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Art Variety and Harmony Are Inherent Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,055 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Variety and harmony are inherent in both Louise Nevelson's 1960 wood sculpture Royal Tide I and in Jan de Heem's 1650 oil painting Still Life with Lobster. Nevelson's composition consists of eighteen distinct units stacked together as a whole: a rectangle divided into eighteen cells. In spite of their individuality, the boxes relate to each other as a harmonious whole. Similarly, de Heem's still life portrays a plethora of disparate items that are unified through color, shape, and theme. Nevelson achieves visual harmony amid diversity via the uniform gold paint that covers the entire composition, uniting disparate elements of the composition. The cells are also neatly stacked and although they suggest hierarchy the units at the bottom are no different with regard to shape, form, color, and theme than those at the top. Moreover, Nevelson imbues the piece with visual harmony by repeating the circle throughout. Circles appear and reappear strategically, drawing the eye toward different points of the piece and creating dynamism and movement. Most notably, the eye is drawn to the third row from the top, the center cell in which a circular object contains within it seven smaller cylindrical items. The harmony Nevelson reates is therefore both visual and conceptual: the artist uses uniform color and repetitive forms to create harmony amid diversity.

Jan de Heem attains a similar visual and conceptual harmony. The elements of the still life are related thematically as emblems of opulence: interestingly similar to the connotation of gold in Nevelson's work. In Still Life with Lobster, an overabundance of fruit spills over a tray on the table while a lobster sits conspicuously in the foreground. de Heem's composition consists of edible items too, imparting a thematic unity. The spherical form is repeated throughout the composition to enhance the piece's overall harmony. Likewise, the lobster's orange color echoes the skin of the peaches and apricots, offering harmony of color as well as form. A string of vine leaves also serves to unite the composition on a horizontal plane. The leaves, distinctly different in terms of shape and color from the central elements of the composition, creates harmony amid variety through the use of line. Thus, the variety inherent in de Heem's still life and in Nevelson's sculpture manifests as a harmonious whole in both.

2. A serpent undulates gracefully, weaving itself between the feet of the enthusiastic dancers. The serpentine form resonates with the curvatures of the dancers' figures, and no straight lines are present in the entire composition. Andre Derain's the Dance is full of motion from the very fact of its theme. Dancing is potentially perpetual, constant motion. The serpent's form is also reminiscent of the swirling shapes that adorn the left-most dancer, whose colors also echo those of the bird's bright plumage. Captured mid-air, in flight, the bird's outstretched wings suggest movement just as the dancers' feet do. The all-red figure in the center of the composition is the anchor for the viewer's eye. She receives the bulk of… [read more]

Art Museum Beauty Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,117 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


I was surprised to find that my impression was quite the opposite of a more traditional interpretation, which is that Renoir's male figure is "tough and tender at once" (Benfey). There are bold contrasts between the woman's white dress and the man's dark suit. This contrast in color mimics their contrast in attitude and her positioning as heroine and his as potential lover, potential threat. Up close, the dimension of the painting truly comes alive and one can see the layers upon layers of pain that Renoir used to create his vision. I could spend hours investigating it.

The other painting I fell in love with is "Two Nudes-Lovers (Self-Portrait with Alma Mahler, 1913)" by Oskar Kokoschka. The painting is also oil on canvas and measures approximately 64" x 38." In some ways Kokoschka's self-portrait with his lover it is quite similar to the Renoir. The main subject is a couple embracing, perhaps in the middle of a dance. Despite their embrace, the two are not looking directly at one another. The woman again has a thousand-yard-stare and her facial expression includes a deep frown, showing her sadness. The man looks worried, almost panicked. And yet they embrace, holding their naked bodies close to one another and pressing their cheeks together. The emotional tension is palpable and is reinforced by the colors used in the piece, blues, purples and browns. "Human beings are not still lifes," Kokoschka said in Vienna in 1912, and this belief shows in his work, where he always attempt to capture not a portrait, but a soul (Delmar). In style, "Two Nudes" could not be further from Renoir's dance. Kokoschka was an expressionist, a modern movement of the early 20th century. Expressionists sought to express meaning and often distorted their subjects for a radical emotional effect or to evoke a mood. The focus is on the soul of the individual subject and expressionism has been characterized as a reaction to naturalism and impressionism. "The Scream" by Edvard Munch is often touted as the prime example of expressionism, and Kokoschka's painting has much in common with this famous work. The figures are the only recognizable detail in the paining. The background is amorphous, broad strokes of the basic color palette of the painting with no actual form or texture. The Despite the beautiful positioning of the figures -- the female in a perfect ballerina position from the waist down -- it is the faces, their souls, which grab us and do not let go. Unlike a 42' tall collection of green glass spikes, this is not a piece of art easily figured our or forgotten.

Works Cited

Barlow, Deborah. "Chihuly at the MFA." Slow Muse. 10 April, 2011. 8 June, 2011.

Benfrey, Christopher. "A Certain Slant of Light" Slate 13 November 1997. 8 June 2011.

"Dance at Bougival." 8 June, 2011.

Delmar, John D."Oskar Kokoschka: Early Portraits from Vienna and Berlin 1909-1914." The City Review. 2002. 8 June, 2011.

Dwyer, John Stephen. "A… [read more]

Art of Colonial Latin America Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (1,933 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Art of Colonial Latin America

In her essay, "Art of Colonial America," Bailey provides a timely overview of 330-year period of Latin American colonial art to the 21st century. The first point made by Bailey is that at no time in history has Latin American art been as relevant and important as today and goes on to support these assertions… [read more]

Art the Painting Techniques Thesis

Thesis  |  13 pages (4,005 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Their portraits seem elementary in ways, but they are styled to be so. They embrace the primitivism coming in to vogue at that time.

The core group of Cubists consisted of Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, and Albert Gleizes. Braque's "cubistic" works won for the group the name Cubism. But each of the painters embraced the style, which embodied the primitivism… [read more]

Japanese Art Response Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,033 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


It is obvious that the right rooster is about to win in an impending fight between the two male chickens.

The only thing other than the chickens in the painting is a bit of greenery behind the chickens. From the green leaf shapes and the thin strokes which are used, it looks like the artist was intending to create some bushes or tall grass. Some thin lines also hand down from an unknown distance above where the scroll begins. This is meant to represent a tree perhaps or an overly large bush. Based on their body language and their positioning, it is clear that the roosters are supposed to be very close to the ground. They are against a brown background which might be a mountain or hill or perhaps the wall of a house. The greenery, despite the fact that it hangs above the rooster's heads, cannot be very large because roosters are not very large. Two creatures take up the majority of the silk scroll, but then the viewer needs to remember scale. Large they are, but only in comparison to what else is painted on the scroll. Compared to human beings, roosters are small.

In addition to the natural aspects mentioned, there is also a line which exists because of the contrasts in dark and light browns which the artist uses for the background. It gives the whole of the piece something of a three-dimensional appearance to it with the roosters very much in the foreground and the greenery behind them. Even though it is very minimal, just using a few green streaks and brown lines, the artist effectively lets the viewer of the scroll understand that they are meant to be seeing a scene from the natural world. These chickens and this background could be a part of any Japanese person's home if they lived in a rural area. Although they are flatly painted on the silk screen, they still seem to come out from the scroll. This may or may not be a comment on the importance of these creatures to the society and the inability of most people to closely pay attention to the creatures in their care. These are gamecocks and so they have a function on the farm or in the village, namely to breed more chickens along with a female. Human beings do not consider the birds outside of their personal need for them and so people rarely see any kind of personality or perspective on behalf of the chicken.

In the exhibit at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, there were many paintings to choose from. "Gamecocks" is interesting because at first it just looks like two large roosters set against a plain background. Only by looking deeper at the painting can a deeper meaning be understood. In the case of this work, the painting is not just about two chickens, but based upon the attitudes presented is more about the competition between roosters and the way aggressive behaviors win out…… [read more]

Renaissance and Baroque Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,748 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Renaissance / Baroque

Comparative Analysis of Renaissance and Baroque

What is the Baroque? We use this term to refer to an artistic movement that got started, roughly, at some point in the early seventeenth century and continued for decades, but it is important to recall that successive artistic movements are in many ways indebted to their predecessors: the idea that… [read more]

Figurine of the Goddess Wadjet Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (800 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Her mouth is closed but her eyes are open and facing forward. In sculpting her body, the artist placed the figure in a position where it looks like she has been frozen mid-stride, as if she was taken in the middle of a swift motion. The figure, although stationary, still gives off a sense of motion and movement. Her legs are positioned one in front of the other, but her feet are oddly placed. The back foot is directly behind the front, even though the leg seems to be farther apart. One arm is down at the figure's side while the other is raised. Based on the position of her hand, it is possible that the figure once held a staff or something which has been lost to time.

Another interesting part of the figure's body has to do with the sculpting of the clothing. It seems that Wadjet is fully clothed. Her dress goes down to the bottom of her calves. The two legs are intricately carved so that a shadow is almost perceptible between the legs. Her chest appears to be covered. There is no definition although her breasts are indicated. Yet, her belly button shows. There is no apparent line for her clothing to be separated from body. The goddess's chest is covered, as is her waist, but her navel shows. Since the emphasis of the body is on this noticeable feature, it makes logical sense that the sculptor intended it to be a part of the piece's message. This leads a modern observer to wonder why this is how Wadjet is depicted in this sculpture and whether it has something to do with her function within the society. If, for example, she had something to do with the birth process or motherhood, then her visible navel would make sense.

The Goddess Wadjet stands in her bronze form in the Egyptian wing of the Los Angeles museum. Despite her existence for a matter of centuries, she still serves to entice and intrigue those who came to gaze upon her. Her creation is a supreme piece of artistry that forces the attention of the viewer and makes one question every choice and every detail of the sculpture.

Works Cited:

Janson, H.W. & Janson, A. (2008). Janson's A Basic History…… [read more]

Art Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  3 pages (1,092 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Likewise, the mural located above the transcription of the second inaugural address is intended to reflect the principles that Lincoln outlined in his second inaugural address, the unity of North and South and the continued pursuit of knowledge and education (National Parks Service, 2012). This is represented through an angle protecting symbols that represent art, music, philosophy, music, chemistry, literature, painting, and sculpture.

Likewise, Andy Warhol (1967), like Bacon, took an already existing art form and used it to memorialize a fallen icon. Through his pop art, and specifically, Marilyn Monroe (1967), Warhol combined photography and screen-printing to create a unique work of art (Pearson Publication, Inc., 2009, p. 147). Marilyn Monroe (1967) features a screen-printed photograph of Monroe's head against a hot pink background. The number of colors are used in the print are limited due to technique, however, Warhol's juxtaposition of Monroe's yellow hair against the pink backdrop, helps to frame Monroe's face. Additionally, Warhol's use of bright pink to highlight Monroe's eyes and lips draw the viewers' attention to her face, which is one of the things that is most memorable about the icon. Because of Warhol's technique, he was able to reproduce various versions of the Monroe portrait in a variety of colors. Warhol's approach to art is unique because he was able to take existing images and put his own spin on them and be both commercial and innovative at the same time. Warhol's approach to art, specifically Monroe's images, could be taken to be a commentary on how the public viewed the icon as a commodity and did not take into consideration her personal desires. Moreover, Warhol's ability to mass produce Monroe's portrait, and his ability to change the colors used, can be taken to be representative of a mask, which although changes with each role that Monroe took, underneath, she was still just a woman. Also, the fact that the screen printing is imperfect, as sometimes the colors exceed the boundaries set forth by Monroe's features, also seem to indicate that Monroe was an imperfect person. This image, however, hold special significance for me because it reminds me of my love for pop art and film, as well as my appreciation for Warhol, a man who gained fame and success through his own interpretation of the world and the exploitation of commercialism.

It is interesting to see how each work of art, the Lincoln Memorial and Marilyn Monroe (1967) both attempt to utilize established forms in a new way and how the people and images contained within are immortalized. Furthermore, it is interesting to see how different each of the works are with the Lincoln Memorial being representative of freedom and democracy, whereas Warhol's work appears to be a social commentary on capitalism and commercialism.


National Parks Service. (2012). Lincoln Memorial design individuals. Accessed 21 August 2012,

from http://www.nps.gov/linc/historyculture/lincoln-memorial-design-individuals.htm.

Pearson Publications Inc. (2009). Chapter 5: Art. The Art of Being Human: The Humanities As A

Technique For Living, pp. 114-169.

Warhol, Andy.… [read more]

Paintings Both Salvador Dali Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (991 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Christ is seen more as a volunteer to die for the sins of humanity rather than as a victim of persecution. The difference is palpable, which is why Dali's crucifixion is unique. Moreover, the artist presents Christ as a cultural icon. Unlike Raphael, Dali is not attempting to render Biblical history so much as he is trying to convey the importance of Christ on human consciousness and culture.

Both Raphael's and Dali's compositions help the viewer's eye move around the canvas, mainly towards the heavens. In Raphael's composition, the top panel of the frame depicts a scene that is removed from the main scene below. We see two angels and a male figure, which may be God or another saint. The male figure points upwards to heaven. The angels are flying, which also suggests they are ascended beings. Dali conveys similar sentiments about ascension, but using different symbols and compositional techniques. In "Crucifixion," Dali shows Christ and the cross as being ethereal. They are not touching the ground. Just as Christ floats in front of his cross, the cross floats in front of Gala. The cubes that form the cross correspond with the black and white squares that form the floor beneath. The phrase from the Lord's Prayer, "On earth as it is in Heaven" comes to mind, as what is above (Christ and the cube cross) is as it is below (Gala and the tiled floor). The stark, black, and endless landscape beyond makes the Dali painting also look like a dream. Raphael's painting, on the other hand, seems much more realistic.

In Dali's crucifixion, the horizon is rendered in the lower portion of the canvas. The bulk of the canvas is consumed by the crucifixion scene and Christ's pale body. In Raphael's composition, the Christ baby is a tiny element compared to the other figures. Moreover, the composition is more traditional, in that the foreground depicts the feet and the horizon is about at midpoint. Like Dali, though, Raphael places Christ in the exact center of the canvas.

Therefore, both painters depict biblical stories, but Raphael does so with greater realism than Dali does. Raphael has a more expansive color palette, but both artists consciously capitalize on the use of gold. Gold is the color of Dali's cross: which is the central element in his composition. Its color is echoes below in Gala's robes. Raphael also uses gold liberally in "Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints." For Raphael, the use of gold is reminiscent of Orthodox iconography and other traditional forms of Christian art. For Dali, the use of gold is unconventional, as it is used in the depiction of a three-dimensional cube cross. Both Raphael and Dali create a composition with upward motion to signify heaven in relation to earth.

Works Cited

Dali, Salvador. "The Crucifixion." Painting. 1954

Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio). "Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints." Painting,…… [read more]

Art in "Burial at Ornans Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,411 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Pointillism accesses our brains' capacity to fill in missing or implied information to create a coherent, articulated whole. This anticipates abstractions in form and interaction with the viewer. Reference Signac's "Femmes au Puits" and Seurat's "La Parade de Cirque" as examples of pointillism.

"Salon de la rue des Moulins" is full of saturated reds. The furniture is red, some articles… [read more]

Henri Matisse Still Life Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,567 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" (Matisse Picasso Website, 2002)

VI. Concept of Visual Equilibrium

Matisse writes that if he were to paint upon a white canvas "some sensations of blue, of green, or red, each new stroke diminish the importance of the preceding ones." (1908) The concept of visual equilibrium is addressed in the work of Matisse who states as follows on painting an… [read more]

Art Since the Greek Kouros Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,469 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


The discus thrower is of particular note. Proportions of the body are ideal; the arms appear long but this is because the artist understands that the man is twisting around so that his left arm reaches around toward the right knee. The right arm is twisted around and holds the discus. Weaknesses in the rendition include the fact that the… [read more]

Venus in Art Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (2,900 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This painting indeed conveys to the viewer feelings of delight and joy.

Another artist who produced works that depicted the birth of Aphrodite was the French painter JA.D. Ingres. Ingres' work is considered more classical in form that Boucher's version and is part of the artistic movement known as Neoclassicism. In addition, Ingres' work draws inspiration from the past as… [read more]

Investigating Art of the Past With a Time Machine Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


We will then move to Claude Monet's garden at Giverny, where we will attempt to catch him completing his 1897-8 "Nympheas" (one of his famous paintings of water lilies, now in the LA County Museum of Art). Monet is a textbook Impressionist painter, but we will interrogate him as to whether his problems with his own eyesight (he developed cataracts) had any influence on his signature style.

In the first half of the twentieth century, we will investigate Surrealism. We will locate Meret Oppenheim in 1936, as she completes her notorious "Object" -- frequently known as "the fur teacup" or "the furry breakfast." Oppenheim's work is perhaps the most memorable example of Surrealism in sculpture -- but we can ask her if the dream-like associations of the piece (is it intended to be strongly vaginal? does it relate to her status as a woman artist?) were intentional on her part, or whether she was merely giving free rein to her subconscious as Surrealists frequently attempted. Then we will find Salvador Dali in 1954, as he completes his large and disturbing oil on canvas painting "Young Virgin Auto-Sodomized By The Horns Of Her Own Chastity." We can interrogate Dali as to the meaning of the symbolism of the painting: why would the chastity of a virgin take the form of a rhinoceros horn about to penetrate her own anus? Is Dali suggesting that sexual repression is self-destructive?

Finally in the latter half of the… [read more]

History of Western Art Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,837 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


History Of Western Art

Looking at the Dutch works, provide some examples where dramatic stylistic elements heighten the power of everyday scenes and still lives. Think about lighting effects, movement, extension or recession of space, and elements that allude to the passage of time.

The different Dutch works of art were illustrating the simplicities of everyday life, while highlighting the… [read more]

Tibetan Art Cleveland Green Tara Painting in Mid 13th C. In Central Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,111 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Green Tara

Tibetan Art - Cleveland Green Tara Painting

The Cleveland Green Tara Painting is a typical Thangka painting of Tibet. Thangka is a form of art that is connected with Tibetian culture and mysticism. Thangka paintings are more than a piece of art and have a significant place in Tibetian religion and daily life. Thangka is depicts many aspects… [read more]

Carving Sculpture Henry Moor and Barbara Hepworth Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (590 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



What is direct carving

Direct carving is carving without a maquette or other model, a sort of freestyle approach to sculpture that may leave signs of the carving instruments and purposeful roughness.

What is a maquette?

A maquette is a model for a sculpture, serving the same purpose that a sketch does for a painting.

Just before TECHNIQUE, there is a quote from Henry Moore about "titles." What do you think of what he says? Do you agree or disagree? Why.

I fully agree with Moore. Moore wants the spectator to be engaged in the art. Simple titles require the spectator to ponder and project personal issue onto the art. As Moore suggests, a title that is too explanatory takes the mystery out of the piece and the spectator is more likely to take a cursory glance and walk away. The piece is too self-contained and the artist has already told the spectator what to think about, what to look about, and therefore what to feel. With a simple title, the art is alive and changes for each spectator.

4. What similarities are there between the two sculptures?

The Chac Mool statue shows the figure reclined, propped up on his elbows and with his knees drawn in. The chin is held high in a defiant stance and the face gazes confidently out in the distance as a visionary. The effect is that of a regal leader contemplating public policy or enjoying a well-deserved moment of relaxation.

Moore's Draped Reclining Figure is depicted in a similar physical stance as the Chac Mool, with the body propped up on elbows and knees drawn in. The face also looks out towards the distance. Moore's figure is more gender-neutral than the Chac Mool, as the figure could be…… [read more]

Italian Baroque Art Bernini vs. Borromini Thesis

Thesis  |  12 pages (3,860 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Italian Baroque Art (Bernini vs. Borromini)

The present paper has the purpose of analyzing two grand masters of the Italian baroque art, that is Bernini and Borromini. The main thesis to be demonstrated is that their styles and techniques can be observed in two important pieces of art and that by comparing them we are actually comparing the two representatives… [read more]

Painting Is Called "Passing Storm Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,692 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … painting is called "Passing Storm over the Sierra Nevadas" and was painted in 1870 by Albert Bierstadt. It is located in the American Art section of the San Antonio Museum of Art. The painting was chosen because of several different reasons. First of all, the artist's capacity to paint the natural landscape is impressive and very vivid, to… [read more]

Exploring Contemporary Art Franz West Chameleon 2004 Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,307 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … art: Franz West, Chameleon, 2004

Exploring Contemporary Art with Theory (Philosophy of Art)

Franz West, Chameleon, 2004. Collection of the Musee d'art contemporain de Montreal.

Franz West's three-dimensional 2004 creation called simply Chameleon looks like the interior of a brightly-colored green kitchen in its incarnation at Collection of the Musee d'art contemporain de Montreal. Chameleon is not a depiction of a lizard, but a work that superficially suggest the appearance of an interior design, in bright, Brady Bunch, mid-1970s shades of chartreuse. Its strange falseness and homogeneity as the lime green tables and chairs blend in with the walls, underlines the conformities of urban life and the psychological, human desire to blend in with society -- but with brightness and panache. The title suggests concealment, of trying to be 'like' other things in the environment in a half-deliberate, half-unconscious manner. Mimicry comes not through camouflage, but by standing out just as much, and in the same way as everything else. The tables and the chairs are all bright green, the same colors as the walls. The chairs are evidently painted as their backs are brown, but this brown merely blends in with the wood flooring of the kitchen. The furniture looks cheap, disposable, and is very evidently a manufactured commodity.

The use of the ordinary objects of everyday life to question modern-day values is typical of West's work since the early 1970s, which often involve the use of familiar objects and pieces of furniture, which are given an "archetypal dimension" in their elevation to the realms of the exhibition platforms of museums, where they are subjected to the gaze of patrons.

In Chameleon, its chairs, paint, a table, and a kitchen floor "each in turn becomes the basis for a critical, provocative and deliberately insolent meditation on the nature and scope of the act of making art. In Chameleon, West uses one of his favorite strategies, that of disguising the utilitarian nature of the objects, in this case, a round table and eight chairs. It is color that rules within this austere installation.

Although the most recent exhibition of Chameleon involved the use of bright green, which seems befitting the title of the work, it is noteworthy that the solid color of the table and chairs actually "varies according to the choice of those displaying the work.

" The process of displaying of the work makes the piece a collaborative effort, a work of performance in terms of its display. "By requiring this participation on the part of the collector or museum, on the one hand, West is insisting on the real importance of color as opposed to the falsely decorative function often accorded to it, and on the other hand, he is giving this installation, this skilful combination of painting and sculpture, a conceptual and existential dimension that is reasserted each time it is exhibited.

West himself has resisted grand, subsuming theories of what he is trying to achieve with his art: "Early on I realized that… [read more]

Sculpture Column Figure of a Nimbed King Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,187 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Gothic Sculpture

Art represents the era in which it was produced and often speaks to later time periods as well, and how we view the art of the past shows some of what we think about ourselves and about the meaning we attribute to both past and present. When we view a work like Column Figure of a Nimbed King, a sculpture from around the period 1150-1170, we measure the people of that time on the basis of what this one sculptor has produced, considering how the work reflects attitudes and aesthetics from the time as well as how it speaks to us and says something to us about our ancestors.

This work was produced by a French sculptor carving in limestone. The work is relatively large at a height of 45 1/4 in. (115 cm). The work balances a certain inherent rigidity because the figure rests against a straight column, which gives the work a very straight spine as a backing, while at the same time the pose and demeanor of the figure is very human and much more relaxed than the rigidity of the column might suggest. The work was found in the royal abbey of Saint-Denis in the environs of Paris. The figure is not identified by name but is merely known as a king, seen in the crown on his head and the royal raiment on his body.

The abbey of Saint-Denis was long important in the Catholic Church in France and housed the shrine of the national saint, that being Saint-Denis. The abbey also served as a burial site for many French kings. Abbot Suger headed the abbey from 1122-1151, and during his time the west facade and east end of the abbey were rebuilt in a new style then called the "French style," though it was later called the Gothic style. According to the Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, this column figure represents an Old Testament king and is the only complete statue surviving from the now destroyed cloister that was constructed shortly after the death of Abbot Suger: "The bejeweled crown and nimbus distinguish the royal and saintly nature of the figure. His identity may once have been inscribed upon the scroll that he holds, now broken" (para. 1). The fact that the figure is part of a column also shapes some of its aesthetic elements as the sculpture is formed to match the form of the column: "The slender folds of the figure's drapery further emphasize the column's elongated proportions" ("Medieval European Sculpture for Buildings" para. 3).

The way this piece of sculpture is attached to the building is very much part of the developing Gothic style, a habit that would continue well through later Gothic periods. Works were often quite firmly attached to architecture, though even then late Gothic sculpture typically maintained its formal independence. Henry Vyverberg cites the two column figures from Cologne, the Virgin and Christ, as examples: "Their elegance echoes the rather previous mannerism of the countless carved… [read more]

Greenart Inc. Leap's Frog Sculpture Competition Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,192 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0




Frog's Leap Sculpture Walk is an art event that will be held in Melbourne Australia by Green Art Incorporated from mid January 2009 - March 2009 in the Royal Botanic Garden. There is no entry… [read more]

Difference Western and African Art Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (708 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Group Communications

African Art:

Woyo people

Congo (Zaire) pot lid

What we think of as 'art' in a Western context is often taken to mean the type of art that is apprehended in a museum. Art viewed as such is not functional; rather it is decorative or expressive, like a sculpture or a painting. Art viewed from a distance in a museum is also often seen the expression of an individual artist who is seeking to reveal some unique inner truth. Thus runs contrary to how art functions in traditional West African society. Although the Western observer sees this artifact, a Woyo pot lid, in a museum, it must not be forgotten that in its original context, it was a part of the household, much like a pot lid in our own kitchen. Besides conveying meaning, it also had a practical purpose within the home to keep food warm. Rather than being purely individualistic in its expressive intent and design, its shape and form was fairly standardized, yet unlike a commercially purchased Western pot lid, it was created by the hands of the individuals who used the pot lid. Also, the use of the pot lid has a symbolic and communicative dimension that transcended its pure functionality and use. It is not purely functional, like a piece of kitchenware bought at a store, nor is it purely expressive, like an art object in a museum -- thus it straddles what are two separate purposes in Western culture.

The communicative aspect of the pot is not self-expression, but within a communal context, it can express a wife's feelings. Because this symbolic language is generally agreed upon within the tribe, it ends to reinforce the conventional modes of expression involving a particular a social institution, namely that of marriage. The language of the use of the pot lid thus agreed upon within the Woyo culture, much as certain symbolic gestures and words take place during the ritual of marriage itself. The pot lids are carved with community sayings and images that express generally accepted truths about the relationship between a husband and his wife. Art is…… [read more]

Agree or Disagree Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (603 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



The Baroque era (ca. 1600 to 1750), much like the art that was produced during this time, was composed of many dimensions -- spacious and dynamic, colorful, theatrical, opulent and extravagant, all of which were highly influenced by a number of contemporary political and social events. For the artist, this was an age of discovery, due in part to the rise of national powers that attempted to colonize the entire world. Wars and other disputes based on political and social differences were everywhere, particularly in Europe and North America. The rise in scientific discoveries by such figures as Newton and Kepler inspired many Baroque artists to create works of art that "embraced all the spaces of the celestial world and the spaces of the microcosm within an unfolding universe" (Tapie 56).

Perhaps most importantly, the art of this era was influenced by the Catholic reaction to the advancement of Protestantism. Overall, the political and social aspects of this time is best illustrated by Gianlorenzo Bernini's the Ecstasy of St. Teresa, a life-size, marble sculpture, presently located in the Cornaro Chapel of the Church of Santa Maria della Vitorria in Rome. This magnificent work of art "draws upon the full resources of architecture, sculpture and painting" and symbolizes the social power of the Cornaro family via its location in the chapel, for on either side are sculptured opera boxes in which portraits of the Cornaro family "represent an audience watching with intent piety the denouement of a heavenly drama" which, in effect, reveals "the remote mysteries of religion as they descend to meet the social world of man" (Tapie 83).

In contrast to the Baroque Era, the Rococo style is so closely related to the social and political ramifications of King Louis XIV, also known as the "Sun King," that the…… [read more]

Art Qs the United States Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (566 words)
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Art Qs

The United States became the focal point of the artistic and painting world following World War II, with the advent of the abstract expressionism school of painting. European paintings remained more tied to traditional roots and still typically depicted scenes, if even abstractly, but American painting moved more towards complete abstraction such as the action paintings of Jackson Pollack and others. The cultural and economic center of the world moved from Europe to the United States during the same period, and this perhaps led to a more intrepid sense of adventure in exploration in American painting, looking towards the new future, while Europeans still tried to make sense of the past that had been lost.


Censorship has long been a major issue in the art world, from at least the time of the Catholic Church's dominance of world affairs if not earlier. In modern times, censorship still exists in regards to limiting the amount of sexuality that can be displayed in certain galleries and other public places, and also in terms of political statements and alternative points-of-view. Art has long been used as a tool for future change, and the expression of unpopular and/or controversial ideas through art has long been one of the checks on society and the measures of its freedom. Censorship in art limits this freedom and so the progress available to a given society.


The Harlem Renaissance was an artistic movement beginning in the 1920s in the predominantly African-American neighborhood of Harlem in New York City. Jazz music, new styles of painting, and evolving types of dance and other performance art all began fomenting in the culture of newfound semi-liberation among the African-American community, which…… [read more]

Art the French Impressionists Rendered Modern Bourgeois Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 5



The French Impressionists rendered modern bourgeois life, often by focusing on gardens and leisure activities. Both Berthe Morisot and Gustave Caillebotte use garden scenery as a background for conveying themes related to modern life in France in the late nineteenth century. Morisot's "The Basket Chair" was painted in 1885, and depicts a mother and her young child in a… [read more]

Art Book Intro and Conclusion Art Compilation Essay

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Art Book Intro and Conclusion

Art Compilation Book Introduction

Art is taking the archetypical forms of the mind and giving those forms a physical existence. There is no greater example of this truth than modern art. Modern artists challenged the definition of art by removing the expectation of reality and the limitations of society and creating images purely from the mind. These transformations may seem strange or even controversial to many, but that is the intent of the modern artist, to articulate and form the purest archetypical creations imaginable. In doing this, modern art challenges the definitions of form, material, content, and detail to create unimaginable masterpieces.

The primary way that modern artists challenge the societal definition of art is through form. Whereas once artists were considered great because their art took on a life-like quality, modern art removes reality and replaces it with imagination and the psyche. Vincent Van Gough, considered one of the earliest practitioners of modern art, specialized in creating paintings that distorted the natural, physical form and instead replaced it with those images of the mind's eye. Paintings such as "The Scream" by Edvard Munch took this even further by portraying the one things that the mind desires but that cannot be released into the world of reality. Even modern photographic art challenges the conceptions of reality. In Janine Antoni's work "Conduit," the female artist is captured holding male genitals and peeing from a skyscraper. So, the very forms that society considers normal are now challenged and the forms contorted by the artist's mind are exposed and brought full circle.

The second way that modern art has challenged art's very definition is through the materials used. While traditional art used clay, wood, stone and paint to make masterpieces, modern artists use items from everyday life to present art in a new way. Tom Friedman uses everything from sugar cubes to toothpicks in his works to from complex sculptures. Janine Antoni carved sculptures out of soap and "ate" sculptures out of chocolate. Finally, Wolfgang Laib used items as common as milk and pollen in his sculptures that leave his audience speechless.

The third area that modern art challenges is content. Whereas art once only sculpted and painted noble portraits, modern art captures images of the imagination and the socially improper to present an often absurd or even humorous masterpiece. In order to both shock and force his audience to think, Stelarc grafted an artificially grown ear to his arm. In Moor, Antoni makes a long umbilical chord that stretches down the hallways of museums. Edward Wurm has created series of "One Minute Sculptures" with live models covered in hilarious costumes and props.

The final area where modern art has carved out a niche is detail. Whereas once paintings and sculptures were as life-like as could be, modern art explores both the tribal ritualistic tendencies of humans and combines it with the simplicity of mathematics and modern life. In Wolfgang Laib's famous work "Pollen from Hazelnut," the entire… [read more]

Art the Renaissance Heralded in an Entirely Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,995 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



The Renaissance heralded in an entirely new tradition of art form during the 14th and 15th centuries, with a wide variety of painters, poets, writers and architects that literally and figuratively saw the world in a different light from the dark and dismal Middle Ages. Humanism developed in Italy in the field of literature, once again honoring the Greek… [read more]

Art / Claude Monet Painting Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (872 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Impressions painting are named not because they worked loosely with color through the use of the color theories developed in the nineteenth century, they optically mixed color with red next to yellow, somewhat than orange, and many more subtle. (Artist Profile: Claude Monet)

'The Japanese Footbridge" of 1899 depicts the height of Impressionism. Monet holds the many different angles of a scene on his own house -- an arched Japanese bridge which is reflected in the pool below full of lilies, the water's trembling reflection mirroring the adjacent foliage and trees. (Exhibit gives impression of artistic revolution) At Giverny, he enlarged the water garden which was his only source of inspiration during the fag end of his life. The Japanese Footbridge uses a traditional technique, while his other paintings especially the series of water lilies, lean increasingly towards abstraction whose importance was formally recognized when Monet gave them away to France in 1918. He is regarded as the father of impressionism and one of the most admired and loved artists of all time. His extensive career was characterized by experimentation and innovation. His handling of various subjects is identified immediately and confirm to his amazing talent for composition and the rendering of both color and light. His career started as a caricaturist in Le Havre during the 1850s.

An initial familiarity with the French landscape painter Eugene Boudin who painted the changing skies and sea along the Normandy coast was the formative impact in the initial years of Monet. Both of the artists, who shared a dedication to nature, enjoyed painting outdoors. During 1862, Monet went to Paris and started his training at the Paris studio of the academician Charles Gleyre. Following his initial success in the Salon of 1865, a bigger work, Women in the Park, was denied by the Salon of 1867, seemingly because Monet's use of color and light led to a simplification or abstraction of form. His methodologies challenged traditional practices and the authority of the French academy that was established for more than 200 years. (Monet at Giverny: Masterpieces from Musee Marmottan Biographical Notes)


"Artist Profile: Claude Monet" Retrieved from http://www.ndoylefineart.com/monet.html

Accessed on 5 May, 2005

'Exhibit gives impression of artistic revolution." Retrieved from http://www.dailybruin.ucla.edu/db/issues/99/09.27/ae.impression.html

Accessed on 5 May, 2005

'Monet at Giverny: Masterpieces from Musee Marmottan Biographical Notes." Retrieved from http://www.albrightknox.org/pastexh/Monet/biography.html Accessed on 5 May, 2005

'It looks Like an Original Monet, but it's an artagraph." Retrieved from http://www.artagraph.com.au/Monet.htm Accessed on 5 May, 2005… [read more]

Renaissance Art an Analysis Research Paper

Research Paper  |  15 pages (4,876 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Hilliard indicated, however, one of the necessary components of the miniature-portraiture, which was the fact that it should use as little shading as possible. Chiaroscuro in such a small frame would take away from the overall visual effect of the miniature. With such a focus on minute detail, the use of light and shade had to be as minimal as… [read more]

Storms Paintings, Watteau Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 5


It shows individualism, human centeredness, and acts of heroism. The human activities in the image outplay the natural one, which is the oncoming storm. The characters on the image display act of heroism and self-centeredness. The characters are more concerned with their own activities; the oncoming storm does not deter them from finishing their quests. The interpretations can also aid in grouping the images as either romantic or neo-classic art. The acts of the characters in the first image working together towards the same cause shows that they are selfless. Its interpretation may indicate that they are fighting against oppression and harsh conditions. On the second image, each person is concerned with his or her own work. This may show each individual's determination to fight for what he or she believes in hence doing everything necessary for its achievement. This shows the determination to restore the stipulated ways of art.

Work cited

Martindale, Colin. "Empirical Questions Deserve Empirical Answers." Philosophy and Literature 20.2 (2000): 347-61. ProQuest. Web. 25 Mar. 2013.

Tapert, Annette. "Rare & Refined." Architectural Digest 2011: 130,n/a. ProQuest. Web. 25

Creamer, Noelle. "Through the Eyes of a Collector." Ophthalmology Times 33.12 (2008): 61-

2. ProQuest. Web. 25 Mar. 2013.

Andreae, Christopher. "Two Centures of Romantic Art." The Christian…… [read more]

Art Time Period -1910) Catches Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (860 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


It is actually probable that his mental state contributed to him adding more emotion to his paintings and turning them into art that can almost speak to individuals seeing it (Crispino 50).

In spite of the fact that the scene apparently displays the view from the hospital window in Saint-Remy-de-Provence, there are also a series of concepts that one could associate with his background. "In Starry Night, Van Gogh seems to be combining reality and imagination, and elements of Provence and his northern homeland" (Crispino 50). It is probable that the fact that he was cut off from his family, country, and artist friends contributed significantly to making him want to introduce his part into Starry Night. In addition to being physically isolated from his background, Van Gogh was also psychologically isolated from the world as a result of his poor mental health.

While there were a series of elements detaching Van Gogh from his past, his love for art made it possible for him to reconnect with his background. The painting of Starry Night actually demonstrated his complex understanding of art, taking into account that he practically devised innovative artistic elements.

One of the first elements that are likely to captivate viewers is the fact that the canvas virtually appears to be moving as a result of the vivid elements it contains. The swirling sky is one of the most imposing characteristics, as the vivid colors it contains put across impressive energy and virtually seem to bring the painting to life. The painter obviously did not go for a realistic impression, as he wanted the painting to be expressive through its dynamism. It practically seems that Van Gogh's inner thoughts have been brought to life and materialized in Starry Night.


Starry Night is not only important because of its imposing appearance, as it is also significant because it was painted during a critical moment in the artist's life. One can practically consider that the artist resorted to creating artwork in order to deal with his mental issues. The fact that his brother (considered by him to be one of his most important critics) did not appreciate the artwork probably had a devastating effect on Van Gogh, taking into account that his poor health alongside with the feeling of being unable to produce beautiful art probably reflected negatively on his self-esteem.

Works cited:

Crispino, Enrica, "Van Gogh," (The Oliver Press, Inc., 2008)

"Vincent van Gogh Biography," retrieved March 29, 2013, from the ariel art galleries Website: http://arielartgalleries.com/Artists/Van%20Gogh%20Starry%20Night.htm

"Vincent Van Gogh: The Starry Night," (The Museum of…… [read more]

Art Along With Georges Braque Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (942 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Both Leger and Picasso are concerned with the role geometric forms play in a composition. Arcs and curves, for example, feature prominently in both Picasso's Femme a la mandolin and in Leger's Le modele nu dans l'atelier. The term "cubism" is not an absolute designation that precludes the artist from including curvilinear elements. Rather, the "cube" implies three-dimensionality, and that three-dimensionality can be readily and successfully achieved by depicting rounded objects, spheres, and the natural curves of the human body as well as straight lines. In fact, the more curvilinear elements an abstract work contains, the more organic the overall impression will be due to the fact that the natural universe contains no true straight lines.

Picasso does include a few straight lines in Femme a la mandolin, but those lines represent man-made elements like the piano keyboard and the walls behind the woman. Her head, and the body of the mandolin, are rendered with arcs and curves. In Le modele nu dans l'atelier, Leger presents both straight lines and curves. The curves symbolize the presence of the nude model; while the straight-edged elements symbolize the canvases, walls, and other man-made elements in the artist's studio. Thus, Picasso and Leger use a similar technique to convey different motifs and ideas.

As their respective bodies of work expanded, the artists' individualistic styles began to diverge more. Picasso's characteristic cubism was often minimalistic; whereas Leger drew from his background in architecture and drafting to branch out into a more mechanical, futuristic form of cubism. For example, by 1921, Leger was completing unique work like Three Women, which is fully representational and yet fully cubist at the same time. Leger also exhibited what is known as a more cylindrical or tubular version of cubism because of the artist's emphasis on these rounder three-dimensional objects rather than on straight lines (Dickerman; Lachner et al.).

Although there are clear differences between the individual works of Picasso and Leger; and between their respective canons of work, the two artists are both considered heralds of cubism and abstraction. Their techniques were more similar than they were different, including an appreciation for geometrical and especially three-dimensional forms. Both Picasso and Leger also used the cubist technique to represent what the mind knew was there but the eye could not necessarily see from a singular perspective.

Works Cited

Dickerman, Leah. Inventing Abstraction. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2013.

Fitz, L.T. "Gertrude Stein and Picasso: The Language of Surfaces." American Literature. Vol. 45, No. 2. May 1973.

Lanchner, Carolyn, Leger, Fernand, Hauptman, Jody, Afron, Matthew, and Erikson, Kristen. Fernand Leger. New York: The Museum of Modern Art. 1998.

Spector, Nancy. "Fernand Leger." Guggenheim. Retrieved online: http://www.guggenheim.org/new-york/collections/collection-online/show-full/piece/?search=Nude%20Model%20in%20the%20Studio&page=&f=Title&object=49.1193… [read more]

Art History Raphael's Career Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,468 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Within the study of art history, it is accepted that one of the defining characteristics of the Renaissance is the use of perspective. Art historians concur that one of the many reasons why Raphael is considered so talented and revered is due to his masterful understanding and use of perspective.

The Renaissance use of perspective reached its apogee at around… [read more]

Humanities the Renaissance Period Changed Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 5


Universities should also upgrade their curriculum and inculcate an interdisciplinary approach covering practical situations according to the ever changing needs and times (Audsburg 2005).

The traditional approach defines of humanities as the study of human condition, using critical speculative or analytical approaches.

An alternate definition can be "Disciplines under Humanities help us comprehend and explain human experience of cultures, history, literature, art and ethics. The examination, review and understanding of an object created by humans or a factor that makes us human, the emerging thoughts and processes that take place within ourselves something deliberated, discussed and opinionated" (Humanities Council 2001).

Many businesses deem interdisciplinary skills not as a "nice to have" but a "must have" these days. Humanities and arts graduates attract employers as they can easily change and have transferable skills making them adjustable to many different job profiles and varying industries. Humanities students posses better communication abilities, effective problem solving skills, competent analytical skills, critical evaluation and people management skills; skills that are valuable for any employer in any industry. The creative acumen of humanities students enables them to resolve and respond to multifaceted problems by thinking out of the box and using an unbiased approach. On the other hand students from specialized disciplines may tend to restrict themselves to their beliefs and knowledge acquired through reading subject matter of only one discipline. This limits their creativity and limits their problem solving and analytical skills (Docherty 2012).

Works Cited

Audsburg, Tanya. Becoming interdisciplinary -- An Introduction To Interdisciplinary Studies. Kendall Hunt Publishing. 2005.

Docherty, David. Employers must help universities deliver interdisciplinary skills. 2012. . 28 September 2012.

Humanities Council, Washington D.C. Defining the Humanities -- A work in Progress. 2001. < http://www.wdchumanities.org/docs/defininghumanities.pdf>. 28 September 2012.

Rolland, Roman. Michelangelo. BiblioLife, LLC. 2009.

Strathen, Paul. The Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance. Vintage.…… [read more]

Renaissance Art Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (985 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Whereas Donatello shows David post-battle, Michelangelo shows David pre-battle. The deliberate distinction serves a formal purpose in the works of these two Renaissance artists. For Donatello, it was more important to capture the satisfaction and victory in the body and form of David. For Michelangelo, showing the uncertainty and realistic tension in the body and mind of David was more important.

As Baskins (1993) points out, the Biblical hero of David "moves from king to lover to penitent," but most artists need to show "selected moments of the narrative," (p. 113). This means that artists like Donatello and Michelangelo choose what face, form, and figure to show in their sculptural work. Donatello chose to show David as the victorious and androgynous universal victor. Michelangelo opted to deliver a David that was different: a David that is totally patriarchal, and ready to exude his sexuality and male power. According to one author, Michelangelo depicts the "strength and anger" within David -- and indeed within all human beings ("Michelangelo's David," n.d.). David is King.

Yet both Donatello and Michelangelo do want their respective David sculptures to have a sensual factor. Donatello's is deliberately androgynous. Baskins (1993) states that Donatello's David has a "voluptuous androgyny," which might indicate an "autobiographic homoerotic desire" of the sculptor (p. 115). Michelangelo's David could certainly say the same thing: its hyper-masculinity speaks of nothing but erotic desire for the male form. Whereas Donatello selected bronze as the medium for his rather petite sculpture of David, Michelangelo opted for the massive marble piece, yielding a larger-than life nude male.

Both Donatello and Michelangelo are depicting a Biblical hero in ways that evoke classical art forms: such an ambition was characteristic of the Renaissance. The tribute to classical art became a hallmark of the intellectual trends of the Renaissance and later, Enlightenment movements in Europe. The stranglehold of religion would give way to a more intellectual, rational, and probing mentality free from the bonds of mental slavery. The same can be said for gender and social norms. Both the Donatello and Michelangelo versions of David are quintessentially Renaissance in their form and character. Both also represent the symbolism of David slaying Goliath. Although Donatello shows David after the fact, Michelangelo shows David making the decision to kill and be victorious, to become a historical hero ("Michelangelo's David," n.d). The two Davids seem visually different because of their different media (bronze vs. marble) and different sizes (life-size vs. larger-than-life size). But Donatello and Michelangelo's sculptures share quite a bit in common in terms of content and contemporary political meaning.


Baskins, C.L. (1993). Donatello's bronze David: Grillanda, Goliath, Groom? Studies in Iconography 15. Retrieved online: http://tufts.academia.edu/CristelleBaskins/Papers/209007/Donatellos_Bronze_David_Grillanda_Goliath_Groom

Hudelson, P. (n.d.). "Donatello's David vs. Michelangelo's David." Retrieved online: http://www2.palomar.edu/users/mhudelson/StudyGuides/DontlovsMichel_WA.html

"Michelangelo's David," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://vlsi.colorado.edu/~rbloem/david.html… [read more]

There Is a Long List Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,082 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


A work of art is never beautiful by decree, objectively and for all" (Tzara 249).


Despite the fact that almost everyone who created and participated in the Movement were really serious, Dada art is completely ridiculous, irrational and senseless to the point of fancy. Dada Art was not founded on any predominant medium. The Dadaists used everything ranging from algebraic textiles, glass, plaster and wooden ornaments. The noticeable fact is that Dadaist Art paved way for the use of "assemblage, collage, photomontage and the use of ready made objects" (Essak). Dada certainly created a lot of subdivisions in everything that had no sensible meaning. Not only did it spawn a number of literary journals, Dada influenced many contemporaneous and coexisting trends in the visual arts, particularly as far as Constructivism is concerned. Dada is known for being responsible for the movement of Surrealism (Essak).

The Dada Movement was, thus, aimed toward abolishing everything associated with comfortable ways of finding the middle ground and good manners. Its creators asked its followers and supporters to bring archaeology, memory, future, prophets, and logic to an end (Tzara 253).

And at the same time as conventional and majority of the artists were seriously considering the movement, Dada dissolved itself in the early 1920s. The movement destroyed itself when there was a danger of its acceptability by masses (Essak).


The commotions under Dada Movement were a lasting and undeviating insurgency of the individual against art, morality, and society. The Dadaists did so by publishing manifestoes, poetry and other forms of writing, paintings, exhibitions, sculptures, and sometimes by means of public demonstrations that were clearly depictions of rebellious character. In fact, its implications were not limited to the art and literature. To cut a long story short, the movement snatched away the mindfulness of an individual and placed him to the ranks of idiocy.

However, this art of protesting against the society's ways ended with an interesting twist. On the other hand, it can be said that the whimsical Dada art is not only colorful, wittily sarcastic but is also absolutely silly (Essak).


"Dada." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2009. Questia. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. .

Duchamp, M. "The Richard Mutt Case." Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art: A Sourcebook of Artists' Writings. Eds. Kristine Stiles, Peter Selz. Berkeley: University of California, 1996. 817. Print.

Essak, S.. "Dada - Art History 101 Basics: The Non-Art Movement (1916-23)." About.com. The New York Times Company, n.d. Web. 24 Apr 2012. .

Hopkins, David. Dada and Surrealism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. Questia. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. .

MobileReference, . Encyclopedia of Philosophy for Smartphones and Mobile Devices - FREE 3 Chapters in the Trial Version. Boston: MobileReference.com, 2007. Web. April 24, 2012. .

Tzara, T. "Dada Manifesto 1918." Art in Theory 1900-1990: An Anthology of Changing Ideas. Eds. Charles Harrison and Paul Wood. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1992. 248-53. Print. Originally published in Dada, no. 3, 1918.… [read more]

Art Comparing Actual Sculpture Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (545 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


A number of her pieces look as if they almost occur naturally; others look as if they perform some utilitarian function. Her works shows great variation in form, materials, and scale. Many of her works are outside and make use of the local environment.

Richard Serra is an epic sculptor who mainly works with metals. His pieces are known to warp and distort a viewer' sense of depth, space, and perspective. Many of his metallic pieces are massive. He creates pieces for both the indoors and the outdoors. Serra smoothes the metal to an almost unreal degree. The metal was originally rough, sharp, and angled; by the time Serra is done, the metal is smooth, curvaceous, and fluid. He too is an artist within Krauss' expanded field.

Alice Aycock is yet another sculptor like Serra that manipulates metals, indoors and outdoors, shaping them into unthinkable curves and spirals. Some of her pieces are both landscape and architecture, resembling formidable metallic mazes. Some of her works also resemble rollercoasters, holes, and obstacle courses. She is another sculptor immersed in the expansive field, redefining sculpture and creating pieces with their own unique logic by which to abide.

Nancy Holt's sculptures resemble objects found in nature such as the sun, the moon, plants, and spirals. Many of her pieces consist of concentric circles, spheres, and/or cylinders. Most of her work must be viewed outdoors due the great scale of her pieces. Holt's pieces could be considered modernist. They also exude the permanence and presence of monuments.


Krauss, R. (1979) Sculpture in…… [read more]

Abstract Expressionist Painting Artistic Research Paper

Research Paper  |  40 pages (12,184 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


[8: Ibid. ]

The following piece is an excellent example of Rothko's reductionist forms. The piece is entitied "White, Red on Yellow" and is an excellent example of reductivism and the use of color to create a dramatic impact. It is a simplistic looking painting upon first glance. However, these paintings were not meant to be viewed in passing. One… [read more]

Art Currently on Loan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,980 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


He is leaving town on some unknown journey. Given that the subject of the painting is likely to be "one of these prosperous bankers or merchants who were eager to have their likenesses immortalized by Memling," the man might be off to make a business deal in a neighboring town. Regardless of where he is actually headed, it does not appear to be a hard journey or even one that has not been undertaken before. The man looks peaceful, calm, and slightly contemplative, and barely concerned. He has a strong sense of presence and confidence. This is not a poor peasant in feudal medieval Europe. After all, this is wealthy Bruges.

The foreground and focal point is consumed by the man's visage. The eye is drawn immediately to the man's nose and mouth, but Memling's linear composition allows the eye to dance around the canvas in a sort of cross formation -- always and ultimately lingering on the portrait visage. The man's dark brown hair is getting long at the ends, as it starts to curl up above the ears and around the neckline. He does not look unkempt, just casual. Otherwise, the hair is cropped short, revealing the man's forehead. He looks like a thinking man. He has recently shaven, though bears some shadow around the mouth and chin. The man's lips are upturned slightly at the edges, as if he gives a soft smile. He has a look of gentle optimism and mild determination on his face. Because his brow is slightly furrowed, the man also appears to be contemplating a hopeful future. Memling also makes it so that his subject's face is naturally asymmetrical; the left eye appears slightly darker and lower than the right. The man's nose is long and aquiline, and his eyebrows are well formed without being bushy. Only the man's left ear is visible beneath his hair.

Memling's deft use of line, color, and composition characterize "Portrait of a Man." The portrait is organic, natural, and alive. Although he does not incorporate some of the lively detail that he might have if it were one of his religious works, Memling's composition also reveals a skillful inclusion of subtle symbolism. The painting is sliced nearly in half by the horizon, imparting a sense of dualism that might reflect life in fifteenth-century Netherlands. Men like the one depicted in the painting -- and Memling himself -- were uniquely poised in an emerging middle class of independent businessmen. Moreover, the man looks away from his past and towards the future; away from the church and towards his business activities. Memling's "Portrait of a Man" exemplifies the social, political, and economic situations that prevailed in the late fifteenth century Dutch society.


"Memling's 'Portrait of a Man' on loan from The Frick Collection." The Norton Simon Museum. Retrieved online: http://www.nortonsimon.org/memling-s-portrait-of-a-man-on-loan-from-the-frick-collection#… [read more]

Ancient Studies Laura Auricchio Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (968 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Auricchio thinks that one reason why there were mixed feelings from audiences is because the painting is very complicated and ambiguous. In this way, it makes sense that there would be mixed feelings toward a piece of art that is ambiguous. Ambiguous art can be some of the most effective art because there is no one simple answer for the audience. The ambiguous art stays in the minds of the audience because they cannot decided how they feel about it or agree definitively what the art means or says. If this is true for this painting by Adelaide, then she is a successful artist back then and today.

Another aspect of the painting that Auricchio focuses on is the use and style of clothing in Labille-Guiard's paintings, as well as the clothing and style in paintings of eighteenth century France in general. Auricchio identifies many small details about the clothes Labille-Guiard wears in the painting. She notices the color of the fabric, the kind of fabric (silk), and how the clothes sit upon Labille-Guiard's body. Auricchio also notices which of Labille-Guiard's body parts are exposed, and which of her body parts of covered up. She considers what the exposure and hiding of the body could mean in French culture and in art. Auricchio further notices how the clothing Adelaide paints herself wearing models after some of the most popular styles of the time. This could make audiences of the 21st century wonder about billboards and advertising. There are sociologists who study advertising that have tracked the connection between European paintings from the Renaissance to the modern era and how similar the poses and compositions are to fashion advertisements today. We should look at fashion advertisements with the same detail and close attention as Auricchio, a famous art historian and professor, looks at 18th century art.

Additionally, Auricchio sees the way the artist's body is posed as very revealing about the painting. The poses of the bodies within paintings are always important. Whether the person is sitting or standing or otherwise; the distance between or among other subjects in the painting; the quantity of light each subject receives in the painting -- each one of these elements and more can tell the viewer or the art historian a lot of information about the painting. The position of the body can tell us how the person in the painting feels. The position of the body can tell us how important the person in the painting is. Therefore, it is a strong idea for Auricchio to pay close attention to how Labille-Guiard is positioned in the painting. Between knowing about the artist as a person, and looking closely and who the artist is in the painting, we can see there is a lot to learn from this article and from art overall.


Auricchio, Laura. "Self-Promotion in Adelaide Labille-Guiard's 1785 Self-Portrait with Two Students." Art Bulletin,…… [read more]

Modern Art a Primary Concern Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,543 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


This is a purist piece. "Tableu 11" by Mondrian directly addresses the golden ratio and geometry, as it is a series of quadrilaterals of primary colors and black. Mondrian plays with both color and form here. The quadrilaterals without color contextualize the ones with color and the white quadrilaterals balance the work, else it might be overloaded with color, form, and shape. The dispersal of color seems odd, but the overall sense of the work is that it is even (balanced).

Scwitter's "Merzbau" is quite angular and dimensional. There is a lack of curvature and color. This piece is more concerned with movement, shape, and form. Duchamp's "Nude Descending a Staircase" is also primarily concerned with movement and form. Neither piece is focused upon realism. Both pieces want to communicate to the viewer about their respective spaces. Though there is a nude in Duchamp's piece, the piece is more focused on the staircase and the location of the staircase than the nude. "Merzbau" is the place itself and the experience of the place. These pieces are about spaces, dimensionality, and the movement within a space. These works are abstract and subtle. The forms and shapes in the pieces are not inviting, but viewers are drawn in as they endeavor to understand each piece.


arthistory.about.com modernartobsession.blogs.com www.arthistory.net www.modernart.net www.modernartfoundry.com www.theartstory.org

References:… [read more]

Western Art and Christianity Essay

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Although the work is considered one of the greatest paintings ever created, it is a firmly religious piece, with Jesus as its centerpiece. The painting displays the heartbreak that all Catholics feel over the concept of original sin, and has a deeply grim quality to it, regardless of its spiritual subject.

In contrast to these two traditional pieces, Claude Monet's Impression, Sunrise, was created during an era that began to show signs of a more secular movement. Like most of the secular works during the Impressionist movement, this painting is beautiful in its choice of colors and the flow of the brushstrokes. It was created in 1872, with help in part from Monet's longtime patron and department-store owner Ernest Hoschede. The painting is a strong departure from the religious works of the past. Whereas many of those works tended to depict specific religious scenes or events in a very deliberate and realistic manner, Monet's form of Impressionism is flowing and bright. The brushstrokes are sweeping and less calculated, although the finished product is quite accurate in depicting the feeling of a sunrise, rather than attempting to create a photographic copy.

Finally, Pablo Picasso's Les Demoiselles d'Avignon epitomizes the new era of painting and expressive art. His unashamed subject matter, depicting five nude female prostitutes, would have been far from acceptable in the time of da Vinci, and its stylistic approach, abstract in nature, is now referred to as Cubism. The work was widely controversial in 1907, when it was created, and although it is a secular piece, it was a large divider amongst religious and non-religious art aficionados. The subject was considered to be shocking and appalling at the time, and Picasso seemingly created this work for…… [read more]

Art Sacrifice of Isaac Analysis Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,385 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Historians contend that the fierce rivalry and competition between these two artists served as the spark for the entire Renaissance period.

"Sacrifice of Isaac" is considered by historians as one of Ghiberti's masterpieces, as well as a masterpiece representing the whole Early Renaissance movement. He made this piece and won the competition to sculpt the Baptistery when he was in his early twenties. He did not complete the Baptistery doors until he was 45 years old. After receiving the commission for the doors, he enlisted the assistance of several other promising artist of the time, including Donatello. The Baptistery served as a votive that celebrated how Florence was spared (by God from their perspective) from great suffering of the Black Plague, which was spreading wildly across Europe at the time.

The Baptistery consists of 28 panels that depict scenes from the New Testament of the Bible. "Sacrifice of Isaac" consists of two panels and it is from the Old Testament of the Bible. Ghiberti and his rival designed the Baptistery together, but Brunelleschi had too much pride to work on the piece with his rival, so he left for Rome to study architecture, leaving Ghiberti to execute the piece alone. (All-Art)

The only color present is the color of the metal. Despite the lack of color, there is the presence of intensity in the piece. The metal is brighter and duller in certain sections, which create interesting contrast, as well as draw the eye to different areas of the sculpture. This sculpture effectively creates the illusion of motion. Objects are not repeated so much as angles and lines of sight are repeated. This, too, contributes to how the piece directs the eye. There is not much that is regular about this piece, including its rhythm, which could be categorized as eccentric. The simultaneous action draws the eye in many areas and the proportion of the figures is critical to the interpretation of the piece, too.

My personal view of the "Sacrifice of Isaac" is that I am moved by the simultaneous action happening in the piece. I appreciate the attention to detail and how the details contribute to the texture of the sculpture. The piece seems very dimensional and that I would probably be struck by the depth of the sculpture if I could view it in person. "Ghiberti appears to have used figure heights as a kind of module for dividing the relief space into zones or planes. In the Abraham, Noah, and Moses panels, the height of the intermediary zone between figures on different planes is consistently the difference between the size of one figure and the other." (Bloom, "Lorenzo Ghiberti's Space in Relief," 164 -- 165) The piece really resembles a still image of a lot of motion and part of that feeling must be attributed to Ghiberti's use of space, size, scale, and distance.

I also notice all of the different creatures in the piece, such as the angel watching the sacrifice, the horse whose attention… [read more]

Art History Roy Lichtenstein Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,976 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


They are totally formed by the way their culture has defined them. Even the title Stepping Out implies a falseness. They are dressing up and moving outside their true reality into a night life culture which they have been programmed to crave.

Stepping Out like the bulk of Lichtenstein's work stands in the center of the Pop Art era. As quoted in Art News in November of 1963, Roy Lichtenstein said: "Pop Art is an involvement with what I think to be the most brazen and threatening characteristics of our culture, things we hate, but which are also powerful in their impingement on us" (www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/lichtenstein_roy.html). Other artists like Andy Warhol, with his repetitive advertising industry images as seen in 32 Capmbell's Soup Cans (1961-62) and Marilyn Monroe's Lips (1962), were using popular culture to create a trendy and lucrative art of popular consciousness. Artists like Lichenstein and Warhol represented the natural creative progression of twentieth century art. Moving away from the abstract expressionist vogue they depicted the everyday reality of mass culture. Themselves emerging from a background in commercial art, they used familiar objects both to allow viewers to relate directly to art and to offer social satire.

Contemporaries, Lichtenstein and Warhol matured in their art under the heritage of American forerunners Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns who planted the seeds of Pop Art. Rauschenberg constructed collages from household objects and Johns repetitively painted American flags and bull's-eye targets. These artists in turn emerged under the influence of a European forerunners like Richard Hamilton who produced Just What Is It That Makes Today's Home So Different, So Appealing? In 1956.

Lichtenstein's cartoon dialogue and imagery places him stage center in the development of Pop Art. As Fineberg puts it, with Lichtenstein: "the subject matter comes already translated into the highly conventionalized language of line drawing advertisements or comics"... Lichtenstein's true subject "is not the embracing couple, a rib roast, or jets in a dogfight but rather the terms of their translation into the language of the media and the implications of that metamorphosis" (Fineberg 261).

Stepping Out, is, for this viewer, the epitome of the Pop Art movement. The blank eyes of the male and the Picassoesque central misplaced eye of the female emphasize the blindness of mass culture in which couples like this one rush into dates, nights out and relationships with no real thought or consideration, following the suggestive leads of the media. The suggestively voluptuous curve of the woman's hair and her oversized lips are details which characterize her as a pliable sex object for the male half of the couple who seems quite plastic in his fashionable detachment.


Fineberg, Jonathan. Art Since 1940: Strategies of Being. 2nd Edition. New York:Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, 2000.

A www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/lichtenstein_roy.html www.artlex.com/ArtLex/M.html www.nga.gov/cgi-bin/pbio?224210 www.metmuseum.org/collections… [read more]

Art and Photojournalism Film Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (398 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Pollock's work does not contain anything remotely resembling figures, but there is something quite electric about his paintings, and they bring out strong emotions in the viewer. His abstract paintings at first just seem a jumbled mess of color, but if gazed at long enough, they take on patterns, hues, and certainly bring out emotions and feelings. Some of the paintings are vibrant and exciting, while others are subdued and more poignant. These are quite human qualities, but there are no humans in the paintings, they are simply forms and colors. Even when Pollock did paint figures, they were not "normal" figures, they were abstract creations, and they too evoked very human feelings. Color, shape, texture, and form can all express human feelings, and Pollock used all of these creatively and effectively to create a very human and real feeling in his paintings, even in the absence of any human forms in them. Art can convey many different feelings and emotions, as Pollock's art clearly shows.


Pioch, Nicolas. "Pollock, Jackson." Web Museum. 16 July 2002. 4 Dec. 2003. http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/pollock/

Steichen, Edward. Memorable Life Photographs. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1951.… [read more]

Renaissance Paintings- Virgin and Child Term Paper

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Correggio (1489-1534) belonged to the last group of highly talented artists of High Renaissance. Despite his popularity, not much documented evidence is available regarding his early training. However the style of his work indicates the influence of some leading artists of his time including Francesco Branchi Ferrari, Lorenzo Costa, Giorgione etc.

Nothing except his decorative style is there to prove that he had been influenced by Roman traditions in painting. The painting Virgin and Child with Saint John the Baptist was one of the early works of Correggio and carefully focuses on the emotional connection between John and Christ. It is important to understand that while the theme of Virgin and Child has biblical connotations, this particular painting focuses on one aspect of the theme, which is not found in Bible. The Bible doesn't say anything about a meeting between Saint John and the Christ as children. In this painting, Virgin has been given a more subdued role while the two children are in more active mode. That Correggio had "developed a style of conscious elegance and allure with soft sfumato and gestures of captivating charm" (Chilvers, 121) is obvious from this work where a hazy soft light prevails over the landscape and adds softness and gentleness to the painting and its subjects. The figures are painted in the form of a pyramid where the biggest figure sits at the top while the two smaller figure occupy left and right side in the compositional scheme.



World and I; Date: 12/01/1998;

Kavaler, Ethan Matt Renaissance Gothic in the Netherlands: The Uses of Ornament The Art Bulletin 06/01/2000;

ROBERTA OLSON, The Florentine Tondo Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Ian Chilvers: The Concise Oxford…… [read more]

Cubism and Sculpture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,572 words)
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Artists like Picasso and Gauguin found formal ideas and images in the so-called primitive societies that resonated with energy and a new artistic rhythm.

Les Demoiselles D'Avignon is often invoked as the painting that started Cubism. A central aspect that the African mask motif created in Picasso's work was the challenge that it set up to ideas and normative perception… [read more]

Human Figure in Art Essay

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The technique appears much more exquisite: parts of the man's face are depicted in the shadow, while the eyes and the faces themselves are almost Asian in their features. It is not only a more accurate representation of the face, but also one that is intriguing for the viewer. Even more than in Giotto's religious painting, the clothes and the surroundings have a clear purpose in emphasizing the figures, placed in the center of the work.

3. The Holy Trinity by Masaccio, from 1425. Fresco from the Church of Santa Maria Novella, in Florence.

This painting is probably best known for the excellent use of perspective. One can notice this not only in the way the figures are situated and presented in the painting, but the architectural elements come to emphasize this: the temple ceiling from behind the crucified Christ is a perfect example in this sense. At the same time, one can notice that the halos above Christ and the saints are still not painted in a perspective manner.

The figures are reflective of religious paintings and particularly of this type of Pieta. One can witness again the somber figures, particularly since God is also represented in the background. Some of the figures are conversational and Masaccio uses several prompts in this sense, including body language (the Virgin Mary, on the left, gestures with her hand etc.).

There is an obvious evolution and development for the figures in these different paintings. Giotto's figures, particularly that of the Virgin Mary, which is so dominant of the painting (both central and large), are still unrealistic, despite his progresses in this direction. His figures appear either unfinished or strange, disproportionate. With Masaccio and, particularly, Van Eyck, the figures are no longer an attempt towards a reasonable representation of reality, but the aim of the artists is to communicate with the viewer, to express something that the viewer can…… [read more]

Gender and Western Art: Gentileschi, Picasso, Chicago Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,864 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


But it is worth noting that, unlike older models for a war memorial, Lin is here reincorporating the domestic element: what is included here is a roll-call of names of the dead, the sort of thing that would be put together on the home front by those receiving news that their son had been killed in action. Beyond that, however, Lin's work is remarkably understated -- it effaces grandiose gestures in an effort to register quiet grief and gravitas. It is therefore suited to the contentious Vietnam conflict -- which ended ambiguously, and was conducted under vigorous domestic protest in America -- insofar as it does not heroize or glamorize the dead or the conflict in which they died. Instead it seems like a public record that refuses to take a moral stance one way or the other. And in some sense, Maya Lin's own gender is rendered irrelevant here as well. [6: Kleiner, p.441.] [7: Kleiner, Fig. 25-62.]

In conclusion it is worth noting that, to some extent, depiction of gender in Western Art faces a dichotomy -- either insisting on its relevance and importance, or insisting that the most egalitarian way is to insist on its irrelevance. The first strategy is pursued most obviously by Judy Chicago, although one could argue that Artemisia Gentileschi's insistence on weaving her personal history into a depiction of a Biblical heroine is, implicitly, a statement about the relevance of gender. The second strategy is more obvious in Picasso's depiction of Gertrude Stein or Maya Lin's Vietnam Veterans Memorial -- in these works, the facts of gender (and gender imbalance) are to some degree effaced in the service of a more egalitarian vision.


Elizabeth S. Cohen, "The Trials of Artemisia Gentileschi: A Rape as History." The Sixteenth Century Journal 31.1 (Spring, 2000): 47-75.

Fred Kleiner, Gardner's Art Through The Ages: The Western Perspective, Volume II. 13th Edition. New York: Cengage Learning, 2009. Fig. 9-20.

Woolf, Virginia. Letter to Vita Sackville-West, [13 May 1927]. Woolf Online. http://dhdev.ctsdh.luc.edu/projects/philae/?node=content/contextual/transcriptions&project=1&parent=2&taxa=48&content=6370&pos=23… [read more]

Interactive Art Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Interactive art is an artistic piece that promotes interaction between the spectator and the artistic work. Spectators influence the piece by movement, body heat, or by direct interaction from standing or walking on it, in it, or around it. One piece of particular interest is David Rozen's 'Wooden Mirror'.

In this paper, we will discuss the history, definition, and influences… [read more]

Baroque Art the Following Is a List Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (620 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Baroque Art

The following is a list of the top five works of Baroque art to be discussed at the lecture.

Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665)

Rape of the Sabine Women, 1634-1635. Oil on canvas, 154 x 209 cm. Located at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)

Arrival of Marie de Medici at Marseilles, 1622-1625. Oil on canvas, 5'1" x 3'9." Located at the Musee du Louvre, Paris.

Artemisia Gentileschi (1593-c. 1652/1653)

Judith Slaying Holofernes, c. 1612-1621. Oil on canvas, 6'6" x 5'4." Located at the Uffizi Gallery, Florence.

Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velazquez (1599-1660)

Los Barrochos (the Drinkers), c. 1629. Oil on canvas, 165 cm x 188 cm. Located at the Prado Museum, Spain.

Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680)

David, 1623. Marble, 5'7." Located in the Galleria Borghese, Rome.

Baroque art is well-known for its dramatic depictions of scenes, its blatant use of detailed interpretation, and its use of color and light. The bigger the impression that the work makes on the audience, the better. And so it is only fitting that the following works come out as the best of the realm of Baroque art of the 16th and 17th centuries. I have stuck mainly to the oil on canvas paintings that grace the Baroque period, but Bernini's David is also worth noting as a brilliant piece of Baroque work.

Poussin's Rape of the Sabine Women portrays the chaos in the streets as the men of Rome take the women of the Sabine families as their wives. Similarly, another artistic depiction of this can be found in a marble sculpture by Giambologna (1529-1608), though the oil painting itself gives a more violent and moving scenery. Every piece of canvas has been filled with movement, from the laments of the grandmothers and the infants, to the hurried agonies of the women themselves as they are whisked away.…… [read more]

Compare and Contrast Two Art Periods Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Art History/Impressionism

Paintings of the French Impressionists have long enjoyed tremendous popularity among museum-goers in the United States. "The Impressionist galleries at the Metropolitan Museum, the National Gallery of Art, the Art Institute of Chicago, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston serve as the crowning spaces in their larger installations of European easel painting, and most of these Impressionist galleries have the highest attendance of any permanent collection spaces in the museums" (Brettell, 1995). The purpose of this paper is to compare impressionism and post impressionism in terms of their characteristics of style and historical origins and significance. Impressionism was all about the changing light in natural settings. Post impressionist artists took these notions about light and the natural world and imposed on them more form and structure, fitting for the transition into the more modern world of the twentieth century.

In the mid-nineteenth century, when Impressionism was born, France was undergoing great change. Paris began its ascent as a capital of luxury and fashion. As well, the city became more industrialized, upsetting the social order (Hill, 1980, p. 9). Those who benefited from the advances in technology wanted cultural symbols that represented continuity and stability. Classical art was France's official art, to the dismay of art student Claude Monet, who said of the Greek busts and bas-reliefs favored by the upper classes, "there is no sincerity" (Hill, p. 10). Monet and some of his fellow students -- Cezanne, Degas, Renoir, Sisley, and Pissaro -- rebelled against their classical training and exhibited their work as part of a group exhibition in April, 1974. Critics were appalled and French society was enraged (Hill, p. 10). To some, the paintings looked as though they were unfinished.

The Impressionist painters responded to the classical style and the people of Paris it represented to them. They responded to an increasingly industrialized society by embracing the natural world. Their aim was not to represent the natural world in a careful, controlled way, but to use vivid colors and quick, bold brushstrokes to capture the essence, or impression, of nature and the play of light. An excellent example can be seen in Monet's painting c. 1872, Regatta at Argenteuil, which is housed at the Louvre.

Regatta shows some sailboats on what appears to be a clear summer day. The sky is comprised of a series of short, horizontal brushstrokes that the artist made with various shades of blue, white and gray. The water is even brighter blue than the sky, and in it one can see reflections of the sails as well as the people, buildings, and trees on shore. The trees are bright green; the buildings are shades of orange and red. It is easy to see that the painting depicts sailboats on a lake, but the painting appears to have been done in haste. Edges and details are blurred and the viewer's overall impression is of an explosion of color and light. The last great works of Monet… [read more]

Romanesque Art Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,338 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Romanesque Art

The Stylized Nature of Romanesque Art

"Style" is a word that is often bandied about without much regard for its meaning, and without a clear definition emerging from its common usage. Referring to someone's "style" can have a wide variety of meanings and implications, referring to aesthetic values in an incredibly broad sense as well as to general modes of behavior, and possibly reflecting individual values, beliefs, and assumptions, as well. The term is only slightly more specific when it is applied to individual works of art or to individual artists or artistic periods, at least as it is commonly used. Art historians and scholars, however, must establish greater degree of specificity and a stricter sense of meaning when they apply the word "style" and its derivatives to objects and periods of art, and while this still includes some reference to underlying values and beliefs, this is a more indirect and interpretive element of "style" when properly used, and the physical and observable elements of a piece are the features that more directly and concretely identify specific "styles" of art.

The word "stylized" is often applied to Romanesque art, and this paper will examine the specifics of this label and why it has been attached to the art and architecture of the eleventh and twelfth centuries CE. The Merriam-Webster online dictionary defines "stylize" as, "to represent or design according to a style or stylistic pattern rather than according to nature or tradition." From this definition, it can be seen that "stylized" art is art that represents specific values and beliefs through the physical and aesthetic elements of that art, and not merely through the subject matter portrayed. Stylized art is art that departs from a natural and accurate depiction in specific and purposeful ways, providing a message through style at least as much (if not more so) as through subject.

The Style of Romanesque Art

There can be no question that the term "stylized" is quite appropriate in its application to Romanesque art given the above definition. The representations of human and animal figures, landscapes, and other representations in examples of art from this period are not at all naturalistic, and it is clear that their creators did not intend for them to be so (HighBeam 2005). The several different influences on the art of this period can be clearly observed in the style's use of bright and vibrant colors (at least in the surviving stained glass windows and well-preserved manuscripts from the period; colors in other art works have been dulled or completely worn away by time and the ever-present erosion of the elements), the varying sizes of figures within a single work, the abstractions presented by certain nature motifs, and even in the architectural details of the period's many expansive churches and other buildings (The Met 2010; Medieval Life and Times 2010; Romanes 2010). Each of these aspects of Romanesque art contribute directly to its stylization.

The bright colors that were used in many surviving examples… [read more]

Claude Monet Madame Monet and Child in a Garden Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (647 words)
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Salvador Dali's name is nearly synonymous with surrealist art. Dali was born in Figueres, Spain in 1904 and "had the fortune of being surrounded by several creative people during his youth" (McNesse and Dali 23). The phantasmagoric and dreamlike imagery notable in Dali's work can be at least partially attributed to the young Salvadore's unconventional upbringing with a Catholic mother and an atheist father (McNesse and Dali). Exposure to the works of the great masters solidified Dali's art career, allowing the Spaniard to transform his consciousness into brilliant works of art not just on canvas but also in installations and other avant-garde modern art expressions. The oil painting "The Persistence of Memory" is Salvadore Dali's most recognizable and most iconic. Bending watches melt over a fantasy landscape, begging inquiry into the nature of time itself. With "The Persistence of Memory," Dali blends form, composition, and meaning to convey a typically surrealist imagery of metaphysical awareness.

Forms are the most notable elements that distinguish "The Persistence of Memory" and etch the painting into the consciousness of viewers. An absolutely mundane object of daily life is pictured as melting. The time-piece is also a symbol of the workplace and the instructional and capitalist societies. Dali's painting the watches as being formless and amoebic shows the artist's intent of warping reality and revealing alternative ways of living. The horizon is naturalistic, a line drawn about a third of the way from the top of the canvas. The lighting used in the painting uses sunset colors, with impart a soothing mood. As McNesse and Dali point out, "his technical skill with a brush remains nearly unsurpassed, even as we move into the 21st century" (107).

The composition of Dali's the Persistence of Memory" is also a crucial means by which the artist conveys the central impetus to achieve metaphysical awareness. The eye is drawn to the several watches that are melting, alternating between the one draped…… [read more]

Art History vs. Accounting Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (608 words)
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Art and economics are often believed to reside in totally different dimensions, different realities. On the one side is the creative artist, who distances himself or herself from monetary needs. The Vincent van Goghs of the world spend their lives in abject poverty because their spiritual desire to create transcend their worldly needs. Artists are, in a sense, viewed as spiritual leaders. They are ascetics just as they are aesthetically inclined.

On the other side of the equation are the financiers. We the economists and accountants are the money behind the art. Unseen forces driving art, we are the people who historically have commissioned painting and other artistic expressions ranging from the ancient artists of Greece, Rome, China, and Egypt throughout the Holy Roman Empire and the Renaissance. In the ancient era through until the late nineteenth century, art was created on demand by the wealthy. The wealthy -- whether rich from power or from mercantilism -- could hire an artist for portraits or simple decor. Similarly, the Church and other religious bodies would commission artists to convey religious themes and motifs. This can be seen not just in European Christian art but also in the arts of Eastern religions.

Only until the modern era has art become something that anyone -- literally anyone -- can pursue. Prior to the modern era, art was itself dependent on the wealthy commission and therefore certain individuals would devote their lives to the art trade. Working class and poor people would starve to death if they devoted their lives to art as a hobby. Moreover, art was undervalued. Art was not viewed as creative expression at all. Before the Age of Enlightenment, individual self-expression was barely conceived of as a step in the evolution of ideas. Therefore, the human being was not expected to express emotion and…… [read more]

Conceptual Art Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … art analysis: Landscape with the Fall of Icarus by Pieter Brueghel

In conceptual art, the aesthetic value of the artistic work is subordinate to the meaning of the work. "Exponents of Conceptual Art said that artistic production should serve artistic knowledge and that the art object is not an end in itself" (Delahunt 2010). Conceptual art is often linked to a text or other mode of culturally-embedded meaning, such as a myth. The movement was first articulated during the 1960s, but its philosophy has been applied retroactively to a number of works of the historical past, such as Landscape with the Fall of Icarus by Pieter Brueghel. The myth of Icarus, the boy who grew drunk on his man-made power of flight that approximated the power of the gods and flew too close to the sun has been a frequent subject of both visual and verbal representation. One of the most famous retellings of Icarus is the poem by the great American poet William Carlos Williams, also entitled "Landscape with the Fall of Icarus." With his spare prose, Williams attempts to create a similar effect as the great Old Master Brueghel.

The most notable feature of Pieter Brueghel's work is what is absent: there is no titanic representation of Icarus and his father Daedalus flying across the sea, in defiance of the terrestrial nature of Man. Instead, in the foreground of the Brueghel painting, a peasant plowing his field follows behind an old nag of a horse. The peasant is wholly absorbed in his task, and does not look at either the viewer or Icarus in the water. The subject of Icarus might go unnoticed even by the painting's gazer, were it not for Brueghel's pointed and ironic title.

As the title indicates, the landscape is what is first noticed by the viewer because of the dominance of the peasant in the foreground. The presence of Icarus is manifest in a small, insignificant figure of a drowning man -- and the beautiful, blinding presence of the sun in the distance. However, the dominant colors of the work, other than the sun, are earth tones. The peasant life is what is lasting and important, and the higher aims of Icarus mean little. Of course, in the actual myth, Icarus was merely attempting to escape Crete and the rule of the evil Minos who had imprisoned him and his father. But the death of Icarus has been frequently used as a metaphor for those who attempt to transcend the bounds of humanity. Breughel's painting suggests that most people do not care about such efforts.

The painting is a comment upon the artistic project itself, on art in general. Art and artists are on the periphery of the rest of society. Most people are concerned with obtaining food, plowing the earth, fishing on the sea, herding sheep, or preparing for a spring festival. The boats doing significant work completely overwhelm the small figure of the helpless, foolish, splashing Icarus. As the… [read more]

Boundary of Art Andy Warhol Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,513 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Boundary of Art: Andy Warhol
In the middle part of the 20th century, Abstract Expressionism rules
the visual arts scene with a sense of serious experimentation that was in
its own way very constraining. The next generation of artists would appeal
to the media of popular culture as a way to simultaneously be liberated
from the prejudices of Expression… [read more]

Boundary of Art Andy Warhol Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,512 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Master of Mixing Art and Design

Over the course of the 20th century, commercial design emerged as a vital and highly influential aspect of both design and art. And key to the rise in importance of commercial design was Andy Warhol, whose art was influenced by commercial work and in turn proved to be a substantial influence on… [read more]

Art Exhibition Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (901 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Art Exhibition

The human condition: diverse images of human experience


The theme of the human condition is one that has been at the centre of artistic creation. It can be argued that the artist is an interpreter of his age and historical period. However, some of the greatest artists in the history of Western art have succeeded in capturing not only the essence of their time but have also provided insight into the nature of human existence and experience that is relevant to all ages. From this point-of-view the great artists are those who have created works that transcend particular periods or ages. The works created by these artists provide insight into the very nature of man and the human condition.

The collection of works that have been assembled for this exhibition cover a wide time period in the history of art - from the later works of Rembrandt to the very contemporary images of humanity by Francis Bacon in the last century. The central focus that connects these works is what they have to say about the human nature and the human condition.

The insight for example that can be gleaned from meditating on a self-portrait by Rembrandt compared to a self -- portrait by Francis Bacon is an example of the intention of this exhibition. A self-portrait by Rembrandt is not an image that refers only to his particular time and social context. Rather, it resonates into the future and makes an intense statement about the meaning of human life and experience that affects us today. If we place this portrait next to a portrait by the very modern Francis Bacon a number of intriguing questions arise. For instance, to what extent could we say that both these works of art similar in the vision that they project; and to what extent are they dissimilar in terms their intensity of meaning and their aesthetic value? Both are from different time periods and the works of Bacon are renowned for their intensely negative view of the human condition. Rembrandt's portraits on the other hand have as depth and grandeur that seem to radiate from the use of light and chiaroscuro in the craggy features and eyes - but is there also not a strong sense of despair and loneliness that can also be discerned?

Therefore, by placing these images of the human from different periods into sharp juxtaposition with one another, we open up a discourse or a debate about the artistic vision that major artists have of the nature of human life and experience. The portraits by Rembrandt haunt us across the centuries. Is this reflected in the twisted and contorted faces and figures of Francis Bacon…… [read more]

Are Photography and Printmaking Really Art? Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (378 words)
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¶ … Photography and Printmaking Really Art?

Although photography and printmaking rely on mechanical processes for their outcomes, painting and drawing rely on the hand of the artist. Despite these fundamental differences in methodology, it is legitimate to argue that printmaking and photography are both valid forms of fine art because, like painting and drawing, they also rely on the mind of the artist for their outcomes. Certainly, the choice of definition of fine art would play a role in the distinction between these media, but at the heart of matter is the interpretation of what the artist, photographer, printmaker or even photojournalist considers the salient factors that should be communicated in their respective medium. For instance, Margolis (1962) emphasizes that, "Sometimes, the issue at stake is the definition of fine art. Sometimes, it concerns the formulation of criteria of aesthetic merit [but] philosophically, the theory of expression has been most closely linked to the definition of fine art, aesthetic qualities, and aesthetic judgment" (p. 28). From this perspective, photography, printmaking and photojournalism can certainly be regarded as being fine art. Indeed, who can forget the poignant black-and-white image…… [read more]

Art Monet Claude Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,611 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


" (Art Encyclopedia)

In conclusion, this research paper aimed to discuss the impressionist artist, Claude Monet. One of his great accomplishments, Water Lilies, is on display in the Toledo Museum of Art. This and his works are some of the most known artworks in the history of the world and young and old alike love his work. For example, since the early 1990's, children have been recreating Monet's work in weaving projects that are surprisingly good. These children and many more to come in the future will continue to be influenced by Monet thanks to the Toledo Museum of Art with projects like Impressionism: Selections of Five Museums. "The project began with the Toledo Museum of Art's special exhibition, Impressionism: Selections of Five Museums, as inspiration for our weaving project with fiber artist, Meg Dickason. Each year, with generous support by our schools PTS, Dickason has conducted weaving workshops with students, teaching them to weave on a variety of looms as well as to spin fibers." (Lehman) Even with the combination of Claude Monet's Water Lilies and Maxwell Q. Klinger, Toledo may never become a Mecca for glitzy Hollywood red carpet events, but there is plenty of reason to go at least once to see this wonderful work of art.

Works Cited

Art Encyclopedia. (2009). Impressionism. Ed. Answers.com. Retrieved on October 30, 2009, from http://www.answers.com/topic/impressionism

Flicker. (2007). Monet Water Lilies. Ed. Toledo Museum of Art. Retrieved on October 30, 2009, from http://www.flickr.com/photos/23758779@N05/3125107502/

InterAgir. (2009). Claude Monte: Self-Portrait. Ed. Toledo Museum of Art. Retrieved on October 30, 2009, from http://www.interagir.com/?entryID=123

InterMonet. (2009). Biography of Claude Monet. Retrieved on October 30, 2009, from http://www.intermonet.com/biograph/

Lehman, Linda. (1991). "Woven Impressions." Arts & Activities. December 1991. Vol. 110, Issue 4, p5, 3p, 6 color.

Schjeldahl, Peter. (2009). "Water World." New Yorker. October 5, 2009: Vol. 85 Issue 31,…… [read more]

Cultural Movements of European Art Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (650 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Although it was a time of great turmoil, it was also a period of great cerebral advancement. For example, in science there were the discoveries by Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, William Harvey and Newton all of which made people question what they had always taken for granted. There was also world expansion as European powers aimed to gain control in the Americas and the Far East, opening up new worlds, wants and desires. Those desires transformed into a late shift away from the Baroque movement and eventually into an even newer Rococo culture. Rococo ended the Baroque movement just as Mannerism had filled the void to end the flow of the Renaissance.

There are some obvious differences between Mannerism, Baroque and Rococo as well. The different motivations of the artists themselves define these movements. Baroque artists were very different from Mannerism artists in that they were able to produce extremely detailed works, but to promote the Church and State. For example, Rembrandt worked primarily for Protestant patrons which helped to alleviate any promotion of inner turmoil. Rococo was then an adjustment in the ways the artist themselves felt and they became disenchanted with the Baroque thinking. Mannerism came about because of the new ideas that moved away from God and the church and more towards the universe, the world and self as the artists therefore also sought to emphasize the sometimes tormented feelings of self.

In conclusion, this essay aimed to make some comparative and contrasting observations about the cultural movements of the European art style periods of Mannerism, Baroque, and Rococo. Each of these interpretive styles produced striking works in sculpture, painting, literature, and music. Although there were different motivations for each cultural movement, the styles all produced great dimensional ideas such as Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time, St. Paul's Cathedral and the Palace of Versailles. The desire for…… [read more]

Brancusi's Sculpture Bird in Space Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (664 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Brancusi's Bird In Space: Defining Art

The decision of U.S. Custom's to obstruct the entrance of Brancusi's Bird in Space sculpture by charging tax for its importation constitutes an aggressive and irrational subjectivity with respect to art and the value of specific modes of artistic expression. The Brancusi sculpture, which would since be elevated to the status as the single highest auction price tag on a piece of artwork on sale in America -- going to a collector for over $27 million in 2005 -- was essentially blocked by customs in 1926 based on the argument that it did not constitute an example of art. (BBC, 1)

So is this reported by an article from Time Magazine (1928), reporting the details of the succeeding court challenge. Here, the magazine denotes that "works of art are duty free. But Sculptor Brancusi's bird had neither head, feet nor feathers. It was four and a half feet of bronze which swooped up from its base like a slender jet of flame. Customs Inspector Kracke said it was not art; merely 'a manufacture of metal . . . held dutiable at 40% ad valorem.'" (Time Magazine, 1)

We are made to understand by this passage that the Customs Inspector essentially appointed himself as a critic of the arts, making his own intellectual and aesthetic standards those by which art's veracity was to be measured. This constitutes a denial of Bancusi's right to freedom of expression, but even more problematically, such a decision would place in the hands of government functionaries and bureaucrats the final determination on that which should be seen as art. In the case of Brancusi's sculpture, Customs officials would argue in response to Brancusi's legal challenge that the degree to which the sculpture did not look like a bird was sufficient to dismiss it as art. Further, the metal materials used would incline such government personnel to seek definition of the object as a kitchen utensil or hospital supply according to the shipping…… [read more]

Edgar Degas Paul Gauguin Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,945 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Gauguin and Degas

Paul Gauguin and Edgar Degas shared many similarities as artists. Both were Impressionists, though Degas began as a classical artist and moved on to become one of the founders of the Impressionist movement, while Gauguin began as an Impressionist and moved on to become well-known as a Synthesist, Cloissonist, and Primitive artist. Degas saw commercial success in… [read more]

Time Traveling Art Historian Book Chapters Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (2,164 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Travel in Art

Time traveling art Historian Book Chapters

Travels in artistic time: Ancient Rome, Renaissance Florence, the Islamic world

Early Roman recycled art

I begin my time-traveling journey through art history where all roads lead -- to Rome. There stands the triumphal Arch of Constantine, built to honor the great emperor. In Rome, it was common to… [read more]

Art of Comparison: Two Treatments of Judith Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,678 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Art of Comparison:

Two Treatments of Judith and Holofernes

Often, in the history of art, certain themes are portrayed again and again. Throughout much of Western History, religion provided a source of artistic inspiration. The Biblical story of Judith and Holofernes was portrayed by numerous artists. The story of Judith and Holofernes offers features that appeal to the… [read more]

Bacchanal a Faun Teased by Children by Gian Lorenzo Bernini Metropolitan Museum of Art Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (978 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 3



Bernini's Bacchanal: A Faun Teased by Children

Gian Lorenzo Bernini was the son of a prominent artist and sculptor, Pietro Bernini, but his genius was quickly observed to surpass that of his fathers, and his skills were honed from a very young age by some of the best instructors in Rome.

Despite this Italian heritage, however, Bernini's art also bears a strong relationship to the rococo style of the court of Louis XIV.

His brilliance was well-known before he traveled to the French court, and it is perhaps more correct and fitting to Bernin's memory to say that he influenced art in the court and helped the rococo style to emerge rather tan to suggest that his later art was influenced by it.

The rococo style was an outgrowth of the ornate decorations that typified the Baroque period, and Bernini was one of the most prominent artists to straddle the two related eras.

His flowing figures and the celebrations of ecstasy or inspiration that are apparent in many of his works are at once emblematic of the artistic movements and styles of his time and the prime examples of the skills and effects that were sought during the Baroque and Rococo periods.

In addition, his work characterized the later Italian Renaissance at least as much as it influenced the Rococo style in the French court. Even his early works show a complete mastery of the style in which he was instructed along with his own innovations in both technique and subject.

This is clearly shown in his sculpture Bacchanal: A Faun Teased by Children.

One is immediately drawn into the use of vertical line in this sculpture. The flowing curves of both the faun and the tree climb as if they are still growing, giving the figures a sense of life and upward motion. There are a few branches growing horizontally out from the tree low to the ground, but very little else interrupts the vertical flow and line of the piece. The line also creates a sort of liquid feeling to the sculpture that defies its rigid and fixed nature, as though it is a snapshot taken with perfect clarity of violent and not necessarily pleasant movement.

The use of line is closely related to the texture of the piece, which is soft and flowing and gives an appearance as paradoxically alive as the line use. Even he sleek and well-toned muscles of the faun do not appear overly hard or firm, but rather seem to be made -- quite naturally -- of flesh, with at least a slight give to it. The flesh of the children, quite obviously modeled after traditional depictions of cherubim in Renaissance paintings, is even more soft and giving, with the plump roundness of their faces and limbs creasing at every bend and appearing almost pillowy in their dimensions, yet remaining impervious to any possibility of harm.

But although the figures of…… [read more]

Compare and Contrast Paintings Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (938 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Fine Art

Line is one of the most essential features of most artworks. Lines can be curved or straight, both having a different effect on the impact they have on the viewer. They are also the most basic element of creating an image of something, and are thus completely necessary to forming any objects or people in a painting in most artistic forms. Lines can also be used to contain images within the painting, or to make them seem to extend off the canvas/page upon which they are painted or drawn. Basically, line is necessary creating to the impression of anything, both the physical objects that most artworks portray and general moods and feelings that are at the heart of any piece of art. Without line, pieces of art could not even exist.

Another very essential aspect of art is texture. Though this can be meant in the literal sense of how something feels to the touch, when speaking of two-dimensional paintings it more typically refers to the perceived feel of a work of art. The two concepts are very much related; a work of art can give an impression of hardness or softness, or can have a rough or smooth texture. Texture and mood are highly related, though not at all synonymous; the basic feeling of a painting's texture can have a huge effect on the overall impression the viewer takes from it.

Texture itself is made up of the other visual elements of a work of art, such as line and color. Whereas line forms the boundaries of objects and can provide perspective, color fills these things in. Color can also provide contrast and/or blending, unifying or sharply diving objects or areas of a piece of art. Color can also influence the mood with brightness or dullness. The level of intensity in the colors used can also have a large effect on the overall mood and impression that the painting gives a viewer, making color one of the most noticeable aspects of art.

Different artists use these different elements in widely different ways. Pablo Picasso was especially innovative in his use of line and color, creating strange and unusual textures and moods. Frans Hals is a far more traditional painter, though is not surprising given that he painted three hundred years before Picasso and helped to create what we think of as artistic tradition. These artists both used the same elements in their work, but with drastically different effects.

First there is the use of line. In Picasso's 1907 self-portrait and in his painting of a woman on a blue background, the lines are quite definite. They are thick and make large demarcations, rigidly defining objects and marking off space. Hals, on the other hand, uses very soft lines that are almost indistinguishable, especially for…… [read more]

Raphael's Painting School of Athens 1509 11 Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,447 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Raphael's painting "School of Athens" 1509-11

Raphael's triumph of Renaissance humanism and Neo-Platonic thought

One of the great Renaissance artist Raphael's works for Pope Julius II was not a religious piece of art, but a work that mimicked classical antiquity. The great painting the School of Athens depicts an idealized vision of great, classical Greek philosophers and scientists interacting with… [read more]

Mummification and Associated Art Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,794 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Egyptian Art: Glory in Death

Death rites and rituals are an important part of every culture ever discovered. Ike birth, death is often seen as part of a great cycle that allows for the continuation of life and the given civilization. The Christian phrase often uttered at funerals, "from ashes to ashes, and from dust to dust," echoes this concept… [read more]

Fine Art Iconography and Form Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (986 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Iconography in Art: The Halo

The halo is a much older religious icon than many people realize, dating back at least as far as the Ancient Egyptians (Lope, 2002). Halos are also readily apparent in many Buddhist and Hindu works of art, and has also been a staple of Christian iconography since the religion itself began (Lope, 2002). This widespread and remarkably disparate yet similar use is strong evidence that the halo -- also known as a nimbus or areole -- is one of the most ancient and universal object of iconography in the world. A halo can be nothing more than a circle around an object or person, often around the head, but the simplicity of the symbol contains its profoundness.

Halos are typically used as symbols of sanctity, enlightenment, and even divinity (Lope, 2002). The symbol was very likely derived from the Sun -- a glowing circle or disc -- and also symbolized "power, majesty, and prominence," especially in the pre-Christian era (Lope, 2002). The halo is a prominent part of the depiction of several Egyptian gods, and cults that worshipped a similar bull figure to one of the incarnations of the sun god Ra (who wears a halo between his horns) were known to exists as far back as 3000 BCE (Lope, 2002). Romans used halos in their depictions of certain hers and statesmen as a way to glorify them. This practice continued with other important personages until Pope Urban III banned the use of halos in an image of anyone who wasn't beatified; before then, many intellectuals were also depicted with halos, denoting either divine inspiration or the brilliance of their minds -- or both.

In Christian art. Which is how the iconography of the halo is most recognized in the Western world today, the halo has come to symbolize the light of God, and is a definitive association with divinity. This important religious identity has led to some controversial modern uses of the halo.

One such use, not so controversial now but a daring use of the icon in its time, is found in Gauguin's Self-Portrait with Halo. In this post-impressionist oil on wood creation from 1889, many different religious icons collide with a large and somewhat surreal rendering of the artist's own head. It is difficult to discern an overlying theme in the piece. Though there are several phallic representations, and the sexual imagery of the hanging apples -- bringing to mind the Garden of Eden and Original Sin at the hands of Eve -- against the red background definitely add a tone of eroticism to the painting, neither the self-portrait nor the halo seem at all engaged with the other elements. Overall, confusion of both imagery and intent reigns.

Like the other images in the painting, the halo's direct purpose and meaning here is difficult to discern. Given the apparent disinterest in the artist's s representation of himself regarding the temptations of the Garden, the halo…… [read more]

Vincent Van Gogh Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  50 pages (14,235 words)
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INTRODUCTION had a hard struggle with myself...."

Vincent van Gogh (Van Goh's Letters, 2009)

The Painter

The Painter" sold only one of his paintings, now worth millions of dollars, during his lifetime. "The Painter," Vincent van Gogh, frequently depicted people in hard times, Linda Yoffe (1995) notes in "Vincent, Theo, painting and self-esteem." Today, considered one… [read more]

Greek and Roman Sculpture Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (758 words)
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Greek and Roman Sculpture are often closely linked in style and execution. However, they are differentiated as two forms of art by some outstanding features. While Greek sculpture is focused on the aesthetic and artistic expression and representation of the idealized human body, Roman sculpture is more focused on the way that the human figure expresses a sense of power, control and dignity, as a reflection of a superior civilization. These aspects will be discussed in this paper

The examples of Roman sculpture chosen are the Sculptural portrait of Philip the Arab and the Portrait of Faustina. The intentionality of Roman sculpture can be clearly seen in the artistic appeal of the sculptural portrait of Philip the Arab, which depicts a figure of power and control.

Source: (http://www.hermitagemuseum.org/html_En/03/hm3_1_3b.html)

As one commentary notes of this sculpture, "...cruelty and perfidy were combined with courage and resolution in Philip's character" (Sculptural portrait of Philip the Arab.

What is striking about this sculpture is the way that the sculptor has created a sense of cool and dominating command in the intimidating gaze of the subject. From a more aesthetic point-of-view, the artist has expertly portrayed the physical characteristics of the subject and has focused on the expressive heavy brow and structure of the visage.

It is also noteworthy that there is an economy of design and execution that provides a telling and powerful portrait, with a minimum of carving. Through this economy and mastery of sculptural execution the artist achieves the desired effect without elaborate carving and modeling.

In a similar vein, the Portrait of Faustina depicts an elegant if rather haughty figure. As in the above example, the facial features of the figure are regal and aristocratic. The aesthetic appeal of the work lies in the way that the artist has managed to capture the distance and regal pomp of the subject.

The Greek sculpture, Diskobolos, or "discus thrower" shows a very different emphasis to the Roman sculptures discussed. The emphasis in this sculpture is not on personality or personal or cultural power but on the power and elegance of the human form. It is a pleasing aesthetic study of form in action.

Source: (http://academic.reed.edu/humanities/110Tech/BodyLanguage/html/diskobolos3.html)

Central to the aesthetic qualities of this sculpture is the sense of rhythm, balance and poise that…… [read more]

Art Compare and Contrast Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,026 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Art Compare/Contrast

Le pin de Bonaventura a Saint-Tropez" is one of Paul Signac's most famous paintings, and at the same time, a very good example of Neo-impression whereas Vincent Van Gogh's "The Rocks" represents post-impressionism at its peak. The term 'Neo-impressionism' was coined at the end of the nineteenth century in order to describe the art movement led by French painters Georges Seurat and Paul Signac. The term expressed the roots of the new movement i.e. Impressionism, but also the new approach to the use of color and line exhibited by Neo-impressionists. Post-impressionism was a term coined at the beginining of the twentieth century to characterize the course of French art since Manet who was the leading apostle of Impressionism. Post-impressionist artists continued the tradition of Impressionists but took their art beyond the limitations of Impressionism in the sense that they used unconventional techniques in their paintings. Considering that the two paintings mentioned above are two prominent examples of the artistic movements they represent, this paper aims at explaining the main differences and similarities as far as the use of color, techniques, as well as symbolism. In addition, biographical information on the two painters, as well as a short background on Post-impressionism and Neo-impressionism are very important towards achiving the goal of understanding the two works of art in question.

Vincent Van Gogh was born in 1853 in the Netherlands. His influence on twentieth century painting was enormous. Van Gogh explained his artistic vision in a 1882 letter to his brother and sponsor, Theo: "There are two ways of thinking about painting, how not to do it and how to do it: how to do it - with much drawing and little colour; how not to do it - with much colour and little drawing." (Vincent Van Gogh Paintings, (http://www.vangoghgallery.com/painting/)Early in his life, Van Gogh was introduced to Impressionism in Paris. This encounter would change both his life and his work. He abandoned the dark somber colors he worked with, and adopted the Impressionists' brighter colors and painting style. However, Van Gogh was able to blend these elements together, and did not compromise his own artistic persona. Critics claim that his style and technique were developed during the period of time he spent in Arles, France. His influence on German Expressionists as well as the French Fauves - whose foremost representant was Matisse, was immense.

Van Gogh painted "The Rocks" in 1888 during his stay in Arles. It was during the last decade of his life that Van Gogh produced more than 2,000 works of art including paintings, drawings and sketches. Shortly upon his arrival, Van Gogh started painting local landscaped that he was fascinated with. Van Gogh was inspired by the French town; in fact, he invited his friend, Paul Gaugain to visit him, and discover Arles together.

Yellow was Van Gogh's favorite color during his Arles period. Although less vibrant than his Paris period, the Arles palette of colors seemed the most appropriate to illustrate the sun of… [read more]

Renaissance Art Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,046 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Renaissance Art

Art is the expression of artistic vision but it also carries the sign of the period of time when it was created. The period of the Renaissance designates a cultural movement that spanned between the fourteenth and the seventeenth century. Its roots can be found in Italy, in the middle Ages from where it spread across Europe. This period of time was marked by a return to classical models both in artistic pursuit and in learning, in the sense that both artists and scholars appealed to classical sources. Also, the Renaissance was synonymous to significant advances as far as science and painting techniques where a new perspective was developed with the overwhelming contribution of Leonardo da Vinci. Humanism which stood at the roots of the Renaissance, brought a new vision of the world according to which man was God's masterpiece, and the measure of all things. This new vision was best illustrated by art. This paper argues that the Renaissance put forth not only new techniques, but also a new creed as far as artistic expression. In support of this thesis, this paper turns to 12 works of art executed during the Renaissance. These are: The Slaughter of the Innocents, Tintoretto (1587), the Rape of Persephone, Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1621-22), David, Michelangelo (1501-04), the Three Ages of Man, Titian (1513-14), Primavera, Boticelli (1478), Death of the Virgin, Caravaggio (1606), the School of Athens, Raphael (1509-10), the Agony in the Garden, Bellini (1465), the Last Supper, Da Vinci (1495-98), Pieta, Michelangelo (1499), Allegoric Figure of a Boy, Donatello (1430s), and Madonna with Child and Angels, Masaccio (1426).

Renaissance sculpture brought back the ancient Greek and Roman ideals of beauty of the human body. Statues are imposing, usually considerable in size and aim at transmitting the greatness of a particular character that the statue depicts. Renaissance focused on a single figure which was placed on its own on a pedestal - the accent was placed on posture and grace.

David and the Rape of Persephone are pictorial sculptures with an abundance of details as far as the human anatomy and posture. One of the most important traits of Renaissance spirituality was a combination of both mimesis and lyricism which can be explained by the fact that this combination of artistic ways of expression dissolved the tensions between the individuality of the artist and the demands of the patron who expected a certain manner of execution.

Michelangelo brought Renaissance to its highest point and showed the road to be followed by his successors and pupils. Without a doubt, David (1501-1504) is his masterpiece, the embodiment of all civic virtues and a true expression of the titanic unfinished manner of the sculptor. Michelangelo's technique largely relied on sketches which in turn, were based on a profound knowledge of male anatomy. This artistic discipline was called 'disegno' and is deeply characteristic of the Renaissance when both artists and scientists believed that the study of the male form was a study of God and… [read more]

Rococo Genre and Neoclassical Painting Social Change and Artistic Style Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,822 words)
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According to Liselotte Andersen, writing in Baroque and Rococo Art, many art historians retain the view that the artistic creations of the eighteenth century in Europe "are merely an extension of the Baroque, a mellowing and refinement of it and not sharply distinguishable from it either chronologically or stylistically"… [read more]

Sculpture Michelangelo Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (958 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3



Michelangelo and Me

Michelangelo, welcome to my home. I'm so happy to finally meet the sculptor of 'David,' that most magnificent of creations."

Thank you, your highness. I saw the angel in the marble and carved until I set him free" ("Sculpture Gallery").

I am hoping you can do the same for me. My husband, the King, is my shining light, and I wish for you to sculpt him in the manner of David, larger than life, so I may install your masterpiece in my sculpture garden, based, of course, on the Medici garden where you first began your study of sculpture so long ago."

How would you like him portrayed, my lady?"

Heroically, like David, as my dearest husband is my own conquering hero in my heart. I want him majestic, larger than life, and I want the marble to speak to you, just as it did when you captured David so magnificently. Time is no object, and neither is cost. I want perfection, and I want my husband's statue to be remembered as your finest work." will do my best to please your highness. The best of artists has no conception that the marble alone does not contain within itself ("Sculpture Gallery"). Tell me, do you see the figure struggling, or at peace?"

That, my dear fellow, is for you to discover. Let the marble talk to you. I have a splendid piece in mind, but if it does not suit your needs, feel free to choose your own from the quarries near here. I want this to be nothing less than perfection, and I believe you are the only man for the job."

Do you see detail; do you want your husband to be recognizable to others, or only to yourself?" want the world to know my husband's face and form! Carve his facial details in high relief! Show his proud countenance for what it is, recognizable to all! Show the fine form of his figure, his finely honed muscles, the veins, and tendons ready to react at a moment's notice. Show his softer side, too, the side he shows only to me when we are alone together. I want to be reminded of every aspect of my husband when I gaze upon this statue, and I want to see every inch of him, naturally, and free from the constrictors of clothing and worry." see madam. And of the style?"

The style of 'David' intrigues me, but the style of Moses, your triumph on the tomb of Pope Julius, intrigues me as well. There is such passion in the details of this carving. I want to see that passion in my sculpture as well, and I want those who view it to know the passion and layers that make up my husband. It must be classical in nature, however. I will have him look as…… [read more]

Critique of Picasso Painting Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,115 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Picasso Painting

Critique of Pablo Picasso's "Guernica"

Dimensions: 3.5 metre (11 ft) tall and 7.8 metre (23 ft) wide

Medium: Oil on canvas

First exhibited in July 1937 at the Spanish Pavilion at the Paris International Exposition

This painting by Picasso is described as "... modern art's most powerful antiwar statement... "(Guernica: Testimony of War). My interest in… [read more]

Art in America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,986 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Art in America


According to a modern definition, abstract expressionism is a rather generic title, due to being made up of a variety of different artistic styles and formats. Basically speaking, abstraction emphasizes taking very recognizable things in the natural world and re-shaping them until they do not visually represent anything one might find in nature. Thus, the… [read more]

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