or recession of space, and elements that allude to the passage of time.

The different Dutch works of art were illustrating the simplicities of everyday life, while highlighting the… [read more]

Western Art and Christianity Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (623 words)
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Although the work is considered one of the greatest paintings ever created, it is a firmly religious piece, with Jesus as its centerpiece. The painting displays the heartbreak that all Catholics feel over the concept of original sin, and has a deeply grim quality to it, regardless of its spiritual subject.

In contrast to these two traditional pieces, Claude Monet's Impression, Sunrise, was created during an era that began to show signs of a more secular movement. Like most of the secular works during the Impressionist movement, this painting is beautiful in its choice of colors and the flow of the brushstrokes. It was created in 1872, with help in part from Monet's longtime patron and department-store owner Ernest Hoschede. The painting is a strong departure from the religious works of the past. Whereas many of those works tended to depict specific religious scenes or events in a very deliberate and realistic manner, Monet's form of Impressionism is flowing and bright. The brushstrokes are sweeping and less calculated, although the finished product is quite accurate in depicting the feeling of a sunrise, rather than attempting to create a photographic copy.

Finally, Pablo Picasso's Les Demoiselles d'Avignon epitomizes the new era of painting and expressive art. His unashamed subject matter, depicting five nude female prostitutes, would have been far from acceptable in the time of da Vinci, and its stylistic approach, abstract in nature, is now referred to as Cubism. The work was widely controversial in 1907, when it was created, and although it is a secular piece, it was a large divider amongst religious and non-religious art aficionados. The subject was considered to be shocking and appalling at the time, and Picasso seemingly created this work for…… [read more]

Tibetan Art Cleveland Green Tara Painting in Mid 13th C. In Central Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,111 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Green Tara

Tibetan Art - Cleveland Green Tara Painting

The Cleveland Green Tara Painting is a typical Thangka painting of Tibet. Thangka is a form of art that is connected with Tibetian culture and mysticism. Thangka paintings are more than a piece of art and have a significant place in Tibetian religion and daily life. Thangka is depicts many aspects… [read more]

Carving Sculpture Henry Moor and Barbara Hepworth Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (590 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



What is direct carving

Direct carving is carving without a maquette or other model, a sort of freestyle approach to sculpture that may leave signs of the carving instruments and purposeful roughness.

What is a maquette?

A maquette is a model for a sculpture, serving the same purpose that a sketch does for a painting.

Just before TECHNIQUE, there is a quote from Henry Moore about "titles." What do you think of what he says? Do you agree or disagree? Why.

I fully agree with Moore. Moore wants the spectator to be engaged in the art. Simple titles require the spectator to ponder and project personal issue onto the art. As Moore suggests, a title that is too explanatory takes the mystery out of the piece and the spectator is more likely to take a cursory glance and walk away. The piece is too self-contained and the artist has already told the spectator what to think about, what to look about, and therefore what to feel. With a simple title, the art is alive and changes for each spectator.

4. What similarities are there between the two sculptures?

The Chac Mool statue shows the figure reclined, propped up on his elbows and with his knees drawn in. The chin is held high in a defiant stance and the face gazes confidently out in the distance as a visionary. The effect is that of a regal leader contemplating public policy or enjoying a well-deserved moment of relaxation.

Moore's Draped Reclining Figure is depicted in a similar physical stance as the Chac Mool, with the body propped up on elbows and knees drawn in. The face also looks out towards the distance. Moore's figure is more gender-neutral than the Chac Mool, as the figure could be…… [read more]

Italian Baroque Art Bernini vs. Borromini Thesis

Thesis  |  12 pages (3,860 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Italian Baroque Art (Bernini vs. Borromini)

The present paper has the purpose of analyzing two grand masters of the Italian baroque art, that is Bernini and Borromini. The main thesis to be demonstrated is that their styles and techniques can be observed in two important pieces of art and that by comparing them we are actually comparing the two representatives… [read more]

Painting Is Called "Passing Storm Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,692 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … painting is called "Passing Storm over the Sierra Nevadas" and was painted in 1870 by Albert Bierstadt. It is located in the American Art section of the San Antonio Museum of Art. The painting was chosen because of several different reasons. First of all, the artist's capacity to paint the natural landscape is impressive and very vivid, to… [read more]

Exploring Contemporary Art Franz West Chameleon 2004 Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,307 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … art: Franz West, Chameleon, 2004

Exploring Contemporary Art with Theory (Philosophy of Art)

Franz West, Chameleon, 2004. Collection of the Musee d'art contemporain de Montreal.

Franz West's three-dimensional 2004 creation called simply Chameleon looks like the interior of a brightly-colored green kitchen in its incarnation at Collection of the Musee d'art contemporain de Montreal. Chameleon is not a depiction of a lizard, but a work that superficially suggest the appearance of an interior design, in bright, Brady Bunch, mid-1970s shades of chartreuse. Its strange falseness and homogeneity as the lime green tables and chairs blend in with the walls, underlines the conformities of urban life and the psychological, human desire to blend in with society -- but with brightness and panache. The title suggests concealment, of trying to be 'like' other things in the environment in a half-deliberate, half-unconscious manner. Mimicry comes not through camouflage, but by standing out just as much, and in the same way as everything else. The tables and the chairs are all bright green, the same colors as the walls. The chairs are evidently painted as their backs are brown, but this brown merely blends in with the wood flooring of the kitchen. The furniture looks cheap, disposable, and is very evidently a manufactured commodity.

The use of the ordinary objects of everyday life to question modern-day values is typical of West's work since the early 1970s, which often involve the use of familiar objects and pieces of furniture, which are given an "archetypal dimension" in their elevation to the realms of the exhibition platforms of museums, where they are subjected to the gaze of patrons.

In Chameleon, its chairs, paint, a table, and a kitchen floor "each in turn becomes the basis for a critical, provocative and deliberately insolent meditation on the nature and scope of the act of making art. In Chameleon, West uses one of his favorite strategies, that of disguising the utilitarian nature of the objects, in this case, a round table and eight chairs. It is color that rules within this austere installation.

Although the most recent exhibition of Chameleon involved the use of bright green, which seems befitting the title of the work, it is noteworthy that the solid color of the table and chairs actually "varies according to the choice of those displaying the work.

" The process of displaying of the work makes the piece a collaborative effort, a work of performance in terms of its display. "By requiring this participation on the part of the collector or museum, on the one hand, West is insisting on the real importance of color as opposed to the falsely decorative function often accorded to it, and on the other hand, he is giving this installation, this skilful combination of painting and sculpture, a conceptual and existential dimension that is reasserted each time it is exhibited.

West himself has resisted grand, subsuming theories of what he is trying to achieve with his art: "Early on I realized that… [read more]

Sculpture Column Figure of a Nimbed King Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,187 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Gothic Sculpture

Art represents the era in which it was produced and often speaks to later time periods as well, and how we view the art of the past shows some of what we think about ourselves and about the meaning we attribute to both past and present. When we view a work like Column Figure of a Nimbed King, a sculpture from around the period 1150-1170, we measure the people of that time on the basis of what this one sculptor has produced, considering how the work reflects attitudes and aesthetics from the time as well as how it speaks to us and says something to us about our ancestors.

This work was produced by a French sculptor carving in limestone. The work is relatively large at a height of 45 1/4 in. (115 cm). The work balances a certain inherent rigidity because the figure rests against a straight column, which gives the work a very straight spine as a backing, while at the same time the pose and demeanor of the figure is very human and much more relaxed than the rigidity of the column might suggest. The work was found in the royal abbey of Saint-Denis in the environs of Paris. The figure is not identified by name but is merely known as a king, seen in the crown on his head and the royal raiment on his body.

The abbey of Saint-Denis was long important in the Catholic Church in France and housed the shrine of the national saint, that being Saint-Denis. The abbey also served as a burial site for many French kings. Abbot Suger headed the abbey from 1122-1151, and during his time the west facade and east end of the abbey were rebuilt in a new style then called the "French style," though it was later called the Gothic style. According to the Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, this column figure represents an Old Testament king and is the only complete statue surviving from the now destroyed cloister that was constructed shortly after the death of Abbot Suger: "The bejeweled crown and nimbus distinguish the royal and saintly nature of the figure. His identity may once have been inscribed upon the scroll that he holds, now broken" (para. 1). The fact that the figure is part of a column also shapes some of its aesthetic elements as the sculpture is formed to match the form of the column: "The slender folds of the figure's drapery further emphasize the column's elongated proportions" ("Medieval European Sculpture for Buildings" para. 3).

The way this piece of sculpture is attached to the building is very much part of the developing Gothic style, a habit that would continue well through later Gothic periods. Works were often quite firmly attached to architecture, though even then late Gothic sculpture typically maintained its formal independence. Henry Vyverberg cites the two column figures from Cologne, the Virgin and Christ, as examples: "Their elegance echoes the rather previous mannerism of the countless carved… [read more]

Greenart Inc. Leap's Frog Sculpture Competition Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,192 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0




Frog's Leap Sculpture Walk is an art event that will be held in Melbourne Australia by Green Art Incorporated from mid January 2009 - March 2009 in the Royal Botanic Garden. There is no entry… [read more]

Difference Western and African Art Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (708 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Group Communications

African Art:

Woyo people

Congo (Zaire) pot lid

What we think of as 'art' in a Western context is often taken to mean the type of art that is apprehended in a museum. Art viewed as such is not functional; rather it is decorative or expressive, like a sculpture or a painting. Art viewed from a distance in a museum is also often seen the expression of an individual artist who is seeking to reveal some unique inner truth. Thus runs contrary to how art functions in traditional West African society. Although the Western observer sees this artifact, a Woyo pot lid, in a museum, it must not be forgotten that in its original context, it was a part of the household, much like a pot lid in our own kitchen. Besides conveying meaning, it also had a practical purpose within the home to keep food warm. Rather than being purely individualistic in its expressive intent and design, its shape and form was fairly standardized, yet unlike a commercially purchased Western pot lid, it was created by the hands of the individuals who used the pot lid. Also, the use of the pot lid has a symbolic and communicative dimension that transcended its pure functionality and use. It is not purely functional, like a piece of kitchenware bought at a store, nor is it purely expressive, like an art object in a museum -- thus it straddles what are two separate purposes in Western culture.

The communicative aspect of the pot is not self-expression, but within a communal context, it can express a wife's feelings. Because this symbolic language is generally agreed upon within the tribe, it ends to reinforce the conventional modes of expression involving a particular a social institution, namely that of marriage. The language of the use of the pot lid thus agreed upon within the Woyo culture, much as certain symbolic gestures and words take place during the ritual of marriage itself. The pot lids are carved with community sayings and images that express generally accepted truths about the relationship between a husband and his wife. Art is…… [read more]

Agree or Disagree Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (603 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



The Baroque era (ca. 1600 to 1750), much like the art that was produced during this time, was composed of many dimensions -- spacious and dynamic, colorful, theatrical, opulent and extravagant, all of which were highly influenced by a number of contemporary political and social events. For the artist, this was an age of discovery, due in part to the rise of national powers that attempted to colonize the entire world. Wars and other disputes based on political and social differences were everywhere, particularly in Europe and North America. The rise in scientific discoveries by such figures as Newton and Kepler inspired many Baroque artists to create works of art that "embraced all the spaces of the celestial world and the spaces of the microcosm within an unfolding universe" (Tapie 56).

Perhaps most importantly, the art of this era was influenced by the Catholic reaction to the advancement of Protestantism. Overall, the political and social aspects of this time is best illustrated by Gianlorenzo Bernini's the Ecstasy of St. Teresa, a life-size, marble sculpture, presently located in the Cornaro Chapel of the Church of Santa Maria della Vitorria in Rome. This magnificent work of art "draws upon the full resources of architecture, sculpture and painting" and symbolizes the social power of the Cornaro family via its location in the chapel, for on either side are sculptured opera boxes in which portraits of the Cornaro family "represent an audience watching with intent piety the denouement of a heavenly drama" which, in effect, reveals "the remote mysteries of religion as they descend to meet the social world of man" (Tapie 83).

In contrast to the Baroque Era, the Rococo style is so closely related to the social and political ramifications of King Louis XIV, also known as the "Sun King," that the…… [read more]

Art / Claude Monet Painting Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (872 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Impressions painting are named not because they worked loosely with color through the use of the color theories developed in the nineteenth century, they optically mixed color with red next to yellow, somewhat than orange, and many more subtle. (Artist Profile: Claude Monet)

'The Japanese Footbridge" of 1899 depicts the height of Impressionism. Monet holds the many different angles of a scene on his own house -- an arched Japanese bridge which is reflected in the pool below full of lilies, the water's trembling reflection mirroring the adjacent foliage and trees. (Exhibit gives impression of artistic revolution) At Giverny, he enlarged the water garden which was his only source of inspiration during the fag end of his life. The Japanese Footbridge uses a traditional technique, while his other paintings especially the series of water lilies, lean increasingly towards abstraction whose importance was formally recognized when Monet gave them away to France in 1918. He is regarded as the father of impressionism and one of the most admired and loved artists of all time. His extensive career was characterized by experimentation and innovation. His handling of various subjects is identified immediately and confirm to his amazing talent for composition and the rendering of both color and light. His career started as a caricaturist in Le Havre during the 1850s.

An initial familiarity with the French landscape painter Eugene Boudin who painted the changing skies and sea along the Normandy coast was the formative impact in the initial years of Monet. Both of the artists, who shared a dedication to nature, enjoyed painting outdoors. During 1862, Monet went to Paris and started his training at the Paris studio of the academician Charles Gleyre. Following his initial success in the Salon of 1865, a bigger work, Women in the Park, was denied by the Salon of 1867, seemingly because Monet's use of color and light led to a simplification or abstraction of form. His methodologies challenged traditional practices and the authority of the French academy that was established for more than 200 years. (Monet at Giverny: Masterpieces from Musee Marmottan Biographical Notes)


"Artist Profile: Claude Monet" Retrieved from http://www.ndoylefineart.com/monet.html

Accessed on 5 May, 2005

'Exhibit gives impression of artistic revolution." Retrieved from http://www.dailybruin.ucla.edu/db/issues/99/09.27/ae.impression.html

Accessed on 5 May, 2005

'Monet at Giverny: Masterpieces from Musee Marmottan Biographical Notes." Retrieved from http://www.albrightknox.org/pastexh/Monet/biography.html Accessed on 5 May, 2005

'It looks Like an Original Monet, but it's an artagraph." Retrieved from http://www.artagraph.com.au/Monet.htm Accessed on 5 May, 2005… [read more]

Art the Renaissance Heralded in an Entirely Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,995 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



The Renaissance heralded in an entirely new tradition of art form during the 14th and 15th centuries, with a wide variety of painters, poets, writers and architects that literally and figuratively saw the world in a different light from the dark and dismal Middle Ages. Humanism developed in Italy in the field of literature, once again honoring the Greek… [read more]

Cubism and Sculpture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,572 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Artists like Picasso and Gauguin found formal ideas and images in the so-called primitive societies that resonated with energy and a new artistic rhythm.

Les Demoiselles D'Avignon is often invoked as the painting that started Cubism. A central aspect that the African mask motif created in Picasso's work was the challenge that it set up to ideas and normative perception… [read more]

Renaissance Paintings- Virgin and Child Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,592 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Correggio (1489-1534) belonged to the last group of highly talented artists of High Renaissance. Despite his popularity, not much documented evidence is available regarding his early training. However the style of his work indicates the influence of some leading artists of his time including Francesco Branchi Ferrari, Lorenzo Costa, Giorgione etc.

Nothing except his decorative style is there to prove that he had been influenced by Roman traditions in painting. The painting Virgin and Child with Saint John the Baptist was one of the early works of Correggio and carefully focuses on the emotional connection between John and Christ. It is important to understand that while the theme of Virgin and Child has biblical connotations, this particular painting focuses on one aspect of the theme, which is not found in Bible. The Bible doesn't say anything about a meeting between Saint John and the Christ as children. In this painting, Virgin has been given a more subdued role while the two children are in more active mode. That Correggio had "developed a style of conscious elegance and allure with soft sfumato and gestures of captivating charm" (Chilvers, 121) is obvious from this work where a hazy soft light prevails over the landscape and adds softness and gentleness to the painting and its subjects. The figures are painted in the form of a pyramid where the biggest figure sits at the top while the two smaller figure occupy left and right side in the compositional scheme.



World and I; Date: 12/01/1998;

Kavaler, Ethan Matt Renaissance Gothic in the Netherlands: The Uses of Ornament The Art Bulletin 06/01/2000;

ROBERTA OLSON, The Florentine Tondo Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Ian Chilvers: The Concise Oxford…… [read more]

Art and Photojournalism Film Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (398 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Pollock's work does not contain anything remotely resembling figures, but there is something quite electric about his paintings, and they bring out strong emotions in the viewer. His abstract paintings at first just seem a jumbled mess of color, but if gazed at long enough, they take on patterns, hues, and certainly bring out emotions and feelings. Some of the paintings are vibrant and exciting, while others are subdued and more poignant. These are quite human qualities, but there are no humans in the paintings, they are simply forms and colors. Even when Pollock did paint figures, they were not "normal" figures, they were abstract creations, and they too evoked very human feelings. Color, shape, texture, and form can all express human feelings, and Pollock used all of these creatively and effectively to create a very human and real feeling in his paintings, even in the absence of any human forms in them. Art can convey many different feelings and emotions, as Pollock's art clearly shows.


Pioch, Nicolas. "Pollock, Jackson." Web Museum. 16 July 2002. 4 Dec. 2003. http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/pollock/

Steichen, Edward. Memorable Life Photographs. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1951.… [read more]

Art History Roy Lichtenstein Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,976 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


They are totally formed by the way their culture has defined them. Even the title Stepping Out implies a falseness. They are dressing up and moving outside their true reality into a night life culture which they have been programmed to crave.

Stepping Out like the bulk of Lichtenstein's work stands in the center of the Pop Art era. As quoted in Art News in November of 1963, Roy Lichtenstein said: "Pop Art is an involvement with what I think to be the most brazen and threatening characteristics of our culture, things we hate, but which are also powerful in their impingement on us" (www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/lichtenstein_roy.html). Other artists like Andy Warhol, with his repetitive advertising industry images as seen in 32 Capmbell's Soup Cans (1961-62) and Marilyn Monroe's Lips (1962), were using popular culture to create a trendy and lucrative art of popular consciousness. Artists like Lichenstein and Warhol represented the natural creative progression of twentieth century art. Moving away from the abstract expressionist vogue they depicted the everyday reality of mass culture. Themselves emerging from a background in commercial art, they used familiar objects both to allow viewers to relate directly to art and to offer social satire.

Contemporaries, Lichtenstein and Warhol matured in their art under the heritage of American forerunners Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns who planted the seeds of Pop Art. Rauschenberg constructed collages from household objects and Johns repetitively painted American flags and bull's-eye targets. These artists in turn emerged under the influence of a European forerunners like Richard Hamilton who produced Just What Is It That Makes Today's Home So Different, So Appealing? In 1956.

Lichtenstein's cartoon dialogue and imagery places him stage center in the development of Pop Art. As Fineberg puts it, with Lichtenstein: "the subject matter comes already translated into the highly conventionalized language of line drawing advertisements or comics"... Lichtenstein's true subject "is not the embracing couple, a rib roast, or jets in a dogfight but rather the terms of their translation into the language of the media and the implications of that metamorphosis" (Fineberg 261).

Stepping Out, is, for this viewer, the epitome of the Pop Art movement. The blank eyes of the male and the Picassoesque central misplaced eye of the female emphasize the blindness of mass culture in which couples like this one rush into dates, nights out and relationships with no real thought or consideration, following the suggestive leads of the media. The suggestively voluptuous curve of the woman's hair and her oversized lips are details which characterize her as a pliable sex object for the male half of the couple who seems quite plastic in his fashionable detachment.


Fineberg, Jonathan. Art Since 1940: Strategies of Being. 2nd Edition. New York:Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, 2000.

A www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/lichtenstein_roy.html www.artlex.com/ArtLex/M.html www.nga.gov/cgi-bin/pbio?224210 www.metmuseum.org/collections… [read more]

Baroque Art an Examination Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (983 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


However, the composition and subject matter are completely different in Regnier's painting vs. that of Sellaio. In Regnier's painting, the horizontal line is more important than the vertical, whereas the reverse is true in Sellaio's. In Sellaio's, the canvas is longer than it is wide; and it is the other way around for Regnier. Regnier depicts his figures along the horizontal plane, with St. Sebastian's reclining body the central motif. Moreover, Regnier includes nothing in the background of the painting. The black background is stark, forcing the viewer's eye to rest on the triangulation created by the holy women and the saint. Sellaio, on the other hand, incorporates a naturalistic background behind the subjects, similar to what DaVinci would later do in "La Gioconda." Whereas Sellaio uses no chiaroscuro, thus imparting a rather flat illumination, Regnier's painting is as much a painting of light as it is a painting of human figures. Tenebrism allows the figures of the two women and St. Sebastian to leap from the canvas.

Whereas Regnier's tenebrism permits only a judicious use of color, with the red folds of the younger woman's clothing the main counterpoint to the otherwise black and white domains, Sellaio includes a variety of pastel and earth shades throughout the composition. Regnier's painting is shadowy, and the space occupied by the central figures is large. On the other hand, Sellaio's painting has no shadows, and the canvas is filled entirely with light-filled objects. Whereas the only straight lines in Regnier's painting are formed by the arrows, Sellaio relies heavily on the use of straight lines in his composition, such as the wall behind Mary and the cross formed by her elongated body and the invisible cross line with John the Baptist. Historical context influences the different style, composition, mood, tone, and symbolism of these two Renaissance paintings. Most notably, Sellaio paints pre-Reformation, and Regnier paints post-Reformation. The arrows in the Regnier composition, which are the only straight lines on the canvas, represent both the injuries done to St. Sebastian as well as the method by which the women deliver his salve. Thus, the Reformation is both an injury to the Church and also a means by which to make the Church stronger.

The differences between these two Renaissance compositions bely their similar symbolism. Both stress the centrality of Christian imagery and symbolism in Renaissance art. A cross shape is evident in the linear compositions of both paintings, even though one is rendered horizontally and the other vertically. Themes of redemption and rebirth are also present in the stories of St. Sebastian and likewise in the story of Christ with John the Baptist.

Works Cited

Castelvecchi, Davide. "Renaissance Painting Restoration Leads to Unusual Collaboration." Stanford Report. July 21, 2004. Retrieved online: http://news.stanford.edu/news/2004/july21/jacopo-721.html

Regnier, Nicolas. "St. Sebastian Attended by Holy Women," 1615-1626.

Sellaio, Jacopo del. "Virgin and Child with St. John the Baptist." Painting. 1480-85… [read more]

Diller Scofidio + Renfro: MOMA Expansion Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,678 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 13


Not all will fit. But the building enshrines the desire to comprehend as an American freedom" (Muschamp 1). The private art of folk art is being crowded out by more conventional images of modern art in some eyes: which is highly ironic, given the extent to which Picasso, Miro, and so many of the artists preserved within the walls of the current MoMA were considered outsiders long ago.

Yet AFAM was originally conceptualized as a modernist project as well to some degree and a merging of folk art and modernism in a way that was not ultimately successful. A positive review in the New York Times of AFAM noted: "The architects have acknowledged that the form created by the triangle atop the window is an etherealized human hand. The image establishes the building in relationship to the craft tradition and also to the continuity of modernism as epitomized by the French architect Le Corbusier" (Muschamp 1). The public was not interested and although critics praised the appearance of the encasement, the public seemed to find the contents unexciting, in contrast to the offerings of MoMA. "The lack of sex appeal of Folk Art, cloistered behind what many found to be an uninviting facade" is what ultimately led it to being subsumed into MoMA (Scott 1).

Museums are meant to serve the public and the art which is shown in the new structure seems to serve the public's needs more than the defunct folk museum. Sometimes something must be lost for much to be gained: still, the dominant nature of a few major museums which eclipse all others is troubling, as is the demolishment of a work which was considered to have aesthetic value by many architects, even if it was not appreciated while it stood.

Works Cited

"Building for the future: A work in progress." MoMA. 7 Apr 2014.


Davidson, J. "MoMA reveals its expansion plans." Culture Vulture. 14 Jan 2014.

7 Apr 2014.http://www.vulture.com/2014/01/moma-expansion-plans-american-folk-art-museum.html

Muschamp, Herbert. "Fireside intimacy for folk museum." The New York Times. 14 Dec 2001.

7 Apr 2014. http://www.nytimes.com/2001/12/14/arts/architecture-review-fireside-intimacy-for-folk-art-museum. 7 Apr 2014.

Pogrebin, Robin. "12-year-old building at MoMA doomed." The New York Times. 10 Apr 2013.

7 Apr 2014. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/11/arts/design/moma-to-raze-ex-american-folk-art-museum-building.html?_r=1&

Scott, Peter. "Tear down on 53rd street." The Brooklyn Rail. 4 Mar 2014.…… [read more]

Goya's the Forge Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,370 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The eye gravitates toward their centrality, and the complicated mix of angles that Goya has used to arrange these bright spots. This leaves the third man, whose position is complicated, and whose grey hair indicates a greater age than the other two: from the angle at which he bends, and from the glimpse of his left hand, it appears that he is operating a bellows. But his presence definitely makes the viewer think that we have three generations of men represented here: youth, adult, and old man.

The most astonishing thing about Goya's painterly technique here, though, is its fundamental unrealism. The facial features are discernible but they are not painted with a clarity or a particular attention to photographic realism: the young man's face is almost cartoonish, the old man's face is blurred and grey. The one spot of bright vivid color in the painting -- the glowing orange patch atop the anvil -- is almost an abstraction: we can hardly see what item these men are working on, we merely note its glaring bright color in the overall gloom of the canvas. Likewise Goya's brushwork frequently seems to be done with a palette knife, or at least geared to give a slightly improvised and blurred effect: the white lines on the left upper thigh of the blacksmith appear applied with a knife, as do the white highlights on the young man's upper right shoulder. The face of the old man seems to have been delineated entirely with a palette knife: the lines that indicate his beard and mouth seem too broad and rough for mere brushstrokes. It is astonishing to see, in a painting that would best be described as a form of social realism, that much of the actual painting seems more to anticipate Impressionism.

But this is arguably Goya's purpose here. The brushwork is clearly meant to capture the physical and emotive force of these figures: the heat and smoke of a blacksmith's shop, the strong physical motion of hammering on an anvil, are all things that in real life would obscure and blur our actual vision. Goya is capturing what things look like to a viewer in an actual smithy, by backing away from straightforward realism. Yet I noted at the outset that Goya's purpose here is arguably political. This derives from the choice of topic -- ordinary working men engaged in an activity that also has a history in mythological painting, usually in depictions of the god Vulcan forging the armor of Aeneas or the armor of Achilles, depending whether the painter is illustrating a scene from Vergil or Homer. Vulcan is, of course, the god of craftsmen -- he would be the patron of these very human blacksmiths. But Goya himself is fundamentally a craftsman as well: he indicates more of an identification with these strong central figures -- with their sense of three generations of men standing in allegorically for all working men everywhere, cooperating on one task -- than he does… [read more]

Love Letter Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,624 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The delicacy and playfulness of Rococo designs is often seen as a reaction to the excesses of Louis XIV's regime" (du.ac.in). Thus, the frivolity and the sense of fleeting that is present throughout the painting is something which is representative of the Rococo period in general.

Ultimately, the painting is very inviting and it encourages one to be a part of the space that it occupies. It makes one almost feel mildly voyeuristic as if one is trying to get a glimpse at the love letter presented. The painting is both quiet and loud and involves the senses in a sensual manner, evoking a strong amount of curiosity. Its warmth makes one enjoy being in its presence. It provides pleasure and makes one feel uncomfortable. My overall relationship to the painting is one of intrigue and mild excitement.

The painting has definitely showed me how the act of looking needs to be treated in a more proactive manner and that one must not regard works of art in a lazy fashion. It has shown me how the act of making art is precise, and how so many different elements work together to make a piece of art successful. Art is differentiated from any other type of object in the beauty (though sometimes not traditional beauty) and deeper meaning that art conveys. Art is able to point to the elusive and the eternal: these are the elements of life that few things can really touch upon with great success. Art can also take on a variety of meanings and be able to shift the perspective of many, allowing it in many ways to be ever transforming.


Artble.com. (2013). Jean-Honore Fragonard. Retrieved from Artble.com: http://www.artble.com/artists/jean-honore_fragonard#style_and_technique

Du.ac.in. (2013). Rococo. Retrieved from Du.ac.in: http://www.du.ac.in/fileadmin/DU/Academics/course_material/euroart/hyperlinks%202/Rococo%20features.htm… [read more]

Renaissance Art Ghirlandaio's "Old Man Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (579 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The use of shade helps develop the sense that there is perspective in the painting and that objects that are closer or farther away appear so. There is also a window by which the old man and child are sitting in which appears an outdoor scene. The window shows two hills, one clearly behind the other and a road which winds through the countryside, becoming ever larger the closer it gets. The small scene shown through the window is a perfect example of how the artists of the Renaissance used perspective to create a realistic portrayal of the world around them.

Finally, like many Renaissance artworks Ghirlandaio's "Old Man with his Grandson" is strictly secular in its subject, without any religious influence. The painting is simply an old man and his grandson; no angels, halos, demons, or any religious icons or symbolism. The work of art maintains a humanist basis, showing a purely human interaction to which any person could relate.

Ghirlandaio's "Old Man with his Grandson" demonstrates a combination of Renaissance values and ideals; specifically perspective, reality, and secularism. Artists of the Renaissance sought to capture reality in their paintings, in effect they tried to make their work appear as if it were a photograph; something very difficult to accomplish with paint. However, Ghirlandaio's use of perspective and shadow allowed for a realism to come through so that the painting portrays a realistic scene of two realistic people. It also demonstrates the transformation from purely religious subjects to a more Humanist view of art, one where human interaction takes center place.


Ghirlandaio, Domenico. (1490). Old Man with his Grandson [Painting]. Retrieved from http://www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/html/g / ghirland/domenico/7panel/08oldman.html… [read more]

Pieter Jansz. Saenredam Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,727 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


Pieter Jansz. Saenredam was a Dutch painter most commonly known for his involvement in producing paintings of church interiors during the seventeenth century. There is much controversy with regard to Saenredam's interest in religion, considering how his paintings tend to portray elements that have little to nothing to do with the original elements present in buildings he painted. In addition… [read more]

Art Exhibition Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,212 words)
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Art Exhibition

One of the more often repeated sayings is that the United States is a melting pot of cultures. This is nowhere as true as it is when thinking about the artistic experience since the late 18th century forward. Celebrating this immigrant experience, the Smithsonian Institution presents an exhibit entitled, Our America: The Latino Presence in American Art. The exhibit is located in Washington, D.C., and lasts from October 25, 2013 to March 2, 2014. The exhibition includes 92 works in all media from 72 artists in various styles and genres. The overall message of the exhibition is to celebrate Latino culture through the local experience about what it means to be a Latino in modern-America; the cultural and personal heritage expressed though art as a community. One of the more interesting aspects of the exhibit was not only the diversity of medium, but the vast differences in style and interpretation among the Latino community. For instance, the offerings include artists from the Mexican, Cuban, Puerto Rican, as well as numerous other Central and South American immigrant heritages. Each of these artists seems also to embody the spirit of their particularly unique -- yet similar -- mix of Latinism and Americanism. The exhibit also includes film, music, artistic/educational programs, as well as concerts, panels and panel discussions. This makes the exhibition more well-rounded and multi-dimensional (Smithsonian, 2013).

My visit to the exhibition was done with a good friend, who is a humanities major and was able to make several inferences about many of the works tie together for me. In addition, my friend is fairly fluent in Spanish, and we not only understood more from other Spanish-speaking attendees, the mood was jovial when I became a student of Spanish 101.Despite the serious nature of many of the works, the nearly perfect Fall day was a mix of both an artistic buzz and educational brain ache. There is no way that one can really experience this "festival" in one day, and I know that several of the pieces were missed. But this is a positive in that it invites more than a one-time experience. Reflecting back, I think it might be interesting to split the visits into genres, then try to attend the round tables, culture walks, or extra experiences that focus on a particular theme or medium. However, I also realized after viewing only a few pieces that one important way to enhance the experience more, or even take on after the first visit, is to learn more about Hispanic history and culture for at least the 20th century on. So much of the artwork has not only cultural underpinnings, but represents or was inspired by actual historical events. Understanding the historical basis helps define the cultural basis, and thus one is able to glean more from the artistic representation. To me, this is particularly true when one thinks about the Civil Rights Movement, and to understand that the Latino contingent was crucial to many of the changes and… [read more]

Interpretation of Specific Works of Art Essay

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¶ … works of Art

The Hallucinogenic Toreador is an oil painting and as indicated on its footnote description was painted between the years 1968-1970 by Salvador Dali while taking care of the canons of his understanding of surrealist thought. Currently this piece of art is exhibited at Salvador Dali Museum found in St. Petersburg in Florida.

Elements and principles of design in the painting

Elements of art are the things which are most visuals in the particular artwork. There are various formal elements of art that the artists used in his artwork. They include; color, this entails the visual and perpetual property that is found within an image. The intensity, purity, strength and depth of the colors used in a painting immensely contribute to the feel and purpose of the painting. For instance Dali used warm and inviting colors in his painting. These colors draw viewers into the painting. The right side of the painting comprises of warm colors ranging from pink to orange at the top extending to a red cloth which is draped around the waist of Venus de Milo.

Another element of art that is visibly used in this painting is shape. Shape is described by anatomy, contour and configuration of the objects. The painting has various images that are in repetition. In such a painting whereby one can make little sense out of it, the repetition of images that can be recognized creates an anchor which the viewers can embrace. This is even when they are not quite aware of t6he reason for the repetition. The image combines the use of versatile images as an illustration of the artistic creation of the artist. Dali mastered the art of hiding images in his work. For instance, the bust and torso of Venus clad in white and green comprise the toreador's face. Another hidden image is the shadow under her left breast which was also his nose's shadow as seen on the display.

Value is another formal element of art that has been used in this painting. Value refers to the specific tone of color that has been used for the emphasis and accentualization of the particular artwork the brightness of the painting has been balanced in such a way that there is a skillful use of shadings and colors.

Principles are concepts which are used during the organization and arrangement of structural elements of design in a piece of art. The manner in which these principles are applied has an effect on the expressive content or even the message the artwork is intended to portray. Balance is the concept of visual equilibrium that relates to the physical sense of balance. Balance in artwork is achieved in asymmetrical and symmetrical ways. The images within the painting are properly balanced in both symmetrical and asymmetrical ways. The finishing of the image is so good such that anyone observing it fails to notice the double image quality that is found in the artwork.

Proportion refers to the relative scale… [read more]

Mathematics and Art Research Paper

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This is a fairly new field, which may fall under another fairly new field, called Software Studies, which has been pioneered by Lev Manovich. Both men are highly educated and on the cutting edge of their respective studies and activities, making data visualization a hot topic and a fashionable trend that continues to gain in popularity and in utility.

There are professionals throughout the world who ask and argue whether or not data visualization is art because it is driven and contingent upon data, which is mathematical and scientific in nature. No matter where the visualization comes from, it is a form of expression that is expressed artistically and with great consideration for aesthetics.

In addition to the data visualization itself, there is a whole range of graphic design decisions that must be made in order for the visualization to come to fruition. Some of those decisions include the layout, color scheme/palette, font selection, composition, size, and many elements that add visual hierarchy and structure that are all opportunities for creativity. The decisions that creators must make in order to create the best representation of the data are of the same order of decisions that artists make when they make a sculpture, painting, drawing, or installation. Additionally, in some ways, artists make mathematical and scientific decisions for their art. The arguments over whether data visualization is mathematical or artistic further illustrates the earlier point that the lines between math and art no longer exist, and perhaps were quite illusory in the first place.


Meersschaert, K. (2012). Does Math + Art = Teachable Data Visualization? Columbia University, Web, Available from: http://edlab.tc.columbia.edu/index.php?q=node/8057. 2013 June 14.… [read more]

Satyr With the Grapes: Food in Ancient to Modern Art Essay

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food from ancient to modern art. The image of the Satyr with the grapes

The significance of the influence that ancient Greek has on the industry of wines in all the regions across the world is remarkable. Greek carries long histories of wine, and the cultivation of olive and the vine. These plants bear grapes used to brew the wines, a state that existed from the ancient times the early years of the nation. Ancient Greek pioneered methods of cultivating and producing wine, which it then passed to the other winemaking communities in the modern era. Similarly, art was a subject of development in ancient Greece. Paintings were a way of expression and intimacy with the surrounding environment. Among the themes used in this period are still in use to date, for various reasons.

Satyrs treading grapes in an amphora of Athens, about 530-520 B.C,

The painting Amphora with satyrs treading grapes is a masterpiece created in the Greek archaic period. The painting is on a black, two-handled, ceramic jar, with a black figure on the image. This painting shows the satyr carrying a basket of grapes as they cross some water on a boat. This theme sets the stage for most other paintings in both the modern and the ancient times to grow and develop. Several artists and painters applied the theme of using the grapes and the black aspect of the painting.

Statue of a Satyr Holding Grapes, Versailles, 1672, Vues et Plans de Versailles, c.1672-8,

The painting of the statue of Satyr holding grapes originates from French nationality. The painting is spectacular in its engraving aspect and borrows the theme of the use of grapes in the painting. Therefore, it is clear that this painting, made several years after the Amphora painting, uses the same theme of grapes and wine industry in the country. Therefore, it conclusively indicates that the modern artwork draws inspirations and remarkable painting techniques for the artists. The statue holds a bunch of grapes in the hands; hence the utilization of the theme of grapes and their meaning. This is a spectacular work of art; done on the principle of ancient Greece painting from a different nation shows the extent of the application of the theme.

Satyr Playing with Eros (1877)

This painting is among the surviving works of its time and type. It is a painting of the ancient Greek art, using modern artwork systems. The painting shows satyr playing with Ethos, a system that depicts understanding of the ancient world. This painting elicits the feeling that the artwork was a universal communication channel, in which artists used same themes to develop themselves, and the issue of producing works similar to being original can test a painter's ability. In the aspect of using satyr, the painting gives the interpretation of life as carefree and; therefore, the aspects of testing for the quality of the painting and the themes. From this painting, satyr identifies himself with Ethos and this portrays satyr as Greek… [read more]

Art History: The Impressionists Baroque Term Paper

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Different aspects of baroque art were determined by religion. For example the church of Roman Catholic became a great influential patron, as well as its Counter Reformation. As it aimed at spreading Protestantism, it uses dramatic, realistic and emotional art to propagate their faith. Countries like northern Germany and Netherlands as well indicate simplicity of Protestantism by explaining the severity of architectural styles within these areas. Art was also influenced through politics circumstances. For example the existed monarchies of Spain and France facilitated the coming up of art works reflecting splendor and size of the majesty of their kings, Philip IV and Louis XIV.

Characteristics of Baroque

Some of the characteristics of baroque art generally are tension, energy, and sense of movement. Their dramatic effects of most of the sculptures and paintings are enhanced by the strong contrasts of shadow and light. Baroque buildings together with their undulating walls as well as decorated surface elements also indicated motion with contrasts in color and light. Baroque art always presents intense spirituality, for example countries which are influenced by Roman Catholic tend to commonly have scenes of martyrdoms, ecstasies, or miraculous apparitions. Contrary to the units that were present within Renaissance, baroque sculptures or paintings always suggests infinite space. Another important integral feature of baroque art is realism, where the painted figures are not types; they are persons with their own personalities. Most of the artist who were concerned with how the inner mind works tried to bring out passions of the soul on their work of art.


Some of the nations have continued to experience baroque especially in European colonies within the Americas. Through social, religious and political influence they have been derived and painted to signify the intended theme.


Thames & Hudson, (1985). Development of 17th- and 18th-century Western European art. http://www.uib.no/ped/baroque.html… [read more]

Material World and Meaning Essay

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Art can be used to express sociological meanings and worldviews. American artist Andy Warhol understood this aspect of art as a political and social tool, and applied that to his work. One of Warhol's most famous works of art is actually a series in which he painted Campbell's Soup cans in a colorful "pop art" kitch manner. One of the most notable of the soup can series is known as "100 Cans." In this painting, Warhol renders the labels of 100 Campell's Tomato Soup cans in a grid. There is great uniformity to the design, which stretches to fill the entire canvas. No space on the canvas is left blank because it is filled with the soup cans. Warhol paints the soup cans in a realistic manner. The labels are red and white with a touch of yellow. Although the cans appear to be identical, they are not, as "A close look reveals the fact that the cans are not identical, nor are they evenly spaced. The bottom row is cut off, suggesting that they continue beyond the confines of the canvas."

The art historical context of the Warhol soup cans relates to the pop art phenomenon, in which artists were questioning the relevance of former categories of "high" versus "low" art. While Warhol's soup cans are considered to be fine art, they are also "low" art because they capitalize on imagery in popular culture. Therefore, there is some paradox and irony in the work, which also makes "100 Cans" quintessentially postmodern. When asked why he painted the soup cans, Warhol has stated, "Because I used to drink it. I used to have the same lunch every day, for 20 years, I guess, the same thing over and over again." He is expressing the monotony of eating soup every day in the painting.

However, there are deeper layers to the painting and sociological meaning can be easily read into the Warhol design. For one, the painting communicates much about consumer culture in the United States. Second, the painting conveys elements of mass market foods and the big food conglomerates that control the American diet. Third, the Warhol painting symbolizes suburban America with its track housing and attempts to impose homogeneity and conformity on society. Just as Warhol admits to eating soup every day, he paints this to give America a mirror in which to see its own mundane and monotonous habits.

Ironically, the very essence of what Warhol was trying to convey about mass market mentality and consumer culture in America has come true as his painting of the soup cans has actually made its way onto the very soup can Warhol represented. News sources like the New York Times and CNN have featured the phenomenon, showing that the Warhol soup cans are now literally soup cans. Art and consumerism have completely fused together, in ways that Warhol predicted. Whether Warhol would have laughed or cried will never truly be known, but given his astute observations about American popular culture… [read more]

Art Is Contingent Research Paper

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This particular piece of artwork reflects what I believe to be the true definition of art. It encompasses the feelings of the artist, a reflection of an idea, the statement of a thought, and the openness to interpretation based on the viewer. This piece of artwork can be interpreted in so many different ways, that it will mean something different to every single person that encounters it. Some will relate this painting to a social or political issue, while others will understand it to be a reflection of how they are feeling at the moment. It is these key aspects that define what art is.

The Persistence of Memory uses darker, gray-toned colors. Clocks seem to droop and from odd and unconventional places. The environment is an open one. In the background, cliff-like mountain structures are seen that lead to a reflective body of water. The clocks are present in the darker areas and are all made to resemble stop watches. On the floor of the painting is what looks like a portion of a face, with a clearly outlined closed eye with eyelashes attached. The texture of the painting is a smooth one. Every structure has a rounded corner, even in areas where sharp characteristics may have been more appropriate to use. The dark background of the bottom two thirds of the painting allow for the structures drawn on it to stand out. This is where the artist wants his viewers to focus more on because this is where the main point of his artwork lays. This artwork is meant to represent the peacefulness that one feels after drifting off to sleep. The closed eye on the floor of the painting demonstrates this. The droopy hanging clocks symbolize our loss of the notion of time while sleeping. When people dream, there is no sense of anything that is going on consciously. The only reality that one experiences is that of the unconscious mind. This painting symbolizes that time during which people are in between two worlds, both of which are realities at the time. It is this exact reason why this painting is particularly intriguing. Its openness to interpretation allows viewers to relate more to…… [read more]

Renaissance Art Response Term Paper

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From the canvas, he seems to be telling the story of his entire life in a series of colored brushstrokes.

During the Renaissance, painters worked diligently to create new ways to depict the human form on canvas and wood. Before this time, artists showed human figures in very flat, two-dimensional ways. Medieval art all show people who do not look like real fully rendered human beings. During the Renaissance, this changed and artists wanted their human subjects to look like they do in the real world. The intention was to create the most realistic depiction of humanity possible in this two-dimensional medium. If one looks carefully at portraiture from this time period, it is evident that of major importance to the artists is the presentation of the subject's face. This perspective is evident in this Rembrandt painting. Even though the face looks blurred from the way the subject was painted, it still gives the impression of being a real person rather than a representation. Rembrandt himself said that in his work he intended to portray the greatest and most natural moment (Hughes 6). This is clear if you look at some of the other self-portraits that Rembrandt made. None of them are stoic, dignified poses but rather there are self-portraits of the artist wearing fancy costumes or making funny faces which he would have made by looking in a mirror.

The self-portrait of Rembrandt allows the modern viewer to see one component of traditional Renaissance art. During this period, artists became very interested in the human body and in particular the human face and how it varied from individual to individual. In this picture, Rembrandt is not handsome nor is he smiling. It does not look like a particularly important moment for him to be capturing, but that is the point, that every moment has merit and should be remembered.

Works Cited

Hughes, Robert. "The God of Realism." The New York Review of Books. 53(6), 2006. Print.

Van de Wetering, Ernst. Rembrandt: the Painter at…… [read more]

Detroit Institute of Arts Essay

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The woman standing on the beach is showing her legs in a pose that suggests the intention of grabbing her companion's attention, but every silhouette in this painting appears to be living in a world of her own, with her own thoughts and preoccupations. No features are visible, but there are stories to be told with every character.

One of the temporary exhibitions going on at the museum is titled "Motor City Muse: Detroit Photographs, Then and Now."

It is one of those exhibitions that offers a glimpse into an urbane, ephemeral world, great artists like Henry Cartier Bresson, Robert Franck or Bill Rauhauser were able to capture and make it permanent.

Van Gogh's "Bedroom in Arles," lend by the Musee d'Orsay in Paris, until May 28, 2013, has joined in exhibition the other paintings by Van Gogh at the DIA.

An upcoming exhibition is dedicated to the New York based, contemporary artist, Shirin Neshat's video installations and art photography. The exhibition will be accompanied by a lecture given by Alfredo Jaar on April 3rd, a preview celebration on April 6th, a lecture conversation between the artist herself and Nobel Prize laureate, Shirin Ebadi, moderated by Culumbia University's Professor of Iranian Studies and Comparative Literature, Hamid Dabashi.

Another interesting exhibition, coming up, will be dedicated to the animated film, this time. Starting on Sunday, October 6th, "Watch Me Move, the Animation Show," will be open to those who are keen to find out more about the animation world, as it evolved over a period of 150 years. Personal appearances by contemporary animators at the Detroit Film Theater will punctuate the exhibition.

The Detroit Institute of Arts is two blocks away from, I-94 and its busy intersection with other highways, thus easily accessible from all directions. Street parking is available on all four streets enclosing the museum. There are two parking lots for paid self-parking and also valet parking available.

Those who want to find out more about a subject or an exhibition, can participate in the museum's daily public or private tours, can listen to one of the multiple lectures or a concert, or try to make art of their own in one of the art workshops.

The museum is kid and family friendly and it offers family group tours and field trips.

There is a Wayne and Joan Webber Education Wing with spaces dedicated to educational programs.

The "Family Sundays" include a puppet performance and various artist demonstrations, each Sunday.

The museum's shop sells jewelry, pottery, books, albums, office stationary, souvenirs, puzzles, exhibition catalogues, DVDs, T-shirts, wall art, accessories, articles dedicated to kids, like toys, books, games etc. Some of them at reasonable prices, some, like some jewelry pieces, porcelain and glass items, especially those supporting the local producers, more on the expensive side.

For food and beverages there are CafeDIA and Cresge Court Coffe Shop that are available for those who want to take a break, find a meeting place or rest and enjoy a cup of coffee… [read more]

Modern Art of the Twenty First Century Thesis

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Modern Art of the 21st Century

Throughout the course of history, artists have used a number of different techniques in illustrating their ideas and thoughts about particular images. This is because various tactics utilized in the past were often incorporated into contemporary thinking. In the 21st century, these views are being used to tell a unique story by embracing these… [read more]

Art in South America and the Pacific Term Paper

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Art in South America and the Pacific

Aboriginal Creation Myths and Art

The Aborigines have existed for approximately 40,000 years in parts of Australia. They boast one of the most ancient cultures in the world that is as varied as the people themselves throughout different regions of this continent. Due to the length of time that this civilization has existed,… [read more]

Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel Term Paper

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While there is literal and symbolic meaning in the ceiling's content, it is also significant to consider the reality that the artist experienced to create this masterpiece. What the artist went through as part of the creative endeavor is a noteworthy aspect of the context within which the painting was created.

The paintings on the walls and on the ceiling… [read more]

Integrated Arts Research Paper

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Art Interview

An Interview with Two Artists

Two Post-Impressionists, Paul Gauguin and Vincent Van Gogh became friends in the late 19th century in Paris, France. They lived together for a time in Arles in the famous "Yellow House," until Van Gogh fell ill and was hospitalized and Gauguin left for other parts of the world to pursue his vocation as an artist. An interview with these two painters reveals the dynamic of their relationship at this time and the essence of their craft and what they were trying to achieve through their unique approaches to painting. Both have left behind some brilliant pieces of work. This paper will discuss with them how they approached their art and how their friendship affected their painting.

Q: You both spent time in Paris. What did you gain from the art scene there?

Gaugin: "I was born in Paris, of course, and returned there after parting ways with my family. I was very much interested in the Impressionistic style all around me. I was looking for something real in life -- something that transcended the insipid reality that everyone was busy manufacturing for himself. Paris offered a glimpse -- but only a glimpse. I had to keep going further and further -- beyond the reach of urban life."

Van Gogh: "I was embracing Impressionism and using it to reflect the world in a real way. But whether I was painting Fritillaries for a love interest or for my own does not take away from the fact that my spirit was now alive with an intensity that was as bright and fervent as my religious soul had been a decade earlier. However, my heart was not content to stay in the city: thus I traveled to Arles to study and paint the scenes and images that had inspired my early works like the Potato Eaters -- only now the same scenes and settings would be bright, alive, and soulful. I was becoming overwhelmed by the beauty and grace in nature and in people." (Johnson 607)

Q: What was your biggest inspiration?

Gaugin: "I can say that life itself was an inspiration. The mystery of it all. Who are we? Where are we going? My paintings address these questions because I feel they are important. We do not take enough time to properly address them. All around us is a mad rush of activity and ideas, but no or little discernment. Little reflection, meditation. I'm inspired by the idea of natural, primitive beauty."

Van Gogh: "God is the inspiration. His presence in all things, in us -- our attempt to measure up to him. It is a struggle. I see that struggle and enter into it. It is not an easy thing to do. I have been called mad by many, insane, crazy. I cut off my ear, hear voices, shoot myself. But am I crazy? I wanted to be a missionary in my younger days, but could not. Art is an outlet through which I… [read more]

Art Development of Artistic Concepts Essay

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Art Dev

Development of Artistic Concepts and Skills Across Grade Levels

The concept of sings, symbolism, and style in artworks is something that requires advanced critical thinking skills to fully appreciate, engage with, and eventually create, and the skill of interpreting and working with signs, symbols, and styles is something that develops over time with concerted effort and practice. Guiding the development of these concepts and skills is something that teachers at various grade levels must appreciate as a continuous and ongoing process, adapting lessons to effectively promote a skill level appropriate to the students' current grade level yet building explicitly on previous learning and remaining equally mindful of future learning to occur in subsequent years. The following pages present the foundations of this concept and skill at the Grade 7 level, and includes lesson plans for Grade 9 and 10 as well.

Concept and Skill Progression from Grades 7 to 10

The concept of symbols, signs, and individualistic style choices and the skill of reading and interpreting these signs, etc., should be present and enhanced in Grade 7 coursework (Sickinger, n.d.). Simply put, the skill involved is the ability to interpret abstract concepts such as emotions, ideals, and philosophical or political statements from visual elements included in artwork, with the concept of these visual elements divided into distinct groups of signs, symbols, and stylistic choices (Hickman, 2004; Sickinger, n.d.). Almost any work of art could be examined as a means of illustrating the concept and skills involved, though there are some choices that are more explicit or obvious than others (Sickinger, n.d.).

With the foundation of the concept and skill established in Grade 7, it is fairly easy to trace the progression of these elements through subsequent grades of schooling. In Grade 8, the ability for students to interpret the signs, symbols, and styles they encounter should expend to more subtle, nuanced, and complex geopolitical situations, allegorical references, and other less-obvious or -- familiar phenomena (Hickman, 2004; Sickinger, n.d.). In Grade 9, the concept should expand to include not simply the individual visual elements of an artwork but the overall organization of signs, symbols, and stylistic choices within a given work of art and within a given time period, enhancing the interpretative skill still further (Sickinger, n.d.). Finally, by Grade 10 students should be able to fully utilize signs, symbols, and conscious stylistic choices in their own creative expression, showing mastery of the skill and concepts through their own manipulation and creation rather than simple interpretation (Sickinger, n.d.).

Grade 9 Lesson Plan

Primary Task: Examining the painting Guernica by Pablo Picasso, students are to write a paper explaining the organization of the visual elements of the work and their relevance to the historical and artistic context of the work's creation.

Learning Objective: Students connect personal reactions to aesthetic elements with historical events and artistic trends. Historical knowledge and critical thinking are utilized to develop complex interpretations of individual aesthetic elements and their cohesion within a single piece of artwork.… [read more]

Dadaism and Surrealism Essay

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To cut a long story short, Dadaism and Surrealism have influenced history in a very radical and effective manner. Having a lot of similarities, both the movements differ only on few grounds. Not only did the Surrealists produce paintings, they also did marvelous works in the field of film, theatre, comedy and contemporary cultures. The influence of the discussed two historical art periods is significant and would remain be on the future art.


ART BOOKS OF THE YEAR; Van Gogh's Letters, Grayson Perry's Pots a Scholarly Study of Caravaggio and a Glimpse into the World of the Insane Henry Darger -- Just a Few of the Treats Guaranteed to Give Pleasure This Christmas. (2009, December 10). The Evening Standard (London, England), p. 48. Retrieved June 27, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5038833735

Dada. (2009). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved June 27, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117013882

Essak, S. (n.d.). Dada - Art History 101 Basics: The Non-Art Movement (1916-23). Retrieved June 27, 2012 from http://arthistory.about.com/cs/arthistory10one/a/dada.htm

MobileReference. (2007). Encyclopedia of philosophy for smartphones and mobile devices - free 3 chapters in the trial version. Boston: MobileReference.com. Retrieved June 27, 2012 from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=cHI3qGaX9DsC&pg=PT440&dq=dada+art+movement&hl=en&sa=X&ei=hFKWT-_dA-el4gSjr9xG&ved=0CFcQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=dada%20art%20movement&f=false

Surrealism. (2009). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved June 27, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117047965

Willette, J.S.M. (2011, June 17). Comparison of Dada and Surrealism. Retrieved June 27, 2012 from http://www.arthistoryunstuffed.com/comparison-of-dada-and-surrealism/… [read more]

Japanese Art of Balance Term Paper

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One of the areas of balance that is cultivated when creating origami is patience. If the folds are not just right and in the correct order, or if one gets in a hurry and is sloppy, the origami will not come out correctly. Sometimes it will not look quite right. Other times, it becomes impossible to create it at all… [read more]

Visual Art Vincent Van Gogh Term Paper

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However, this portrait in the painting was replaced by the portrait of a woman in the replica that was made in 1771 (Hulsker, 1996).

Van Gogh's work can now be dated accurately since the profiled work has now been proven to be original. It was in the Letter 555 (17 October 1888) that Van Gogh wrote "in order to let you know that I have completed the canvas that represent my bedroom this afternoon I am adding a line" (Vincent Gallery 2012).

Due to all these letter by Van Gogh in which he has mentioned such details most of his work could be dated with a lot of precision.


During Van Gogh's time in Paris it can be seen that his work constitutes of very bright and striking colours. Vincent's Bedroom in Arles also has this same usage of bold and striking colours. During Gogh's Arles and Saint-Remy period it seems like yellow became his favourite colour as he has used it in his work a lot (Vincent Gallery 2012).

Van Gogh's work especially the one that he has done in the latter half of his career shows the use of unique perspective. Even in his painting of the bedroom all the objects seem to be pointing towards the viewer; this is one of the factors that make his painting so easily recognizable. Van Gogh started rebelling against the muted and dull colours used by the Dutch artists at the time with the use of bold and bright colours in his work (The Seated Zouave and The Night Cafe in the Place Lamartine in Arles, can be seen for example) (Vincent Gallery 2012).

There is another interesting perspective present about the Van Gogh's work. According to Ronald Pickvance, Van Gogh's work shows a more realistic approach. According to Pickvance in his book Van Gogh in Arles, the shape of Van Gogh's room was quite different because of which he had to draw it in the way he did. Therefore, it was not his artistic perspective rather the actual appearance of the room which made him draw the painting like he did. The actual shape of Gogh's room can be seen in the diagram when it is held at a particular angle (Pickvance, 1984).

Other versions

As it has been mentioned above that there are five versions of Van Gogh's bedroom in Arles, from among these three are oil on canvas and two are letter sketches. At the time when Gogh was in the asylum under voluntary confinement two copies of the painting were made. Later on, Gogh himself made a lot of copies during his early days in the asylum. It was his way of showing his lonely life that he was leading in the asylum. This has also been told by him to his friends in Arles as well (Vincent Gallery 2012).

There are many people who believed that in the original painting Van Gogh has expressed his dreams and wishes. Gogh wanted to build a community for… [read more]

Art History Essay

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Art History

Certainly, after proceeding into the course, I see the world with a radically different perspective than when you began your art studies. I now look much more deeply into things around you myself and with a different set of eyes and mind. I now do not see art as something that has a definitive form or an exact composition. Rather, the art can be relative have elements that do not have to directly reflect reality on the surface. Indeed, via principles of art as well as the significance of the things that one is looking it in terms of symbols or themes. Mystically, art opens up the vistas of the human mind and the subconscious that we would otherwise ignore. It helps us to not just "smell the roses" so to speak, but to take a mind trip, so to speak, and to see them in new colors and perspectives that we would not otherwise have been able to have.

This really hits upon what art is. Whether it is 20,00 French cave art or the most modern art that one can find in a museum, art and abstraction really is a uniquely human activity. It is a reflection of the human soul put on canvas. We dwell on what endures and lives beyond. Reality is not just what we see, but a mystical something that we can not readily lay our hands on. Art gives us the mystical tools to grasp this underlying reality and bring it back to the surface to appreciate in properly whether we are in the cathedral or in the exhibit hall. After all, for most of us, the art museums are our temples and we must adorn them with the sacred to help us find meaning in the crazy world.


I like the synthetic cubist painting by Picasso on page 300 better due to the clown like character of the landscape that the artist created. Cubism appeals to me because of its abstraction of reality, breaking it down and then analyzing its component parts. Analytic Cubism much simpler being a less sophisticated analysis of the objects/subjects by pulling them apart for analysis into planes. The Synthetic Cubism in this painting of the three musicians is more of a pushing together of the several objects together for analysis. It is less pure though because is looks like it has fewer shifts of focus and also less shading. This looks so much to me like the artist was trying to create a perception of flatter space.

With this otherworldly appearance and appeal, Picasso's paintings are very surreal, mystical and magical at the same time. If Picasso had lived around Berkeley n the 1960's, I would think he would have been taking acid and running around with Timothy Leary dropping psychedelics and listening to rock music to expand his mind. The whole painting is a transpersonal trip into an altered world of perception that only Picasso knew and understood and that he refused… [read more]

Maori Art Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,279 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


As such, there has not been any way to yet find what a large set of carvings may mean. One particularly interesting argument suggests that the Mako was a way of separating the Maori men and women from the realm of life and death. As it had a holy significance, the carvings could have been either a source of protection from death or a means of being unified with the dead (Gathercole 177). Since each of the various Maori tribes had a different set of symbols, it would be quite difficult to translate since a similar icon could mean a very many different things depending upon who it was that was asked of from what tribe that person belonged.

As the art world has expanded, museums and art collectors have become interested in amassing collections of art which include historic artifacts. There are examples of Maori carvings in locations where the original creators of the pieces could never have envisioned. Rather than religiously import artifacts, sculptures of the Maori culture are placed upon shelves and pedestals, given the same importance as a painting from the Renaissance or an installment from the modern art movement, but they are given no more. The religious and cultural import of the piece has been completely erased and instead it is only appreciated in terms of the aesthetic.

In the article "The Maori Carver" by R.W. Firth, he describes the way that the artifacts from the Maori culture are looked upon as pieces of art rather than as artifacts of an ancient culture. This, the author argues, is completely inappropriate because this removes the Maori items from their historical context and thus deprives them of meaning besides the aesthetic. Firth writes:

In order to appreciate the full value of the art it is necessary to study it not only in Museum show-cases, where it is as a thing dead and set apart, but also as far as possible in its original and natural setting in the villages and homes of the people, where it is full of life and character (1).

This is an important perspective because it highlights the difficulty between appreciating an artifact for its beauty and understanding a work in light of its cultural, historical, and sociological context.

The Maori culture is exemplified by the art that was created, just as art of any culture fulfills the role as historian and works as testimony to their culture. For the Maori, the process called Mako which is the carving of the skin of people of the Maori culture, was a symbol of their culture and served as a representation of what was important to them. That ancient culture could never have guessed that modern peoples would take items that were of sacred and holy importance to them and to display them for the entire world to see. Based upon the way they treated even the scraps from their wood carvings, it is highly unlikely that they would have appreciated their icons being treated… [read more]

Country Maid Art Analysis Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,093 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Pissarro often painted working-class women, and some of his other well-known works include The Maidservant, Washerwoman, and A Young Woman Washing Dishes. Pissarro painted the darker side of rural life, unlike his fellow Impressionists who enjoyed showing the beauty of unspoiled nature. "The key theme of domestic labor is linked, in turn, to Pissarro's views on agricultural labor and the market economy" and in domestic servitude in The Little Country Maid.[footnoteRef:1] [1: "Groundbreaking perspective on Camille Pissarro opens at the Legion of Honor this fall," Art Daily, December 12, 2011, http://www.artdaily.com/index.asp?int_sec=11&int_new=51257&int_modo=1]

Pissarro was the lone Impressionist who made domestic workers his central focus, just as much as Degas focused on ballet dancers and Monet upon flowers. Pissarro was described as a political radical during his era, and this is manifest in his depiction of the maid and in his other work. "Scholars have tended to treat Pissarro's politics and his art in two separate categories, often refusing to see the most basic connections between them. This is largely because Pissarro was less a political activist than a social and economic philosopher.[footnoteRef:2]" However, although his work has a clear ideological perspective, it is also characterized by humanism and respect for the subject. The maid is not objectified to make a political point. [2: Ibid.]

Pissarro's work recalls that of Vermeer's servant girls, although instead of Vermeer's glowing and illuminated women, Pissarro's woman is in the shadows. She is not beautiful, although she is not obviously 'lower class' other than her clothing. She is an ordinary woman, an 'every woman' with whom the gazer is encouraged to identify. In terms of its physical qualities, the painting is oil on canvas. It is a relatively small painting, only 2'1 by 1'19 in width and diameter.[footnoteRef:3] The shadowy nature of the painting is relatively distinct, and stands in contrast to the brightness characteristic of Pissarro's Impressionist contemporaries Monet and Renoir. The brushstrokes are typical of the Impressionist period: "relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes; open composition; emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities; common, ordinary subject matter; the inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience; and unusual visual angles.[footnoteRef:4]" [3: "The Little Country Maid," Juggle References, December 12, 2011, http://www.juggle.com/the-little-country-maid] [4: Ibid.]

In his book Pissarro's People, the art historian and scholar Richard R. Brettell states that Pissarro was an anarchist who used representations of the material world to convey his ideas. This can be seen in the quiet yet lifelike maid. Although the motion of the painting does not arrest the viewer, the maid's containment and sense of a forcibly concealed inner life is poignant and haunting. The work is testimony to the fact that Impressionism can be 'political' in nature, and not merely a subjective rendering of an artist's momentary state of consciousness.


Brettell, Richard. Pissarro's People. Prestel, 2011.

"Groundbreaking perspective on Camille Pissarro opens at the Legion of Honor this fall."

Art Daily. December 12, 2011, http://www.artdaily.com/index.asp?int_sec=11&int_new=51257&int_modo=1

"The Little Country Maid."… [read more]

Art Both Duccio Di Buoninsegna Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,384 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997, p. 1; 6]

The underlying messages and meanings of the two paintings are different. Lippi is showing Jesus as the bearer of the Book, which is the doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church. The book occupies the center point of the composition. Also, the eye is drawn to the background because the left leaf of the book points to a scroll that one of the angels is holding. The scroll and the book together refer to the Catholic teachings. Lippi is not painting the maternal love between Virgin Mary and Baby Jesus, as de Buoninsegna does. Unlike Lippi, di Buoninsegna is concerned more with the ability to convey universal maternal love. The purpose of the de Buoninsegna painting of the Madonna is to portray the love that Mary has for Jesus and vice-versa. For Lippi, the purpose of the painting is more political: to discuss the supremacy of Church doctrine and to show that Jesus is the Logos (Divine Word). Madonna's love is the more important subject to di Buoninsegna, whereas Jesus is the more central subject for Lippi. Lippi accomplishes his subject matter by portraying baby Jesus as the only figure in the composition who is looking directly at the viewer.

These two paintings show the evolution of artistic composition and artistic ability. In di Buoninsegna's painting, the artist does not have a good sense of perspective. For example, the mother's hands are poorly rendered and appear too long, whereas the baby's head looks too small in proportion to its body. If the artist purposely rendered Jesus with his head too small, such as to make Jesus to look more like a little man than like a baby, then he would not have also depicted Jesus as a typical baby reaching out to touch his mother. By the time Lippi produced the "Madonna and Child Enthroned with Two Angels," artists had grasped perspective and form with more finesse than they had one hundred and fifty years before. The figures in Lippi's painting appear more realistic and softer than the stiff images on the di Buoninsegna painting.

The Lippi composition is far more cluttered than the di Buoninsegna one, which has ample blank space. By drawing attention only to the Madonna and child, the viewer contemplates motherly love to the exclusion of most other Christian themes. There are few colors in di Buoninsegna's palette too. On the other hand, Lippi wants the viewer to contemplate various aspects of the Church including its written Logos (Word), which is embodied in both Jesus and the Bible, which he holds. The studious angels in the background also serve to remind the viewer of the importance of dogma and doctrine, not motherly love. The artist uses a range of colors, from deep blues and reds to white and gold.

Paintings of Madonna and Child can differ radically in terms of their theme and composition; this is especially true of di Buoninsegna's "Madonna and Child" and Fra Filippo Lippi's "Madonna… [read more]

Art Historical Throughout the History Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (626 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Art Historical

Throughout the history of art, there are those individuals who had an impact on the how everyone looked at the world around them. This is because these basic ideas gave them a new way of understanding a host of different events. One of the best artists that were able to achieve the objectives was Michael Angelo through: the paintings and sculptures that he created. This is significant, because this allowed him to be able to redefine Renaissance art and how these techniques would be applied in the future. To determine the impact of this require looking at three different scholarly journals on the subject. Once this occurs, is when we can be able to offer specific insights that will help everyone to see how this transformed modern art.

In the article that was written by Lavoy (1999), it is discussing how Michael Angelo's techniques are continually mirrored in many public works projects around the world. To determine this, the author scanned and compared several of the different sculptures with others that were constructed after his death. What he found, was that in nearly all public statutes he examined there were different elements of Michael Angelo's David that were incorporated into the project itself. As this was designed to give everyone a sense of realism about what was happening. This is important, because it is showing how Michael Angelo was able to influence the size and design of sculptures by making them appear to be realistic as well as overpowering. Once this occurs, is when the work will give everyone a sense of appreciation for the significance of the events and the person surrounding them.

Moreover, the article that was written by Eknoyan (2000), is talking about how Michael Angelo used to draw pictures of the internal organs of the body when he was younger. This helped to give him a sense…… [read more]

Mark Ryden and Lowbrow Art Movement Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,284 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



Mark Ryden is a Pasadena, California-based artist who, according to the biographical material on his Website, "first garnered attention in the 1990s when he ushered in a new genre of painting, 'Pop Surrealism.'" Likewise, critics have called Ryden "a pop star of painting," ("Mark Ryden at the Frye Art Museum" 24). Ryden has achieved fame and notoriety, as his paintings have been sold to celebrities and garner a pretty penny. However, to use the word "pop" too much in the context of Mark Ryden is to neglect another dimension of the artist's work. Ryden might have achieved fame within the popular culture. Yet being popular no longer entails being "lowbrow." As Ryden's biography states, it is possible to blend popular culture icons, elements, and ideas with "techniques reminiscent of the old masters," in order to create "a singular style that blurs the traditional boundaries between high and low art," ("Mark Ryden"). Comparing Ryden to the old masters might seem presumptuous. However, a close examination of the artist's work reveals that when placed in its historical and cultural context, Mark Ryden indeed occupies the intersection between highbrow and lowbrow art.

Lowbrow art is a term used by critics like Gilbert Shelton, founder of Juxtapoz, and editor of books like The Lowbrow Art of Robert Williams. Elevating what might once have been called lowbrow art to the position of highbrow does not require the work of art critics. Rather, the transformation of lowbrow into highbrow requires new viewers and changes in society itself. Related to the Mark Ryden exhibition at the Frye Art Museum, one critic notes that when Susan Sontag first wrote about "camp" in art, it was in the 1960s. Art like Ryden's transcends Sontag's definition of camp in many ways. For one, there is some "seriousness and dignity in what it achieves," to use Sontag's words (cited in "Mark Ryden at the Frye Art Museum"). Moreover, Ryden's art includes disturbing, macabre, and evocative imagery that begs the viewer to penetrate deeper. Camp rarely achieves such a lofty goal. As Shelton puts it, "there are no sociological prerequisites for being a lowbrow," (34).

Ryden's art contains "subject matter loaded with cultural connotation," ("Mark Ryden"). As such, the art seems to be lowbrow because it refers frequently to popular culture and its icons. Yet Ryden's "infinitely detailed and meticulously glazed surfaces" elevate the popular culture elements to the realm of high art ("Mark Ryden"). Much high art contains elements from popular culture; the subject matter itself does not define whether an art is considered highbrow or lowbrow.

One reason why Ryden has achieved recognition in art circles is because the symbols the artist uses "only pose questions," ("Mark Ryden at the Frye Art Museum" 24). For instance, a common theme in Ryden's work is children. Children are depicted in unnatural states, though. They are cartoon-like in their rendition but they appear sad, old, or emotionally disturbed. The viewer is not looking at something that would be considered camp or "pop,"… [read more]

Artistic Styles Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (643 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



These art works were created during the Renaissance. How do they illustrate Renaissance values and ideals?

The most common values / ideals that these different canvases are illustrating include: balance / proportion and the chiaraiso. The use of balance and proportion is utilized in both works through: showing life like images of subjects. In the case of Michael Angelo's Pieta, he is taking this one step further by illustrating real life images that were taking place. Once this occurred, it meant that everyone could relate and understand these ideas. Where, this is giving a sense of realism in the various works of art. (Richardson)

Chaiaraiso is when different colors and lighting are used to set the tone of the art work. In Isenheim Altarpiece, this being utilized with: dark colors in the background to show the sense of confusion and despair. However, when you look at the various subjects in the paintings, they are in brighter colors (i.e. gold and red). This is designed to highlight how a sense of momentous change is occurring with this incident. As a result, the use of chaiariso is a common technique that many painters will embrace to create a sense of mysticism and reality. In this work, Gruenwald used this as way to create an appreciation for these events and their meanings. (Richardson)

These different elements are important, because they are showing how: the values and ideals have been constantly changing during the Renaissance. As, artists were embracing more liberal techniques to: tell a story, provide a sense of realism and mysticism. Over the course of time, these different factors would help to make these works of art masterpieces (based upon the way the artists were able to use these values and ideals).


"Isenheim Altarpiece." Learner.org, 2011. Web. 10 Jun. 2011

Holroyd, Charles. Michael Angelo. London: Ballayntyne, 2004. Print.

Richardson, Carol. Renaissance Art. Malden: Blackwell, 2007. Print.… [read more]

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