Study "Art / Painting / Sculpture" Essays 221-273

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Art History -- High Renaissance Term Paper

… Another massive sculpture by Michelangelo is his Moses (1513-1515), originally meant for the tomb of pope Julius II. In order to appreciate this fantastic piece of marble, one must study it in detail -- the sense of relevance in each detail of body and drapery forces the viewer to raise his emotional levels. The muscles bulge, the vein swell, the great legs seem to begin to move ever so slowly. In addition, the turned head concentrates the expression of terrible wrath that appears to stir in the eyes. With David, all of the ideals of the Renaissance are fully at work, for it demonstrates the power and magnificence of not only the church but also of man himself.

In conclusion, Raphael, Leonardo Da Vinci and Michelangelo symbolize the loftiest goals of the High Renaissance by making their figures come alive as if made out of flesh and blood. In a sense, these artists created a new artistic profession that exhibited its own rights of expression, its own character and its own claims to greatness within western civilization.



Hartt, Frederick. History of Italian Renaissance Art. New York: Prentice-Hall & Harry N. Abrams, 1974.

Klein, Robert and Henri Zerner. Italian Art, 1500-1600: Sources and Documents. New Jersey:… [read more]

UCLA Art Term Paper

… I became interested in the way forms created an environment and worlds of mood and feeling; as can be seen in many of Henry Moore's sculptures. My personal view of is that all art forms create spaces or environments which we can explore and which not only excite the imagination but also lead to an understanding of reality.

This interest in sculpture and especially in the more practical and technical side of sculptural art became combined with my views and interests in the environment and eventually melded into a desire to study architecture. I became interested in the Bauhaus school of architecture which further motivated me towards a study of this discipline. However, I am firmly convinced that architecture is reliant on and intimately linked to other forms of art and theory. I therefore feel that an overall and in-depth understanding of the various art forms is essential.

I would like to study at UCLA as the University offers the expertise and facilities to provide the sort of background in both theory and practice that I require. I feel the Art Department's world renowned status as well as the high caliber of the teaching would be essential for the direction that I have chosen. I firmly believe that the imaginative and creative style of UCLA would be the ideal place for my studies in both the theoretical and practical aspects which I believe are necessary foundation for the study of architecture.


Chipp, H (1968) Theories of Modern Art. London.… [read more]

19th Century Art Term Paper


In Europe, the nineteenth century was an age of radical change during which the modern world took shape. In a world that was experiencing a population explosion of unparalleled… [read more]

Painting Analysis Jean-Francois Millet: 'Priory at Vauville Term Paper

… Painting Analysis

Jean-Francois Millet: 'Priory at Vauville, Normandy'

The French painter Jean-Francois Millet (1814-75) was a noted example of the realist school of painting. He began as a portrait painter, but made his reputation with paintings of scenes of peasant… [read more]

Printmaking: A Pre and Post Term Paper

… The standardization of images in lithography, one can see in other arts. One can see such standardization present in the sameness of supposedly original photographs on magazine covers, all of which, although of different women, often depict models and actresses in the same pose. Furthermore, art such as the work of Andy Warhol, shows that replication, when taken to the level of self-parody of the multiple image of advertising, can attain the level of high art.

"Topical broadsides" or clip art often are reflective the mores of a preceding era. Even unlike trademarked brands, they are generalized and no longer even exist as trademarks. (55) Yet this again an illustration of how standardized images become part of cultural dialogue and discourse just as much as language -- the checkered red of a diner tablecloth signifies eating as much as the word 'to eat' itself, when certain images enter the gallery of lithography and become common to a printed culture of the advertising image. But even today, the beauty of creative and individual art such as the "Mona Lisa" comes to stand for something, an idea like 'the Renaissance' or 'high art,' rather than becomes an interesting object of pluralistic significance in and of itself, when it is reproduced sufficiently and becomes an object of mass consumption.

Work Cited

Weisberg, Ruth. "The Syntax of the Print." [read more]

Modern Philosophies of Art Term Paper

… Modernism in Art

Modern Philosophies of Modern Art: a 'Readymade' debate or a mutual society of agreement? Greenburg v. Duchamp

Marcel Duchamp makes two sweeping assumptions regarding the production of art -- first, that art is 'readymade' in other words, that all art really only has a surface uniqueness, and that art is dependant upon derivative materials of production. This is nothing to be ashamed of, rather it is endemic to all art, and is the source of the strength of art in all media.

However, according to Clement Greenburg, the essence of modern art specifically lies in the ability of art to engage in a kind of 'self critique' through the actual process of making art. He uses, at the beginning of the section of his essay on modern art, the analogy of how Kant used logic to establish the limits of logic. He suggests that modernism used the same limitations, now ascribed to art, such as the flatness of composition, in a positive fashion. For instance, Greenburg paints, no pun intended, Manet as kind of a neo-Andy Warhol, as Manet "became the first Modernist" as he created "pictures by virtue of the frankness with which they declared the flat surfaces on which they were painted." (Greenburg, 195)

Greenberg's statement of modern art as a self-critique is echoed in some of the words of modern artists themselves. As noted by Marcel Duchamp's essay on his own composition, "I realized very soon the danger of repeating indiscriminately this form of expression and decided to limit the production of 'Readymades' to a small number yearly." "Readymades" is a work of modern art that involves replication of mechanistic methods of production. However, although "Readymades" is an act of self-parody in the sense that it takes the limits of readymade production to an absurd extreme, and deploys such elements in a consistent and uniform fashion, it is also, according to the artist, parodies art.

But the work does not specifically parody modern art, but art in general, for according to Duchamp, "the spectator even more for the artist, art is a habit forming drug." Art in the Western individualistic tradition is supposed to be unique, but what is key to the artistic understanding of "Readymades" are their lack of uniqueness and sense of standardized capitalistic form that is supposed to be… [read more]

Museum Methods Term Paper

… Although I agree with the basic structure of this definition, I would prefer more emphasis on the level of required professional standards necessary to designate an institution as a museum. Many non-profit institutions are established to enrich our society including,… [read more]

Traditional African Art Term Paper

… This is the most common traditional African art form. Various materials are used for the masks, including wood, bronze, or feathers.

The Yoruba community for example was extremely artistic, producing wood, bronze, terra cotta and iron sculptures, masks and other tribal ornaments. Masks were used for the purpose of entertaining senior women and honoring deities associated with witchcraft.

The art of the Dan people was very much focused on masks, and these were used in various aspects of life. Masks were for example used both for everyday purposes such as judging cases and entertaining, and for spiritual occasions. The style of the masks would then be suited to the occasion and to the nature of the persons wearing them.


Rebirth. "African Mask History." 2000.

Traditional African Art." 2004. [read more]

Paintings by David and Raoux Term Paper

… David had been a revolutionary, agitating for the sorts of removal of the aristocratic power structure that had first been thought about in Raoux' time. For David, humanism -- the concept of the supremacy and dignity of man -- had taken hold of the mass consciousness in general, and David's in particular.

In the David work, Eucharis presses her very clean profile against Telemachus' bare shoulder. While the lovers run away, moving through time and space in the Raoux painting, these lovers, although in a farewell setting, are still attached, and erotically so. While Raoux exposes a lot of bare skin in his work, it is does not tell a specific tale as the skin-to-skin caress does in the David work. And, too, David uses intense color in draping the bodies, bright red and blue. Raoux used a gentler palette, not infused with intensity and, arguably, desire.

In this way, Jacques-Louis David contrasts masculine rectitude with female emotion," writes Mary Vidal. (2000)

On the other hand, Raoux spreads the paint thinly, with abundant use of white to make the clothing seem light and transparent, to suggest movement as the lovers run through time and space. They are connected to each other only arm to arm, not entwined, as are Telemachus and Eucharis. David's heavy application of intense color and almost no use of white suggests that these lovers are grounded in each other, that there is a heavy and indissoluble connection from which neither can run away, despite their parting.

The lovers painted by Raoux are connected as much to others as to each other; one looks back, the other forward, but always surrounded by more of humanity.

The lovers painted by David are self-involved, a duo that has neither intellectual nor artistic need of others, complete in themselves.

Although both paintings might be said to be realistic in execution, each painting is perfectly representative of the intellectual atmosphere of its painter's own time.

Works Cited

Jean Raoux." Biography, retrieved 12 April 2004 at

Vidal, Mary. "David's Telemachus and Eucharis: Reflections on Love, Learning, and History."

The Art Bulletin, 1 December 2000.

The Enlightenment." Retrieved 12 April 2004 at [read more]

Art Philosophy Tragedy Term Paper

… The empirical properties of the physical sciences may be used to infer the empirical existence of consciousness. Mental properties cannot be identical to physical properties; however, psychology can be reduced to natural science in terms of causal efficacy. For Hume,… [read more]

Painting St. Jerome Term Paper

… Actually, the detail of the man is not quite as much as his surroundings, but he does not blend into the background. On the contrary, he is the central theme of the work, and without him it would have no reason for existence. The man and his translation work is the central theme of the painting. He is a religious man, who is doing something important, and this theme makes the rest of the details important and fascinating. The artist is expressing his religious beliefs in this work, and clearly, he finds the work of this man important, valid, and unique, as he includes all of these elements in the finished work to give added depth to his theme. Truly, this engraving is cool because of what it shows the viewer, and what goes unsaid in the background. It makes the viewer think, and that is one element of a truly cool and important work of art.

In conclusion, "St. Jerome in His Study" draws the viewer into the work, giving them a differing view every time they look at the piece. The great attention to detail is evident at first glance, but each succeeding view brings something new to light, and draws the viewer back for another look, and another, and another. This work has stood the test of time, and is still fascinating and wonderful, which makes it cool, but also makes it an enduring glance into the Northern… [read more]

Henri Matisse's Painting Woman Term Paper

… His Woman Before an Aquarium can also be seen as a play on shapes, in mockery of the Art Deco movement, which began to emit a plethora of circles and squares in their designs (Neret, 1999).

We shall now turn to the poem Woman Before an Aquarium by Patricia Hampl, which uses many of the same approaches that Matisse used in his painting towards the execution of the poem, for example, themes, colours, approaches, and styles.

The poem by Hampl uses the theme of Matisse's painting, a woman before an aquarium, and takes us on a journey to discover how and why the woman is sitting before the fish. Hampl uses poetic devices, such as repetition, similes, and metaphors, to make us feel we are in the place of this unknown woman, that we are feeling what she is feeling, waiting for what she is waiting for.

We feel the woman's emotions, through the skill with which the poem is written, and we begin to see the poem as a homage to the skill of Matisse; Hampl must have had sufficient respect for the work of Matisse to make a careful study of his approach and execution for this painting, to be able to emulate his style in her poetry.

This is one reason why poets do not often write poems based on works of art: it is a rather daunting task, to tread in the footsteps of the great, and to expect praise for doing so. It takes a particular confidence to be able to do this, and a particular talent to be able to carry it off successfully, as Hampl has done in her poem.

We began by looking at the reasons why poets may become inspired by works of art, and we argued that both poets and painters can be considered artists, and as such, that they can both be inspired by any source, be that nature, memories, feelings, or other paintings (painters are also inspired to recreate paintings, as poets are inspired to write by paintings).

We then saw that for another artist to recreate a work of art needs a great deal of confidence, and knowledge of the artists work, so that the original work can be done justice. In the case of Woman Before an Aquarium, one of Matisse's great works, this painting was handled with a great deal of care, as with all of his works, and is very well executed.

For Hampl to come to this work, and to decide to write about it took a great deal of confidence, and the process of researching and writing the poem was sufficiently in depth, as the end-product certainly does justice to the love and care and thought that went in to Matisse's painting.

Her style, the themes she uses, the tone of the poem, all of these create a similar atmosphere to that created by Matisse in his painting; I would say that Hampl's poem is one poem that actually increases appreciation of… [read more]

Michelangelo Biography and Detailed Information Term Paper

… The artist depicts the sublime act of creating Adam through a simple touch of the finger. A touch, yes, but not completely physical: God's index never touches Adam's, but let's us imagine God's whole power. Between God's index and Adam's finger, one can see the glitter of a superior will and of a superior power. Symbolically, God is surrounded by angels and by an elliptical mantle that signifies the initial 'cosmic Egg' from which everything emerged. One can notice that Adam himself forms an ellipse, but only an incomplete one: he needs God's soul-giving touch for him to complete himself as a being. For indeed, Adam is physically created: he has been made in God's image, as the similitude in the two bodies structure points out: both are muscular, strong, showing Michelangelo's genius in portraying human bodies and his profound anatomical studies. He is physically alive, but needs God's touch to perform himself as a human and be endowed with intellect and spirit. It is truly a timeless moment.

The picture is asymmetrical: God is extended to touch Adam, thus suggesting that he actually has the will to endow Adam with life. In this sense, God is pictured over the illusionary middle of the whole painting, while Adam was placed on the left end, in expectance. Two shapes dominate the painting and both of them are elliptical shapes. The first one is described by God's cloak and by his suite of angels, forming a perfect ellipse, while on the other side of the painting, Adam's ellipse is incomplete. Symbolically, this is so because he is not fully achieved.

Even if the painting is indeed 2- dimensional, the vault of the ceiling and the architectural impressions and trompe l'aeil that Michelangelo paints give indeed the likeliness of a 3- dimensional space. With the help of this illusion, Michelangelo is able to create a sense of perspective, even though the whole action occurs in the forefront of the painting. However, it does not end here: through the use of perspective (technique that had already begun to be used), the Earth and skies seem to be continuing somewhere in a further plan. This is probably meant to underline the importance of the moment and of the two foremost characters. These are the human anatomical ideal. As I have said before, Michelangelo carefully studied the human anatomy and used it to create models of physical human beauty. This is also the case in the Creation of Adam. Strong, masculine bodies, prototypes of ideal human proportions.

Michelangelo painted the Creation of Adam directly on the ceiling in a technique called fresco. This kind of technique was among the most difficult in the Renaissance as it contained a high degree of possible degradation at a later date. One can only mention here the example of the Holy Supper by Leonardo da Vinci in the church of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan that is nowadays being restored. Michelangelo himself had this problem when painting the Sistine… [read more]

Botticelli's Mythological Paintings Term Paper

… The aristocrats of the time favored the past classics and as such here we see a Greek influence in the nudity of the bodies. The male body was seen as a form of art and by showing the nude form reclined amidst the women and children the classical Greek preferences were portrayed. Then we see the cherub in the picture which resembles Cupid the child god of love so cherished by the Romans.

With these obvious elements of love depicted we can easily decipher the woman in the image as that of Venus and predict the male as Mars; three mythological characters, signifying rage and love. In mythological terms, it is said that the result of rage and love is harmony, and this is what is reflected in the painting because the child has a lovely smile on his face.

In this painting, Botticelli's style reflects Gothic art with a blend of the topics chosen from classical mythology. This style is effective as almost every detail of the strokes in the painting is highly revealing. An example of this is the swarm of wasps around Mars' head that indicate that victory is never a permanent thing. However, this style is such that it was considered to be outdated for the period within which Botticelli used it. This is why with the decline of the Medici family we saw a change in style for Botticelli who lost his patrons and thus saw his style losing flavor in court and beyond.

Conclusion: Botticelli's art in the painting Mars and Venus thus suggests a love and influence of the gothic art which was used to reveal the symbolic myths of the past in order to revive sentiment and passion in an era of changing society.


Cheney, Liana De Girolami Quattrocento Neoplatonism and Medici Humanism in Botticelli's Mythological Paintings University Press of America, 1985" [read more]

Art History - High Renaissance Term Paper

… The various influences that played an important role in the development of Raphael's artistic ability are evident. The round format is indicative of Florence, yet the picture within is different from Raphael's own Florentine Madonnas. The Virgin Mother's pose resembles a work of classic sculpture, with the robes of ancient Rome, and the landscape itself is seen as an idealized view of the Roman campagna. There is grandeur to The Alba Madonna, lending it a seriousness, the need for which could be interpreted as emanating from the focus on a slender reed cross that defines the work's intended meaning. Church doctrine holds that from birth Christ had an understanding of his fate. In The Alba Madonna, the Christ Child is shown accepting the cross of his future sacrifice (National Gallery of Art).

The artist's point-of-view can be seen in the tension that arises from the seriousness of the subject being addressed and in the poses of the figures, increased multifold by the contrast of the serene countryside and the simplicity and sweetness of facial expressions. The work is classified as High Renaissance Art given the characteristics of technique, symmetry and individual artistic expression.

Madonna with a Long Neck by Parmigianino is a work from the Mannerism period, as evident in the artist's exaggerated stylization of the Madonna's neck, long delicate fingers and the long leg of the angel in the foreground. The effect achieved is theatrical and formulaic indicating a move away from the natural themes in previous Renaissance periods. The abstract forms and unusual proportions lend the work an interesting, even elegant effect. It has been interpreted that the artist approached this work with a view to demonstrate that unorthodoxy could result in creating startling effects that can still communicate (The Artchive).

Three works, all on the Madonna, all from the same era and yet so different! The question is whether any comparison of the three is really justifiable at all. Taking the view that art is a form of expression intended to convey meaning, it can be suggested that all three of the works under consideration here are indeed extremely communicative. Art that does not express will leave the viewer cold and indifferent. That is certainly not the case here for all three works are evocative and hold the power to gain and hold attention.

The Madonna of the Rocks uses the tension of the darkness of the cavern to create mysteriousness, which is relevant to the significance of the meeting of the Christ Child and the infant saint John; and the unmistakable feeling of interior wisdom of the faces brings in more emotional impact, perhaps even signifying the path from darkness to light. Raphael, on the other hand, chooses to use stark simplicity to bring about seriousness, while Parmigianino's stylized technique succeeds in communicating a 'larger than life' feel to the event depicted.


Artists by Movement: Mannerism." Artcyclopedia Web site. URL:

Gombrich, E.H. "The Story of Art." Artchive Web site. URL:

Kren, Emil and… [read more]

Art History the Clouds Gleamed Term Paper

… "

The Voice now wanted to know more about the materials with which the artists worked, to get a better idea of the mundane aspects of art.

Leonardo," began the Voice, "you are in many ways more versatile a creator… [read more]

Art La Berceuse (Woman Rocking Term Paper

… This alteration captivates the viewer and gives the objects in the picture more form. Like Van Gogh, Cezanne created a scene where form was given priority and yet, while Van Goghs form was less definite and had few angles, the model and the frames within the picture by Cezanne are more symmetrical and suggest the initial entry of cubism into art forms. The incremental nature of Cezanne's approach was eloquently discussed by the critic Roger Fry (1989, 3): For him, as I understand his work, the ultimate synthesis of a design was never revealed in a flash; rather he approached it with infinite precautions..."

And thus emerged two artists of equal genius and yet, such different temperaments.



Rewald, J. Post-Impressionism. New York: Museum of Modem Art. ed. 1995a Paul Cezanne letters. New York: Da Capo Press.

Hefner, Brook Van Gogh's history chronicled in L.A. exhibit., University Wire, 01-20-1999.

Van Gogh, V. 1958. The complete letters of Vincent van Gogh. Vol.

3. London: Thames… [read more]

Sculpture of Artist Henry Moore Term Paper

… Even his earliest sculptures were modernistic and forward thinking, totally leaving the conventional world of art behind.

Moore's prime concern was the material. He loved working in stone, and used it almost exclusively in his work. He especially admired the ability sculpture gave him to create 3-D images, viewable from all sides, and different from all sides. He loved the abstract in design as his works show so effectively. He often wrote about his own work, and once said, "Abstract qualities of design are essential to the value of a work, but to me of equal importance is the psychological, human element. If both abstract and human elements are welded together in a work, it must have fuller, deeper meaning'" (Grohmann 25).

Moore's work still has power today because he tried to create works that meant more to the viewer than just a carved piece of stone. He hoped to give the viewer a complete view of the project, and include elements of humanity and depth. He wanted his work to come alive in the viewers' eyes - another reason he enjoyed working in stone. He hoped the viewer could almost imagine the stone before it was carved, so the actual sculpture would be even more vibrant and alive.

If a work of sculpture has its own life and form, it will be alive and expansive, seeming larger than the stone or wood from which it is carved. It should always give the impression, whether carved or modeled, of having grown organically, created by pressure from within. Henry Moore, 1958, quoted by Edouard Roditi (Editors).

Moore was extremely prolific throughout his lifetime, and critics were not always kind to him. After his death, many museums offered retrospectives of his work, and more than one critic began to realize the import of his work. One critic said his "sheer virtuosity of invention was breathtaking" (Kramer 18). Moore is an artist who many felt was before his time. His work was modern, often misunderstood, but stands the test of time.


Editors. "Henry Moore on the Internet." ArtCyclopedia. 20 July 2002. 24 Oct. 2002.

Grohmann, Will. The Art of Henry Moore. New York H.N. Abrams, 1960.

Kramer, Hilton. "After All These Years,… [read more]

Art Term Paper

… A painting can be called art where it too has a purpose but not all paintings would be called art.

A child drawing can create a painting but it would not be called art if it was not created for a purpose. A student could create a painting out of splashes of paint but this would not be true art unless it had greater meaning.

The difficulty is that it is not just the finished product that matters but the artist also.

Some paintings that are called art look no greater than something a child could produce. The difference is that the artist created them that way for a specific purpose.

Paintings are created with a meaning in mind, the artist creates something that people respond to. A painting that can truly be called art will be one that will mean something to people viewing it. It will express an idea, an emotion or a scene.

A painting that is art then is one that has purpose, whatever that purpose may be. [read more]

Art History in the Ancient World Book Report

… Prehistoric Art

The earliest human artistic and creative expressions included painting on the walls of caves.

Cave art often depicted elements of daily life including struggles to hunt or gather food, which is why both human and animal figures feature prominently.

Cave art may also include petroglyphs, which are low-relief carvings into rock. Petroglyphs may also be found outside of caves.

Prehistoric art also included some types of sculptures, generally rendered in clay although more perishable materials may have been used and simply lost to time.

Dating prehistoric art requires deft understanding of regional styles, the materials that would have been available, and also scientific techniques like carbon dating.

Paleolithic and Neolithic architecture varied depending on era of time and geography, and were also dependent on local materials.

Many prehistoric architectural forms were functional as dwellings, alters and places of worship, or tombs and other burial chambers.

Chapter 2: Ancient Near Eastern Art

The art of the ancient Near East and Mesopotamian societies was varied and complex.

Temple architecture served as a bridge between the realms of the human and the divine, as frequently political leaders were also believed to be divinely endowed.

During the flourishing of ancient near eastern societies, art forms became highly sophisticated, including the use of sculpture and inlay work.

Epic narratives like the story of Gilgamesh were etched on stone tablets, or carved onto the walls of edifices.

The Code of Hammurabi is another example of stone-carved political edicts, which can be considered art in the sense that it represents part of… [read more]

Renaissance Art Essay

… However, the fact that he has an arrogant stance and that he holds his leg on Goliath's head transmits a much stronger message -- the statue is intended to shock through the confidence it puts across (The Subject of David… [read more]

Abstract Expressionism and Pop Art Essay

… Abstract Expressionism and Pop Art

The end of WWII brought the world a great sense of relief, but it also brought new issues to deal with for the modern human being. Artists, more than any other humans affected by the new era, brought forth the struggles they were going through, putting them into their art, the best way for them to express themselves. Since the early twentieth century, the world of art on the American on both sides of the Atlantic, was undergoing a tremendous process of change simply because the conventions of what the world knew as traditional art were no longer satisfying for the artists. The art in general, with a special accent on the visual arts, seemed to have reached a standstill, forcing the modern artists to try to find new ways of expression, using the same old medium: the canvas or the wall. Some of the artists who will fuel the birth of abstract expressionism will come from Europe, some of them survivors of atrocities like Holocausts, like Arshile Gorky, some others will come from the most American landscapes possible, such as Wyoming, like Jackson Pollock.

In 1947, both Rothko and Pollock embrace the abstract in their paintings. While both artists seem to have completely embraced the limitation of the flat canvass, both being abstract expressionists, they find themselves at two opposite ends of the spectrum. Pollock is strongly relying on movement, while Rothko is entirely giving himself to two dimensionality and color. Although different in styles, their paintings communicate deep emotions, coordinated by their strive to find the essence of humanity, through artistic expression. The abstract expressionists were almost without fault, non-fitting individuals who were expressing through their art the state of mind of the… [read more]

Asian Art Research Paper

… 1967 was the heart of the Cultural Revolution, and this poster, where bears the caption "destroy the old world, forge the new world" enforces the message -- with a sledgehammer -- central to that theme. Interesting to note that there is a much greater visual emphasis on the "destroy" part than the "forge the new world" part.



Artist: Katsuhika Hokusai

Date: 1829-1832

This was a piece from a series called 36 views of Fuji, and indeed Fuji-san is in the background here. The Great Wave bears with it European influences, which made it different in a time when Japan was cut off from the rest of the world. The boats show how nature dwarfs man, but there is something interesting in the way that the wave dwarfs the distant Fuji as well, given how powerful a symbol Fuji is to the Japanese.


Artist: Ota-ya Takichi

Date: 1849

This is a playbill from a kabuki show in 1849. So the art itself illustrates a scene from the play. The art still has the straight lines common in Japanese art, but certainly looks more cluttered than the finest classical art from that period, because this is not something that would have been done by a top artist for display.

I think friends back home will find these to be fairly classical images. None of these would really surprise, I do not think. Art from these countries has tended to focus on the same themes, at least until the mid-20th century, and these images reflect that. As these societies have evolved with industrialization, their art has become a lot more varied, if nothing else. [read more]

Bruegel's the Harvesters and Italian Renaissance Technique Essay

… Admittedly a fresco like the Disputation or School of Athens has to be constructed in horizontal bands, with the painter working directly onto wet plaster before it dries, so Raphael's tight formal overall construction is to some extent constrained by the limitations of the medium.

What is interesting is the way in which Bruegel's painting does still maintain strong formal devices. Consider the tree that essentially divides the canvas vertically. For a start, its placement (off-center to the right) is hardly accidental: Bruegel is roughly observing the proportions of the Pythagorean golden rectangle here, and the right segment of the canvas observes the same rough rectangular proportions as the canvas as a whole. Similarly the left segment of the canvas observes the same sort of construction in structured and composed horizontal bands that we can observe in Raphael's Disputation -- the difference, though, is that Bruegel is not painting a fresco. He is working in oil, and thus has the opportunity to work methodically and correct his work where necessary. As a result, Bruegel seems to aim for a more calculated sprezzatura in his effects: although the vertical line of the tree divides the canvas with a perfect mathematical proportion, Bruegel's genius here is to make it seem almost like an accident of the tree's placement, until we realize it is doing precisely the same sort of mathematical calculation that Alberti advises.

Nonetheless, one gets the sense that Alberti would not entirely approve of Bruegel's overall effects. Alberti's sense of "historia" -- the story told by a painting -- is entirely classical and heroic, with his examples drawn from Greek and Roman mythology. Bruegel is, of course, not entirely out of the realm of classical example in The Harvesters -- the pastorals or georgics of Theocritus and Vergil are precisely apropos to Bruegel's "historia" here. But there is nothing elevated or idealized about the most central and noticeable human figure in Bruegel's canvas, the farm-laborer at the bottom center, with his splayed legs and distended belly, mouth agape and trousers unbuttoned, who appears a casualty of physical exhaustion, drink, an overly large luncheon, or some combination thereof. In the larger sense of "historia" -- in the eyes of a twenty-first century viewer -- Bruegel is creating great art here. This figure encapsulates so much of what the painting is about. But it is not the sort of figure that we see in any painting by Raphael. The story here is closer to satirical realism than the heroic idealization that we see in Raphael's figures. Although both are painted with a sense of naturalistic detail -- Raphael's being superior in terms of actual naturalism in (say) faces and bodily proportions -- Bruegel is not telling a formal or elevated story. He seems to be offering us life as it actually occurs, and the way in which his composition is calculatedly and mathematically proportioned within the panel is made to seem entirely… [read more]

Giotto and Duccio the Arena Term Paper

… Duccio was also one of the first painters of the time to include figures within architectural settings, which also meant he had to use space and geometry for a more lifelike version than the staid figures of many Byzantine compositions (Kloss, Lecture 8, 4:04-7:12).

Giotto's Chapel is divided into 37 scenes, focusing on the story of Mary's parents and the life of Jesus. In contrast to, Duccio, Giotto is far more experimental and forward thinking as an artist. There seem to be at least four major techniques he used that appear in these Renaissance artists: 1) clear style -- uncluttered, focus is on the scene, primary colors, and a clear subject, but with interesting sidelines (other people, events, etc.); 2) Beginning and then evolution of the 3-dimmensional form, particularly when it came to human beings -- moving from Medieval flatness to better and truer representations; 3) the drama of the art -- focusing on a specific topic or subject instead of busy and alternative themes, and; 4) Use of space and volume to bring the viewer into the subject in a realistic way (size of doors and windows), using chairs and tables to express relative size, etc. But more than this, it seems as if Giotto's real legacy was in his daring approach to challenge the conventionality of the time, look and move forward in his use of color, space, and even framework, and try to approach art as more of an emotional and psychological (spiritual) frame of reference instead of purely decorative (Kloss, Lecture 7, inclusive).

Duccio pushed the envelope artistically, removed the strict one-dimensionality of Byzantine style, and certainly used space and structure to give the viewer a more realistic viewpoint. However, one can still tell they are from the Byzantine tradition, particularly in the Maesta panel which still portrays the angels, disciplines and prophets with flatter faces, and the proportionality of Jesus is not in line with the other figures or of Mary (Bellosi). In essence, Duccio, while a contemporary of Giotto, was more firmly in the past artistic traditions, while Giotto was leaving those traditions and pushing forward into a new era.


Lectures from William Kloss, Thomas Edison State College. Retrieved February 2014 from: [read more]

Birth of Venus Essay

… Homer's hymn to Venus likely played an important role in shaping Botticelli's ideas with regard to the painting (Deimling, 2000, p. 52)

The god Zephyrus is present on the left side of the painting along with the Breeze Aura around him as they both concentrate on blowing the winds with the purpose of bringing Venus ashore. Horae, the goddess of the seasons, waits for Venus on the shore holding a robe with flowers onto it, this making it possible for viewers to gain a more complex understanding of Horae as the goddess associated with Springtime.

Botticelli did not necessarily wanted to portray Venus as most people expected it to look like. The fact that he portrays the goddess as a person who puts across melancholy and grace emphasizes his tendency to involve his personal point-of-view. The emotions that her gaze put across are intended to make people feel compassionate and amazed at the same time. This woman figure appears to be well-acquainted with human nature in general and is not necessarily delighted as a result of the fact that she was born. The cold tones in the background further contribute to influencing viewers to see the painting as more serious than such an event would typically seem.

Venus Anadyomene -- analysis

Titian was likely obsessed with creating artwork that rivaled Apelles, as the Greek painter was largely appreciated during the early sixteenth century. In contrast to Botticelli's Venus, Titian's is a large woman and dominates most of the painting, this pointing to the fact that the Venetian painter concentrated on having viewers focus on the goddess alone with the environment that she was in being important only to a small degree. The presence of a shell in the painting only indicates that viewers are seeing Venus's birth, as the shell itself seems of little importance otherwise. The shell is actually the only thing in the painting that enables viewers to see that the painting is meant to depict Venus' birth.

While Botticelli portrayed his Venus as a person who is aware that she is seen and as someone who does not actually care about the individuals seeing her, Titian presented a more intimate moment. It appears that his Venus is not able to observe that people are watching her and one can practically compare her to a celebrity who is chased by paparazzi and taken pictures of during some of her most personal moments. Her being concerned about squeezing the water out of her hair contributes to this feeling of intimacy and invites viewers into the painting. The painting virtually influences viewers to develop an obsessive interest in wanting to gaze at Venus.

Titian wanted to create parallels between Venus and the idea of an archetypal woman, as even though she is not as gracious as Botticelli's Venus, her generous forms emphasize her sexuality. To a certain degree, the Venetian painter wanted to demonstrate that what most people could only imagine was actually real and that he had the tools… [read more]

Dee: The Shape of Things Creative Writing

… In fact, her emotionless control of Adam's life and sculpting of his form and will indicates that she may well be a psychopath. However, her peculiar installment could be evocative of vanitas, because it is aimed at exposing society's meaningless attachment to The Shape of Things.

Arcadia by Tom Stoppard (A) is a densely packed play, structured in two acts and seven scenes. The title is connected to the symbolically conveyed garden from Sidley Park, which is an ambivalent symbol for the primordial environment as Lady Croom perceives it, namely in accordance with the classical outlook, which nevertheless cannot elude the disorder inherent in human life, as individuals adversely impact the natural environment, even in the attempts to better acknowledge it, namely through the picturesque landscape endeavors - endorsed by Mr. Noakes.

Tom Stoppard employs the mathematical Chaos Theory to deal with the matter of repetitive, irreversible, deterministic yet unpredictable nature of time, as tackled by both art and science (Antakyalioglu 93). The author might somehow wish to demonstrate that, as little as physics and literature have in common, it's possible that they converge in dealing with the same problems and concerns related to existence (Antakyalioglu 87). What is more, Arcadia is basically a journey towards truth, and poses the question of whether the best path to discovering it is by use of reason or by use of intuition as primary instrument. By translating scientific concepts through art, the play suggests that this particular medium -- due to its inherent potential for dramatic performance -- is more readily understood than typical scientific language. In fact, the contrasting notions of regularity and irregularity, Classicism and Romanticism, sex and science, or order and chaos are strongly engraved in all of the events occurring at Sidley Park, the setting being the only stable element throughout the play.

Arcadia deals with the theme of time as a disorderly agent. Specifically, the intertwinement of two historical timelines indicates that order is based on a subjective interpretation of events, rather than an essential trait pertaining to them. Moreover, just as deterministic chaos is grounded in non-linear mathematics, Stoppard gives Arcadia a non-linear structure built like an alternating algorithm of the seven scenes from past to present day instances -- and the whole process is ripe with theatricality.

(B) Overall, Arcadia crowns the end of this semester because it is almost encyclopedic in thematic content and abundant in theatricality. Hannah Jarvis is similar to Evelyn from The Shape of Things, as they both proceed methodically in revealing some truth, and striving for truth is a major quest for both Vivian Bearing in W;t and Sister Aloysius in Doubt. Furthermore, the almost absurd unpredictability of life is brilliantly illustrated in Hester La Negrita's plight from In the Blood, which further expands on the chaos theory. Similarly, the manner in which The Goat or Who is Sylvia deals with love's fundamentally unpredictable and transcendental character may also allude back to chaotic determinism.


Allen, James Sloan. "Tolstoy's Prophesy: "What… [read more]

Cultural Event Report: Museum Creative Writing

… The museum has been specifically attentive to giving space to various Latin American artists and art forms, which is a very interesting series of pieces presented by the museum. Some of the current exhibitions even worked with interesting and new mediums, which also increased the diversity of the types of art found within the museum walls. One of my favorite alternative art piece was the instillation on the Indigo Room, also known as Is Memory Water Soluble? The instillation is incredibly vibrant, lit up with beautiful hues of blue and indigo. Finished by Edouard Duval-Carrie, it is a stunning piece that is truly awe-inspiring. The engulfing blue hues make sense with this knowledge, as one feels surrounded by water, just like the island of Haiti itself is. There is also a use of great differences in texture, which lead to the allusion of the rifts in the waves of the ocean. The artist himself is from the island of Haiti, and the images within the instillation represent the Haitian spirit of voodoo, but also play on the notion of the transcendence of the human spirit. It is a series of pictures lit up from some unknown back light, and tells a beautiful, yet solemn story of how it feels to be Haitian in a modern world. One can feel the ongoing internal conflict between the still present French influence left over from the oppressive days of colonialism as it clashes with a sense of what Haitians truly are underneath all the oppression and hard times they have had to endure.

Although I did not get to be a part of some of their summer art classes this year, I was incredibly impressed with the level of hands-on education provided for art students of all levels at the Museum of Art at Fort Lauderdale. The Museum has an Artist-in-Residence program, which allows aspiring and new modern artists to showcase their talents in a truly inspiring manner. They allow for yearly exhibitions and art installations for each of the lucky new artists chosen to run the Artist in Residency program, which I find to be a great opportunity for the museum to help showcase the local artistic flare of the city and of Florida in general. This is also augmented with all the art classes available for students of all levels at the museum. Coming this summer is a series of different art classes and programs for all different types of artistic instruction. This, I feel, is a great way to get the community involved and passionate about modern art, but also the act of making art itself. The AutoNation Academy of Art and Design allows local artists to explore their artistic talents with the help and guidance of very established and esteemed artists working as teachers. This is a huge part of the museum's underlying mission to help get the community active and inspired in the facilitation of… [read more]

Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries Period Research Paper

… Eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, artists were concentrating on a number of objectives in being able to effectively express their ideas. This is based upon utilizing techniques from the past and incorporating them with new ideas in the future. To fully… [read more]

Da Vinci and Michaelangelo Term Paper

… Her figure, the human body that da Vinci portrayed, is so dynamic that the mythology of the painting has surpassed the actual image itself. This is added to by the fact that she is in very dark clothes. These do not attract much attention and that is why the eye pays more attention to the figure. Also, the background serves the same function. When looking at the background of the painting, you can see some vaguely natural shapes like something that looks like trees and a river or lake, but they are blurry and undistinguished. Again it seems that rather than adding to the picture, they are forcing you to focus on Mona Lisa.

Michaelangelo painted the ceiling of the whole Sistine Chapel. It is a huge work and explaining and analyzing the whole of it would be impossible, or at the very least very time consuming. The most famous portion of the Sistine Chapel ceiling is "The Creation of Adam." This depicts a scene from the Old Testament of The Bible in "The Book of Genesis" where God creates the first man, Adam. The two main figures are surrounded by various angels and heavenly beings all who are celebrating the creation of life on Earth. The two main figures are God and Adam. God is clothed, which is interesting because nearly all the other figures on the whole frescos painting are portrayed in various stages of undress with perhaps a cloth or ribbon obscuring their genitalia. Most of the figures are not clothed at all, including Adam. God is dressed in a kind of pink gown where one arm is covered and the other is bare. It is reminiscent of the togas that the Greeks would wear in statues and pottery from that era of history which was being rediscovered during the Renaissance. Many artists who pain God show him as angry or wrathful, and from a distance, God's face seems to be impassive or unemotional. However, when you look very closely his expression takes on a different character. His eyes are open and focused on his task while his lips are full and together, giving the impression that this is taking some effort and the way his eyes look down at Adam makes it seem that even God is in awe of what he was able to create. Adam on the other hand seems lazier. While God reaches his hand out, straining his muscular arms to do so, Adam does not even go so far as to fully extend his hand. It is as though God is making the effort while Adam does not see the wonder in his creation or even appears to look grateful for being given the gift of life.

When looking at just these two examples, it can be seen how Renaissance artists represented human beings in their artwork. Da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" focuses on an enigmatic woman who cannot be easily understood. Michaelangelo on the other hand shows in "The Creation of Adam"… [read more]

Picasso: The Image of Modern Essay

… Guernica is a work of "fashion art," produced after he and Braque had pushed Cubism into the mainstream market. Now the market demanded something "new." Cubism had been a type of "fashion art" too, but fashions are always changing -- and so Picasso tapped into the Symbolist "fashion" for his commissioned work. Again, it seems to have been partly inspired by his disgust (and delight) for women. But at the same time, his technique is deliberately geared towards the symbolic -- just as any piece of political propaganda will be.


Picasso was an artist of immense talent who was able to adapt to meet the demands of the changing world, in terms of "fashion art" at least. His own worldview was hardly old-world oriented. He always held a revolutionary vision of mankind that was deliberately antagonistic to the old world values. Therefore, it is natural perhaps that he would depict the prostitutes of Avignon so unflatteringly without sympathy, and that his Symbolist art for the Communist Republicans of Spain should be so visually arresting, with its intermingling of man and beast, woman and bull.

Works Cited

Greenberg, C. "Avant-Garde and Kitsch." Partisan Review, Vol. 6, No. 5 (1939): 34-

49. Print.

Johnson, Paul. Art: A New History. NY: HarperCollins, 2003. Print.

Picasso, Pablo. Les Demoiselles… [read more]

Art History the Renaissance Period Term Paper

… Leonardo was a perfectionist and therefore he went into the world of science so that he would be able to make an improvement on his art work.

He got inspiration for his paintings in the study of nature and anatomy which he portrayed in his paintings which turned out stunning and realistic .he dissected the human body which led to remarkable accurate figure. Since he was the first artist to look into studies related with physical proportions of men, women and children he used these studies into the determination of a human figure that was ideal. Unlike other artists Leonardo never got carried away into painting muscular bodies that were ridiculous like other artists did. Leonardo held the belief that artists should not only be aware of rules of perspective but they should also be familiar with the laws of nature.

The Baroque style that he used in his paintings which featured lighting that was exaggerated, emotions that were intense, was not restrained as well as a kind of artistic which was sensation (Museum of science, 2010). Therefore we can see that there were various inspirations in the art work however most of his work was from the bible or based on the bible. For instance the painting on the last super was inspired by the biblical story of the last supper. His art work had symbolism playing a big role which he used so as to maintain humanism. Therefore Leonardo remains as a renowned artist whose work was very unique. He made a great contribution to the world of art in a big way and thus influenced other people into starting to paint due to his great art work.


Museum of science. (2010).Renaissance Man. Retrieved 28, march 2013 from

Hodgins, P.C.(2002). Leonardo da Vinci by Noah. Retrieved March 29, 2013 from

Michalko, M.(2011).How Leonardo Da Vinci got his ideas .Retrieved March 29,2013 from [read more]

Works of Art Essay

… The woman looks much like a painting from the Renaissance: her face lacks a three-dimensional quality. The red and blue hues of the work also recall Renaissance paintings, and an angel is seen beside the harp, indicating the beauty of her composition. The subtle shading of the work is more modern than most Renaissance or medieval styles. However, in contrast to the Leighton, this work is far more of an exact replica of the style of the past it is appropriating. Leighton's work is more dark and personal, and according to the information provided about Lachrymae on the Metropolitan Museum website at the time when Leighton composed the work, he was dying and used the image of the woman to convey his own sorrow. In contrast, the Burne-Jones painting was composed during the early days of the Pre-Raphaelite movement and was designed to merely reflect its ideas, such as the need to combine story, song, and history in painting.

Both of these works show how art is appropriated and re-appropriated through the ages. Even when artists attempt to recreate images and styles of the past, they do so in new ways. Although the Leighton is Grecian in style, the detail of the painting and the coloring reflect the artist's present day. The Burne-Jones pairs a woman and an angel who look like something from a Renaissance mural with a much more realistic looking knight as their audience. When compared, the styles of early and late 19th century painting, particularly within the Pre-Raphaelite movement are reflected. Although Leighton's painting is far more personal, intimate, and subtle in its design, shape, and coloring, both works are compelling, even today, because of the way in which they 'tell a story' even while they attempt to create work of beauty.

Works Cited

Burne-Jones, Edward. The Love Song. 1868. Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Leighton, Frederic. Lachrymae. 1895. Metropolitan Museum of Art.

[25 Feb 2013] [read more]

Museum Comparison Art Museums Term Paper

… It is particularly focused upon its educational mission to teach children about the natural world.[footnoteRef:9] Although the Museum itself is rather new, it reflects the mission of the original natural history conglomerate of museums at Harvard in the way it addresses "cutting-edge research, addresses contemporary issues, and offers creative educational experience in a unique, intimate setting."[footnoteRef:10] As well as offering school visits and educational programs on the weekend, this Harvard-funded museum also offers educational expeditions to the general public (which also offers an additional source of revenue). The Museum primarily receives funding through Harvard University. Although Harvard has experienced some financial difficulties in recent years, thanks to the economic downturn,[footnoteRef:11] overall its solvency has been superior to those of other universities and university museums. This is considered a boon to the public, given the important role these institutions play in educating the public about scientific matters. [footnoteRef:12] [9: "Permanent exhibits," Harvard Museum of Natural History, available [13 Feb 2013]] [10: "About the museum," Harvard University Natural History Museum," available:] [11: Julia K. Dean, "Election, automatic budget cuts could affect Harvard's research funding," The Crimson, 18 Oct 2012, / [13 Feb 2013]] [12: R. Dalton, "Natural history collections in crisis as funding is slashed," Nature. 2003, 423(6940):575.]

While the bright, interactive website of Harvard University's natural history museum underlines its focus upon educating children and the broader public, Oxford University's natural history museum is more focused upon research. The Oxford Museum of Natural History identifies itself as a center of "research and teaching" to scientists around the world, through its research libraries and environmental archaeology unit.[footnoteRef:13] This is not atypical of many natural history museums, it should be noted, not simply university-run museums. The "public face" of the institution is often very different from the focus of the efforts of most of the employees, who are more concentrated upon the research component of the museum's mission.[footnoteRef:14] [13: "Collections and research," Oxford Museum of Natural History, available: [10 Feb 2013]] [14: Keith S. Thompson, "National History Museums in the 21st century," American Institute of Biological Sciences, 2005, available: [10 Feb 2013]]


"About the museum." Harvard University Natural History Museum. Available:

"Collections and research." Oxford Museum of Natural History. Available: [10 Feb 2013]

Dalton, R. "Natural history collections in crisis as funding is slashed." Nature,

2003, 423(6940):575.

Dean, Julia K. "Election, automatic budget cuts could affect Harvard's research funding."

The Crimson. 18 Oct 2012. Available: [10 Feb 2013]

"History of the Tate." Tate Museum. Available: [10 Feb 2013]

"Main Building." Metropolitan Museum of Art. Available:

[10 Feb 2013]

"Museum Mission Statement." Metropolitan Museum of Art. Available: [10 Feb 2013]

"Permanent exhibits." Harvard Museum of Natural History. Available: [13 Feb 2013]

Rosenbaum, Lee. "Museum funding conundrums." Culture Grrl 24 Oct 2012.

[10 Feb 2013]

Souccar, Miriam S. "More cuts at the Metropolitan Museum of Art." Crain's. 2009. Available: [10 Feb 2013]

"Tate's charitable status." Tate Museum. Available: [10… [read more]

Art Arnold Roche Rabell Research Paper

… Enrique Grau Araujo, "La Mulata Cartagenera"

Enrique Grau Araujo's "La Mulata Cartagenera" or roughly translated the mixed woman from Cartagena is a painting of a beautiful light brown skinned woman. The title of the painting tells the viewer that she is a mulatto and it would be difficult to know this unless Araujo told the viewer this. That is, it would be difficult if the viewer were not able to pick up on the subtle clues to this heritage that abound in the painting. The background of the painting features large colorful flowers and fruits, the natural beauty of the Caribbean world in which the woman lives. They are prominent and large enough to catch the eye, but do not detract from the real message of the painting. Then there is the woman herself. She is quite lovely but exhibits an attitude in her expression and posture which illustrates that she is unhappy or at least dissatisfied with what she is seeing. Her hair is up and away from her face while her necklace is perfectly poised and centered, letting the viewer know that she cares deeply for her looks and puts effort in the appearance she presents to the world. The woman is highly sexualized in the painting even though she is fully clothed. Her light purple dress is very tight, with folds and creases indicating that she is in some way disheveled and imperfect as is the fact that her breasts are extremely prominent with the use of brown against the lavender dress making this part of her body highly noticeable. It is also interesting that the dress she wears if very western in appearance and not something that would be native to the people of Cartagena. Her hairdo is also indicative of a western influence. Being a mulatto, the culture clash between the paternal and maternal sides of her family would have influenced the young woman heavily, particularly if the community did not treat her well because of either her Caucasian or Hispanic background. So she stands somewhat defiant of either culture's stereotype of perfect white woman or earthy Hispanic, refusing to be completely either since neither of the groups would accept a mulatto… [read more]

Le Viol (Rape) by Surrealist Essay

… In the mid-1920s Magritte was beginning to emulate and learn from the surrealists, who "overturned conventional notions by exercising their unconscious impulses for creative effect" (Gale). Some of Magritte's paintings had a "bizarre, dream-like quality" (Gale).

The artist began being recognized as a quality creative person and in the 1930s he created his Key of Dreams series (objects in this series did not conform to what was labeled below) and in the 1940s he experimented with impressionism, saying "life obliges me to do something so I paint" (Gale).

Modern Art / Surrealism

Andre Breton was considered the visionary in the surrealist movement, and in his Second Manifesto of Surrealism he noted that the aim of surrealism is to "…supply it with practical possibilities in no way competitive in the most immediate realm of consciousness," and in fact, he went on, there was a need to "put an end to idealism," and to place surrealistic artists "at a point of departure such that for us philosophy is 'outclassed'" (Breton, 464).

George Grosz and Wieland Herzfelde were "militantly opposed to any notion of a 'pure' art"; and they wrote (in "Jesus in the Trenches") that surrealism embraces Freudian doctrine insomuch as it helps to flush out ideas and evaluate them; Freudian criticism (literature) is the "first and only one with a really solid basis," they wrote. Given the bizarre surrealism from the likes of Magritte (two people kissing with towels wrapped around their heads; a man with a bowler top had whose face is blocked by a gull; a man with a face in the back of his head); an eagle wearing a suit jacket; a hanger with a top hat; a horse with a rider who becomes part of a tree; and a building with a massive finger jutting upward from a broken corner), Freudian doctrine of sexuality seems appropriate and idealism seems a long-gone movement.

Why is Magritte's Le Viol the epitome of modernism? His use of a woman's image -- while totally disassembling body parts and tacking breasts to where eyes should go, and placing a patch of pubic hair where the mouth should be -- is very much the epitome of surrealism, which along with expressionism, Cubism, and impressionism, is indeed precisely what modern is expected to portray and present to its audience. As Breton wrote in the First Manifesto of Surrealism, to "…reduce the imagination to a state of slavery -- even though it would mean the elimination of what is commonly called happiness -- is to betray all sense of absolute justice within oneself" (Breton).

Works Cited

Breton, Andre (1896-1966) From the First Manifesto of Surrealism.

Breton, Andre (1896-1966). From the Second Manifesto of Surrealism.

Gale Biography In Context. (1998). Rene Magritte. Encyclopedia of World Biography.

Retrieved November 29, 2012, from

Grosz, George (1893-1959) and Wieland Herzfelde (1896-1998). Art is in Danger.

Gubar, Susan. (1987). Representing Pornography Feminism, Criticism, and Depictions of Female Violation. Chicago Journals, 13(4),… [read more]

Avant-Garde an Analysis of Duchamp Essay

… Kandinsky started off his art career somewhat late -- he was first a lawyer -- and when he entered the art world, it was through very vibrant and colorful pointillist portraits. Inspired, however, by the impressionism of Monet, Kandinsky ventured into the expressionist movement and into the abstract, of which On White II is a prime example.

Kandinsky's On White II represents the resiliency of the avant-garde style -- despite the kind of absurdist criticism brought forward by Duchamp. On White is dynamic, abstract, and full of energy. If it rejects anything of old traditions, it is merely the presence of an obvious narrative. Kandinsky's abstract painting soaks up the subjective character of modernism, but boldly proclaims its life through the interaction of line and color. It goes even beyond the confines of surrealism to pure abstraction. It disregards absurdity and avant-garde cynicism, as expressed by Fountain, and attempts to represent in abstract form the "spirit" of art. For Kandinsky art was primarily concerned with the "spiritual" side of life, not the "physical." Kandinsky stated as much in his book, Concerning the Spiritual in Art. Unlike Duchamp, there was nothing absurdist about Kandinsky.

Yet, Kandinsky's On White II also represents a continuation of Duchamp's absurdist commentary. It boldly asserts that art cannot be limited or restricted to conventional representations, realism, impressionism or surrealism. Just as Duchamp's Fountain may be considered the ultimate expression of Dada, Kandinsky's On White II may be considered as on of the ultimate expressions of abstraction. By challenging the status quo of conventionality, Kandinsky's avant-garde art is a continuation of Duchamp's work in the avant-garde. Although the two are different, and Kandinsky attempts to signify while Duchamp attempts to ridicule, both push the… [read more]

Art Futurism Brashly and Boldly Essay

… Thus, the futurists would embrace emerging discourse in the sciences related to fields like astrophysics, string, and chaos theories. Such scientific disciplines include abstract discourse that can be captured by the artist using new media. The idea that movement can itself be captured on a two-dimensional surface becomes enhanced with new media. From holograms to animated gifs, the futurists would well appreciate the capacity of new media and new technology to capture the dynamism of the universe.

Of course, the very concept of art does not change. The something that is genuinely new and different is captured in motion. "Indeed, all things move, all things run, all things are rapidly changing," (Boccioni, p. 150). Thus, two artists can paint the same portrait but the results will be completely different from one another. When the artist "renders the whole of its surrounding atmosphere," then the two portraits are truly divergent (Boccioni, p. 150).

New elements are regularly added to the periodic table; the universe is far too dynamic to presume that nothing new exists under the sun. Using a limited way of thinking about art, sure, it is not possible to conceive of anything truly unique, new, or different. Subjects will be from the world of the familiar: faces, places, items on a table. However, the abstract artist understands the limitation of the purely representative "Our growing need of truth is no longer satisfied with Form and Colour as they have been understood hitherto," (Boccioni, p.150). Elements of the immaterial world, concepts that the human mind have yet to fathom: these are the potential subjects for futurist art. Studies, both frivolous and intellectual, of movement, sound, and light, form the foundation of what is truly new and different.


Boccioni, Umberto. "Futurist Painting: Technical Manifesto."

Marinette, Filippo Tommaso. "The Foundation… [read more]

Art Deco a Long Era Essay

… The screen is abstract in its design, and it lacks any anthropomorphic, zoomorphic, or floral motifs. Rendered in wood, Gray uses a lacquer technique to apply black, red, and silver leaf. Although it lacks the nature motifs that are often present on original Japanese interior screens, Gray's screen has an earthy feel because of the materials she uses and the final form the item takes.

Pierre Legrain's stool from 1923 presents a return to Egyptian motif and design, as it resembles the hard "pillows" that were often placed in mummy sarcophagi. Rather than use the curved base for the neck, however, Legrain envisions it for the behind. The result is an item that is likely far more comfortable than the pillow version used by the Egyptians. In terms of materials, Legrain's stool is more sub-Saharan Africa than it is Egyptian. Dark woods and sharkskin combine for an exotic effect, but one that is far from being frivolous. The stool is elegant; its forms are strong and solid enough to be a practical design element while also being fine art.

Rene Buthaud's stoneware vase from 1926 challenges the notion of boundary between the applied and fine arts. The undulating form of the vase matches the curvaceous female forms depicted in black paint. A sculpture with a purpose, the vase calls attention to ancient vase-making, which also incorporated artistic design elements onto something that was an everyday use item. The way Buthaud renders the flora in the background of the piece is reminiscent of oriental art: such as Chinese and Japanese calligraphy and landscape art. These five Art Deco pieces combine elements that might have been considered exotic to the European designer and consumer as well. The blending of familiar and exotic is emblematic of the early twentieth century and the close… [read more]

Ancient Art Is Filled Term Paper

… This is a human royal couple, not a god couple as Isis and Wepawet are. The difference between the human and divine subjects is noticeable to the viewer. In the sculpture of Isis and Wepawet, the eyes are cold and distant, as the two gods are on a different spiritual plane from human beings. In the sculpture of Yuny and his wife Renenutet, the king and queen are humans and therefore their eyes are filled with the compassion and earthiness of human beings.

Both these two New Kingdom sculptures have similar content, in that they are designed to depict humans in their idealized format: either as supreme rulers or as divine beings. Yet these two sculptures are different in their form as well as their content. One of the most visible differences between the two different ancient Egyptian sculptures is that Yuny and his Wife Renenutet are shown seated on a throne. Isis and Wepawet, on the other hand, are depicted as standing instead. This might be attributed to the fact that Yuny and his wife Renenutet are human leaders, whereas Isis and Wetawet are divine. The human leaders sit down because they are more connected with the earth and their subjects, whereas Isis and Wepawet are more removed, standing a world apart. Moreover, the feet of Isis and Wepawet are strikingly different from those of Yuny and his wife Renenutet. In true Egyptian style, Isis and Wepawet both stand with their left foot slightly forward from the right foot. It is as if they are taking a small step forward into another dimension. The stance remains common throughout the canon of Egyptian sculpture, and not just from the New Kingdom.


"Isis and Wepwawet, god of Asyut," (ca. 1279 -- 1213 B.C.E). Retrieved online:

"Yuny and His Wife Renenutet," (1294 -- 1279 B.C.E.). Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved online:*&pos=6 [read more]

Alk War in Art Essay

… Alk

War in Art

When discussing war as an abstract concept, most individuals would agree that it is a deplorable, tragic phenomenon, even if it accomplishes a desired end. However, when considering specific, real-world wars, this unity breaks down, because… [read more]

Gender Borders in Art: Visible and Invisible Essay

… This painting, one of the first Impressionist works, caused public scandal because of its depiction of naked women matter-of-factly eating and bathing with a group of clothed males outdoors. In contrast to late Impressionists, such as Monet, Manet used a more realistic style. The sharply-defined bodies of female nudes and clothed males are in stark contrast to the hazier depiction of water and grass.

Like Kruger, Manet enjoyed taking aspects of existing art -- in Manet's case, high art -- and making new meaning from them. The female nude has historically been a typical subject of art and used to 'represent' sexuality but the realistic (as opposed to classical) setting and its cheeky provocation caused many art critics of the day to see Manet's work as obscene (Luncheon on the Grass, Web Museum, Paris, 2012). Nudity is treated in an irreverent fashion in the context of high art. Instead of depicting a classical Venus nude, the nakedness of his female picnickers are taken for granted, challenging the viewer's sense of what is 'normal,' 'appropriate,' or 'modest.' For a woman to be naked is as normal as having lunch for Manet. The viewer's relationship with the work is less intimate, unlike Kruger's use of the word 'you, but does suggest the experience of being a voyeur, as if the viewer is watching a very private moment of several couples -- crossing the borders between public and private space

Andy Warhol, much like Barbara Kruger also used the female image to satirize commercialism in his depictions of Marilyn. Like his famous soup cans, Warhol used a repeated image of the famous movie star Marilyn Monroe to highlight the ubiquity and meaninglessness of the symbol of the actress within the culture -- there is no 'real' Marilyn anymore, because her image has been endlessly manufactured, like an image of Campbell's soup. Marilyn is painted in garish colors, as if the representation of her is just as 'made up' as the actress herself.

But in contrast to Warhol's deadpan irony, Kruger's pastiche has an additional poignancy in the way she suggests that although the image of the woman may be false, the battleground women fight for their bodies is real. Also, her use of words seems to imply a call to action. While Warhol reinforces the borders of the gazer of the painting staring at an object called Marilyn, Kruger's use of 'you' suggests that 'we are all in this together,' culturally speaking, and must do something about the objectification of women which we must all battle. Although her art, like Warhol's and Manet's, transgresses borders of sexual representation, it also blurs them between the subject and the viewer.

Works Cited

"Andy Warhol's Marilyn prints." Web Exhibits. [27 Jul 2012]

"Barbara Kruger." Art History Archive. [27 Jul 2012]

Luncheon on the Grass. Web Museum, Paris. [27 Jul 2012]

Images [read more]

Art Analysis: ART21 After Reviewing Essay

… The title of this work states: this is no time for dreaming. For whatever feelings or opportunities dreaming provides us, this is no time for that now. This logic begs the question, if it is not time for dreaming, what is it time for then? Tossing papers about in an empty room might be the perfect time for dreaming because the reality of the situation is not fun.

Forever is a series of installations where the primary source material is bicycles. Weiwei used approximately 1,200 bicycles to construct his exhibit. Weiwei is an artist that often expresses messages that are aware of the 21st century Chinese reality, condition and culture. His work is very connected and heavily themed around the diversity of meaning of the Chinese identity as well as the changing nature of Chinese national identity. Bicycles are much more popular and normative forms of transportation in places like China than the United States. Asian cultures such as Chinese, Japanese, and Korean ride bicycles from early childhood into mature adulthood. The bicycles could be interpreted as literal or the viewer can extract meaning from the work from the materials present and the bodies of the bike riders whose presence is implied. After all, the fundamental purpose of the bicycle cannot be demonstrated without people to ride. This is yet another installation with a very limited color palette. One aim of Forever is to alter the viewer's perspective or perception with depth, volume, and space rather than color. The form of the bikes is uniform and so is their arrangement, though the arrangements are not boring or facile.

The forever-ness of this exhibit is implied. The infinitude that Weiwei communicates happens within the minds of the viewer, which is more effective for him as a strategy than a more literal expression of forever. Forever is a concept that is difficult to make tangible. This is one of the challenge that Weiwei undertakes in his work -- to make the intangible tangible, or at least to effective imply the tangibility of the intangible. In the different arrangements of the bikes, new shapes and figures come into view though the shape of the bikes used are the same. He finds variation in manipulation of objects that are the same. He somehow creates or implies new shapes from repeating the same shapes and lines with three dimensional superimposition. The piece is stunning meant to be experienced and not looked at.


Art21, Inc. (2012) Explore Artists. Available from: 2012 July 10.

European Graduate School. (2012) Pierre Huyghe -- Biography. Available from: 2012 July 11.

Wines, Michael. (2009) Ai Weiwei, China's Impolitic Artist. The New York Times, Available from: 2012 July 12.

Pierre Huyghe, "This is not a time for dreaming," 2004.

Ai Weiwei, "Forever," 2011.

Ai Weiwei, "Forever," 2011. [read more]

20th Century Modern Art Essay

… What makes the "Four Freedoms" so special, though, is the fact that Rockwell managed to address issues of mid-20th century modern life without flying to the extreme of Abstract Expressionism or kitschy Pop Art. Rockwell addressed his culture directly, by unapologetically painting it as he saw it, even if it did seem old fashioned, stylized, and sentimental. For him, it was still real -- just as real as Pollock's work or Hamilton's.

In conclusion, each artist was true to his own particular genius, time and inspiration. Pollock grew out of a class of painters attempting to locate the spiritual in the abstract representation. Hamilton rejected the abstract and attempted to define the crass and gaudy. And Rockwell attempted to define the pure and simple and reflect the grace that he saw lying all around him. Each one was different, yet each one was modern -- and each, as Pollock said, had his own technique.

Works Cited

Greenberg, Clement. "Avant-Garde and Kitsch." Art and Culture. MA: Beacon Press,

1961. Print.

Johnson, Paul. Art: A New History. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2003.


Marinetti, F.T. "The Founding and Manifesto of Futurism." Futurist Manifestos. NY:

Viking Press, 1973.… [read more]

Archaeology Although Named After La Term Paper

… This is because of the need for greater human population growth in the stable, permanent settlements that characterized later, Paleolithic cultures.

Yet even before these changes occurred where the Gravettian people merged or were subsumed by others, the Gravettian culture has an "apparently stable and very elaborate economic and social structure," (de Laet 212). Gravettian culture spread throughout Europe, but remained remarkably homogenous with a great degree of "cultural unity," (de Laet 212). There was a distinct Gravettian artistic sensibility, which gave rise to the Venus-type icons in regions as far-reaching as France and the Ukraine (Haynes). However, it is unknown whether the "appearance and spread of Gravettian was a huge migratory movement or merely the diffusion of ideas and technological changes among pre-existing populations," (Haynes 160).

At the Dolni Vestonice site alone, the bones of "at least 150 mammoths" and shelters and structures built with mammoth bones have been found (Haynes 161). More than 2000 clay figurines like the Venus were also found, showing that the creation of art objects was important to the Gravettian people. The admiration of the human form, and most likely the respect for the female, meant that Gravettian statues sometimes took on the appearance of the Venus of Dolni Vestonice. Even if the Venus of Dolni Vestonice does not represent fertility of human beings, she might have represented the spiritual meaning behind fertility: that is, crop abundance and prosperity. As Lysianna states, the Venus of Dolni Vestonice "may depict the earliest portrayal of a deity or Mother Goddess."

A "mother goddess" element is unmistakable in the art of the Gravettian culture, which based on the presence of ample animal bone and animal figure art, revealed a deep reverence, respect, and harmonious relationship with the natural world. Women were not necessarily fetishized though, as might be believed from perceiving the ample number of Venus statues at Gravettian sites. Haynes notes that some Gravettian art includes interesting depictions of men, such as a statuette of a man with a lion head. The fusion of animal and human elements could be shamanistic in nature, or it could also represent the ability to play around with artistic shapes, forms, and concepts. Either way, the Gravettian people lived in harmony with their natural surroundings, as all hunter-gatherer societies must.

Works Cited

De Laet, Sigfried J. History of Humanity: Prehistory and the Beginnings of Civilization. Taylor & Francis, 1994.

Haynes, Gary. The Early Settlement of North America. Cambridge University Press, 2002.

"History of Europe." Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved online:

Lienard, John H. "The Dolni Vestonice Ceramics." Engines of Our Ingenuity. Retrieved online:

Lysianassa. "The History of the Gravettian Culture." [read more]

Legacy of Jackson Pollock Essay

… The thesis of Greenberg's article is that modern art is most importantly about being contrary to the social norms and to the accepted views on art of the society in which the art is created. Essentially, the modern artists intend to create work which makes a dialogue with the psychology of the larger population and argues against the normative behaviors of that group. [2: Clark, T.J. "Clement Greenberg's Theory of Art." Critical Inquiry. 9. No. 1. (1982): 145. ] [3: Clark, T.J. "Clement Greenberg's Theory of Art." Critical Inquiry. 9. No. 1. (1982): 144. ] [4: Nancy Jachec, "Modernism, Enlightenment Values, and Clement Greenberg," Oxford Art Journal, 21, no. 2 (1998): 123. ]

Critics of the modern art movement expressed their opinions that the work of Jackson Pollock and other eminent modern artists were using the form to express their ideological differences with social norms.[footnoteRef:5] Anti-capitalism, Jachec asserts is what led Pollock to pursue an art career in which the viewer was required to participate in the analytical process in order to understand the meaning behind a given work of art. Marxism and the psychological block against rampant capitalism propelled artistic ambition and the acceptance by artists of the period to create works of art which fit in with what is now known as modernism. [5: Nancy Jachec, "Modernism, Enlightenment Values, and Clement Greenberg," Oxford Art Journal, 21, no. 2 (1998): 129. ]

Allan Kaprow, like Greenberg, believed that the modern art movement was an important one both in terms of the art world and in the larger historical record of the American culture. He writes about what it was like to teach art in the time when traditional and more avant garde art would interact. Many times he would look at the faces of students or faculty when they would examine pieces of modern art and all too often he would see in those glances confusion and a lack of comprehension of the intention or the thesis of a given piece.[footnoteRef:6] Without comprehension, then the viewer cannot understand the reason that an artist created a certain piece, nor can they understand the meaning of the piece itself. Under those conditions, the meaning behind the work becomes lost and the message of the artist equally so. The classroom and the university becomes the means by which art is either accepted or denied importance in the American intellectual culture.[footnoteRef:7] Educators who do not include modernist art in their curriculum are denying their students the ability to analyze and to use their own ability of critical analysis. Private and public opinion is waning in the wake of a growing intellectual opinion and it is therefore the responsibility of the educators to ensure that those making those opinions are as well-informed and involved in as many different forms of art as possible. [6: Kaprow, Allan. "The Effect of Recent Art Upon the Teaching of Art." Art Journal. 23. No. 2. (1963-1964): 136.] [7: Kaprow, Allan. "The Effect of Recent Art Upon the Teaching… [read more]

Innovation Is an Art Essay

… Google Suggest, AdSense for Content, and Orkut are among the many products of this perk" (Engineer's life, 2012, Jobs at Google). Google also offers all of its employees such bonuses as yoga and free food, to create an environment where its employees can relax and 'dream' rather than focus on mundane tasks.

The philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn has observed that even in science, paradigm shifts tend not to occur slowly, but swiftly. Kuhn argued that most scientists tend towards conformity. Only when new and innovative thinkers demonstrate that the anomalies within existing scientific theory are so great is there a paradigm shift, such as when the idea that the sun rather than the earth is the center of the universe was finally accepted (Bird 2011). Similarly, in the arts, the need for change was only embraced in a series of radical shocks, such as when the Impressionists and later the Cubists challenged representational forms of art in provocative works. In business as well, discovering new ways to do things such as personal computing (the development of the Mac, the brainchild of Steve Jobs) to mopping (the innovation of the disposable Swiffer) comes with sudden bursts of insight rather than slow, sustained development. The Swiffer was created when an independent research team noticed how mopping was inefficient and merely spread the dirt from the mop around on the already-dirty floor. When people really wanted a clean surface, they used a paper towel (Siegel 2012). For innovations small and large, artistic inspiration and insight is required, even though those insights may be based in technical knowledge.


Bird, Alexander. (2011). Thomas Kuhn. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Retrieved: .

Engineer's life. (2012). Jobs at Google. Retrieved:

Michelangelo. (n.d.) Artists of the Renaissance. Retrieved:

Siegel, Robert. (2012). How creativity works. NPR interview. Audio available at: [read more]

Black Artist During the Colonal Research Paper

… The majority of Johnson's techniques with painting are largely self-taught, although speculation exists as to whether or not he was taken in and taught some aspects of painting by extended family members of the Peale family. Johnson was fairly productive during his tenure, and is credited with rendering at least 80 paintings, the vast majority of which are portraits of wealthy and prominent people in the Baltimore area.

In conclusion, there is quite a history of African-American art that still exists from the historical era in which chattel slavery was prevalent and thriving within this country. What is interesting to note about this artwork is that all of the pieces, including Johnson's, served a variety of purposes. There is certain intrinsic artistic value, in terms of aesthetics, that lies within these objects, if for no other reason than their historical value. Yet they all serve fairly utilitarian purposes as well. Even Johnson's work, portraits of rich Caucasians, was extremely utilitarian in the sense that as a portrait artist, he was able to earn a living through the production of this art. That same concept of being able to earn a living, on one's own terms via the rights and laws of self-determination, is what the other pieces of art examined within this paper helped to serve for slaves and people who would be enslaved. The quilts mentioned in this paper helped to provide assistance to slaves who were embarking on the Underground Railroad and whose ultimate goal was liberation and the right to self-determination that accompanies it. The drums referenced were also used as a means of communication between slaves and those of African or African-American descent, which allowed a freedom of expression that was not otherwise permitted in the dire circumstances of slavery (although these drums and their pragmatic uses definitely predate chattel slavery). Even the blolo figures form the Ivory Coast and Ghana were designed to aid in problems with one's love life -- doubtlessly a key component of self-determination.


No author. (2004). "Underground Railroad Quilt Code." Owen Sound's Black History. Retrieved from

No author. (2004). "Music in Slave Life." PBS. Retrieved from

No author. (2012). "Untitled." National Gallery of Art. Retrieved from

Vogel, S.M. (1997). Baule: African Art/Western Eyes. New Haven: Yale University Press. [read more]

Modernist Painting 1965 by Clement Essay

… While he engaged in numerously different forms of art, some of his fine art that he popularized throughout the 60's also conformed to several principles of Modernism as defined by Greenberg. Works such as Marilyn Diptych, which was initially exhibited in 1962 and was a work of silkscreen, certainly present an optical setting in which the imagery is confined to a flat, two dimensions, in much the same way that Lichtenstein's work did. The repetitions of the image of Marilyn Monroe's face are also simple and are contrasted against really subdued colors, which is another trait of Modernist art according to Greenberg.

As an abstract artist, Jackson Pollock produced a large amount of visual artistry that adhered to conventions of Modernism. Abstract art is modern in the sense that it relies on the optical as the sole means of measuring or regarding a work of art. Furthermore, the subject depicted in most of Pollock's work almost borders on being regarded as an object, and not necessarily a painting -- which is congruent with Greenberg's theory that Modern art is simplified and is decidedly pure in terms of its self-definition as being indicative of a particular medium.

Gerhard Richter was one of the pioneers of abstract art. The abstract nature of his work that exemplifies some of the concepts that Greenberg identified as being aligned with Modern art is a proclivity towards subdued colors, something which Richter was noted for doing with monochromes (especially involving the color grey). Furthermore, some of Richter's later works were purposefully designed to depict certain facets of reality that could not be perceived except by the naked eye, which certainly adheres to Greenberg's notion that Modern art strives to rely on merely the sense of the optical to convey aspects… [read more]

Pollen From Hazelnut Art Review Essay

… Pollen From Hazelnut Art Review

"Pollen from Hazelnut" was originally created and displayed in 1992 by artist Wolfgang Laib. When viewed, this piece has a way of removing idle conversation from the room and inspiring silence from its viewers. Where many German artists focus their work on the suffering and hardship Germany has endured, Laib seeks a different approach that transcends time and culture. In order to properly understand "Pollen from Hazelnut," viewers must consider the form, style, content, function, context, meaning, and message of the work.

Wolfgang Laib's specialty form is sculpture, although his sculptures are very different from what one would consider a normal sculpture. Whereas most sculptures are made from non-organic materials that will last for centuries, Laib's sculptures are always made from organic materials that will eventually fade away. The "Pollen from Hazelnut" sculpture is made entirely of flower pollen collected by Laib. The style of this sculpture is ritualistic. The sculpture is not permanent and must be recreated over and over again by the museums who showcase it. In order to create the sculpture, five jars of pollen are spread over the floor of the museum in a square shape. Laib requires that an organic muslin sieve is used during the dispersing and that the square be sharp and distinct. Once completed, the square is nearly 12 feet in size.

Laib's work falls within the artistic concept of ritualistic spiritual works. By using forms from nature, his art is intentionally looking beyond the culture of his home country, Germany, and instead revealing the universal beauty and awe inspiring brilliance of nature. "Pollen from Hazelnut" is bright yellow, much brighter than any artificial paint. By using this medium, Laib is demonstrating the profound power and unique beauty found in nature. Where most consider nature to be fundamental, Laib expresses the truth that many things found in nature are more beautiful… [read more]

Subjective Map Term Paper

… Olympic Sculpture Park Subjective Map

Walking through the park, I was captivated by Bunyon's Chess. The suspension of the three large beams was nearly overwhelming. Seeing the beams free-floating in the air reminds me of how freeing the world of art is, in that artists are not limited by time or space.

I couldn't help but smile when I saw the bench and chair sculpture. The clever idea of comparing the increasing utility of the various things to sit on starting with a simple moving box, followed by a plastic lawn chair and completed with the stone bench. All are useful, but only one is really meant to last. I wondered if any guests at the park every actually sit on the bench.

When I saw the Love & Loss presentation, all I could say was wow. This is the most clever sculpture I've ever seen. Using things as basic as benches, tables and trees, Roy McKakin played upon words and culture perfectly. The accenting using white paint really makes the message stand out and makes the observer feel as though they are on a scavenger hunt trying to determine the message. I really enjoy the use of nature as well. The green grass and trees contrast the paint perfect.

The giant Typewriter Eraser sculpture just made me smile. It was something I did not expect to see on the top of the hill. At first I did not know what it was and had to read the information about the sculpture before I understood. It is remarkably clever how Claes Oldenburg transformed a plain object, made it larger and it becomes eye catching.

The Stainless Steel Tree was not as impressive as I thought it would be. While an excellent feat to copy nature to such an extreme, I kept thinking that it was such a pity that he could only copy nature in its dead, dormant state. While the tree had… [read more]

Strategies Materials and Processes Term Paper

… ¶ … Marcel Duchamp's Ready Made art, the work of Tom Friedman and in Erwin Wurm's One minute sculptures. In the essay, the author will choose one specific artwork example by each artist and briefly describe and interpret each artwork. We will then take the main points from the set of criteria for art and use it to evaluate these three works of art considering Duchamp, Friedman and then Wurm respectively. We will focus on how each may/may not satisfy our definition of art. We will examine how this set of criteria needs to be reconsidered and rearticulated to accommodate these artworks.

The common element among all three of the above artists was their use of everyday objects in their sculptural works. The artworks each had a fresh and "ready-made" quality that was spontaneous and did not fit any standard mold. They are made out of common materials that otherwise would not be art. The conventional definition needs to be reconsidered to accommodate these ephemeral works because they do not presently have a place in it. They have challenged the traditional definition of art and therefore do not easily fit into the old molds.

Marcel Duchamp

A great example of Duchamp's Ready Made art can be seen in the 1917 work, the Fountain. He felt that art was visual and sought out alternate modes of expression. The name is self-explanatory in that they were ready to go. Duchamp limited the yearly output of ready-mades and made no more than twenty in his life. Duchamp felt that by limiting output that he avoid the trap of his own tastes. While he was cognizant of the contradiction of avoiding taste, he also selected an object. Duchamp felt that taste, "bad" or "good," was the enemy of real art (Rougeau, 2008). The interpretation is that all of life is art, it just depends on your point-of-view.

Tom Friedman

Tom Friedman was an American conceptual sculptor known for his works that employ everyday materials such as sugar cubes or toothpick in geometrically intricate arrangements.… [read more]

Italian Renaissance Art Mannerism Research Paper

… Artists were apparently using the light to reach from a practical point outside of the painting. Now light was inflicted randomly, sometimes originating from a source inside the composition, like a halo; sometimes impending from different ways, lighting elements make… [read more]

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