"Art / Painting / Sculpture" Essays

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Post-Revolutionary French Art Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (967 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Grisby also uses the opinion of modern art historians to corroborate her opinions; this also helps to strengthen her argument regarding the significance of Gross's painting.

In her article titled Nudity A la Grecque in 1799, Grisby also sets out to challenge some of the popular notions commonly associated with this work of art. She employs primary sources to support her interpretation of the piece and also to bring to light a broader understanding of the significance of the painting. This understanding is not distracted or hindered by the particulars of the painting. In her article Grisby directly challenges the commonly accepted scholarly interpretation of the piece which claims that it is a representation aimed at reconciling the fractured and divided post-Revolutionary French society using women as mediators due to their familial influence. A signinficant amount of attention is paid to the critical reception of the piece. This is done by Grisby in order to provide a representation of the atmosphere and culture of the time period. The atmosphere and culture of the time period is one that appears politically and socially fractured. Formal Criticisms of the piece allow readers to understand the political and social atmosphere of the time period. It appears that people's opinions regarding the piece were informed and influenced by their social or political standing. The reaction to the nudity of the male warriors in the painting was intended to be an insertion of classical artistic elements often seen in antique Greek and Roman depictions of heroes. The nudity was instead interpreted in a literal sense and allowed no metaphorical significance. This was due to the fact that classical artistic elements like heroic nudity contrasted and conflicted sharply with modern critics of high social standing. Their modern taste for materialism and wealth did not allow them to appreciate an artistic element that was important for Jacques Louis David.

Both of the articles written by Grisby allow provide readers a window that peers into post-Revolutionary French society while at the same time relating how political and social constructs affected the reception and appreciation of art. Grisby's articles describe a time where art is intertwined with politics and social conventions. These social conventions helped changed the art world and vice-versa. Art was evolving because of social and political issues as some of the most important and significant works of the period were commissioned by the government. As Grisby points out however, despite their governmental commission they provided controversy due to their artistic elements and depictions which many times had significant connotations and associations which could be derived from them.

Works Cited

Grimaldo Grisby, Darcy . "Nudity A la Grecque in 1799." Art Bulletin 80.2 (1998): 311-335. Print.

Grimaldo Grisby, Garcy. "Rumor, Contagion, and Colonization…… [read more]

Baroque Art the Following Is a List Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (620 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Baroque Art

The following is a list of the top five works of Baroque art to be discussed at the lecture.

Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665)

Rape of the Sabine Women, 1634-1635. Oil on canvas, 154 x 209 cm. Located at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)

Arrival of Marie de Medici at Marseilles, 1622-1625. Oil on canvas, 5'1" x 3'9." Located at the Musee du Louvre, Paris.

Artemisia Gentileschi (1593-c. 1652/1653)

Judith Slaying Holofernes, c. 1612-1621. Oil on canvas, 6'6" x 5'4." Located at the Uffizi Gallery, Florence.

Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velazquez (1599-1660)

Los Barrochos (the Drinkers), c. 1629. Oil on canvas, 165 cm x 188 cm. Located at the Prado Museum, Spain.

Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680)

David, 1623. Marble, 5'7." Located in the Galleria Borghese, Rome.

Baroque art is well-known for its dramatic depictions of scenes, its blatant use of detailed interpretation, and its use of color and light. The bigger the impression that the work makes on the audience, the better. And so it is only fitting that the following works come out as the best of the realm of Baroque art of the 16th and 17th centuries. I have stuck mainly to the oil on canvas paintings that grace the Baroque period, but Bernini's David is also worth noting as a brilliant piece of Baroque work.

Poussin's Rape of the Sabine Women portrays the chaos in the streets as the men of Rome take the women of the Sabine families as their wives. Similarly, another artistic depiction of this can be found in a marble sculpture by Giambologna (1529-1608), though the oil painting itself gives a more violent and moving scenery. Every piece of canvas has been filled with movement, from the laments of the grandmothers and the infants, to the hurried agonies of the women themselves as they are whisked away.…… [read more]

Compare and Contrast Two Art Periods Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,098 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Art History/Impressionism

Paintings of the French Impressionists have long enjoyed tremendous popularity among museum-goers in the United States. "The Impressionist galleries at the Metropolitan Museum, the National Gallery of Art, the Art Institute of Chicago, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, and the Museum of Fine Arts Boston serve as the crowning spaces in their larger installations of European easel painting, and most of these Impressionist galleries have the highest attendance of any permanent collection spaces in the museums" (Brettell, 1995). The purpose of this paper is to compare impressionism and post impressionism in terms of their characteristics of style and historical origins and significance. Impressionism was all about the changing light in natural settings. Post impressionist artists took these notions about light and the natural world and imposed on them more form and structure, fitting for the transition into the more modern world of the twentieth century.

In the mid-nineteenth century, when Impressionism was born, France was undergoing great change. Paris began its ascent as a capital of luxury and fashion. As well, the city became more industrialized, upsetting the social order (Hill, 1980, p. 9). Those who benefited from the advances in technology wanted cultural symbols that represented continuity and stability. Classical art was France's official art, to the dismay of art student Claude Monet, who said of the Greek busts and bas-reliefs favored by the upper classes, "there is no sincerity" (Hill, p. 10). Monet and some of his fellow students -- Cezanne, Degas, Renoir, Sisley, and Pissaro -- rebelled against their classical training and exhibited their work as part of a group exhibition in April, 1974. Critics were appalled and French society was enraged (Hill, p. 10). To some, the paintings looked as though they were unfinished.

The Impressionist painters responded to the classical style and the people of Paris it represented to them. They responded to an increasingly industrialized society by embracing the natural world. Their aim was not to represent the natural world in a careful, controlled way, but to use vivid colors and quick, bold brushstrokes to capture the essence, or impression, of nature and the play of light. An excellent example can be seen in Monet's painting c. 1872, Regatta at Argenteuil, which is housed at the Louvre.

Regatta shows some sailboats on what appears to be a clear summer day. The sky is comprised of a series of short, horizontal brushstrokes that the artist made with various shades of blue, white and gray. The water is even brighter blue than the sky, and in it one can see reflections of the sails as well as the people, buildings, and trees on shore. The trees are bright green; the buildings are shades of orange and red. It is easy to see that the painting depicts sailboats on a lake, but the painting appears to have been done in haste. Edges and details are blurred and the viewer's overall impression is of an explosion of color and light. The last great works of Monet… [read more]

Claude Monet Madame Monet and Child in a Garden Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (647 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6



Salvador Dali's name is nearly synonymous with surrealist art. Dali was born in Figueres, Spain in 1904 and "had the fortune of being surrounded by several creative people during his youth" (McNesse and Dali 23). The phantasmagoric and dreamlike imagery notable in Dali's work can be at least partially attributed to the young Salvadore's unconventional upbringing with a Catholic mother and an atheist father (McNesse and Dali). Exposure to the works of the great masters solidified Dali's art career, allowing the Spaniard to transform his consciousness into brilliant works of art not just on canvas but also in installations and other avant-garde modern art expressions. The oil painting "The Persistence of Memory" is Salvadore Dali's most recognizable and most iconic. Bending watches melt over a fantasy landscape, begging inquiry into the nature of time itself. With "The Persistence of Memory," Dali blends form, composition, and meaning to convey a typically surrealist imagery of metaphysical awareness.

Forms are the most notable elements that distinguish "The Persistence of Memory" and etch the painting into the consciousness of viewers. An absolutely mundane object of daily life is pictured as melting. The time-piece is also a symbol of the workplace and the instructional and capitalist societies. Dali's painting the watches as being formless and amoebic shows the artist's intent of warping reality and revealing alternative ways of living. The horizon is naturalistic, a line drawn about a third of the way from the top of the canvas. The lighting used in the painting uses sunset colors, with impart a soothing mood. As McNesse and Dali point out, "his technical skill with a brush remains nearly unsurpassed, even as we move into the 21st century" (107).

The composition of Dali's the Persistence of Memory" is also a crucial means by which the artist conveys the central impetus to achieve metaphysical awareness. The eye is drawn to the several watches that are melting, alternating between the one draped…… [read more]

Art History vs. Accounting Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (608 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Art and economics are often believed to reside in totally different dimensions, different realities. On the one side is the creative artist, who distances himself or herself from monetary needs. The Vincent van Goghs of the world spend their lives in abject poverty because their spiritual desire to create transcend their worldly needs. Artists are, in a sense, viewed as spiritual leaders. They are ascetics just as they are aesthetically inclined.

On the other side of the equation are the financiers. We the economists and accountants are the money behind the art. Unseen forces driving art, we are the people who historically have commissioned painting and other artistic expressions ranging from the ancient artists of Greece, Rome, China, and Egypt throughout the Holy Roman Empire and the Renaissance. In the ancient era through until the late nineteenth century, art was created on demand by the wealthy. The wealthy -- whether rich from power or from mercantilism -- could hire an artist for portraits or simple decor. Similarly, the Church and other religious bodies would commission artists to convey religious themes and motifs. This can be seen not just in European Christian art but also in the arts of Eastern religions.

Only until the modern era has art become something that anyone -- literally anyone -- can pursue. Prior to the modern era, art was itself dependent on the wealthy commission and therefore certain individuals would devote their lives to the art trade. Working class and poor people would starve to death if they devoted their lives to art as a hobby. Moreover, art was undervalued. Art was not viewed as creative expression at all. Before the Age of Enlightenment, individual self-expression was barely conceived of as a step in the evolution of ideas. Therefore, the human being was not expected to express emotion and…… [read more]

Romanesque Art Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,338 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Romanesque Art

The Stylized Nature of Romanesque Art

"Style" is a word that is often bandied about without much regard for its meaning, and without a clear definition emerging from its common usage. Referring to someone's "style" can have a wide variety of meanings and implications, referring to aesthetic values in an incredibly broad sense as well as to general modes of behavior, and possibly reflecting individual values, beliefs, and assumptions, as well. The term is only slightly more specific when it is applied to individual works of art or to individual artists or artistic periods, at least as it is commonly used. Art historians and scholars, however, must establish greater degree of specificity and a stricter sense of meaning when they apply the word "style" and its derivatives to objects and periods of art, and while this still includes some reference to underlying values and beliefs, this is a more indirect and interpretive element of "style" when properly used, and the physical and observable elements of a piece are the features that more directly and concretely identify specific "styles" of art.

The word "stylized" is often applied to Romanesque art, and this paper will examine the specifics of this label and why it has been attached to the art and architecture of the eleventh and twelfth centuries CE. The Merriam-Webster online dictionary defines "stylize" as, "to represent or design according to a style or stylistic pattern rather than according to nature or tradition." From this definition, it can be seen that "stylized" art is art that represents specific values and beliefs through the physical and aesthetic elements of that art, and not merely through the subject matter portrayed. Stylized art is art that departs from a natural and accurate depiction in specific and purposeful ways, providing a message through style at least as much (if not more so) as through subject.

The Style of Romanesque Art

There can be no question that the term "stylized" is quite appropriate in its application to Romanesque art given the above definition. The representations of human and animal figures, landscapes, and other representations in examples of art from this period are not at all naturalistic, and it is clear that their creators did not intend for them to be so (HighBeam 2005). The several different influences on the art of this period can be clearly observed in the style's use of bright and vibrant colors (at least in the surviving stained glass windows and well-preserved manuscripts from the period; colors in other art works have been dulled or completely worn away by time and the ever-present erosion of the elements), the varying sizes of figures within a single work, the abstractions presented by certain nature motifs, and even in the architectural details of the period's many expansive churches and other buildings (The Met 2010; Medieval Life and Times 2010; Romanes 2010). Each of these aspects of Romanesque art contribute directly to its stylization.

The bright colors that were used in many surviving examples… [read more]

Interactive Art Essay

Essay  |  12 pages (3,548 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Interactive art is an artistic piece that promotes interaction between the spectator and the artistic work. Spectators influence the piece by movement, body heat, or by direct interaction from standing or walking on it, in it, or around it. One piece of particular interest is David Rozen's 'Wooden Mirror'.

In this paper, we will discuss the history, definition, and influences… [read more]

Conceptual Art Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,277 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … art analysis: Landscape with the Fall of Icarus by Pieter Brueghel

In conceptual art, the aesthetic value of the artistic work is subordinate to the meaning of the work. "Exponents of Conceptual Art said that artistic production should serve artistic knowledge and that the art object is not an end in itself" (Delahunt 2010). Conceptual art is often linked to a text or other mode of culturally-embedded meaning, such as a myth. The movement was first articulated during the 1960s, but its philosophy has been applied retroactively to a number of works of the historical past, such as Landscape with the Fall of Icarus by Pieter Brueghel. The myth of Icarus, the boy who grew drunk on his man-made power of flight that approximated the power of the gods and flew too close to the sun has been a frequent subject of both visual and verbal representation. One of the most famous retellings of Icarus is the poem by the great American poet William Carlos Williams, also entitled "Landscape with the Fall of Icarus." With his spare prose, Williams attempts to create a similar effect as the great Old Master Brueghel.

The most notable feature of Pieter Brueghel's work is what is absent: there is no titanic representation of Icarus and his father Daedalus flying across the sea, in defiance of the terrestrial nature of Man. Instead, in the foreground of the Brueghel painting, a peasant plowing his field follows behind an old nag of a horse. The peasant is wholly absorbed in his task, and does not look at either the viewer or Icarus in the water. The subject of Icarus might go unnoticed even by the painting's gazer, were it not for Brueghel's pointed and ironic title.

As the title indicates, the landscape is what is first noticed by the viewer because of the dominance of the peasant in the foreground. The presence of Icarus is manifest in a small, insignificant figure of a drowning man -- and the beautiful, blinding presence of the sun in the distance. However, the dominant colors of the work, other than the sun, are earth tones. The peasant life is what is lasting and important, and the higher aims of Icarus mean little. Of course, in the actual myth, Icarus was merely attempting to escape Crete and the rule of the evil Minos who had imprisoned him and his father. But the death of Icarus has been frequently used as a metaphor for those who attempt to transcend the bounds of humanity. Breughel's painting suggests that most people do not care about such efforts.

The painting is a comment upon the artistic project itself, on art in general. Art and artists are on the periphery of the rest of society. Most people are concerned with obtaining food, plowing the earth, fishing on the sea, herding sheep, or preparing for a spring festival. The boats doing significant work completely overwhelm the small figure of the helpless, foolish, splashing Icarus. As the… [read more]

Boundary of Art Andy Warhol Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,513 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Boundary of Art: Andy Warhol
In the middle part of the 20th century, Abstract Expressionism rules
the visual arts scene with a sense of serious experimentation that was in
its own way very constraining. The next generation of artists would appeal
to the media of popular culture as a way to simultaneously be liberated
from the prejudices of Expression… [read more]

Boundary of Art Andy Warhol Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,512 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Master of Mixing Art and Design

Over the course of the 20th century, commercial design emerged as a vital and highly influential aspect of both design and art. And key to the rise in importance of commercial design was Andy Warhol, whose art was influenced by commercial work and in turn proved to be a substantial influence on… [read more]

Art Exhibition Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (901 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Art Exhibition

The human condition: diverse images of human experience


The theme of the human condition is one that has been at the centre of artistic creation. It can be argued that the artist is an interpreter of his age and historical period. However, some of the greatest artists in the history of Western art have succeeded in capturing not only the essence of their time but have also provided insight into the nature of human existence and experience that is relevant to all ages. From this point-of-view the great artists are those who have created works that transcend particular periods or ages. The works created by these artists provide insight into the very nature of man and the human condition.

The collection of works that have been assembled for this exhibition cover a wide time period in the history of art - from the later works of Rembrandt to the very contemporary images of humanity by Francis Bacon in the last century. The central focus that connects these works is what they have to say about the human nature and the human condition.

The insight for example that can be gleaned from meditating on a self-portrait by Rembrandt compared to a self -- portrait by Francis Bacon is an example of the intention of this exhibition. A self-portrait by Rembrandt is not an image that refers only to his particular time and social context. Rather, it resonates into the future and makes an intense statement about the meaning of human life and experience that affects us today. If we place this portrait next to a portrait by the very modern Francis Bacon a number of intriguing questions arise. For instance, to what extent could we say that both these works of art similar in the vision that they project; and to what extent are they dissimilar in terms their intensity of meaning and their aesthetic value? Both are from different time periods and the works of Bacon are renowned for their intensely negative view of the human condition. Rembrandt's portraits on the other hand have as depth and grandeur that seem to radiate from the use of light and chiaroscuro in the craggy features and eyes - but is there also not a strong sense of despair and loneliness that can also be discerned?

Therefore, by placing these images of the human from different periods into sharp juxtaposition with one another, we open up a discourse or a debate about the artistic vision that major artists have of the nature of human life and experience. The portraits by Rembrandt haunt us across the centuries. Is this reflected in the twisted and contorted faces and figures of Francis Bacon…… [read more]

Are Photography and Printmaking Really Art? Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (378 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Photography and Printmaking Really Art?

Although photography and printmaking rely on mechanical processes for their outcomes, painting and drawing rely on the hand of the artist. Despite these fundamental differences in methodology, it is legitimate to argue that printmaking and photography are both valid forms of fine art because, like painting and drawing, they also rely on the mind of the artist for their outcomes. Certainly, the choice of definition of fine art would play a role in the distinction between these media, but at the heart of matter is the interpretation of what the artist, photographer, printmaker or even photojournalist considers the salient factors that should be communicated in their respective medium. For instance, Margolis (1962) emphasizes that, "Sometimes, the issue at stake is the definition of fine art. Sometimes, it concerns the formulation of criteria of aesthetic merit [but] philosophically, the theory of expression has been most closely linked to the definition of fine art, aesthetic qualities, and aesthetic judgment" (p. 28). From this perspective, photography, printmaking and photojournalism can certainly be regarded as being fine art. Indeed, who can forget the poignant black-and-white image…… [read more]

Art Monet Claude Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,611 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


" (Art Encyclopedia)

In conclusion, this research paper aimed to discuss the impressionist artist, Claude Monet. One of his great accomplishments, Water Lilies, is on display in the Toledo Museum of Art. This and his works are some of the most known artworks in the history of the world and young and old alike love his work. For example, since the early 1990's, children have been recreating Monet's work in weaving projects that are surprisingly good. These children and many more to come in the future will continue to be influenced by Monet thanks to the Toledo Museum of Art with projects like Impressionism: Selections of Five Museums. "The project began with the Toledo Museum of Art's special exhibition, Impressionism: Selections of Five Museums, as inspiration for our weaving project with fiber artist, Meg Dickason. Each year, with generous support by our schools PTS, Dickason has conducted weaving workshops with students, teaching them to weave on a variety of looms as well as to spin fibers." (Lehman) Even with the combination of Claude Monet's Water Lilies and Maxwell Q. Klinger, Toledo may never become a Mecca for glitzy Hollywood red carpet events, but there is plenty of reason to go at least once to see this wonderful work of art.

Works Cited

Art Encyclopedia. (2009). Impressionism. Ed. Answers.com. Retrieved on October 30, 2009, from http://www.answers.com/topic/impressionism

Flicker. (2007). Monet Water Lilies. Ed. Toledo Museum of Art. Retrieved on October 30, 2009, from http://www.flickr.com/photos/23758779@N05/3125107502/

InterAgir. (2009). Claude Monte: Self-Portrait. Ed. Toledo Museum of Art. Retrieved on October 30, 2009, from http://www.interagir.com/?entryID=123

InterMonet. (2009). Biography of Claude Monet. Retrieved on October 30, 2009, from http://www.intermonet.com/biograph/

Lehman, Linda. (1991). "Woven Impressions." Arts & Activities. December 1991. Vol. 110, Issue 4, p5, 3p, 6 color.

Schjeldahl, Peter. (2009). "Water World." New Yorker. October 5, 2009: Vol. 85 Issue 31,…… [read more]

Cultural Movements of European Art Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (650 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Although it was a time of great turmoil, it was also a period of great cerebral advancement. For example, in science there were the discoveries by Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, William Harvey and Newton all of which made people question what they had always taken for granted. There was also world expansion as European powers aimed to gain control in the Americas and the Far East, opening up new worlds, wants and desires. Those desires transformed into a late shift away from the Baroque movement and eventually into an even newer Rococo culture. Rococo ended the Baroque movement just as Mannerism had filled the void to end the flow of the Renaissance.

There are some obvious differences between Mannerism, Baroque and Rococo as well. The different motivations of the artists themselves define these movements. Baroque artists were very different from Mannerism artists in that they were able to produce extremely detailed works, but to promote the Church and State. For example, Rembrandt worked primarily for Protestant patrons which helped to alleviate any promotion of inner turmoil. Rococo was then an adjustment in the ways the artist themselves felt and they became disenchanted with the Baroque thinking. Mannerism came about because of the new ideas that moved away from God and the church and more towards the universe, the world and self as the artists therefore also sought to emphasize the sometimes tormented feelings of self.

In conclusion, this essay aimed to make some comparative and contrasting observations about the cultural movements of the European art style periods of Mannerism, Baroque, and Rococo. Each of these interpretive styles produced striking works in sculpture, painting, literature, and music. Although there were different motivations for each cultural movement, the styles all produced great dimensional ideas such as Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time, St. Paul's Cathedral and the Palace of Versailles. The desire for…… [read more]

Brancusi's Sculpture Bird in Space Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (664 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Brancusi's Bird In Space: Defining Art

The decision of U.S. Custom's to obstruct the entrance of Brancusi's Bird in Space sculpture by charging tax for its importation constitutes an aggressive and irrational subjectivity with respect to art and the value of specific modes of artistic expression. The Brancusi sculpture, which would since be elevated to the status as the single highest auction price tag on a piece of artwork on sale in America -- going to a collector for over $27 million in 2005 -- was essentially blocked by customs in 1926 based on the argument that it did not constitute an example of art. (BBC, 1)

So is this reported by an article from Time Magazine (1928), reporting the details of the succeeding court challenge. Here, the magazine denotes that "works of art are duty free. But Sculptor Brancusi's bird had neither head, feet nor feathers. It was four and a half feet of bronze which swooped up from its base like a slender jet of flame. Customs Inspector Kracke said it was not art; merely 'a manufacture of metal . . . held dutiable at 40% ad valorem.'" (Time Magazine, 1)

We are made to understand by this passage that the Customs Inspector essentially appointed himself as a critic of the arts, making his own intellectual and aesthetic standards those by which art's veracity was to be measured. This constitutes a denial of Bancusi's right to freedom of expression, but even more problematically, such a decision would place in the hands of government functionaries and bureaucrats the final determination on that which should be seen as art. In the case of Brancusi's sculpture, Customs officials would argue in response to Brancusi's legal challenge that the degree to which the sculpture did not look like a bird was sufficient to dismiss it as art. Further, the metal materials used would incline such government personnel to seek definition of the object as a kitchen utensil or hospital supply according to the shipping…… [read more]

Edgar Degas Paul Gauguin Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,945 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Gauguin and Degas

Paul Gauguin and Edgar Degas shared many similarities as artists. Both were Impressionists, though Degas began as a classical artist and moved on to become one of the founders of the Impressionist movement, while Gauguin began as an Impressionist and moved on to become well-known as a Synthesist, Cloissonist, and Primitive artist. Degas saw commercial success in… [read more]

Time Traveling Art Historian Book Chapters Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (2,164 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Travel in Art

Time traveling art Historian Book Chapters

Travels in artistic time: Ancient Rome, Renaissance Florence, the Islamic world

Early Roman recycled art

I begin my time-traveling journey through art history where all roads lead -- to Rome. There stands the triumphal Arch of Constantine, built to honor the great emperor. In Rome, it was common to… [read more]

Art of Comparison: Two Treatments of Judith Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,678 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Art of Comparison:

Two Treatments of Judith and Holofernes

Often, in the history of art, certain themes are portrayed again and again. Throughout much of Western History, religion provided a source of artistic inspiration. The Biblical story of Judith and Holofernes was portrayed by numerous artists. The story of Judith and Holofernes offers features that appeal to the… [read more]

Bacchanal a Faun Teased by Children by Gian Lorenzo Bernini Metropolitan Museum of Art Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (978 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 3



Bernini's Bacchanal: A Faun Teased by Children

Gian Lorenzo Bernini was the son of a prominent artist and sculptor, Pietro Bernini, but his genius was quickly observed to surpass that of his fathers, and his skills were honed from a very young age by some of the best instructors in Rome.

Despite this Italian heritage, however, Bernini's art also bears a strong relationship to the rococo style of the court of Louis XIV.

His brilliance was well-known before he traveled to the French court, and it is perhaps more correct and fitting to Bernin's memory to say that he influenced art in the court and helped the rococo style to emerge rather tan to suggest that his later art was influenced by it.

The rococo style was an outgrowth of the ornate decorations that typified the Baroque period, and Bernini was one of the most prominent artists to straddle the two related eras.

His flowing figures and the celebrations of ecstasy or inspiration that are apparent in many of his works are at once emblematic of the artistic movements and styles of his time and the prime examples of the skills and effects that were sought during the Baroque and Rococo periods.

In addition, his work characterized the later Italian Renaissance at least as much as it influenced the Rococo style in the French court. Even his early works show a complete mastery of the style in which he was instructed along with his own innovations in both technique and subject.

This is clearly shown in his sculpture Bacchanal: A Faun Teased by Children.

One is immediately drawn into the use of vertical line in this sculpture. The flowing curves of both the faun and the tree climb as if they are still growing, giving the figures a sense of life and upward motion. There are a few branches growing horizontally out from the tree low to the ground, but very little else interrupts the vertical flow and line of the piece. The line also creates a sort of liquid feeling to the sculpture that defies its rigid and fixed nature, as though it is a snapshot taken with perfect clarity of violent and not necessarily pleasant movement.

The use of line is closely related to the texture of the piece, which is soft and flowing and gives an appearance as paradoxically alive as the line use. Even he sleek and well-toned muscles of the faun do not appear overly hard or firm, but rather seem to be made -- quite naturally -- of flesh, with at least a slight give to it. The flesh of the children, quite obviously modeled after traditional depictions of cherubim in Renaissance paintings, is even more soft and giving, with the plump roundness of their faces and limbs creasing at every bend and appearing almost pillowy in their dimensions, yet remaining impervious to any possibility of harm.

But although the figures of…… [read more]

Compare and Contrast Paintings Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (938 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Fine Art

Line is one of the most essential features of most artworks. Lines can be curved or straight, both having a different effect on the impact they have on the viewer. They are also the most basic element of creating an image of something, and are thus completely necessary to forming any objects or people in a painting in most artistic forms. Lines can also be used to contain images within the painting, or to make them seem to extend off the canvas/page upon which they are painted or drawn. Basically, line is necessary creating to the impression of anything, both the physical objects that most artworks portray and general moods and feelings that are at the heart of any piece of art. Without line, pieces of art could not even exist.

Another very essential aspect of art is texture. Though this can be meant in the literal sense of how something feels to the touch, when speaking of two-dimensional paintings it more typically refers to the perceived feel of a work of art. The two concepts are very much related; a work of art can give an impression of hardness or softness, or can have a rough or smooth texture. Texture and mood are highly related, though not at all synonymous; the basic feeling of a painting's texture can have a huge effect on the overall impression the viewer takes from it.

Texture itself is made up of the other visual elements of a work of art, such as line and color. Whereas line forms the boundaries of objects and can provide perspective, color fills these things in. Color can also provide contrast and/or blending, unifying or sharply diving objects or areas of a piece of art. Color can also influence the mood with brightness or dullness. The level of intensity in the colors used can also have a large effect on the overall mood and impression that the painting gives a viewer, making color one of the most noticeable aspects of art.

Different artists use these different elements in widely different ways. Pablo Picasso was especially innovative in his use of line and color, creating strange and unusual textures and moods. Frans Hals is a far more traditional painter, though is not surprising given that he painted three hundred years before Picasso and helped to create what we think of as artistic tradition. These artists both used the same elements in their work, but with drastically different effects.

First there is the use of line. In Picasso's 1907 self-portrait and in his painting of a woman on a blue background, the lines are quite definite. They are thick and make large demarcations, rigidly defining objects and marking off space. Hals, on the other hand, uses very soft lines that are almost indistinguishable, especially for…… [read more]

Raphael's Painting School of Athens 1509 11 Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,447 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Raphael's painting "School of Athens" 1509-11

Raphael's triumph of Renaissance humanism and Neo-Platonic thought

One of the great Renaissance artist Raphael's works for Pope Julius II was not a religious piece of art, but a work that mimicked classical antiquity. The great painting the School of Athens depicts an idealized vision of great, classical Greek philosophers and scientists interacting with… [read more]

Mummification and Associated Art Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,794 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Egyptian Art: Glory in Death

Death rites and rituals are an important part of every culture ever discovered. Ike birth, death is often seen as part of a great cycle that allows for the continuation of life and the given civilization. The Christian phrase often uttered at funerals, "from ashes to ashes, and from dust to dust," echoes this concept… [read more]

Fine Art Iconography and Form Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (986 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Iconography in Art: The Halo

The halo is a much older religious icon than many people realize, dating back at least as far as the Ancient Egyptians (Lope, 2002). Halos are also readily apparent in many Buddhist and Hindu works of art, and has also been a staple of Christian iconography since the religion itself began (Lope, 2002). This widespread and remarkably disparate yet similar use is strong evidence that the halo -- also known as a nimbus or areole -- is one of the most ancient and universal object of iconography in the world. A halo can be nothing more than a circle around an object or person, often around the head, but the simplicity of the symbol contains its profoundness.

Halos are typically used as symbols of sanctity, enlightenment, and even divinity (Lope, 2002). The symbol was very likely derived from the Sun -- a glowing circle or disc -- and also symbolized "power, majesty, and prominence," especially in the pre-Christian era (Lope, 2002). The halo is a prominent part of the depiction of several Egyptian gods, and cults that worshipped a similar bull figure to one of the incarnations of the sun god Ra (who wears a halo between his horns) were known to exists as far back as 3000 BCE (Lope, 2002). Romans used halos in their depictions of certain hers and statesmen as a way to glorify them. This practice continued with other important personages until Pope Urban III banned the use of halos in an image of anyone who wasn't beatified; before then, many intellectuals were also depicted with halos, denoting either divine inspiration or the brilliance of their minds -- or both.

In Christian art. Which is how the iconography of the halo is most recognized in the Western world today, the halo has come to symbolize the light of God, and is a definitive association with divinity. This important religious identity has led to some controversial modern uses of the halo.

One such use, not so controversial now but a daring use of the icon in its time, is found in Gauguin's Self-Portrait with Halo. In this post-impressionist oil on wood creation from 1889, many different religious icons collide with a large and somewhat surreal rendering of the artist's own head. It is difficult to discern an overlying theme in the piece. Though there are several phallic representations, and the sexual imagery of the hanging apples -- bringing to mind the Garden of Eden and Original Sin at the hands of Eve -- against the red background definitely add a tone of eroticism to the painting, neither the self-portrait nor the halo seem at all engaged with the other elements. Overall, confusion of both imagery and intent reigns.

Like the other images in the painting, the halo's direct purpose and meaning here is difficult to discern. Given the apparent disinterest in the artist's s representation of himself regarding the temptations of the Garden, the halo…… [read more]

Vincent Van Gogh Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  50 pages (14,235 words)
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INTRODUCTION had a hard struggle with myself...."

Vincent van Gogh (Van Goh's Letters, 2009)

The Painter

The Painter" sold only one of his paintings, now worth millions of dollars, during his lifetime. "The Painter," Vincent van Gogh, frequently depicted people in hard times, Linda Yoffe (1995) notes in "Vincent, Theo, painting and self-esteem." Today, considered one… [read more]

Greek and Roman Sculpture Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (758 words)
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Greek and Roman Sculpture are often closely linked in style and execution. However, they are differentiated as two forms of art by some outstanding features. While Greek sculpture is focused on the aesthetic and artistic expression and representation of the idealized human body, Roman sculpture is more focused on the way that the human figure expresses a sense of power, control and dignity, as a reflection of a superior civilization. These aspects will be discussed in this paper

The examples of Roman sculpture chosen are the Sculptural portrait of Philip the Arab and the Portrait of Faustina. The intentionality of Roman sculpture can be clearly seen in the artistic appeal of the sculptural portrait of Philip the Arab, which depicts a figure of power and control.

Source: (http://www.hermitagemuseum.org/html_En/03/hm3_1_3b.html)

As one commentary notes of this sculpture, "...cruelty and perfidy were combined with courage and resolution in Philip's character" (Sculptural portrait of Philip the Arab.

What is striking about this sculpture is the way that the sculptor has created a sense of cool and dominating command in the intimidating gaze of the subject. From a more aesthetic point-of-view, the artist has expertly portrayed the physical characteristics of the subject and has focused on the expressive heavy brow and structure of the visage.

It is also noteworthy that there is an economy of design and execution that provides a telling and powerful portrait, with a minimum of carving. Through this economy and mastery of sculptural execution the artist achieves the desired effect without elaborate carving and modeling.

In a similar vein, the Portrait of Faustina depicts an elegant if rather haughty figure. As in the above example, the facial features of the figure are regal and aristocratic. The aesthetic appeal of the work lies in the way that the artist has managed to capture the distance and regal pomp of the subject.

The Greek sculpture, Diskobolos, or "discus thrower" shows a very different emphasis to the Roman sculptures discussed. The emphasis in this sculpture is not on personality or personal or cultural power but on the power and elegance of the human form. It is a pleasing aesthetic study of form in action.

Source: (http://academic.reed.edu/humanities/110Tech/BodyLanguage/html/diskobolos3.html)

Central to the aesthetic qualities of this sculpture is the sense of rhythm, balance and poise that…… [read more]

Art Compare and Contrast Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,026 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Art Compare/Contrast

Le pin de Bonaventura a Saint-Tropez" is one of Paul Signac's most famous paintings, and at the same time, a very good example of Neo-impression whereas Vincent Van Gogh's "The Rocks" represents post-impressionism at its peak. The term 'Neo-impressionism' was coined at the end of the nineteenth century in order to describe the art movement led by French painters Georges Seurat and Paul Signac. The term expressed the roots of the new movement i.e. Impressionism, but also the new approach to the use of color and line exhibited by Neo-impressionists. Post-impressionism was a term coined at the beginining of the twentieth century to characterize the course of French art since Manet who was the leading apostle of Impressionism. Post-impressionist artists continued the tradition of Impressionists but took their art beyond the limitations of Impressionism in the sense that they used unconventional techniques in their paintings. Considering that the two paintings mentioned above are two prominent examples of the artistic movements they represent, this paper aims at explaining the main differences and similarities as far as the use of color, techniques, as well as symbolism. In addition, biographical information on the two painters, as well as a short background on Post-impressionism and Neo-impressionism are very important towards achiving the goal of understanding the two works of art in question.

Vincent Van Gogh was born in 1853 in the Netherlands. His influence on twentieth century painting was enormous. Van Gogh explained his artistic vision in a 1882 letter to his brother and sponsor, Theo: "There are two ways of thinking about painting, how not to do it and how to do it: how to do it - with much drawing and little colour; how not to do it - with much colour and little drawing." (Vincent Van Gogh Paintings, (http://www.vangoghgallery.com/painting/)Early in his life, Van Gogh was introduced to Impressionism in Paris. This encounter would change both his life and his work. He abandoned the dark somber colors he worked with, and adopted the Impressionists' brighter colors and painting style. However, Van Gogh was able to blend these elements together, and did not compromise his own artistic persona. Critics claim that his style and technique were developed during the period of time he spent in Arles, France. His influence on German Expressionists as well as the French Fauves - whose foremost representant was Matisse, was immense.

Van Gogh painted "The Rocks" in 1888 during his stay in Arles. It was during the last decade of his life that Van Gogh produced more than 2,000 works of art including paintings, drawings and sketches. Shortly upon his arrival, Van Gogh started painting local landscaped that he was fascinated with. Van Gogh was inspired by the French town; in fact, he invited his friend, Paul Gaugain to visit him, and discover Arles together.

Yellow was Van Gogh's favorite color during his Arles period. Although less vibrant than his Paris period, the Arles palette of colors seemed the most appropriate to illustrate the sun of… [read more]

Renaissance Art Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,046 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Renaissance Art

Art is the expression of artistic vision but it also carries the sign of the period of time when it was created. The period of the Renaissance designates a cultural movement that spanned between the fourteenth and the seventeenth century. Its roots can be found in Italy, in the middle Ages from where it spread across Europe. This period of time was marked by a return to classical models both in artistic pursuit and in learning, in the sense that both artists and scholars appealed to classical sources. Also, the Renaissance was synonymous to significant advances as far as science and painting techniques where a new perspective was developed with the overwhelming contribution of Leonardo da Vinci. Humanism which stood at the roots of the Renaissance, brought a new vision of the world according to which man was God's masterpiece, and the measure of all things. This new vision was best illustrated by art. This paper argues that the Renaissance put forth not only new techniques, but also a new creed as far as artistic expression. In support of this thesis, this paper turns to 12 works of art executed during the Renaissance. These are: The Slaughter of the Innocents, Tintoretto (1587), the Rape of Persephone, Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1621-22), David, Michelangelo (1501-04), the Three Ages of Man, Titian (1513-14), Primavera, Boticelli (1478), Death of the Virgin, Caravaggio (1606), the School of Athens, Raphael (1509-10), the Agony in the Garden, Bellini (1465), the Last Supper, Da Vinci (1495-98), Pieta, Michelangelo (1499), Allegoric Figure of a Boy, Donatello (1430s), and Madonna with Child and Angels, Masaccio (1426).

Renaissance sculpture brought back the ancient Greek and Roman ideals of beauty of the human body. Statues are imposing, usually considerable in size and aim at transmitting the greatness of a particular character that the statue depicts. Renaissance focused on a single figure which was placed on its own on a pedestal - the accent was placed on posture and grace.

David and the Rape of Persephone are pictorial sculptures with an abundance of details as far as the human anatomy and posture. One of the most important traits of Renaissance spirituality was a combination of both mimesis and lyricism which can be explained by the fact that this combination of artistic ways of expression dissolved the tensions between the individuality of the artist and the demands of the patron who expected a certain manner of execution.

Michelangelo brought Renaissance to its highest point and showed the road to be followed by his successors and pupils. Without a doubt, David (1501-1504) is his masterpiece, the embodiment of all civic virtues and a true expression of the titanic unfinished manner of the sculptor. Michelangelo's technique largely relied on sketches which in turn, were based on a profound knowledge of male anatomy. This artistic discipline was called 'disegno' and is deeply characteristic of the Renaissance when both artists and scientists believed that the study of the male form was a study of God and… [read more]

Rococo Genre and Neoclassical Painting Social Change and Artistic Style Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,822 words)
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According to Liselotte Andersen, writing in Baroque and Rococo Art, many art historians retain the view that the artistic creations of the eighteenth century in Europe "are merely an extension of the Baroque, a mellowing and refinement of it and not sharply distinguishable from it either chronologically or stylistically"… [read more]

Sculpture Michelangelo Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (958 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3



Michelangelo and Me

Michelangelo, welcome to my home. I'm so happy to finally meet the sculptor of 'David,' that most magnificent of creations."

Thank you, your highness. I saw the angel in the marble and carved until I set him free" ("Sculpture Gallery").

I am hoping you can do the same for me. My husband, the King, is my shining light, and I wish for you to sculpt him in the manner of David, larger than life, so I may install your masterpiece in my sculpture garden, based, of course, on the Medici garden where you first began your study of sculpture so long ago."

How would you like him portrayed, my lady?"

Heroically, like David, as my dearest husband is my own conquering hero in my heart. I want him majestic, larger than life, and I want the marble to speak to you, just as it did when you captured David so magnificently. Time is no object, and neither is cost. I want perfection, and I want my husband's statue to be remembered as your finest work." will do my best to please your highness. The best of artists has no conception that the marble alone does not contain within itself ("Sculpture Gallery"). Tell me, do you see the figure struggling, or at peace?"

That, my dear fellow, is for you to discover. Let the marble talk to you. I have a splendid piece in mind, but if it does not suit your needs, feel free to choose your own from the quarries near here. I want this to be nothing less than perfection, and I believe you are the only man for the job."

Do you see detail; do you want your husband to be recognizable to others, or only to yourself?" want the world to know my husband's face and form! Carve his facial details in high relief! Show his proud countenance for what it is, recognizable to all! Show the fine form of his figure, his finely honed muscles, the veins, and tendons ready to react at a moment's notice. Show his softer side, too, the side he shows only to me when we are alone together. I want to be reminded of every aspect of my husband when I gaze upon this statue, and I want to see every inch of him, naturally, and free from the constrictors of clothing and worry." see madam. And of the style?"

The style of 'David' intrigues me, but the style of Moses, your triumph on the tomb of Pope Julius, intrigues me as well. There is such passion in the details of this carving. I want to see that passion in my sculpture as well, and I want those who view it to know the passion and layers that make up my husband. It must be classical in nature, however. I will have him look as…… [read more]

Critique of Picasso Painting Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,115 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Picasso Painting

Critique of Pablo Picasso's "Guernica"

Dimensions: 3.5 metre (11 ft) tall and 7.8 metre (23 ft) wide

Medium: Oil on canvas

First exhibited in July 1937 at the Spanish Pavilion at the Paris International Exposition

This painting by Picasso is described as "... modern art's most powerful antiwar statement... "(Guernica: Testimony of War). My interest in… [read more]

Art in America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,986 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Art in America


According to a modern definition, abstract expressionism is a rather generic title, due to being made up of a variety of different artistic styles and formats. Basically speaking, abstraction emphasizes taking very recognizable things in the natural world and re-shaping them until they do not visually represent anything one might find in nature. Thus, the… [read more]

Sculptures of Gabriel Orozco the Object Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,173 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Sculptures of Gabriel Orozco

The object is the inverse of sculpture, which traditionally has its center of gravity in its base. What would happen, Orozco asks, if sculpture were opened up and we moved inside it? - Margaret Iversen, 2004

According to Werner (1997), technological multimedia work has been increasingly popularized in recent years throughout Mexico by installation artist Gabriel Orozco (1594). Taking images from what is commonly encountered by people during their daily lives, this artist reformulates these images into thought-provoking sculptures that have attracted a great deal of attention from critics and the public alike. In this regard, Mattick (2003) reports that, "Contemporary art nevertheless remains flavored by the sentiment of distance from the culture of business, a distance central to the identity of art in its modern sense. There are artists whose work directly addresses the commercial operation of galleries, museums, and art fairs like Gabriel Orozco" (117). This paper provides a brief biography of Orozco, followed by an overview of his work with a particular focus on his sculpture, "Oval with Pendulum." A review of the sculpture's work in is followed by a summary of the research and salient findings in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

The biographical entry for the artist shows that Orozco was born in Jalapa, Veracruz, Mexico in 1962 and attended Escuela Nacional de Arte Plasticas in Mexico City, and at the Circulo de Bellas Artes in Madrid, Spain (Biography 1). According to one biographer, "For Orozco, objects are either the provocation or the residue of an event. Some of the sculptor's major works include the patterned human skull of "Black Kites," the curvilinear logic of "Oval Billiard Table," and the extended playing field of the chessboard in "Horses Running Endlessly" (Biography 1-2). Orozco has also experimented with other media as well, and although he is noted for the quality of his paintings, his sculptures appear to have been the predominant medium in which he has been celebrated. For instance, Orozco's sculptures were featured at Documenta XI in 2002,.".. where his sensuous terra-cotta works explored the elegance and logic of traditional ceramics -- a pointed commentary on Mexican craft and its place in a 'high art' gallery space" (Biography 2). Another famous exhibition in which Orozco has participated to date was the so-called "Sonic Process" which featured eight visual, sculptural installations as veritable sound studios that were designed especially for the exhibition held at the Pompidou Center, Paris in 2002, with subsequent showings in Berlin and Barcelona (Lovejoy 293). Today, the artist lives and works in New York, Paris, and Mexico City (Biography 3).

Orozco's "Oval with Pendulum."

According to Joselit (2000) "Gabriel Orozco makes such 'impossible objects,' in which the stain of reality remains pungent. For Orozco, objects are either the provocation or the residue of an event. Two aspects of rendezvous are evocatively juxtaposed in the second gallery of his LA exhibition" (173). One aspect of this collision of harsh reality and its impact on the viewer is a collection… [read more]

Ancient Egyptian Art Term Paper

Term Paper  |  16 pages (4,742 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Visual Arts of Africa and the African Diaspora From Ancient Egyptian Art to Contemporary Times

Thutmosis III wearing the Atef crown.

From the Temple of Amun at Deir el-Bahri (mid-15th c. B.C.)

Toussaint l'Overture Series 1937 by Jacob Lawrence

From Rhapsodies in Black)

First, in response to the questions concerning the rules of creating a Works Cited list and its… [read more]

European Art History From 1400 to the Present Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (526 words)
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European Art History From 1400 to the Present

One of the most important aspects that Reformation brought about was the rejection of icons and religious images into its practice. This meant that Reformed art tended to have no paintings or sculptures of saints, no images of Christ and none of the imagery that had dominated Christian art to that point, especially in Italy during the period from the 13th to the 16th century (Early Renaissance artists, such as Cimabue or Giotti, painted almost solely representations of Christ or images from the lives of saints, notably from the life of St. Francis, as painted by Giotto).

The fact that the new religion no longer acknowledged the presence of Christ in imagery meant that the artists and painters needed to turn to a different subject of inspiration. This was generally everyday life. There are usually two such situations. The first one revolved around commissions for individual or family portraits. Such examples provided a potentially large demand for painters, given the rising economic importance of middle class families. The other was the simple village scenery, best portrayed in some of Pieter Bruegel's paintings. One such painting is the Peasant Wedding Feast.

The remarkable thing about this painting is that it manages to surprise in a relatively small space and without a remarkable action going on (the participants are all dining), a vast array of characters, individual figures and perceptions, gestures and isolated actions etc. Bruegel manages to inspire himself from everyday life and create icon figures that have nothing to do with the saintly vision and…… [read more]

Art of Math Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,486 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Mathematics and Art

Mathematics is often treated as a distant and very different discipline from the arts, but in fact the arts make use of mathematics in a number of ways. The relationship between mathematics and music should be evident, while the relationship between mathematics and the graphic arts may be less apparent. Paintings, drawings, and designs can be analyzed… [read more]

Title Insurance and Art Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,092 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Art Title

It is interesting to note that attaining a career in Title Insurance can be as easy as taking a few online courses, and that some states do not even require that minimal amount of education in order to get a license to work in Title Insurance.

One school offering online courses in Title Insurance states, "While some states… [read more]

Statues of Art Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (372 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Statues of Art - Auguste Rodin

In the case of Auguste Rodin, the most striking element is, in my opinion, the exactness with which he modeled the two bodies giving the impression of reality. The two bodies seem alive and about to move. The impression of reality and authenticity is also given by the shadows of the statues, but mostly by details such as the contraction in the man's foot and the way his lover's back is arched which generate the impression that they are actually made of flesh, bones and muscles. I believe that behind the actual technique he employed was his desire to illustrate passionate love through lines and curves. The sculpture is in many ways, very sexual depicting two lovers engaging in a kiss fueled by sexual tension. A good example is the position of the man's hand on his lover's thigh as well as the way the woman barely touches the ground with her feet. I think the sculpture breathes eroticism especially through the body language of the two lovers; it is very interesting to notice that their lips do not even…… [read more]

Western and African Art Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (414 words)
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Western and African Art


Which missionary poses the greatest danger to traditional African culture and beliefs, Mr. Brown or Reverend Smith? While Smith is the more personally unpleasant of the two Christians, and Mr. Brown seems to act out of his sincere convictions, however misguided, that he is doing the right thing in attempting to covert the native populace, Brown is the more dangerous of the two. Brown is able to sugar-coat his message with displays of tolerance, rhetorically equating the tribal god with what he regards as the one true God even though he does not really believe this to be the case. Brown does not actually believe that it is possible for people to worship his Christian God through Chuku. Achebe supports pluralism and cultural cross-pollination between African tribes, as exemplified in the positive but contrary influences Okonkwo is exposed to, during enforced stay with his wife's family and the positive incorporation of new children from other tribes that makes Okonkwo's son temporarily feel as if he as a future as a leader. However, the pluralism of Brown is a false pluralism, and has ulterior motives of eradicating the culture of another people. The failure of Okonkwo to change to help his people and…… [read more]

18th Century Art Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (325 words)
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18th Century Art

So, why, given your sound position on the times and viewer responses like mine, would some call these works propaganda?

Can a work of great art, specifically great Romantic art, still be a work of propaganda? The answer must be 'yes.' The art of David is unapologetically pro-Napoleon, and David's Napoleon is a figure who represents the hope of France because of the beauty, majesty, and centrality of the leader with the frame David's paintings. However, the active nature of the lines and shadings of David's painting makes Napoleon come alive in a way that stands as testimony to the painter's talent. Even someone with no feelings about the leader who inspired David feels stirred, gazing at the painting. The painting transcends time and the man and the events that inspired David's portraits. The viewer thinks about the types of hero-worship that are common to our time, not just David's age.

Likewise, Goya's "Third of May" was inspired by…… [read more]

Romanticism 18 Century Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (660 words)
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Romantic Art and 18th Century Revolution

The career of the French artist Jacques-Louis David bridges what is commonly thought of as the dividing line between Romantic and Neoclassical art. In works like "The Oath of the Horatii" and "The Death of Marat," elements of both periods are manifest. On one hand, particularly in "The Oath of the Horatii," the subject may seem Classical in its setting. David's works "The Death of Bara," "Lepeletier," or "Napoleon Crossing the Alps" portray their subjects in a heroic mold, similar to Classical sculpture in these painting's worship of the body, militarism, or athleticism. But the emotion and energy of David's works in the line of the human figures, and the story-like quality of the works takes them out of the pure Neoclassical mode.

Even in "The Oath of the Horatii," which was painted before the French Revolution, the young men do not simply take an oath and strike the viewer as excellent physical specimens, as they might in dispassionate Neoclassical reproductions. Instead, their faces, and the faces of the man holding the swords are agitated, and women in the background turn away in grief. "Marat" is not simply a portrait of a beautiful dead body. The subject's humble, naked position in the bath reminds the viewer of the French Revolution and the circumstances that spawned his death. In all of these words, partly as a reflection on the French Revolution and particularly the "Rights of Man," the individual is at the focus of David's art, not simply creating Neoclassical balance and proportional positioning of in the artist's composition. The individual may be beautiful and heroic, but still the historical story of the individual Horatii, Marat, or Napoleon has come to the forefront of the design and subject in a new and unique fashion.

Similarly, Antoine-Jean Gros' studies of Napoleon such as "Napoleon on the Battlefield of Eylau" and "Napoleon Bonaparte on Arcole Bridge" are of the moment, a part of Napoleon's life, and do…… [read more]

Baroque Art and Architecture Peter's Cathedral Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (705 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Baroque Art and Architecture

PETER'S CATHEDRAL in Rome and the PALACE of VERSAILLES convey very different stylistic messages to the viewer. St. Peter's is stately, conservative, and elegantly simple, while the Palace of Versailles seems grander and a little gaudier somehow.

The Palace is much larger than St. Peters, so the architecture must be created on a grander scale. It was also meant as a royal home, so it must convey the majesty and pomp of the French court, while St. Peters must convey the majesty and pomp of the Catholic Church. In that, their missions are similar and so are some of their architecture, such as the "boxy," square appearance of both buildings, and the columns and carvings that decorate both.

They show similar aspects of a culture that grew during the Renaissance and included grand, highly decorative buildings, used as much as monuments to beauty as much as for other useful purposes. Both of these buildings show attention to detail and building techniques that do not exist today, such as the fine stonework of the walls, and the artistic decorations around the tops of the buildings.

It is interesting to see how different architects added to or changed the buildings, and how the interpreted the uses of the buildings. Much of the Palace's grandeur is enhanced by the grand gardens surrounding the Palace, which add to the overall feeling of space and grandeur when viewing the house. St. Peter's seems almost starkly bare, but the building's elegance is in the height of the facade and the beautiful dome capping the effect of the building. All the architects involved used symbolism to convey the building's use and the culture at the time. St. Peter's is clearly a church, it could not be anything else, while the Palace is clearly a building used in state affairs.

Both of these buildings send different messages to the viewer, and they both are architecturally beautiful representations of two different uses for public buildings. They are elegant, breathtaking, and stately, each in their own way.

The three sculptures of DAVID by Michelangelo, Bernini, and Donatello all…… [read more]

Journalism Art in the Form of Wires Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (362 words)
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¶ … Journalism

Art in the form of wires and words "

Ruth Asawa is best known for her crocheted wire sculptures, while Fiona Banner puts a new twist into the concept of nude art. Asawa's wire sculptures are three dimensional in nature while Banner's artwork is two dimensional. Asawa only used crocheted wire as material for her work; Banner employed large graphite canvases and block letters as material for hers. In creating her work Asawa used a method that "yielded fluid forms with structure and surface mutually defining one another via a repetitive, loopy line with just enough strength to hold a shape when suspended"(Miles, Dec. 31, 2006). Asawa's artwork also cut the air into silhouettes and allowed space to flow through it. For her artwork Banner simply had graphic verbal descriptions of nudes running as continuous lines throughout the canvases.

Only the wires' natural grayish colors were used for Asawa's artwork. Banner, however, prominently used colors to give meaning to her work. In her piece entitled "Smokey Nude" for example, Banner used white block letters cast upon a misty…… [read more]

Feminist Baroque and Rococo Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,730 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Feminist Perspective in Baroque and Rococo Art and Architecture

As we explore the notion of feminism in the early 17th century baroque and late 17th century rococo art and architecture, there very quickly and noticeably the absence of a feminist perspective. In the early part of the century, during the period most commonly associated with the masters of baroque, there… [read more]

How Is Art and Culture on the Internet Impact on Wider Social Issues? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,084 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Internet and Fine Art

What is the difference between art and culture, especially when it appears on the Internet? Answer: Nothing. Art becomes part of the culture; the more it is seen and accepted. The culture is also reflected in Art. Visual images that are appearing on the web reflect the great diversity of styles, artists and showcases… [read more]

Walter Benjamin: The Art of Work Term Paper

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Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Walter Benjamin: The Art of Work in Age of Mechanical Reproduction

Walter Benjamin in his article 'The Art of Work in Age of Mechanical Reproduction' has justified the usage of mechanical equipments for the means of production of art works. Plagiarism and copyrights have been traditional issues, the duplication of any master piece has been considered as a serious offence and in certain part of the world serious capital punishments are awarded for defying copyrights.

This particular essay is with reference to duplication of art pieces. Through out centuries art has been driving force towards the spiritual, social and economic accomplishment of an individual and society. Art has played vital role in nurturing and molding of society's frame of thoughts and application. The promotion and propagation of Art pieces through duplication has been critical issue, some agree to it and others disagree with this notion of publicizing independently.


Walter in his text, 'The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction', studies the influence of mechanical technologies on the history of art and human consciousness. He discusses the new production techniques which engender the new means of judging the original work piece. He further elaborates that the technological advancement has achieved new standards, and duplicated pieces are considered as original and real pieces. He concludes with the fact that human perception, particularly optical perception, is in an ongoing state of evolution.

Walter's article is canonical in art history, film studies and related fields. Benjamin further elaborates that previously, painting or sculptures were embedded with aura, which gave a sense of absolute uniqueness towards the artwork. In the age of technology, Benjamin perceives that the uniqueness of art piece has diluted by the application of reproduction devices, he welcomes the idea of art without aura, i.e. promotion of duplicated copies. In present scenario characteristic art forms, photography and film lack the element of originality.

Benjamin supports the usage of mechanical devices, reasoning that aura was a kind of aristocratic mystery, and the art develops it values on the basis pf present rather than past. The implementation of technological production means are more kind of democratic art. He writes,

The social significance of film, even -- and especially -- in its most positive form, is inconceivable without its destructive, cathartic side: the liquidation of the value of tradition in the cultural heritage.'(Benjamin Walter)

The art community believes that it is Benjamin's likely embracement of Communism which influenced his thoughts, and developed a soft and lenient stand towards the publication and duplication of art pieces. Benjamin's personal circumstances only reinforced this judgment.

Benjamin suggested that technologies of mechanical reproduction and systems of mass production changed modes of human perception and evaluation, fundamentally altering our aesthetic responses.

Benjamin argues that experience of cultural imagery has been under dramatic influence…… [read more]

Three Dimensional Art Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+



Woman Addressing the Public

Joan Mir, a Spanish artist who lived from 1893-1983, painted this work. He sculpted this work, "Woman Addressing the Public: Project for a Monument" in 1980-81, only two years before his death, in the late 1620s, in a very modernistic, surrealistic style. It is sculpted in bronze, sized 12 ft. 2-1/2 in. x 8 ft. (372.1 x 243.8 cm). The Kimbell Art Museum acquired the piece in 1996, and it stands at the entrance to the museum.

This arresting three-dimensional sculpture is a modernistic figure of a woman with her arms outstretched, supposedly addressing a crowd of onlookers. It also looks as if she were going to embrace them. Her massive "feet" and legs dominate the piece, and it is larger than life, and a good way to greet people arriving at the museum. The line and motion of the piece is all curves and rounded lines, while the overall shape is tall, but rounded, too.

It would not seem that a sculpture would have motion, but this piece does have it in the very design of the piece. The way the arms are outstretched it seems as if the woman is reaching out at that very moment, and this feeling of motion carries the piece and makes it more interesting. What is also interesting is that the motion gives the piece a feeling of lightness, while the actual foundation of the piece is extremely heavy and even awkward. Taken together, the mass of the piece is less noticeable and more appealing somehow.

The lighting of this work of course depends on the natural light surrounding it, and yet it has a light of its own. The shiny black reflects the light, while the bronze piece in front reflects the light even more and draws your eyes to the center of the piece. Even on a cloudy day, this piece has its own form of lighting, which is very interesting to see. The light value of the piece is not bright and shiny, but rich and detailed, and that makes it somehow easier on the eyes somehow.

The texture and pattern of this work at first appears totally smooth, but as you look more deeply at it, there is texture and pattern in the black areas, as though the…… [read more]

What Does Beauty Mean in Art Today? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,502 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … beauty" mean in art today?

The concept of beauty is not a linear concept, we can point out from the very beginning towards the fact that the modern concept of beauty has evolved and has developed from beauty in the Antiquity or Middle Ages, up to modern times. In today's environment, when we talk about modernism and postmodernism… [read more]

Art and Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,935 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Art and Society

An Analysis and Discussion of Gender Construction in the Toilet of Venus (1647-51) by Diego Velasquez

While women in the United States and the United Kingdom have enjoyed the right to vote for several decades now, things were very different at the turn of the 20th century when the suffragettes emerged to challenge the male-dominated status quo… [read more]

Paintbrush -- My Artist's Pen Term Paper

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¶ … Paintbrush -- My Artist's Pen:

Why a Paintbrush is an Essential Item to create my Art on Canvas

My paintbrush is like my right hand -- or my best friend. It is an implement, an item, and a tool. But it is also like a friend, for whenever I wish to express myself, it is always there to help me speak on the canvas, and to unburden my soul through the use of lines, textures, and shading. This is why a paintbrush is such a unique and necessary part of the creation of my art, and perhaps every person's development of artistic skills, even if the artist ultimately chooses another medium to pursue professionally. Yes, art can be made with many other tools. Art can be molded from clay. Art can be sprayed from a bottle of paint. Art can be created from cutting into the surface of stone. Art can be created with computer graphics. But because of the paintbrush's ability to spread color and create images as a painting tool, because of its ability to create different marks and textures with the brush fibers, and because of the paint brush's ability to be used when creating art with other media, the paintbrush remains an essential part of my artist's tool kit and every developing artist's tool kit.

First of all, a painting brush can be used in many different ways to create art, even in a single work. A paintbrush is commonly used for painting, and to use it well is important for an artist, just as learning to blend colors, or to observe and plan the subject and the perspective of the painting carefully, when working from life. No matter how many people create art with other artistic media, from computer dots to a block of granite, painting will always have a uniquely important place in the history of Western art. This is one reason why it is so important, too, for art students seeking to learn about artistic technique and to find their voice as artists, to learn how to use a paintbrush. When a student uses different kinds of paintbrushes, paint, and techniques of painting, the student can better understand and learn from great works of Western painting. Learning how to use the paintbrush in one's own art better enables the student to draw from the works of the past, and use these works to fire his or her own artistic imagination in the future.

Yes, sketching is the first thing a student learns. But painting in color is the next logical step to learning how to become an artist. From learning how to create black and white sketches, artists proceed to painting to show the world in bright and unique colors. Although a knife or even fingers can be used to create art through sculpting or splattering on paint, brushes are still the 'pen' of the artist's trade, from which other techniques begin. An artist learns how to use a brush before… [read more]

Outsider Art Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,266 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Outsider Art

It is called "Outsider Art," because it stands outside the realm of "fine" art. It is painted by patients in asylums. It is created by prisoners in their cells. It is made up by untrained artists and thus considered self-taught. It also goes by other names: na f, naive, Art Brut, to list the most common. Tattoos were… [read more]

Paintings Sloop, Nassau by Winslow Homer Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (319 words)
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¶ … Paintings

Sloop, Nassau" by Winslow Homer is a haunting painting of a small ship towing a boat on cloudy, stormy seas. The painting is peaceful, and yet the clouds are menacing somehow. While it would not seem emotional, it is, just because of the vibrancy of the colors and the thick brushstrokes of the work. It seems as if the two non-descript figures on board are sailing into harm's way, somehow. While Homer's painting is realistic if a bit stylized, Auerbach's work, "Head of Michael Podro," is entirely the opposite. The figure is fairly recognizable as human, but that is about all. Auerbach's angular lines and stark colors make the head of the person seem like an alien somehow, and Auerbach definitely does not work in realism. Like the "Sloop," Auerbach's work is disquieting somehow, but more because his portraits are so unreal and so ghostly, somehow.

A much prefer the Homer piece, even though it also…… [read more]

Visual Arts Andy Warhol's "Self-Portrait 1986" Versus Term Paper

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Visual Arts

Andy Warhol's "Self-Portrait 1986" versus "Self-Portrait" by Chuck Close: A visit to the Columbus Museum of Art.

In this paper I plan to compare two original paintings currently housed in the Columbus Museum of Art in Columbus Ohio. I have chosen two self-portrait as my subjects, each from American Artists of the 20th Century. The first painting I… [read more]

Avant-Garde Concept in Modern Art Term Paper

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¶ … avant-garde concept in modern art, and how various artists and movements attempted to achieve social and artistic changes.

Avant-garde in art refers to a small group of painters who formed their own "Salon" after being refused acceptance by the official Paris Salon that exhibited the works of established and up-and-coming painters of the 1860s. The "refues" created the Salon des Refuses that exhibited their artworks that had been rejected by the Salon. Some of the artists who exhibited at the Salon des Refuses included Camille Pissarro, Paul Cezanne, edouard Manet, and James McNeill Whistler, who would all go on to have successful careers as Impressionist, modernist, naturalist and other types of artists. Avant-garde came to mean breakthrough or progress and reform, and each of these artists fought for their artwork to be accepted by the population and critics, but they also fought for social reform and change in their own society.

Avant-garde may have begun in the 19th century, but it continues through the 20th century, and can also refer to anything outside the normal art world. For example, some people consider graffiti to be modern day avant-garde art. In the 20th century, painters such as Picasso and Dali, who dabbled in modern arts like Cubism and Dadaism were considered avant-garde artists. Throughout artistic change, those leaders of change were the avant-garde artists who would someday become accepted and admired.

Through their art, they changed what was accepted in the art world, but they also made social commentaries about what was happening in society. For example, in 1938, Picasso painted "Guernica," an emotional reaction to the bombing of a Spanish Basque town by Nazi bombers. The painting has remained one of his most famous and well-known, as much for its depiction of the destroyed town and some of the victims as for its staunch and clear stand against the brutality of the Nazis. These artists were not afraid to stand up for what they believed in, and they wanted to change society to become a better…… [read more]

Art and Humanities Term Paper

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The Age of Baroque followed the Renaissance, and while the art was still deeply religious in nature and supported by the Catholic Church, the style was changing again. By the end of the Late Renaissance, art had settled into the "Mannerism" style, and Baroque was an attempt to get away from this type of art that was technically very correct… [read more]

Art Historian W.J.T. Mitchell Asserted Term Paper

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Combined with his attachment to the Catalan heritage, Miro sought a certain universality in expression. In 1918, he found this thread of commonality in landscape, to which he devoted himself. He was particularly thrilled by the areas of Montroig, where he reproduced a "calligraphy" with his brush, a lyrical stroke "blade of grass by blade of grass, tile by tile."… [read more]

Art Is Changed Term Paper

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One can view the picture that he paints and feel the lonliness that he required for him to do his best work. As a young painter he was considered undisplined which also shows in this particular painting. Viewing the color use and the use of lines denoting the background and horizon one can feel the desire to reach out and touch mankind, while at the same time being content to have many miles between the viewer and the hustle and bustle of society.

In Pierre Bonnard's Terrace painting the exact opposite is realized. This painting reflects society's desire to be alive and social (Grainstack 1891 http://www.oceansbridge.com/art/customer/product.php?productid=38385& cat=4037& page=19& maincat=M). The painting not only reflects such an image through the use of the images that are in the painting but also in the fact that the colors are bright and cheerful. One only has to gaze at this painting and discover the gaiety of the time which reflects the political and cultural attitude that the painter lived in (Grainstack 1891 http://www.oceansbridge.com/art/customer/product.php?productid=38385& cat=4037& page=19& maincat=M).

Food is plentiful as is denoted on the canvas and the people seem to be happy to be gathering. There are no expressions of worry on the faces of those in the painting. While The Haystack produces a feeling of lonely hard life, The Terrace produces the exact opposite emotion and illustrates the general attitude of society in that era.

In Paul Signac's The Windmills the artist blends a combination of the two when he provides a colorful and cheerful work of windmills. The colors used are significant factors because of the cheerful and happy emotion they bring forth. The picture has very little to do with socializing yet it welcomes the idea of social happiness by use of the colors and the use of the brush to denote that emotion.

All three paintings exude contentment by the artist. The Haystack is a more lonely and solitude picture in which the viewer can sit and contemplate life while gazing at the simple lines and meaning behind the painting. In the next two the willingness of society and culture to be upbeat and social is displayed in the works. The use of color and motion both provide indicators of the political and cultural attitude of the era.


Grainstack 1891

http://www.oceansbridge.com/art/customer/product.php?productid=38385& cat=4037& page=19& maincat=M

Pierre Bonnard The Terrace


Paul Signac The windmills http://www.aacwebkiosk.com/Obj6541$1,650

baroque sculptures http://www.romeartlover.it/Sculptures.html

coat of arms http://members.tripod.com/romeartlover/Juv33.html



National Romanticism


Diane the Huntress


http://www.rastko.org.yu/isk/images/simeon_roksandic.html… [read more]

19th Century Art During Term Paper

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19th Century Art

During the 19th century, a great number of revolutionary changes altered forever the face of art and those that produced it. Compared to earlier artistic periods, the art produced in the 19th century was a mixture of restlessness, obsession with progress and novelty, and a ceaseless questioning, testing and challenging of all authority. Old certainties about art… [read more]

Vedder's "Memory" -- Remembering Term Paper

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And although the American Vedder, after studying in Paris from 1856 -- 61, returned to the United States at the outbreak of the Civil War, he mainly supported himself by illustrating comic valentines and calisthenics books and drawing for popular magazines such as Vanity. He isolated himself from any sociological or political context as an artist, or even from any… [read more]

20th Century Art History's Response Term Paper

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("Edward Hopper," Art Archive, 2005)

Rockwell's nostalgia is often said to be reminiscent of plays such as Thornton Wilder's "Our Town." In contrast, Hopper's paintings have been compared to the realist plays of Ibsen, a writer whom the artist admired, because of their "deliberate, disciplined sparseness, and modern bleakness and simplicity. However, some say they are also full of a different kind of nostalgia than Rockwell, a nostalgia "for the puritan virtues of the American past," a sad nostalgia in contrast to the upbeat nostalgia of Rockwell, or the sad yet forward thinking social criticism of Sternberg's canvas. Though Hopper's compositions are supposedly realist they also make frequent use of covert symbolism, unlike the more blatant realism of Sternberg and Rockwell. Rockwell's television represents the positive aspects of modern technology, however confusing, while Sternberg, the negative -- in Hopper it is less clear if humanity is making the sterile trap of the office, or if technology is creating the sterile affair.

In contrast to the private gaze fixed upon the earlier chroniclers of human responses to technology, Hopper and Sternberg, Norman Rockwell captured the attention of millions of Americans with his 322 Saturday Evening Post covers. Unlike the paintings displayed in galleries and specifically designated artistic spaces, " every week at approximately the same time, millions of households across the country received The Saturday Evening Post and thus "the way most people were introduced to Rockwell images" was in "close up." (Knuston, 18)

A painting like "The Office at Night," instructs the viewer about loneliness and "The Family-Industry and Agriculture" depicts the American farmer, but Rockwell created a sense of intimacy rather than forceful instruction in his "The New Television Set," because Rockwell's "paintings were not meant to be experienced within the formal and controlled environment of a museum." (Knuston 18) One could say that the reason Rockwell seems so conservative to viewers is that they are experienced in isolation, outside of social experiences, unlike museums. "Subscribers could look at a Post cover and feel that they were looking at themselves or their neighbors ... The naughty child, the doctor, the babysitter, the dentist, the grandfather, the mom and dad." (Knuston 18)

In contrast to the large canvases of the social realist Sternberg and the urban realist Hopper, Rockwell's magazine covers were meant to make the gazer and reader feel as if they were about ordinary Americans, like "us." Of course, 'we' are workers on farms and in cities perhaps more like the words Hopper and Sternberg, but Rockwell created more of an optimistic image of normalcy that Americans longed to accept in the post-war cultural climate. Although Rockwell did not portray 'reality' he did portrayed what post-war America wished and willed American and Americans to resemble, in image.

Before one cries Rockwell overmuch it is important to remember, in conclusion, that he was above all a commercial artist, and unlike the critique of technology of Sternberg and Hopper, he was creating art to sell a magazine, a magazine that… [read more]

Art What Is Considered Beautiful Term Paper

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Art - What is Considered Beautiful?

People's evaluation of art can never be anything other than subjective. When someone praises a work, or even simply declares that they find it beautiful, their criteria are rarely based on the intrinsic merit of the work, but rather on how it makes them feel-or because they know that the artist is famous." It can be said that this statement is generally true.

Art is both perceptual and psychological, thus the "power of aesthetic perception is the interaction between the object and the beholder" (Chang Pp).

Art creates emotion and so creates response. "The experimental aesthetic value of even the most successful art pieces is relative with changes in time and conditions of the society in which it resides" (Chang Pp). Because art is psychological, it involves both the conscious and unconscious processes of the beholder (Chang pp). This awareness and receptivity of a piece of art is referred to as the sensitivity of the beholder (Chang Pp). Art represents the past realities, as well as functioning as a predictor of societal evolution (Chang Pp).

Nathan Kogan writes that Paleolithic art forms, paintings and sculptures, were associated with ritual and ceremonies, thus, promoting the solidarity and prosperity of the group as a whole (Kogan Pp). Art is emotional and this arousal "implies distinctive central and autonomic nervous system activity, which represents the primary connection between art and biology" (Kogan Pp). Therefore, humans have an underlying sensitivity to the arts, and from the days the Paleolithic era, art appears to be embedded within the human genes (Kogan Pp).

The definition of art to most people today differs greatly from that of past societies (Art Pp). Today, critics include in their definition of art what is called 'visual culture,' such as comic books, advertising, television, and motion pictures (Art Pp). "Perhaps the major difficulty in defining art lies in the fact that art implies value-monetary, social, and intellectual. Large amounts of money may be involved when an object is regarded as art" (Art Pp). For example, "a sculpture of beer cans by American artist Jasper Johns is worth millions of dollars, while beer cans themselves are worth almost nothing" (Art Pp). Most critics believe that John's work qualifies as art "because the artist intended it to be seen as art' (Art Pp). However, there is much in the world that is considered art, yet the "artists" had no such intention when they created it, such as "blankets woven by Navajo women whose identities are unknown" (Art Pp). Art is ever changing, "not only in its general definition but also in its…… [read more]

Art History -- High Renaissance Term Paper

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Another massive sculpture by Michelangelo is his Moses (1513-1515), originally meant for the tomb of pope Julius II. In order to appreciate this fantastic piece of marble, one must study it in detail -- the sense of relevance in each detail of body and drapery forces the viewer to raise his emotional levels. The muscles bulge, the vein swell, the great legs seem to begin to move ever so slowly. In addition, the turned head concentrates the expression of terrible wrath that appears to stir in the eyes. With David, all of the ideals of the Renaissance are fully at work, for it demonstrates the power and magnificence of not only the church but also of man himself.

In conclusion, Raphael, Leonardo Da Vinci and Michelangelo symbolize the loftiest goals of the High Renaissance by making their figures come alive as if made out of flesh and blood. In a sense, these artists created a new artistic profession that exhibited its own rights of expression, its own character and its own claims to greatness within western civilization.



Hartt, Frederick. History of Italian Renaissance Art. New York: Prentice-Hall & Harry N. Abrams, 1974.

Klein, Robert and Henri Zerner. Italian Art, 1500-1600: Sources and Documents. New Jersey:…… [read more]

UCLA Art Term Paper

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I became interested in the way forms created an environment and worlds of mood and feeling; as can be seen in many of Henry Moore's sculptures. My personal view of is that all art forms create spaces or environments which we can explore and which not only excite the imagination but also lead to an understanding of reality.

This interest in sculpture and especially in the more practical and technical side of sculptural art became combined with my views and interests in the environment and eventually melded into a desire to study architecture. I became interested in the Bauhaus school of architecture which further motivated me towards a study of this discipline. However, I am firmly convinced that architecture is reliant on and intimately linked to other forms of art and theory. I therefore feel that an overall and in-depth understanding of the various art forms is essential.

I would like to study at UCLA as the University offers the expertise and facilities to provide the sort of background in both theory and practice that I require. I feel the Art Department's world renowned status as well as the high caliber of the teaching would be essential for the direction that I have chosen. I firmly believe that the imaginative and creative style of UCLA would be the ideal place for my studies in both the theoretical and practical aspects which I believe are necessary foundation for the study of architecture.


Chipp, H (1968) Theories of Modern Art. London.…… [read more]

19th Century Art Term Paper

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In Europe, the nineteenth century was an age of radical change during which the modern world took shape. In a world that was experiencing a population explosion of unparalleled magnitude, revolution followed revolution, a pattern punctuated by counter-revolution and conservative reaction. In thought as well as in science, the… [read more]

Painting Analysis Jean-Francois Millet: 'Priory at Vauville Term Paper

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Painting Analysis

Jean-Francois Millet: 'Priory at Vauville, Normandy'

The French painter Jean-Francois Millet (1814-75) was a noted example of the realist school of painting. He began as a portrait painter, but made his reputation with paintings of scenes of peasant life in the French countryside, such as 'The Sower' (1850), 'Harvesters Resting' (1853) and 'The Gleaners' (1857). These works were… [read more]

Printmaking: A Pre and Post Term Paper

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The standardization of images in lithography, one can see in other arts. One can see such standardization present in the sameness of supposedly original photographs on magazine covers, all of which, although of different women, often depict models and actresses in the same pose. Furthermore, art such as the work of Andy Warhol, shows that replication, when taken to the level of self-parody of the multiple image of advertising, can attain the level of high art.

"Topical broadsides" or clip art often are reflective the mores of a preceding era. Even unlike trademarked brands, they are generalized and no longer even exist as trademarks. (55) Yet this again an illustration of how standardized images become part of cultural dialogue and discourse just as much as language -- the checkered red of a diner tablecloth signifies eating as much as the word 'to eat' itself, when certain images enter the gallery of lithography and become common to a printed culture of the advertising image. But even today, the beauty of creative and individual art such as the "Mona Lisa" comes to stand for something, an idea like 'the Renaissance' or 'high art,' rather than becomes an interesting object of pluralistic significance in and of itself, when it is reproduced sufficiently and becomes an object of mass consumption.

Work Cited

Weisberg, Ruth. "The Syntax of the Print."… [read more]

Modern Philosophies of Art Term Paper

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Modernism in Art

Modern Philosophies of Modern Art: a 'Readymade' debate or a mutual society of agreement? Greenburg v. Duchamp

Marcel Duchamp makes two sweeping assumptions regarding the production of art -- first, that art is 'readymade' in other words, that all art really only has a surface uniqueness, and that art is dependant upon derivative materials of production. This is nothing to be ashamed of, rather it is endemic to all art, and is the source of the strength of art in all media.

However, according to Clement Greenburg, the essence of modern art specifically lies in the ability of art to engage in a kind of 'self critique' through the actual process of making art. He uses, at the beginning of the section of his essay on modern art, the analogy of how Kant used logic to establish the limits of logic. He suggests that modernism used the same limitations, now ascribed to art, such as the flatness of composition, in a positive fashion. For instance, Greenburg paints, no pun intended, Manet as kind of a neo-Andy Warhol, as Manet "became the first Modernist" as he created "pictures by virtue of the frankness with which they declared the flat surfaces on which they were painted." (Greenburg, 195)

Greenberg's statement of modern art as a self-critique is echoed in some of the words of modern artists themselves. As noted by Marcel Duchamp's essay on his own composition, "I realized very soon the danger of repeating indiscriminately this form of expression and decided to limit the production of 'Readymades' to a small number yearly." "Readymades" is a work of modern art that involves replication of mechanistic methods of production. However, although "Readymades" is an act of self-parody in the sense that it takes the limits of readymade production to an absurd extreme, and deploys such elements in a consistent and uniform fashion, it is also, according to the artist, parodies art.

But the work does not specifically parody modern art, but art in general, for according to Duchamp, "the spectator even more for the artist, art is a habit forming drug." Art in the Western individualistic tradition is supposed to be unique, but what is key to the artistic understanding of "Readymades" are their lack of uniqueness and sense of standardized capitalistic form that is supposed to be…… [read more]

Museum Methods Term Paper

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Although I agree with the basic structure of this definition, I would prefer more emphasis on the level of required professional standards necessary to designate an institution as a museum. Many non-profit institutions are established to enrich our society including, schools, libraries and community social and cultural organizations. Many of these institutions are essential in the preservation of values and… [read more]

Traditional African Art Term Paper

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This is the most common traditional African art form. Various materials are used for the masks, including wood, bronze, or feathers.

The Yoruba community for example was extremely artistic, producing wood, bronze, terra cotta and iron sculptures, masks and other tribal ornaments. Masks were used for the purpose of entertaining senior women and honoring deities associated with witchcraft.

The art of the Dan people was very much focused on masks, and these were used in various aspects of life. Masks were for example used both for everyday purposes such as judging cases and entertaining, and for spiritual occasions. The style of the masks would then be suited to the occasion and to the nature of the persons wearing them.


Rebirth. "African Mask History." 2000. http://www.rebirth.co.za/African_mask_history_and_meaning.htm

Traditional African Art." 2004. http://www.geocities.com/Paris/Metro/5252/african.htm… [read more]

Paintings by David and Raoux Term Paper

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David had been a revolutionary, agitating for the sorts of removal of the aristocratic power structure that had first been thought about in Raoux' time. For David, humanism -- the concept of the supremacy and dignity of man -- had taken hold of the mass consciousness in general, and David's in particular.

In the David work, Eucharis presses her very clean profile against Telemachus' bare shoulder. While the lovers run away, moving through time and space in the Raoux painting, these lovers, although in a farewell setting, are still attached, and erotically so. While Raoux exposes a lot of bare skin in his work, it is does not tell a specific tale as the skin-to-skin caress does in the David work. And, too, David uses intense color in draping the bodies, bright red and blue. Raoux used a gentler palette, not infused with intensity and, arguably, desire.

In this way, Jacques-Louis David contrasts masculine rectitude with female emotion," writes Mary Vidal. (2000)

On the other hand, Raoux spreads the paint thinly, with abundant use of white to make the clothing seem light and transparent, to suggest movement as the lovers run through time and space. They are connected to each other only arm to arm, not entwined, as are Telemachus and Eucharis. David's heavy application of intense color and almost no use of white suggests that these lovers are grounded in each other, that there is a heavy and indissoluble connection from which neither can run away, despite their parting.

The lovers painted by Raoux are connected as much to others as to each other; one looks back, the other forward, but always surrounded by more of humanity.

The lovers painted by David are self-involved, a duo that has neither intellectual nor artistic need of others, complete in themselves.

Although both paintings might be said to be realistic in execution, each painting is perfectly representative of the intellectual atmosphere of its painter's own time.

Works Cited

Jean Raoux." Biography, retrieved 12 April 2004 at http://www.getty.edu/art/collections/bio/a197-1.html

Vidal, Mary. "David's Telemachus and Eucharis: Reflections on Love, Learning, and History."

The Art Bulletin, 1 December 2000.

The Enlightenment." Retrieved 12 April 2004 at http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~brians/hum_303/enlightenment.html… [read more]

Art Philosophy Tragedy Term Paper

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The empirical properties of the physical sciences may be used to infer the empirical existence of consciousness. Mental properties cannot be identical to physical properties; however, psychology can be reduced to natural science in terms of causal efficacy. For Hume, impressions are those things that are experienced through the senses, while ideas are 'copies' of impressions.

Picasso takes his ideas… [read more]

Painting St. Jerome Term Paper

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Actually, the detail of the man is not quite as much as his surroundings, but he does not blend into the background. On the contrary, he is the central theme of the work, and without him it would have no reason for existence. The man and his translation work is the central theme of the painting. He is a religious man, who is doing something important, and this theme makes the rest of the details important and fascinating. The artist is expressing his religious beliefs in this work, and clearly, he finds the work of this man important, valid, and unique, as he includes all of these elements in the finished work to give added depth to his theme. Truly, this engraving is cool because of what it shows the viewer, and what goes unsaid in the background. It makes the viewer think, and that is one element of a truly cool and important work of art.

In conclusion, "St. Jerome in His Study" draws the viewer into the work, giving them a differing view every time they look at the piece. The great attention to detail is evident at first glance, but each succeeding view brings something new to light, and draws the viewer back for another look, and another, and another. This work has stood the test of time, and is still fascinating and wonderful, which makes it cool, but also makes it an enduring glance into the Northern…… [read more]

Henri Matisse's Painting Woman Term Paper

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His Woman Before an Aquarium can also be seen as a play on shapes, in mockery of the Art Deco movement, which began to emit a plethora of circles and squares in their designs (Neret, 1999).

We shall now turn to the poem Woman Before an Aquarium by Patricia Hampl, which uses many of the same approaches that Matisse used in his painting towards the execution of the poem, for example, themes, colours, approaches, and styles.

The poem by Hampl uses the theme of Matisse's painting, a woman before an aquarium, and takes us on a journey to discover how and why the woman is sitting before the fish. Hampl uses poetic devices, such as repetition, similes, and metaphors, to make us feel we are in the place of this unknown woman, that we are feeling what she is feeling, waiting for what she is waiting for.

We feel the woman's emotions, through the skill with which the poem is written, and we begin to see the poem as a homage to the skill of Matisse; Hampl must have had sufficient respect for the work of Matisse to make a careful study of his approach and execution for this painting, to be able to emulate his style in her poetry.

This is one reason why poets do not often write poems based on works of art: it is a rather daunting task, to tread in the footsteps of the great, and to expect praise for doing so. It takes a particular confidence to be able to do this, and a particular talent to be able to carry it off successfully, as Hampl has done in her poem.

We began by looking at the reasons why poets may become inspired by works of art, and we argued that both poets and painters can be considered artists, and as such, that they can both be inspired by any source, be that nature, memories, feelings, or other paintings (painters are also inspired to recreate paintings, as poets are inspired to write by paintings).

We then saw that for another artist to recreate a work of art needs a great deal of confidence, and knowledge of the artists work, so that the original work can be done justice. In the case of Woman Before an Aquarium, one of Matisse's great works, this painting was handled with a great deal of care, as with all of his works, and is very well executed.

For Hampl to come to this work, and to decide to write about it took a great deal of confidence, and the process of researching and writing the poem was sufficiently in depth, as the end-product certainly does justice to the love and care and thought that went in to Matisse's painting.

Her style, the themes she uses, the tone of the poem, all of these create a similar atmosphere to that created by Matisse in his painting; I would say that Hampl's poem is one poem that actually increases appreciation of… [read more]

Michelangelo Biography and Detailed Information Term Paper

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The artist depicts the sublime act of creating Adam through a simple touch of the finger. A touch, yes, but not completely physical: God's index never touches Adam's, but let's us imagine God's whole power. Between God's index and Adam's finger, one can see the glitter of a superior will and of a superior power. Symbolically, God is surrounded by angels and by an elliptical mantle that signifies the initial 'cosmic Egg' from which everything emerged. One can notice that Adam himself forms an ellipse, but only an incomplete one: he needs God's soul-giving touch for him to complete himself as a being. For indeed, Adam is physically created: he has been made in God's image, as the similitude in the two bodies structure points out: both are muscular, strong, showing Michelangelo's genius in portraying human bodies and his profound anatomical studies. He is physically alive, but needs God's touch to perform himself as a human and be endowed with intellect and spirit. It is truly a timeless moment.

The picture is asymmetrical: God is extended to touch Adam, thus suggesting that he actually has the will to endow Adam with life. In this sense, God is pictured over the illusionary middle of the whole painting, while Adam was placed on the left end, in expectance. Two shapes dominate the painting and both of them are elliptical shapes. The first one is described by God's cloak and by his suite of angels, forming a perfect ellipse, while on the other side of the painting, Adam's ellipse is incomplete. Symbolically, this is so because he is not fully achieved.

Even if the painting is indeed 2- dimensional, the vault of the ceiling and the architectural impressions and trompe l'aeil that Michelangelo paints give indeed the likeliness of a 3- dimensional space. With the help of this illusion, Michelangelo is able to create a sense of perspective, even though the whole action occurs in the forefront of the painting. However, it does not end here: through the use of perspective (technique that had already begun to be used), the Earth and skies seem to be continuing somewhere in a further plan. This is probably meant to underline the importance of the moment and of the two foremost characters. These are the human anatomical ideal. As I have said before, Michelangelo carefully studied the human anatomy and used it to create models of physical human beauty. This is also the case in the Creation of Adam. Strong, masculine bodies, prototypes of ideal human proportions.

Michelangelo painted the Creation of Adam directly on the ceiling in a technique called fresco. This kind of technique was among the most difficult in the Renaissance as it contained a high degree of possible degradation at a later date. One can only mention here the example of the Holy Supper by Leonardo da Vinci in the church of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan that is nowadays being restored. Michelangelo himself had this problem when painting the Sistine… [read more]

Botticelli's Mythological Paintings Term Paper

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The aristocrats of the time favored the past classics and as such here we see a Greek influence in the nudity of the bodies. The male body was seen as a form of art and by showing the nude form reclined amidst the women and children the classical Greek preferences were portrayed. Then we see the cherub in the picture which resembles Cupid the child god of love so cherished by the Romans.

With these obvious elements of love depicted we can easily decipher the woman in the image as that of Venus and predict the male as Mars; three mythological characters, signifying rage and love. In mythological terms, it is said that the result of rage and love is harmony, and this is what is reflected in the painting because the child has a lovely smile on his face.

In this painting, Botticelli's style reflects Gothic art with a blend of the topics chosen from classical mythology. This style is effective as almost every detail of the strokes in the painting is highly revealing. An example of this is the swarm of wasps around Mars' head that indicate that victory is never a permanent thing. However, this style is such that it was considered to be outdated for the period within which Botticelli used it. This is why with the decline of the Medici family we saw a change in style for Botticelli who lost his patrons and thus saw his style losing flavor in court and beyond.

Conclusion: Botticelli's art in the painting Mars and Venus thus suggests a love and influence of the gothic art which was used to reveal the symbolic myths of the past in order to revive sentiment and passion in an era of changing society.


Cheney, Liana De Girolami Quattrocento Neoplatonism and Medici Humanism in Botticelli's Mythological Paintings University Press of America, 1985 www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/mythology/WINDOWS_MAIN_FILE/TCC97_small.html&edu=high"… [read more]

Art History - High Renaissance Term Paper

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The various influences that played an important role in the development of Raphael's artistic ability are evident. The round format is indicative of Florence, yet the picture within is different from Raphael's own Florentine Madonnas. The Virgin Mother's pose resembles a work of classic sculpture, with the robes of ancient Rome, and the landscape itself is seen as an idealized view of the Roman campagna. There is grandeur to The Alba Madonna, lending it a seriousness, the need for which could be interpreted as emanating from the focus on a slender reed cross that defines the work's intended meaning. Church doctrine holds that from birth Christ had an understanding of his fate. In The Alba Madonna, the Christ Child is shown accepting the cross of his future sacrifice (National Gallery of Art).

The artist's point-of-view can be seen in the tension that arises from the seriousness of the subject being addressed and in the poses of the figures, increased multifold by the contrast of the serene countryside and the simplicity and sweetness of facial expressions. The work is classified as High Renaissance Art given the characteristics of technique, symmetry and individual artistic expression.

Madonna with a Long Neck by Parmigianino is a work from the Mannerism period, as evident in the artist's exaggerated stylization of the Madonna's neck, long delicate fingers and the long leg of the angel in the foreground. The effect achieved is theatrical and formulaic indicating a move away from the natural themes in previous Renaissance periods. The abstract forms and unusual proportions lend the work an interesting, even elegant effect. It has been interpreted that the artist approached this work with a view to demonstrate that unorthodoxy could result in creating startling effects that can still communicate (The Artchive).

Three works, all on the Madonna, all from the same era and yet so different! The question is whether any comparison of the three is really justifiable at all. Taking the view that art is a form of expression intended to convey meaning, it can be suggested that all three of the works under consideration here are indeed extremely communicative. Art that does not express will leave the viewer cold and indifferent. That is certainly not the case here for all three works are evocative and hold the power to gain and hold attention.

The Madonna of the Rocks uses the tension of the darkness of the cavern to create mysteriousness, which is relevant to the significance of the meeting of the Christ Child and the infant saint John; and the unmistakable feeling of interior wisdom of the faces brings in more emotional impact, perhaps even signifying the path from darkness to light. Raphael, on the other hand, chooses to use stark simplicity to bring about seriousness, while Parmigianino's stylized technique succeeds in communicating a 'larger than life' feel to the event depicted.


Artists by Movement: Mannerism." Artcyclopedia Web site. URL: http://www.artcyclopedia.com/history/mannerism.html

Gombrich, E.H. "The Story of Art." Artchive Web site. URL:


Kren, Emil and… [read more]

Art History the Clouds Gleamed Term Paper

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The Voice now wanted to know more about the materials with which the artists worked, to get a better idea of the mundane aspects of art.

Leonardo," began the Voice, "you are in many ways more versatile a creator than your counterpart before you. You have composed sketches of objects and devices that will not be constructed for hundreds… [read more]

Art La Berceuse (Woman Rocking Term Paper

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This alteration captivates the viewer and gives the objects in the picture more form. Like Van Gogh, Cezanne created a scene where form was given priority and yet, while Van Goghs form was less definite and had few angles, the model and the frames within the picture by Cezanne are more symmetrical and suggest the initial entry of cubism into art forms. The incremental nature of Cezanne's approach was eloquently discussed by the critic Roger Fry (1989, 3): For him, as I understand his work, the ultimate synthesis of a design was never revealed in a flash; rather he approached it with infinite precautions..."

And thus emerged two artists of equal genius and yet, such different temperaments.



Rewald, J. Post-Impressionism. New York: Museum of Modem Art. ed. 1995a Paul Cezanne letters. New York: Da Capo Press.

Hefner, Brook Van Gogh's history chronicled in L.A. exhibit., University Wire, 01-20-1999.

Van Gogh, V. 1958. The complete letters of Vincent van Gogh. Vol.

3. London: Thames…… [read more]

Sculpture of Artist Henry Moore Term Paper

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Even his earliest sculptures were modernistic and forward thinking, totally leaving the conventional world of art behind.

Moore's prime concern was the material. He loved working in stone, and used it almost exclusively in his work. He especially admired the ability sculpture gave him to create 3-D images, viewable from all sides, and different from all sides. He loved the abstract in design as his works show so effectively. He often wrote about his own work, and once said, "Abstract qualities of design are essential to the value of a work, but to me of equal importance is the psychological, human element. If both abstract and human elements are welded together in a work, it must have fuller, deeper meaning'" (Grohmann 25).

Moore's work still has power today because he tried to create works that meant more to the viewer than just a carved piece of stone. He hoped to give the viewer a complete view of the project, and include elements of humanity and depth. He wanted his work to come alive in the viewers' eyes - another reason he enjoyed working in stone. He hoped the viewer could almost imagine the stone before it was carved, so the actual sculpture would be even more vibrant and alive.

If a work of sculpture has its own life and form, it will be alive and expansive, seeming larger than the stone or wood from which it is carved. It should always give the impression, whether carved or modeled, of having grown organically, created by pressure from within. Henry Moore, 1958, quoted by Edouard Roditi (Editors).

Moore was extremely prolific throughout his lifetime, and critics were not always kind to him. After his death, many museums offered retrospectives of his work, and more than one critic began to realize the import of his work. One critic said his "sheer virtuosity of invention was breathtaking" (Kramer 18). Moore is an artist who many felt was before his time. His work was modern, often misunderstood, but stands the test of time.


Editors. "Henry Moore on the Internet." ArtCyclopedia. 20 July 2002. 24 Oct. 2002. http://www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/moore_henry.html

Grohmann, Will. The Art of Henry Moore. New York H.N. Abrams, 1960.

Kramer, Hilton. "After All These Years,…… [read more]

Art Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (349 words)
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A painting can be called art where it too has a purpose but not all paintings would be called art.

A child drawing can create a painting but it would not be called art if it was not created for a purpose. A student could create a painting out of splashes of paint but this would not be true art unless it had greater meaning.

The difficulty is that it is not just the finished product that matters but the artist also.

Some paintings that are called art look no greater than something a child could produce. The difference is that the artist created them that way for a specific purpose.

Paintings are created with a meaning in mind, the artist creates something that people respond to. A painting that can truly be called art will be one that will mean something to people viewing it. It will express an idea, an emotion or a scene.

A painting that is art then is one that has purpose, whatever that purpose may be.… [read more]

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