Study "Art / Painting / Sculpture" Essays 111-165

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Modern Art a Primary Concern Essay

… This is a purist piece. "Tableu 11" by Mondrian directly addresses the golden ratio and geometry, as it is a series of quadrilaterals of primary colors and black. Mondrian plays with both color and form here. The quadrilaterals without color contextualize the ones with color and the white quadrilaterals balance the work, else it might be overloaded with color, form, and shape. The dispersal of color seems odd, but the overall sense of the work is that it is even (balanced).

Scwitter's "Merzbau" is quite angular and dimensional. There is a lack of curvature and color. This piece is more concerned with movement, shape, and form. Duchamp's "Nude Descending a Staircase" is also primarily concerned with movement and form. Neither piece is focused upon realism. Both pieces want to communicate to the viewer about their respective spaces. Though there is a nude in Duchamp's piece, the piece is more focused on the staircase and the location of the staircase than the nude. "Merzbau" is the place itself and the experience of the place. These pieces are about spaces, dimensionality, and the movement within a space. These works are abstract and subtle. The forms and shapes in the pieces are not inviting, but viewers are drawn in as they endeavor to understand each piece.


References:… [read more]

Art the French Impressionists Rendered Modern Bourgeois Essay

… Art

The French Impressionists rendered modern bourgeois life, often by focusing on gardens and leisure activities. Both Berthe Morisot and Gustave Caillebotte use garden scenery as a background for conveying themes related to modern life in France in the late… [read more]

Art Qs the United States Essay

… Art Qs

The United States became the focal point of the artistic and painting world following World War II, with the advent of the abstract expressionism school of painting. European paintings remained more tied to traditional roots and still typically depicted scenes, if even abstractly, but American painting moved more towards complete abstraction such as the action paintings of Jackson Pollack and others. The cultural and economic center of the world moved from Europe to the United States during the same period, and this perhaps led to a more intrepid sense of adventure in exploration in American painting, looking towards the new future, while Europeans still tried to make sense of the past that had been lost.


Censorship has long been a major issue in the art world, from at least the time of the Catholic Church's dominance of world affairs if not earlier. In modern times, censorship still exists in regards to limiting the amount of sexuality that can be displayed in certain galleries and other public places, and also in terms of political statements and alternative points-of-view. Art has long been used as a tool for future change, and the expression of unpopular and/or controversial ideas through art has long been one of the checks on society and the measures of its freedom. Censorship in art limits this freedom and so the progress available to a given society.


The Harlem Renaissance was an artistic movement beginning in the 1920s in the predominantly African-American neighborhood of Harlem in New York City. Jazz music, new styles of painting, and evolving types of dance and other performance art all began fomenting in the culture of newfound semi-liberation among the African-American community, which…… [read more]

History of Western Art Essay

… History Of Western Art

Looking at the Dutch works, provide some examples where dramatic stylistic elements heighten the power of everyday scenes and still lives. Think about lighting effects, movement, extension or recession of space, and elements that allude to… [read more]

Western Art and Christianity Essay

… Although the work is considered one of the greatest paintings ever created, it is a firmly religious piece, with Jesus as its centerpiece. The painting displays the heartbreak that all Catholics feel over the concept of original sin, and has a deeply grim quality to it, regardless of its spiritual subject.

In contrast to these two traditional pieces, Claude Monet's Impression, Sunrise, was created during an era that began to show signs of a more secular movement. Like most of the secular works during the Impressionist movement, this painting is beautiful in its choice of colors and the flow of the brushstrokes. It was created in 1872, with help in part from Monet's longtime patron and department-store owner Ernest Hoschede. The painting is a strong departure from the religious works of the past. Whereas many of those works tended to depict specific religious scenes or events in a very deliberate and realistic manner, Monet's form of Impressionism is flowing and bright. The brushstrokes are sweeping and less calculated, although the finished product is quite accurate in depicting the feeling of a sunrise, rather than attempting to create a photographic copy.

Finally, Pablo Picasso's Les Demoiselles d'Avignon epitomizes the new era of painting and expressive art. His unashamed subject matter, depicting five nude female prostitutes, would have been far from acceptable in the time of da Vinci, and its stylistic approach, abstract in nature, is now referred to as Cubism. The work was widely controversial in 1907, when it was created, and although it is a secular piece, it was a large divider amongst religious and non-religious art aficionados. The subject was considered to be shocking and appalling at the time, and Picasso seemingly created this work for…… [read more]

Tibetan Art Cleveland Green Tara Painting in Mid 13th C. In Central Research Paper

… Green Tara

Tibetan Art - Cleveland Green Tara Painting

The Cleveland Green Tara Painting is a typical Thangka painting of Tibet. Thangka is a form of art that is connected with Tibetian culture and mysticism. Thangka paintings are more than… [read more]

Carving Sculpture Henry Moor and Barbara Hepworth Research Paper

… Sculpture

What is direct carving

Direct carving is carving without a maquette or other model, a sort of freestyle approach to sculpture that may leave signs of the carving instruments and purposeful roughness.

What is a maquette?

A maquette is a model for a sculpture, serving the same purpose that a sketch does for a painting.

Just before TECHNIQUE, there is a quote from Henry Moore about "titles." What do you think of what he says? Do you agree or disagree? Why.

I fully agree with Moore. Moore wants the spectator to be engaged in the art. Simple titles require the spectator to ponder and project personal issue onto the art. As Moore suggests, a title that is too explanatory takes the mystery out of the piece and the spectator is more likely to take a cursory glance and walk away. The piece is too self-contained and the artist has already told the spectator what to think about, what to look about, and therefore what to feel. With a simple title, the art is alive and changes for each spectator.

4. What similarities are there between the two sculptures?

The Chac Mool statue shows the figure reclined, propped up on his elbows and with his knees drawn in. The chin is held high in a defiant stance and the face gazes confidently out in the distance as a visionary. The effect is that of a regal leader contemplating public policy or enjoying a well-deserved moment of relaxation.

Moore's Draped Reclining Figure is depicted in a similar physical stance as the Chac Mool, with the body propped up on elbows and knees drawn in. The face also looks out towards the distance. Moore's figure is more gender-neutral than the Chac Mool, as the figure could be…… [read more]

Italian Baroque Art Bernini vs. Borromini Thesis

… Italian Baroque Art (Bernini vs. Borromini)

The present paper has the purpose of analyzing two grand masters of the Italian baroque art, that is Bernini and Borromini. The main thesis to be demonstrated is that their styles and techniques can… [read more]

Painting Is Called "Passing Storm Essay

… ¶ … painting is called "Passing Storm over the Sierra Nevadas" and was painted in 1870 by Albert Bierstadt. It is located in the American Art section of the San Antonio Museum of Art. The painting was chosen because of… [read more]

Exploring Contemporary Art Franz West Chameleon 2004 Thesis

… ¶ … art: Franz West, Chameleon, 2004

Exploring Contemporary Art with Theory (Philosophy of Art)

Franz West, Chameleon, 2004. Collection of the Musee d'art contemporain de Montreal.

Franz West's three-dimensional 2004 creation called simply Chameleon looks like the interior of a brightly-colored green kitchen in its incarnation at Collection of the Musee d'art contemporain de Montreal. Chameleon is not a depiction of a lizard, but a work that superficially suggest the appearance of an interior design, in bright, Brady Bunch, mid-1970s shades of chartreuse. Its strange falseness and homogeneity as the lime green tables and chairs blend in with the walls, underlines the conformities of urban life and the psychological, human desire to blend in with society -- but with brightness and panache. The title suggests concealment, of trying to be 'like' other things in the environment in a half-deliberate, half-unconscious manner. Mimicry comes not through camouflage, but by standing out just as much, and in the same way as everything else. The tables and the chairs are all bright green, the same colors as the walls. The chairs are evidently painted as their backs are brown, but this brown merely blends in with the wood flooring of the kitchen. The furniture looks cheap, disposable, and is very evidently a manufactured commodity.

The use of the ordinary objects of everyday life to question modern-day values is typical of West's work since the early 1970s, which often involve the use of familiar objects and pieces of furniture, which are given an "archetypal dimension" in their elevation to the realms of the exhibition platforms of museums, where they are subjected to the gaze of patrons.

In Chameleon, its chairs, paint, a table, and a kitchen floor "each in turn becomes the basis for a critical, provocative and deliberately insolent meditation on the nature and scope of the act of making art. In Chameleon, West uses one of his favorite strategies, that of disguising the utilitarian nature of the objects, in this case, a round table and eight chairs. It is color that rules within this austere installation.

Although the most recent exhibition of Chameleon involved the use of bright green, which seems befitting the title of the work, it is noteworthy that the solid color of the table and chairs actually "varies according to the choice of those displaying the work.

" The process of displaying of the work makes the piece a collaborative effort, a work of performance in terms of its display. "By requiring this participation on the part of the collector or museum, on the one hand, West is insisting on the real importance of color as opposed to the falsely decorative function often accorded to it, and on the other hand, he is giving this installation, this skilful combination of painting and sculpture, a conceptual and existential dimension that is reasserted each time it is exhibited.

West himself has resisted grand, subsuming theories of what he is trying to achieve with his art: "Early on I realized that… [read more]

Sculpture Column Figure of a Nimbed King Research Proposal

… Gothic Sculpture

Art represents the era in which it was produced and often speaks to later time periods as well, and how we view the art of the past shows some of what we think about ourselves and about the meaning we attribute to both past and present. When we view a work like Column Figure of a Nimbed King, a sculpture from around the period 1150-1170, we measure the people of that time on the basis of what this one sculptor has produced, considering how the work reflects attitudes and aesthetics from the time as well as how it speaks to us and says something to us about our ancestors.

This work was produced by a French sculptor carving in limestone. The work is relatively large at a height of 45 1/4 in. (115 cm). The work balances a certain inherent rigidity because the figure rests against a straight column, which gives the work a very straight spine as a backing, while at the same time the pose and demeanor of the figure is very human and much more relaxed than the rigidity of the column might suggest. The work was found in the royal abbey of Saint-Denis in the environs of Paris. The figure is not identified by name but is merely known as a king, seen in the crown on his head and the royal raiment on his body.

The abbey of Saint-Denis was long important in the Catholic Church in France and housed the shrine of the national saint, that being Saint-Denis. The abbey also served as a burial site for many French kings. Abbot Suger headed the abbey from 1122-1151, and during his time the west facade and east end of the abbey were rebuilt in a new style then called the "French style," though it was later called the Gothic style. According to the Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, this column figure represents an Old Testament king and is the only complete statue surviving from the now destroyed cloister that was constructed shortly after the death of Abbot Suger: "The bejeweled crown and nimbus distinguish the royal and saintly nature of the figure. His identity may once have been inscribed upon the scroll that he holds, now broken" (para. 1). The fact that the figure is part of a column also shapes some of its aesthetic elements as the sculpture is formed to match the form of the column: "The slender folds of the figure's drapery further emphasize the column's elongated proportions" ("Medieval European Sculpture for Buildings" para. 3).

The way this piece of sculpture is attached to the building is very much part of the developing Gothic style, a habit that would continue well through later Gothic periods. Works were often quite firmly attached to architecture, though even then late Gothic sculpture typically maintained its formal independence. Henry Vyverberg cites the two column figures from Cologne, the Virgin and Christ, as examples: "Their elegance echoes the rather previous mannerism of the countless carved… [read more]

Greenart Inc. Leap's Frog Sculpture Competition Term Paper



Frog's Leap Sculpture Walk is an art event that will be held in Melbourne Australia… [read more]

Difference Western and African Art Term Paper

… Group Communications

African Art:

Woyo people

Congo (Zaire) pot lid

What we think of as 'art' in a Western context is often taken to mean the type of art that is apprehended in a museum. Art viewed as such is not functional; rather it is decorative or expressive, like a sculpture or a painting. Art viewed from a distance in a museum is also often seen the expression of an individual artist who is seeking to reveal some unique inner truth. Thus runs contrary to how art functions in traditional West African society. Although the Western observer sees this artifact, a Woyo pot lid, in a museum, it must not be forgotten that in its original context, it was a part of the household, much like a pot lid in our own kitchen. Besides conveying meaning, it also had a practical purpose within the home to keep food warm. Rather than being purely individualistic in its expressive intent and design, its shape and form was fairly standardized, yet unlike a commercially purchased Western pot lid, it was created by the hands of the individuals who used the pot lid. Also, the use of the pot lid has a symbolic and communicative dimension that transcended its pure functionality and use. It is not purely functional, like a piece of kitchenware bought at a store, nor is it purely expressive, like an art object in a museum -- thus it straddles what are two separate purposes in Western culture.

The communicative aspect of the pot is not self-expression, but within a communal context, it can express a wife's feelings. Because this symbolic language is generally agreed upon within the tribe, it ends to reinforce the conventional modes of expression involving a particular a social institution, namely that of marriage. The language of the use of the pot lid thus agreed upon within the Woyo culture, much as certain symbolic gestures and words take place during the ritual of marriage itself. The pot lids are carved with community sayings and images that express generally accepted truths about the relationship between a husband and his wife. Art is…… [read more]

Agree or Disagree Term Paper


The Baroque era (ca. 1600 to 1750), much like the art that was produced during this time, was composed of many dimensions -- spacious and dynamic, colorful, theatrical, opulent and extravagant, all of which were highly influenced by a number of contemporary political and social events. For the artist, this was an age of discovery, due in part to the rise of national powers that attempted to colonize the entire world. Wars and other disputes based on political and social differences were everywhere, particularly in Europe and North America. The rise in scientific discoveries by such figures as Newton and Kepler inspired many Baroque artists to create works of art that "embraced all the spaces of the celestial world and the spaces of the microcosm within an unfolding universe" (Tapie 56).

Perhaps most importantly, the art of this era was influenced by the Catholic reaction to the advancement of Protestantism. Overall, the political and social aspects of this time is best illustrated by Gianlorenzo Bernini's the Ecstasy of St. Teresa, a life-size, marble sculpture, presently located in the Cornaro Chapel of the Church of Santa Maria della Vitorria in Rome. This magnificent work of art "draws upon the full resources of architecture, sculpture and painting" and symbolizes the social power of the Cornaro family via its location in the chapel, for on either side are sculptured opera boxes in which portraits of the Cornaro family "represent an audience watching with intent piety the denouement of a heavenly drama" which, in effect, reveals "the remote mysteries of religion as they descend to meet the social world of man" (Tapie 83).

In contrast to the Baroque Era, the Rococo style is so closely related to the social and political ramifications of King Louis XIV, also known as the "Sun King," that the…… [read more]

Art / Claude Monet Painting Term Paper

… Impressions painting are named not because they worked loosely with color through the use of the color theories developed in the nineteenth century, they optically mixed color with red next to yellow, somewhat than orange, and many more subtle. (Artist Profile: Claude Monet)

'The Japanese Footbridge" of 1899 depicts the height of Impressionism. Monet holds the many different angles of a scene on his own house -- an arched Japanese bridge which is reflected in the pool below full of lilies, the water's trembling reflection mirroring the adjacent foliage and trees. (Exhibit gives impression of artistic revolution) At Giverny, he enlarged the water garden which was his only source of inspiration during the fag end of his life. The Japanese Footbridge uses a traditional technique, while his other paintings especially the series of water lilies, lean increasingly towards abstraction whose importance was formally recognized when Monet gave them away to France in 1918. He is regarded as the father of impressionism and one of the most admired and loved artists of all time. His extensive career was characterized by experimentation and innovation. His handling of various subjects is identified immediately and confirm to his amazing talent for composition and the rendering of both color and light. His career started as a caricaturist in Le Havre during the 1850s.

An initial familiarity with the French landscape painter Eugene Boudin who painted the changing skies and sea along the Normandy coast was the formative impact in the initial years of Monet. Both of the artists, who shared a dedication to nature, enjoyed painting outdoors. During 1862, Monet went to Paris and started his training at the Paris studio of the academician Charles Gleyre. Following his initial success in the Salon of 1865, a bigger work, Women in the Park, was denied by the Salon of 1867, seemingly because Monet's use of color and light led to a simplification or abstraction of form. His methodologies challenged traditional practices and the authority of the French academy that was established for more than 200 years. (Monet at Giverny: Masterpieces from Musee Marmottan Biographical Notes)


"Artist Profile: Claude Monet" Retrieved from

Accessed on 5 May, 2005

'Exhibit gives impression of artistic revolution." Retrieved from

Accessed on 5 May, 2005

'Monet at Giverny: Masterpieces from Musee Marmottan Biographical Notes." Retrieved from Accessed on 5 May, 2005

'It looks Like an Original Monet, but it's an artagraph." Retrieved from Accessed on 5 May, 2005… [read more]

Art the Renaissance Heralded in an Entirely Term Paper

… Art

The Renaissance heralded in an entirely new tradition of art form during the 14th and 15th centuries, with a wide variety of painters, poets, writers and architects that literally and figuratively saw the world in a different light from… [read more]

Cubism and Sculpture Term Paper

… Artists like Picasso and Gauguin found formal ideas and images in the so-called primitive societies that resonated with energy and a new artistic rhythm.

Les Demoiselles D'Avignon is often invoked as the painting that started Cubism. A central aspect that… [read more]

Renaissance Paintings- Virgin and Child Term Paper

… Correggio (1489-1534) belonged to the last group of highly talented artists of High Renaissance. Despite his popularity, not much documented evidence is available regarding his early training. However the style of his work indicates the influence of some leading artists of his time including Francesco Branchi Ferrari, Lorenzo Costa, Giorgione etc.

Nothing except his decorative style is there to prove that he had been influenced by Roman traditions in painting. The painting Virgin and Child with Saint John the Baptist was one of the early works of Correggio and carefully focuses on the emotional connection between John and Christ. It is important to understand that while the theme of Virgin and Child has biblical connotations, this particular painting focuses on one aspect of the theme, which is not found in Bible. The Bible doesn't say anything about a meeting between Saint John and the Christ as children. In this painting, Virgin has been given a more subdued role while the two children are in more active mode. That Correggio had "developed a style of conscious elegance and allure with soft sfumato and gestures of captivating charm" (Chilvers, 121) is obvious from this work where a hazy soft light prevails over the landscape and adds softness and gentleness to the painting and its subjects. The figures are painted in the form of a pyramid where the biggest figure sits at the top while the two smaller figure occupy left and right side in the compositional scheme.



World and I; Date: 12/01/1998;

Kavaler, Ethan Matt Renaissance Gothic in the Netherlands: The Uses of Ornament The Art Bulletin 06/01/2000;

ROBERTA OLSON, The Florentine Tondo Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Ian Chilvers: The Concise Oxford…… [read more]

Art and Photojournalism Film Term Paper

… Pollock's work does not contain anything remotely resembling figures, but there is something quite electric about his paintings, and they bring out strong emotions in the viewer. His abstract paintings at first just seem a jumbled mess of color, but if gazed at long enough, they take on patterns, hues, and certainly bring out emotions and feelings. Some of the paintings are vibrant and exciting, while others are subdued and more poignant. These are quite human qualities, but there are no humans in the paintings, they are simply forms and colors. Even when Pollock did paint figures, they were not "normal" figures, they were abstract creations, and they too evoked very human feelings. Color, shape, texture, and form can all express human feelings, and Pollock used all of these creatively and effectively to create a very human and real feeling in his paintings, even in the absence of any human forms in them. Art can convey many different feelings and emotions, as Pollock's art clearly shows.


Pioch, Nicolas. "Pollock, Jackson." Web Museum. 16 July 2002. 4 Dec. 2003.

Steichen, Edward. Memorable Life Photographs. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1951.… [read more]

Art History Roy Lichtenstein Term Paper

… They are totally formed by the way their culture has defined them. Even the title Stepping Out implies a falseness. They are dressing up and moving outside their true reality into a night life culture which they have been programmed to crave.

Stepping Out like the bulk of Lichtenstein's work stands in the center of the Pop Art era. As quoted in Art News in November of 1963, Roy Lichtenstein said: "Pop Art is an involvement with what I think to be the most brazen and threatening characteristics of our culture, things we hate, but which are also powerful in their impingement on us" ( Other artists like Andy Warhol, with his repetitive advertising industry images as seen in 32 Capmbell's Soup Cans (1961-62) and Marilyn Monroe's Lips (1962), were using popular culture to create a trendy and lucrative art of popular consciousness. Artists like Lichenstein and Warhol represented the natural creative progression of twentieth century art. Moving away from the abstract expressionist vogue they depicted the everyday reality of mass culture. Themselves emerging from a background in commercial art, they used familiar objects both to allow viewers to relate directly to art and to offer social satire.

Contemporaries, Lichtenstein and Warhol matured in their art under the heritage of American forerunners Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns who planted the seeds of Pop Art. Rauschenberg constructed collages from household objects and Johns repetitively painted American flags and bull's-eye targets. These artists in turn emerged under the influence of a European forerunners like Richard Hamilton who produced Just What Is It That Makes Today's Home So Different, So Appealing? In 1956.

Lichtenstein's cartoon dialogue and imagery places him stage center in the development of Pop Art. As Fineberg puts it, with Lichtenstein: "the subject matter comes already translated into the highly conventionalized language of line drawing advertisements or comics"... Lichtenstein's true subject "is not the embracing couple, a rib roast, or jets in a dogfight but rather the terms of their translation into the language of the media and the implications of that metamorphosis" (Fineberg 261).

Stepping Out, is, for this viewer, the epitome of the Pop Art movement. The blank eyes of the male and the Picassoesque central misplaced eye of the female emphasize the blindness of mass culture in which couples like this one rush into dates, nights out and relationships with no real thought or consideration, following the suggestive leads of the media. The suggestively voluptuous curve of the woman's hair and her oversized lips are details which characterize her as a pliable sex object for the male half of the couple who seems quite plastic in his fashionable detachment.


Fineberg, Jonathan. Art Since 1940: Strategies of Being. 2nd Edition. New York:Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, 2000.

A… [read more]

Baroque Art an Examination Essay

… However, the composition and subject matter are completely different in Regnier's painting vs. that of Sellaio. In Regnier's painting, the horizontal line is more important than the vertical, whereas the reverse is true in Sellaio's. In Sellaio's, the canvas is longer than it is wide; and it is the other way around for Regnier. Regnier depicts his figures along the horizontal plane, with St. Sebastian's reclining body the central motif. Moreover, Regnier includes nothing in the background of the painting. The black background is stark, forcing the viewer's eye to rest on the triangulation created by the holy women and the saint. Sellaio, on the other hand, incorporates a naturalistic background behind the subjects, similar to what DaVinci would later do in "La Gioconda." Whereas Sellaio uses no chiaroscuro, thus imparting a rather flat illumination, Regnier's painting is as much a painting of light as it is a painting of human figures. Tenebrism allows the figures of the two women and St. Sebastian to leap from the canvas.

Whereas Regnier's tenebrism permits only a judicious use of color, with the red folds of the younger woman's clothing the main counterpoint to the otherwise black and white domains, Sellaio includes a variety of pastel and earth shades throughout the composition. Regnier's painting is shadowy, and the space occupied by the central figures is large. On the other hand, Sellaio's painting has no shadows, and the canvas is filled entirely with light-filled objects. Whereas the only straight lines in Regnier's painting are formed by the arrows, Sellaio relies heavily on the use of straight lines in his composition, such as the wall behind Mary and the cross formed by her elongated body and the invisible cross line with John the Baptist. Historical context influences the different style, composition, mood, tone, and symbolism of these two Renaissance paintings. Most notably, Sellaio paints pre-Reformation, and Regnier paints post-Reformation. The arrows in the Regnier composition, which are the only straight lines on the canvas, represent both the injuries done to St. Sebastian as well as the method by which the women deliver his salve. Thus, the Reformation is both an injury to the Church and also a means by which to make the Church stronger.

The differences between these two Renaissance compositions bely their similar symbolism. Both stress the centrality of Christian imagery and symbolism in Renaissance art. A cross shape is evident in the linear compositions of both paintings, even though one is rendered horizontally and the other vertically. Themes of redemption and rebirth are also present in the stories of St. Sebastian and likewise in the story of Christ with John the Baptist.

Works Cited

Castelvecchi, Davide. "Renaissance Painting Restoration Leads to Unusual Collaboration." Stanford Report. July 21, 2004. Retrieved online:

Regnier, Nicolas. "St. Sebastian Attended by Holy Women," 1615-1626.

Sellaio, Jacopo del. "Virgin and Child with St. John the Baptist." Painting. 1480-85… [read more]

Diller Scofidio + Renfro: MOMA Expansion Research Paper

… Not all will fit. But the building enshrines the desire to comprehend as an American freedom" (Muschamp 1). The private art of folk art is being crowded out by more conventional images of modern art in some eyes: which is highly ironic, given the extent to which Picasso, Miro, and so many of the artists preserved within the walls of the current MoMA were considered outsiders long ago.

Yet AFAM was originally conceptualized as a modernist project as well to some degree and a merging of folk art and modernism in a way that was not ultimately successful. A positive review in the New York Times of AFAM noted: "The architects have acknowledged that the form created by the triangle atop the window is an etherealized human hand. The image establishes the building in relationship to the craft tradition and also to the continuity of modernism as epitomized by the French architect Le Corbusier" (Muschamp 1). The public was not interested and although critics praised the appearance of the encasement, the public seemed to find the contents unexciting, in contrast to the offerings of MoMA. "The lack of sex appeal of Folk Art, cloistered behind what many found to be an uninviting facade" is what ultimately led it to being subsumed into MoMA (Scott 1).

Museums are meant to serve the public and the art which is shown in the new structure seems to serve the public's needs more than the defunct folk museum. Sometimes something must be lost for much to be gained: still, the dominant nature of a few major museums which eclipse all others is troubling, as is the demolishment of a work which was considered to have aesthetic value by many architects, even if it was not appreciated while it stood.

Works Cited

"Building for the future: A work in progress." MoMA. 7 Apr 2014.

Davidson, J. "MoMA reveals its expansion plans." Culture Vulture. 14 Jan 2014.

7 Apr 2014.

Muschamp, Herbert. "Fireside intimacy for folk museum." The New York Times. 14 Dec 2001.

7 Apr 2014. 7 Apr 2014.

Pogrebin, Robin. "12-year-old building at MoMA doomed." The New York Times. 10 Apr 2013.

7 Apr 2014.

Scott, Peter. "Tear down on 53rd street." The Brooklyn Rail. 4 Mar 2014.…… [read more]

Goya's the Forge Essay

… The eye gravitates toward their centrality, and the complicated mix of angles that Goya has used to arrange these bright spots. This leaves the third man, whose position is complicated, and whose grey hair indicates a greater age than the other two: from the angle at which he bends, and from the glimpse of his left hand, it appears that he is operating a bellows. But his presence definitely makes the viewer think that we have three generations of men represented here: youth, adult, and old man.

The most astonishing thing about Goya's painterly technique here, though, is its fundamental unrealism. The facial features are discernible but they are not painted with a clarity or a particular attention to photographic realism: the young man's face is almost cartoonish, the old man's face is blurred and grey. The one spot of bright vivid color in the painting -- the glowing orange patch atop the anvil -- is almost an abstraction: we can hardly see what item these men are working on, we merely note its glaring bright color in the overall gloom of the canvas. Likewise Goya's brushwork frequently seems to be done with a palette knife, or at least geared to give a slightly improvised and blurred effect: the white lines on the left upper thigh of the blacksmith appear applied with a knife, as do the white highlights on the young man's upper right shoulder. The face of the old man seems to have been delineated entirely with a palette knife: the lines that indicate his beard and mouth seem too broad and rough for mere brushstrokes. It is astonishing to see, in a painting that would best be described as a form of social realism, that much of the actual painting seems more to anticipate Impressionism.

But this is arguably Goya's purpose here. The brushwork is clearly meant to capture the physical and emotive force of these figures: the heat and smoke of a blacksmith's shop, the strong physical motion of hammering on an anvil, are all things that in real life would obscure and blur our actual vision. Goya is capturing what things look like to a viewer in an actual smithy, by backing away from straightforward realism. Yet I noted at the outset that Goya's purpose here is arguably political. This derives from the choice of topic -- ordinary working men engaged in an activity that also has a history in mythological painting, usually in depictions of the god Vulcan forging the armor of Aeneas or the armor of Achilles, depending whether the painter is illustrating a scene from Vergil or Homer. Vulcan is, of course, the god of craftsmen -- he would be the patron of these very human blacksmiths. But Goya himself is fundamentally a craftsman as well: he indicates more of an identification with these strong central figures -- with their sense of three generations of men standing in allegorically for all working men everywhere, cooperating on one task -- than he does… [read more]

Love Letter Term Paper

… The delicacy and playfulness of Rococo designs is often seen as a reaction to the excesses of Louis XIV's regime" ( Thus, the frivolity and the sense of fleeting that is present throughout the painting is something which is representative of the Rococo period in general.

Ultimately, the painting is very inviting and it encourages one to be a part of the space that it occupies. It makes one almost feel mildly voyeuristic as if one is trying to get a glimpse at the love letter presented. The painting is both quiet and loud and involves the senses in a sensual manner, evoking a strong amount of curiosity. Its warmth makes one enjoy being in its presence. It provides pleasure and makes one feel uncomfortable. My overall relationship to the painting is one of intrigue and mild excitement.

The painting has definitely showed me how the act of looking needs to be treated in a more proactive manner and that one must not regard works of art in a lazy fashion. It has shown me how the act of making art is precise, and how so many different elements work together to make a piece of art successful. Art is differentiated from any other type of object in the beauty (though sometimes not traditional beauty) and deeper meaning that art conveys. Art is able to point to the elusive and the eternal: these are the elements of life that few things can really touch upon with great success. Art can also take on a variety of meanings and be able to shift the perspective of many, allowing it in many ways to be ever transforming.

References (2013). Jean-Honore Fragonard. Retrieved from (2013). Rococo. Retrieved from… [read more]

Renaissance Art Ghirlandaio's "Old Man Research Paper

… The use of shade helps develop the sense that there is perspective in the painting and that objects that are closer or farther away appear so. There is also a window by which the old man and child are sitting in which appears an outdoor scene. The window shows two hills, one clearly behind the other and a road which winds through the countryside, becoming ever larger the closer it gets. The small scene shown through the window is a perfect example of how the artists of the Renaissance used perspective to create a realistic portrayal of the world around them.

Finally, like many Renaissance artworks Ghirlandaio's "Old Man with his Grandson" is strictly secular in its subject, without any religious influence. The painting is simply an old man and his grandson; no angels, halos, demons, or any religious icons or symbolism. The work of art maintains a humanist basis, showing a purely human interaction to which any person could relate.

Ghirlandaio's "Old Man with his Grandson" demonstrates a combination of Renaissance values and ideals; specifically perspective, reality, and secularism. Artists of the Renaissance sought to capture reality in their paintings, in effect they tried to make their work appear as if it were a photograph; something very difficult to accomplish with paint. However, Ghirlandaio's use of perspective and shadow allowed for a realism to come through so that the painting portrays a realistic scene of two realistic people. It also demonstrates the transformation from purely religious subjects to a more Humanist view of art, one where human interaction takes center place.


Ghirlandaio, Domenico. (1490). Old Man with his Grandson [Painting]. Retrieved from / ghirland/domenico/7panel/08oldman.html… [read more]

Pieter Jansz. Saenredam Research Paper

… Pieter Jansz. Saenredam was a Dutch painter most commonly known for his involvement in producing paintings of church interiors during the seventeenth century. There is much controversy with regard to Saenredam's interest in religion, considering how his paintings tend to… [read more]

Art Exhibition Essay

… Art Exhibition

One of the more often repeated sayings is that the United States is a melting pot of cultures. This is nowhere as true as it is when thinking about the artistic experience since the late 18th century forward. Celebrating this immigrant experience, the Smithsonian Institution presents an exhibit entitled, Our America: The Latino Presence in American Art. The exhibit is located in Washington, D.C., and lasts from October 25, 2013 to March 2, 2014. The exhibition includes 92 works in all media from 72 artists in various styles and genres. The overall message of the exhibition is to celebrate Latino culture through the local experience about what it means to be a Latino in modern-America; the cultural and personal heritage expressed though art as a community. One of the more interesting aspects of the exhibit was not only the diversity of medium, but the vast differences in style and interpretation among the Latino community. For instance, the offerings include artists from the Mexican, Cuban, Puerto Rican, as well as numerous other Central and South American immigrant heritages. Each of these artists seems also to embody the spirit of their particularly unique -- yet similar -- mix of Latinism and Americanism. The exhibit also includes film, music, artistic/educational programs, as well as concerts, panels and panel discussions. This makes the exhibition more well-rounded and multi-dimensional (Smithsonian, 2013).

My visit to the exhibition was done with a good friend, who is a humanities major and was able to make several inferences about many of the works tie together for me. In addition, my friend is fairly fluent in Spanish, and we not only understood more from other Spanish-speaking attendees, the mood was jovial when I became a student of Spanish 101.Despite the serious nature of many of the works, the nearly perfect Fall day was a mix of both an artistic buzz and educational brain ache. There is no way that one can really experience this "festival" in one day, and I know that several of the pieces were missed. But this is a positive in that it invites more than a one-time experience. Reflecting back, I think it might be interesting to split the visits into genres, then try to attend the round tables, culture walks, or extra experiences that focus on a particular theme or medium. However, I also realized after viewing only a few pieces that one important way to enhance the experience more, or even take on after the first visit, is to learn more about Hispanic history and culture for at least the 20th century on. So much of the artwork has not only cultural underpinnings, but represents or was inspired by actual historical events. Understanding the historical basis helps define the cultural basis, and thus one is able to glean more from the artistic representation. To me, this is particularly true when one thinks about the Civil Rights Movement, and to understand that the Latino contingent was crucial to many of the changes and… [read more]

Interpretation of Specific Works of Art Essay

… ¶ … works of Art

The Hallucinogenic Toreador is an oil painting and as indicated on its footnote description was painted between the years 1968-1970 by Salvador Dali while taking care of the canons of his understanding of surrealist thought. Currently this piece of art is exhibited at Salvador Dali Museum found in St. Petersburg in Florida.

Elements and principles of design in the painting

Elements of art are the things which are most visuals in the particular artwork. There are various formal elements of art that the artists used in his artwork. They include; color, this entails the visual and perpetual property that is found within an image. The intensity, purity, strength and depth of the colors used in a painting immensely contribute to the feel and purpose of the painting. For instance Dali used warm and inviting colors in his painting. These colors draw viewers into the painting. The right side of the painting comprises of warm colors ranging from pink to orange at the top extending to a red cloth which is draped around the waist of Venus de Milo.

Another element of art that is visibly used in this painting is shape. Shape is described by anatomy, contour and configuration of the objects. The painting has various images that are in repetition. In such a painting whereby one can make little sense out of it, the repetition of images that can be recognized creates an anchor which the viewers can embrace. This is even when they are not quite aware of t6he reason for the repetition. The image combines the use of versatile images as an illustration of the artistic creation of the artist. Dali mastered the art of hiding images in his work. For instance, the bust and torso of Venus clad in white and green comprise the toreador's face. Another hidden image is the shadow under her left breast which was also his nose's shadow as seen on the display.

Value is another formal element of art that has been used in this painting. Value refers to the specific tone of color that has been used for the emphasis and accentualization of the particular artwork the brightness of the painting has been balanced in such a way that there is a skillful use of shadings and colors.

Principles are concepts which are used during the organization and arrangement of structural elements of design in a piece of art. The manner in which these principles are applied has an effect on the expressive content or even the message the artwork is intended to portray. Balance is the concept of visual equilibrium that relates to the physical sense of balance. Balance in artwork is achieved in asymmetrical and symmetrical ways. The images within the painting are properly balanced in both symmetrical and asymmetrical ways. The finishing of the image is so good such that anyone observing it fails to notice the double image quality that is found in the artwork.

Proportion refers to the relative scale… [read more]

Mathematics and Art Research Paper

… This is a fairly new field, which may fall under another fairly new field, called Software Studies, which has been pioneered by Lev Manovich. Both men are highly educated and on the cutting edge of their respective studies and activities, making data visualization a hot topic and a fashionable trend that continues to gain in popularity and in utility.

There are professionals throughout the world who ask and argue whether or not data visualization is art because it is driven and contingent upon data, which is mathematical and scientific in nature. No matter where the visualization comes from, it is a form of expression that is expressed artistically and with great consideration for aesthetics.

In addition to the data visualization itself, there is a whole range of graphic design decisions that must be made in order for the visualization to come to fruition. Some of those decisions include the layout, color scheme/palette, font selection, composition, size, and many elements that add visual hierarchy and structure that are all opportunities for creativity. The decisions that creators must make in order to create the best representation of the data are of the same order of decisions that artists make when they make a sculpture, painting, drawing, or installation. Additionally, in some ways, artists make mathematical and scientific decisions for their art. The arguments over whether data visualization is mathematical or artistic further illustrates the earlier point that the lines between math and art no longer exist, and perhaps were quite illusory in the first place.


Meersschaert, K. (2012). Does Math + Art = Teachable Data Visualization? Columbia University, Web, Available from: 2013 June 14.… [read more]

Satyr With the Grapes: Food in Ancient to Modern Art Essay

… food from ancient to modern art. The image of the Satyr with the grapes

The significance of the influence that ancient Greek has on the industry of wines in all the regions across the world is remarkable. Greek carries long histories of wine, and the cultivation of olive and the vine. These plants bear grapes used to brew the wines, a state that existed from the ancient times the early years of the nation. Ancient Greek pioneered methods of cultivating and producing wine, which it then passed to the other winemaking communities in the modern era. Similarly, art was a subject of development in ancient Greece. Paintings were a way of expression and intimacy with the surrounding environment. Among the themes used in this period are still in use to date, for various reasons.

Satyrs treading grapes in an amphora of Athens, about 530-520 B.C,

The painting Amphora with satyrs treading grapes is a masterpiece created in the Greek archaic period. The painting is on a black, two-handled, ceramic jar, with a black figure on the image. This painting shows the satyr carrying a basket of grapes as they cross some water on a boat. This theme sets the stage for most other paintings in both the modern and the ancient times to grow and develop. Several artists and painters applied the theme of using the grapes and the black aspect of the painting.

Statue of a Satyr Holding Grapes, Versailles, 1672, Vues et Plans de Versailles, c.1672-8,

The painting of the statue of Satyr holding grapes originates from French nationality. The painting is spectacular in its engraving aspect and borrows the theme of the use of grapes in the painting. Therefore, it is clear that this painting, made several years after the Amphora painting, uses the same theme of grapes and wine industry in the country. Therefore, it conclusively indicates that the modern artwork draws inspirations and remarkable painting techniques for the artists. The statue holds a bunch of grapes in the hands; hence the utilization of the theme of grapes and their meaning. This is a spectacular work of art; done on the principle of ancient Greece painting from a different nation shows the extent of the application of the theme.

Satyr Playing with Eros (1877)

This painting is among the surviving works of its time and type. It is a painting of the ancient Greek art, using modern artwork systems. The painting shows satyr playing with Ethos, a system that depicts understanding of the ancient world. This painting elicits the feeling that the artwork was a universal communication channel, in which artists used same themes to develop themselves, and the issue of producing works similar to being original can test a painter's ability. In the aspect of using satyr, the painting gives the interpretation of life as carefree and; therefore, the aspects of testing for the quality of the painting and the themes. From this painting, satyr identifies himself with Ethos and this portrays satyr as Greek… [read more]

Art History: The Impressionists Baroque Term Paper

… Different aspects of baroque art were determined by religion. For example the church of Roman Catholic became a great influential patron, as well as its Counter Reformation. As it aimed at spreading Protestantism, it uses dramatic, realistic and emotional art to propagate their faith. Countries like northern Germany and Netherlands as well indicate simplicity of Protestantism by explaining the severity of architectural styles within these areas. Art was also influenced through politics circumstances. For example the existed monarchies of Spain and France facilitated the coming up of art works reflecting splendor and size of the majesty of their kings, Philip IV and Louis XIV.

Characteristics of Baroque

Some of the characteristics of baroque art generally are tension, energy, and sense of movement. Their dramatic effects of most of the sculptures and paintings are enhanced by the strong contrasts of shadow and light. Baroque buildings together with their undulating walls as well as decorated surface elements also indicated motion with contrasts in color and light. Baroque art always presents intense spirituality, for example countries which are influenced by Roman Catholic tend to commonly have scenes of martyrdoms, ecstasies, or miraculous apparitions. Contrary to the units that were present within Renaissance, baroque sculptures or paintings always suggests infinite space. Another important integral feature of baroque art is realism, where the painted figures are not types; they are persons with their own personalities. Most of the artist who were concerned with how the inner mind works tried to bring out passions of the soul on their work of art.


Some of the nations have continued to experience baroque especially in European colonies within the Americas. Through social, religious and political influence they have been derived and painted to signify the intended theme.


Thames & Hudson, (1985). Development of 17th- and 18th-century Western European art.… [read more]

Material World and Meaning Essay

… Art can be used to express sociological meanings and worldviews. American artist Andy Warhol understood this aspect of art as a political and social tool, and applied that to his work. One of Warhol's most famous works of art is actually a series in which he painted Campbell's Soup cans in a colorful "pop art" kitch manner. One of the most notable of the soup can series is known as "100 Cans." In this painting, Warhol renders the labels of 100 Campell's Tomato Soup cans in a grid. There is great uniformity to the design, which stretches to fill the entire canvas. No space on the canvas is left blank because it is filled with the soup cans. Warhol paints the soup cans in a realistic manner. The labels are red and white with a touch of yellow. Although the cans appear to be identical, they are not, as "A close look reveals the fact that the cans are not identical, nor are they evenly spaced. The bottom row is cut off, suggesting that they continue beyond the confines of the canvas."

The art historical context of the Warhol soup cans relates to the pop art phenomenon, in which artists were questioning the relevance of former categories of "high" versus "low" art. While Warhol's soup cans are considered to be fine art, they are also "low" art because they capitalize on imagery in popular culture. Therefore, there is some paradox and irony in the work, which also makes "100 Cans" quintessentially postmodern. When asked why he painted the soup cans, Warhol has stated, "Because I used to drink it. I used to have the same lunch every day, for 20 years, I guess, the same thing over and over again." He is expressing the monotony of eating soup every day in the painting.

However, there are deeper layers to the painting and sociological meaning can be easily read into the Warhol design. For one, the painting communicates much about consumer culture in the United States. Second, the painting conveys elements of mass market foods and the big food conglomerates that control the American diet. Third, the Warhol painting symbolizes suburban America with its track housing and attempts to impose homogeneity and conformity on society. Just as Warhol admits to eating soup every day, he paints this to give America a mirror in which to see its own mundane and monotonous habits.

Ironically, the very essence of what Warhol was trying to convey about mass market mentality and consumer culture in America has come true as his painting of the soup cans has actually made its way onto the very soup can Warhol represented. News sources like the New York Times and CNN have featured the phenomenon, showing that the Warhol soup cans are now literally soup cans. Art and consumerism have completely fused together, in ways that Warhol predicted. Whether Warhol would have laughed or cried will never truly be known, but given his astute observations about American popular culture… [read more]

Art Is Contingent Research Paper

… This particular piece of artwork reflects what I believe to be the true definition of art. It encompasses the feelings of the artist, a reflection of an idea, the statement of a thought, and the openness to interpretation based on the viewer. This piece of artwork can be interpreted in so many different ways, that it will mean something different to every single person that encounters it. Some will relate this painting to a social or political issue, while others will understand it to be a reflection of how they are feeling at the moment. It is these key aspects that define what art is.

The Persistence of Memory uses darker, gray-toned colors. Clocks seem to droop and from odd and unconventional places. The environment is an open one. In the background, cliff-like mountain structures are seen that lead to a reflective body of water. The clocks are present in the darker areas and are all made to resemble stop watches. On the floor of the painting is what looks like a portion of a face, with a clearly outlined closed eye with eyelashes attached. The texture of the painting is a smooth one. Every structure has a rounded corner, even in areas where sharp characteristics may have been more appropriate to use. The dark background of the bottom two thirds of the painting allow for the structures drawn on it to stand out. This is where the artist wants his viewers to focus more on because this is where the main point of his artwork lays. This artwork is meant to represent the peacefulness that one feels after drifting off to sleep. The closed eye on the floor of the painting demonstrates this. The droopy hanging clocks symbolize our loss of the notion of time while sleeping. When people dream, there is no sense of anything that is going on consciously. The only reality that one experiences is that of the unconscious mind. This painting symbolizes that time during which people are in between two worlds, both of which are realities at the time. It is this exact reason why this painting is particularly intriguing. Its openness to interpretation allows viewers to relate more to…… [read more]

Renaissance Art Response Term Paper

… From the canvas, he seems to be telling the story of his entire life in a series of colored brushstrokes.

During the Renaissance, painters worked diligently to create new ways to depict the human form on canvas and wood. Before this time, artists showed human figures in very flat, two-dimensional ways. Medieval art all show people who do not look like real fully rendered human beings. During the Renaissance, this changed and artists wanted their human subjects to look like they do in the real world. The intention was to create the most realistic depiction of humanity possible in this two-dimensional medium. If one looks carefully at portraiture from this time period, it is evident that of major importance to the artists is the presentation of the subject's face. This perspective is evident in this Rembrandt painting. Even though the face looks blurred from the way the subject was painted, it still gives the impression of being a real person rather than a representation. Rembrandt himself said that in his work he intended to portray the greatest and most natural moment (Hughes 6). This is clear if you look at some of the other self-portraits that Rembrandt made. None of them are stoic, dignified poses but rather there are self-portraits of the artist wearing fancy costumes or making funny faces which he would have made by looking in a mirror.

The self-portrait of Rembrandt allows the modern viewer to see one component of traditional Renaissance art. During this period, artists became very interested in the human body and in particular the human face and how it varied from individual to individual. In this picture, Rembrandt is not handsome nor is he smiling. It does not look like a particularly important moment for him to be capturing, but that is the point, that every moment has merit and should be remembered.

Works Cited

Hughes, Robert. "The God of Realism." The New York Review of Books. 53(6), 2006. Print.

Van de Wetering, Ernst. Rembrandt: the Painter at…… [read more]

Detroit Institute of Arts Essay

… The woman standing on the beach is showing her legs in a pose that suggests the intention of grabbing her companion's attention, but every silhouette in this painting appears to be living in a world of her own, with her own thoughts and preoccupations. No features are visible, but there are stories to be told with every character.

One of the temporary exhibitions going on at the museum is titled "Motor City Muse: Detroit Photographs, Then and Now."

It is one of those exhibitions that offers a glimpse into an urbane, ephemeral world, great artists like Henry Cartier Bresson, Robert Franck or Bill Rauhauser were able to capture and make it permanent.

Van Gogh's "Bedroom in Arles," lend by the Musee d'Orsay in Paris, until May 28, 2013, has joined in exhibition the other paintings by Van Gogh at the DIA.

An upcoming exhibition is dedicated to the New York based, contemporary artist, Shirin Neshat's video installations and art photography. The exhibition will be accompanied by a lecture given by Alfredo Jaar on April 3rd, a preview celebration on April 6th, a lecture conversation between the artist herself and Nobel Prize laureate, Shirin Ebadi, moderated by Culumbia University's Professor of Iranian Studies and Comparative Literature, Hamid Dabashi.

Another interesting exhibition, coming up, will be dedicated to the animated film, this time. Starting on Sunday, October 6th, "Watch Me Move, the Animation Show," will be open to those who are keen to find out more about the animation world, as it evolved over a period of 150 years. Personal appearances by contemporary animators at the Detroit Film Theater will punctuate the exhibition.

The Detroit Institute of Arts is two blocks away from, I-94 and its busy intersection with other highways, thus easily accessible from all directions. Street parking is available on all four streets enclosing the museum. There are two parking lots for paid self-parking and also valet parking available.

Those who want to find out more about a subject or an exhibition, can participate in the museum's daily public or private tours, can listen to one of the multiple lectures or a concert, or try to make art of their own in one of the art workshops.

The museum is kid and family friendly and it offers family group tours and field trips.

There is a Wayne and Joan Webber Education Wing with spaces dedicated to educational programs.

The "Family Sundays" include a puppet performance and various artist demonstrations, each Sunday.

The museum's shop sells jewelry, pottery, books, albums, office stationary, souvenirs, puzzles, exhibition catalogues, DVDs, T-shirts, wall art, accessories, articles dedicated to kids, like toys, books, games etc. Some of them at reasonable prices, some, like some jewelry pieces, porcelain and glass items, especially those supporting the local producers, more on the expensive side.

For food and beverages there are CafeDIA and Cresge Court Coffe Shop that are available for those who want to take a break, find a meeting place or rest and enjoy a cup of coffee… [read more]

Modern Art of the Twenty First Century Thesis

… Modern Art of the 21st Century

Throughout the course of history, artists have used a number of different techniques in illustrating their ideas and thoughts about particular images. This is because various tactics utilized in the past were often incorporated… [read more]

Art in South America and the Pacific Term Paper

… Art in South America and the Pacific

Aboriginal Creation Myths and Art

The Aborigines have existed for approximately 40,000 years in parts of Australia. They boast one of the most ancient cultures in the world that is as varied as… [read more]

Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel Term Paper

… While there is literal and symbolic meaning in the ceiling's content, it is also significant to consider the reality that the artist experienced to create this masterpiece. What the artist went through as part of the creative endeavor is a… [read more]

Integrated Arts Research Paper

… Art Interview

An Interview with Two Artists

Two Post-Impressionists, Paul Gauguin and Vincent Van Gogh became friends in the late 19th century in Paris, France. They lived together for a time in Arles in the famous "Yellow House," until Van Gogh fell ill and was hospitalized and Gauguin left for other parts of the world to pursue his vocation as an artist. An interview with these two painters reveals the dynamic of their relationship at this time and the essence of their craft and what they were trying to achieve through their unique approaches to painting. Both have left behind some brilliant pieces of work. This paper will discuss with them how they approached their art and how their friendship affected their painting.

Q: You both spent time in Paris. What did you gain from the art scene there?

Gaugin: "I was born in Paris, of course, and returned there after parting ways with my family. I was very much interested in the Impressionistic style all around me. I was looking for something real in life -- something that transcended the insipid reality that everyone was busy manufacturing for himself. Paris offered a glimpse -- but only a glimpse. I had to keep going further and further -- beyond the reach of urban life."

Van Gogh: "I was embracing Impressionism and using it to reflect the world in a real way. But whether I was painting Fritillaries for a love interest or for my own does not take away from the fact that my spirit was now alive with an intensity that was as bright and fervent as my religious soul had been a decade earlier. However, my heart was not content to stay in the city: thus I traveled to Arles to study and paint the scenes and images that had inspired my early works like the Potato Eaters -- only now the same scenes and settings would be bright, alive, and soulful. I was becoming overwhelmed by the beauty and grace in nature and in people." (Johnson 607)

Q: What was your biggest inspiration?

Gaugin: "I can say that life itself was an inspiration. The mystery of it all. Who are we? Where are we going? My paintings address these questions because I feel they are important. We do not take enough time to properly address them. All around us is a mad rush of activity and ideas, but no or little discernment. Little reflection, meditation. I'm inspired by the idea of natural, primitive beauty."

Van Gogh: "God is the inspiration. His presence in all things, in us -- our attempt to measure up to him. It is a struggle. I see that struggle and enter into it. It is not an easy thing to do. I have been called mad by many, insane, crazy. I cut off my ear, hear voices, shoot myself. But am I crazy? I wanted to be a missionary in my younger days, but could not. Art is an outlet through which I… [read more]

Art Development of Artistic Concepts Essay

… Art Dev

Development of Artistic Concepts and Skills Across Grade Levels

The concept of sings, symbolism, and style in artworks is something that requires advanced critical thinking skills to fully appreciate, engage with, and eventually create, and the skill of interpreting and working with signs, symbols, and styles is something that develops over time with concerted effort and practice. Guiding the development of these concepts and skills is something that teachers at various grade levels must appreciate as a continuous and ongoing process, adapting lessons to effectively promote a skill level appropriate to the students' current grade level yet building explicitly on previous learning and remaining equally mindful of future learning to occur in subsequent years. The following pages present the foundations of this concept and skill at the Grade 7 level, and includes lesson plans for Grade 9 and 10 as well.

Concept and Skill Progression from Grades 7 to 10

The concept of symbols, signs, and individualistic style choices and the skill of reading and interpreting these signs, etc., should be present and enhanced in Grade 7 coursework (Sickinger, n.d.). Simply put, the skill involved is the ability to interpret abstract concepts such as emotions, ideals, and philosophical or political statements from visual elements included in artwork, with the concept of these visual elements divided into distinct groups of signs, symbols, and stylistic choices (Hickman, 2004; Sickinger, n.d.). Almost any work of art could be examined as a means of illustrating the concept and skills involved, though there are some choices that are more explicit or obvious than others (Sickinger, n.d.).

With the foundation of the concept and skill established in Grade 7, it is fairly easy to trace the progression of these elements through subsequent grades of schooling. In Grade 8, the ability for students to interpret the signs, symbols, and styles they encounter should expend to more subtle, nuanced, and complex geopolitical situations, allegorical references, and other less-obvious or -- familiar phenomena (Hickman, 2004; Sickinger, n.d.). In Grade 9, the concept should expand to include not simply the individual visual elements of an artwork but the overall organization of signs, symbols, and stylistic choices within a given work of art and within a given time period, enhancing the interpretative skill still further (Sickinger, n.d.). Finally, by Grade 10 students should be able to fully utilize signs, symbols, and conscious stylistic choices in their own creative expression, showing mastery of the skill and concepts through their own manipulation and creation rather than simple interpretation (Sickinger, n.d.).

Grade 9 Lesson Plan

Primary Task: Examining the painting Guernica by Pablo Picasso, students are to write a paper explaining the organization of the visual elements of the work and their relevance to the historical and artistic context of the work's creation.

Learning Objective: Students connect personal reactions to aesthetic elements with historical events and artistic trends. Historical knowledge and critical thinking are utilized to develop complex interpretations of individual aesthetic elements and their cohesion within a single piece of artwork.… [read more]

Dadaism and Surrealism Essay

… Conclusion

To cut a long story short, Dadaism and Surrealism have influenced history in a very radical and effective manner. Having a lot of similarities, both the movements differ only on few grounds. Not only did the Surrealists produce paintings, they also did marvelous works in the field of film, theatre, comedy and contemporary cultures. The influence of the discussed two historical art periods is significant and would remain be on the future art.


ART BOOKS OF THE YEAR; Van Gogh's Letters, Grayson Perry's Pots a Scholarly Study of Caravaggio and a Glimpse into the World of the Insane Henry Darger -- Just a Few of the Treats Guaranteed to Give Pleasure This Christmas. (2009, December 10). The Evening Standard (London, England), p. 48. Retrieved June 27, 2012, from Questia database:

Dada. (2009). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved June 27, 2012, from Questia database:

Essak, S. (n.d.). Dada - Art History 101 Basics: The Non-Art Movement (1916-23). Retrieved June 27, 2012 from

MobileReference. (2007). Encyclopedia of philosophy for smartphones and mobile devices - free 3 chapters in the trial version. Boston: Retrieved June 27, 2012 from

Surrealism. (2009). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved June 27, 2012, from Questia database:

Willette, J.S.M. (2011, June 17). Comparison of Dada and Surrealism. Retrieved June 27, 2012 from… [read more]

Japanese Art of Balance Term Paper

… One of the areas of balance that is cultivated when creating origami is patience. If the folds are not just right and in the correct order, or if one gets in a hurry and is sloppy, the origami will not… [read more]

Visual Art Vincent Van Gogh Term Paper

… However, this portrait in the painting was replaced by the portrait of a woman in the replica that was made in 1771 (Hulsker, 1996).

Van Gogh's work can now be dated accurately since the profiled work has now been proven to be original. It was in the Letter 555 (17 October 1888) that Van Gogh wrote "in order to let you know that I have completed the canvas that represent my bedroom this afternoon I am adding a line" (Vincent Gallery 2012).

Due to all these letter by Van Gogh in which he has mentioned such details most of his work could be dated with a lot of precision.


During Van Gogh's time in Paris it can be seen that his work constitutes of very bright and striking colours. Vincent's Bedroom in Arles also has this same usage of bold and striking colours. During Gogh's Arles and Saint-Remy period it seems like yellow became his favourite colour as he has used it in his work a lot (Vincent Gallery 2012).

Van Gogh's work especially the one that he has done in the latter half of his career shows the use of unique perspective. Even in his painting of the bedroom all the objects seem to be pointing towards the viewer; this is one of the factors that make his painting so easily recognizable. Van Gogh started rebelling against the muted and dull colours used by the Dutch artists at the time with the use of bold and bright colours in his work (The Seated Zouave and The Night Cafe in the Place Lamartine in Arles, can be seen for example) (Vincent Gallery 2012).

There is another interesting perspective present about the Van Gogh's work. According to Ronald Pickvance, Van Gogh's work shows a more realistic approach. According to Pickvance in his book Van Gogh in Arles, the shape of Van Gogh's room was quite different because of which he had to draw it in the way he did. Therefore, it was not his artistic perspective rather the actual appearance of the room which made him draw the painting like he did. The actual shape of Gogh's room can be seen in the diagram when it is held at a particular angle (Pickvance, 1984).

Other versions

As it has been mentioned above that there are five versions of Van Gogh's bedroom in Arles, from among these three are oil on canvas and two are letter sketches. At the time when Gogh was in the asylum under voluntary confinement two copies of the painting were made. Later on, Gogh himself made a lot of copies during his early days in the asylum. It was his way of showing his lonely life that he was leading in the asylum. This has also been told by him to his friends in Arles as well (Vincent Gallery 2012).

There are many people who believed that in the original painting Van Gogh has expressed his dreams and wishes. Gogh wanted to build a community for… [read more]

Art History Essay

… Art History

Certainly, after proceeding into the course, I see the world with a radically different perspective than when you began your art studies. I now look much more deeply into things around you myself and with a different set of eyes and mind. I now do not see art as something that has a definitive form or an exact composition. Rather, the art can be relative have elements that do not have to directly reflect reality on the surface. Indeed, via principles of art as well as the significance of the things that one is looking it in terms of symbols or themes. Mystically, art opens up the vistas of the human mind and the subconscious that we would otherwise ignore. It helps us to not just "smell the roses" so to speak, but to take a mind trip, so to speak, and to see them in new colors and perspectives that we would not otherwise have been able to have.

This really hits upon what art is. Whether it is 20,00 French cave art or the most modern art that one can find in a museum, art and abstraction really is a uniquely human activity. It is a reflection of the human soul put on canvas. We dwell on what endures and lives beyond. Reality is not just what we see, but a mystical something that we can not readily lay our hands on. Art gives us the mystical tools to grasp this underlying reality and bring it back to the surface to appreciate in properly whether we are in the cathedral or in the exhibit hall. After all, for most of us, the art museums are our temples and we must adorn them with the sacred to help us find meaning in the crazy world.


I like the synthetic cubist painting by Picasso on page 300 better due to the clown like character of the landscape that the artist created. Cubism appeals to me because of its abstraction of reality, breaking it down and then analyzing its component parts. Analytic Cubism much simpler being a less sophisticated analysis of the objects/subjects by pulling them apart for analysis into planes. The Synthetic Cubism in this painting of the three musicians is more of a pushing together of the several objects together for analysis. It is less pure though because is looks like it has fewer shifts of focus and also less shading. This looks so much to me like the artist was trying to create a perception of flatter space.

With this otherworldly appearance and appeal, Picasso's paintings are very surreal, mystical and magical at the same time. If Picasso had lived around Berkeley n the 1960's, I would think he would have been taking acid and running around with Timothy Leary dropping psychedelics and listening to rock music to expand his mind. The whole painting is a transpersonal trip into an altered world of perception that only Picasso knew and understood and that he refused… [read more]

Maori Art Research Paper

… As such, there has not been any way to yet find what a large set of carvings may mean. One particularly interesting argument suggests that the Mako was a way of separating the Maori men and women from the realm of life and death. As it had a holy significance, the carvings could have been either a source of protection from death or a means of being unified with the dead (Gathercole 177). Since each of the various Maori tribes had a different set of symbols, it would be quite difficult to translate since a similar icon could mean a very many different things depending upon who it was that was asked of from what tribe that person belonged.

As the art world has expanded, museums and art collectors have become interested in amassing collections of art which include historic artifacts. There are examples of Maori carvings in locations where the original creators of the pieces could never have envisioned. Rather than religiously import artifacts, sculptures of the Maori culture are placed upon shelves and pedestals, given the same importance as a painting from the Renaissance or an installment from the modern art movement, but they are given no more. The religious and cultural import of the piece has been completely erased and instead it is only appreciated in terms of the aesthetic.

In the article "The Maori Carver" by R.W. Firth, he describes the way that the artifacts from the Maori culture are looked upon as pieces of art rather than as artifacts of an ancient culture. This, the author argues, is completely inappropriate because this removes the Maori items from their historical context and thus deprives them of meaning besides the aesthetic. Firth writes:

In order to appreciate the full value of the art it is necessary to study it not only in Museum show-cases, where it is as a thing dead and set apart, but also as far as possible in its original and natural setting in the villages and homes of the people, where it is full of life and character (1).

This is an important perspective because it highlights the difficulty between appreciating an artifact for its beauty and understanding a work in light of its cultural, historical, and sociological context.

The Maori culture is exemplified by the art that was created, just as art of any culture fulfills the role as historian and works as testimony to their culture. For the Maori, the process called Mako which is the carving of the skin of people of the Maori culture, was a symbol of their culture and served as a representation of what was important to them. That ancient culture could never have guessed that modern peoples would take items that were of sacred and holy importance to them and to display them for the entire world to see. Based upon the way they treated even the scraps from their wood carvings, it is highly unlikely that they would have appreciated their icons being treated… [read more]

Country Maid Art Analysis Research Paper

… Pissarro often painted working-class women, and some of his other well-known works include The Maidservant, Washerwoman, and A Young Woman Washing Dishes. Pissarro painted the darker side of rural life, unlike his fellow Impressionists who enjoyed showing the beauty of unspoiled nature. "The key theme of domestic labor is linked, in turn, to Pissarro's views on agricultural labor and the market economy" and in domestic servitude in The Little Country Maid.[footnoteRef:1] [1: "Groundbreaking perspective on Camille Pissarro opens at the Legion of Honor this fall," Art Daily, December 12, 2011,]

Pissarro was the lone Impressionist who made domestic workers his central focus, just as much as Degas focused on ballet dancers and Monet upon flowers. Pissarro was described as a political radical during his era, and this is manifest in his depiction of the maid and in his other work. "Scholars have tended to treat Pissarro's politics and his art in two separate categories, often refusing to see the most basic connections between them. This is largely because Pissarro was less a political activist than a social and economic philosopher.[footnoteRef:2]" However, although his work has a clear ideological perspective, it is also characterized by humanism and respect for the subject. The maid is not objectified to make a political point. [2: Ibid.]

Pissarro's work recalls that of Vermeer's servant girls, although instead of Vermeer's glowing and illuminated women, Pissarro's woman is in the shadows. She is not beautiful, although she is not obviously 'lower class' other than her clothing. She is an ordinary woman, an 'every woman' with whom the gazer is encouraged to identify. In terms of its physical qualities, the painting is oil on canvas. It is a relatively small painting, only 2'1 by 1'19 in width and diameter.[footnoteRef:3] The shadowy nature of the painting is relatively distinct, and stands in contrast to the brightness characteristic of Pissarro's Impressionist contemporaries Monet and Renoir. The brushstrokes are typical of the Impressionist period: "relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes; open composition; emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities; common, ordinary subject matter; the inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience; and unusual visual angles.[footnoteRef:4]" [3: "The Little Country Maid," Juggle References, December 12, 2011,] [4: Ibid.]

In his book Pissarro's People, the art historian and scholar Richard R. Brettell states that Pissarro was an anarchist who used representations of the material world to convey his ideas. This can be seen in the quiet yet lifelike maid. Although the motion of the painting does not arrest the viewer, the maid's containment and sense of a forcibly concealed inner life is poignant and haunting. The work is testimony to the fact that Impressionism can be 'political' in nature, and not merely a subjective rendering of an artist's momentary state of consciousness.


Brettell, Richard. Pissarro's People. Prestel, 2011.

"Groundbreaking perspective on Camille Pissarro opens at the Legion of Honor this fall."

Art Daily. December 12, 2011,

"The Little Country Maid."… [read more]

Art Both Duccio Di Buoninsegna Term Paper

… Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997, p. 1; 6]

The underlying messages and meanings of the two paintings are different. Lippi is showing Jesus as the bearer of the Book, which is the doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church. The book occupies the center point of the composition. Also, the eye is drawn to the background because the left leaf of the book points to a scroll that one of the angels is holding. The scroll and the book together refer to the Catholic teachings. Lippi is not painting the maternal love between Virgin Mary and Baby Jesus, as de Buoninsegna does. Unlike Lippi, di Buoninsegna is concerned more with the ability to convey universal maternal love. The purpose of the de Buoninsegna painting of the Madonna is to portray the love that Mary has for Jesus and vice-versa. For Lippi, the purpose of the painting is more political: to discuss the supremacy of Church doctrine and to show that Jesus is the Logos (Divine Word). Madonna's love is the more important subject to di Buoninsegna, whereas Jesus is the more central subject for Lippi. Lippi accomplishes his subject matter by portraying baby Jesus as the only figure in the composition who is looking directly at the viewer.

These two paintings show the evolution of artistic composition and artistic ability. In di Buoninsegna's painting, the artist does not have a good sense of perspective. For example, the mother's hands are poorly rendered and appear too long, whereas the baby's head looks too small in proportion to its body. If the artist purposely rendered Jesus with his head too small, such as to make Jesus to look more like a little man than like a baby, then he would not have also depicted Jesus as a typical baby reaching out to touch his mother. By the time Lippi produced the "Madonna and Child Enthroned with Two Angels," artists had grasped perspective and form with more finesse than they had one hundred and fifty years before. The figures in Lippi's painting appear more realistic and softer than the stiff images on the di Buoninsegna painting.

The Lippi composition is far more cluttered than the di Buoninsegna one, which has ample blank space. By drawing attention only to the Madonna and child, the viewer contemplates motherly love to the exclusion of most other Christian themes. There are few colors in di Buoninsegna's palette too. On the other hand, Lippi wants the viewer to contemplate various aspects of the Church including its written Logos (Word), which is embodied in both Jesus and the Bible, which he holds. The studious angels in the background also serve to remind the viewer of the importance of dogma and doctrine, not motherly love. The artist uses a range of colors, from deep blues and reds to white and gold.

Paintings of Madonna and Child can differ radically in terms of their theme and composition; this is especially true of di Buoninsegna's "Madonna and Child" and Fra Filippo Lippi's "Madonna… [read more]

Art Historical Throughout the History Research Paper

… Art Historical

Throughout the history of art, there are those individuals who had an impact on the how everyone looked at the world around them. This is because these basic ideas gave them a new way of understanding a host of different events. One of the best artists that were able to achieve the objectives was Michael Angelo through: the paintings and sculptures that he created. This is significant, because this allowed him to be able to redefine Renaissance art and how these techniques would be applied in the future. To determine the impact of this require looking at three different scholarly journals on the subject. Once this occurs, is when we can be able to offer specific insights that will help everyone to see how this transformed modern art.

In the article that was written by Lavoy (1999), it is discussing how Michael Angelo's techniques are continually mirrored in many public works projects around the world. To determine this, the author scanned and compared several of the different sculptures with others that were constructed after his death. What he found, was that in nearly all public statutes he examined there were different elements of Michael Angelo's David that were incorporated into the project itself. As this was designed to give everyone a sense of realism about what was happening. This is important, because it is showing how Michael Angelo was able to influence the size and design of sculptures by making them appear to be realistic as well as overpowering. Once this occurs, is when the work will give everyone a sense of appreciation for the significance of the events and the person surrounding them.

Moreover, the article that was written by Eknoyan (2000), is talking about how Michael Angelo used to draw pictures of the internal organs of the body when he was younger. This helped to give him a sense…… [read more]

Mark Ryden and Lowbrow Art Movement Essay

… Lowbrowart

Mark Ryden is a Pasadena, California-based artist who, according to the biographical material on his Website, "first garnered attention in the 1990s when he ushered in a new genre of painting, 'Pop Surrealism.'" Likewise, critics have called Ryden "a pop star of painting," ("Mark Ryden at the Frye Art Museum" 24). Ryden has achieved fame and notoriety, as his paintings have been sold to celebrities and garner a pretty penny. However, to use the word "pop" too much in the context of Mark Ryden is to neglect another dimension of the artist's work. Ryden might have achieved fame within the popular culture. Yet being popular no longer entails being "lowbrow." As Ryden's biography states, it is possible to blend popular culture icons, elements, and ideas with "techniques reminiscent of the old masters," in order to create "a singular style that blurs the traditional boundaries between high and low art," ("Mark Ryden"). Comparing Ryden to the old masters might seem presumptuous. However, a close examination of the artist's work reveals that when placed in its historical and cultural context, Mark Ryden indeed occupies the intersection between highbrow and lowbrow art.

Lowbrow art is a term used by critics like Gilbert Shelton, founder of Juxtapoz, and editor of books like The Lowbrow Art of Robert Williams. Elevating what might once have been called lowbrow art to the position of highbrow does not require the work of art critics. Rather, the transformation of lowbrow into highbrow requires new viewers and changes in society itself. Related to the Mark Ryden exhibition at the Frye Art Museum, one critic notes that when Susan Sontag first wrote about "camp" in art, it was in the 1960s. Art like Ryden's transcends Sontag's definition of camp in many ways. For one, there is some "seriousness and dignity in what it achieves," to use Sontag's words (cited in "Mark Ryden at the Frye Art Museum"). Moreover, Ryden's art includes disturbing, macabre, and evocative imagery that begs the viewer to penetrate deeper. Camp rarely achieves such a lofty goal. As Shelton puts it, "there are no sociological prerequisites for being a lowbrow," (34).

Ryden's art contains "subject matter loaded with cultural connotation," ("Mark Ryden"). As such, the art seems to be lowbrow because it refers frequently to popular culture and its icons. Yet Ryden's "infinitely detailed and meticulously glazed surfaces" elevate the popular culture elements to the realm of high art ("Mark Ryden"). Much high art contains elements from popular culture; the subject matter itself does not define whether an art is considered highbrow or lowbrow.

One reason why Ryden has achieved recognition in art circles is because the symbols the artist uses "only pose questions," ("Mark Ryden at the Frye Art Museum" 24). For instance, a common theme in Ryden's work is children. Children are depicted in unnatural states, though. They are cartoon-like in their rendition but they appear sad, old, or emotionally disturbed. The viewer is not looking at something that would be considered camp or "pop,"… [read more]

Artistic Styles Essay

… (Holroyd)

These art works were created during the Renaissance. How do they illustrate Renaissance values and ideals?

The most common values / ideals that these different canvases are illustrating include: balance / proportion and the chiaraiso. The use of balance and proportion is utilized in both works through: showing life like images of subjects. In the case of Michael Angelo's Pieta, he is taking this one step further by illustrating real life images that were taking place. Once this occurred, it meant that everyone could relate and understand these ideas. Where, this is giving a sense of realism in the various works of art. (Richardson)

Chaiaraiso is when different colors and lighting are used to set the tone of the art work. In Isenheim Altarpiece, this being utilized with: dark colors in the background to show the sense of confusion and despair. However, when you look at the various subjects in the paintings, they are in brighter colors (i.e. gold and red). This is designed to highlight how a sense of momentous change is occurring with this incident. As a result, the use of chaiariso is a common technique that many painters will embrace to create a sense of mysticism and reality. In this work, Gruenwald used this as way to create an appreciation for these events and their meanings. (Richardson)

These different elements are important, because they are showing how: the values and ideals have been constantly changing during the Renaissance. As, artists were embracing more liberal techniques to: tell a story, provide a sense of realism and mysticism. Over the course of time, these different factors would help to make these works of art masterpieces (based upon the way the artists were able to use these values and ideals).


"Isenheim Altarpiece.", 2011. Web. 10 Jun. 2011

Holroyd, Charles. Michael Angelo. London: Ballayntyne, 2004. Print.

Richardson, Carol. Renaissance Art. Malden: Blackwell, 2007. Print.… [read more]

Post-Revolutionary French Art Essay

… Grisby also uses the opinion of modern art historians to corroborate her opinions; this also helps to strengthen her argument regarding the significance of Gross's painting.

In her article titled Nudity A la Grecque in 1799, Grisby also sets out to challenge some of the popular notions commonly associated with this work of art. She employs primary sources to support her interpretation of the piece and also to bring to light a broader understanding of the significance of the painting. This understanding is not distracted or hindered by the particulars of the painting. In her article Grisby directly challenges the commonly accepted scholarly interpretation of the piece which claims that it is a representation aimed at reconciling the fractured and divided post-Revolutionary French society using women as mediators due to their familial influence. A signinficant amount of attention is paid to the critical reception of the piece. This is done by Grisby in order to provide a representation of the atmosphere and culture of the time period. The atmosphere and culture of the time period is one that appears politically and socially fractured. Formal Criticisms of the piece allow readers to understand the political and social atmosphere of the time period. It appears that people's opinions regarding the piece were informed and influenced by their social or political standing. The reaction to the nudity of the male warriors in the painting was intended to be an insertion of classical artistic elements often seen in antique Greek and Roman depictions of heroes. The nudity was instead interpreted in a literal sense and allowed no metaphorical significance. This was due to the fact that classical artistic elements like heroic nudity contrasted and conflicted sharply with modern critics of high social standing. Their modern taste for materialism and wealth did not allow them to appreciate an artistic element that was important for Jacques Louis David.

Both of the articles written by Grisby allow provide readers a window that peers into post-Revolutionary French society while at the same time relating how political and social constructs affected the reception and appreciation of art. Grisby's articles describe a time where art is intertwined with politics and social conventions. These social conventions helped changed the art world and vice-versa. Art was evolving because of social and political issues as some of the most important and significant works of the period were commissioned by the government. As Grisby points out however, despite their governmental commission they provided controversy due to their artistic elements and depictions which many times had significant connotations and associations which could be derived from them.

Works Cited

Grimaldo Grisby, Darcy . "Nudity A la Grecque in 1799." Art Bulletin 80.2 (1998): 311-335. Print.

Grimaldo Grisby, Garcy. "Rumor, Contagion, and Colonization…… [read more]

Baroque Art the Following Is a List Essay

… Baroque Art

The following is a list of the top five works of Baroque art to be discussed at the lecture.

Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665)

Rape of the Sabine Women, 1634-1635. Oil on canvas, 154 x 209 cm. Located at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)

Arrival of Marie de Medici at Marseilles, 1622-1625. Oil on canvas, 5'1" x 3'9." Located at the Musee du Louvre, Paris.

Artemisia Gentileschi (1593-c. 1652/1653)

Judith Slaying Holofernes, c. 1612-1621. Oil on canvas, 6'6" x 5'4." Located at the Uffizi Gallery, Florence.

Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velazquez (1599-1660)

Los Barrochos (the Drinkers), c. 1629. Oil on canvas, 165 cm x 188 cm. Located at the Prado Museum, Spain.

Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680)

David, 1623. Marble, 5'7." Located in the Galleria Borghese, Rome.

Baroque art is well-known for its dramatic depictions of scenes, its blatant use of detailed interpretation, and its use of color and light. The bigger the impression that the work makes on the audience, the better. And so it is only fitting that the following works come out as the best of the realm of Baroque art of the 16th and 17th centuries. I have stuck mainly to the oil on canvas paintings that grace the Baroque period, but Bernini's David is also worth noting as a brilliant piece of Baroque work.

Poussin's Rape of the Sabine Women portrays the chaos in the streets as the men of Rome take the women of the Sabine families as their wives. Similarly, another artistic depiction of this can be found in a marble sculpture by Giambologna (1529-1608), though the oil painting itself gives a more violent and moving scenery. Every piece of canvas has been filled with movement, from the laments of the grandmothers and the infants, to the hurried agonies of the women themselves as they are whisked away.…… [read more]

Compare and Contrast Two Art Periods Essay

… Art History/Impressionism

Paintings of the French Impressionists have long enjoyed tremendous popularity among museum-goers in the United States. "The Impressionist galleries at the Metropolitan Museum, the National Gallery of Art, the Art Institute of Chicago, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston serve as the crowning spaces in their larger installations of European easel painting, and most of these Impressionist galleries have the highest attendance of any permanent collection spaces in the museums" (Brettell, 1995). The purpose of this paper is to compare impressionism and post impressionism in terms of their characteristics of style and historical origins and significance. Impressionism was all about the changing light in natural settings. Post impressionist artists took these notions about light and the natural world and imposed on them more form and structure, fitting for the transition into the more modern world of the twentieth century.

In the mid-nineteenth century, when Impressionism was born, France was undergoing great change. Paris began its ascent as a capital of luxury and fashion. As well, the city became more industrialized, upsetting the social order (Hill, 1980, p. 9). Those who benefited from the advances in technology wanted cultural symbols that represented continuity and stability. Classical art was France's official art, to the dismay of art student Claude Monet, who said of the Greek busts and bas-reliefs favored by the upper classes, "there is no sincerity" (Hill, p. 10). Monet and some of his fellow students -- Cezanne, Degas, Renoir, Sisley, and Pissaro -- rebelled against their classical training and exhibited their work as part of a group exhibition in April, 1974. Critics were appalled and French society was enraged (Hill, p. 10). To some, the paintings looked as though they were unfinished.

The Impressionist painters responded to the classical style and the people of Paris it represented to them. They responded to an increasingly industrialized society by embracing the natural world. Their aim was not to represent the natural world in a careful, controlled way, but to use vivid colors and quick, bold brushstrokes to capture the essence, or impression, of nature and the play of light. An excellent example can be seen in Monet's painting c. 1872, Regatta at Argenteuil, which is housed at the Louvre.

Regatta shows some sailboats on what appears to be a clear summer day. The sky is comprised of a series of short, horizontal brushstrokes that the artist made with various shades of blue, white and gray. The water is even brighter blue than the sky, and in it one can see reflections of the sails as well as the people, buildings, and trees on shore. The trees are bright green; the buildings are shades of orange and red. It is easy to see that the painting depicts sailboats on a lake, but the painting appears to have been done in haste. Edges and details are blurred and the viewer's overall impression is of an explosion of color and light. The last great works of Monet… [read more]

Claude Monet Madame Monet and Child in a Garden Term Paper

… Art

Salvador Dali's name is nearly synonymous with surrealist art. Dali was born in Figueres, Spain in 1904 and "had the fortune of being surrounded by several creative people during his youth" (McNesse and Dali 23). The phantasmagoric and dreamlike imagery notable in Dali's work can be at least partially attributed to the young Salvadore's unconventional upbringing with a Catholic mother and an atheist father (McNesse and Dali). Exposure to the works of the great masters solidified Dali's art career, allowing the Spaniard to transform his consciousness into brilliant works of art not just on canvas but also in installations and other avant-garde modern art expressions. The oil painting "The Persistence of Memory" is Salvadore Dali's most recognizable and most iconic. Bending watches melt over a fantasy landscape, begging inquiry into the nature of time itself. With "The Persistence of Memory," Dali blends form, composition, and meaning to convey a typically surrealist imagery of metaphysical awareness.

Forms are the most notable elements that distinguish "The Persistence of Memory" and etch the painting into the consciousness of viewers. An absolutely mundane object of daily life is pictured as melting. The time-piece is also a symbol of the workplace and the instructional and capitalist societies. Dali's painting the watches as being formless and amoebic shows the artist's intent of warping reality and revealing alternative ways of living. The horizon is naturalistic, a line drawn about a third of the way from the top of the canvas. The lighting used in the painting uses sunset colors, with impart a soothing mood. As McNesse and Dali point out, "his technical skill with a brush remains nearly unsurpassed, even as we move into the 21st century" (107).

The composition of Dali's the Persistence of Memory" is also a crucial means by which the artist conveys the central impetus to achieve metaphysical awareness. The eye is drawn to the several watches that are melting, alternating between the one draped…… [read more]

Art History vs. Accounting Essay

… Art and economics are often believed to reside in totally different dimensions, different realities. On the one side is the creative artist, who distances himself or herself from monetary needs. The Vincent van Goghs of the world spend their lives in abject poverty because their spiritual desire to create transcend their worldly needs. Artists are, in a sense, viewed as spiritual leaders. They are ascetics just as they are aesthetically inclined.

On the other side of the equation are the financiers. We the economists and accountants are the money behind the art. Unseen forces driving art, we are the people who historically have commissioned painting and other artistic expressions ranging from the ancient artists of Greece, Rome, China, and Egypt throughout the Holy Roman Empire and the Renaissance. In the ancient era through until the late nineteenth century, art was created on demand by the wealthy. The wealthy -- whether rich from power or from mercantilism -- could hire an artist for portraits or simple decor. Similarly, the Church and other religious bodies would commission artists to convey religious themes and motifs. This can be seen not just in European Christian art but also in the arts of Eastern religions.

Only until the modern era has art become something that anyone -- literally anyone -- can pursue. Prior to the modern era, art was itself dependent on the wealthy commission and therefore certain individuals would devote their lives to the art trade. Working class and poor people would starve to death if they devoted their lives to art as a hobby. Moreover, art was undervalued. Art was not viewed as creative expression at all. Before the Age of Enlightenment, individual self-expression was barely conceived of as a step in the evolution of ideas. Therefore, the human being was not expected to express emotion and…… [read more]

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