Study "Asian History / Asia" Essays 1-55

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Asian History Although the Great Civilizations Term Paper

… Asian History

Although the great civilizations of pre-modern China, Korea, and Japan borrowed from each other and came to share much in common, there is no more one East Asia than there is one Europe. To liken China, Korea, and Japan together under one common umbrella would be like lumping together all the diverse cultural groups of Europe. The East Asia rubric is a Western projection largely born of ignorance and bias and not of historical analysis. For one, the languages of these three countries are morphologically distinct. It is therefore impossible for a Korean, a Japanese, and a Chinese person to understand one another. If there were a common East Asian culture, then surely language would unite them. There are several meaningful ways in which Japan, Korea, and China have shared and borrowed from each other to create some core similarities in politics, social and intellectual life, religion, and artistic expression. Yet each act of borrowing did not lead to a subsequent act of assimilation. When Japan borrowed its Buddhist traditions from China, for example, it transformed them into what is a uniquely Japanese Buddhist heritage.

The distinctions between China, Korea, and Japan can be grouped into several categories including language, religion, art, politics, foreign affairs, and culture. Even when similarities are evident, they may be more related to a common human experience than to one unique only to East Asia. For example, gender relations and patriarchy is a common theme in most human societies and not just in the geographic region of East Asia.

The people of these three modern nations share common ancestry; prehistoric population migrations prove that point. However, all human beings ultimately stemmed from one root civilization that most likely evolved out of Africa. Population migrations from the same root Neolithic groups within Europe have not erased the distinctions between cultures there any more than they have in East Asia. Therefore, it is fair to say that Japan, Korea, and China are distinct cultures with distinct expressions of art, politics, and language.

Until the Mongol invasion, Korea and Japan had not developed as sophisticated a society as China did. This means that many of the features found in common between China, Korea, and Japan can be traced to earlier evolutions in China. For example, the Koreans borrowed the Chinese system of printing whereby characters were carved on wooden blocks and stamped. Koreans in the 12th century built upon the Chinese system to create "the first world's first metal moveable type," ("Hidden Korea"). Korea also took much from Chinese Buddhism as well as Confucianism in forming Korean philosophical and cultural traditions. Yet Korean kingdoms have thrived in distinction from their Chinese -- or their Japanese -- counterparts. Buddhism and Confucianism came to Korea and Japan via China but those philosophical traditions took on completely different forms because of pre-existing cultural nuances. The relative insularity and isolationist policies that characterized… [read more]

East Asia Ideal and Reality Term Paper

… " Emperor Meiji's word, like Mao's, was law in the new territories -- but Meiji's word was rooted in revolution, not in the ways of old Japan: "All that Japan undertook in its colonies during the first quarter century of the empire was based on Meiji experience in domestic reform" (Schmid 957). The National Mobilization Law saw thousands of Koreans conscripted into the Japanese army in order to fight a foe that was almost indistinguishable from the one that now ruled over it. It was the Age of Empire in East Asia, and though the Empire had many faces, it was always ruled by the same clan -- international materialism. There was no need to set up a lasting model. Revolution was the rule, and wheel was constantly spinning. If the wheel stopped, a new power stepped in. In East Asia as in every nation across the globe, the old ways were being stomped out -- the old world replaced by a new unstable one, in which capital and resources reigned supreme -- and in which the law of the ancients, the way of Christ or Buddha or Confucius -- was repellant.

In conclusion, the new ideals, the new models, the new laws which various leaders attempted to establish in East Asia varied in terms of proximity to the "democratic" or "Marxist" ideal -- but the base of each was the same: a denial of the culture which these nations had long cherished. A corruption of forms, of method, of belief, of action each precipitated a new direction away from the old and towards the "new," whether the new were rooted in American hypocrisy or in European hypocrisy. It did not matter. Whether in Japan, China, Korea, Vietnam, Indochina or the Philippines, the ideals were phony, the models weak, the laws paralytic. The reality was that in the 20th century, East Asia suffered immensely because it abandoned the Old and opened its arms to the New.

Works Cited

De Bary, William T., ed. Sources of East Asian Tradition: Premodern Asia, Volume 1.

NY: Columbia University Press, 2008.

Fitzgerald C.P. "Religion and China's Cultural Revolution." Pacific Affairs, Vol. 40,

No. 1/2, 1967, pp. 124-129. Print.

Johnson, Paul. Modern Times. NY: HarperPerennial, 1992. Print.

Lu, David John. Japan: A Documentary History. NY M.E. Sharpe, 1997.

Schmid, A. "Colonialism and the 'Korea Problem' in the Historiography of Modern

Japan." Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 59, no. 4, 2000, pp. 951-976.

Stone, Oliver; Kuznick, Peter. The Untold History of the United States. NY: Gallery

Books, 2012.

Woodstock, George. "Literary Lines in China." Pacific Affairs, Vol. 40, No. 1/2,… [read more]

Asian Studies Short Answer Questions. Most Theories Essay

… Asian Studies


Most theories of indianization seem to underestimate the receiver cultures and societies because of a more or less marked high culture-centrism by which Southeast Asian cultures and religions are measured in relation to the classical… [read more]

Footbinding the Chinese Idea of Footbinding Emerged Essay

… Footbinding

The Chinese idea of footbinding emerged during the 10th century and lasted for approximately one millennium, until 1911. Young girls were generally targeted with the purpose of imposing this custom on them and their social class or background in… [read more]

Power Conflict and the Making of Modern Asia Essay

… Power, Conflict and the Making of Modern Asia

Power conflict and the making of modern Asia

The center of concern in international politics is yet to change as the Asian-pacific region is seen to become the new strategic center of… [read more]

Economic Outlook of Asia Essay

… These efforts have started to pay dividends in Indonesia and India, as inflation is on a downward trend and the current account deficits in both countries are on a declining path" (Chapter 1, 2014: 17).

Of course, some nations have received negative press due to their political instability (most notably accusations against Pakistan for taking an insufficiently proactive stance against terrorism). China and India have in particular been cited as hotbeds of corruption which continue to make some foreign investors frustrated and wary. "In 2013, India ranked ninety-fourth out of 176 countries in Transparency International's Corruption Perception Index, alongside Mongolia and Colombia and below neighbors like China and Sri Lanka," with total misappropriation of funds totaling in the billions (India's corruption problem, 2014). China's human rights record remains an area of concern not simply from a moral perspective but also because limits on free speech may hamper the growth of certain businesses. Yet even the most unstable of Asia's governments show some hope of accommodating change and growth. This year, a military coup in Thailand, Southeast Asia's second-largest economy, caused the country to "rebound strongly to 91" on Thomson Reuters/INSEAD Asia Business Sentiment Index " after months of anti-government protests had dragged the country's score down to negative territory since the end of last year. The army said it would end political unrest and revive the country's flagging economy, boosting business and consumer sentiment. Thai consumer confidence rebounded last month for the first time in over a year" (Jourdan 2014). What could have been a potential economic disaster had the reverse effect. This bullish outcome suggested that even in the most fraught area of Asia, there is hope for change and long-term growth.


Asia faces five challenges to its economic future. (2014). IMF. Retrieved from:

Chapter 1: Asia's momentum is set to continue. (2014). IMF. Regional economic outlook:

Asia and Pacific. Retrieved from:

India's corruption problem. (2014). CFR. Retrieved from:

Jourdan, A. (2014). Political change in India, China news spurs spike in Q2 Asia business sentiment. Retrieved from:

Samii, M. (2011). Custom international business resources. Southern New Hampshire

Southeast Asia: Next growth frontier. (2014). J.P. Morgan. Retrieved from; [read more]

East/West an Analysis of Eastern Research Paper

… Chen goes on to lay out every single reference and cross-reference he can find in the film, linking the Guzheng assassins to The Six-Fingered Lord of the Lute; Landlady's "Lion's Roar" to Jin Yong's Heaven Sword and Dragon Sabre; and… [read more]

History of Japan. First Term Paper

… Social, Political and Cultural Climate

As referenced above much of Buddhism in Japan comes from the influence of Korea and China. It is because of this social framework based on commerce that the religion took hold. "Buddhist monasteries themselves led… [read more]

Japan Be Seen Term Paper

… Japan and the ASEAN countries share a common cultural and religious heritage, therefore, any expansion and progression of the free market economy in the ASEAN countries would result in similar changes in society and social structure. Japan saw this progress… [read more]

Preparing a Multimedia Presentation Term Paper

… ¶ … Learn

The chosen I have chosen to discuss with regards to human rights abuses is Tibet. I have a keen interest in Tibet because of its unique culture and geography, and its role in Asian history. Slide One illustrates a map of Tibet and the Tibetan areas in adjacent Chinese provinces, with a multimedia of Tibetan monk chants.

Slide Two outlines the five Ws and H. Of the abuses: Who: Tibetans. What: Strict control of religious freedom, illegal searches, flooding Tibet with ethnic Han settlers to dilute the culture, arbitrary arrest, torture and extrajudicial killings. Where: Tibet and Tibetan areas of Chinese provinces; When: from 1950 to present; Why: To exert control over Tibet's mineral wealth; How: through military and police force.

The next two slides outline in greater detail two of the points above. Slide Three discusses the abuses. Slide Four outlines the natural wealth that makes Tibet so attractive to the Chinese government.

Slide Five is a chart showing the historical timeline and this comes a brief overview of why China feels they have dominion over Tibet. This covers the major points in history where China gained or lost control over Tibet.

Slide Six details other examples of human rights abuses by the Communist Party in China - the Cultural Revolution, the treatment of Muslims in Xinjiang, and the persecution of the Falun Gong. This outlines a track record of abuse of which Tibet is just one portion.

Slide Seven compares Chinese and Tibetan responses to the issue. On the Chinese side points include official denial, statements that they are improving the lot of Tibetans, and the security crackdowns. On the Tibetan side are the calls for autonomy, the peaceful protests, and the riots of 2008. Slide Eight will embed a video shot by an Australian tourist during the Lhasa riots. The video shows Tibetan rioters flipping cars, burning building and beating Chinese citizens. The scope of the violence illustrates the level of anger the Tibetans are harboring as a result of the abuses of the past six decades.

Slide Nine illustrates Western responses to the issue. These include official condemnation, taking audience with the Dalai Lama, civilian protests, and a lack of economic sanctions. The strong public support in the West provides optimism that the abuses may come to an end, yet the lack of… [read more]

Confucianism in East Asian Essay

… In China Japan and Korea the state organized education systems in order to transmit knowledge that was based on neo-Confucian orthodoxy as well as the subsequent recruitment of government services of those that had mastered neo-Confucian classics. Confucians held the… [read more]

Asian Resources and Economic Research Paper

… State involvement in commercial transactions thus has little to do with contributing to the creation of sustainable economic growth. In fact, several commercial transactions have merely worked to sustain the 'shadow state', ensuring that income generation is not tied to… [read more]

East Asia Exports to Western Europe in the 18th and 19th Centuries Term Paper

… E.Asia export to Westen Europe in 18th and 19th century

China Export to Western Europe

The Chinese tea is probably the most well-known product of the country. China's tradition in producing and serving tea is a fascinating subject for many… [read more]

East Asia, 1800-1912 the Dominance Case Study

… They neither wiped out the historical slate. As significant literatures focusing on the concepts of modernization, colonialism and incorporation of the European seem to point out the displacing of the historical heritage, cross-fertilization, and processes of East Asia. Most of them kicked off in the previous centuries whereby European military and economic power made no substantial challenges to East Asia. In fact, in the process elements of how this region responded reasserted towards shaping the entire region and restructuring their international political organization. Ultimately, this led to commercial patterns that transformed the entire East Asia region.

The 1899-1900 boxer rebellion became the watershed phenomenon ushering in the 20th century in East Asia and its foreign relation challenges. In the wake of 1898, famine and flood in North China were blamed on western developments in the region, which disrupted the region's Geo-magnetic balance. These fears coupled with great animosity towards European colonizers and their Chinese counterparts became a possible target for a major uprising. The boxer rebellion was orchestrated by the boxer movement. It was optimistic that it could transform itself to a millenarian sect that could be impervious to firearms. The local hegemonies aggressively suppressed the movement terming it a plot to exploit the passion of the East Asia populations. They believed that Europeans had intentions limiting foreign participation of North China is the region.

As official sanctions were brought up, European powers spread rapidly across the region resulting in massive deaths of Chinese populations and hundreds of European foreigners. In the 1900 spring, the imperial army helped the European powers to penetrate Beijing laying a siege to the legation district. This led to the murder of the Chinese chief legato prompting quick international condemnation. This made China declare war on all foreign powers. The royal family flees following the efforts of the European forces in relieving the legation siege. Following this development, the Chinese dynasty entered unequal treaties with European forces and troops regarding major routes between the sea, Beijing and in the capital city.

Looking at the phenomenon in reverse, the history of the Chinese encounter with the European powers in the 19th century looks like a tale of inexorable and woe decline. With this hindsight benefit, the first encounter between Chinese Dynasty and European powers looks like a self-deception study. This opened formal diplomatic relations between Europe and China, which opened free trade between the two nations. Frustrations were experienced by London, which limited all maritime trading activities between China and Europe. Consequently, this denied European powers from accessing much of the prosperous and huge Chinese markets. Because of the gross trade inequality between Europe and China, acute commercial pressure existed. This took place even with the lack of intergovernmental organizations characterizing the North American and the European Union Free Trade Treaties.

This development was the longest in the entire debacle of China's defeats. A battle between European forces and China in 1895s traditional sphere of influencing Japan was more than humiliating to the Chinese troops. However,… [read more]

Imperialism in Asian Post WW2 Essay

… Imperialism in East Asia

A Comparison of the Effects of Imperialism in the Philippines and in Korea

As Hutchinson and Smith (1994, p. 3) suggest, imperialism is connected to and rooted in the idea of nationalism and, though it is… [read more]

Economic Interdependence Among North Asian Essay

… Many Japanese media consumers have been concerned over the candor of the government throughout the crisis. Japanese media has tended to be less aggressive, historically, than the U.S. media in questioning official policies. This may change, given the impact of… [read more]

Asian Studies as Far as the Distribution Term Paper

… Asian Studies

As far as the distribution of power throughout the world is concerned, the position of supremacy of the United States of America has always supported the opposition between the East and the West. Power has various dimensions. Among… [read more]

Since 1500 a History of World Societies Term Paper

… ¶ … 1500 History of World Societies

European average income per person began to rise in comparison with the rest of the world beginning in about Answer:

1450 b. 1650 c. 1750 d. 1850

All of the following statements characterize world economic development in the 19th century except:

industrialization generated global inequity in wealth and power.

railroads drastically reduced transportation costs.

the opening of the Suez and Panama canals facilitated trade.

the world's leader in importing foreign goods was America.

All of the following technological innovations were crucial to European imperialist expansion in the late nineteenth century except:

the machine gun.

the telegraph.

c. quinine.

The airplane.

Causes of the so-called new imperialism (1880-1914) include all of the following except:


a. economic competition in foreign markets.

b. aggressiveness of European nationalism.

c. The theory that colonies benefited workers.

d. The belief that the West had much to learn from traditional cultures.

All of the following represented threats to the Ottoman Empire except:


a. Russian invasion and uprisings by Christian subjects in Europe.

b. The beginning of France's long conquest of Algeria in 1830.

c. increased local independence and the sultanate's loss of authority.

d. The Tanzimat reforms and growing westernization of culture.

In the 19th century, West Africa experienced all of the following developments except:


a. The emergence of a fledgling middle class in coastal towns.

b. A renewal of the trans-Atlantic slave trade in the 1860's.

c. The rise of an export trade in palm oil used for making soap.

d. An Islamic revival involving intolerance of animism.

The principle formulated at the Berlin Conference (1884-85) by which European powers laid claim to African territory was called:


a. extraterritoriality.

b. annexation.

c. effective occupation.

d. military subjugation.

All of the following statements characterized imperial government in Africa between 1900 and 1930 except:


a. Colonial governments moved decisively against slavery in response to the European movement for abolition.

b. imperial governments operated either through existing local leaders or through appointed officials.

c. expenditures on education and social services represented a small part of the overall budget.

d. A westernized elite emerged, together with successful African business people.

All of the following drove the transformation of European imperialism in Asia during the 1800s except:


a. Christian missionaries and the idea of progress.

b. advances in Western communications and technology.

c. The need for markets for mass-produced goods.

d. old established monarchies with long literary traditions.

All of the following were characteristic of British rule in India except:


a. population increased, travel conditions improved, and disease spread b. large plantations… [read more]

Japanese History and Chinese Fixation Term Paper

… There are similarities and differences in the practices and beliefs of Buddhism in China and Japan. Currently, Japan is the largest Buddhist nation across the globe. This diversity relates to the adoption of best Buddhism practices and beliefs from Korea, India, and China by Japan towards the development of this religion as a form of their own art.


There is great relationship between the historical development of Japan and China. This makes it difficult or impossible to examine or study the history of Japan without elaborating the crucial role by China in the development of the modern nation in the Asia Continent. Chinese fixation is an essential concept in relation to examination of the history or characteristics of historical development of Japan in a single-coined term. There is close relationship in the religion, cosmology, and political systems of the two nations because of their interactions and culture borrowing.


Karl F. Friday. (1997). Pushing beyond the Pale: the Yamato Conquest of the Emishi and Northern Japan. Journal of Japanese Studies, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 1-24

Theodore de Bary et al., (2000). Sources of Japanese Tradition. Volume One; from earliest to

Dorothy Ko et al. (2003). Women and Confucian Cultures in Pre-modern China, Korea, and Japan. University… [read more]

Tajikistan to the North Research Paper

… Communists and an alliance of Islamic and democratic forces fought with each other to gain power. RahmanNabiyev, a communist, won the presidential elections of November 1991. However, his government was not accepted and nonaggressive protests by the opposition elements were observed in March 1992 demanding his resignation. The situation worsened when in April the government opened fire on the protesters. Nabiyev was thrown way from his office in September by the opponents. The civil war came to an end when in November ImomaliRakhmonov formed a government supported by Russian troops was formed. [6]

The civil War caused substantial loss of life and property. Close to about 600,000 people lost their lives and were left homeless. A great loss of education was made. Estimate damage of U.S.$7 billion was reported. [4]

Until June 1997 periodic fights persisted. A peace agreement was enforced by the United Nations, Russia, and Iran which ended the war and maintained a state of social rest in the country. However, the unstable political situation in the country since after its independence caused the country to be dependent on foreign aid. In 1991, Rakhmonov was re-electedfor another term. [6]

Present day problems of Tajikistan

After the dismissal of Taliban in 2001, resolute Islamic extremists crossed the border, unsettling life and economic conditions of Tajikistan. [6]

Furthermore, the collapse of Taliban government led to an upsurge in narcotics production in Afghanistan. As a result, Tajikistan became a major transportation hub for Afghan heroin and opium regulated for European markets and other parts of the world. [6][1]

President Rakhmonov was again elected for the third time in November 2006. But the results were boycotted by the opposition parties. His government has been alleged of several human rights exploitations and dishonesty. Also true democracy has ot been observed during his reign. Independent media has been restricted and opposition leaders have been imprisoned.[4]


[1] Central Intelligence Agency, (accessed February 18, 2013)

[2] The Land of Tajiks, (accessed February 18, 2013)

[3] Early History,,… [read more]

Asian Pacific Security the Asian Pacific Region Assessment

… Asian Pacific Security

The Asian Pacific region has been problematical in the world of International Affairs for at least the past two centuries. The emergence of a modernized Japan and China changed the paradigm of the area; and the idea… [read more]

Southeast Asian Bamboo Flutes Dissertation

Traditional Southeast Asian Bamboo Flutes: Studies on Origins and History

The study investigates the bamboo flutes found in Southeast Asia, as well as their history and origin. The earliest known extant bamboo flute, a chi, or ancient Chinese flute, from the… [read more]

Europe, the Russian Federation, and East Asia Term Paper

… Geography

Meeting Place of Two Worlds

On the Borders of East Asia and the Russian Federation

Location shapes human culture in more ways than many can imagine. The ruggedness of the terrain, the availability of water, the vegetation and climate;… [read more]

Sociology / Panethnicity Asian-American Term Paper

… During the time Japanese were herded into concentration camps, Chinese-Americans were justifiably "fearful that they would be targets of anti-Japanese activities," and so they "took to wearing buttons that proclaimed positively 'I'm Chinese'." And many Chinese shop-owners put signs in… [read more]

Korean History: The Climate Term Paper

… These changes and others mark a "golden age" in Korean history focusing on the ideals of a more progressive government, economy and science and arts. Ascension of Sejong to the throne in 1418 led to a series of technological and… [read more]

Asian Tourism Critical Issues Research Paper

… Quite often, people will engage in travel just because of the permissiveness or at least lax law enforcement of certain areas. Some countries react by being overly sensitive about more minor things and this is a study in futility. Again,… [read more]

Asian Studies Countries Essay

… China went through similar circumstances. China was a traditional imperial society until the influx of Westerners and opening its borders to trade. China treated Westerners as barbarians and saw itself as the center of the world, this changed after the Opium War. China signed the Treaty of Nanking in 1842 granting special rights to certain Western nations, but "As treaties multiplied over the years, China found itself caught in an intricate and ever-growing web" (Thomson, Stanley, Perry, p.37). The imperial Qing government lost control and eventually lost the country, ushering in a tumultuous time in China's history. The Chinese failed to create a unifying government like the Japanese that would lead them through a period of rapid modernization.

Another shared link between these nations is the discrimination faced by their immigrants in America. Chinese immigrants came to the United States in the 1850s to work the gold fields of California (Yu, p.6). They faced immediate discrimination because they were marked as exotic and alien. The competition they poised to white laborers sparked anti-Chinese violence. Racism was so pervasive that beginning in 1870, anti-miscegenation laws made it against the law for Asians to marry whites in the majority of western states (Yu, p.6). These discriminatory laws are based on the attitude that Asians brought their particular culture rather than traditions and ideas based in the Greco-Roman world (Takaki, p.13). Asians were further persecuted by institutionalized racism of public policies. The National Origins Act of 1924 forbade Japanese immigration while excluding immigrants from Western Europe (Takaki, p.14). These anti-Asian legislations affected all Asian communities including Koreans. Japanese-Americans, in particular, suffered during World War II. Over 120,000 were placed in internment camps, despite the fact that two-thirds were American citizens by birth (Yu, p.18). The Korean community did not experience targeted racism as the Chinese and Japanese communities. They were mistaken for Japanese or Chinese but there was no legislation enacted to specifically target the Korean community. They faced the same general level of discrimination as the other Asian communities.

China, Korea, and Japan were traditional societies that faced significant change after the introduction of foreign elements into their respective communities. Korea was invaded by the Japanese, which left a legacy of oppression while simultaneously modernizing key industries. The aftermath of Japanese occupation saw the fragmentation of Korea into two opposing camps. China is similar in how they went from a traditional country to a communist government (after the end of World War II). The traditional hierarchies of both China and Japan changed after being exposed to Western countries. All three countries experienced the emergence of repressive regimes after the collapse of these pre-modern societies. These people of these countries share a legacy of racism as they immigrated to the United States. Albeit, the Chinese and Japanese communities faced targeted discriminatory legislation against them while the Korean community did not.

Works Cited:

Cumings, Bruce. "We look at it and see ourselves." London Review of Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2014. .

Hedges,… [read more]

East Asian Civilizations ) Unequal Essay

… Between 1774 and 1900 major conflicts arose in China which includes the following;

The White Lotus Society situated in the North of China, was first appeared in the 13th century and was responsible for the social unrest caused in the… [read more]

International Planning Development Term Paper

… The country has focused its attention on infrastructure that will fuel its continued growth. China is currently constructing many transportation projects such as road and rail. The country is also undergoing major developments to provide the energy that will fuel… [read more]

Senkaku / Diaoyu Islands Dispute Research Paper

… After doing detailed research into the islands' ownership issues, Inoue concluded that "…these islands are territory of the People's Republic of China, the only authority over the entire China" (Pan, 78).

As regards the San Francisco Peace Treaty, the Chinese… [read more]

In the Realm of a Dying Emperor Term Paper

… Realm of a Dying Emperor

The Emperor of Japan represents Japanese history and culture, but when Emperor Hirohito died in January of 1989, he had become a symbol for Japan's development into one of the world's largest economic powers. In… [read more]

Vietnam in the 20th Century Essay

… History is the primary way that a nation's citizenship formulates identity. Individual people create this singular identity by showing their personality and the ways that they react to events in their lives. So, each person is the sum of their life's history. This is the same way that a country's history creates the nation's identity. When a nation identifies itself as a culture, that identification is the culmination of the events that have occurred in that country and with that nation's international relationships. Colonization has broken down all over the world in the last century. What invariably happens is the colonized people unite against their oppressors and demand their independence and the right to govern themselves. In the case of Vietnam, following the French colonization, the United States became involved in the warfare with Vietnam. When both these outsider nations were unable to continue battling in the small Asian country, Vietnam was able to demand its own sovereignty and to create a government system of their choosing.

By understanding the history of this country, as with the study of all other countries, scholars can better understand why the nation's government functions in the role that it does and also why it has and will create policies which affect the people of their nation. For the country of Vietnam, its citizens have faced troubles for centuries. They have had to deal with governmental takeovers from within the nation and from without. Also, they have had to face natural disasters and terror of all kinds. When a person becomes aware of the difficulties that Vietnam has had, the subsequent actions of groups such as the Vietcong become more logical and understandable. The further back the past is examined, the more sense the recent history makes.

Works Cited:

Meyers, William P. (2011). "Vietnam and the West Until 1954." The U.S. War Against Asia. III


Stearns, Peter N. (2008). "Why Study History?" American Historical Association. [read more]

Logistic PE in Hong Kong Business Plan

… ¶ … private equity firms have set their sights on Asia given the downturn in economic activity in Europe and the U.S. This is perhaps aided by the understanding that Asia's fundamentals are more likely to bring about accelerated economic growth going forward. Analysts speculate that such a trend is highly unlikely in Western economies. However, even amidst such optimism, some risks still abound for private equities seeking to set base in Asian markets. In this text, I examine the risks associated with starting a logistic related private equity in Hong Kong while taking into consideration the existing market in Asia and globally. In so doing, I will further concern myself with the particular risks for both the limited and general partners.


For China, and more so for other countries in Asia; the star for private equity has been shinning bright in recent times. As an indicator of this, for the fifteen years preceding 2009, there was a nine fold increase in PE assets under management (INSEAD 2010). Hence it would be quite in order to note that relative to the rest of the world, Asian PE has experienced much stronger growth. However, a logistic related PE seeking to start operations in Hong Kong may wish to take into consideration the fact that when it comes to long-term returns; Asian PE has not been performing exceptionally. Indeed, long-term PE returns in Asia lag behind those of Western Europe. Hence for a logistic related PE with its sights in Hong Kong, it may be prudent to take into consideration that much of the acceleration in regard to PE in this market could principally be driven by the mainstream view that markets considered emerging are highly lucrative.

For limited partners and general partners, the advance into Hong Kong is a perfect mix of optimism and concern. While Asia's and most particularly Hong Kong's positive direction in regard to development in this case is generally undisputed, there are concerns over pricing. That is, currently, what is being priced by the markets is the expected economic growth. In my opinion, this has led to risk being relatively ignored. In developing Asia (India and China), a survey carried out by INSEAD showed that there was a relatively high risk premium expected by limited partners (INSEAD, 2010). This is in comparison to Western PE. The INSEAD report states that on average, the risk premium expected by limited partners investing in China and India for their investments stood at approximately 6.5% higher. This in one way or the other cannot be taken to be a risk-free strategy especially given the challenges associated with investment valuation as well as pricing in emerging markets. Further, it sometimes proves difficult to obtain benchmarks and valuation efforts are in most cases advanced not by the general partners themselves but by either the firm itself or the venture capital side… [read more]

Historiography of East Asia Term Paper

… Historiography of East Asia: The Transfer of Sovereignty of Macau from the Portuguese Republic to the People's Republic of China on December 20, 1999

There is no question that it harbors in its hidden places all the riffraff of the… [read more]

Family History an Autobiographical Research Paper

… Family History

An autobiographical history of my family in China, and the story of the events which led to my emigration to study in the United States, the stories intertwined the following essay explore the inherency of the history of… [read more]

Future Conflict Triggers in South East Asia Essay

… Se Asia Conflict Triggers

Local Quarrels, Regional Risks:

Myanmar and Papua New Guinea

Decades of relative peace and prosperity have allowed the democracies of Southeast Asia the latitude to pursue economic cooperation and relatively stable domestic policies. But while the… [read more]

History of Cambodia, Including the Pol Pot Term Paper

… ¶ … history of Cambodia, including the Pol Pot Regime and Angkor Wat. Cambodia is an Asian country located between Vietnam and Thailand with a coastline on the Gulf of Thailand. In the 1860s, it became a colony of France,… [read more]

Asian Studies There Are Many Things Term Paper

… Asian Studies

There are many things in the West which those in the East admire, especially when it comes to business tactics and strategies and education. For example, American businessmen and women have mastered the "art of the deal" and have been able to amass great fortunes and much social and political prestige. Much of this has to do with the democratic system in the United States which allows greater financial freedom than the communist system in China and has less restrictive measures like tariffs and other forms of tax. Also, the educational system in the West is one of the finest in the world and boasts some of the greatest educational institutions to be found, such as Harvard with its often copied world-class business school. Although great educational institutions do exist in Asia, they are not as open and free when it comes to choosing a course of study, something which most Asians greatly admire and which influences them to come to the U.S. To… [read more]

History of Meiji Empire and the Consequent Term Paper

… ¶ … history of Meiji Empire and the consequent role and influence that Meiji regime had on succeeding government and their policies. The article also supports Sugimoto's thesis on presence of cultural fragmentation and diversity within Japanese society, the western… [read more]

Asian Monetary Fund What Is it Why Is it Important Term Paper

… Asian Monetary Fund - What is it? Why is it important?

What is Asian Monetary Fund?

The reform measures of International Monetary fund amidst severe economic crisis of East Asia, particularly, since the Second World War were considered as too… [read more]

Ancient History of India Term Paper

… These two classes were the Kshatryas (warriors) and the Brahmins (priests). The Aryans or Indo-Europeans assimilated quickly into India and seemed to have disappeared.

IV. Development of Religion in India

The development of religion in the region began in 500… [read more]

Post-Cold War Era, Far Term Paper

… ¶ … post-cold war era, far from making the "end of history" and the triumph of the western ideal, will be characterized by increased global fragmentation and the "clash of civilizations" based on ethical, cultural and religious distinctions. Cultural identity… [read more]

Boston Asian Community Began Term Paper

… Few efforts have been undertaken to fully describe the Asian-Americans living in Metro Boston. In fact, in many studies, Asians are either excluded or placed indiscriminately in with majority whites or other minorities. This does a disservice to the community a they have not been fairly represented in policymaking and service delivery (Watanabe, Liu & Lo, 2005).

Three facets of the Boston Asian community must be taken into consideration for them to fairly represented. First, the significant growth of the Asian community in Boston, thanks primarily to immigration, must be understood. Second, policymakers must understand that the Boston Asian community is diverse in its characteristics and socio-economic composition. And third, the complexity of the Boston Asian community must be fully realized. One size fits all policies are not effective for this community (Watanabe, Liu & Lo, 2005).

In the end, the Asian community of Boston is growing at a rate never before seen, in history. However, this group is often under or misrepresented. Policymakers must understand that this community is diverse and complex and needs policies that address their unique needs. Until the Asian community is represented fairly and accurately, it is unlikely that policies will be able effectively meet their needs.


Watanabe, P., Liu, M. & Lo, S. (Fall 2004/Winter 2005). A portrait of Asian-Americans in Metro Boston. New England Journal of Public Policy,… [read more]

II the History of Wireless Technology in China Term Paper

… ¶ … History of Wireless Tech. In China

China Before the Wireless

Before the wireless technology was introduced, China had been among the many countries whose economy depends on the manufacturing industry. With a great population and a low-cost labor,… [read more]

Sushi: A Globalized Favorite Term Paper

… C.

Chef Yohei did not use fermentation methods. He served sushi in form resembling modern day sushi.

4. Used to create different styles of sushi

A. Nare-zushi (Fermented)

B. Nama-nare (Semi-fermented and raw)

C. I-zushi (Adding malted rice to aid the fermentation)

Last type using fermentation

D. Sugata-zushi (uncut, stuffed, vinegared instead of fermented)

E. Ii-zushi (Rice)


Hako-zushi (Thin chip box used to press it, done in days)

F. Unohana-zushi (Bean curd residue is used instead of rice)

G. Kata-iri gomoku (Mixed in frame)

H. Oomura-zushi

Minced ingredients)

I. Nigiri-zushi (Hand forming- rice w/fish topping)

J. Gomoku-zushi (mixed ingredients)

K. Maki-zushi (Roll ingredients of rice, fish, toppings rolled in either Nori (seaweed) or Konbu (kelp)). This style includes

1. kazarimaki (decorative),T

2. emaki (hand rolls)

3. futomaki (large rolls/nori used), 4. hosomaki (thin rolls / nori used) uramaki (inside-out rolls/sticky rice on outside)

L. Kawari-zushi (Unusual)

M. Inrou-zushi (wrapped)

N. Inari-zushi (Wrapped with fried bean curd)

O. California roll (Outside of California) (Slender, mat rolled sushi containing crab, avocado, and cucumber

5. Sushi's popularity

A. Sushi stalls emerged originally in Tokyo in the 19th century until after World War II. Stalls vanished after World War II as occupational authorities decreed their demise.

B. Later shops arose (with water after 1923 quake) and they were the beginning of sushi bars.

C. Some traditions of appearance include Norem (short curtain hung with top of door on Sushi shops. If the curtain is in place it is open. If the curtain is down the shop is closed. Conditions are very clean.

D. Sushi presentation - Yunomi is the big ceramic cup for hot tea you see in sushi shops.

E. Traditional implements or utensils are used in making and serving sushi.

1. Makisu - bamboo rolling matt for making sushi rolls

2. Sashimi-Bocho - sharp knife

F. Etiquette

G. Sushi Day has been established as a national holiday in Japan.

H. Sushi & Wasabi are colors used to label make up and fashion

6. Globalization of Sushi

A. Sushi now appears worldwide.

B. Popularity in the U.S. increased in the late 1970's.

C. Shifting markets, diffusion of culinary culture as tastes for sushi, blue fin tuna, spread world wide.

Blue fin tuna globalized the spread of a regional industry.

D. Japan's growing cultural influence on upscale nouvelle cuisine throughout North America, Europe, and Latin America.

E. Tuna packed in ice flown JFK to Tokyo for next day sale for sushi.

500 lb tuna now caught all over the world flown/sold to Japanese buyers.

F. Traditional Sushi ingredients fit w / today's preference for less red meat and carbohydrates. popularity indication of a trend.

G. Sushi- speaks language of fashion.

H. Sushi will continue to grow, change and blossom in the future.

7. There are five main types of modern day sushi.

A. One ingredient is always present: Japanese rice flavored with sushi vinegar.

B. There are five main types of modern day sushi.

1. Nigiri- Sushi: Rice w/mustard, layer, fish on top… [read more]

Korean-American With This Dramatic Increase Term Paper

… First, Sunny asserts that she lives in America and already speaks English. She identifies more with American than with Korean culture. While learning Korean would probably serve to make her parents happy, she does not feel it is an important part of her life and identity.


In summary, these interviews with the Park family show how various generations of immigrants form their ethnic identities in different ways. Because they were limited by language and cultural barriers, the mother and father Park have a more rigid definition of their Korean-ness. They consider their ethnic and social identity as part of their blood. Hence, they believe that their American-born daughter could never truly assert that she is American.

Their experiences with the English language have also contributed strongly to their identification of language with ethnic identity. This leads them to hope that their daughter would also show her Korean-ness by learning the Korean language.

Sunny, however, disagrees. She grew up in the United States and locates her ethnic identity in symbols other than language. In her experience, however, ethnicity still continues to be a matter of how she looks. She believes that despite her citizenship and her ability to speak English, society will continue to categorize her by her dark hair and by her skin color.

While this stance is completely justified, language is also a crucial element in understanding one's heritage and background. While it is no longer a main determinant of membership, a shared language continues to play a major role in determining one's membership in a social group. Since Sunny also identifies herself as Korean-American, speaking the language would add another layer to the complexity of her heritage.

Through all this, however, it is important to remember that ethnic positioning remains fluid, particularly when it is constructed in relation to the dominant culture. Racial and ethnic classification systems continue to be manipulated b governments, universities, and social institutions and by second generation Americans like Sunny. For the most part, the role language will play in these social definitions remain in their hands.

Works Cited

Hurh, Won Moo. "Majority Americans' perception of Koreans in the United States: Implications of Ethnic Images and Stereotypes." In Ho-Young Kwon, ed. Korean-Americans: Conflict and Harmony. Chicago: Covenant Publications, 1994.

Jenkins, Richard. Rethinking Ethnicity: Arguments and Explorations. London: SAGE Publications, 1997.

Jenkins, Richard. Social Identity. London and New York: Routledge, 1996.

Jo, Hye-Young. "Locating Ethnic Identity and Language Among Second Generation Korean-Americans." The Review of Korean Studies. 3(2), December 2000. available online at March 26, 2003.

Koh, Tong-He. "Ethnic Identity in first, 1.5, and second generation Korean-Americans: An exploratory… [read more]

Islamic History in Russia Term Paper

… Two years after his election, Niyazov instituted processes that would make him officially ruler of Turkmenistan for life, with the only avenues of removal being health limitations or death. (Anderson)

Meanwhile, foreign affairs in Turkmenistan also suffered a rapid deterioration.… [read more]

Economic Development of China Term Paper

… Chinese schools do not encourage self-expression or individuality, but focuses on the belief their destiny in life was predetermined before they their birth. Chinese education emphasizes the Confucius teachings, which teaches that they cannot defy their pre-determined purpose in life.… [read more]

Cambodia Economic Development Term Paper

… Royaume Du Cambodge

Cambodia is one of the poorest countries in the world, and certainly in Asia. After emerging from the rule of the Khmer Rouge, Cambodia had nothing as was forced to start over. From that starting point, the… [read more]

Indian Art Reflection Activity: Ashoka Research Paper

… Reflection activity: Amaravati stupa

Study the use of narrative sculpture on the Amaravati stupa. Go to the Buddha page on the British Museum's Ancient India website. Click on 'Explore' to discover more about the Amaravati stupa. Then, from the Buddha page, click on 'Challenge' to test your knowledge of symbols of the Buddha.

6. Reflection activity: Narrative

What sculptural conventions were adopted by Indian artists in order to clearly convey the narrative?

There were seven distinct modes of narration in Indian monuments that portrayed the life and legend of Buddha and many of the styles are portrayed in a similar fashion on various monuments (Dhejia, 1990).

7. Discussion activity: Image of the Buddha (IMPORTANT ACTIVITY REQUIRES MORE DESCRIPTION)

Select an image of the historical Buddha from one region of South Asia (Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Nepal, or Sri Lanka) from the images available at the Los Angeles County Museum's Collections Online, the Metropolitan Museum or the British Museum's Explore website.

Figure 1 - Sandstone figure of the seated Buddha (British Museum, N.d.)

• How do I know it is the Buddha?

Images of the historical Buddha, Shakyamuni, are found in a limited number of gestures, relating to the most spiritually important moments in the Buddha's biography; instead of the more usual cross-legged position, this Buddha sits enthroned, and holds his hands in the dharmachakra-mudra, the gesture of preaching, or 'turning the wheel of Law' (British Museum, N.d.).

• How do I know where it was made?

Because it was made out of sandstone it is believed to be made in Eastern India

• What do I know about the period of its production?

Researchers believe that it was produced in the 5th century AD.

• Identifying the Buddha: The hand gestures

The Buddha holds his hands in the dharmachakra-mudra, the gesture of preaching, or 'turning the wheel of Law' (British Museum, N.d.).

Works Cited

British Museum. (N.d.). Sandstone figure of the seated Buddha. Retrieved from British Museum:

Dhejia, V. (1990). On Modes of Visual narration in Early Buddhist Art. The Art Bulletin, 374-392.

Smart History. (N.d.). The Stupa. Retrieved from Smart History: [read more]

Art Essay

… The archaeological records shows that the Chinese character for tea did not emerge until the second or third century CE, suggesting that tea as it is known today was first developed around the second century CE in China. However, brewed herbal beverages were mentioned during the time of Confucius in the sixth and fifth centuries BCE. There are no absolute dates or circumstances under which tea was first produced and dried for mass consumption. Methods of preparing tea changed dramatically over the centuries. Trends in tea drinking also changed, according to the political leadership of China (United Kingdom Tea Council, 2013). Dried leaves and powder were both used. The main reason why tea is one of the most important of all Chinese inventions is the fact that it became a major world commodity during the age of European imperialism. The Dutch East India Company and the British East India Company prospered particularly because of tea. The economics and politics of tea have been crucial to understanding world history.

In 2005, archaeologists unearthed a 4000-year-old bowl of noodles, preserved under three meters (ten feet) of sediment (Roach, 2005). Further research has revealed that the noodles were made of two different types of millet, and were hand-pulled noodles -- which are still made today, seven thousand years later (Roach, 2005). This finding proved once and for all that the Chinese did indeed invent noodles for the first time. The honor of inventing the noodle had been disputed by scholars who have postulated that noodles might have been invented first in the Middle East. (Roach, 2005). Before the discovery of the 4000-year-old bowl of noodles, the first known use of noodles in China was several thousand years later during the Han Dynasty, between 25 and 220 CE. Noodles became a staple of Chinese cuisine, gradually made their way Westward via Arab traders. Noodles then began to permeate the cuisines of cultures as varied and geographically distinct as India, Persia, Japan, and Italy. Each culture could develop a local variation on noodles, based on the availability of the base grain product (wheat, rice, or tuber starches) and the intended finished product (soup or dry dish). Noodles became integral to the cuisines of diverse cultures, and it is impossible to imagine my life without them.

Therefore, noodles are the one Chinese invention that I cannot live without. I eat noodles multiple times per week, sometimes in the format of cheap instant noodles and other times in a more refined format. When I am in an Italian restaurant, I know deep down that I owe a debt of gratitude to the Chinese for the ravioli, tortellini, spaghetti, and fettuccini on my plate. These types of pasta might not resemble their incarnations in Chinese cooking, but this only reminds me more of the history of Chinese contributions to global society. Noodles are present in dishes throughout East Asia, which is also testimony to the tremendous influence Chinese culture had throughout the continent. Even some Indian dishes use… [read more]

North Korea Due to Its Relative Geographic Essay

… North Korea

Due to its relative geographic and political isolation, North Korea remains of the most interesting and least understood countries in the world. Nicknamed the "Hermit Kingdom" for its extreme secrecy and attempts at a completely autonomous existence, North… [read more]

Nation Examined Term Paper

… Economic Growth of Japan

Cross Cultural Perspectives

Ms. Emily Archer

Economic Growth of Japan

Japan boasts one of the strongest economies in the world. In terms of capacity, Japan's economy ranks third after the United States and China. Extensive emphasis… [read more]

Culture Refers to the Accumulated Knowledge Essay

… ¶ … Culture refers to the accumulated knowledge, social and personal behavior, values, language, customs, and the religious beliefs of one ethnic group which are usually learned and passed from one generation of people to the next one. Looking at… [read more]

Nonkilling Korea Edited by Glenn Book Report

… The author traces the nonviolent spiritual movements in Korea, which are traced back to indigenous Korean religious traditions and then to Buddhism. There have also been nonviolent political protest movements in modern Korea. For example, in 1919, the Samil Independence Movement is qualified as nonviolent resistance. This was the uprising against the Japanese occupation and colonization. The Japanese regime entailed "brutal colonial rule," and the Samil Independence Movement combined from the ideals of self-determination and nonviolent protest (Jang-seok Kang 31).

In Michael Nagler and Stephanie N. Van Hook's essay "From Nonkilling to beloved Community," the authors extend the argument that nonviolence as an ethical and spiritual ideal is integral to American culture as well as Korean culture. There have been trends in many societies to shift away from the warlike tendencies that characterize brutal, greedy regimes, and shift towards a more peaceful and egalitarian social and political model. This model precludes any sort of exploitation, from economic to political.

Dahua Tang takes the argument across the border to speak about Chinese indigenous nonviolent movements in "Possibilities of a Peaceful Nonkilling China. Here, the author claims that there can be social institutions that exist for the specific purpose of discouraging violence. Chinese history reveals several cultural elements that promote peace and nonviolence as ideals of human behavior and of public policy. China need not be demonized to the extent that it has in the West, in America in particular, claims Tang. There are essential social values and ethics that prove that Chinese culture can become one that cultivates peace rather than militarism. The author provides evidence of these values and trends.

Mitsuo and Tamayo Okamoto write about "Nonkilling in Japanese Culture" to bolster the debate. Drawing from ancient Japanese culture and even its cosmology, the authors show that violence is not essential to Japanese civilization. For example, the authors mention Amaterasu and other goddess stories to provide a feminist perspective that discourages violence. Although violence has been a part of Japanese history, there are equally as powerful spiritual, moral, and cultural trends that show that peace is highly valued in the society.

Russian history would also seem to suggest that violence is inextricable from Russian society, but it is not, according to William V. Smirnov. In "nonkilling in Russian Culture," Smirnov fills in the blanks in history, showing that history books are selective in what they choose to chronicle. Russian religion and culture do not condone violence as an acceptable means of addressing social problems. There are folk stories and traditions that prove that peace is preferable to violence in the Russian worldview. The author argues that to draw from this peaceful trend rather than from the belief that Russia is always an aggressor, would help to change the way Russians are perceived and hence alter Russian foreign policy.

Nonkilling Korea collects scholarly perspectives on nonviolence in the cultures that have mattered the most to Korea in the twentieth century. The collection of essays was curated so that the editors Paige… [read more]

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