Study "Art / Painting / Sculpture" Essays 166-220

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Romanesque Art Essay

… Romanesque Art

The Stylized Nature of Romanesque Art

"Style" is a word that is often bandied about without much regard for its meaning, and without a clear definition emerging from its common usage. Referring to someone's "style" can have a… [read more]

Interactive Art Essay

… Interactive art is an artistic piece that promotes interaction between the spectator and the artistic work. Spectators influence the piece by movement, body heat, or by direct interaction from standing or walking on it, in it, or around it. One… [read more]

Conceptual Art Essay

… ¶ … art analysis: Landscape with the Fall of Icarus by Pieter Brueghel

In conceptual art, the aesthetic value of the artistic work is subordinate to the meaning of the work. "Exponents of Conceptual Art said that artistic production should… [read more]

Boundary of Art Andy Warhol Term Paper

… The Boundary of Art: Andy Warhol
In the middle part of the 20th century, Abstract Expressionism rules
the visual arts scene with a sense of serious experimentation that was in
its own way very constraining. The next generation of artists… [read more]

Boundary of Art Andy Warhol Term Paper

… ¶ … Master of Mixing Art and Design

Over the course of the 20th century, commercial design emerged as a vital and highly influential aspect of both design and art. And key to the rise in importance of commercial design… [read more]

Art Exhibition Research Proposal

… Art Exhibition

The human condition: diverse images of human experience


The theme of the human condition is one that has been at the centre of artistic creation. It can be argued that the artist is an interpreter of his age and historical period. However, some of the greatest artists in the history of Western art have succeeded in capturing not only the essence of their time but have also provided insight into the nature of human existence and experience that is relevant to all ages. From this point-of-view the great artists are those who have created works that transcend particular periods or ages. The works created by these artists provide insight into the very nature of man and the human condition.

The collection of works that have been assembled for this exhibition cover a wide time period in the history of art - from the later works of Rembrandt to the very contemporary images of humanity by Francis Bacon in the last century. The central focus that connects these works is what they have to say about the human nature and the human condition.

The insight for example that can be gleaned from meditating on a self-portrait by Rembrandt compared to a self -- portrait by Francis Bacon is an example of the intention of this exhibition. A self-portrait by Rembrandt is not an image that refers only to his particular time and social context. Rather, it resonates into the future and makes an intense statement about the meaning of human life and experience that affects us today. If we place this portrait next to a portrait by the very modern Francis Bacon a number of intriguing questions arise. For instance, to what extent could we say that both these works of art similar in the vision that they project; and to what extent are they dissimilar in terms their intensity of meaning and their aesthetic value? Both are from different time periods and the works of Bacon are renowned for their intensely negative view of the human condition. Rembrandt's portraits on the other hand have as depth and grandeur that seem to radiate from the use of light and chiaroscuro in the craggy features and eyes - but is there also not a strong sense of despair and loneliness that can also be discerned?

Therefore, by placing these images of the human from different periods into sharp juxtaposition with one another, we open up a discourse or a debate about the artistic vision that major artists have of the nature of human life and experience. The portraits by Rembrandt haunt us across the centuries. Is this reflected in the twisted and contorted faces and figures of Francis Bacon… [read more]

Are Photography and Printmaking Really Art? Thesis

… ¶ … Photography and Printmaking Really Art?

Although photography and printmaking rely on mechanical processes for their outcomes, painting and drawing rely on the hand of the artist. Despite these fundamental differences in methodology, it is legitimate to argue that printmaking and photography are both valid forms of fine art because, like painting and drawing, they also rely on the mind of the artist for their outcomes. Certainly, the choice of definition of fine art would play a role in the distinction between these media, but at the heart of matter is the interpretation of what the artist, photographer, printmaker or even photojournalist considers the salient factors that should be communicated in their respective medium. For instance, Margolis (1962) emphasizes that, "Sometimes, the issue at stake is the definition of fine art. Sometimes, it concerns the formulation of criteria of aesthetic merit [but] philosophically, the theory of expression has been most closely linked to the definition of fine art, aesthetic qualities, and aesthetic judgment" (p. 28). From this perspective, photography, printmaking and photojournalism can certainly be regarded as being fine art. Indeed, who can forget the poignant black-and-white image… [read more]

Art Monet Claude Term Paper

… " (Art Encyclopedia)

In conclusion, this research paper aimed to discuss the impressionist artist, Claude Monet. One of his great accomplishments, Water Lilies, is on display in the Toledo Museum of Art. This and his works are some of the most known artworks in the history of the world and young and old alike love his work. For example, since the early 1990's, children have been recreating Monet's work in weaving projects that are surprisingly good. These children and many more to come in the future will continue to be influenced by Monet thanks to the Toledo Museum of Art with projects like Impressionism: Selections of Five Museums. "The project began with the Toledo Museum of Art's special exhibition, Impressionism: Selections of Five Museums, as inspiration for our weaving project with fiber artist, Meg Dickason. Each year, with generous support by our schools PTS, Dickason has conducted weaving workshops with students, teaching them to weave on a variety of looms as well as to spin fibers." (Lehman) Even with the combination of Claude Monet's Water Lilies and Maxwell Q. Klinger, Toledo may never become a Mecca for glitzy Hollywood red carpet events, but there is plenty of reason to go at least once to see this wonderful work of art.

Works Cited

Art Encyclopedia. (2009). Impressionism. Ed. Retrieved on October 30, 2009, from

Flicker. (2007). Monet Water Lilies. Ed. Toledo Museum of Art. Retrieved on October 30, 2009, from

InterAgir. (2009). Claude Monte: Self-Portrait. Ed. Toledo Museum of Art. Retrieved on October 30, 2009, from

InterMonet. (2009). Biography of Claude Monet. Retrieved on October 30, 2009, from

Lehman, Linda. (1991). "Woven Impressions." Arts & Activities. December 1991. Vol. 110, Issue 4, p5, 3p, 6 color.

Schjeldahl, Peter. (2009). "Water World." New Yorker. October 5, 2009: Vol. 85 Issue 31,… [read more]

Cultural Movements of European Art Term Paper

… Although it was a time of great turmoil, it was also a period of great cerebral advancement. For example, in science there were the discoveries by Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, William Harvey and Newton all of which made people question what they had always taken for granted. There was also world expansion as European powers aimed to gain control in the Americas and the Far East, opening up new worlds, wants and desires. Those desires transformed into a late shift away from the Baroque movement and eventually into an even newer Rococo culture. Rococo ended the Baroque movement just as Mannerism had filled the void to end the flow of the Renaissance.

There are some obvious differences between Mannerism, Baroque and Rococo as well. The different motivations of the artists themselves define these movements. Baroque artists were very different from Mannerism artists in that they were able to produce extremely detailed works, but to promote the Church and State. For example, Rembrandt worked primarily for Protestant patrons which helped to alleviate any promotion of inner turmoil. Rococo was then an adjustment in the ways the artist themselves felt and they became disenchanted with the Baroque thinking. Mannerism came about because of the new ideas that moved away from God and the church and more towards the universe, the world and self as the artists therefore also sought to emphasize the sometimes tormented feelings of self.

In conclusion, this essay aimed to make some comparative and contrasting observations about the cultural movements of the European art style periods of Mannerism, Baroque, and Rococo. Each of these interpretive styles produced striking works in sculpture, painting, literature, and music. Although there were different motivations for each cultural movement, the styles all produced great dimensional ideas such as Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time, St. Paul's Cathedral and the Palace of Versailles. The desire for… [read more]

Brancusi's Sculpture Bird in Space Essay

… Brancusi's Bird In Space: Defining Art

The decision of U.S. Custom's to obstruct the entrance of Brancusi's Bird in Space sculpture by charging tax for its importation constitutes an aggressive and irrational subjectivity with respect to art and the value of specific modes of artistic expression. The Brancusi sculpture, which would since be elevated to the status as the single highest auction price tag on a piece of artwork on sale in America -- going to a collector for over $27 million in 2005 -- was essentially blocked by customs in 1926 based on the argument that it did not constitute an example of art. (BBC, 1)

So is this reported by an article from Time Magazine (1928), reporting the details of the succeeding court challenge. Here, the magazine denotes that "works of art are duty free. But Sculptor Brancusi's bird had neither head, feet nor feathers. It was four and a half feet of bronze which swooped up from its base like a slender jet of flame. Customs Inspector Kracke said it was not art; merely 'a manufacture of metal . . . held dutiable at 40% ad valorem.'" (Time Magazine, 1)

We are made to understand by this passage that the Customs Inspector essentially appointed himself as a critic of the arts, making his own intellectual and aesthetic standards those by which art's veracity was to be measured. This constitutes a denial of Bancusi's right to freedom of expression, but even more problematically, such a decision would place in the hands of government functionaries and bureaucrats the final determination on that which should be seen as art. In the case of Brancusi's sculpture, Customs officials would argue in response to Brancusi's legal challenge that the degree to which the sculpture did not look like a bird was sufficient to dismiss it as art. Further, the metal materials used would incline such government personnel to seek definition of the object as a kitchen utensil or hospital supply according to the shipping… [read more]

Edgar Degas Paul Gauguin Thesis

… Gauguin and Degas

Paul Gauguin and Edgar Degas shared many similarities as artists. Both were Impressionists, though Degas began as a classical artist and moved on to become one of the founders of the Impressionist movement, while Gauguin began as… [read more]

Time Traveling Art Historian Book Chapters Thesis

… ¶ … Travel in Art

Time traveling art Historian Book Chapters

Travels in artistic time: Ancient Rome, Renaissance Florence, the Islamic world

Early Roman recycled art

I begin my time-traveling journey through art history where all roads lead -- to… [read more]

Art of Comparison: Two Treatments of Judith Essay

… ¶ … Art of Comparison:

Two Treatments of Judith and Holofernes

Often, in the history of art, certain themes are portrayed again and again. Throughout much of Western History, religion provided a source of artistic inspiration. The Biblical story of… [read more]

Bacchanal a Faun Teased by Children by Gian Lorenzo Bernini Metropolitan Museum of Art Thesis

… Art

Bernini's Bacchanal: A Faun Teased by Children

Gian Lorenzo Bernini was the son of a prominent artist and sculptor, Pietro Bernini, but his genius was quickly observed to surpass that of his fathers, and his skills were honed from a very young age by some of the best instructors in Rome.

Despite this Italian heritage, however, Bernini's art also bears a strong relationship to the rococo style of the court of Louis XIV.

His brilliance was well-known before he traveled to the French court, and it is perhaps more correct and fitting to Bernin's memory to say that he influenced art in the court and helped the rococo style to emerge rather tan to suggest that his later art was influenced by it.

The rococo style was an outgrowth of the ornate decorations that typified the Baroque period, and Bernini was one of the most prominent artists to straddle the two related eras.

His flowing figures and the celebrations of ecstasy or inspiration that are apparent in many of his works are at once emblematic of the artistic movements and styles of his time and the prime examples of the skills and effects that were sought during the Baroque and Rococo periods.

In addition, his work characterized the later Italian Renaissance at least as much as it influenced the Rococo style in the French court. Even his early works show a complete mastery of the style in which he was instructed along with his own innovations in both technique and subject.

This is clearly shown in his sculpture Bacchanal: A Faun Teased by Children.

One is immediately drawn into the use of vertical line in this sculpture. The flowing curves of both the faun and the tree climb as if they are still growing, giving the figures a sense of life and upward motion. There are a few branches growing horizontally out from the tree low to the ground, but very little else interrupts the vertical flow and line of the piece. The line also creates a sort of liquid feeling to the sculpture that defies its rigid and fixed nature, as though it is a snapshot taken with perfect clarity of violent and not necessarily pleasant movement.

The use of line is closely related to the texture of the piece, which is soft and flowing and gives an appearance as paradoxically alive as the line use. Even he sleek and well-toned muscles of the faun do not appear overly hard or firm, but rather seem to be made -- quite naturally -- of flesh, with at least a slight give to it. The flesh of the children, quite obviously modeled after traditional depictions of cherubim in Renaissance paintings, is even more soft and giving, with the plump roundness of their faces and limbs creasing at every bend and appearing almost pillowy in their dimensions, yet remaining impervious to any possibility of harm.

But although the figures of… [read more]

Compare and Contrast Paintings Essay

… ¶ … Fine Art

Line is one of the most essential features of most artworks. Lines can be curved or straight, both having a different effect on the impact they have on the viewer. They are also the most basic element of creating an image of something, and are thus completely necessary to forming any objects or people in a painting in most artistic forms. Lines can also be used to contain images within the painting, or to make them seem to extend off the canvas/page upon which they are painted or drawn. Basically, line is necessary creating to the impression of anything, both the physical objects that most artworks portray and general moods and feelings that are at the heart of any piece of art. Without line, pieces of art could not even exist.

Another very essential aspect of art is texture. Though this can be meant in the literal sense of how something feels to the touch, when speaking of two-dimensional paintings it more typically refers to the perceived feel of a work of art. The two concepts are very much related; a work of art can give an impression of hardness or softness, or can have a rough or smooth texture. Texture and mood are highly related, though not at all synonymous; the basic feeling of a painting's texture can have a huge effect on the overall impression the viewer takes from it.

Texture itself is made up of the other visual elements of a work of art, such as line and color. Whereas line forms the boundaries of objects and can provide perspective, color fills these things in. Color can also provide contrast and/or blending, unifying or sharply diving objects or areas of a piece of art. Color can also influence the mood with brightness or dullness. The level of intensity in the colors used can also have a large effect on the overall mood and impression that the painting gives a viewer, making color one of the most noticeable aspects of art.

Different artists use these different elements in widely different ways. Pablo Picasso was especially innovative in his use of line and color, creating strange and unusual textures and moods. Frans Hals is a far more traditional painter, though is not surprising given that he painted three hundred years before Picasso and helped to create what we think of as artistic tradition. These artists both used the same elements in their work, but with drastically different effects.

First there is the use of line. In Picasso's 1907 self-portrait and in his painting of a woman on a blue background, the lines are quite definite. They are thick and make large demarcations, rigidly defining objects and marking off space. Hals, on the other hand, uses very soft lines that are almost indistinguishable, especially for… [read more]

Raphael's Painting School of Athens 1509 11 Essay

… Raphael's painting "School of Athens" 1509-11

Raphael's triumph of Renaissance humanism and Neo-Platonic thought

One of the great Renaissance artist Raphael's works for Pope Julius II was not a religious piece of art, but a work that mimicked classical antiquity.… [read more]

Mummification and Associated Art Thesis

… Egyptian Art: Glory in Death

Death rites and rituals are an important part of every culture ever discovered. Ike birth, death is often seen as part of a great cycle that allows for the continuation of life and the given… [read more]

Fine Art Iconography and Form Research Proposal

… Iconography in Art: The Halo

The halo is a much older religious icon than many people realize, dating back at least as far as the Ancient Egyptians (Lope, 2002). Halos are also readily apparent in many Buddhist and Hindu works of art, and has also been a staple of Christian iconography since the religion itself began (Lope, 2002). This widespread and remarkably disparate yet similar use is strong evidence that the halo -- also known as a nimbus or areole -- is one of the most ancient and universal object of iconography in the world. A halo can be nothing more than a circle around an object or person, often around the head, but the simplicity of the symbol contains its profoundness.

Halos are typically used as symbols of sanctity, enlightenment, and even divinity (Lope, 2002). The symbol was very likely derived from the Sun -- a glowing circle or disc -- and also symbolized "power, majesty, and prominence," especially in the pre-Christian era (Lope, 2002). The halo is a prominent part of the depiction of several Egyptian gods, and cults that worshipped a similar bull figure to one of the incarnations of the sun god Ra (who wears a halo between his horns) were known to exists as far back as 3000 BCE (Lope, 2002). Romans used halos in their depictions of certain hers and statesmen as a way to glorify them. This practice continued with other important personages until Pope Urban III banned the use of halos in an image of anyone who wasn't beatified; before then, many intellectuals were also depicted with halos, denoting either divine inspiration or the brilliance of their minds -- or both.

In Christian art. Which is how the iconography of the halo is most recognized in the Western world today, the halo has come to symbolize the light of God, and is a definitive association with divinity. This important religious identity has led to some controversial modern uses of the halo.

One such use, not so controversial now but a daring use of the icon in its time, is found in Gauguin's Self-Portrait with Halo. In this post-impressionist oil on wood creation from 1889, many different religious icons collide with a large and somewhat surreal rendering of the artist's own head. It is difficult to discern an overlying theme in the piece. Though there are several phallic representations, and the sexual imagery of the hanging apples -- bringing to mind the Garden of Eden and Original Sin at the hands of Eve -- against the red background definitely add a tone of eroticism to the painting, neither the self-portrait nor the halo seem at all engaged with the other elements. Overall, confusion of both imagery and intent reigns.

Like the other images in the painting, the halo's direct purpose and meaning here is difficult to discern. Given the apparent disinterest in the artist's s representation of himself regarding the temptations of the Garden, the halo… [read more]

Vincent Van Gogh Research Proposal


INTRODUCTION had a hard struggle with myself...."

Vincent van Gogh (Van Goh's Letters, 2009)

The Painter

The Painter" sold only one of his paintings, now worth millions of dollars, during his lifetime. "The Painter," Vincent van… [read more]

Greek and Roman Sculpture Essay

… Greek and Roman Sculpture are often closely linked in style and execution. However, they are differentiated as two forms of art by some outstanding features. While Greek sculpture is focused on the aesthetic and artistic expression and representation of the idealized human body, Roman sculpture is more focused on the way that the human figure expresses a sense of power, control and dignity, as a reflection of a superior civilization. These aspects will be discussed in this paper

The examples of Roman sculpture chosen are the Sculptural portrait of Philip the Arab and the Portrait of Faustina. The intentionality of Roman sculpture can be clearly seen in the artistic appeal of the sculptural portrait of Philip the Arab, which depicts a figure of power and control.

Source: (

As one commentary notes of this sculpture, "...cruelty and perfidy were combined with courage and resolution in Philip's character" (Sculptural portrait of Philip the Arab.

What is striking about this sculpture is the way that the sculptor has created a sense of cool and dominating command in the intimidating gaze of the subject. From a more aesthetic point-of-view, the artist has expertly portrayed the physical characteristics of the subject and has focused on the expressive heavy brow and structure of the visage.

It is also noteworthy that there is an economy of design and execution that provides a telling and powerful portrait, with a minimum of carving. Through this economy and mastery of sculptural execution the artist achieves the desired effect without elaborate carving and modeling.

In a similar vein, the Portrait of Faustina depicts an elegant if rather haughty figure. As in the above example, the facial features of the figure are regal and aristocratic. The aesthetic appeal of the work lies in the way that the artist has managed to capture the distance and regal pomp of the subject.

The Greek sculpture, Diskobolos, or "discus thrower" shows a very different emphasis to the Roman sculptures discussed. The emphasis in this sculpture is not on personality or personal or cultural power but on the power and elegance of the human form. It is a pleasing aesthetic study of form in action.

Source: (

Central to the aesthetic qualities of this sculpture is the sense of rhythm, balance and poise that… [read more]

Art Compare and Contrast Thesis

… Art Compare/Contrast

Le pin de Bonaventura a Saint-Tropez" is one of Paul Signac's most famous paintings, and at the same time, a very good example of Neo-impression whereas Vincent Van Gogh's "The Rocks" represents post-impressionism at its peak. The term… [read more]

Renaissance Art Essay

… Renaissance Art

Art is the expression of artistic vision but it also carries the sign of the period of time when it was created. The period of the Renaissance designates a cultural movement that spanned between the fourteenth and the… [read more]

Rococo Genre and Neoclassical Painting Social Change and Artistic Style Thesis




According to Liselotte Andersen, writing in Baroque and Rococo Art, many art historians retain the view that the artistic creations of the eighteenth century in Europe "are merely an… [read more]

Sculpture Michelangelo Term Paper

… Art

Michelangelo and Me

Michelangelo, welcome to my home. I'm so happy to finally meet the sculptor of 'David,' that most magnificent of creations."

Thank you, your highness. I saw the angel in the marble and carved until I set him free" ("Sculpture Gallery").

I am hoping you can do the same for me. My husband, the King, is my shining light, and I wish for you to sculpt him in the manner of David, larger than life, so I may install your masterpiece in my sculpture garden, based, of course, on the Medici garden where you first began your study of sculpture so long ago."

How would you like him portrayed, my lady?"

Heroically, like David, as my dearest husband is my own conquering hero in my heart. I want him majestic, larger than life, and I want the marble to speak to you, just as it did when you captured David so magnificently. Time is no object, and neither is cost. I want perfection, and I want my husband's statue to be remembered as your finest work." will do my best to please your highness. The best of artists has no conception that the marble alone does not contain within itself ("Sculpture Gallery"). Tell me, do you see the figure struggling, or at peace?"

That, my dear fellow, is for you to discover. Let the marble talk to you. I have a splendid piece in mind, but if it does not suit your needs, feel free to choose your own from the quarries near here. I want this to be nothing less than perfection, and I believe you are the only man for the job."

Do you see detail; do you want your husband to be recognizable to others, or only to yourself?" want the world to know my husband's face and form! Carve his facial details in high relief! Show his proud countenance for what it is, recognizable to all! Show the fine form of his figure, his finely honed muscles, the veins, and tendons ready to react at a moment's notice. Show his softer side, too, the side he shows only to me when we are alone together. I want to be reminded of every aspect of my husband when I gaze upon this statue, and I want to see every inch of him, naturally, and free from the constrictors of clothing and worry." see madam. And of the style?"

The style of 'David' intrigues me, but the style of Moses, your triumph on the tomb of Pope Julius, intrigues me as well. There is such passion in the details of this carving. I want to see that passion in my sculpture as well, and I want those who view it to know the passion and layers that make up my husband. It must be classical in nature, however. I will have him look as… [read more]

Critique of Picasso Painting Term Paper

… ¶ … Picasso Painting

Critique of Pablo Picasso's "Guernica"

Dimensions: 3.5 metre (11 ft) tall and 7.8 metre (23 ft) wide

Medium: Oil on canvas

First exhibited in July 1937 at the Spanish Pavilion at the Paris International Exposition

This… [read more]

Art in America Term Paper

… Art in America


According to a modern definition, abstract expressionism is a rather generic title, due to being made up of a variety of different artistic styles and formats. Basically speaking, abstraction emphasizes taking very recognizable things in… [read more]

Sculptures of Gabriel Orozco the Object Term Paper

… Sculptures of Gabriel Orozco

The object is the inverse of sculpture, which traditionally has its center of gravity in its base. What would happen, Orozco asks, if sculpture were opened up and we moved inside it? - Margaret Iversen, 2004… [read more]

Ancient Egyptian Art Term Paper

… Visual Arts of Africa and the African Diaspora From Ancient Egyptian Art to Contemporary Times

Thutmosis III wearing the Atef crown.

From the Temple of Amun at Deir el-Bahri (mid-15th c. B.C.)

Toussaint l'Overture Series 1937 by Jacob Lawrence

From… [read more]

European Art History From 1400 to the Present Term Paper

… European Art History From 1400 to the Present

One of the most important aspects that Reformation brought about was the rejection of icons and religious images into its practice. This meant that Reformed art tended to have no paintings or sculptures of saints, no images of Christ and none of the imagery that had dominated Christian art to that point, especially in Italy during the period from the 13th to the 16th century (Early Renaissance artists, such as Cimabue or Giotti, painted almost solely representations of Christ or images from the lives of saints, notably from the life of St. Francis, as painted by Giotto).

The fact that the new religion no longer acknowledged the presence of Christ in imagery meant that the artists and painters needed to turn to a different subject of inspiration. This was generally everyday life. There are usually two such situations. The first one revolved around commissions for individual or family portraits. Such examples provided a potentially large demand for painters, given the rising economic importance of middle class families. The other was the simple village scenery, best portrayed in some of Pieter Bruegel's paintings. One such painting is the Peasant Wedding Feast.

The remarkable thing about this painting is that it manages to surprise in a relatively small space and without a remarkable action going on (the participants are all dining), a vast array of characters, individual figures and perceptions, gestures and isolated actions etc. Bruegel manages to inspire himself from everyday life and create icon figures that have nothing to do with the saintly vision and… [read more]

Art of Math Term Paper

… Mathematics and Art

Mathematics is often treated as a distant and very different discipline from the arts, but in fact the arts make use of mathematics in a number of ways. The relationship between mathematics and music should be evident,… [read more]

Title Insurance and Art Term Paper

… Art Title

It is interesting to note that attaining a career in Title Insurance can be as easy as taking a few online courses, and that some states do not even require that minimal amount of education in order to… [read more]

Statues of Art Term Paper

… Statues of Art - Auguste Rodin

In the case of Auguste Rodin, the most striking element is, in my opinion, the exactness with which he modeled the two bodies giving the impression of reality. The two bodies seem alive and about to move. The impression of reality and authenticity is also given by the shadows of the statues, but mostly by details such as the contraction in the man's foot and the way his lover's back is arched which generate the impression that they are actually made of flesh, bones and muscles. I believe that behind the actual technique he employed was his desire to illustrate passionate love through lines and curves. The sculpture is in many ways, very sexual depicting two lovers engaging in a kiss fueled by sexual tension. A good example is the position of the man's hand on his lover's thigh as well as the way the woman barely touches the ground with her feet. I think the sculpture breathes eroticism especially through the body language of the two lovers; it is very interesting to notice that their lips do not even… [read more]

Western and African Art Term Paper

… Western and African Art


Which missionary poses the greatest danger to traditional African culture and beliefs, Mr. Brown or Reverend Smith? While Smith is the more personally unpleasant of the two Christians, and Mr. Brown seems to act out of his sincere convictions, however misguided, that he is doing the right thing in attempting to covert the native populace, Brown is the more dangerous of the two. Brown is able to sugar-coat his message with displays of tolerance, rhetorically equating the tribal god with what he regards as the one true God even though he does not really believe this to be the case. Brown does not actually believe that it is possible for people to worship his Christian God through Chuku. Achebe supports pluralism and cultural cross-pollination between African tribes, as exemplified in the positive but contrary influences Okonkwo is exposed to, during enforced stay with his wife's family and the positive incorporation of new children from other tribes that makes Okonkwo's son temporarily feel as if he as a future as a leader. However, the pluralism of Brown is a false pluralism, and has ulterior motives of eradicating the culture of another people. The failure of Okonkwo to change to help his people and… [read more]

18th Century Art Term Paper

… 18th Century Art

So, why, given your sound position on the times and viewer responses like mine, would some call these works propaganda?

Can a work of great art, specifically great Romantic art, still be a work of propaganda? The answer must be 'yes.' The art of David is unapologetically pro-Napoleon, and David's Napoleon is a figure who represents the hope of France because of the beauty, majesty, and centrality of the leader with the frame David's paintings. However, the active nature of the lines and shadings of David's painting makes Napoleon come alive in a way that stands as testimony to the painter's talent. Even someone with no feelings about the leader who inspired David feels stirred, gazing at the painting. The painting transcends time and the man and the events that inspired David's portraits. The viewer thinks about the types of hero-worship that are common to our time, not just David's age.

Likewise, Goya's "Third of May" was inspired by… [read more]

Romanticism 18 Century Term Paper

… Romantic Art and 18th Century Revolution

The career of the French artist Jacques-Louis David bridges what is commonly thought of as the dividing line between Romantic and Neoclassical art. In works like "The Oath of the Horatii" and "The Death of Marat," elements of both periods are manifest. On one hand, particularly in "The Oath of the Horatii," the subject may seem Classical in its setting. David's works "The Death of Bara," "Lepeletier," or "Napoleon Crossing the Alps" portray their subjects in a heroic mold, similar to Classical sculpture in these painting's worship of the body, militarism, or athleticism. But the emotion and energy of David's works in the line of the human figures, and the story-like quality of the works takes them out of the pure Neoclassical mode.

Even in "The Oath of the Horatii," which was painted before the French Revolution, the young men do not simply take an oath and strike the viewer as excellent physical specimens, as they might in dispassionate Neoclassical reproductions. Instead, their faces, and the faces of the man holding the swords are agitated, and women in the background turn away in grief. "Marat" is not simply a portrait of a beautiful dead body. The subject's humble, naked position in the bath reminds the viewer of the French Revolution and the circumstances that spawned his death. In all of these words, partly as a reflection on the French Revolution and particularly the "Rights of Man," the individual is at the focus of David's art, not simply creating Neoclassical balance and proportional positioning of in the artist's composition. The individual may be beautiful and heroic, but still the historical story of the individual Horatii, Marat, or Napoleon has come to the forefront of the design and subject in a new and unique fashion.

Similarly, Antoine-Jean Gros' studies of Napoleon such as "Napoleon on the Battlefield of Eylau" and "Napoleon Bonaparte on Arcole Bridge" are of the moment, a part of Napoleon's life, and do… [read more]

Baroque Art and Architecture Peter's Cathedral Term Paper

… Baroque Art and Architecture

PETER'S CATHEDRAL in Rome and the PALACE of VERSAILLES convey very different stylistic messages to the viewer. St. Peter's is stately, conservative, and elegantly simple, while the Palace of Versailles seems grander and a little gaudier somehow.

The Palace is much larger than St. Peters, so the architecture must be created on a grander scale. It was also meant as a royal home, so it must convey the majesty and pomp of the French court, while St. Peters must convey the majesty and pomp of the Catholic Church. In that, their missions are similar and so are some of their architecture, such as the "boxy," square appearance of both buildings, and the columns and carvings that decorate both.

They show similar aspects of a culture that grew during the Renaissance and included grand, highly decorative buildings, used as much as monuments to beauty as much as for other useful purposes. Both of these buildings show attention to detail and building techniques that do not exist today, such as the fine stonework of the walls, and the artistic decorations around the tops of the buildings.

It is interesting to see how different architects added to or changed the buildings, and how the interpreted the uses of the buildings. Much of the Palace's grandeur is enhanced by the grand gardens surrounding the Palace, which add to the overall feeling of space and grandeur when viewing the house. St. Peter's seems almost starkly bare, but the building's elegance is in the height of the facade and the beautiful dome capping the effect of the building. All the architects involved used symbolism to convey the building's use and the culture at the time. St. Peter's is clearly a church, it could not be anything else, while the Palace is clearly a building used in state affairs.

Both of these buildings send different messages to the viewer, and they both are architecturally beautiful representations of two different uses for public buildings. They are elegant, breathtaking, and stately, each in their own way.

The three sculptures of DAVID by Michelangelo, Bernini, and Donatello all… [read more]

Journalism Art in the Form of Wires Term Paper

… ¶ … Journalism

Art in the form of wires and words "

Ruth Asawa is best known for her crocheted wire sculptures, while Fiona Banner puts a new twist into the concept of nude art. Asawa's wire sculptures are three dimensional in nature while Banner's artwork is two dimensional. Asawa only used crocheted wire as material for her work; Banner employed large graphite canvases and block letters as material for hers. In creating her work Asawa used a method that "yielded fluid forms with structure and surface mutually defining one another via a repetitive, loopy line with just enough strength to hold a shape when suspended"(Miles, Dec. 31, 2006). Asawa's artwork also cut the air into silhouettes and allowed space to flow through it. For her artwork Banner simply had graphic verbal descriptions of nudes running as continuous lines throughout the canvases.

Only the wires' natural grayish colors were used for Asawa's artwork. Banner, however, prominently used colors to give meaning to her work. In her piece entitled "Smokey Nude" for example, Banner used white block letters cast upon a misty… [read more]

Feminist Baroque and Rococo Term Paper

… Feminist Perspective in Baroque and Rococo Art and Architecture

As we explore the notion of feminism in the early 17th century baroque and late 17th century rococo art and architecture, there very quickly and noticeably the absence of a feminist… [read more]

How Is Art and Culture on the Internet Impact on Wider Social Issues? Term Paper

… ¶ … Internet and Fine Art

What is the difference between art and culture, especially when it appears on the Internet? Answer: Nothing. Art becomes part of the culture; the more it is seen and accepted. The culture is also… [read more]

Walter Benjamin: The Art of Work Term Paper

… Walter Benjamin: The Art of Work in Age of Mechanical Reproduction

Walter Benjamin in his article 'The Art of Work in Age of Mechanical Reproduction' has justified the usage of mechanical equipments for the means of production of art works. Plagiarism and copyrights have been traditional issues, the duplication of any master piece has been considered as a serious offence and in certain part of the world serious capital punishments are awarded for defying copyrights.

This particular essay is with reference to duplication of art pieces. Through out centuries art has been driving force towards the spiritual, social and economic accomplishment of an individual and society. Art has played vital role in nurturing and molding of society's frame of thoughts and application. The promotion and propagation of Art pieces through duplication has been critical issue, some agree to it and others disagree with this notion of publicizing independently.


Walter in his text, 'The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction', studies the influence of mechanical technologies on the history of art and human consciousness. He discusses the new production techniques which engender the new means of judging the original work piece. He further elaborates that the technological advancement has achieved new standards, and duplicated pieces are considered as original and real pieces. He concludes with the fact that human perception, particularly optical perception, is in an ongoing state of evolution.

Walter's article is canonical in art history, film studies and related fields. Benjamin further elaborates that previously, painting or sculptures were embedded with aura, which gave a sense of absolute uniqueness towards the artwork. In the age of technology, Benjamin perceives that the uniqueness of art piece has diluted by the application of reproduction devices, he welcomes the idea of art without aura, i.e. promotion of duplicated copies. In present scenario characteristic art forms, photography and film lack the element of originality.

Benjamin supports the usage of mechanical devices, reasoning that aura was a kind of aristocratic mystery, and the art develops it values on the basis pf present rather than past. The implementation of technological production means are more kind of democratic art. He writes,

The social significance of film, even -- and especially -- in its most positive form, is inconceivable without its destructive, cathartic side: the liquidation of the value of tradition in the cultural heritage.'(Benjamin Walter)

The art community believes that it is Benjamin's likely embracement of Communism which influenced his thoughts, and developed a soft and lenient stand towards the publication and duplication of art pieces. Benjamin's personal circumstances only reinforced this judgment.

Benjamin suggested that technologies of mechanical reproduction and systems of mass production changed modes of human perception and evaluation, fundamentally altering our aesthetic responses.

Benjamin argues that experience of cultural imagery has been under dramatic influence… [read more]

Three Dimensional Art Term Paper

… Art

Woman Addressing the Public

Joan Mir, a Spanish artist who lived from 1893-1983, painted this work. He sculpted this work, "Woman Addressing the Public: Project for a Monument" in 1980-81, only two years before his death, in the late 1620s, in a very modernistic, surrealistic style. It is sculpted in bronze, sized 12 ft. 2-1/2 in. x 8 ft. (372.1 x 243.8 cm). The Kimbell Art Museum acquired the piece in 1996, and it stands at the entrance to the museum.

This arresting three-dimensional sculpture is a modernistic figure of a woman with her arms outstretched, supposedly addressing a crowd of onlookers. It also looks as if she were going to embrace them. Her massive "feet" and legs dominate the piece, and it is larger than life, and a good way to greet people arriving at the museum. The line and motion of the piece is all curves and rounded lines, while the overall shape is tall, but rounded, too.

It would not seem that a sculpture would have motion, but this piece does have it in the very design of the piece. The way the arms are outstretched it seems as if the woman is reaching out at that very moment, and this feeling of motion carries the piece and makes it more interesting. What is also interesting is that the motion gives the piece a feeling of lightness, while the actual foundation of the piece is extremely heavy and even awkward. Taken together, the mass of the piece is less noticeable and more appealing somehow.

The lighting of this work of course depends on the natural light surrounding it, and yet it has a light of its own. The shiny black reflects the light, while the bronze piece in front reflects the light even more and draws your eyes to the center of the piece. Even on a cloudy day, this piece has its own form of lighting, which is very interesting to see. The light value of the piece is not bright and shiny, but rich and detailed, and that makes it somehow easier on the eyes somehow.

The texture and pattern of this work at first appears totally smooth, but as you look more deeply at it, there is texture and pattern in the black areas, as though the… [read more]

What Does Beauty Mean in Art Today? Term Paper

… ¶ … beauty" mean in art today?

The concept of beauty is not a linear concept, we can point out from the very beginning towards the fact that the modern concept of beauty has evolved and has developed from beauty… [read more]

Art and Society Term Paper

… Art and Society

An Analysis and Discussion of Gender Construction in the Toilet of Venus (1647-51) by Diego Velasquez

While women in the United States and the United Kingdom have enjoyed the right to vote for several decades now, things… [read more]

Paintbrush -- My Artist's Pen Term Paper

… ¶ … Paintbrush -- My Artist's Pen:

Why a Paintbrush is an Essential Item to create my Art on Canvas

My paintbrush is like my right hand -- or my best friend. It is an implement, an item, and a… [read more]

Outsider Art Term Paper

… Outsider Art

It is called "Outsider Art," because it stands outside the realm of "fine" art. It is painted by patients in asylums. It is created by prisoners in their cells. It is made up by untrained artists and thus… [read more]

Paintings Sloop, Nassau by Winslow Homer Term Paper

… ¶ … Paintings

Sloop, Nassau" by Winslow Homer is a haunting painting of a small ship towing a boat on cloudy, stormy seas. The painting is peaceful, and yet the clouds are menacing somehow. While it would not seem emotional, it is, just because of the vibrancy of the colors and the thick brushstrokes of the work. It seems as if the two non-descript figures on board are sailing into harm's way, somehow. While Homer's painting is realistic if a bit stylized, Auerbach's work, "Head of Michael Podro," is entirely the opposite. The figure is fairly recognizable as human, but that is about all. Auerbach's angular lines and stark colors make the head of the person seem like an alien somehow, and Auerbach definitely does not work in realism. Like the "Sloop," Auerbach's work is disquieting somehow, but more because his portraits are so unreal and so ghostly, somehow.

A much prefer the Homer piece, even though it also… [read more]

Visual Arts Andy Warhol's "Self-Portrait 1986" Versus Term Paper

… Visual Arts

Andy Warhol's "Self-Portrait 1986" versus "Self-Portrait" by Chuck Close: A visit to the Columbus Museum of Art.

In this paper I plan to compare two original paintings currently housed in the Columbus Museum of Art in Columbus Ohio.… [read more]

Avant-Garde Concept in Modern Art Term Paper

… ¶ … avant-garde concept in modern art, and how various artists and movements attempted to achieve social and artistic changes.

Avant-garde in art refers to a small group of painters who formed their own "Salon" after being refused acceptance by the official Paris Salon that exhibited the works of established and up-and-coming painters of the 1860s. The "refues" created the Salon des Refuses that exhibited their artworks that had been rejected by the Salon. Some of the artists who exhibited at the Salon des Refuses included Camille Pissarro, Paul Cezanne, edouard Manet, and James McNeill Whistler, who would all go on to have successful careers as Impressionist, modernist, naturalist and other types of artists. Avant-garde came to mean breakthrough or progress and reform, and each of these artists fought for their artwork to be accepted by the population and critics, but they also fought for social reform and change in their own society.

Avant-garde may have begun in the 19th century, but it continues through the 20th century, and can also refer to anything outside the normal art world. For example, some people consider graffiti to be modern day avant-garde art. In the 20th century, painters such as Picasso and Dali, who dabbled in modern arts like Cubism and Dadaism were considered avant-garde artists. Throughout artistic change, those leaders of change were the avant-garde artists who would someday become accepted and admired.

Through their art, they changed what was accepted in the art world, but they also made social commentaries about what was happening in society. For example, in 1938, Picasso painted "Guernica," an emotional reaction to the bombing of a Spanish Basque town by Nazi bombers. The painting has remained one of his most famous and well-known, as much for its depiction of the destroyed town and some of the victims as for its staunch and clear stand against the brutality of the Nazis. These artists were not afraid to stand up for what they believed in, and they wanted to change society to become a better… [read more]

Art and Humanities Term Paper

… The Age of Baroque followed the Renaissance, and while the art was still deeply religious in nature and supported by the Catholic Church, the style was changing again. By the end of the Late Renaissance, art had settled into the… [read more]

Art Historian W.J.T. Mitchell Asserted Term Paper

… Combined with his attachment to the Catalan heritage, Miro sought a certain universality in expression. In 1918, he found this thread of commonality in landscape, to which he devoted himself. He was particularly thrilled by the areas of Montroig, where… [read more]

Art Is Changed Term Paper

… One can view the picture that he paints and feel the lonliness that he required for him to do his best work. As a young painter he was considered undisplined which also shows in this particular painting. Viewing the color… [read more]

19th Century Art During Term Paper

… 19th Century Art

During the 19th century, a great number of revolutionary changes altered forever the face of art and those that produced it. Compared to earlier artistic periods, the art produced in the 19th century was a mixture of… [read more]

Vedder's "Memory" -- Remembering Term Paper

… And although the American Vedder, after studying in Paris from 1856 -- 61, returned to the United States at the outbreak of the Civil War, he mainly supported himself by illustrating comic valentines and calisthenics books and drawing for popular… [read more]

20th Century Art History's Response Term Paper

… ("Edward Hopper," Art Archive, 2005)

Rockwell's nostalgia is often said to be reminiscent of plays such as Thornton Wilder's "Our Town." In contrast, Hopper's paintings have been compared to the realist plays of Ibsen, a writer whom the artist admired,… [read more]

Art What Is Considered Beautiful Term Paper

… Art - What is Considered Beautiful?

People's evaluation of art can never be anything other than subjective. When someone praises a work, or even simply declares that they find it beautiful, their criteria are rarely based on the intrinsic merit of the work, but rather on how it makes them feel-or because they know that the artist is famous." It can be said that this statement is generally true.

Art is both perceptual and psychological, thus the "power of aesthetic perception is the interaction between the object and the beholder" (Chang Pp).

Art creates emotion and so creates response. "The experimental aesthetic value of even the most successful art pieces is relative with changes in time and conditions of the society in which it resides" (Chang Pp). Because art is psychological, it involves both the conscious and unconscious processes of the beholder (Chang pp). This awareness and receptivity of a piece of art is referred to as the sensitivity of the beholder (Chang Pp). Art represents the past realities, as well as functioning as a predictor of societal evolution (Chang Pp).

Nathan Kogan writes that Paleolithic art forms, paintings and sculptures, were associated with ritual and ceremonies, thus, promoting the solidarity and prosperity of the group as a whole (Kogan Pp). Art is emotional and this arousal "implies distinctive central and autonomic nervous system activity, which represents the primary connection between art and biology" (Kogan Pp). Therefore, humans have an underlying sensitivity to the arts, and from the days the Paleolithic era, art appears to be embedded within the human genes (Kogan Pp).

The definition of art to most people today differs greatly from that of past societies (Art Pp). Today, critics include in their definition of art what is called 'visual culture,' such as comic books, advertising, television, and motion pictures (Art Pp). "Perhaps the major difficulty in defining art lies in the fact that art implies value-monetary, social, and intellectual. Large amounts of money may be involved when an object is regarded as art" (Art Pp). For example, "a sculpture of beer cans by American artist Jasper Johns is worth millions of dollars, while beer cans themselves are worth almost nothing" (Art Pp). Most critics believe that John's work qualifies as art "because the artist intended it to be seen as art' (Art Pp). However, there is much in the world that is considered art, yet the "artists" had no such intention when they created it, such as "blankets woven by Navajo women whose identities are unknown" (Art Pp). Art is ever changing, "not only in its general definition but also in its… [read more]

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