Study "Art / Painting / Sculpture" Essays 276-330

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What Is New in "Art Term Paper

… Modern Art

Old Wine in New Bottles?

One of the most important precepts of contemporary art is that great art cannot be great unless it is fundamentally innovative. Or at least that is the official word. In fact, a certain… [read more]

Compare and Contrast 2 Paintings Term Paper

… ¶ … Orpheus Charming the Animals vs. The Temptation of St. Anthony

The theme of Orpheus charming the animals was a common one in medieval and Italian Renaissance painting. It adopts a common trope of the Orpheus myth, namely that… [read more]

Art Appreciation Analysis of Art Work Essay

… ¶ … Mr. And Mrs. Andrews

By examining the work of painter Thomas Gainsborough, one is able to discover a number of details regarding the culture and society of eighteenth-century England, and his 1750 painting Mr. And Mrs. Andrews is… [read more]

Art Compare and Contrast (Giuliano Bugiardini Essay

… Art

Compare and Contrast (Giuliano Bugiardini, Madonna and Child with St. John the Baptist, 1510) and (Roger van der Wyden, Deposition, c. 1435-1438)

Renaissance Art

Compare and Contrast Giuliano Bugiardini, Madonna and Child with St. John the Baptist, and Roger… [read more]

Impressionism vs. Post Essay

… Examples of post-impressionist works include Starry Night by Vincent Van Gogh and Monet's works including Waterlillies (Sweeny, 1996). Many post-impressionists concerned themselves with adding their personal experiences into the painting, versus being loyal to the object they were painting. This was much different from impressionism, where the painter felt an obligation to the object or subject of the painting, to whom they were loyal. Post-impressionism was concerned more with "sensation" and much less close to "realism." While impressionists could hardly be defined as realists, their paintings did have some quality of naturalism to them, even though the painter separated themselves from reality when painting.

Some distinct characteristics of Impressionist paintings include small yet visible brush strokes and the crucial element of perception and experience (Tinterow & Loyrette, 1996; Denvir, 1990). This led to the development of Impressionist music and literature. Some refer this as an entire movement, the movement "Impressionism" (Tinterow and Lynette, 1994). It was said this captured the essence of human qualities, rather than the details of life. One might compare this to the dramatic quality of post-impressionism, which had more flare to it.


Impressionism was something that grew partly out of the realism movement. It was an attempt to describe art and the qualities of human nature without adding too much detail to the object of the artistic endeavor. Impressionism was the polar opposite of Post-impressionism. It utilized small and thin brush strokes and common, ordinary subjects, focusing on light as the subject of its paintings. Post-Impressionists used broad, distinct brush strokes and vivid colors, thick applications of paint and emphasized distorted forms or unnatural color for expressive effects. Post-impressionism was a statement in part against impressionism. It wanted to provide more than just an "impression" of the human form or object of the artist's rendering. It added more detail and life to the painting or subject of the artist's rendering. It included more drama, more personal feeling and effect into the painting. This is evidenced by many of the painter's work, especially those of Van Gogh who is one of the more notable painters of this era. Regardless of whether one favors impressionist works or Post-impressionists, both of these movements contributed significantly to art history and the development of art as we know it today.


Brettell, R. 2000. Impression: Painting quickly in France, 1860-1890. New Haven and London: Yale

Denvir, B. 1990. The Thames and Hudson Encyclopaedia of Impressionism. London: Thames and Hudson.

Sweeny, J.J. 1996. Post-Impressionism. Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia,… [read more]

Art of Collage Research Paper

… Art of Collage

Collage refers to the art of expression that is created by pasting a variety of materials on a given surface. A collage artist may use materials such paper, sand, wood among other materials on a surface to… [read more]

Nineteenth Century Painting and Photography Essay

… The colors of his palette are dark hues, depicting a more severe and melancholy mood in order to portray the religiousness of the locals. The brushwork is soft, a contrast to the severity of the colors.

4. Vincent Van Gogh's Harvest A La Crau

Vincent Van Gogh is a well-renowned artist, whose brush strokes and vivid painting techniques is known throughout the world. Van Gogh's later influences include Japanese prints, as well as impressionism and neo-impressionism. In his visit to Arles, located in the south of France, Van Gogh was inspired by the light and the scenery, and he produced numerous paintings with the countryside as a subject.

Chief in this depiction are his pieces on The Harvest, or Harvest a la Crau (1888), which focused on the wheatfields in Arles. To execute his particular aesthetics in the design of the painting, Van Gogh used a reed pen which allowed him to create strong lines within the painting. The reed pen also gave him use of dots, hatches, and the famous curlicues that he was so fond of incorporating in his works. The painting itself depicts peasant life in the countryside, with figures of the farmers and their labors in the distance.

Works Cited

"Depicting the Harvest." Van Gogh Museum. 2005. Web. Retrieved 17 June 2011. .

"Paul Cezanne Biography." Paul Cezanne -- The Complete Works. 2002. Web. Retrieved 17 June 2011. .

Acoustiguide Inc. "Montagne Sainte-Victoire Seen from Les Lauves." Philadelphia Museum of Art, 2006. Transcript.

Bretell, Richard. "An in-depth look at the making and meaning of Seurat's A Sunday on La Grande Jatte -- 1884, 1884-86. French Impressionists. Chicago: The Art Institute of Chicago and New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1987, p. 89-90.

McKenzie, Janet. "Gauguin's Vision." Studio International -- Visual Art, Design and Architecture. 2005. Web. Retrieved 17 June 2011.


National Gallery of Art Micro Gallery. "A concise biography about Seurat's life and work." Micro Gallery -- National Gallery of Art. Online Content. Washington, D.C. 2004. Retrieved 17 June 2011. .

Pickvance, Ronald. Van Gogh in Arles. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Harry N. Abrams, 1984. Web. Retrieved 17 June 2011. . [read more]

Arts the American Poet Term Paper

… One cannot address seeming irrelevancy in Ashbery's fashion because, as Eco defines it, "the more improbable, ambiguous, unpredictable and disordered the structure, the greater the information" (93). In other words, the less a work relies on a formal structure (which to a certain degree must streamline and encompass a message which does not disrupt the overall formality) the more "information" it contains in Eco's sense -- while at the same time, the more opportunity it offers for "favor[ing] the curious over the informed mind" as Huberman would prefer.

But what would it mean if, employing Eco's definitions, we consider again Huberman's claim that "art that stops information is art that creates space for a viewer to experience it." Huberman's own language captures certain conceptual prejudices at work in his most basic definition of art (if not of information): art, as he describes it, requires a spatial relationship with its intended audience ("creates space") and understands that audience's relationship to the work as visual ("viewer") while at the same time specifying that art is raised above the level of a mere object by providing something to "experience." In other words, he is already conceding more to the notion that art offers a performance rather than an artifact. Again, this is hardly novel, and in the mid-nineteenth century Walter Pater had already claimed that all art aspires to the condition of music, i.e., form without content. Yet it is worth noting that music is not only an art in itself that requires performance, it is also of necessity an art that chiefly organizes itself in the fourth dimension (and in the third only through its players). Yet music also fits Eco's requirement that the "information" contained in a work of art is "not the kind of information that enriches one's knowledge of the concepts to which it refers, but rather a kind of aesthetic information that rests on formal values" (Eco 94). Ultimately, though, it would be impossible for a work of art to successfully resist what Eco defines as "information" -- as a result, the issue highlighted by Huberman seems to be best characterized as a suggested relationality between the art and the viewer, rather than as an actual intellectual stance. But there is no reason to banish information from a work of art in order to maintain the lively and curious stance that Huberman valorizes.

Works Cited

Ashbery, John. "Soonest Mended." In Selected Poems (New York: Viking, 1987). Print.

Eco, Umberto. "The Open Work in the Visual Arts."

Huberman, Anthony. "Naive… [read more]

Arts in "The Berlin Key Term Paper

… " Menard is, to some extent, a parody of those writers obsessed with "originality" and with various imaginary bugbears that have been posited in literary criticism, such as the "anxiety of influence," which holds that artists create out of a… [read more]

Funding or Defunding in the Arts Term Paper

… Funding or Defunding the Arts

Recommendations on a Proposal to Defund the Arts

This report considers the recent proposal in the House of Representatives to eradicate federal funding for the arts. This proposal cannot be taken lightly, considering that such… [read more]

Umlauf, the Torchbearers the Mannerist Term Paper

… The faces in particular render this sort of distortion of features, and look chiseled and allegorical, with inhuman expressions rendered in a deliberately masklike fashion. These aspects obviously single out Umlauf as a twentieth century sculptor, who has benefited from twentieth century modernist art's fascination with all things naive and primitive. The ribcages of the statues are where the distortion becomes most salient: when we view the meaty exposed ribs on each figure, we realize that the contrast is being heightened for effect, and in order to give the figure a more heightened appearance. Both figures also have their faces angled away from the viewer, inviting us to look upward too at the torch rather than considering their faces, which are rendered not with any particular subtlety but instead designed to look half-abstracted, like store mannequins. To a certain extent, all of these aesthetic choices represent a use of the realistic styles of the high Renaissance with the purpose of manipulating them for effect. This is more or less the textbook definition of Mannerism in the late Renaissance; to some degree, anybody intending to do this sort of classically influenced sculpture in the twentieth century is necessarily a latter-day Mannerist. Umlauf is no exception. [read more]

Art Nick Cave's Exhibition at the Seattle Term Paper

… Art

Nick Cave's exhibition at the Seattle Art Museum blends childlike passion with art and fashion. The "Meet Me at the Center of the Earth" exhibit is characterized by its whimsy and is evocative of Sesame Street. Yet viewed in their three-dimensional delight, Nick Cave's "sound suits" truly are art in motion.

Cave calls his pieces "sound suits," but they are more than that: they are multitextural and multisensory. In fact, the colors and the textures are the most immediately outstanding features of the spacey sound suits. All of them are vivid; not one is dull, drab, or depressing. The overall mood of the viewer is elevated, without Cave asking for metaphysical inquiry or deep philosophical analysis. There is no underlying social commentary or political power. Nick Cave's sound suits are pure art, entertainment, and fun. They are the embodiment of joy, laughter embodied in wearable art.

Perhaps there is more to what meets the eye, however. Nick Cave's suits are so preposterous as costumes that the viewer certainly can contemplate the artist's underlying intention. Cave is not trying to shock the viewer. None of the pieces are sexual or controversial in any way. Cave is trying to mirror the childlike wonder each viewer has within, before it was washed away by the quest for money, power, and prestige. Cave asks the viewer to recall the days of Sesame Street, when all the world was about coloring, playing, and having fun. The adult feels a sense of nostalgia when viewing "Meet Me at the Center of the Earth."

The title of the exhibition evokes J.R.R. Tolkein plus Jules Verne, both of whom invite the reader into a fantasy world. What makes "Meet Me at the Center of the Earth" different from the science fiction and middle earth realities, though, is the essentially lightheartedness of the exhibition. Also, the title includes the phrase "meet me," which suggests collaboration, working… [read more]

Art Practice and Exhibition Essay

… ¶ … art practice and exhibition-making often seemed to challenge the 'white cube' as norm for exhibiting contemporary art in recent years?

The purpose of the present paper is to explain how and why art practice and exhibition making have… [read more]

Art Appreciation Essay

… Art Appreciation

Title of Exhibition: "Outdoor Colors"

Dates of Exhibition: Summertime 2011

Location: Central Park, New York City

Pierre-August Renoir

Luncheon of the Boating Party, (1881)

Georges Seurat

An Afternoon at La Grande Jatte (1884-1885)

Henri Matisse

View of Collioure… [read more]

Gustav Klimt Golden Years and Byzantine Influence Essay

… ¶ … Gustav Klimt's paintings show Byzantine influence in particular the following four produced during his Golden era: The golden knight, the tree of life, the kiss and the portrait of Adele Bloch -Bauer I. Given that Klimt originated from… [read more]

History of Western Art Essay

… History Of Western Art

Discuss the hidden, and not-so-hidden, symbols in Campin's Merode Altarpiece, Van Eyck's Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife, or Hugo's Portinari Altarpiece. Online research may help you uncover more layers of meaning.

Campin's Merode Altrapiece… [read more]

Italian and Northern Renaissance Art Essay

… Italian and Northern Renaissance Art

By the late 1400s, the artists of the Italian Renaissance and those of the Northern Renaissance have come to influence each other, with their subjects and their methods. The two works to be discussed below are, respectively, inspired by the old mythical beliefs of a civilization, and the beliefs of a greatly influential religion.

Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510)

Birth of Venus, c. 1484-1486, Italy, Tempera on canvas, 5'8" x 9'1"

The Italian Renaissance gave birth to Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510) and his Birth of Venus, a painting that depicted the Roman goddess Venus landing on the shore, a flurry of angelic beings ready to wait on her and celebrate her arrival. Located in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, it is artwork inspired by the "Venus Anadyomene" motif -- one involving the rise of Aphrodite from the oceans. Like Durer's work, Botticelli's pieces hinged on a theme; in his case, before the Bonfire of the Vanities, this theme focused on the pagan images of the past. Most of Botticelli's early Renaissance work involves the fantasy-like figures of mythical subjects. Later on, however, Botticelli would have changed his tune to a more Christian heading, under his friendship with Savonarola. A Christian heading that Durer would undoubtedly use for his own inspirations.

Albrecht Durer (1471-1528)

Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, c. 1498, Germany, Woodcut, 1'1 ae" x 11"

Albrecht Durer was one of the more celebrated men of the Northern Renaissance. Prior to his visits in Italy, Durer had already gained much renown for his wood engravings. One of which was his Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, which was… [read more]

Art Gustav Klimt Research Proposal

… In "The Golden Knight," the mood is stark and austere. No sexuality is depicted in "The Golden Knight," except that which is cov ert in the symbolism of the horse. Moreover, the absolute, artificial erectness of the rider is an allusion to male sexuality as the horse is poised for action.

Sexuality becomes a more notable theme in later golden period paintings by Klimt. For example, in 1907, Klimt exhibits an extravagant use of gold not as a means of glorifying God as the Byzantine artists would have, but to display wealth ostentatiously. The Bourgeois woman in the portrait is ironically taking the place of Mary, as Adele Bloch-Bauer has no child in her arms. She is the new, modern form of the Madonna. Gold is depicting her obvious wealth. Mosaic technique includes Eastern motifs such as the evil eyes that adorn Bloch-Bauer's dress.

In 1908, Klimt completed one of his masterpieces, "The Kiss." In "The Kiss," sexuality is the main motif, as the couple is embraced tightly so that their bodies are one. Totally entwined, the bodies form a phallic symbol. The image is not about courting but about lust and sex. The mosaic-like effect and the gold are formal techniques and have no thematic allusion to Christianity.

On the other hand, in Klimt's 1909 "Tree of Life," a religious symbol is revealed in its mundane as well as its spiritual glory. The tree of life connects heaven to earth and is also a symbol of fertility: of mind, body, and soul. On the left of the tree is an Eastern woman who gazes dispassionately at a couple locked in an embrace almost identical to the one depicted in "The Kiss." Here, Klimt alludes to his own work as well as to the Byzantine art from which he drew. The primary sources used for this research include the Ravenna mosaics and Klimt's paintings, and secondary sources… [read more]

Art Museum Review Essay

… Art Museum Review

The George Eastman House International Museum of Photography & Film in Rochester, New York holds its place in visual history with the exhibition of photographs. The current exhibits of the museum includes "Cameras from the Technology Collection," a retrospective of camera technology from the first Kodak camera to the Brownie, a later model; "Taking Aim: Unforgettable Rock 'n' Roll Photographs Selected by Graham Nash," a retrospective of 100 photographs in pop music, chosen by Crosby, Stills & Nash's musician, Graham Nash, and "Sweet Creations: Gingerbread House Display," which is a baker's delight, featuring exhibitions produced by bakers, community groups and families (George Eastman House, 3).

The Museum had previously exhibited photographs by the Oscar-winning actress, Jessica Lange, 33 images from her travels to Ethiopia and Romania (George Eastman Kodak, 4). They have also exhibited the idea of "What We're Collecting Now: Art/Not Art," which explores different modes of photography and its processes. With this, Eastman has shown its collections for the past five years. The themes are organized by students of an Eastman House/Ryerson University program, which studies the preservation and collection of photographs (George Eastman Kodak, 6).

The George Eastman House, which opened to the public in 1949, is a nonprofit museum that holds hundreds of items in its possession. George Eastman, its legacy, is considered the father of modern photography and motion picture (George Eastman Kodak, 5). The House is interested in preserving his legacy, as well as preserving the integrity of the photographic arts.

In similar fashion, the Art Institute of Chicago holds photography in its collection, but also, many of its current exhibitions include an eclectic mix of still life, films, prints and paintings (Art Institute of Chicago, 1).

One striking exhibition in its collection is part of "Richard Hawkins? -- Third Mind," the collage, Dragonfly 2, 2009 (Art Institute of Chicago, 2), which will be on exhibit until January 16, 2011. The collage has a… [read more]

Michelangelo and the L'antico Research Paper

… Michelangelo and Antiquities

Michelangelo and the L'antico

The preservation of antiquities plays an important role for humans. They connect us with out past and remind us of who we were, who we are today, and how we got where we… [read more]

Art Therapy a Form Essay

… Although this final approach to art therapy provides the most comprehensive means of employing art therapy as a psychotherapeutic treatment, Schaverien believed that art on its own provides too limited a means of achieving theoretical justification for the practice of art therapy as a form of psychotherapy (Karkou & Sanderson, 2006).

Schaverien recognized the value of art as an important component to therapeutic research as art therapy is the only form of therapy that results in a series of tangible, lasting objects created by the patient (Schaverien, 1993). This understanding is evident in Schaverien's interest in research investigations exploring the therapeutic application of art and the examination of aspects of art therapy and art psychotherapy. Schaverien (1993) explains two reasons why art is an important component to therapeutic research. The first reason is that the artwork created by the client provides a record of the client's experience in the therapy session, and it may act as an aid for the memory of the therapist when reviewing the session at a later time. The second reason why art is important for therapeutical research is that the artwork provides a means of review, allowing for the observation of progress or change within the client over time. The artwork may provide a deeper understanding of the evolving relationship between the client and the therapist, and it is beneficial for retrospective analysis (Schaverien, 1993).

Although definitions of art therapy differ among certain theorists, art has been considered an important part of the therapeutic process for the past several decades. The exploration of whether art therapy is a form of psychotherapy can take many paths, all of which hold certain credit and validity. Two of the earliest pioneers in the field of art therapy held very differing opinions as to where art therapy fit in as a psychotherapeutic modality. Hill believed in the therapeutic value of artistic creation and that art therapy promised tremendous therapeutic effects in the treatment of psychological issues and disorders (Hogan, 2001). Champernowne, on the other hand, believed in a clear distinction and separation between art therapy and psychotherapy, suggesting that art therapy was an adjunct to psychotherapy (Waller, 1991). However, a different perspective was forwarded by Schaverien, who proposed that the field of art therapy contained in fact three different types of therapy, not all of which could be considered as psychotherapy (Karkou & Sanderson, 2006). All three of these figures in the art therapy field offer conceptions that could be supported depending on the perspective taken. Schaverien's view seems to be the most comprehensive, as it is the most modern and takes several years of research and thought on the subject into account. Moreover, a commonality between these different perspectives is an appreciation of the important role artistic creation can play in therapy.


Case C. & Dalley, T. (Eds.) (1992). The Handbook of Art Therapy. London: Tavistock / Routledge.

Edwards, D. (2004). Art Therapy. London: Sage.

Hogan, S. (2001). Healing Arts: The History of Art Therapy. London: Jessica… [read more]

Painting the Magic Circle Research Paper

… ¶ … painting "The Magic Circle" by John James Waterhouse. Specifically, it will discuss the painting, which is a pre-Raphael style oil on canvas, located in the Tate Gallery in London, painted in 1886. This supernatural painting is one of several Waterhouse painted in the late nineteenth century, and despite their rather odd theme, they were well received by the population, which is why the Tate Gallery bought the painting after its debut.

This painting is deceptively simply, until you take a closer look. It is much more than a sorceress commanding a spell. The difference is in the details, such as the seven ravens (a magical number) watching the spell, or the background, which reminds many of the desert and Egyptian tombs. The sorceress draws a fiery circle in the sand, and wears herbs on her belt, another sign of magic. She draws her spell out of the fire, drawing it up into the night sky, indicating her power over the forces she manages. Even more telling is the snake wrapped around her neck, which indicates her power over the forces of nature. The setting is dramatic, and the colors reflect that. The background and foreground are muted, sandy shades; it is the sorceress and her spell that command the scene. Her dress is a muted blue with Egyptian motifs and dark accents, almost rust or burnt ember in nature. The fire embers burn red and white hot, while the brass container glows with the power of the spell that rises from it. The spell itself is white smoke, rising far past the sorceress into the sky and right out of the painting. The overall size of the painting (roughly 50 inches by 72 inches) indicates the power and force of the ritual and it echoes this theme from several other of Waterhouse's paintings.

This impressionist painting is successful for several reasons. It gains the attention of the viewer at once, and it urges the viewer to look closer to seek out all the details of the work. It looks simple at first, but the more you view it,… [read more]

Paleolithic Art Essay

… Paleolithic Art

A great deal of individuals considers the Upper Paleolithic period to be responsible for the evolution from animal to man. Even though there is little to no evidence to determine the moments when man first used fire or… [read more]

Art History of the 21st Century Essay

… Art History & the 21st Century

French writer Charles Peguy commented in 1913 that, "the world has changed less since the time of Jesus Christ than it has in the last thirty years"

.This was the beginning of modernism, a… [read more]

History of Architecture Essay

… Art Nouveau: Art, Architecture and Its Effect on Daily Life

In all of its interpretations, Art Nouveau constituted a movement in the arts and architecture that marked a clear departure from the Victorian style popular at the tail-end of the… [read more]

Sistine Chapel Research Paper

… Sistine Chapel

In the year 1506, Pope Julius the Second approached Michelangelo Buonarroti and commissioned him to paint the Pope's private chapel, the Sistine Chapel. Although Michelangelo was not much interested in this assignment, he reluctantly gave in. From 1508… [read more]

African Art Term Paper

… In terms of painting, this sometimes takes on an utilitarian dimension, with painted houses or cloth.

Many elements of African Art are also interconnected with a common denominator, that of performance art. For example, dancing is quite often a significant part of African Art, but this usually comes associates with special dancing clothes and dancing masks, which are often properly decorated to receive the embodiment of what they are supposed to represent (quite often, the dancing may be associated to a ritual or a religious ceremony and the art objects in the ceremony will reflect this).

As dancing masks have been mentioned in the previous paragraph, it is necessary to go into more detail in terms of the importance of the mask in African Art as one of the most common artistic representations on the continent. The masks are part of rituals that go a wide spectrum, covering anything from religious ceremonies to war ceremonies to communicating with ancestors. As already mentioned, there is usually a ritual dance involved, during which the communion with ancestors is ensured, as well as, occasionally, a moment of reflection on future events. The masks themselves are often adorned with shells or other decorations, as well as occasional paintings.

African Art has also been influential for some of the modern art, especially the Western developments in art. Western artists are often willing to adopt patterns, ideas or ornamentations from African Art in their attempt to express their artistic perception.


1. Monica Blackmun Visona et al. History of Art in Africa. Prentice Hall, New York. (2001)

2. Gluckman, Jason "Ancient African Art." Ancient African Art. 7 Jan. 2007 4 Dec. 2009 .

3. Blier, Suzanne. Africa, Art, and History: An Introduction. In A History of Art… [read more]

Art Field Trip Observation Thesis

… ¶ … walked through the Denver Art Museum, several pieces caught my eye. Not many other patrons were in the museum, as it was late on a weekday. I had many rooms of the gallery all to myself. The array of work was almost overwhelming, as the museum contains collections from different cultures and eras. One piece in particular stuck in my head, a painting by American artist Kerry James Marshall. I had never heard of Marshall before now. The painting, "Better Homes, Better Gardens" sits stoically on a wall in the contemporary art wing of the DAM.

What initially captivated me was the subject matter. Rather than having to search for what Marshall was trying to say, it was immediately apparent that "Better Homes, Better Gardens" comments on racial inequity and justice in America. At the same time, there is something inherently uplifting about Marshall's piece. The painting is mixed with collage on canvas. The work dates to 1994, and is 100 by 142 inches.

"Better Homes, Better Gardens" is written on a ribbon that straddles the feet of an African-American heterosexual couple.… [read more]

Abstraction Challenges the Notion That Art Research Proposal

… Abstraction challenges the notion that art should be representational. Not all art represents a recognizable object, such as a landscape or a still life. Art that is non-representational is generally referred to as abstract. However, some abstract art may contain recognizable objects and elements that are arranged in unconventional ways. For example, American painter Georgia O'Keefe transformed the familiar world of flowers into abstract art with works like "Jack in the Pulpit." From 1930, the painting exhibits rich, saturated desert hues. Although the image is not immediately recognizable as a flower, the swirls and the central stamen do suggest that O'Keefe worked from a flower and deconstructed its form for the viewer.

Artists like O'Keefe returned to abstraction because of the flexibility it offered. The flower then takes on much more meaning than it would have if O'Keefe represented it formally. As "Jack in the Pulpit," the flower is a series of colors and forms on the canvas. On the very basic level, an abstract work of… [read more]

Art From Three Different Cultures Term Paper

… The museum Web site note, "As was customary during the Third Intermediate period, her coffins and boxes of shawabtis were accompanied by a hollow wooden Osiris figure, which contained a papyrus scroll inscribed with a collection of texts called the… [read more]

Fauve Painting Matisse Essay

… Henri Matisse: Art Is Life

Henri Matisse is perhaps the most popular of the Fauve painters. Fauve painters were independent from any other schools of thought and were consumed with working with vibrant color and simple designs. Influenced by non-European cultures, the Fauve movement was rather short-lived but significant in the art world. Unexpected shapes and colors reveal not only a new way of looking at things but a new way of expressing them as well. Words to describe this movement are spontaneous and verve. Color becomes the defining characteristic in most Fauve paintings, with artists embarking on journeys unencumbered to express themselves with brilliant color. Matisse, like any other artist, grew and developed over time and while many artists eventually abandoned the Fauve movement, Matisse remained loyal to the general foundation of vibrant color and expressive shapes. Two paintings that reveal how Matisse's style changed over the years are the Open Window, Collioure and the Dance. These paintings illustrate how art, like artists, evolve over time.

Fauve paintings are recognized by their vibrant, unmixed colors. In addition to this, shapes are not conventional; instead, they are rather simple and defined by broad-brush strokes. The result of these types of design reveals a sense of spontaneity and vitality. The Open Window, Collioure represents this new tradition. The piece is considered a modernist by some but it is no doubt one of the forerunners in the Fauve movement. In "Notes" Matisse speaks about his painting style. He writes:

The chief function of color should be to serve expression as well as possible. I put down my tones without a preconceived plan. If at first . . . one tone has particularly seduced or caught me . . . I will notice that I have respected this tone while I progressively altered and transformed all the others. The expressive aspect of colors imposes itself on me in a purely instinctive way" (Matisse qtd. In Flam 41).

Here we see a liberal use of color. The sea, the sails, the window, and the walls all have distinctive color. Matisse maintains, "My choice of colors does not rest on any scientific theory; it is based on observation, on sensitivity, on felt experiences" (42). While this painting explores the Fauve experience, it is also worth noting that there are no people in this particular piece of art.

After 1908, Matisse was still open to exploring with color and lines. His travels influenced his style and while he remained true to his Fauve foundation, his art matured in that it became more human. In other words,… [read more]

Changing: A Look at the Italian Renaissance Thesis

… ¶ … Changing:

A Look at the Italian Renaissance

The objective of this project is to look into the artists of the Renaissance and understand their influence of their art on the world. Most artists are unaware that they are… [read more]

Nude a Critical History Essay

… Nude

Religion influenced the artistic manifestations of the human kind since its early ages. During the medieval and Renaissance times, the art in the Western world was particularly influenced by religion. The ancient works of art used the nude extensively as an artistic expression. Christianity and Christian philosophers brought new meanings of the concept of nakedness which were reflected in the works of art. According to St. Augustine, the need to cover their genitalia felt by the first people, Adam and Eve, after having eaten from the tree of goo and evil signified the loss of freedom for the humankind. Humanity became subject to its lust, coming from the uncontrollable desire that replaced the complete freedom of acting upon its own will and not as a result of its urges. Deeply influenced by the teachings and writings of St. Augustine, the western world started to depict the human body in its naked form only as an expression of the regained freedom from the fleshly uncontrollable instincts. However, figures that are completely nude are rarely to be encountered in the medieval art. Jesus on the cross is among the few figures that were depicted almost naked, displaying only loincloth.

When the antiquity was revived during the renaissance period, the nude as an artistic expression regained its value in art. The process was however subjected to the norms and beliefs of the western society that was deeply influenced by Christianity. Understanding the importance of anatomy, Michelangelo started to study the human body in order to be able to render its beauty in his sculptures and paintings. More and more artists became aware of the role the human body played in their art. The revived examples of the Greeks and the Romans and their depiction of the beauty of the human form influenced the art in the renaissance forever. The advancement of the sciences and the conquests of the technology made the world of art become aware of new forms of artistic expression. "Artists such as Leonardo are reputed to have dissected bodies in order to understand their musculature better" ("Understanding Paintings," 106).

During the Hellenistic… [read more]

How Chinese Landscape Painting Differs From Western Essay

… Art

Landscapes East and West

One of the most subtle yet most profound differences between Western and Eastern culture -- specifically, Chinese culture -- occurs in the different values and techniques applied to visual arts. The art of a culture speaks volumes as to the values, beliefs, and perspective of the culture as a whole, reflecting the culture of a given moment not only in the frozen image or scene that a work depicts, but in the techniques and styles used to create it. Interestingly, there are also some commonalities in the artworks created by seemingly disparate cultures that reveal the underlying humanity that is present in all cultures and all works of art. Landscapes were commonly painted by the great artistic masters of both Chinese culture and later Western painting, though the Chinese had been practicing such meditative scenes for millennia before it became the subject of Western art. A comparison between two of the great landscape works produced by each culture reveals both the similarities and differences in their styles.

Fan Kuan's "Travelers among the Mountains and Streams," painted sometime in the early eleventh century CE, is a classic example of a Chinese landscape. The title is somewhat ironic, as the travelers that are the supposed subject of the painting are incredibly overshadowed by the mountains themselves. There is an extreme use of vertical line in the painting, with the mountain appearing as a pillar of rock that takes up most of the painting. Near the mountain's base, the horizontal lines of the mist layer and the path beneath both serve to break up the painting to some degree, but the overall effect is the dominance of nature over the rather insignificant and seemingly futile efforts of mankind. Kuan's use of shadow is used to create the illusion of three-dimensionality, but the lack of color and… [read more]

Arts Management the Evolution Essay

… Arts Management

The Evolution of Arts and Cultural Districts

For decades now the process know as gentrification is often the end result of the creation of Cultural districts created b artist willing to live in substandard conditions as they work… [read more]

Art Nouveau Symbolism Is an Important Thought Essay

… Art Nouveau

Symbolism is an important thought movement that occurred in the nineteenth century as a reaction against naturalism and realism which focused on accepting reality and praising it just as it is, in its harshest aspects. Symbolism was to… [read more]

Winged Figures in Religious Art Research Proposal

… Winged Figures in Religious Art

Symbolism in religious art plays an important role of epistemology as well as ontology and functionally symbolism works to hide truth and as well functions likewise in revealing the unknown. Animal parts such as the… [read more]

Two Works of Art From a Museum Thesis

… Art

Botticelli's Madonna and Child with an Angel

Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi, who is far better known as Sandro Botticelli, painted a large number of renditions of the Madonna and Child, many of them with angels appearing in the scene… [read more]

Early Islamic Art Essay

… ¶ … Islamic art: Glorification of God and the Qur'an

Islamic art is perhaps the most accessible expression of a complex civilization that often seems enigmatic to outsiders," writes Los Angeles museum curator Linda Komaroff (Komaroff, 2007, Introduction). The term 'Islamic art' is used broadly to refer to art produced in nations where Islam is the dominant cultural force, as well as art that is created in the service of Islam all over the world. "As it is not only a religion but a way of life, Islam fostered the development of a distinctive culture with its own unique artistic language that is reflected in art and architecture throughout the Muslim world" (the nature of Islamic art, 2001, October, Heilbrunn timeline of art history).

In Islamic art, more so than in other art traditions, calligraphy has a great and sacred significance. "It has always been considered the noblest form of art because of its association with the Qur'an, the Muslim holy book, which is written in Arabic," in contrast to Western art, in which painting and sculpture predominate in the cannons of what is considered great art (Komaroff, 2007, Introduction). Producing calligraphy was laden with spiritual significance -- producing the art was a religious act, not simply the creation of a religious artifact. Early Qur'ans, were generally written in black or dark brown ink, with short vowels indicated by red, green, or gold dots, and diacritical marks distinguishing certain consonants by diagonal strokes. "Gold illumination sometimes signaled the beginning of each chapter, and gold medallions were often used to denote groups of five or ten verses" on parchment, the preferred material for Qur'ans (Komaroff, 2007, Early Islamic art). The artistic significance of the word cannot be underestimated in Islam: "Qur'anic verses embellish mosques, palaces and homes, businesses, and, in some places, public areas" (Siddiqui 2009).

Illuminated manuscripts, textiles, metalwork, glass, ceramics, and carved wood and stone have equal importance as painting and sculpture in early Islamic art. This means that sometimes Western scholars have had difficulty appreciating Islamic art in its cultural context. Additionally, most of the textiles that are now extant come from graves, given the fragility of this type of art, and useful handicrafts often do not weather time and… [read more]

Orlando Museum Art Analysis: The Young Artist Research Proposal

… ¶ … Orlando Museum

Art analysis: The Young Artist by Thomas Mickell Burnham

At the Orlando Museum of Art, in the American collection there is oil-on-canvas (25 x 30 in) provocatively entitled the Young Artist by Thomas Mickell Burnham. The title of this work might seem to suggest the painting is of some aspiring, tormented artist, and perhaps a similar work authored in 1840 in Europe might have this image. Instead, the title is deeply ironic. The realistic work depicts a rustic scene, with a young Caucasian boy drawing a picture on a beer barrel while an old woman looks over her small cottage door, several other boys look on, and an African-American child of the same age as the 'artist' also watches. The African-American child wears an oversized coat and a red rag wound on his head and the other boys wear various types of suits and jackets typical of young boys of the period. The friends, like the artist, do not look working-class or upper class.

In terms of dress, the African-American child looks more 'foreign' than the other boys, although he smiles like the other children. The old, grandmother like-figure looks more pensive, but does not stop the 'artist.' The overall atmosphere of the scene is one of a kind of picturesque setting and seems to mock artistic aspirations on a grand scale, instead suggesting a more humble theme. Even graffiti on a beer barrel can be art. There are resonances with Tom Sawyer, in the depiction, although the African-American figure is not 'stereotyped' in his expression like a Southern scene might be, even though the young child is dressed differently.

Burnham was not a Southerner -- rather he was born in Boston. He is called a representative of the early American folk art movement, and is most famous for a painting called the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Viewed in the context of his larger career, the work can be seen as ironic commentary on what constitutes 'great art' -- American great artists are humble in contrast to European artists, and of the people. They do rough art out in the open, but the art they do has value and provides… [read more]

Pop Art Essay

… Pop Art

David Hockney

I am for art that comes in a can or washes up on shore..."

David Hockney didn't wash up on shore, but he is one of the most important and most celebrated contributor's to the Pop… [read more]

Art Nouveau Movement in America Essay

… Art Nouveau Movement in America

One of the most important breakthroughs in architecture was the Art Nouveau movement, present in Europe and across the world starting with 1890 and making its impact on art and culture until the first decade of the 20th century. The importance of the Art Nouveau current made it significant not only in architecture, but in connected areas such as interior design, furniture etc.

According to different sources, the origins of the Art Nouveau current date back to William Morris and his resistance to the Victorian currents and tendencies that did not allow the artist to freely express himself and kept him within certain strict norms. Floral and vegetal patterns, as well as a strong influence from Japanese artists of the 18th century, renowned for their woodwork, were the first tendencies in the Art Nouveau movement.

Probably the central motive of the Art Nouveau current, as encompassed by the influences previously mentioned, was the curve, in all its different forms and expressions. The idea of the curve was that it could properly give a flowing perspective to the idea expressed and work with the flowing line in all possible ways. The curve became parabolas or hyperbolas in architecture and various flowing patterns in painting and drawing. It very much contributed to a limitless circular expression of the artistic individual.

At the same time, the Art Nouveau movement was a total breakaway from classical rules and impositions, which meant that, usually, Art Nouveau became a way of life as well as an artistic expression. It was not only a new art, but also a new way of living and a new perspective of life, encouraging freedom of expression and of the individual.

Art in the 1990s is probably heavily influences by the Internet… [read more]

Medici Family and the Renaissance Art Essay

… Medici Family and the Renaissance Art

Italian Renaissance was a period of extreme flourish for all the arts as well as for culture itself. It is often considered to be a period of increased awareness and illumination by comparison with… [read more]

Development and Characteristics of Pop Art Thesis

… ¶ … pop art does not refer to a specific style of work as much as it does to its social and chronological context. However, the evolution of pop art in the United States and Europe reveals some aesthetic patterns and trends distinguishing pop art from other genres. The term pop art first came into use during the 1950s, when Lawrence Alloway noted that the visual arts became increasingly reflective of consumer and popular culture ("Le Pop Art"). One of the defining features of pop art would become its satirical or ironic perspective on popular culture. Osterwold also notes that pop art represented an unprescedented confluence of life and art (p. 6).

Perhaps nowhere is the confluence of life and art more noticeable than in the works of Andy Warhol and especially in his paintings of American consumer products like the Campell's soup cans. What makes Warhol's message so powerful is not only the exploitation of consumer goods but also the methods by which the artist produced his works. Warhol used mass production techniques like silk screening to mimic the mass production of consumer… [read more]

Golden Age the Art Scene in Paris 1800-1920 Essay

… Golden Age: The Art Scene in Paris, 1800-1920

The 'Golden Age' of Paris was a time in which all manners and forms of artistic expression and this includes architectural, theatrical and in the form of paintings and sketch. One most interesting sketch is reported in the work of Alan Riding (1995) entitled: "Paris Tablecloth Sketches From a Gold Age of Art" and will be reviewed in this work.

Artists in Paris during the Golden Age of Art were self-driven and never idle painting when and wherever they could and passionately pursuing the calling of art.


The work of Vaananen (2002) relates that during the 1880's that Paris "was the undisputed center for art..." And it was during this time that Henri Rousseau painted in Paris. The work of Linda Lappin (2008) entitled: "Expat Salons in Paris: The Tradition Persists" states that during the golden age of Paris "cultural life revolved around cafes and salons. Of the latter, Gertrude Stein's afternoons were probably among the most famous. The company and conversation to be found at Stein's flat at Rue de Fleurus nurtured some of the world's greatest geniuses of the time: Picasso, Matisse, and Hemingway to name three." (Lappin, 2008) the artists would spend their time sitting around a cafe generally beginning their evening with a glass of wine and then some dinner followed by warm drinks containing liqueur.

During this period of art in Paris the general haunts of artists in Paris is affirmed in the work of Riding (1995) who states: "The sight of earnest young artists sketching away at sidewalk cafes may seem familiar enough, but even in Paris not many restaurants can claim to have inspired the likes of Picasso, Max Ernst, Alexander Calder, Jean Cocteau, Paul Valery, Paul Eluard and Balthus." (Riding, 1995)

However the drawings that were set to display at the Pavillon des Arts in the Paris district of Les Halles in " unusual exhibition called 'Jeux… [read more]

Egyptian Civilization Essay

… Egyptian Art

The Art of Egyptian Civilization

To understand the art of Egyptian civilization one must understand the historical context. The period of art discussed in this paper comes from what is termed the "New Kingdom" period, or that time… [read more]

Art Is to Leave My Mind Uncontaminated Term Paper

… ¶ … art is to leave my mind uncontaminated by theories. Theory can only inhibit spontaneous creation, inserting a barrier between me and my creativity." The idea of art theory and meaning has been debated for centuries. Art critics seem… [read more]

Art Myth and Revolt: Cy Twombly Term Paper

… ¶ … Art

Myth and Revolt: Cy Twombly, Anselm Kiefer, and Louise Bourgeois

This exhibition will feature the works of three of the most heroic names in contemporary art - Cy Twombly, Anselm Kiefer, and Louise Bourgeois. Each of these… [read more]

American Arts Term Paper

… OP art is a term that refers to visual art that makes use of optical illusions in its overall aesthetic effect. Other names for op art include geometrical abstraction, perceptual abstraction, and hard edge abstraction - although the name op… [read more]

American Arts Term Paper

… Art

Pop Art: An aesthetic and historical overview

An image of Marilyn Monroe, Elizabeth Taylor -- or simply the Campbell's Soup can. Repeated over and over again. Andy Warhol argued that through the witnessing of such repetition, which replicated yet… [read more]

Greek and Roman Term Paper

… Greek Sculpture

Evolving Ancient Greek representations of the Human Figure

Discuss the development of the human figure in Greek sculpture from the archaic period to Hellenistic period. Discuss specific works.

Over the course of Greek history, representations of the human figure grew increasingly naturalistic and emotive. They also grew more distinctively 'Greek,' or distinct from Egyptian or Mesopotamian figures. The earliest known period of extant Greek human figure representation is that of the archaic period of Greek art, usually said to date up to 489 BCE. The archaic period is known as the period of Kouroi design. These sculptures, designed around a series of straight lines and geometric shapes (as seen in the pelvic-like triangles typical of the period), seem similar to that of Egyptian hieroglyphics in their generic, mask-like nature and emotive range, although some art historians believe that the more mobile stance Greek statues of the classical era are hinted at in the kouroi's gestures and seeming impetus to walk, in contrast to the static, frozen nature of Egyptian paintings (Kerr 2008).

Both the male and female statues of this period usually have long, curling locks, thin lips, and stand, feet flat on the ground. The faces are almost expressionless. The gestures of these figures are standardized too, often portrayed with palms outstretched or with clenched figures, but never in kinesthetic motion. Although life size, they do not appear life-like. "The statues of Kleobis and Biton" are mentioned by the ancient Greek historian Herodotus" and are noted as coming "from the sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi" (Kerr 2008). Originally, scholars thought that these statues were all representations of the God Apollo because of their similarity, but now we know this not to be the case. "Kouroi" means an unbeareded (young) male youth, but there are many different types of these statues.

Even the archaic period showed a highly idealized form. In the case of the statues of the heroes Kleobis and Biton their "vacant stare and odd smile indicates that they are no longer subject to the flux of human emotion" (Kerr 2008). Their strength is revealed in their nudity, and their lack of expression shows they have entered the realm of the gods and heroes. This idealism manifest in sculpture grew even more pronounced during the classical era of Greece. A seismic shift occurred during the classical era of Greek sculpture. While figures… [read more]

Comparing Schwitter's Merzpicture to Rauschenberg's Dirt Painting Term Paper

… Schwitters & Rauschenberg

Schwitters's Merzpicture & Rauschenberg's Dirt Painting: A Comparative Analysis

Both Kurt Schwitters and Robert Rauschenberg are notable in the history of art for being artists who worked "against the grain" of the art establishment. It is highly… [read more]

Lucian Freud Term Paper

… Art

Lucian Freud

Lucian Freud's "The Painter's Etchings." is at the Museum of Modern Art. Freud's prints are very stark and interesting, which is why he has his reputation. He makes the people look real, but helpless, and even sad, sometimes. His prints are very detailed, and they show the insides of the people, as if he has made them comfortable enough to be who they really are. None of his etchings look happy though, and maybe this is because he does not see the world as a happy place. His reputation comes because he can make the people look like themselves, very real, but because his etchings are detailed and very graphic, too. They sometimes seem like cartoons, and so many people like them.

The etching I compare is "Garden in Winter." I choose this etching because it is different from the rest, and is not what you think of when you think of an etching, usually. Usually, his etchings are of people, but this is of a dramatic garden that is dark and empty in winter. This… [read more]

What Is Art? Term Paper

… Art can be defined as a reflection of our impressions and is thus a reflection of our experiences. Art is also something that a person creates simply for the purpose of enjoyment. In other words, it has no other value than the fact that it serves as art. It must be created and then it must have an audience. The creation of art is only the beginning of what art can be. The enjoyment of art includes all that art can become. In other words, art is more than a physical piece of work; art can also be defined as what it means to an audience. To thrive, art needs to be created and appreciated. While the definition of art is no doubt subjective, everyone can agree that art is necessary for one reason or another.

Tom Anderson describes in making art, the "imaginative body engages the physical body to carry out what is imagined" (Anderson). This is an interesting point-of-view and it captures the experience of art. The idea of creating something must come from somewhere and it is up to the artist to carry out that idea. From this perspective, art is important to the artist because it becomes a way of life and a way of dealing with life. However, the creation of art is only the beginning of things to come. Art is also important to the audience. While many people may think art is one-sided, they are not considering how it influences others. This is significant because without an audience, artists would have no one for whom to create. David Gelef states, "Art must have significant form; it must please aesthetically; it must - but art doesn't have to do anything, and we may never adequately pin down the essential or necessary conditions of art" (Gelef). This is an accurate description in that art may seem to be loosely defined but we always recognize it when we see it.

An example of art that endures is Michelangelo's statue of David. This piece of work has stood the test of time and has many admirers. One does not have to be an art expert to appreciate this piece of work. In fact, Anthony Hughes notes, "Michelangelo's reputation as a sculptor was established early and has rarely been questioned. Until the 20th century he was commonly regarded as the most important sculptor of the modern era. His work is idiosyncratic, of exceptional expressive power and of strikingly limited range" (Hughes). We see the "expressive power" in that the statue is so lifelike. From the details of David's face, hands, and feet to the expression in his eyes, we sense the magnitude of Michelangelo's talent with this piece. Because we do sense something when we look at the statue, we can know that we are looking… [read more]

MANET's Paris Edouard Term Paper

… Manet's Paris

Edouard Manet's Paris

While his later reputation would posit him as "king of the bohemians," Edouard Manet was actually born firmly within the ranks of the Parisian bourgeoisie in the first half of 1832. He was the son… [read more]

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