Study "Art / Painting / Sculpture" Essays 56-109

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David Caravaggio the Figure of Caravaggio's "Saul Term Paper

… David


The figure of Caravaggio's "Saul" is sensual and a recognizably physical human being. He looks like a man one might see on the street rather than a Biblical prophet who has undergone a profound conversion. Although the focus of the painting is on the figure of Saul, this converted saint's changed inner life is only signified by the softly glowing light on his face, and the name of the painting. By locating Saul in 'reality,' and even suggesting that Saul might have been taken for an ordinary drunk lying in the street, Caravaggio reminds the viewer of the fact that the figures we read about in the Bible are not stick figures, with no human needs and fears or physicality. This is not sacrilegious on the part of the artist. It is a reminder that just as the Bible's truths is present in our ordinary, daily lives; the Bible is populated by recognizable human beings. Caravaggio is not saying that Saul must have been drunk, and not blessed with a divine visitation but the drunk one sees walking home from the bar may have some goodness… [read more]

American Art Term Paper

… ¶ … Armory Show of 1913 was one of the most influential events in the history of the American artistic movement. The exhibit was special because it contained a myriad of highly controversial paintings. Two specific parts are significant because… [read more]

Rodney Graham Term Paper

… He does not so in image, as his image is mutable, from the country to the city self, to Cary Grant or Kurt Cobain. But the gazer of the work is always aware that he is looking at a representation of the artist rather than the 'real thing,' however seamlessly the real and the false representation may seem to overlap with one another.

The film City Self / Country Self is part of a trilogy with Vexation Island, 1997 and How I became a Ramblin' Man, 1999. The 1999 incarnation of this trilogy embraces the Victorian fascination of the artist with his beloved rock n' roll music, which formed the texture of his adolescence, growing up in Canada. Graham, although a Canadian, stresses the predominance of American popular cultural all over the world, and his status as a Canadian national gives him a unique, betwixt and between perspective of American culture, being of the American language and argot, but slightly distanced from American patriotism and national politics.

All of the recent installations of Graham's work are supposed to deal "with man and nature, city and country." (Lisson Gallery, 2004) The external shaping of Graham's work of the self is what makes his work so emphatically postmodern, as he focuses on the external and surface shifts of the artistic self, rather than internal shifts of consciousness, unlike the beloved Victorians his art is so often in dialogue with. Graham has often taken the study and alteration of classic works of 19th Century culture "as a starting point," but not so much as an inspiration but as a starting point for the 20th and the 21st century instability of fact and fiction. (Lisson Gallery, 2004) Of his own work, Graham has noted "it may be a burden to re-invent oneself every time, but it makes things more interesting. My method of working comes out of a lack of technique because I did not come out of painting, sculpture or photography. I even dropped out of studying art history. Conceptual art and the tradition, established by artists like Judd, of having your work fabricated by someone else, made what I am doing possible." As well as fellow artists such as Judd, Graham cites linguistic experts such as Saussure, whose "book on linguistics to show the arbitrary relation between the so-called signifier and the signified. I was also using a kind of readymade strategy based on the disputable assumption that a photograph is not art but an upside down photo is." (Spria, 2003)

Growing up, Rodney Graham admits that rather than seeing himself as a stable identity, he "never had a clear vision of myself," nor did he have a clear vision of who he was as an artist. "Earlier on I was equally interested in becoming a writer. It was the openness of conceptual art and its incorporation of textual and theoretical elements that emerged during the first years of my university education that opened my eyes to various possibilities. Lenz was the… [read more]

Heidegger Martin Heidegger's the Origin Term Paper

… Thus, we fundamentally misunderstand the purpose of art, and that we must look into the origin or the "authentic" nature of art.

He notes that the artist is the first to try to recognize truth within art, and that it is this truth that is ultimately the key to art. The artist seeks to find of the work "its pure self-subsistence." The activity of the artist is thus crucial to understanding the origin of art.

Ultimately, art is the "becoming and happening of truth." For Heidegger, "The essence of art would then be this: the truth of beings setting itself to work."

Importantly, Heidegger never restricts his conception of art to the modern idea of art as a painting, sculpture, or drawing. Instead, art may be a great number of things: a painting, a song, a poem, or even a building.

The term hermeneutic circle is simply another way of describing Heidegger's circle of interpretation in art. In "The Origin of the Work of Art," Heidegger notes that you cannot fully understand a single part of a work until you understand the whole. Further, he notes that you cannot understand the whole of a work of art until you understand all of the parts of the art. On the surface, Heidegger's circle of interpretation seems tautologous and circular, yet his circle is not a trap.

Instead, Heidegger's circle of interpretation reinforces the idea that understanding of a work of art is an ongoing, gradual process with many important components. This process takes time. Interpretation of art changes when information about a work of art is gained, and this process is ongoing. Certainly, it is possible to argue that the process of interpretation may never end, reducing Heidegger's circle of interpretation to a process with no hope of closure. Thus, the circle of interpretation may actually be a spiral, with layers of interpretation twisting into infinity.

In conclusion, The Origin of the Work of Art provides an invaluable look into the meaning of art itself. Although the text is difficult, Heidegger's analysis of the circle of interpretation alone makes the reading worthwhile.

Works Cited

Heidegger, Martin. The Origin of the Work of Art.

Ross, Stephen David. Art and its Significance, An Anthology of Aesthetic [read more]

Bramante and Aesthetics of High Renaissance Essay

… High Renaissance


Bramante and the aesthetics of the High Renaissance

Donato Bramante predates Michelangelo as one of the architects whose works represented a profound shift from the Gothic sensibility to that of the Renaissance. Bramante was profoundly interested in… [read more]

Compare Theatricality Catholic and Protestant Baroque in Northern Europe Essay

… Baroque art is synonymous with theatricality. Even the somberness of Protestant religious expression is imbued with emotionality on the canvas. Both Catholic and Protestant painting during the Baroque period exhibits a vibrant visceral character, a "dynamic composition," and also a… [read more]

Ancient Greek and Ancient Roman Term Paper

… Ancient Greek & Ancient Roman Art

This is a guideline and template. Please do not use a final turn-in paper.

It would probably be quite fair to say that Roman art has a "heavy" Greek influence -- in almost every way one might consider the different forms of art. It is difficult to find an article that doesn't mention this influence. And, in many cases, it would not be unreasonable to say that some Roman art and sculpture looks as if it is copied from the Greek. One cannot help but come to the conclusion that perhaps the Greeks were the creative ones.

Greek sculptors were seeking the ideal artistic form while it would seem that, for the most part, Roman artists were set on painting and sculpting decorative and realistic portraits.

During the Greek Hellenistic period in the early 300s B.C., Greek art began spreading to other lands in conjunction with Alexander the Great traveling over and conquering almost all of the known world.… [read more]

Comparing Arts of Baroque Rococo Neoclassical and Romantic Era Term Paper

… ¶ … Baroque, Rococo, Neoclassical and Romantic Art

Generally speaking, the term "Baroque" is used in current art history studies as a blanket designation for the art created from about 1600 to 1750, but in recent years, art scholars and critics have come to realize that "Baroque is a classification useful in isolating the tendencies and products of stylistic change; thus, traits which are part of the styles of the 17th and 18th centuries are now designated as Baroque." 1 for the most part, the art created during the Baroque Period was spacious and dynamic, brilliant and colorful, theatrical and passionate, sensual and ecstatic, opulent and extravagant, versatile and virtuoso, 2 but as the 18th century began, the Baroque style became more mellow and refined. This was the century of the rise to great power of the maritime British Empire and the spread of new ideas directed at the Church and the State, democratic ideas related to freedom and the equality of all men. Many enlightened monarchs cultivated outspoken men like Voltaire, and reason and common sense were seen as viable alternatives to the ills facing human society. In essence, the 18th century art world and all of Europe "was waiting breathlessly for the tremendous revolutions to come." 3

With this new age cultivated by European monarchies in France, Italy, Spain and Great Britain, came what is known as the Rococo style of art which refers to small stones and sea shells used to decorate the interiors of grottoes and serves as the principle motifs for Rococo ornamentation. Thus, the Rococo style is mainly an interior style related to small works of art, furniture, utensils and other household accessories and all kinds of objects, both useful and decorative, exquisitely wrought in the characteristically delicate and undulating Rococo line. 4 a typical Rococo room can be found in the Salon de la Princesse at the Hotel de Soubise in Paris, decorated by Germain Boffrand (1667 to 1754). With painting, a prime example is Cupid a Captive by Francois Boucher, painted in 1754, which shows "a pyramidal scheme of infant and female flesh, set off against a cool, leafy background" with the figure's nakedness both hidden and revealed by fluttering draperies. With this painting, Boucher used all of the Baroque devices, being "the dynamic play of criss-crossing diagonals, curvilinear forms and slanting recessions." 5

By the middle of the 18th century, the rediscovery of ancient Greek art and architecture turned the artistic tastes of Europe in a brand-new direction which began the style and period known as Neoclassical. Within this period's admiration for the art of Greece, a similar admiration came about for the art of ancient Rome via the excavations of the towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum in the 1730's and 1740's. Several excellent examples of this new style include the portico of the Church of Ste. Genevieve, now known as the Pantheon, in Paris, designed by Jacques… [read more]

Red Grooms Term Paper

… Red Grooms

the context of Pop art

The movement in modern art towards Pop art, environmental and action art and other forms of expression was in many regards a natural evolution of modernist art forms. By its very nature, art… [read more]

Korean Contemporary Artist Term Paper

… ¶ … video art has become very popular in Korean due to the influence of technology. Many of the best new artists are incorporating this form of art and embedding it deeply into their work. Paik Nam, who is considered… [read more]

Conversion of Saul Term Paper

… Saul

Could you give us ONE way in which each painting reflects its time period?

Caravaggio's painting is reflective of the Baroque era of its creation because it is more intimate and psychologically complex than Michelangelo's treatment of the same subject. Caravaggio's painting reflects the era's increased focus upon the inner life of individual, rather than on spiritual life in a social context. There are only a few people in the frame of Caravaggio's work. The figures and the spotlighting of Saul's face and arms draw the viewer's attention upon Saul alone. The gazers do not seem to understand what has transpired, and what has taken place within Saul's character. Michelangelo's work shows God acting like a human being in a very physical manner. His work reflects the Renaissance's confidence in the ability of humankind to portray and understand the divine. Saul's conversion is rendered in an active, physical manner, in a way that is clearly seen by the collective sea of humanity in Michelangelo's picture. But Caravaggio's treatment shows how the Catholic faith affected by the Reformation's new… [read more]

De Stijl (the Style) Movement Term Paper

… Le Corbusier designed an exhibit for a fair in Paris in 1925 (International Exposition on Decorative and Industrial Arts); it was called the "Pavillion de l'Esprit Nouveau," and showcased his interests in modern design and architecture. This "New Spirit" movement had a substantial influence on urban planning and architectural history. It highlighted a pared down, mechanical vocabulary.

The Bauhaus movement was centered in Germany (1919-1930), primarily in the cities of Weimar and Dessau. The leaders Walter Gropius and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe created with their synthesis of technology, functionality and architecture, a powerful movement which profoundly influenced designers for decades; in fact a later branch of Bauhaus was formed in Chicago in 1937, and it had a substantial influence on American artistic design. The main concepts stressed the practicality and usefulness of objects - whether in architecture or industry. Both the neo-plastic and the constructivist movements mentioned earlier were precursors to the Bauhaus, and their influences are evident both in its philosophy and its projects. The "school" stressed the centrality of architecture. They wished to create a unity of forces, in which all pursuits (pottery, furniture making, glass and wood sculpture, weaving etc.) would coexist as a "single form."

Works Cited

Raizman, David. History of… [read more]

Edgar Degas After the Bath Term Paper

… ¶ … Edgar Degas' After the Bath with respect to his stylistic choices. This paper will discuss the subject matter and analyze formal elements such as composition, line, texture, mass and volume.

How did Degas use color and light in… [read more]

Michelangelo's Zeal for Defying the Norm Research Paper

… Michelangelo's Zeal For Defying The Norm

Michelangelo's enduring influence

Michelangelo's creativity

Michelangelo's Emphasis on Visual Effects

Emotional nature of Michelangelo's effects

Success of visual effects

Beyond Borders

How Michelangelo's work influenced many states

Future Generations Inspired

Michelangelo influenced his younger… [read more]

Sidewalk Artist Term Paper

… Sidewalk Artist

For the better part of the last ten years, British artist Julian Beever has created an array of impressive artwork across the expanses of England, France, Germany, USA, Australia and Belgium. Though notably recognized for his work in common mural and fine art paintings, Beever is most popularly accredited for his astonishing mastery in illusion and defied perception. With the utilization of Rembrandt pastels, Beever has created well-over 100 three-dimensional sidewalk drawings that produce a deception of height, length and depth. Several of his pieces extend across fifty feet of sidewalk or street, but viewed from the appropriate angle, appear to be merely two to three feet high.

A particularly unique characteristic to this aspect of Julian Beever's "sidewalk-art" is that it does not remain in its original form. Since the pieces are created on public domain - sidewalks and streets, they eventually perish, wash away, or gradually fade from their place of conception. The only evidence of their existence is memorably captured through photographs and video, which procures the proper angle… [read more]

Jackson Pollock the World Term Paper

… Jackson Pollock



According to Anthony White, the abstract paintings of the American artist Jackson Pollock (1912-1956) "are among the highest achievements of 20th-century art," and during "an unparalleled period of creativity from… [read more]

Humanities Is a Branch Term Paper

… Much of this technology was not available in 1979, when the artists first conceived of the idea, and so, modern developments in lightweight fabric and steel tubing, plus innovative ways to bolt down and display the gates were all based in technologies that have evolved in the last few decades. They show how innovation and technology can affect all aspects of human life, including the humanities.

Politically, the artists faced opposition to their project, and were only able to erect it after they signed an agreement with the City of New York that was 43 pages long and also signed by Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg. There were many political hurdles to overcome, including ensuring "The Gates" was safe enough for people to walk through as they strolled the pathways of Central Park, and opposition from residents who did not want to pay for the short-term artwork being placed and removed from the park. The political problems were another reason that the project, first conceived in 1979, did not happen until this year. The socioeconomic issues surrounding the project are even more interesting. The artists paid all the costs themselves, and there was no public or taxpayer money involved. They hired hundreds of New York City residents to erect "The Gates" and then remove them sixteen days later. They also added millions of dollars to the NYC economy because of tourists who traveled to the city to view the artwork ("The gates: More information," 2005). Thus, this artwork, which simply seemed like a free form of visual beauty, actually benefited the community, was a model of modern technology, and faced political adversity before it came about. It is an excellent example of the well-rounded facets of the humanities, and how they interact with other social and scientific issues.


Author not Available. (2005). The gates: More information and resources. Retrieved from the Web site: 16 June 2005.

Editors. (2005). Humanities. Retrieved from the Web site: 16 June 2005.

Christo and Jeanne-Claude. (2005). The gates. Retrieved from the Web site: 16 June 2005. [read more]

Richard Long Term Paper

… Richard Long was in born in Bristol, England on June 2, 1945 (Spector pp). From 1962 to 1965 he studied at West of England College of Art, and by 1964, he was making Earthworks and experimenting with the idea of Impermanence, "a theme that would inform his work throughout his career" (Spector pp). Long studied under Anthony Caro and Phillip King at the St. Martin's School of Art in London from 1966 to 1968, and in 1967, he introduced walking as an art form, followed by his first solo exhibition in 1968 (Spector pp).

Says Long, started working outside using natural materials like grass and water, and this evolved into the idea of making sculpture by walking. Walking itself has a cultural history, from Pilgrims to the wandering Japanese poets, the English

Romantics and contemporary long-distance walkers" (Long pp).

Walking is in Long's blood, his parents met at a ramblers' club and his earliest childhood memories are linked with outdoor pursuits (Gayford pp). Long says, "My father used to take us down to see the spring tides...I grew up playing on the tow-path" (Gayford pp).

Long and his father often went "youth-hostelling and hitch-hiking together" and to this day walking is a compulsion (Gayford pp). Long recalls that he was always an artist, always drawing and painting, and his parents let him draw all over his bedroom walls (Gayford pp). And when he was five years old, the headmistress of his school made a deal with him that if he came early, he could have his own easel and paint through the morning service on his own (Gayford pp).

After 1969, Long created environmental works all over the world, documenting his walks with texts, maps, and photographs, and as he began to exhibit more frequently, "he was forced to confront the relationship between his walking and the presentation of his work in a gallery" (Spector pp). At the Dwan Gallery in New York, he walked a spiral on the floor with boots muddied from the soil of England (Spector pp). In the 1980's, "Long began making new types of mud works using handprints applied directly to the wall...he also constructed large lines and circles of stones, slate, and sticks, often collected on… [read more]

Dali Salvador Term Paper

… ¶ … Salvador Dali [...] artist's life and work, and his influence in the art world. Salvador Dali was one of the most important artists in the 20th century. His work was highly influenced by the Surrealist and Dada movements,… [read more]

Frida Kahlo- Surrealist Painter, Cross Term Paper

… Painting oneself as having one's fingers cut off may be a clear sign of one's suffering. I will refer in detail to some of her works further below.

As for her relationship with Diego Rivera, I have already mentioned this… [read more]

Moma in the Museum Term Paper

… She is like a gatekeeper between the Victorian, acceptable world, and the world of the prostitutes beyond. Her position is illustrated in her dress, for she is the one among all five women who is most covered. The danger of the women is illustrated in the rest of the piece. For example, the linen which covers the women is as jagged and angular as the subjects themselves. Their bedclothes are then allowed to mimic weaponry of a sort. This point is again illustrated in the fruit that is placed at the bottom center of the painting. There is a table or some sort of shelving on which sits a bowl of fruit. This bowl has a sharp edge which points up at the women. The food is colorless, just black and white and barely discernible as food products. The only color in the foods is the red striping of the pears and the blood red melon which is a sharp crescent shape. The sharp point of the melon looks like it will pierce the leg of the bottom right prostitute.

When first shown to the public, many people were shocked and even outraged by "Les Damoiselles D'Avignon." Expressionism and representational art was just beginning to emerge as an art form. Few painters would have put effort into creating something as visually unappealing as this painting. Even modernist paintings of the period believed the Picasso had lost his senses when he created this painting (Plagens 1). It is certainly not beautiful and very few could state that it is visually appealing. Yet, this painting has an unmistakable quality which, although perhaps ugly, is very powerful and illustrates a definite thematic point that Picasso intended to introduce to the viewer.

Many art critics have postulated that the mixture of danger and sexuality that is portrayed in the painting is an example of the psychological scenario that would have been prevalent in Victorian society. Women who were of low social standing or who were born illegitimate could get jobs as servants or perhaps nurses or governesses. However, there were many who because they could not get such positions found themselves in the unenviable position of either giving their bodies or starving to death. Prostitutes were everywhere at this time and many a young man lost himself and his money in brothels, such as those that lined the streets of Avignon. There was little protection against venereal disease available and thus frequenting prostitutes was usually equated with catching one or more conditions which the victim would eventually die from, but usually not before passing on the disease to his wife and then potentially having children with the condition.

Thus the fact that Picasso chose to paint so many jagged edges in the painting becomes more understandable in this context. They are a dangerous group of women who could lead to the deaths of anyone who uses their services. With this perspective, the faces of the two women on the right, the ones that are… [read more]

Sculpture as Art Term Paper

… This is one of the most controversial areas of art today. Sculptors are using all kinds of medium, from clay, to stone, to fabric and trash. Yet, they are all creating some type of art that appeals to someone. Art is not only about the creation of something that another person can enjoy; it is about making a statement, or telling a story.

Michelangelo told a story with his sculptures. Most of them are religious in nature, and were a reflection of his strong religious beliefs. Modern sculptors often feel just as strongly about their medium, they want to create something new, something different, and something that has not been tried before. Often, artists are not recognized in their own time, but their work is recognized long after they are gone. Van Gogh only sold one painting during his life, and Michelangelo often lived in poverty. Yet, today the world recognizes them as some of our greatest artists. Many of our modern sculptors may gain the same reputation and respect. Sculpture has always been an art form, and will continue to be one, no matter the medium, or the technique. [read more]

Investigating Art of the Past With a Time Machine Research Paper

… We will then move to Claude Monet's garden at Giverny, where we will attempt to catch him completing his 1897-8 "Nympheas" (one of his famous paintings of water lilies, now in the LA County Museum of Art). Monet is a textbook Impressionist painter, but we will interrogate him as to whether his problems with his own eyesight (he developed cataracts) had any influence on his signature style.

In the first half of the twentieth century, we will investigate Surrealism. We will locate Meret Oppenheim in 1936, as she completes her notorious "Object" -- frequently known as "the fur teacup" or "the furry breakfast." Oppenheim's work is perhaps the most memorable example of Surrealism in sculpture -- but we can ask her if the dream-like associations of the piece (is it intended to be strongly vaginal? does it relate to her status as a woman artist?) were intentional on her part, or whether she was merely giving free rein to her subconscious as Surrealists frequently attempted. Then we will find Salvador Dali in 1954, as he completes his large and disturbing oil on canvas painting "Young Virgin Auto-Sodomized By The Horns Of Her Own Chastity." We can interrogate Dali as to the meaning of the symbolism of the painting: why would the chastity of a virgin take the form of a rhinoceros horn about to penetrate her own anus? Is Dali suggesting that sexual repression is self-destructive?

Finally in the latter half of the [read more]

Art Since the Greek Kouros Research Paper

… The discus thrower is of particular note. Proportions of the body are ideal; the arms appear long but this is because the artist understands that the man is twisting around so that his left arm reaches around toward the right… [read more]

Art the Painting Techniques Thesis

… Their portraits seem elementary in ways, but they are styled to be so. They embrace the primitivism coming in to vogue at that time.

The core group of Cubists consisted of Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, and Albert Gleizes. Braque's "cubistic"… [read more]

Japanese Art Response Essay

… It is obvious that the right rooster is about to win in an impending fight between the two male chickens.

The only thing other than the chickens in the painting is a bit of greenery behind the chickens. From the green leaf shapes and the thin strokes which are used, it looks like the artist was intending to create some bushes or tall grass. Some thin lines also hand down from an unknown distance above where the scroll begins. This is meant to represent a tree perhaps or an overly large bush. Based on their body language and their positioning, it is clear that the roosters are supposed to be very close to the ground. They are against a brown background which might be a mountain or hill or perhaps the wall of a house. The greenery, despite the fact that it hangs above the rooster's heads, cannot be very large because roosters are not very large. Two creatures take up the majority of the silk scroll, but then the viewer needs to remember scale. Large they are, but only in comparison to what else is painted on the scroll. Compared to human beings, roosters are small.

In addition to the natural aspects mentioned, there is also a line which exists because of the contrasts in dark and light browns which the artist uses for the background. It gives the whole of the piece something of a three-dimensional appearance to it with the roosters very much in the foreground and the greenery behind them. Even though it is very minimal, just using a few green streaks and brown lines, the artist effectively lets the viewer of the scroll understand that they are meant to be seeing a scene from the natural world. These chickens and this background could be a part of any Japanese person's home if they lived in a rural area. Although they are flatly painted on the silk screen, they still seem to come out from the scroll. This may or may not be a comment on the importance of these creatures to the society and the inability of most people to closely pay attention to the creatures in their care. These are gamecocks and so they have a function on the farm or in the village, namely to breed more chickens along with a female. Human beings do not consider the birds outside of their personal need for them and so people rarely see any kind of personality or perspective on behalf of the chicken.

In the exhibit at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, there were many paintings to choose from. "Gamecocks" is interesting because at first it just looks like two large roosters set against a plain background. Only by looking deeper at the painting can a deeper meaning be understood. In the case of this work, the painting is not just about two chickens, but based upon the attitudes presented is more about the competition between roosters and the way aggressive behaviors win out… [read more]

Renaissance and Baroque Term Paper

… Renaissance / Baroque

Comparative Analysis of Renaissance and Baroque

What is the Baroque? We use this term to refer to an artistic movement that got started, roughly, at some point in the early seventeenth century and continued for decades, but… [read more]

Figurine of the Goddess Wadjet Term Paper

… Her mouth is closed but her eyes are open and facing forward. In sculpting her body, the artist placed the figure in a position where it looks like she has been frozen mid-stride, as if she was taken in the middle of a swift motion. The figure, although stationary, still gives off a sense of motion and movement. Her legs are positioned one in front of the other, but her feet are oddly placed. The back foot is directly behind the front, even though the leg seems to be farther apart. One arm is down at the figure's side while the other is raised. Based on the position of her hand, it is possible that the figure once held a staff or something which has been lost to time.

Another interesting part of the figure's body has to do with the sculpting of the clothing. It seems that Wadjet is fully clothed. Her dress goes down to the bottom of her calves. The two legs are intricately carved so that a shadow is almost perceptible between the legs. Her chest appears to be covered. There is no definition although her breasts are indicated. Yet, her belly button shows. There is no apparent line for her clothing to be separated from body. The goddess's chest is covered, as is her waist, but her navel shows. Since the emphasis of the body is on this noticeable feature, it makes logical sense that the sculptor intended it to be a part of the piece's message. This leads a modern observer to wonder why this is how Wadjet is depicted in this sculpture and whether it has something to do with her function within the society. If, for example, she had something to do with the birth process or motherhood, then her visible navel would make sense.

The Goddess Wadjet stands in her bronze form in the Egyptian wing of the Los Angeles museum. Despite her existence for a matter of centuries, she still serves to entice and intrigue those who came to gaze upon her. Her creation is a supreme piece of artistry that forces the attention of the viewer and makes one question every choice and every detail of the sculpture.

Works Cited:

Janson, H.W. & Janson, A. (2008). Janson's A Basic History… [read more]

Art Creative Writing

… Likewise, the mural located above the transcription of the second inaugural address is intended to reflect the principles that Lincoln outlined in his second inaugural address, the unity of North and South and the continued pursuit of knowledge and education (National Parks Service, 2012). This is represented through an angle protecting symbols that represent art, music, philosophy, music, chemistry, literature, painting, and sculpture.

Likewise, Andy Warhol (1967), like Bacon, took an already existing art form and used it to memorialize a fallen icon. Through his pop art, and specifically, Marilyn Monroe (1967), Warhol combined photography and screen-printing to create a unique work of art (Pearson Publication, Inc., 2009, p. 147). Marilyn Monroe (1967) features a screen-printed photograph of Monroe's head against a hot pink background. The number of colors are used in the print are limited due to technique, however, Warhol's juxtaposition of Monroe's yellow hair against the pink backdrop, helps to frame Monroe's face. Additionally, Warhol's use of bright pink to highlight Monroe's eyes and lips draw the viewers' attention to her face, which is one of the things that is most memorable about the icon. Because of Warhol's technique, he was able to reproduce various versions of the Monroe portrait in a variety of colors. Warhol's approach to art is unique because he was able to take existing images and put his own spin on them and be both commercial and innovative at the same time. Warhol's approach to art, specifically Monroe's images, could be taken to be a commentary on how the public viewed the icon as a commodity and did not take into consideration her personal desires. Moreover, Warhol's ability to mass produce Monroe's portrait, and his ability to change the colors used, can be taken to be representative of a mask, which although changes with each role that Monroe took, underneath, she was still just a woman. Also, the fact that the screen printing is imperfect, as sometimes the colors exceed the boundaries set forth by Monroe's features, also seem to indicate that Monroe was an imperfect person. This image, however, hold special significance for me because it reminds me of my love for pop art and film, as well as my appreciation for Warhol, a man who gained fame and success through his own interpretation of the world and the exploitation of commercialism.

It is interesting to see how each work of art, the Lincoln Memorial and Marilyn Monroe (1967) both attempt to utilize established forms in a new way and how the people and images contained within are immortalized. Furthermore, it is interesting to see how different each of the works are with the Lincoln Memorial being representative of freedom and democracy, whereas Warhol's work appears to be a social commentary on capitalism and commercialism.


National Parks Service. (2012). Lincoln Memorial design individuals. Accessed 21 August 2012,


Pearson Publications Inc. (2009). Chapter 5: Art. The Art of Being Human: The Humanities As A

Technique For Living, pp. 114-169.

Warhol, Andy.… [read more]

Paintings Both Salvador Dali Essay

… Christ is seen more as a volunteer to die for the sins of humanity rather than as a victim of persecution. The difference is palpable, which is why Dali's crucifixion is unique. Moreover, the artist presents Christ as a cultural icon. Unlike Raphael, Dali is not attempting to render Biblical history so much as he is trying to convey the importance of Christ on human consciousness and culture.

Both Raphael's and Dali's compositions help the viewer's eye move around the canvas, mainly towards the heavens. In Raphael's composition, the top panel of the frame depicts a scene that is removed from the main scene below. We see two angels and a male figure, which may be God or another saint. The male figure points upwards to heaven. The angels are flying, which also suggests they are ascended beings. Dali conveys similar sentiments about ascension, but using different symbols and compositional techniques. In "Crucifixion," Dali shows Christ and the cross as being ethereal. They are not touching the ground. Just as Christ floats in front of his cross, the cross floats in front of Gala. The cubes that form the cross correspond with the black and white squares that form the floor beneath. The phrase from the Lord's Prayer, "On earth as it is in Heaven" comes to mind, as what is above (Christ and the cube cross) is as it is below (Gala and the tiled floor). The stark, black, and endless landscape beyond makes the Dali painting also look like a dream. Raphael's painting, on the other hand, seems much more realistic.

In Dali's crucifixion, the horizon is rendered in the lower portion of the canvas. The bulk of the canvas is consumed by the crucifixion scene and Christ's pale body. In Raphael's composition, the Christ baby is a tiny element compared to the other figures. Moreover, the composition is more traditional, in that the foreground depicts the feet and the horizon is about at midpoint. Like Dali, though, Raphael places Christ in the exact center of the canvas.

Therefore, both painters depict biblical stories, but Raphael does so with greater realism than Dali does. Raphael has a more expansive color palette, but both artists consciously capitalize on the use of gold. Gold is the color of Dali's cross: which is the central element in his composition. Its color is echoes below in Gala's robes. Raphael also uses gold liberally in "Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints." For Raphael, the use of gold is reminiscent of Orthodox iconography and other traditional forms of Christian art. For Dali, the use of gold is unconventional, as it is used in the depiction of a three-dimensional cube cross. Both Raphael and Dali create a composition with upward motion to signify heaven in relation to earth.

Works Cited

Dali, Salvador. "The Crucifixion." Painting. 1954

Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio). "Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints." Painting,… [read more]

Art in "Burial at Ornans Essay

… Pointillism accesses our brains' capacity to fill in missing or implied information to create a coherent, articulated whole. This anticipates abstractions in form and interaction with the viewer. Reference Signac's "Femmes au Puits" and Seurat's "La Parade de Cirque" as… [read more]

Henri Matisse Still Life Research Paper

… " (Matisse Picasso Website, 2002)

VI. Concept of Visual Equilibrium

Matisse writes that if he were to paint upon a white canvas "some sensations of blue, of green, or red, each new stroke diminish the importance of the preceding ones."… [read more]

Art of Colonial Latin America Research Paper

… Art of Colonial Latin America

In her essay, "Art of Colonial America," Bailey provides a timely overview of 330-year period of Latin American colonial art to the 21st century. The first point made by Bailey is that at no time… [read more]

Art Museum Beauty Research Paper

… I was surprised to find that my impression was quite the opposite of a more traditional interpretation, which is that Renoir's male figure is "tough and tender at once" (Benfey). There are bold contrasts between the woman's white dress and… [read more]

History of Western Art Since the 15th Century Term Paper

… History Of Western Art Since the 15th Century

History of Western Art since the 13th Century

Throughout the centuries the history of Western art has been continually evolving. Part of the reason for this, is because the different influences would… [read more]

Art in America Term Paper

… Art in America

There was a move away from a product-based aesthetic in the arts (sculpture, painting, etc.) to event or performance based art in the fifties; cite some examples as to why this occurred. For instance: Was this due to a changing political climate? Was it in reaction to what came before? Be as specific as you can.

The move away from product-based art was partially philosophical, rooted in the move to a more postmodern aesthetic, in which art that impacted the viewer's imagination 'in the moment' rather than art that had to 'stand for all time' became en vogue. After the recent horrors of World War II, the idea of permanence began to seem like a lie to ordinary Americans and American artists alike. However, the fusing of art and performance perhaps first became popularized much earlier, in the 1920s, with the rise of cinema in world culture. This was true not simply in popular cinematic art but in artistic works such as the collaboration of the surrealist artist Salvador Dali with the filmmaker Louis Bunuel in their silent classic "Un Chien Andalou" (1929) and other impressionistic, nonlinear art films. Such films exhibited the potential of living, performance-based art to the new century. Art did not have to exist as a static image.

In the 1950s, photographs and films of the techniques of the American painter Jackson Pollock made 'Jack the Dripper's art more accessible to the public, as it exhibited the process of his abstract impressionism and showed that it had more deliberation than mere splattering. "You cannot imagine the impact these photographs, as distinct from the paintings, had on artists world-wide when they were first published in the fifties, to see a man making up art like this. To see him standing into his canvas, to see him throwing down paint was so radical that the pictures had a huge impact on the popular imagination of Pollock" (Varendoe 1999).

The pictures of Pollock at work took the emphasis off of Pollock's product on a canvas, and diverted the audience's focus to his process as an artist. Gradually, the focus on process increased in the minds of the art-consuming public as a result of the rise of the Pop Art movement of Andy Warhol. While former advertising graphic designer Warhol's earliest works were static graphics, like his representations of Marilyn Monroe and Campbell's Soup cans,… [read more]

Art Variety and Harmony Are Inherent Term Paper

… Art

Variety and harmony are inherent in both Louise Nevelson's 1960 wood sculpture Royal Tide I and in Jan de Heem's 1650 oil painting Still Life with Lobster. Nevelson's composition consists of eighteen distinct units stacked together as a whole:… [read more]

Venus in Art Term Paper

… This painting indeed conveys to the viewer feelings of delight and joy.

Another artist who produced works that depicted the birth of Aphrodite was the French painter JA.D. Ingres. Ingres' work is considered more classical in form that Boucher's version… [read more]

Gender and Western Art: Gentileschi, Picasso, Chicago Essay

… But it is worth noting that, unlike older models for a war memorial, Lin is here reincorporating the domestic element: what is included here is a roll-call of names of the dead, the sort of thing that would be put together on the home front by those receiving news that their son had been killed in action. Beyond that, however, Lin's work is remarkably understated -- it effaces grandiose gestures in an effort to register quiet grief and gravitas. It is therefore suited to the contentious Vietnam conflict -- which ended ambiguously, and was conducted under vigorous domestic protest in America -- insofar as it does not heroize or glamorize the dead or the conflict in which they died. Instead it seems like a public record that refuses to take a moral stance one way or the other. And in some sense, Maya Lin's own gender is rendered irrelevant here as well. [6: Kleiner, p.441.] [7: Kleiner, Fig. 25-62.]

In conclusion it is worth noting that, to some extent, depiction of gender in Western Art faces a dichotomy -- either insisting on its relevance and importance, or insisting that the most egalitarian way is to insist on its irrelevance. The first strategy is pursued most obviously by Judy Chicago, although one could argue that Artemisia Gentileschi's insistence on weaving her personal history into a depiction of a Biblical heroine is, implicitly, a statement about the relevance of gender. The second strategy is more obvious in Picasso's depiction of Gertrude Stein or Maya Lin's Vietnam Veterans Memorial -- in these works, the facts of gender (and gender imbalance) are to some degree effaced in the service of a more egalitarian vision.


Elizabeth S. Cohen, "The Trials of Artemisia Gentileschi: A Rape as History." The Sixteenth Century Journal 31.1 (Spring, 2000): 47-75.

Fred Kleiner, Gardner's Art Through The Ages: The Western Perspective, Volume II. 13th Edition. New York: Cengage Learning, 2009. Fig. 9-20.

Woolf, Virginia. Letter to Vita Sackville-West, [13 May 1927]. Woolf Online. [read more]

Human Figure in Art Essay

… The technique appears much more exquisite: parts of the man's face are depicted in the shadow, while the eyes and the faces themselves are almost Asian in their features. It is not only a more accurate representation of the face, but also one that is intriguing for the viewer. Even more than in Giotto's religious painting, the clothes and the surroundings have a clear purpose in emphasizing the figures, placed in the center of the work.

3. The Holy Trinity by Masaccio, from 1425. Fresco from the Church of Santa Maria Novella, in Florence.

This painting is probably best known for the excellent use of perspective. One can notice this not only in the way the figures are situated and presented in the painting, but the architectural elements come to emphasize this: the temple ceiling from behind the crucified Christ is a perfect example in this sense. At the same time, one can notice that the halos above Christ and the saints are still not painted in a perspective manner.

The figures are reflective of religious paintings and particularly of this type of Pieta. One can witness again the somber figures, particularly since God is also represented in the background. Some of the figures are conversational and Masaccio uses several prompts in this sense, including body language (the Virgin Mary, on the left, gestures with her hand etc.).

There is an obvious evolution and development for the figures in these different paintings. Giotto's figures, particularly that of the Virgin Mary, which is so dominant of the painting (both central and large), are still unrealistic, despite his progresses in this direction. His figures appear either unfinished or strange, disproportionate. With Masaccio and, particularly, Van Eyck, the figures are no longer an attempt towards a reasonable representation of reality, but the aim of the artists is to communicate with the viewer, to express something that the viewer can… [read more]

Art Sacrifice of Isaac Analysis Research Paper

… Historians contend that the fierce rivalry and competition between these two artists served as the spark for the entire Renaissance period.

"Sacrifice of Isaac" is considered by historians as one of Ghiberti's masterpieces, as well as a masterpiece representing the whole Early Renaissance movement. He made this piece and won the competition to sculpt the Baptistery when he was in his early twenties. He did not complete the Baptistery doors until he was 45 years old. After receiving the commission for the doors, he enlisted the assistance of several other promising artist of the time, including Donatello. The Baptistery served as a votive that celebrated how Florence was spared (by God from their perspective) from great suffering of the Black Plague, which was spreading wildly across Europe at the time.

The Baptistery consists of 28 panels that depict scenes from the New Testament of the Bible. "Sacrifice of Isaac" consists of two panels and it is from the Old Testament of the Bible. Ghiberti and his rival designed the Baptistery together, but Brunelleschi had too much pride to work on the piece with his rival, so he left for Rome to study architecture, leaving Ghiberti to execute the piece alone. (All-Art)

The only color present is the color of the metal. Despite the lack of color, there is the presence of intensity in the piece. The metal is brighter and duller in certain sections, which create interesting contrast, as well as draw the eye to different areas of the sculpture. This sculpture effectively creates the illusion of motion. Objects are not repeated so much as angles and lines of sight are repeated. This, too, contributes to how the piece directs the eye. There is not much that is regular about this piece, including its rhythm, which could be categorized as eccentric. The simultaneous action draws the eye in many areas and the proportion of the figures is critical to the interpretation of the piece, too.

My personal view of the "Sacrifice of Isaac" is that I am moved by the simultaneous action happening in the piece. I appreciate the attention to detail and how the details contribute to the texture of the sculpture. The piece seems very dimensional and that I would probably be struck by the depth of the sculpture if I could view it in person. "Ghiberti appears to have used figure heights as a kind of module for dividing the relief space into zones or planes. In the Abraham, Noah, and Moses panels, the height of the intermediary zone between figures on different planes is consistently the difference between the size of one figure and the other." (Bloom, "Lorenzo Ghiberti's Space in Relief," 164 -- 165) The piece really resembles a still image of a lot of motion and part of that feeling must be attributed to Ghiberti's use of space, size, scale, and distance.

I also notice all of the different creatures in the piece, such as the angel watching the sacrifice, the horse whose attention… [read more]

Art Time Period -1910) Catches Essay

… It is actually probable that his mental state contributed to him adding more emotion to his paintings and turning them into art that can almost speak to individuals seeing it (Crispino 50).

In spite of the fact that the scene apparently displays the view from the hospital window in Saint-Remy-de-Provence, there are also a series of concepts that one could associate with his background. "In Starry Night, Van Gogh seems to be combining reality and imagination, and elements of Provence and his northern homeland" (Crispino 50). It is probable that the fact that he was cut off from his family, country, and artist friends contributed significantly to making him want to introduce his part into Starry Night. In addition to being physically isolated from his background, Van Gogh was also psychologically isolated from the world as a result of his poor mental health.

While there were a series of elements detaching Van Gogh from his past, his love for art made it possible for him to reconnect with his background. The painting of Starry Night actually demonstrated his complex understanding of art, taking into account that he practically devised innovative artistic elements.

One of the first elements that are likely to captivate viewers is the fact that the canvas virtually appears to be moving as a result of the vivid elements it contains. The swirling sky is one of the most imposing characteristics, as the vivid colors it contains put across impressive energy and virtually seem to bring the painting to life. The painter obviously did not go for a realistic impression, as he wanted the painting to be expressive through its dynamism. It practically seems that Van Gogh's inner thoughts have been brought to life and materialized in Starry Night.


Starry Night is not only important because of its imposing appearance, as it is also significant because it was painted during a critical moment in the artist's life. One can practically consider that the artist resorted to creating artwork in order to deal with his mental issues. The fact that his brother (considered by him to be one of his most important critics) did not appreciate the artwork probably had a devastating effect on Van Gogh, taking into account that his poor health alongside with the feeling of being unable to produce beautiful art probably reflected negatively on his self-esteem.

Works cited:

Crispino, Enrica, "Van Gogh," (The Oliver Press, Inc., 2008)

"Vincent van Gogh Biography," retrieved March 29, 2013, from the ariel art galleries Website:

"Vincent Van Gogh: The Starry Night," (The Museum of… [read more]

Storms Paintings, Watteau Essay

… It shows individualism, human centeredness, and acts of heroism. The human activities in the image outplay the natural one, which is the oncoming storm. The characters on the image display act of heroism and self-centeredness. The characters are more concerned with their own activities; the oncoming storm does not deter them from finishing their quests. The interpretations can also aid in grouping the images as either romantic or neo-classic art. The acts of the characters in the first image working together towards the same cause shows that they are selfless. Its interpretation may indicate that they are fighting against oppression and harsh conditions. On the second image, each person is concerned with his or her own work. This may show each individual's determination to fight for what he or she believes in hence doing everything necessary for its achievement. This shows the determination to restore the stipulated ways of art.

Work cited

Martindale, Colin. "Empirical Questions Deserve Empirical Answers." Philosophy and Literature 20.2 (2000): 347-61. ProQuest. Web. 25 Mar. 2013.

Tapert, Annette. "Rare & Refined." Architectural Digest 2011: 130,n/a. ProQuest. Web. 25

Creamer, Noelle. "Through the Eyes of a Collector." Ophthalmology Times 33.12 (2008): 61-

2. ProQuest. Web. 25 Mar. 2013.

Andreae, Christopher. "Two Centures of Romantic Art." The Christian… [read more]

Art Along With Georges Braque Essay

… Both Leger and Picasso are concerned with the role geometric forms play in a composition. Arcs and curves, for example, feature prominently in both Picasso's Femme a la mandolin and in Leger's Le modele nu dans l'atelier. The term "cubism" is not an absolute designation that precludes the artist from including curvilinear elements. Rather, the "cube" implies three-dimensionality, and that three-dimensionality can be readily and successfully achieved by depicting rounded objects, spheres, and the natural curves of the human body as well as straight lines. In fact, the more curvilinear elements an abstract work contains, the more organic the overall impression will be due to the fact that the natural universe contains no true straight lines.

Picasso does include a few straight lines in Femme a la mandolin, but those lines represent man-made elements like the piano keyboard and the walls behind the woman. Her head, and the body of the mandolin, are rendered with arcs and curves. In Le modele nu dans l'atelier, Leger presents both straight lines and curves. The curves symbolize the presence of the nude model; while the straight-edged elements symbolize the canvases, walls, and other man-made elements in the artist's studio. Thus, Picasso and Leger use a similar technique to convey different motifs and ideas.

As their respective bodies of work expanded, the artists' individualistic styles began to diverge more. Picasso's characteristic cubism was often minimalistic; whereas Leger drew from his background in architecture and drafting to branch out into a more mechanical, futuristic form of cubism. For example, by 1921, Leger was completing unique work like Three Women, which is fully representational and yet fully cubist at the same time. Leger also exhibited what is known as a more cylindrical or tubular version of cubism because of the artist's emphasis on these rounder three-dimensional objects rather than on straight lines (Dickerman; Lachner et al.).

Although there are clear differences between the individual works of Picasso and Leger; and between their respective canons of work, the two artists are both considered heralds of cubism and abstraction. Their techniques were more similar than they were different, including an appreciation for geometrical and especially three-dimensional forms. Both Picasso and Leger also used the cubist technique to represent what the mind knew was there but the eye could not necessarily see from a singular perspective.

Works Cited

Dickerman, Leah. Inventing Abstraction. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2013.

Fitz, L.T. "Gertrude Stein and Picasso: The Language of Surfaces." American Literature. Vol. 45, No. 2. May 1973.

Lanchner, Carolyn, Leger, Fernand, Hauptman, Jody, Afron, Matthew, and Erikson, Kristen. Fernand Leger. New York: The Museum of Modern Art. 1998.

Spector, Nancy. "Fernand Leger." Guggenheim. Retrieved online: [read more]

Renaissance Art an Analysis Research Paper

… Hilliard indicated, however, one of the necessary components of the miniature-portraiture, which was the fact that it should use as little shading as possible. Chiaroscuro in such a small frame would take away from the overall visual effect of the… [read more]

Art History Raphael's Career Term Paper

… Within the study of art history, it is accepted that one of the defining characteristics of the Renaissance is the use of perspective. Art historians concur that one of the many reasons why Raphael is considered so talented and revered… [read more]

Humanities the Renaissance Period Changed Term Paper

… Universities should also upgrade their curriculum and inculcate an interdisciplinary approach covering practical situations according to the ever changing needs and times (Audsburg 2005).

The traditional approach defines of humanities as the study of human condition, using critical speculative or analytical approaches.

An alternate definition can be "Disciplines under Humanities help us comprehend and explain human experience of cultures, history, literature, art and ethics. The examination, review and understanding of an object created by humans or a factor that makes us human, the emerging thoughts and processes that take place within ourselves something deliberated, discussed and opinionated" (Humanities Council 2001).

Many businesses deem interdisciplinary skills not as a "nice to have" but a "must have" these days. Humanities and arts graduates attract employers as they can easily change and have transferable skills making them adjustable to many different job profiles and varying industries. Humanities students posses better communication abilities, effective problem solving skills, competent analytical skills, critical evaluation and people management skills; skills that are valuable for any employer in any industry. The creative acumen of humanities students enables them to resolve and respond to multifaceted problems by thinking out of the box and using an unbiased approach. On the other hand students from specialized disciplines may tend to restrict themselves to their beliefs and knowledge acquired through reading subject matter of only one discipline. This limits their creativity and limits their problem solving and analytical skills (Docherty 2012).

Works Cited

Audsburg, Tanya. Becoming interdisciplinary -- An Introduction To Interdisciplinary Studies. Kendall Hunt Publishing. 2005.

Docherty, David. Employers must help universities deliver interdisciplinary skills. 2012. . 28 September 2012.

Humanities Council, Washington D.C. Defining the Humanities -- A work in Progress. 2001. <>. 28 September 2012.

Rolland, Roman. Michelangelo. BiblioLife, LLC. 2009.

Strathen, Paul. The Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance. Vintage.… [read more]

Renaissance Art Term Paper

… Whereas Donatello shows David post-battle, Michelangelo shows David pre-battle. The deliberate distinction serves a formal purpose in the works of these two Renaissance artists. For Donatello, it was more important to capture the satisfaction and victory in the body and form of David. For Michelangelo, showing the uncertainty and realistic tension in the body and mind of David was more important.

As Baskins (1993) points out, the Biblical hero of David "moves from king to lover to penitent," but most artists need to show "selected moments of the narrative," (p. 113). This means that artists like Donatello and Michelangelo choose what face, form, and figure to show in their sculptural work. Donatello chose to show David as the victorious and androgynous universal victor. Michelangelo opted to deliver a David that was different: a David that is totally patriarchal, and ready to exude his sexuality and male power. According to one author, Michelangelo depicts the "strength and anger" within David -- and indeed within all human beings ("Michelangelo's David," n.d.). David is King.

Yet both Donatello and Michelangelo do want their respective David sculptures to have a sensual factor. Donatello's is deliberately androgynous. Baskins (1993) states that Donatello's David has a "voluptuous androgyny," which might indicate an "autobiographic homoerotic desire" of the sculptor (p. 115). Michelangelo's David could certainly say the same thing: its hyper-masculinity speaks of nothing but erotic desire for the male form. Whereas Donatello selected bronze as the medium for his rather petite sculpture of David, Michelangelo opted for the massive marble piece, yielding a larger-than life nude male.

Both Donatello and Michelangelo are depicting a Biblical hero in ways that evoke classical art forms: such an ambition was characteristic of the Renaissance. The tribute to classical art became a hallmark of the intellectual trends of the Renaissance and later, Enlightenment movements in Europe. The stranglehold of religion would give way to a more intellectual, rational, and probing mentality free from the bonds of mental slavery. The same can be said for gender and social norms. Both the Donatello and Michelangelo versions of David are quintessentially Renaissance in their form and character. Both also represent the symbolism of David slaying Goliath. Although Donatello shows David after the fact, Michelangelo shows David making the decision to kill and be victorious, to become a historical hero ("Michelangelo's David," n.d). The two Davids seem visually different because of their different media (bronze vs. marble) and different sizes (life-size vs. larger-than-life size). But Donatello and Michelangelo's sculptures share quite a bit in common in terms of content and contemporary political meaning.


Baskins, C.L. (1993). Donatello's bronze David: Grillanda, Goliath, Groom? Studies in Iconography 15. Retrieved online:

Hudelson, P. (n.d.). "Donatello's David vs. Michelangelo's David." Retrieved online:

"Michelangelo's David," (n.d.). Retrieved online: [read more]

There Is a Long List Research Paper

… A work of art is never beautiful by decree, objectively and for all" (Tzara 249).


Despite the fact that almost everyone who created and participated in the Movement were really serious, Dada art is completely ridiculous, irrational and senseless to the point of fancy. Dada Art was not founded on any predominant medium. The Dadaists used everything ranging from algebraic textiles, glass, plaster and wooden ornaments. The noticeable fact is that Dadaist Art paved way for the use of "assemblage, collage, photomontage and the use of ready made objects" (Essak). Dada certainly created a lot of subdivisions in everything that had no sensible meaning. Not only did it spawn a number of literary journals, Dada influenced many contemporaneous and coexisting trends in the visual arts, particularly as far as Constructivism is concerned. Dada is known for being responsible for the movement of Surrealism (Essak).

The Dada Movement was, thus, aimed toward abolishing everything associated with comfortable ways of finding the middle ground and good manners. Its creators asked its followers and supporters to bring archaeology, memory, future, prophets, and logic to an end (Tzara 253).

And at the same time as conventional and majority of the artists were seriously considering the movement, Dada dissolved itself in the early 1920s. The movement destroyed itself when there was a danger of its acceptability by masses (Essak).


The commotions under Dada Movement were a lasting and undeviating insurgency of the individual against art, morality, and society. The Dadaists did so by publishing manifestoes, poetry and other forms of writing, paintings, exhibitions, sculptures, and sometimes by means of public demonstrations that were clearly depictions of rebellious character. In fact, its implications were not limited to the art and literature. To cut a long story short, the movement snatched away the mindfulness of an individual and placed him to the ranks of idiocy.

However, this art of protesting against the society's ways ended with an interesting twist. On the other hand, it can be said that the whimsical Dada art is not only colorful, wittily sarcastic but is also absolutely silly (Essak).


"Dada." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2009. Questia. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. .

Duchamp, M. "The Richard Mutt Case." Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art: A Sourcebook of Artists' Writings. Eds. Kristine Stiles, Peter Selz. Berkeley: University of California, 1996. 817. Print.

Essak, S.. "Dada - Art History 101 Basics: The Non-Art Movement (1916-23)." The New York Times Company, n.d. Web. 24 Apr 2012. .

Hopkins, David. Dada and Surrealism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. Questia. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. .

MobileReference, . Encyclopedia of Philosophy for Smartphones and Mobile Devices - FREE 3 Chapters in the Trial Version. Boston:, 2007. Web. April 24, 2012. .

Tzara, T. "Dada Manifesto 1918." Art in Theory 1900-1990: An Anthology of Changing Ideas. Eds. Charles Harrison and Paul Wood. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1992. 248-53. Print. Originally published in Dada, no. 3, 1918. [read more]

Art Comparing Actual Sculpture Essay

… A number of her pieces look as if they almost occur naturally; others look as if they perform some utilitarian function. Her works shows great variation in form, materials, and scale. Many of her works are outside and make use of the local environment.

Richard Serra is an epic sculptor who mainly works with metals. His pieces are known to warp and distort a viewer' sense of depth, space, and perspective. Many of his metallic pieces are massive. He creates pieces for both the indoors and the outdoors. Serra smoothes the metal to an almost unreal degree. The metal was originally rough, sharp, and angled; by the time Serra is done, the metal is smooth, curvaceous, and fluid. He too is an artist within Krauss' expanded field.

Alice Aycock is yet another sculptor like Serra that manipulates metals, indoors and outdoors, shaping them into unthinkable curves and spirals. Some of her pieces are both landscape and architecture, resembling formidable metallic mazes. Some of her works also resemble rollercoasters, holes, and obstacle courses. She is another sculptor immersed in the expansive field, redefining sculpture and creating pieces with their own unique logic by which to abide.

Nancy Holt's sculptures resemble objects found in nature such as the sun, the moon, plants, and spirals. Many of her pieces consist of concentric circles, spheres, and/or cylinders. Most of her work must be viewed outdoors due the great scale of her pieces. Holt's pieces could be considered modernist. They also exude the permanence and presence of monuments.


Krauss, R. (1979) Sculpture in… [read more]

Abstract Expressionist Painting Artistic Research Paper

… [8: Ibid. ]

The following piece is an excellent example of Rothko's reductionist forms. The piece is entitied "White, Red on Yellow" and is an excellent example of reductivism and the use of color to create a dramatic impact. It… [read more]

Art Currently on Loan Term Paper

… He is leaving town on some unknown journey. Given that the subject of the painting is likely to be "one of these prosperous bankers or merchants who were eager to have their likenesses immortalized by Memling," the man might be off to make a business deal in a neighboring town. Regardless of where he is actually headed, it does not appear to be a hard journey or even one that has not been undertaken before. The man looks peaceful, calm, and slightly contemplative, and barely concerned. He has a strong sense of presence and confidence. This is not a poor peasant in feudal medieval Europe. After all, this is wealthy Bruges.

The foreground and focal point is consumed by the man's visage. The eye is drawn immediately to the man's nose and mouth, but Memling's linear composition allows the eye to dance around the canvas in a sort of cross formation -- always and ultimately lingering on the portrait visage. The man's dark brown hair is getting long at the ends, as it starts to curl up above the ears and around the neckline. He does not look unkempt, just casual. Otherwise, the hair is cropped short, revealing the man's forehead. He looks like a thinking man. He has recently shaven, though bears some shadow around the mouth and chin. The man's lips are upturned slightly at the edges, as if he gives a soft smile. He has a look of gentle optimism and mild determination on his face. Because his brow is slightly furrowed, the man also appears to be contemplating a hopeful future. Memling also makes it so that his subject's face is naturally asymmetrical; the left eye appears slightly darker and lower than the right. The man's nose is long and aquiline, and his eyebrows are well formed without being bushy. Only the man's left ear is visible beneath his hair.

Memling's deft use of line, color, and composition characterize "Portrait of a Man." The portrait is organic, natural, and alive. Although he does not incorporate some of the lively detail that he might have if it were one of his religious works, Memling's composition also reveals a skillful inclusion of subtle symbolism. The painting is sliced nearly in half by the horizon, imparting a sense of dualism that might reflect life in fifteenth-century Netherlands. Men like the one depicted in the painting -- and Memling himself -- were uniquely poised in an emerging middle class of independent businessmen. Moreover, the man looks away from his past and towards the future; away from the church and towards his business activities. Memling's "Portrait of a Man" exemplifies the social, political, and economic situations that prevailed in the late fifteenth century Dutch society.


"Memling's 'Portrait of a Man' on loan from The Frick Collection." The Norton Simon Museum. Retrieved online: [read more]

Art Book Intro and Conclusion Art Compilation Essay

… Art Book Intro and Conclusion

Art Compilation Book Introduction

Art is taking the archetypical forms of the mind and giving those forms a physical existence. There is no greater example of this truth than modern art. Modern artists challenged the… [read more]

Ancient Studies Laura Auricchio Essay

… Auricchio thinks that one reason why there were mixed feelings from audiences is because the painting is very complicated and ambiguous. In this way, it makes sense that there would be mixed feelings toward a piece of art that is ambiguous. Ambiguous art can be some of the most effective art because there is no one simple answer for the audience. The ambiguous art stays in the minds of the audience because they cannot decided how they feel about it or agree definitively what the art means or says. If this is true for this painting by Adelaide, then she is a successful artist back then and today.

Another aspect of the painting that Auricchio focuses on is the use and style of clothing in Labille-Guiard's paintings, as well as the clothing and style in paintings of eighteenth century France in general. Auricchio identifies many small details about the clothes Labille-Guiard wears in the painting. She notices the color of the fabric, the kind of fabric (silk), and how the clothes sit upon Labille-Guiard's body. Auricchio also notices which of Labille-Guiard's body parts are exposed, and which of her body parts of covered up. She considers what the exposure and hiding of the body could mean in French culture and in art. Auricchio further notices how the clothing Adelaide paints herself wearing models after some of the most popular styles of the time. This could make audiences of the 21st century wonder about billboards and advertising. There are sociologists who study advertising that have tracked the connection between European paintings from the Renaissance to the modern era and how similar the poses and compositions are to fashion advertisements today. We should look at fashion advertisements with the same detail and close attention as Auricchio, a famous art historian and professor, looks at 18th century art.

Additionally, Auricchio sees the way the artist's body is posed as very revealing about the painting. The poses of the bodies within paintings are always important. Whether the person is sitting or standing or otherwise; the distance between or among other subjects in the painting; the quantity of light each subject receives in the painting -- each one of these elements and more can tell the viewer or the art historian a lot of information about the painting. The position of the body can tell us how the person in the painting feels. The position of the body can tell us how important the person in the painting is. Therefore, it is a strong idea for Auricchio to pay close attention to how Labille-Guiard is positioned in the painting. Between knowing about the artist as a person, and looking closely and who the artist is in the painting, we can see there is a lot to learn from this article and from art overall.


Auricchio, Laura. "Self-Promotion in Adelaide Labille-Guiard's 1785 Self-Portrait with Two Students." Art Bulletin,… [read more]

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