"Asian History / Asia" Essays

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Asian History Although the Great Civilizations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (966 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Asian History

Although the great civilizations of pre-modern China, Korea, and Japan borrowed from each other and came to share much in common, there is no more one East Asia than there is one Europe. To liken China, Korea, and Japan together under one common umbrella would be like lumping together all the diverse cultural groups of Europe. The East Asia rubric is a Western projection largely born of ignorance and bias and not of historical analysis. For one, the languages of these three countries are morphologically distinct. It is therefore impossible for a Korean, a Japanese, and a Chinese person to understand one another. If there were a common East Asian culture, then surely language would unite them. There are several meaningful ways in which Japan, Korea, and China have shared and borrowed from each other to create some core similarities in politics, social and intellectual life, religion, and artistic expression. Yet each act of borrowing did not lead to a subsequent act of assimilation. When Japan borrowed its Buddhist traditions from China, for example, it transformed them into what is a uniquely Japanese Buddhist heritage.

The distinctions between China, Korea, and Japan can be grouped into several categories including language, religion, art, politics, foreign affairs, and culture. Even when similarities are evident, they may be more related to a common human experience than to one unique only to East Asia. For example, gender relations and patriarchy is a common theme in most human societies and not just in the geographic region of East Asia.

The people of these three modern nations share common ancestry; prehistoric population migrations prove that point. However, all human beings ultimately stemmed from one root civilization that most likely evolved out of Africa. Population migrations from the same root Neolithic groups within Europe have not erased the distinctions between cultures there any more than they have in East Asia. Therefore, it is fair to say that Japan, Korea, and China are distinct cultures with distinct expressions of art, politics, and language.

Until the Mongol invasion, Korea and Japan had not developed as sophisticated a society as China did. This means that many of the features found in common between China, Korea, and Japan can be traced to earlier evolutions in China. For example, the Koreans borrowed the Chinese system of printing whereby characters were carved on wooden blocks and stamped. Koreans in the 12th century built upon the Chinese system to create "the first world's first metal moveable type," ("Hidden Korea"). Korea also took much from Chinese Buddhism as well as Confucianism in forming Korean philosophical and cultural traditions. Yet Korean kingdoms have thrived in distinction from their Chinese -- or their Japanese -- counterparts. Buddhism and Confucianism came to Korea and Japan via China but those philosophical traditions took on completely different forms because of pre-existing cultural nuances. The relative insularity and isolationist policies that characterized…… [read more]


East Asia Ideal and Reality Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,937 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

" Emperor Meiji's word, like Mao's, was law in the new territories -- but Meiji's word was rooted in revolution, not in the ways of old Japan: "All that Japan undertook in its colonies during the first quarter century of the empire was based on Meiji experience in domestic reform" (Schmid 957). The National Mobilization Law saw thousands of Koreans conscripted into the Japanese army in order to fight a foe that was almost indistinguishable from the one that now ruled over it. It was the Age of Empire in East Asia, and though the Empire had many faces, it was always ruled by the same clan -- international materialism. There was no need to set up a lasting model. Revolution was the rule, and wheel was constantly spinning. If the wheel stopped, a new power stepped in. In East Asia as in every nation across the globe, the old ways were being stomped out -- the old world replaced by a new unstable one, in which capital and resources reigned supreme -- and in which the law of the ancients, the way of Christ or Buddha or Confucius -- was repellant.

In conclusion, the new ideals, the new models, the new laws which various leaders attempted to establish in East Asia varied in terms of proximity to the "democratic" or "Marxist" ideal -- but the base of each was the same: a denial of the culture which these nations had long cherished. A corruption of forms, of method, of belief, of action each precipitated a new direction away from the old and towards the "new," whether the new were rooted in American hypocrisy or in European hypocrisy. It did not matter. Whether in Japan, China, Korea, Vietnam, Indochina or the Philippines, the ideals were phony, the models weak, the laws paralytic. The reality was that in the 20th century, East Asia suffered immensely because it abandoned the Old and opened its arms to the New.

Works Cited

De Bary, William T., ed. Sources of East Asian Tradition: Premodern Asia, Volume 1.

NY: Columbia University Press, 2008.

Fitzgerald C.P. "Religion and China's Cultural Revolution." Pacific Affairs, Vol. 40,

No. 1/2, 1967, pp. 124-129. Print.

Johnson, Paul. Modern Times. NY: HarperPerennial, 1992. Print.

Lu, David John. Japan: A Documentary History. NY M.E. Sharpe, 1997.

Schmid, A. "Colonialism and the 'Korea Problem' in the Historiography of Modern

Japan." Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 59, no. 4, 2000, pp. 951-976.

Stone, Oliver; Kuznick, Peter. The Untold History of the United States. NY: Gallery

Books, 2012.

Woodstock, George. "Literary Lines in China." Pacific Affairs, Vol. 40, No. 1/2,…… [read more]


Asian Studies Short Answer Questions. Most Theories Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,384 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

Asian Studies

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS.

Most theories of indianization seem to underestimate the receiver cultures and societies because of a more or less marked high culture-centrism by which Southeast Asian cultures and religions are measured in relation to the classical expressions of Indian religions. Pertaining to this high culture-bias, these theories of indianization are inadequate to be able to explain… [read more]


Traditional Southeast Asian Bamboo Flutes Studies on Origins and History Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  95 pages (28,549 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 23

SAMPLE TEXT:

Traditional Se Asian Bamboo Flutes: Studies on Origins and History

The study investigates the bamboo flutes found in Southeast Asia, as well as their history and origin. The earliest known extant bamboo flute, a chi, or ancient Chinese flute, from the Zhou Dynasty, discovered in the tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng, dates from 433 BC. Southeast Asian bamboo flutes,… [read more]


Power Conflict and the Making of Modern Asia Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,153 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Power, Conflict and the Making of Modern Asia

Power conflict and the making of modern Asia

The center of concern in international politics is yet to change as the Asian-pacific region is seen to become the new strategic center of interest. The transformation is of significant in the manner that the continent in the modern arena has subsisted to be… [read more]


Footbinding the Chinese Idea of Footbinding Emerged Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,376 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Footbinding

The Chinese idea of footbinding emerged during the 10th century and lasted for approximately one millennium, until 1911. Young girls were generally targeted with the purpose of imposing this custom on them and their social class or background in general were unimportant for the Chinese community. What is even more surprising is that their relatives participated in this process… [read more]


East/West an Analysis of Eastern Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,310 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

Chen goes on to lay out every single reference and cross-reference he can find in the film, linking the Guzheng assassins to The Six-Fingered Lord of the Lute; Landlady's "Lion's Roar" to Jin Yong's Heaven Sword and Dragon Sabre; and Sing's swollen lips to "Tony Leung Chiu-Wai's famous 'sausage lips' look from The Eagle Shooting Heroes."

Interestingly, Chow's influence is… [read more]


History of Japan. First Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,353 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Social, Political and Cultural Climate

As referenced above much of Buddhism in Japan comes from the influence of Korea and China. It is because of this social framework based on commerce that the religion took hold. "Buddhist monasteries themselves led in sponsoring trading ventures to China" (Reischauer, 56). This resulted in many great architectural beauties and statues of Buddha throughout the Kamakura region. Secondly, China was not culturally open minded to the Buddhist principle of Nirvana. The Japanese went through a philosophic reorientation embracing the religion with great appeal culturally because of this idea of Nirvana. Still this period of time was presented as "a picture of increasingly political disruption and confusion" (Reischauer 67). The shogunate collapsed because the warrior class has grown too much in size. The Chinese did not have such structural political problems as they were slightly more advanced. It was also during this time Japan's shogunates were transitioning from being knights to culturally educated men. With turmoil came social growth, as "the major monasteries became more than ever the chief havens of learning and centers of creative art" (Reischauer 70). Many of the knights became monks and adopted much Chinese influence in arts. Through the Chinese, they learned of new cultural trends such as the Zen garden and the art of playwriting. Slowly Buddhism was adopted by Shinto philosophers because of the religious intellectual vigor and impact involved (Reischauer 109).

Feudalism and the Marxist Model

Karl Marx used the term feudalism for political ends. In the 19th Century Karl Marx described feudalism as the economic situation focused on industry. coming before the inevitable rise of capitalism. For Marx, what defined feudalism was the military elite accumulating the surplus wealth of those under them by exploitation through military dominance. This was the definition of feudalism to Marx, a purely economic model.

The Marx Model of Feudalism does not apply to Japan during the Kamakura and Ashikaga Shogunates for the following reasons. Many scholars refer to Japan's feudalism as the "ghost empire" or the "barbarian frontier" (Hall 49). What makes Japan's feudalism different from Marx's model are three factors: 1) universal religion, 2) open market of commerce and 3) intellectual enlightenment. These are attributes of culture Marx did not value. Also because of these influences, the Japanese existed in different social classes. Marx believed all men were the same class. As a result his model would not have worked because it remains stagnant. "Japan entered a new phase of urban development along the lines which followed the rise of new religious or military centers and the new economic requirements of a decentralized feudal society" (Hall 171) in the twelfth century. This led to increased freedoms and economic growth while the Ashikaga Shogunate was failing. Marx believed that government controlled all. The merchant (economic) community became attached to centers of feudal authority but instead of becoming isolated, the communities flourished. The key was the feudal system controlled what people valued. It was because of an open market with the… [read more]


Japan Be Seen Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,568 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Japan and the ASEAN countries share a common cultural and religious heritage, therefore, any expansion and progression of the free market economy in the ASEAN countries would result in similar changes in society and social structure. Japan saw this progress as the coming Pacific era during Yasuhiro Nakasone's premiership who commented, 'Here the vigor and competitiveness of Western - particularly… [read more]


Economic Outlook of Asia Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (797 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

These efforts have started to pay dividends in Indonesia and India, as inflation is on a downward trend and the current account deficits in both countries are on a declining path" (Chapter 1, 2014: 17).

Of course, some nations have received negative press due to their political instability (most notably accusations against Pakistan for taking an insufficiently proactive stance against terrorism). China and India have in particular been cited as hotbeds of corruption which continue to make some foreign investors frustrated and wary. "In 2013, India ranked ninety-fourth out of 176 countries in Transparency International's Corruption Perception Index, alongside Mongolia and Colombia and below neighbors like China and Sri Lanka," with total misappropriation of funds totaling in the billions (India's corruption problem, 2014). China's human rights record remains an area of concern not simply from a moral perspective but also because limits on free speech may hamper the growth of certain businesses. Yet even the most unstable of Asia's governments show some hope of accommodating change and growth. This year, a military coup in Thailand, Southeast Asia's second-largest economy, caused the country to "rebound strongly to 91" on Thomson Reuters/INSEAD Asia Business Sentiment Index " after months of anti-government protests had dragged the country's score down to negative territory since the end of last year. The army said it would end political unrest and revive the country's flagging economy, boosting business and consumer sentiment. Thai consumer confidence rebounded last month for the first time in over a year" (Jourdan 2014). What could have been a potential economic disaster had the reverse effect. This bullish outcome suggested that even in the most fraught area of Asia, there is hope for change and long-term growth.

References

Asia faces five challenges to its economic future. (2014). IMF. Retrieved from: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/so/2014/res052914a.htm

Chapter 1: Asia's momentum is set to continue. (2014). IMF. Regional economic outlook:

Asia and Pacific. Retrieved from: https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/reo/2014/apd/eng/areo0414.htm

India's corruption problem. (2014). CFR. Retrieved from:

http://www.cfr.org/corruption-and-bribery/governance-india-corruption/p31823

Jourdan, A. (2014). Political change in India, China news spurs spike in Q2 Asia business sentiment. Retrieved from: http://in.reuters.com/article/2014/06/18/uk-asiapac-companies-sentiment-idINKBN0ET09S20140618

Samii, M. (2011). Custom international business resources. Southern New Hampshire

Southeast Asia: Next growth frontier. (2014). J.P. Morgan. Retrieved from;

https://www.jpmorgan.com/tss/General/Southeast_Asia_Next_Growth_Frontier/1320514027264… [read more]


Preparing a Multimedia Presentation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (780 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Learn

The chosen I have chosen to discuss with regards to human rights abuses is Tibet. I have a keen interest in Tibet because of its unique culture and geography, and its role in Asian history. Slide One illustrates a map of Tibet and the Tibetan areas in adjacent Chinese provinces, with a multimedia of Tibetan monk chants.

Slide Two outlines the five Ws and H. Of the abuses: Who: Tibetans. What: Strict control of religious freedom, illegal searches, flooding Tibet with ethnic Han settlers to dilute the culture, arbitrary arrest, torture and extrajudicial killings. Where: Tibet and Tibetan areas of Chinese provinces; When: from 1950 to present; Why: To exert control over Tibet's mineral wealth; How: through military and police force.

The next two slides outline in greater detail two of the points above. Slide Three discusses the abuses. Slide Four outlines the natural wealth that makes Tibet so attractive to the Chinese government.

Slide Five is a chart showing the historical timeline and this comes a brief overview of why China feels they have dominion over Tibet. This covers the major points in history where China gained or lost control over Tibet.

Slide Six details other examples of human rights abuses by the Communist Party in China - the Cultural Revolution, the treatment of Muslims in Xinjiang, and the persecution of the Falun Gong. This outlines a track record of abuse of which Tibet is just one portion.

Slide Seven compares Chinese and Tibetan responses to the issue. On the Chinese side points include official denial, statements that they are improving the lot of Tibetans, and the security crackdowns. On the Tibetan side are the calls for autonomy, the peaceful protests, and the riots of 2008. Slide Eight will embed a video shot by an Australian tourist during the Lhasa riots. The video shows Tibetan rioters flipping cars, burning building and beating Chinese citizens. The scope of the violence illustrates the level of anger the Tibetans are harboring as a result of the abuses of the past six decades.

Slide Nine illustrates Western responses to the issue. These include official condemnation, taking audience with the Dalai Lama, civilian protests, and a lack of economic sanctions. The strong public support in the West provides optimism that the abuses may come to an end, yet the lack of…… [read more]


Asian Resources and Economic Research Paper

Research Paper  |  16 pages (4,982 words)
Bibliography Sources: 16

SAMPLE TEXT:

State involvement in commercial transactions thus has little to do with contributing to the creation of sustainable economic growth. In fact, several commercial transactions have merely worked to sustain the 'shadow state', ensuring that income generation is not tied to economic development but to securing regime survival (NATO, 2009).

India:

Although United States has been acting as the sole power… [read more]


Confucianism in East Asian Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (2,254 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

In China Japan and Korea the state organized education systems in order to transmit knowledge that was based on neo-Confucian orthodoxy as well as the subsequent recruitment of government services of those that had mastered neo-Confucian classics. Confucians held the belief that there was a body of absolute truths that combined principles alongside cosmological laws and this body of knowledge… [read more]


East Asia Exports to Western Europe in the 18th and 19th Centuries Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,939 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

E.Asia export to Westen Europe in 18th and 19th century

China Export to Western Europe

The Chinese tea is probably the most well-known product of the country. China's tradition in producing and serving tea is a fascinating subject for many consumers. The development of the country's tea export to Western Europe is another interesting subject that must be studied.

China… [read more]


Since 1500 a History of World Societies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … 1500 History of World Societies

European average income per person began to rise in comparison with the rest of the world beginning in about Answer:

1450 b. 1650 c. 1750 d. 1850

All of the following statements characterize world economic development in the 19th century except:

industrialization generated global inequity in wealth and power.

railroads drastically reduced transportation costs.

the opening of the Suez and Panama canals facilitated trade.

the world's leader in importing foreign goods was America.

All of the following technological innovations were crucial to European imperialist expansion in the late nineteenth century except:

the machine gun.

the telegraph.

c. quinine.

The airplane.

Causes of the so-called new imperialism (1880-1914) include all of the following except:

Answer:

a. economic competition in foreign markets.

b. aggressiveness of European nationalism.

c. The theory that colonies benefited workers.

d. The belief that the West had much to learn from traditional cultures.

All of the following represented threats to the Ottoman Empire except:

Answer:

a. Russian invasion and uprisings by Christian subjects in Europe.

b. The beginning of France's long conquest of Algeria in 1830.

c. increased local independence and the sultanate's loss of authority.

d. The Tanzimat reforms and growing westernization of culture.

In the 19th century, West Africa experienced all of the following developments except:

Answer:

a. The emergence of a fledgling middle class in coastal towns.

b. A renewal of the trans-Atlantic slave trade in the 1860's.

c. The rise of an export trade in palm oil used for making soap.

d. An Islamic revival involving intolerance of animism.

The principle formulated at the Berlin Conference (1884-85) by which European powers laid claim to African territory was called:

Answer:

a. extraterritoriality.

b. annexation.

c. effective occupation.

d. military subjugation.

All of the following statements characterized imperial government in Africa between 1900 and 1930 except:

Answer:

a. Colonial governments moved decisively against slavery in response to the European movement for abolition.

b. imperial governments operated either through existing local leaders or through appointed officials.

c. expenditures on education and social services represented a small part of the overall budget.

d. A westernized elite emerged, together with successful African business people.

All of the following drove the transformation of European imperialism in Asia during the 1800s except:

Answer:

a. Christian missionaries and the idea of progress.

b. advances in Western communications and technology.

c. The need for markets for mass-produced goods.

d. old established monarchies with long literary traditions.

All of the following were characteristic of British rule in India except:

Answer:

a. population increased, travel conditions improved, and disease spread b. large plantations…… [read more]


Asian Studies as Far as the Distribution Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,081 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Asian Studies

As far as the distribution of power throughout the world is concerned, the position of supremacy of the United States of America has always supported the opposition between the East and the West. Power has various dimensions. Among them we can mention the economical, financial aspect, the political one, as well as the cultural side. The political power… [read more]


Imperialism in Asian Post WW2 Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,113 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Imperialism in East Asia

A Comparison of the Effects of Imperialism in the Philippines and in Korea

As Hutchinson and Smith (1994, p. 3) suggest, imperialism is connected to and rooted in the idea of nationalism and, though it is often seen as a modern phenomenon, it was in many ways prepared for by "millennial Christianity…the printing press and especially… [read more]


East Asia, 1800-1912 the Dominance Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,199 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

They neither wiped out the historical slate. As significant literatures focusing on the concepts of modernization, colonialism and incorporation of the European seem to point out the displacing of the historical heritage, cross-fertilization, and processes of East Asia. Most of them kicked off in the previous centuries whereby European military and economic power made no substantial challenges to East Asia. In fact, in the process elements of how this region responded reasserted towards shaping the entire region and restructuring their international political organization. Ultimately, this led to commercial patterns that transformed the entire East Asia region.

The 1899-1900 boxer rebellion became the watershed phenomenon ushering in the 20th century in East Asia and its foreign relation challenges. In the wake of 1898, famine and flood in North China were blamed on western developments in the region, which disrupted the region's Geo-magnetic balance. These fears coupled with great animosity towards European colonizers and their Chinese counterparts became a possible target for a major uprising. The boxer rebellion was orchestrated by the boxer movement. It was optimistic that it could transform itself to a millenarian sect that could be impervious to firearms. The local hegemonies aggressively suppressed the movement terming it a plot to exploit the passion of the East Asia populations. They believed that Europeans had intentions limiting foreign participation of North China is the region.

As official sanctions were brought up, European powers spread rapidly across the region resulting in massive deaths of Chinese populations and hundreds of European foreigners. In the 1900 spring, the imperial army helped the European powers to penetrate Beijing laying a siege to the legation district. This led to the murder of the Chinese chief legato prompting quick international condemnation. This made China declare war on all foreign powers. The royal family flees following the efforts of the European forces in relieving the legation siege. Following this development, the Chinese dynasty entered unequal treaties with European forces and troops regarding major routes between the sea, Beijing and in the capital city.

Looking at the phenomenon in reverse, the history of the Chinese encounter with the European powers in the 19th century looks like a tale of inexorable and woe decline. With this hindsight benefit, the first encounter between Chinese Dynasty and European powers looks like a self-deception study. This opened formal diplomatic relations between Europe and China, which opened free trade between the two nations. Frustrations were experienced by London, which limited all maritime trading activities between China and Europe. Consequently, this denied European powers from accessing much of the prosperous and huge Chinese markets. Because of the gross trade inequality between Europe and China, acute commercial pressure existed. This took place even with the lack of intergovernmental organizations characterizing the North American and the European Union Free Trade Treaties.

This development was the longest in the entire debacle of China's defeats. A battle between European forces and China in 1895s traditional sphere of influencing Japan was more than humiliating to the Chinese troops. However,… [read more]


Economic Interdependence Among North Asian Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,155 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Many Japanese media consumers have been concerned over the candor of the government throughout the crisis. Japanese media has tended to be less aggressive, historically, than the U.S. media in questioning official policies. This may change, given the impact of the tsunami. Critics have also protested that both government regulators and the Tokyo Electric Power Company did not give sufficient weight to evidence that the reactors were vulnerable to tsunamis and "have also said nuclear regulators and the power company did not act fast enough to prevent the explosions that damaged the reactor buildings and that efforts to cool the reactors and spent fuel pools with helicopters and water cannons were ineffective.

This has caused distrust deepen on a systemic level in a society that had previously had a large degree of trust in institutional authority, both corporate and official. Inadequate evacuation measures before and after the first tsunami, confusion over the dangers of radioactivity in the food supply, and the sheer numeric toll of the disaster -- 13,000 and climbing -- will have repercussions upon Japan for years to come. This will also have a spill-over effect within the region, given the role that Japan has in providing stability and authority in foreign relations, and its influence upon economic and environmental policy upon its neighbors. Japan will be forced inward, to heal itself, even while it asks for aid from abroad. A much needed broker between North and South Korea is likely to be neutralized for many months, as well as an important counterweight to the rise of Chinese economic and military dominance.

References

Calder, Kent and Ye, Min. The Making of Northeast Asia, Stanford University Press, 2010.

Dent, Christopher M. "The politics of economic regionalism: Explaining economic regional integration in East Asia." Contemporary Southeast Asia. December 2011.

http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb6479/is_3_32/ai_n56719530 / (accessed April 13, 2011)

Fogerty, Phillipa. "Will Japan's global ties change?" BBC News. September 16, 2009.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/8257176.stm (accessed April 13, 2011)

"Japan to boost security ties with U.S. To meet regional challenges." Japan Policy & Politics.

http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0XPQ/is_2011_Jan_3/ai_n56582145/

(accessed April 13, 2011)

Ozawa, Harumi. "Japan economy, Toyota feel effects of disaster." Reuters. April 13, 2011.

http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20110413/wl_afp/japandisasteraccidentnuclear_20110413201919

(accessed April 13, 2011)

"Regional cooperation and integration." Asian Development Bank.

http://www.adb.org/Documents/Policies/rci-strategy/rci-strategy-paper.pdf

(accessed April 13, 2011)

"Top officials defend Japan's response." AP. April 13, 2011.

http://www.nj.com/news/index.ssf/2011/04/top_official_defends_japans_re.html

(accessed April 13, 2011)

Christopher M. Dent, "The Politics of Economic Regionalism: Explaining Economic Regional Integration in East Asia," Contemporary Southeast Asia, December 2011, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb6479/is_3_32/ai_n56719530/(accessed April 13, 2011)

"Regional cooperation and integration," Asian Development Bank, http://www.adb.org/Documents/Policies/rci-strategy/rci-strategy-paper.pdf (accessed April 13, 2011)

Ibid.

"Japan to boost security ties with U.S. To meet regional challenges," Japan Policy & Politics, January 2011, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0XPQ/is_2011_Jan_3/ai_n56582145/(accessed April 13, 2011)

Phillipa Fogerty, "Will Japan's global ties change?" BBC News, September 16, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/8257176.stm (accessed April 13, 2011)

"Japan to boost," 2011.

Kent Calder, & Ye Min, The Making of Northeast Asia, Stanford University Press, 2010.

Harumi Ozawa, "Japan economy, Toyota feel effects of disaster," Reuters, April 13, 2011, http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20110413/wl_afp/japandisasteraccidentnuclear_20110413201919(accessed April 13, 2011)

Ibid.

"Top officials defend… [read more]


Asian Pacific Security the Asian Pacific Region Assessment

Assessment  |  8 pages (3,994 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Asian Pacific Security

The Asian Pacific region has been problematical in the world of International Affairs for at least the past two centuries. The emergence of a modernized Japan and China changed the paradigm of the area; and the idea of European-based cultures in Australia and New Zealand only complicating matters further. In addition, the manner in which cultures and… [read more]


Sociology / Panethnicity Asian-American Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,271 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

During the time Japanese were herded into concentration camps, Chinese-Americans were justifiably "fearful that they would be targets of anti-Japanese activities," and so they "took to wearing buttons that proclaimed positively 'I'm Chinese'." And many Chinese shop-owners put signs in their windows saying, "This is a Chinese shop." The author points out that some Chinese even added signs that read,… [read more]


Europe, the Russian Federation, and East Asia Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,512 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Geography

Meeting Place of Two Worlds

On the Borders of East Asia and the Russian Federation

Location shapes human culture in more ways than many can imagine. The ruggedness of the terrain, the availability of water, the vegetation and climate; all have their effects on the development of societies. As well, the human factors - neighboring peoples with differing social… [read more]


Japanese History and Chinese Fixation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,515 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

There are similarities and differences in the practices and beliefs of Buddhism in China and Japan. Currently, Japan is the largest Buddhist nation across the globe. This diversity relates to the adoption of best Buddhism practices and beliefs from Korea, India, and China by Japan towards the development of this religion as a form of their own art.

Conclusion

There is great relationship between the historical development of Japan and China. This makes it difficult or impossible to examine or study the history of Japan without elaborating the crucial role by China in the development of the modern nation in the Asia Continent. Chinese fixation is an essential concept in relation to examination of the history or characteristics of historical development of Japan in a single-coined term. There is close relationship in the religion, cosmology, and political systems of the two nations because of their interactions and culture borrowing.

References

Karl F. Friday. (1997). Pushing beyond the Pale: the Yamato Conquest of the Emishi and Northern Japan. Journal of Japanese Studies, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 1-24

Theodore de Bary et al., (2000). Sources of Japanese Tradition. Volume One; from earliest to

Dorothy Ko et al. (2003). Women and Confucian Cultures in Pre-modern China, Korea, and Japan. University…… [read more]


Tajikistan to the North Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,847 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Communists and an alliance of Islamic and democratic forces fought with each other to gain power. RahmanNabiyev, a communist, won the presidential elections of November 1991. However, his government was not accepted and nonaggressive protests by the opposition elements were observed in March 1992 demanding his resignation. The situation worsened when in April the government opened fire on the protesters. Nabiyev was thrown way from his office in September by the opponents. The civil war came to an end when in November ImomaliRakhmonov formed a government supported by Russian troops was formed. [6]

The civil War caused substantial loss of life and property. Close to about 600,000 people lost their lives and were left homeless. A great loss of education was made. Estimate damage of U.S.$7 billion was reported. [4]

Until June 1997 periodic fights persisted. A peace agreement was enforced by the United Nations, Russia, and Iran which ended the war and maintained a state of social rest in the country. However, the unstable political situation in the country since after its independence caused the country to be dependent on foreign aid. In 1991, Rakhmonov was re-electedfor another term. [6]

Present day problems of Tajikistan

After the dismissal of Taliban in 2001, resolute Islamic extremists crossed the border, unsettling life and economic conditions of Tajikistan. [6]

Furthermore, the collapse of Taliban government led to an upsurge in narcotics production in Afghanistan. As a result, Tajikistan became a major transportation hub for Afghan heroin and opium regulated for European markets and other parts of the world. [6][1]

President Rakhmonov was again elected for the third time in November 2006. But the results were boycotted by the opposition parties. His government has been alleged of several human rights exploitations and dishonesty. Also true democracy has ot been observed during his reign. Independent media has been restricted and opposition leaders have been imprisoned.[4]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

[1] Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov (accessed February 18, 2013)

[2] The Land of Tajiks, http://www.oocities.org/tajikland/History.html (accessed February 18, 2013)

[3] Early History, http://countrystudies.us/tajikistan/3.htm,…… [read more]


Korean History: The Climate Term Paper

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These changes and others mark a "golden age" in Korean history focusing on the ideals of a more progressive government, economy and science and arts. Ascension of Sejong to the throne in 1418 led to a series of technological and cultural changes that would see Korea through to the most recent past with an ideal as a historical model and… [read more]


Future Conflict Triggers in South East Asia Essay

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Se Asia Conflict Triggers

Local Quarrels, Regional Risks:

Myanmar and Papua New Guinea

Decades of relative peace and prosperity have allowed the democracies of Southeast Asia the latitude to pursue economic cooperation and relatively stable domestic policies. But while the "liberal peace" of ASEAN has allowed its members to support each other's traditional security interests while settling disputes through non-violent… [read more]


Family History an Autobiographical Research Paper

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Family History

An autobiographical history of my family in China, and the story of the events which led to my emigration to study in the United States, the stories intertwined the following essay explore the inherency of the history of China in the West, and source the various reasons Chinese emigrate (d) to the U.S. As a topic for personal… [read more]


Historiography of East Asia Term Paper

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Historiography of East Asia: The Transfer of Sovereignty of Macau from the Portuguese Republic to the People's Republic of China on December 20, 1999

There is no question that it harbors in its hidden places all the riffraff of the world, the drunken shipmasters; the flotsam of the sea, the derelicts, and more shameless, beautiful women than any port in… [read more]


History of Cambodia, Including the Pol Pot Term Paper

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¶ … history of Cambodia, including the Pol Pot Regime and Angkor Wat. Cambodia is an Asian country located between Vietnam and Thailand with a coastline on the Gulf of Thailand. In the 1860s, it became a colony of France, and it became a free nation in 1953. Cambodia's modern history revolves around the notorious Pol Pot Regime in the… [read more]


Asian Studies There Are Many Things Term Paper

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Asian Studies

There are many things in the West which those in the East admire, especially when it comes to business tactics and strategies and education. For example, American businessmen and women have mastered the "art of the deal" and have been able to amass great fortunes and much social and political prestige. Much of this has to do with the democratic system in the United States which allows greater financial freedom than the communist system in China and has less restrictive measures like tariffs and other forms of tax. Also, the educational system in the West is one of the finest in the world and boasts some of the greatest educational institutions to be found, such as Harvard with its often copied world-class business school. Although great educational institutions do exist in Asia, they are not as open and free when it comes to choosing a course of study, something which most Asians greatly admire and which influences them to come to the U.S. To…… [read more]


History of Meiji Empire and the Consequent Term Paper

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¶ … history of Meiji Empire and the consequent role and influence that Meiji regime had on succeeding government and their policies. The article also supports Sugimoto's thesis on presence of cultural fragmentation and diversity within Japanese society, the western influence on the social, political and economic growth is also discussed. The role of Kata Factor and its adoption by… [read more]


Logistic PE in Hong Kong Business Plan

Business Plan  |  3 pages (958 words)
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¶ … private equity firms have set their sights on Asia given the downturn in economic activity in Europe and the U.S. This is perhaps aided by the understanding that Asia's fundamentals are more likely to bring about accelerated economic growth going forward. Analysts speculate that such a trend is highly unlikely in Western economies. However, even amidst such optimism, some risks still abound for private equities seeking to set base in Asian markets. In this text, I examine the risks associated with starting a logistic related private equity in Hong Kong while taking into consideration the existing market in Asia and globally. In so doing, I will further concern myself with the particular risks for both the limited and general partners.

Discussion

For China, and more so for other countries in Asia; the star for private equity has been shinning bright in recent times. As an indicator of this, for the fifteen years preceding 2009, there was a nine fold increase in PE assets under management (INSEAD 2010). Hence it would be quite in order to note that relative to the rest of the world, Asian PE has experienced much stronger growth. However, a logistic related PE seeking to start operations in Hong Kong may wish to take into consideration the fact that when it comes to long-term returns; Asian PE has not been performing exceptionally. Indeed, long-term PE returns in Asia lag behind those of Western Europe. Hence for a logistic related PE with its sights in Hong Kong, it may be prudent to take into consideration that much of the acceleration in regard to PE in this market could principally be driven by the mainstream view that markets considered emerging are highly lucrative.

For limited partners and general partners, the advance into Hong Kong is a perfect mix of optimism and concern. While Asia's and most particularly Hong Kong's positive direction in regard to development in this case is generally undisputed, there are concerns over pricing. That is, currently, what is being priced by the markets is the expected economic growth. In my opinion, this has led to risk being relatively ignored. In developing Asia (India and China), a survey carried out by INSEAD showed that there was a relatively high risk premium expected by limited partners (INSEAD, 2010). This is in comparison to Western PE. The INSEAD report states that on average, the risk premium expected by limited partners investing in China and India for their investments stood at approximately 6.5% higher. This in one way or the other cannot be taken to be a risk-free strategy especially given the challenges associated with investment valuation as well as pricing in emerging markets. Further, it sometimes proves difficult to obtain benchmarks and valuation efforts are in most cases advanced not by the general partners themselves but by either the firm itself or the venture capital side…… [read more]


In the Realm of a Dying Emperor Term Paper

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Realm of a Dying Emperor

The Emperor of Japan represents Japanese history and culture, but when Emperor Hirohito died in January of 1989, he had become a symbol for Japan's development into one of the world's largest economic powers. In effect, the Emperor was the physical embodiment of the nation, and the nation's success was reflected in the people's dedication… [read more]


II the History of Wireless Technology in China Term Paper

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¶ … History of Wireless Tech. In China

China Before the Wireless

Before the wireless technology was introduced, China had been among the many countries whose economy depends on the manufacturing industry. With a great population and a low-cost labor, China is involved in the manufacture of different goods and items particularly the parts and components of various electronic devices and computers.

The effect of culture on the introduction of wireless to China

Before the revolution of the wireless technology, China was known to have a conservative and simple culture. Most of the families in China live a simple life, with not much of the technology that progressive countries were already enjoying. Although China lives this way, they are not however unaware of new technologies. This is because the manufacture of different technology devices is done in China. This kind of culture brought a quick effect in the success of the introduction of the wireless technology. When wireless mobile phones became a trend, there had been great number of people who took the gradual change from living a simple life into living with what technology can offer them.

The roots

There are quite a number of wireless providers in China who took the lead in making the wireless technology a success. This includes the China Telecom, China Mobile, and the China Netcom. These are the companies that strive to compete with the service that wireless providers in other countries offer to their subscribers.

Beginnings and early history of wireless in China

The use of the wireless technology only started in China a few years ago. It was in 2002 when there had a been a boom in the market of wireless devices and services. Major communication corporations started to include in their services the provision of wireless access aside from the wired communication capabilities that they were already providing. These days, strategies that can better wireless service are where major companies focus on. An online article indicates the following.

To date, the major Chinese domestic operators have formulated plans to expand WiFi access in public buildings, hotels, airports, cafes, and other areas those with mobile equipment seek hot spot receptivity.

Cultural Continuity and the Republic of China

Chengdu, Sichuan province's capitalm is an example that shows how the Republic of China can grow with the help of technology. According to Hao Kangli, the vice mayor of Chengdu, technology particularly the wireless can help in their economic growth (Intel.com).

The Republic of China used to be a poor country, with high population growth and low economic rate. However, the culture of China characterized by hard work, in an aim to have a better economy, is very visible in the success that they now harvest from their achievements in the wireless industry. China has a growing number of talented scientists who acquired various degrees in the different areas of study in technology. This aspect brings China with an edge against competing nations worldwide.

China's Wireless Today

Wireless technology is continuously expanding in… [read more]


Boston Asian Community Began Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (460 words)
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Few efforts have been undertaken to fully describe the Asian-Americans living in Metro Boston. In fact, in many studies, Asians are either excluded or placed indiscriminately in with majority whites or other minorities. This does a disservice to the community a they have not been fairly represented in policymaking and service delivery (Watanabe, Liu & Lo, 2005).

Three facets of the Boston Asian community must be taken into consideration for them to fairly represented. First, the significant growth of the Asian community in Boston, thanks primarily to immigration, must be understood. Second, policymakers must understand that the Boston Asian community is diverse in its characteristics and socio-economic composition. And third, the complexity of the Boston Asian community must be fully realized. One size fits all policies are not effective for this community (Watanabe, Liu & Lo, 2005).

In the end, the Asian community of Boston is growing at a rate never before seen, in history. However, this group is often under or misrepresented. Policymakers must understand that this community is diverse and complex and needs policies that address their unique needs. Until the Asian community is represented fairly and accurately, it is unlikely that policies will be able effectively meet their needs.

References

Watanabe, P., Liu, M. & Lo, S. (Fall 2004/Winter 2005). A portrait of Asian-Americans in Metro Boston. New England Journal of Public Policy,…… [read more]


Ancient History of India Term Paper

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These two classes were the Kshatryas (warriors) and the Brahmins (priests). The Aryans or Indo-Europeans assimilated quickly into India and seemed to have disappeared.

IV. Development of Religion in India

The development of religion in the region began in 500 bc when several individuals were searching for enlightenment. Siddhartha Gautama or "the Buddha" preached a "stoic life involving moral living and meditations that would develop into the rich philosophy of Buddhism. The second was Vardhamana, called Mahavira and Jina his follower believed that "suffering was due to the mixing of the spirit with base matter, which must be separated from each other by means of fasting, asceticism, and chastity forming the religion of Jainism. During the late 300's bc Alexander the Great brought Buddhism to India and China. The Aryans, a pastoral people from near the Caspian Sea brought Brahman, the Supreme Being, the God above all gods the source of universal life" into India. "Truth is One" stated the Vedas proclaiming, "They call him by different names." (Severy, et al., 1971 National Geographic)

The following became an integral part of spiritual beliefs and law in India:

1. "The fundamental reality, the essence of all things, is not something material, as most of the early Greek philosophers at about the same time concluded, but spiritual - the World Soul.

2. Each individual possesses a soul, which is a part of the World Soul.

3. The material world is an illusion (maya) and the cause of all suffering. As long as such earthly goals as fame, power, and wealth are sought, the result will be pain and sorrow.

4. Salvation, or deliverance from maya, can only come through the reabsorption of the individual soul into the World Soul.

5. This release from maya is part of a complicated process of reincarnation. The individual soul must go through a long series of earthly reincarnations from one body to another.

6. Intertwined with the doctrine of reincarnation is the immutable law called karma (meaning "deed")." (Gelbar, 2004)

This law holds that the:

"Consequences of one's deeds determine one's future after death.

A person's status at any particular point is not the result of chance but depends on his or her soul's actions in previous existences.

Together with the doctrine of maya, karma gives a satisfactory explanation to the question of why suffering exists, a question that has troubled thoughtful people all over the world.

The Indian answer is that the wicked that prosper will pay later, while the righteous who suffer are being punished for acts committed in former existences." (Gelbar, 2004)

Summary and Conclusion

Differences in development of the groups in northern and southern India are clearly due to migration as well as the assimilation of the Aryans into the Indian society. However, many of the Aryan beliefs, particularly in relation to spiritual beliefs have been anything but short-lived and these cultural influences are still recognized even today. There still exists a bone of contention between those in northern and southern India… [read more]


Post-Cold War Era, Far Term Paper

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¶ … post-cold war era, far from making the "end of history" and the triumph of the western ideal, will be characterized by increased global fragmentation and the "clash of civilizations" based on ethical, cultural and religious distinctions. Cultural identity has replaced any shared ideology that had existed as the dominant global perspective in world affairs. To a great degree… [read more]


Asian Monetary Fund What Is it Why Is it Important Term Paper

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Asian Monetary Fund - What is it? Why is it important?

What is Asian Monetary Fund?

The reform measures of International Monetary fund amidst severe economic crisis of East Asia, particularly, since the Second World War were considered as too imposing and too stringent. This led many to seriously think of mild reforms to eradicate the possibility of future economic… [read more]


Senkaku / Diaoyu Islands Dispute Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,252 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

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After doing detailed research into the islands' ownership issues, Inoue concluded that "…these islands are territory of the People's Republic of China, the only authority over the entire China" (Pan, 78).

As regards the San Francisco Peace Treaty, the Chinese have never accepted that treaty as legally binding, Pan continues. In fact China issued a strong objection in the form… [read more]


East Asian Civilizations (1) Unequal Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,642 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Between 1774 and 1900 major conflicts arose in China which includes the following;

The White Lotus Society situated in the North of China, was first appeared in the 13th century and was responsible for the social unrest caused in the country. Basically the teachings of the society were based on Buddhism. The society reemerged in late 18th century and created… [read more]


International Planning Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,930 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9

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The country has focused its attention on infrastructure that will fuel its continued growth. China is currently constructing many transportation projects such as road and rail. The country is also undergoing major developments to provide the energy that will fuel the economy of the future. These include coal plants, hydroelectric plants, nuclear, as well as investing heavily in green energy.… [read more]


Vietnam in the 20th Century Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (650 words)
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History is the primary way that a nation's citizenship formulates identity. Individual people create this singular identity by showing their personality and the ways that they react to events in their lives. So, each person is the sum of their life's history. This is the same way that a country's history creates the nation's identity. When a nation identifies itself as a culture, that identification is the culmination of the events that have occurred in that country and with that nation's international relationships. Colonization has broken down all over the world in the last century. What invariably happens is the colonized people unite against their oppressors and demand their independence and the right to govern themselves. In the case of Vietnam, following the French colonization, the United States became involved in the warfare with Vietnam. When both these outsider nations were unable to continue battling in the small Asian country, Vietnam was able to demand its own sovereignty and to create a government system of their choosing.

By understanding the history of this country, as with the study of all other countries, scholars can better understand why the nation's government functions in the role that it does and also why it has and will create policies which affect the people of their nation. For the country of Vietnam, its citizens have faced troubles for centuries. They have had to deal with governmental takeovers from within the nation and from without. Also, they have had to face natural disasters and terror of all kinds. When a person becomes aware of the difficulties that Vietnam has had, the subsequent actions of groups such as the Vietcong become more logical and understandable. The further back the past is examined, the more sense the recent history makes.

Works Cited:

Meyers, William P. (2011). "Vietnam and the West Until 1954." The U.S. War Against Asia. III

Publishing.

Stearns, Peter N. (2008). "Why Study History?" American Historical Association.

http://www.historians.org/pubs/free/WhyStudyHistory.htm… [read more]


Economic Development of China Term Paper

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Chinese schools do not encourage self-expression or individuality, but focuses on the belief their destiny in life was predetermined before they their birth. Chinese education emphasizes the Confucius teachings, which teaches that they cannot defy their pre-determined purpose in life.

As China's economic development emerges, (which will be discussed in detail later) their education system is undergoing quite a few… [read more]


Islamic History in Russia Term Paper

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Two years after his election, Niyazov instituted processes that would make him officially ruler of Turkmenistan for life, with the only avenues of removal being health limitations or death. (Anderson)

Meanwhile, foreign affairs in Turkmenistan also suffered a rapid deterioration. Visitors to the country, especially news media, were made to feel most unwelcome. Many were even jailed or beaten upon… [read more]


Korean-American With This Dramatic Increase Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,941 words)
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First, Sunny asserts that she lives in America and already speaks English. She identifies more with American than with Korean culture. While learning Korean would probably serve to make her parents happy, she does not feel it is an important part of her life and identity.

Conclusion

In summary, these interviews with the Park family show how various generations of immigrants form their ethnic identities in different ways. Because they were limited by language and cultural barriers, the mother and father Park have a more rigid definition of their Korean-ness. They consider their ethnic and social identity as part of their blood. Hence, they believe that their American-born daughter could never truly assert that she is American.

Their experiences with the English language have also contributed strongly to their identification of language with ethnic identity. This leads them to hope that their daughter would also show her Korean-ness by learning the Korean language.

Sunny, however, disagrees. She grew up in the United States and locates her ethnic identity in symbols other than language. In her experience, however, ethnicity still continues to be a matter of how she looks. She believes that despite her citizenship and her ability to speak English, society will continue to categorize her by her dark hair and by her skin color.

While this stance is completely justified, language is also a crucial element in understanding one's heritage and background. While it is no longer a main determinant of membership, a shared language continues to play a major role in determining one's membership in a social group. Since Sunny also identifies herself as Korean-American, speaking the language would add another layer to the complexity of her heritage.

Through all this, however, it is important to remember that ethnic positioning remains fluid, particularly when it is constructed in relation to the dominant culture. Racial and ethnic classification systems continue to be manipulated b governments, universities, and social institutions and by second generation Americans like Sunny. For the most part, the role language will play in these social definitions remain in their hands.

Works Cited

Hurh, Won Moo. "Majority Americans' perception of Koreans in the United States: Implications of Ethnic Images and Stereotypes." In Ho-Young Kwon, ed. Korean-Americans: Conflict and Harmony. Chicago: Covenant Publications, 1994.

Jenkins, Richard. Rethinking Ethnicity: Arguments and Explorations. London: SAGE Publications, 1997.

Jenkins, Richard. Social Identity. London and New York: Routledge, 1996.

Jo, Hye-Young. "Locating Ethnic Identity and Language Among Second Generation Korean-Americans." The Review of Korean Studies. 3(2), December 2000. available online at http://review.aks.ac.kr/review3_2.htm. March 26, 2003.

Koh, Tong-He. "Ethnic Identity in first, 1.5, and second generation Korean-Americans: An exploratory…… [read more]


Sushi: A Globalized Favorite Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,065 words)
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C.

Chef Yohei did not use fermentation methods. He served sushi in form resembling modern day sushi.

4. Used to create different styles of sushi

A. Nare-zushi (Fermented)

B. Nama-nare (Semi-fermented and raw)

C. I-zushi (Adding malted rice to aid the fermentation)

Last type using fermentation

D. Sugata-zushi (uncut, stuffed, vinegared instead of fermented)

E. Ii-zushi (Rice)

Kokera-zushi

Hako-zushi (Thin chip box used to press it, done in days)

F. Unohana-zushi (Bean curd residue is used instead of rice)

G. Kata-iri gomoku (Mixed in frame)

H. Oomura-zushi

Minced ingredients)

I. Nigiri-zushi (Hand forming- rice w/fish topping)

J. Gomoku-zushi (mixed ingredients)

K. Maki-zushi (Roll ingredients of rice, fish, toppings rolled in either Nori (seaweed) or Konbu (kelp)). This style includes

1. kazarimaki (decorative),T

2. emaki (hand rolls)

3. futomaki (large rolls/nori used), 4. hosomaki (thin rolls / nori used) uramaki (inside-out rolls/sticky rice on outside)

L. Kawari-zushi (Unusual)

M. Inrou-zushi (wrapped)

N. Inari-zushi (Wrapped with fried bean curd)

O. California roll (Outside of California) (Slender, mat rolled sushi containing crab, avocado, and cucumber

5. Sushi's popularity

A. Sushi stalls emerged originally in Tokyo in the 19th century until after World War II. Stalls vanished after World War II as occupational authorities decreed their demise.

B. Later shops arose (with water after 1923 quake) and they were the beginning of sushi bars.

C. Some traditions of appearance include Norem (short curtain hung with top of door on Sushi shops. If the curtain is in place it is open. If the curtain is down the shop is closed. Conditions are very clean.

D. Sushi presentation - Yunomi is the big ceramic cup for hot tea you see in sushi shops.

E. Traditional implements or utensils are used in making and serving sushi.

1. Makisu - bamboo rolling matt for making sushi rolls

2. Sashimi-Bocho - sharp knife

F. Etiquette

G. Sushi Day has been established as a national holiday in Japan.

H. Sushi & Wasabi are colors used to label make up and fashion

6. Globalization of Sushi

A. Sushi now appears worldwide.

B. Popularity in the U.S. increased in the late 1970's.

C. Shifting markets, diffusion of culinary culture as tastes for sushi, blue fin tuna, spread world wide.

Blue fin tuna globalized the spread of a regional industry.

D. Japan's growing cultural influence on upscale nouvelle cuisine throughout North America, Europe, and Latin America.

E. Tuna packed in ice flown JFK to Tokyo for next day sale for sushi.

500 lb tuna now caught all over the world flown/sold to Japanese buyers.

F. Traditional Sushi ingredients fit w / today's preference for less red meat and carbohydrates. popularity indication of a trend.

G. Sushi- speaks language of fashion.

H. Sushi will continue to grow, change and blossom in the future.

7. There are five main types of modern day sushi.

A. One ingredient is always present: Japanese rice flavored with sushi vinegar.

B. There are five main types of modern day sushi.

1. Nigiri- Sushi: Rice w/mustard, layer, fish on top… [read more]


Asian Studies Countries Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,187 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

China went through similar circumstances. China was a traditional imperial society until the influx of Westerners and opening its borders to trade. China treated Westerners as barbarians and saw itself as the center of the world, this changed after the Opium War. China signed the Treaty of Nanking in 1842 granting special rights to certain Western nations, but "As treaties multiplied over the years, China found itself caught in an intricate and ever-growing web" (Thomson, Stanley, Perry, p.37). The imperial Qing government lost control and eventually lost the country, ushering in a tumultuous time in China's history. The Chinese failed to create a unifying government like the Japanese that would lead them through a period of rapid modernization.

Another shared link between these nations is the discrimination faced by their immigrants in America. Chinese immigrants came to the United States in the 1850s to work the gold fields of California (Yu, p.6). They faced immediate discrimination because they were marked as exotic and alien. The competition they poised to white laborers sparked anti-Chinese violence. Racism was so pervasive that beginning in 1870, anti-miscegenation laws made it against the law for Asians to marry whites in the majority of western states (Yu, p.6). These discriminatory laws are based on the attitude that Asians brought their particular culture rather than traditions and ideas based in the Greco-Roman world (Takaki, p.13). Asians were further persecuted by institutionalized racism of public policies. The National Origins Act of 1924 forbade Japanese immigration while excluding immigrants from Western Europe (Takaki, p.14). These anti-Asian legislations affected all Asian communities including Koreans. Japanese-Americans, in particular, suffered during World War II. Over 120,000 were placed in internment camps, despite the fact that two-thirds were American citizens by birth (Yu, p.18). The Korean community did not experience targeted racism as the Chinese and Japanese communities. They were mistaken for Japanese or Chinese but there was no legislation enacted to specifically target the Korean community. They faced the same general level of discrimination as the other Asian communities.

China, Korea, and Japan were traditional societies that faced significant change after the introduction of foreign elements into their respective communities. Korea was invaded by the Japanese, which left a legacy of oppression while simultaneously modernizing key industries. The aftermath of Japanese occupation saw the fragmentation of Korea into two opposing camps. China is similar in how they went from a traditional country to a communist government (after the end of World War II). The traditional hierarchies of both China and Japan changed after being exposed to Western countries. All three countries experienced the emergence of repressive regimes after the collapse of these pre-modern societies. These people of these countries share a legacy of racism as they immigrated to the United States. Albeit, the Chinese and Japanese communities faced targeted discriminatory legislation against them while the Korean community did not.

Works Cited:

Cumings, Bruce. "We look at it and see ourselves." London Review of Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2014. .

Hedges,… [read more]


Asian Tourism Critical Issues Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,646 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

SAMPLE TEXT:

Quite often, people will engage in travel just because of the permissiveness or at least lax law enforcement of certain areas. Some countries react by being overly sensitive about more minor things and this is a study in futility. Again, the Asia Pacific region is certainly better than the bottom third of countries in terms of crime and culturally-accepted depravity.… [read more]


Anti-Americanism in Korea Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,190 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

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Anti-Americanism in Korea

The diverging relationship between the U.S. And a series of factors that are highly praised by a series of nations has generated a lot of tension in the recent years, largely being responsible for influencing the formation of anti-Americanism. The concept of anti-Americanism is on the rise because many individuals consider their principles to stand against those… [read more]


Chinese History How Genghis Khan Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,766 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Chinese History

How Genghis Khan and His Mongols Takeover of China Had an Overall Good Effect on China.

The Mongols played a much more important role in history than did the Khitans and Juchen barbarians whom they resembled racially and culturally. Their role on the world stage was more outstanding not only because of the organizing genius of their world-conquering… [read more]


Are Indian-Israeli Relations Useful for India's National Interests? Thesis

Thesis  |  26 pages (9,235 words)
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¶ … Indian-Israeli Relations Valuable to India's National Interests?

Today, India stands at an important juncture in its historical development. Following its independence from Britain in 1948, the years that followed have been turbulent ones for India, with a relentless series of political, military and economic challenges confronting the country time and again. Despite these challenges, India has emerged in… [read more]


Marketing in a Less Developed Country Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,088 words)
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Less Developed Country

The Kyrgyz Republic, also known as Kyrgyzstan is a poor, mountainous country in Central Asia. Formerly a part of the U.S.S.R., the country was one of the first former Soviet states to open its economy. A lack of resources, poor industrial production and its landlocked status have meant that economic progress has been slow, however. The GDP… [read more]


Human Rights Violations of Migrant Workers in South Korea Vis-A-Vis Other Countries Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (2,911 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Human Rights Violations of Migrant Workers in South Korea Vis-a-Vis Other Asian Countries

The UN and Worldwide Human Rights Violations

United Nations special rapporteur on human rights of immigrants Jorge Bustamante

said that the UN was investigating violations to these rights (Deen 2006). The violations included abusive working conditions, non-payment of wages, arbitrary detentions and illegal deportations. Urgent appeals or… [read more]


Population Birth Rate Death Rate Life Expectancy Poverty and Inequality Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,206 words)
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Population, Poverty and Inequality

The world's wealth is not distributed evenly. There are a few dozen wealthy nations, clustered in Western Europe and also in North America and Japan. Greece and Portugal are notable outliers, with low GNPs for the region. A handful of others outside these regions have GNPs that approach the wealthier nations. Most of these are Arab nations such as the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait and to a lesser extent Israel.

Singapore and Hong Kong are outliers in Asia for a couple of reasons. Both nations are city-states. In Asia, GNP is typically low because most Asian economies are heavily oriented towards the agricultural sector. In cities there is more wealth, but for other nations this wealth is counteracted by the lack of wealth in rural areas. Hong Kong and Singapore have no rural areas to counteract their urban wealth.

An additional factor that impacts these two nations is that Hong Kong and Singapore have strong colonial influences. This brings an orientation to commerce, to strong governance and the rule of law, and it also brings extensive trade contacts with wealthy nations. Hong Kong has a higher GNP than Singapore, in part because it was still under British control when these statistics were compiled. Singapore has been independent from colonial rule since 1963 and independent from Malaysia since 1965. The colonial influences included sound government, a functioning legal system and other infrastructure that facilitates economic growth.

Libya is an outlier in Africa because of its oil wealth. Oil wealth also fuels the outliers of Kuwait and the UAE in the Middle East. Most other African nations have either limited natural resources or poor control over those resources. Libya controls its own oil reserves, which improves its GNP.

It is interesting to note that none of these countries compares to Western Europe in terms of its GNP, save for the outliers in southern Europe. Libya compares poorly to small, oil-rich Middle Eastern nations but is essentially a middle-of-the-pack country if it were included in that region. Libya has a much higher GNP than Middle Eastern countries without a strong oil-based economy.

Singapore and Hong Kong do not compare with the stronger economies of Western Europe. At the time of the survey twenty years ago, they were less developed than the Western European countries, comparable only with the backwaters.

2. People living in different countries do experience different life expectancies. These differences are evident not only between regions, but within regions as well. They are highly correlated with GNP. For example, in Eastern Europe, nations had similar GNP figures and similar life expectancy figures. In Western Europe, where there are sharp GNP differences between countries, the life expectancy outliers are the same as the GNP outliers -- Greece and Portugal. Ireland was not an outlier to the extent it was on GNP. Norway was an outlier for male life expectancy, but less so for female. Among Asian countries, the outliers were Hong Kong and Singapore, with notably higher life… [read more]


Vietnam Is Nation Located in Southeast Asia Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (574 words)
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Vietnam is nation located in Southeast Asia, bordering China, Laos and Cambodia. The country has a long coastline, with hills and mountains in the interior. According to July 2009 estimates, there are 86 million people in Vietnam (CIA World Factbook, 2009), most of whom are Vietnamese by ethnicity, with a handful of indigenous groups and a small Chinese minority.

Vietnam is a communist state, bearing the title of "socialist republic." This has been the predominant political situation for the unified Vietnam since the end of the Vietnam War. There is only one political party allowed. The nation was formerly a kingdom and a French colony. The economic system of Vietnam is based around two principles. The first is Communism, which drives the large, state-owned enterprises. In recent years, however, the nation has undergone rapid economic liberalization, which has resulted in an explosion of small family-owned enterprises. Since the latest reform efforts began in 2001, the nation's economy has grown rapidly, with a growth in manufacturing for export to augment traditional agricultural enterprises. The country now benefits from the highest rate of investment in the world (Ibid.). The nation remains, however, 55.6% engaged in agriculture.

The history of Vietnam is a long one, dating back at least a thousand years. Seminal events that defined the nation included repelling Mongol invasions. A string of kingdoms and empires ruled the land until the French set up their Southeast Asian colony. Independence was declared in 1945 following the Second World War, and a subsequent war with France culminated with full independence in 1954. Instability in the subsequent years brought the Communist Party increasing power and ultimately led to involvement by the United States. Following that war, known in Vietnam as the…… [read more]


Post Classic Empires Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (919 words)
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¶ … Nomadic Eurasian Empires in History

The Post-Classical period of Eurasia is a dark and tumultuous one. Warring empires continuously ravaged the region as nomadic tribes continued to establish larger and larger empires. There were several prominent nomadic empires in the region. However, two proved the most influential -- the feared Mongolian Empire and the Turks. These two empires helped changed the political, economic, social, and religious face of Eurasia and the regions dominated by the ruthless rulers who reigned over the nomadic tribes of the region.

The terror of the Mongolian empire raged throughout Asia and even parts of Eastern Europe for centuries. They were the most powerful nomadic force coming out of the depths of Eurasia during the Post-Classical period, "the Mongols conquered nearly all of Asia, becoming the ultimate example of nomadic influence on agricultural civilization," (Invictus 1). In terms of political influence, Mongolian rule over China brought the region under the rule of one dynasty, which had not been the case before hand. They had also swept through the Middle East dominating over both the politics and the religion in the region. Their dominance in the Middle East effectively ended Muslim rule for a period of time, thus completely changing the religious make up of the region during Mongol rule (Invictus 1). However, this dethroning of Islam in the Middle East wouldn't last. Eventually, Islam returned to the Middle East, but the Mongolians still held influence in that they were successful in completing what the Christian Europeans could not -- ending Islam for a period of time. One of the most important influences of the Mongolian empire was the unification of Asia. This allowed for the opening of safe trade throughout Asia and even into Europe, "Being the first to control significant regions of both outer and inner Asia, the Mongols brought Asia into economic integration by reviving the Silk Road," (Invictus 1). Under the iron fist of the Mongolian empire, previous squabbles were quelled, allowing for peaceful interaction between various parts of the empire. "Trade was able to flourish between east and west" thanks to the unification of inner and outer Asia through the Mongolian empire (Invictus 1). Yet, this was not only an economic influence, but a social influence as well. As the trade routes opened, so did the passage for other social factors, "On the newly opened trade route, ideas and even diseases were able to be exchanged from one side of Eurasia to another," (Invictus 1). This broadened the scope and range of new ideas coming from all parts of the empire. It also played a large role in the spread of infectious diseases, like the black plague, throughout Europe. Such events changed the entire face of the social stratification…… [read more]


Russian Culture Essay

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Russian Culture

In a 1939 radio broadcast, Winston Churchill famously described Russia as a "riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma." This statement reflects a people whose vast nation has now stretched from the Baltic to the Pacific, enveloping hundreds of minority groups in the process. The Russian identity continues to mystify outsiders, and seems only know intuitively to… [read more]


Korean Resident in Japan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,395 words)
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Korean Residents in Japan

North Korean Ambassador Jong Thae Hwa enumerated the crimes Japan committed against the Korean people during the colonization of the Korean Peninsula from 1910 to 1942 (Kyodo 2000). He said that Japan robbed Korea of its cultural assets and afflicted its people during and after their colonization. He claimed Korea's right to demand compensation from Japan… [read more]


Geography of Turkey and Cyprus Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,520 words)
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Geography of Turkey and Cyprus

The republic of Turkey is quite young and it is located on a land which is very ancient. Right through the ages many miraculous events have taken place on the land which is now known as Turkey. The most consequential of these is perhaps the Neolithic revolution. Catalhyuk situated in central Turkey is the largest… [read more]


Indian History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,378 words)
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Indian History

The Indian National Congress was probably the oldest and the biggest democratic organization in the world (Indian National Congress 2004). It was the initiative of Allan Octavian Hume, which he shared during the 1884 annual convention of the Theosophical Society at Adyar in Madras. A committee was organized to conduct the necessary preparations for a session in Poona… [read more]


Sociology of Technology in One Decade Term Paper

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Sociology of Technology

In one decade, the number of cellular phone users in the United States skyrocketed from 34 million to 203 million and numbers are increasing as more and more children are given their own phone for personal use (Leo, 2006). The cellular phone has gradually replaced the land line in many countries as the medium of choice for… [read more]


Gold Rush Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,844 words)
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Gold Rush

The history of each nation is influenced by a series of different characteristics and moments that eventually come to be regarded as defining for its subsequent evolution. Throughout centuries, the American history has experienced a number of significant milestones that are today remembered for their important contribution to the overall development of the American identity. One such moment… [read more]


Taiwan, My Home-Country, Joined the World Trade Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,680 words)
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Taiwan, my home-country, joined the World Trade Organization only in 2002, after 12 years of expectancy. The main reason for this was considered to be the fact that China insisted to join WTO first and its negotiations with the organization lasted around 15 years. The results have been atypical as well, on the one hand because China could not obtain… [read more]


Angkor Is Called the Largest Religious Monument Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,006 words)
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Angkor is called the "Largest Religious Monument in the World," with good cause. As a whole, it takes up hundreds of square miles and parts of it still have not been investigated fully. Tourists flock to the area, hoping to get a taste of the mystery and history that surrounds these huge complexes still being swallowed by the jungle. In… [read more]


Influence of the First Sino Japanese War Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,106 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9

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¶ … Sino-Japanese War: Japanese Precedents and Propaganda

The First Sino-Japanese War had significant international geopolitical implications for several reasons, not the least of which was firmly establishing Japan as a fully modern nation able to contend with others on their own level. The power structures and foreign policies that existed in China, Korea, and Japan were also profoundly affected by the outcome of this war (and were instrumental in causing the war in the first place), and this in turn greatly impacted the way these countries and the other nations in the region were perceived and dealt with by Western nations. Understanding the First Sino-Japanese War, the tensions that led to its development, and the effects this had on the national self-image and international perception of China, Korea, and especially Japan is necessary for developing an understanding of the full geopolitical situation that existed at the dawn of the twentieth century.

The Meiji Restoration and Rising Japanese Nationalism

Without the Meiji Restoration, the First Sino-Japanese War and indeed all prior and subsequent Japanese involvement in international affairs would not have occurred (Paine 2003). The opening of Japan and the move away from the shogun- and samurai-based government that had persisted for the better part of a millennia created new opportunities for Japan that it was quick to seize, despite the fact that these opportunities conflicted with other nations' interests (Jansen 1994). At the same time, there were new problems created by the Meiji Restoration, most especially a need to employ and occupy the samurai and other military members (Paine 2003).

Accompanying the official changes in Japan's governmental structure during the Meiji Restoration were changes in the national spirit of the country and its citizens, including the release of long bottled-up feelings of Japanese supremacy among the world's nations (Swale 2009). Many Japanese thinkers and political figures argued that certain features of Westernization were necessary in order for Japan to become a true world player, and the Meiji Restoration did more than simply bring imperial rule back to the country -- it enabled such sentiments to have practical effects, including increasing attempts to protect and further Japanese interests through international diplomacy as well as bulking up the archipelago's military and especially naval powers (Swale 2009). It was not just that the recently-removed-from-isolation Japan felt it was worthy of East Asian if not global supremacy, but this rising sense of nationalism was accompanied by a sense that Japan and the world were entering a new era, and that old modes and perspectives should be discarded (Swale 2009).

The Datsu -- A Ron was one particular piece published in the decade prior to the First Sino-Japanese War that clearly demonstrates these new strains in Japanese nationalistic and foreign policy thinking. Its anonymous (at the time of publication) author argued that Japan needed to "depart from Asia" in its mode of operation and its sphere of influences, not ignoring what was going on with their neighbors but looking elsewhere for ways to model… [read more]


Posco Korea Research Paper

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POSCO, originally called Pohang Iron and Steel Company Ltd., is one of the world's foremost steel producers producing an annual approximate load of 26 million tons of cold- and hot-rolled steel products, including steel coil, plate, wire rod, electrical sheets, and stainless steel. Approximately, 72% of that is absorbed in Korea whilst the rest is exported to 60 other countries. Originally struggling during the Asian economic challenges of the 1990s, POSCVO managed to pull through it all the stronger operating numerous international subsidiaries and mergers (including the Nippon Steel Corporation) .

POSCO is also becoming an increasing presence in China.

History of POSCO

Steel has always been an essential industry for the Koreans and they experimented with various firms before POSCO came on the scene.

POSCO was created in 1968 with the help of Korean President Chung Hee Park under the original name Pohang Iron and Steel. Casually called POSCO, the corruption remained and so in 2002, the company formally adopted that name.

The POSCO steel works took between 1970 to 1981 to build. In the beginning, they had only a blast furnace and two steel converters. In their last phase, POSCO's was producing an 8.5 million tons load and Korean workers had replaced foreign workers in all phases and aspects of the activity.

In the beginning too, machinery came privately from Japan and Austria but through the 1980s, Korea was soon able to produce its own, outsourcing its raw material, and constructing a second integrated steel plant in Kwangyang which is in South Korea's Chollanamdo region. By 1973, the company had already begun producing crude steel, and by 1983, POSCO's annual production peaked over 9 million tonnes (About.com. Metals). The 19780s, too, was the time when POSCO expanded itself as well as collapsing and streamlining all parts of their industry that included all aspects from iron smelting to steel making as well as manufactured steel production plants (ibid.) the company also established the Pohang University of Science and Technology, and involved itself in other research and development ventures. .

The early 1990s was the time when POSCO first took off. Building itself on proceeds from their Kwangyang outlet, the company sought new markets and in 1986, established a mergence with the American company USX Corp. constructing a steel mill in the U.S.A. Recession in America and Europe caused them to turn to China.

In 1991, POSCO had exported only about 200,000 tons of steel to China, but by the following year it increased that amount to an additional million tonnes, and in 1992, it built a tin-plate plant in Shanghai. That same year, it moved to Vietnam building a pipe mill and an electric arc furnace near Hanoi. Refusing privatization, the company opened itself up to foreign ownership in 1989 and began selling overseas bonds the same year becoming the first South Korean company to be included on the New York Stock Exchange. Posco later branched out into telecommunications, acquiring a part in Atel Inc.

In the late 1990s,… [read more]


Ethnic Relations in Peninsular Malaysia the Cultural and Economic Dimensions Term Paper

Term Paper  |  19 pages (5,426 words)
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Ethnic Relations in the Malaysian Peninsula

Some Chinese traders had settled in the country of Malaysia for centuries before other Chinese ethnic groups joined them in the 19th and 20th centuries. Although there has been an intermixture among the Chinese and other political minorities and the Malays as the political majority population, the Chinese have managed to preserve their cultural… [read more]


Culture Refers to the Accumulated Knowledge Essay

Essay  |  16 pages (4,685 words)
Bibliography Sources: 16

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¶ … Culture refers to the accumulated knowledge, social and personal behavior, values, language, customs, and the religious beliefs of one ethnic group which are usually learned and passed from one generation of people to the next one. Looking at culture from an anthropological viewpoint, culture determines what people belief in their folk remedies, indigenous systems of medicine and other… [read more]


Asian Immigration in the Decades Term Paper

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In all cases, racism and discrimination threatened the lives and well-beings of the immigrants, whose hopes and dreams were shattered when they reached American shores.

The hopes and dreams of all Asian immigrants were rooted in economic motivation. All immigrants came in search of money, either through temporary jobs as many of the early Chinese laborers did, or through permanent livelihood. For example, the Sikhs who emigrated from India to the United States did so in large part because the Indian agricultural economy was faltering under British rule. Needing new work, they fled to America in hope of fulfilling the American Dream. Similarly, Korean immigrants thrived through entrepreneurial activities in America. However idealistic their outlooks were, though, each of these Asian immigrant populations experienced overt discrimination on the part of whites, who feared that the Asians would steal their jobs.

The struggle between assimilation into American society and preserving their cultural identity was a core paradigm of immigration for all Asian immigrant groups. The Japanese immigrants were particularly conflicted, for while proud of their cultural heritage, Nisei Generation hoped to remove the stigma of being an outsider. Similarly, Korean immigrants readily embraced the concept of assimilation so that they would more easily blend into their new cultural surroundings. In spite of these efforts to assimilate, however, whites continued to view their presence as a threat.

Preserving cultural identity, aspiring toward economic prosperity, and resisting systematic discrimination became key paradigms for all the immigrant groups that Ronald Takaki discusses in his book Strangers from a Different Shore. The main theme running throughout the book is that while all the Asian immigrant groups brought with them hopes and dreams for prosperity, and while all retained pride in their ethnic heritages, all these groups: the Chinese, the Japanese, the Koreans, the Philippines, and the East Indians unfortunately contended with racism that was supported by the American government.

Works Cited

Takaki, Ronald. Strangers from a Different Shore. Boston: Little,…… [read more]


Nation Examined Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,209 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

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Economic Growth of Japan

Cross Cultural Perspectives

Ms. Emily Archer

Economic Growth of Japan

Japan boasts one of the strongest economies in the world. In terms of capacity, Japan's economy ranks third after the United States and China. Extensive emphasis on the technology, which acts as one of the strongest resources of the country, has thrust Japan into a world… [read more]


America React to the Japanese Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,106 words)
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"Stimson now believed that Japan was "in the hands of virtually mad dogs," with its army "running amok." ( Lafeber, W. The Clash: U.S.-Japanese Relations Throughout History p. 176).

American reaction was fast. The same day, September 22, Secretary of State Henry Stimson informed Debuchi (Japanese Ambassador in Washington D.C.) that "This situation is of concern, morally, legally and politically… [read more]


U.S. Trade Patterns With China Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (953 words)
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¶ … trade patterns between U.S. And China

In analyzing the trade patterns between the United States and China throughout the years, it is inevitable that the study would also delve into the history of China as a government, particularly as a political and economic power in the Asian region. The history of trade between the two countries can be best traced through three periods in history, which may also be identified as the three phases that China took in establishing and developing trade relations with the United States.

The first phase involves early trade relations between the two countries in the first century AD, a period wherein the barter system was in operation. During this period, U.S. has yet to be known as an independent nation, and was simply referred to as the Americas. Trade between China and the Americas simply involved the exchange of essential goods that each country had -- China with its supply of silk, gun powder, and porcelain, and the Americas with its staple foodstuffs. In this phase, trade was in its crudest form, and would be hampered with the increasing level of isolation that China had imposed upon itself through the coming years. Thus, after the first phase, trade relations between the two countries lagged, and eventually became non-existent, especially with the development of China in the early- and mid-20th century as a Communist country.

The second phase of the trade relationship between U.S. And China came after the collapse of the Socialist experiment in Asia. China, succumbing to the Modernist Project that was formulated by the U.S., gradually opened its doors to the free market, albeit with cautiousness and limited access only.

At this phase, state-owned enterprises and businesses were sold off to private businessmen and investors. The receptiveness of the country towards trade was also influenced by the changing ties that U.S. had with other countries, such as China's enemy, the Soviet Union, who was also gradually opening up to the free market, even going so far as to establish economic relations with the United States. Thus, with this trend among Asian and former Communist countries, China re-established its political ties with the U.S., which inevitably meant there will be more opportunities for each country to conduct economic transactions -- primarily, trade and exchange of goods, merchandise, and in China's case, labor (Worden and Dolan, 1987).

It must be noted that during the second phase, China had been primarily a supplier of natural resources or raw materials to the U.S., mainly because it had been an agricultural society, an economic system supported by the state during the reign of the Communist party system. Thus, while U.S. provided China with the materials and machinery, building large warehouses and factories for the manufacture of technological merchandise, China had supplied America with human labor and raw materials. In addition to these,…… [read more]


Aesthetic and Religious Significance of Traditional Hindu Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,057 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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¶ … aesthetic and religious significance of traditional Hindu art. The focus of the paper stems from the fact that we were privileged enough to have access to a major contribution in scholarship in South and Southeast Asian art when the museum acquired aspects of the Alsdorf collection. In other words, because we have been exposed to a collection of objects including sculpture, jewelry, paintings, and architectural elements from India, Nepal, Tibet, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Java, and elsewhere, it is important for us to examine the underlying sources of influence such as that of Hinduism on the region's art.

The Alsdorf collection was collected over many decades so it is important to grasp the concept that Hinduism and art have influenced Asian art and architectural elements from 200 BC through to the twentieth century. Even though the collection of Hindu materials on display was not large, they were very illustrative of the Hindu influence and by understanding the distinction between the Indian, Himalayan and Southeast Asian art influences, it is possible to understand the notions of how gods and supreme beings concepts were integrated in to the cultures of the time.

Hinduism has been found to have originated throughout northern India and eventually migrated south. It was also thought that over time it spread all over the mainland of Southeast Asia and Indonesia. No true founder has ever been credited and historians believe that the religion more or less developed over a period of centuries by India's various pantheistic cults. This is because the religion was not founded on any single text and in fact has many writings, tales, myths and legends throughout its past. Therefore, Hindu art and Hinduism in general entail an extremely diverse body of religion, philosophy, and cultural practices.

The philosophies were however native to and predominant throughout India. The underlying ideals can be characterized by a strong belief in reincarnation and supreme beings; however, these entities can be packaged into many forms and natures. "A common sight in India is a crowd of people gathered in the courtyard of a temple or at the doorway of a street side shrine for the Darsan of the deity. Darson means 'seeing.' In the Hindu ritual tradition it refers especially to religious seeing, or the visual perception of the sacred." (Eck, 1996)

Making generalizations about Hinduism, the influence on art and on the visually influenced culture may not be completely possible because the culture was in fact so diverse. In other words, generalizations such as thinking that understanding that 'the eyes' were the only insight into the thoughts and minds of Hindu and Indian artists lacks depth. A major feature of Hinduism for example can be the underlying notion that all living beings form part of an eternal cycle of reincarnation and the only way for humans to break free from this cycle is with great effort. Hinduism basics are that the existence of the world is a part of this cycle. Creation occurred, it now… [read more]


Asian Racism and Stereotypes Term Paper

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America is supposedly the Melting Pot of the world, where people of many different ethnicities, cultures, and backgrounds come together in peace to establish one united and equal society. As one of the most developed countries in the world, the United States is, to many individuals, a symbol of enlightenment and advancement in all areas of the arts, sciences, and… [read more]


Roles of Japanese Emperors Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,585 words)
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"No action of the leaders of the early Meiji period was productive of happier results than this" he adds (Treat, 1928 p. 101). By 1872, the issue of foreign treaties assumed increasing importance with regard to Japan's foreign relations over the next 22 years (Treat, 1928).

The research shows that the Meiji era originally brought an opening of women's horizons… [read more]


Chinese Society Term Paper

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Chinese Society

Greatest Achievements of Chinese Society

The Chinese society has demonstrated a number of achievements since some decades ago. First is the success of the Chinese society to have friendly relations with hundreds of countries around the world, both in terms of national and economic relations. China in particular has set good trading relations with almost every nation in the wor ld and has established trust and friendly relations with its neighboring countries. The second achievement of the Chinese society is its active participation in foreign affairs. The Chinese government actively supports and promotes regional cooperation for a better economy. China is an active member of APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) and ASEM (Asia-Europe Meeting) (PeopleDaily Online). Thirdly, the Chinese Society has successfully protected its nation's territorial sovereignty. China has won back its power over Hong Kong and Macao. The Chinese Society is also hoping to unite and win back the territory of Taiwan, being a Chinese land. Finally, among the greatest achievements of the Chinese Society is its power to rise from economic depression. Currently, China is among the fast developing nations in the world bringing great technologies and causing economic reforms in China.

Chinese's Uniqueness

Compared to the Western civilization, the Chinese is indeed unique in many areas of living. For instance, the Chinese society particularly the traditional ones observe class system wherein the rich and poor are identified within the society. Traditional values is also very apparent in the Chinese society which even to the present modern days is very evident. Another uniqueness of the Chinese society is that Chinese families these days are composed of few members which if compared to other neighboring countries, or even to the Western or European families, is far less in the number of siblings. Chinese families of today are usually composed of just 1 or 2 children.

How China Influence other Asian Societies

The continuing development and success in the Chinese economy is no wonder among the reasons why other Asian societies are being influenced by China. China used to be a very poor country in which the literacy rate is very low. Hence, many Chinese work only as laborers. But in the past years, as China demonstrated growing success in terms of its economy, many Asian societies considered the country as a role model, inspiring their national economic growth.

China's influences to other Asian societies are also caused by its trading strategies. China is among the nations whose existence in trading…… [read more]


Burma and ASEAN Term Paper

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Myanmar

Since 1988, the people of Myanmar, a Southeast Asian nation also known as Burma, have suffered under the leadership of a repressive military junta. The group, which has shown it will stop at nothing to retain power, exhibits such isolationist tendencies that it relocated the country's capital from Rangoon to a remote jungle construction site called Naypyidaw (Pepper, 2006).… [read more]


British Policy Burma and China Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (927 words)
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(317-318)

Though the Burmese government was highly influenced by Chinese tradition, they seemed to have less of a tendency to change with the times, in the manner that was needed to resist outside control from colonial powers, especially in the since that the nation did not reap the benefits of economic growth created by colonial expansion but instead were relegated to a position of watching as resources were stripped from their nation. (315, 363) British rule left the nation in a position of weakness, especially the poor as outside interests were then free to come in and buy up property and conscript labor for colonial interest. Indian elite were especially prone to buy land from the poor and then demand rent, many peasants lost land in this manner and sympathy for their plight engendered belated concessions for representation and eventually nationalism that spurned first independence as a colony and then as a nation. (363) To Britain Burma was a small holding, while China was a trade partner, not equal to the Western powers but still able to have some control over trade and to take some part in the gains created by colonial expansion. (357) Internal conflict and infighting between powers, the most dominant of which was Britain created a situation where China was held together but required in a sense to sign "open door" treaties that opened the nation even further to Western trade expansion and colonial industry. (325-326)

Britain made concerted efforts all over Southeast Asia to colonize nations, and the weaker, smaller and more strategic nations tended to fall to colonial rule, through a slow progression of trade concessions and then British military aggression. Burma, did not retain enough political control, as China did, to remain isolated and Britain was much more successful there than in other areas of the region. "The search for trade explains the successive waves of European travelers from Portugal, Holland, France, and Great Britain, and it is a constant factor in the story of British relations with China in South-East Asia." (Woodman 1) All the nations of Southeast Asia were potentially fodder for colonial expansion and the gaining of wealth, often at the extreme peril and long-term expense of the indigenous populations. China resisted for much longer than Burma, as it signed independent treaties with many nations for port rights and other trade and settlement rights. Britain treated the Burmese nation as an adjunct to India, as a matter of logistical ease while Britain, for most of its colonial period could only hope to see as much control in China as it had in Burma and other locations in Southeast Asia.

Works Cited

Murphy, Rhodes. A History…… [read more]


North Korea Due to Its Relative Geographic Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,724 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

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North Korea

Due to its relative geographic and political isolation, North Korea remains of the most interesting and least understood countries in the world. Nicknamed the "Hermit Kingdom" for its extreme secrecy and attempts at a completely autonomous existence, North Korea has maintained a rocky relationship with West ever since its creation in the aftermath of World War II (French… [read more]


Art Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,320 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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The archaeological records shows that the Chinese character for tea did not emerge until the second or third century CE, suggesting that tea as it is known today was first developed around the second century CE in China. However, brewed herbal beverages were mentioned during the time of Confucius in the sixth and fifth centuries BCE. There are no absolute dates or circumstances under which tea was first produced and dried for mass consumption. Methods of preparing tea changed dramatically over the centuries. Trends in tea drinking also changed, according to the political leadership of China (United Kingdom Tea Council, 2013). Dried leaves and powder were both used. The main reason why tea is one of the most important of all Chinese inventions is the fact that it became a major world commodity during the age of European imperialism. The Dutch East India Company and the British East India Company prospered particularly because of tea. The economics and politics of tea have been crucial to understanding world history.

In 2005, archaeologists unearthed a 4000-year-old bowl of noodles, preserved under three meters (ten feet) of sediment (Roach, 2005). Further research has revealed that the noodles were made of two different types of millet, and were hand-pulled noodles -- which are still made today, seven thousand years later (Roach, 2005). This finding proved once and for all that the Chinese did indeed invent noodles for the first time. The honor of inventing the noodle had been disputed by scholars who have postulated that noodles might have been invented first in the Middle East. (Roach, 2005). Before the discovery of the 4000-year-old bowl of noodles, the first known use of noodles in China was several thousand years later during the Han Dynasty, between 25 and 220 CE. Noodles became a staple of Chinese cuisine, gradually made their way Westward via Arab traders. Noodles then began to permeate the cuisines of cultures as varied and geographically distinct as India, Persia, Japan, and Italy. Each culture could develop a local variation on noodles, based on the availability of the base grain product (wheat, rice, or tuber starches) and the intended finished product (soup or dry dish). Noodles became integral to the cuisines of diverse cultures, and it is impossible to imagine my life without them.

Therefore, noodles are the one Chinese invention that I cannot live without. I eat noodles multiple times per week, sometimes in the format of cheap instant noodles and other times in a more refined format. When I am in an Italian restaurant, I know deep down that I owe a debt of gratitude to the Chinese for the ravioli, tortellini, spaghetti, and fettuccini on my plate. These types of pasta might not resemble their incarnations in Chinese cooking, but this only reminds me more of the history of Chinese contributions to global society. Noodles are present in dishes throughout East Asia, which is also testimony to the tremendous influence Chinese culture had throughout the continent. Even some Indian dishes use… [read more]

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