Study "Asian History / Asia" Essays 56-109

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Posco Korea Research Paper

… POSCO, originally called Pohang Iron and Steel Company Ltd., is one of the world's foremost steel producers producing an annual approximate load of 26 million tons of cold- and hot-rolled steel products, including steel coil, plate, wire rod, electrical sheets, and stainless steel. Approximately, 72% of that is absorbed in Korea whilst the rest is exported to 60 other countries. Originally struggling during the Asian economic challenges of the 1990s, POSCVO managed to pull through it all the stronger operating numerous international subsidiaries and mergers (including the Nippon Steel Corporation) .

POSCO is also becoming an increasing presence in China.

History of POSCO

Steel has always been an essential industry for the Koreans and they experimented with various firms before POSCO came on the scene.

POSCO was created in 1968 with the help of Korean President Chung Hee Park under the original name Pohang Iron and Steel. Casually called POSCO, the corruption remained and so in 2002, the company formally adopted that name.

The POSCO steel works took between 1970 to 1981 to build. In the beginning, they had only a blast furnace and two steel converters. In their last phase, POSCO's was producing an 8.5 million tons load and Korean workers had replaced foreign workers in all phases and aspects of the activity.

In the beginning too, machinery came privately from Japan and Austria but through the 1980s, Korea was soon able to produce its own, outsourcing its raw material, and constructing a second integrated steel plant in Kwangyang which is in South Korea's Chollanamdo region. By 1973, the company had already begun producing crude steel, and by 1983, POSCO's annual production peaked over 9 million tonnes ( Metals). The 19780s, too, was the time when POSCO expanded itself as well as collapsing and streamlining all parts of their industry that included all aspects from iron smelting to steel making as well as manufactured steel production plants (ibid.) the company also established the Pohang University of Science and Technology, and involved itself in other research and development ventures. .

The early 1990s was the time when POSCO first took off. Building itself on proceeds from their Kwangyang outlet, the company sought new markets and in 1986, established a mergence with the American company USX Corp. constructing a steel mill in the U.S.A. Recession in America and Europe caused them to turn to China.

In 1991, POSCO had exported only about 200,000 tons of steel to China, but by the following year it increased that amount to an additional million tonnes, and in 1992, it built a tin-plate plant in Shanghai. That same year, it moved to Vietnam building a pipe mill and an electric arc furnace near Hanoi. Refusing privatization, the company opened itself up to foreign ownership in 1989 and began selling overseas bonds the same year becoming the first South Korean company to be included on the New York Stock Exchange. Posco later branched out into telecommunications, acquiring a part in Atel Inc.

In the late 1990s,… [read more]

Enlightened Revolutionary Asoka Research Paper

… After accepting the teachings of Buddha and following his enlightenment path, Asoka stopped thinking of himself as the most important person in the kingdom. Instead, he used to think of the marginal groups in his kingdom as the most indispensable… [read more]

War Without Mercy John Book Review

… Japanese propaganda literally demonized the Western imperialists and their culture as greedy, exploitive and materialistic while completely ignoring the actions of its ally Nazi Germany, which was the most genocidal imperialist power of them all.

American political and military leaders were gravely concerned about the rise of nationalism in Asia and its threat to the Western powers there, particularly if it became allied to the communism and the Soviet Union, which later happened in China, Korea and Vietnam. Yet in the end, Japan's own racism and imperialism alienated potential Asian allies like Ba Maw in Burma, since its Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere "proved to be as overweening as the Westerners had been before."[footnoteRef:1] According to the "Global Policy with the Yamato Race as Nucleus," produced by the Japanese bureaucracy in 1942-43, Japan intended to be the dominant power in Asia permanently once the Western powers were defeated. In the Pacific after the initial surrenders of 1941-42, very few Allied troops gave up or took prisoners, while the Japanese glorified the suicidal experience of the kamikazes and banzai charges as the highest ideal of heroism and self-sacrifice. In reality, millions of Asians died as a result of Japanese atrocities and slave labor, far more than the number of whites killed in the Pacific War. [1: Dower, p. 7.]

For the U.S. And Britain, of course, racism and calls for extermination against the Japanese were routine, at both the popular and elite levels, as were depictions of the Japanese are monkey-men. In this theater of the Second World War "it is easy to forget the visceral emotions and the sheer race hate that gripped virtually all participants" with led to the conflict becoming literally… [read more]

Influence of the First Sino Japanese War Essay

… ¶ … Sino-Japanese War: Japanese Precedents and Propaganda

The First Sino-Japanese War had significant international geopolitical implications for several reasons, not the least of which was firmly establishing Japan as a fully modern nation able to contend with others on their own level. The power structures and foreign policies that existed in China, Korea, and Japan were also profoundly affected by the outcome of this war (and were instrumental in causing the war in the first place), and this in turn greatly impacted the way these countries and the other nations in the region were perceived and dealt with by Western nations. Understanding the First Sino-Japanese War, the tensions that led to its development, and the effects this had on the national self-image and international perception of China, Korea, and especially Japan is necessary for developing an understanding of the full geopolitical situation that existed at the dawn of the twentieth century.

The Meiji Restoration and Rising Japanese Nationalism

Without the Meiji Restoration, the First Sino-Japanese War and indeed all prior and subsequent Japanese involvement in international affairs would not have occurred (Paine 2003). The opening of Japan and the move away from the shogun- and samurai-based government that had persisted for the better part of a millennia created new opportunities for Japan that it was quick to seize, despite the fact that these opportunities conflicted with other nations' interests (Jansen 1994). At the same time, there were new problems created by the Meiji Restoration, most especially a need to employ and occupy the samurai and other military members (Paine 2003).

Accompanying the official changes in Japan's governmental structure during the Meiji Restoration were changes in the national spirit of the country and its citizens, including the release of long bottled-up feelings of Japanese supremacy among the world's nations (Swale 2009). Many Japanese thinkers and political figures argued that certain features of Westernization were necessary in order for Japan to become a true world player, and the Meiji Restoration did more than simply bring imperial rule back to the country -- it enabled such sentiments to have practical effects, including increasing attempts to protect and further Japanese interests through international diplomacy as well as bulking up the archipelago's military and especially naval powers (Swale 2009). It was not just that the recently-removed-from-isolation Japan felt it was worthy of East Asian if not global supremacy, but this rising sense of nationalism was accompanied by a sense that Japan and the world were entering a new era, and that old modes and perspectives should be discarded (Swale 2009).

The Datsu -- A Ron was one particular piece published in the decade prior to the First Sino-Japanese War that clearly demonstrates these new strains in Japanese nationalistic and foreign policy thinking. Its anonymous (at the time of publication) author argued that Japan needed to "depart from Asia" in its mode of operation and its sphere of influences, not ignoring what was going on with their neighbors but looking elsewhere for ways to model… [read more]

Anti-Americanism in Korea Research Paper

… Anti-Americanism in Korea

The diverging relationship between the U.S. And a series of factors that are highly praised by a series of nations has generated a lot of tension in the recent years, largely being responsible for influencing the formation… [read more]

Chinese History How Genghis Khan Essay

… Chinese History

How Genghis Khan and His Mongols Takeover of China Had an Overall Good Effect on China.

The Mongols played a much more important role in history than did the Khitans and Juchen barbarians whom they resembled racially and… [read more]

Are Indian-Israeli Relations Useful for India's National Interests? Thesis

… ¶ … Indian-Israeli Relations Valuable to India's National Interests?

Today, India stands at an important juncture in its historical development. Following its independence from Britain in 1948, the years that followed have been turbulent ones for India, with a relentless… [read more]

Marketing in a Less Developed Country Thesis

… Less Developed Country

The Kyrgyz Republic, also known as Kyrgyzstan is a poor, mountainous country in Central Asia. Formerly a part of the U.S.S.R., the country was one of the first former Soviet states to open its economy. A lack… [read more]

Human Rights Violations of Migrant Workers in South Korea Vis-A-Vis Other Countries Thesis

… Human Rights Violations of Migrant Workers in South Korea Vis-a-Vis Other Asian Countries

The UN and Worldwide Human Rights Violations

United Nations special rapporteur on human rights of immigrants Jorge Bustamante

said that the UN was investigating violations to these… [read more]

Population Birth Rate Death Rate Life Expectancy Poverty and Inequality Thesis

… Population, Poverty and Inequality

The world's wealth is not distributed evenly. There are a few dozen wealthy nations, clustered in Western Europe and also in North America and Japan. Greece and Portugal are notable outliers, with low GNPs for the region. A handful of others outside these regions have GNPs that approach the wealthier nations. Most of these are Arab nations such as the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait and to a lesser extent Israel.

Singapore and Hong Kong are outliers in Asia for a couple of reasons. Both nations are city-states. In Asia, GNP is typically low because most Asian economies are heavily oriented towards the agricultural sector. In cities there is more wealth, but for other nations this wealth is counteracted by the lack of wealth in rural areas. Hong Kong and Singapore have no rural areas to counteract their urban wealth.

An additional factor that impacts these two nations is that Hong Kong and Singapore have strong colonial influences. This brings an orientation to commerce, to strong governance and the rule of law, and it also brings extensive trade contacts with wealthy nations. Hong Kong has a higher GNP than Singapore, in part because it was still under British control when these statistics were compiled. Singapore has been independent from colonial rule since 1963 and independent from Malaysia since 1965. The colonial influences included sound government, a functioning legal system and other infrastructure that facilitates economic growth.

Libya is an outlier in Africa because of its oil wealth. Oil wealth also fuels the outliers of Kuwait and the UAE in the Middle East. Most other African nations have either limited natural resources or poor control over those resources. Libya controls its own oil reserves, which improves its GNP.

It is interesting to note that none of these countries compares to Western Europe in terms of its GNP, save for the outliers in southern Europe. Libya compares poorly to small, oil-rich Middle Eastern nations but is essentially a middle-of-the-pack country if it were included in that region. Libya has a much higher GNP than Middle Eastern countries without a strong oil-based economy.

Singapore and Hong Kong do not compare with the stronger economies of Western Europe. At the time of the survey twenty years ago, they were less developed than the Western European countries, comparable only with the backwaters.

2. People living in different countries do experience different life expectancies. These differences are evident not only between regions, but within regions as well. They are highly correlated with GNP. For example, in Eastern Europe, nations had similar GNP figures and similar life expectancy figures. In Western Europe, where there are sharp GNP differences between countries, the life expectancy outliers are the same as the GNP outliers -- Greece and Portugal. Ireland was not an outlier to the extent it was on GNP. Norway was an outlier for male life expectancy, but less so for female. Among Asian countries, the outliers were Hong Kong and Singapore, with notably higher life… [read more]

Vietnam Is Nation Located in Southeast Asia Research Proposal

… Vietnam is nation located in Southeast Asia, bordering China, Laos and Cambodia. The country has a long coastline, with hills and mountains in the interior. According to July 2009 estimates, there are 86 million people in Vietnam (CIA World Factbook, 2009), most of whom are Vietnamese by ethnicity, with a handful of indigenous groups and a small Chinese minority.

Vietnam is a communist state, bearing the title of "socialist republic." This has been the predominant political situation for the unified Vietnam since the end of the Vietnam War. There is only one political party allowed. The nation was formerly a kingdom and a French colony. The economic system of Vietnam is based around two principles. The first is Communism, which drives the large, state-owned enterprises. In recent years, however, the nation has undergone rapid economic liberalization, which has resulted in an explosion of small family-owned enterprises. Since the latest reform efforts began in 2001, the nation's economy has grown rapidly, with a growth in manufacturing for export to augment traditional agricultural enterprises. The country now benefits from the highest rate of investment in the world (Ibid.). The nation remains, however, 55.6% engaged in agriculture.

The history of Vietnam is a long one, dating back at least a thousand years. Seminal events that defined the nation included repelling Mongol invasions. A string of kingdoms and empires ruled the land until the French set up their Southeast Asian colony. Independence was declared in 1945 following the Second World War, and a subsequent war with France culminated with full independence in 1954. Instability in the subsequent years brought the Communist Party increasing power and ultimately led to involvement by the United States. Following that war, known in Vietnam as the…… [read more]

Post Classic Empires Essay

… ¶ … Nomadic Eurasian Empires in History

The Post-Classical period of Eurasia is a dark and tumultuous one. Warring empires continuously ravaged the region as nomadic tribes continued to establish larger and larger empires. There were several prominent nomadic empires in the region. However, two proved the most influential -- the feared Mongolian Empire and the Turks. These two empires helped changed the political, economic, social, and religious face of Eurasia and the regions dominated by the ruthless rulers who reigned over the nomadic tribes of the region.

The terror of the Mongolian empire raged throughout Asia and even parts of Eastern Europe for centuries. They were the most powerful nomadic force coming out of the depths of Eurasia during the Post-Classical period, "the Mongols conquered nearly all of Asia, becoming the ultimate example of nomadic influence on agricultural civilization," (Invictus 1). In terms of political influence, Mongolian rule over China brought the region under the rule of one dynasty, which had not been the case before hand. They had also swept through the Middle East dominating over both the politics and the religion in the region. Their dominance in the Middle East effectively ended Muslim rule for a period of time, thus completely changing the religious make up of the region during Mongol rule (Invictus 1). However, this dethroning of Islam in the Middle East wouldn't last. Eventually, Islam returned to the Middle East, but the Mongolians still held influence in that they were successful in completing what the Christian Europeans could not -- ending Islam for a period of time. One of the most important influences of the Mongolian empire was the unification of Asia. This allowed for the opening of safe trade throughout Asia and even into Europe, "Being the first to control significant regions of both outer and inner Asia, the Mongols brought Asia into economic integration by reviving the Silk Road," (Invictus 1). Under the iron fist of the Mongolian empire, previous squabbles were quelled, allowing for peaceful interaction between various parts of the empire. "Trade was able to flourish between east and west" thanks to the unification of inner and outer Asia through the Mongolian empire (Invictus 1). Yet, this was not only an economic influence, but a social influence as well. As the trade routes opened, so did the passage for other social factors, "On the newly opened trade route, ideas and even diseases were able to be exchanged from one side of Eurasia to another," (Invictus 1). This broadened the scope and range of new ideas coming from all parts of the empire. It also played a large role in the spread of infectious diseases, like the black plague, throughout Europe. Such events changed the entire face of the social stratification…… [read more]

Russian Culture Essay

… Russian Culture

In a 1939 radio broadcast, Winston Churchill famously described Russia as a "riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma." This statement reflects a people whose vast nation has now stretched from the Baltic to the Pacific, enveloping… [read more]

Korean Resident in Japan Term Paper

… Korean Residents in Japan

North Korean Ambassador Jong Thae Hwa enumerated the crimes Japan committed against the Korean people during the colonization of the Korean Peninsula from 1910 to 1942 (Kyodo 2000). He said that Japan robbed Korea of its… [read more]

Geography of Turkey and Cyprus Term Paper

… Geography of Turkey and Cyprus

The republic of Turkey is quite young and it is located on a land which is very ancient. Right through the ages many miraculous events have taken place on the land which is now known… [read more]

British Policy Burma and China Research Paper

… (317-318)

Though the Burmese government was highly influenced by Chinese tradition, they seemed to have less of a tendency to change with the times, in the manner that was needed to resist outside control from colonial powers, especially in the since that the nation did not reap the benefits of economic growth created by colonial expansion but instead were relegated to a position of watching as resources were stripped from their nation. (315, 363) British rule left the nation in a position of weakness, especially the poor as outside interests were then free to come in and buy up property and conscript labor for colonial interest. Indian elite were especially prone to buy land from the poor and then demand rent, many peasants lost land in this manner and sympathy for their plight engendered belated concessions for representation and eventually nationalism that spurned first independence as a colony and then as a nation. (363) To Britain Burma was a small holding, while China was a trade partner, not equal to the Western powers but still able to have some control over trade and to take some part in the gains created by colonial expansion. (357) Internal conflict and infighting between powers, the most dominant of which was Britain created a situation where China was held together but required in a sense to sign "open door" treaties that opened the nation even further to Western trade expansion and colonial industry. (325-326)

Britain made concerted efforts all over Southeast Asia to colonize nations, and the weaker, smaller and more strategic nations tended to fall to colonial rule, through a slow progression of trade concessions and then British military aggression. Burma, did not retain enough political control, as China did, to remain isolated and Britain was much more successful there than in other areas of the region. "The search for trade explains the successive waves of European travelers from Portugal, Holland, France, and Great Britain, and it is a constant factor in the story of British relations with China in South-East Asia." (Woodman 1) All the nations of Southeast Asia were potentially fodder for colonial expansion and the gaining of wealth, often at the extreme peril and long-term expense of the indigenous populations. China resisted for much longer than Burma, as it signed independent treaties with many nations for port rights and other trade and settlement rights. Britain treated the Burmese nation as an adjunct to India, as a matter of logistical ease while Britain, for most of its colonial period could only hope to see as much control in China as it had in Burma and other locations in Southeast Asia.

Works Cited

Murphy, Rhodes. A History…… [read more]

Indian History Term Paper

… Indian History

The Indian National Congress was probably the oldest and the biggest democratic organization in the world (Indian National Congress 2004). It was the initiative of Allan Octavian Hume, which he shared during the 1884 annual convention of the… [read more]

Sociology of Technology in One Decade Term Paper

… Sociology of Technology

In one decade, the number of cellular phone users in the United States skyrocketed from 34 million to 203 million and numbers are increasing as more and more children are given their own phone for personal use… [read more]

Gold Rush Term Paper

… Gold Rush

The history of each nation is influenced by a series of different characteristics and moments that eventually come to be regarded as defining for its subsequent evolution. Throughout centuries, the American history has experienced a number of significant… [read more]

Taiwan, My Home-Country, Joined the World Trade Term Paper

… Taiwan, my home-country, joined the World Trade Organization only in 2002, after 12 years of expectancy. The main reason for this was considered to be the fact that China insisted to join WTO first and its negotiations with the organization… [read more]

Angkor Is Called the Largest Religious Monument Term Paper

… Angkor is called the "Largest Religious Monument in the World," with good cause. As a whole, it takes up hundreds of square miles and parts of it still have not been investigated fully. Tourists flock to the area, hoping to… [read more]

Burma and ASEAN Term Paper

… Myanmar

Since 1988, the people of Myanmar, a Southeast Asian nation also known as Burma, have suffered under the leadership of a repressive military junta. The group, which has shown it will stop at nothing to retain power, exhibits such… [read more]

Chinese Society Term Paper

… Chinese Society

Greatest Achievements of Chinese Society

The Chinese society has demonstrated a number of achievements since some decades ago. First is the success of the Chinese society to have friendly relations with hundreds of countries around the world, both in terms of national and economic relations. China in particular has set good trading relations with almost every nation in the wor ld and has established trust and friendly relations with its neighboring countries. The second achievement of the Chinese society is its active participation in foreign affairs. The Chinese government actively supports and promotes regional cooperation for a better economy. China is an active member of APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) and ASEM (Asia-Europe Meeting) (PeopleDaily Online). Thirdly, the Chinese Society has successfully protected its nation's territorial sovereignty. China has won back its power over Hong Kong and Macao. The Chinese Society is also hoping to unite and win back the territory of Taiwan, being a Chinese land. Finally, among the greatest achievements of the Chinese Society is its power to rise from economic depression. Currently, China is among the fast developing nations in the world bringing great technologies and causing economic reforms in China.

Chinese's Uniqueness

Compared to the Western civilization, the Chinese is indeed unique in many areas of living. For instance, the Chinese society particularly the traditional ones observe class system wherein the rich and poor are identified within the society. Traditional values is also very apparent in the Chinese society which even to the present modern days is very evident. Another uniqueness of the Chinese society is that Chinese families these days are composed of few members which if compared to other neighboring countries, or even to the Western or European families, is far less in the number of siblings. Chinese families of today are usually composed of just 1 or 2 children.

How China Influence other Asian Societies

The continuing development and success in the Chinese economy is no wonder among the reasons why other Asian societies are being influenced by China. China used to be a very poor country in which the literacy rate is very low. Hence, many Chinese work only as laborers. But in the past years, as China demonstrated growing success in terms of its economy, many Asian societies considered the country as a role model, inspiring their national economic growth.

China's influences to other Asian societies are also caused by its trading strategies. China is among the nations whose existence in trading…… [read more]

Roles of Japanese Emperors Term Paper

… "No action of the leaders of the early Meiji period was productive of happier results than this" he adds (Treat, 1928 p. 101). By 1872, the issue of foreign treaties assumed increasing importance with regard to Japan's foreign relations over… [read more]

Aesthetic and Religious Significance of Traditional Hindu Term Paper

… ¶ … aesthetic and religious significance of traditional Hindu art. The focus of the paper stems from the fact that we were privileged enough to have access to a major contribution in scholarship in South and Southeast Asian art when the museum acquired aspects of the Alsdorf collection. In other words, because we have been exposed to a collection of objects including sculpture, jewelry, paintings, and architectural elements from India, Nepal, Tibet, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Java, and elsewhere, it is important for us to examine the underlying sources of influence such as that of Hinduism on the region's art.

The Alsdorf collection was collected over many decades so it is important to grasp the concept that Hinduism and art have influenced Asian art and architectural elements from 200 BC through to the twentieth century. Even though the collection of Hindu materials on display was not large, they were very illustrative of the Hindu influence and by understanding the distinction between the Indian, Himalayan and Southeast Asian art influences, it is possible to understand the notions of how gods and supreme beings concepts were integrated in to the cultures of the time.

Hinduism has been found to have originated throughout northern India and eventually migrated south. It was also thought that over time it spread all over the mainland of Southeast Asia and Indonesia. No true founder has ever been credited and historians believe that the religion more or less developed over a period of centuries by India's various pantheistic cults. This is because the religion was not founded on any single text and in fact has many writings, tales, myths and legends throughout its past. Therefore, Hindu art and Hinduism in general entail an extremely diverse body of religion, philosophy, and cultural practices.

The philosophies were however native to and predominant throughout India. The underlying ideals can be characterized by a strong belief in reincarnation and supreme beings; however, these entities can be packaged into many forms and natures. "A common sight in India is a crowd of people gathered in the courtyard of a temple or at the doorway of a street side shrine for the Darsan of the deity. Darson means 'seeing.' In the Hindu ritual tradition it refers especially to religious seeing, or the visual perception of the sacred." (Eck, 1996)

Making generalizations about Hinduism, the influence on art and on the visually influenced culture may not be completely possible because the culture was in fact so diverse. In other words, generalizations such as thinking that understanding that 'the eyes' were the only insight into the thoughts and minds of Hindu and Indian artists lacks depth. A major feature of Hinduism for example can be the underlying notion that all living beings form part of an eternal cycle of reincarnation and the only way for humans to break free from this cycle is with great effort. Hinduism basics are that the existence of the world is a part of this cycle. Creation occurred, it now… [read more]

Asian Racism and Stereotypes Term Paper

… America is supposedly the Melting Pot of the world, where people of many different ethnicities, cultures, and backgrounds come together in peace to establish one united and equal society. As one of the most developed countries in the world, the… [read more]

U.S. Trade Patterns With China Term Paper

… ¶ … trade patterns between U.S. And China

In analyzing the trade patterns between the United States and China throughout the years, it is inevitable that the study would also delve into the history of China as a government, particularly as a political and economic power in the Asian region. The history of trade between the two countries can be best traced through three periods in history, which may also be identified as the three phases that China took in establishing and developing trade relations with the United States.

The first phase involves early trade relations between the two countries in the first century AD, a period wherein the barter system was in operation. During this period, U.S. has yet to be known as an independent nation, and was simply referred to as the Americas. Trade between China and the Americas simply involved the exchange of essential goods that each country had -- China with its supply of silk, gun powder, and porcelain, and the Americas with its staple foodstuffs. In this phase, trade was in its crudest form, and would be hampered with the increasing level of isolation that China had imposed upon itself through the coming years. Thus, after the first phase, trade relations between the two countries lagged, and eventually became non-existent, especially with the development of China in the early- and mid-20th century as a Communist country.

The second phase of the trade relationship between U.S. And China came after the collapse of the Socialist experiment in Asia. China, succumbing to the Modernist Project that was formulated by the U.S., gradually opened its doors to the free market, albeit with cautiousness and limited access only.

At this phase, state-owned enterprises and businesses were sold off to private businessmen and investors. The receptiveness of the country towards trade was also influenced by the changing ties that U.S. had with other countries, such as China's enemy, the Soviet Union, who was also gradually opening up to the free market, even going so far as to establish economic relations with the United States. Thus, with this trend among Asian and former Communist countries, China re-established its political ties with the U.S., which inevitably meant there will be more opportunities for each country to conduct economic transactions -- primarily, trade and exchange of goods, merchandise, and in China's case, labor (Worden and Dolan, 1987).

It must be noted that during the second phase, China had been primarily a supplier of natural resources or raw materials to the U.S., mainly because it had been an agricultural society, an economic system supported by the state during the reign of the Communist party system. Thus, while U.S. provided China with the materials and machinery, building large warehouses and factories for the manufacture of technological merchandise, China had supplied America with human labor and raw materials. In addition to these,…… [read more]

America React to the Japanese Term Paper

… "Stimson now believed that Japan was "in the hands of virtually mad dogs," with its army "running amok." ( Lafeber, W. The Clash: U.S.-Japanese Relations Throughout History p. 176).

American reaction was fast. The same day, September 22, Secretary of… [read more]

Ethnic Relations in Peninsular Malaysia the Cultural and Economic Dimensions Term Paper

… Ethnic Relations in the Malaysian Peninsula

Some Chinese traders had settled in the country of Malaysia for centuries before other Chinese ethnic groups joined them in the 19th and 20th centuries. Although there has been an intermixture among the Chinese… [read more]

Asian Immigration in the Decades Term Paper

… In all cases, racism and discrimination threatened the lives and well-beings of the immigrants, whose hopes and dreams were shattered when they reached American shores.

The hopes and dreams of all Asian immigrants were rooted in economic motivation. All immigrants came in search of money, either through temporary jobs as many of the early Chinese laborers did, or through permanent livelihood. For example, the Sikhs who emigrated from India to the United States did so in large part because the Indian agricultural economy was faltering under British rule. Needing new work, they fled to America in hope of fulfilling the American Dream. Similarly, Korean immigrants thrived through entrepreneurial activities in America. However idealistic their outlooks were, though, each of these Asian immigrant populations experienced overt discrimination on the part of whites, who feared that the Asians would steal their jobs.

The struggle between assimilation into American society and preserving their cultural identity was a core paradigm of immigration for all Asian immigrant groups. The Japanese immigrants were particularly conflicted, for while proud of their cultural heritage, Nisei Generation hoped to remove the stigma of being an outsider. Similarly, Korean immigrants readily embraced the concept of assimilation so that they would more easily blend into their new cultural surroundings. In spite of these efforts to assimilate, however, whites continued to view their presence as a threat.

Preserving cultural identity, aspiring toward economic prosperity, and resisting systematic discrimination became key paradigms for all the immigrant groups that Ronald Takaki discusses in his book Strangers from a Different Shore. The main theme running throughout the book is that while all the Asian immigrant groups brought with them hopes and dreams for prosperity, and while all retained pride in their ethnic heritages, all these groups: the Chinese, the Japanese, the Koreans, the Philippines, and the East Indians unfortunately contended with racism that was supported by the American government.

Works Cited

Takaki, Ronald. Strangers from a Different Shore. Boston: Little,…… [read more]

History of Pakistan and India Term Paper

… The League' won 76% of the vote for reserved Muslim seats, but still partition was not inevitable. However, the British were forced to leave by a huge rebellion from the end of 1945 to 1946 that surpassed even the Quit… [read more]

Chinese Community the Paradox Term Paper

… Individuals whom would never have known one another in China became married and had children, or pursued occupations they never would have dreamed of pursuing in their national land of origin. By participating in this American experiment of pluralism, they created a new form of Chinese identity, and also became more unified with individuals from China whom they may have perceived as alien, had they met them in their original cultural context.

The paradoxes of the Chinese-American identity are perhaps even more manifest upon a stroll through San Francisco's Chinatown itself. At first glance to an outsider's eyes, the 'exotic' elements of local cuisine draw his or her attention. An individual simply wishing to catalogue such exotica might take pictures of fortune cookies being made by hand in a shop window, or a dead duck still bearing its head hanging in a butcher's shop. However, busy people with cell phones, rapidly switching from one language to another, show that modernity and the trappings of tradition are constantly juxtaposed on the streets of Chinatown. Yet even the Chinese slang words of such modern teens are not those of a Chinese youth of China, but of individuals particular to the Chinese population of San Francisco.

The various rituals currently observed, from the paper dragons to the music played, that accompany the celebration of this lunar year of the Monkey, are not a transplantation of Chinese traditions in their totality, but a blend of various Chinese provincial traditions of the past, and an entertainment spectacle put on for individuals whom have traveled to Chinatown to eat American-sized quantities of Chinese food to celebrate a calendar they do not observe, with fire crackers and joy.

Chinatown is thus a series of paradoxes, of conglomerations of different traditions, and also an entertainment spectacle of bounty. It is thus quintessentially American as the Fourth of July in its Chinese-American celebration of a holiday of tradition, but characterized by constantly reinterpreted traditions from the native land. The dragons are made with ancient faces, and faces of American cartoon characters. The food encompasses monkey brains and oily Peking duck of the kind only found in the United States. Thus, the celebration is spectacular in its plurality, in a way that is again truly American and truly Chinese-American.… [read more]

Dawenkou Culture the Emergence Term Paper

… Archaeologists have dated the tomb to approximately 2300 B.C. Upon speculating about the items in Tomb 10, one could guess as to the reason for those particular items being entombed with the person. The items found within the confines of the burial plot obviously demonstrate the planning of a next life. In other words, it is possible that the spirit was preparing the previous life's wealth for the next opportunity on earth. As far as facing the heads east, one could speculate that some type of sun worship or other religious philosophy like a Muslim facing East to Prey. In addition, some plots appeared to be family units. However, the theory of servants going to the afterlife is also very viable but based on community arrangements, family plots seem more sound an option.

In conclusion, this work focused on the burial assemblages of the Dawenkou site in Shandong Northern China. Up until the most recent discoveries in the Shandong region, scholars thought that China developed from two unique cultures. New discoveries have provided new insights into the development of the people of China. The new and future thinking will revolve around the fact that indeed, we must assume that there were many sites throughout China which developed its own culture and these various cultures did have some interaction such as trade and other relationships. There is more than enough evidence that that over one hundred these burial sites represent social complexity. There is also legitimate proof that the Dawenkou culture played a major role in the emerging complexity of the Neolithic Chinese period. The research therefore provides consensus. The Dawenkou culture and the Neolithic period each demonstrate that there was complex sociologic presence.

Neolithic Tomb at Dawenkou)

Works Cited

Aung-Thwin, Michael A. "Origins and development of the field of prehistory in Burma" Asian Perspectives: the Journal of Archaeology for Asia and the Pacific Vol. 40, (Neolithic China) (2001).

Bellwood, Peter. Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago. Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press, 1997.

Chi, Li. Anyang. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1977.

Dematte, Paola. "Longshan-Era Urbanism: The Role of Cities in Predynastic China." Asian Perspectives: the Journal of Archaeology for Asia and the Pacific Vol. 38, (1999).

Guldin, Gregory Eliyu. Anthropology in China: Defining the Discipline. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 1990.

Kealhofer, Lisa. "Looking Into The Gap: Land Use And The Tropical Forests Of Southern Thailand" Asian Perspectives: the Journal of Archaeology for Asia and the Pacific Vol. 42, (2003).

Keightley, David N. "Graphs, Words, And Meanings: Three Reference Works For Shang Oracle-Bone Studies, With An Excursus On The Religious Role Of The Day Or Sun" The Journal of the American Oriental Society Vol. 117, (1997).

Lui, Li. "Mortuary Ritual and Social Hierarchy in the Longshan Culture." Journal of East Asian Archaeology Vol. 20 (1996): 1-46.

Lu, Lie Dan. "The Microblade Tradition In China: Regional Chronologies And Significance In The Transition To Neolithic." Asian Perspectives: the Journal of Archaeology for Asia and the Pacific Vol. 37, (1998).

Neolithic China.… [read more]

International Political Economy of East Term Paper

… It is these nationalistic movements that shaped what to become of many Southeast Asian economies later.

Take the first example of Indonesia. Under the Dutch colonial rule, the economy was neatly divided into the primary product export sector and the traditional agrarian sector (Paauw, 1981). This dualistic pattern of the economy where the modern, enclave-styled, export sector coexisted with the traditional, backward agricultural sector indeed typified the 'colonial pattern' of many Southeast Asian economies at the end of the war.

But the change does not come this way. When the Japanese were gone, back came the former colonial rulers to frustrate emerging nationalistic movements.

Nowhere in Southeast Asia was the postwar fight for independence more traumatic than in Indonesia. The bitter colonial experience led the postwar Indonesian leader (Sukarno) to spend a lot of time and resources uprooting the Dutch colonial heritage, and perhaps emphasizing too much on economic nationalism.

Thus there is a framework which is based on the power relationships among individuals or groups of individual or institutions (which contain individuals or groups of individuals) in deciding on certain policies that affect…… [read more]

Edo-Tokyo: History and Culture Edo-Sakariba Term Paper

… "

The following amusements are available in Asakusa: rare shows, performing monkeys, cheap photographers, street artists, jugglers, wrestlers, toy vendors and a huge crowd (Smith). Asakusa if representative of Edo-sakariba in it's ability to attract enormous crowds of pleasure seekers and entertainers, to a street-side venues that have not yet been as tarnished by Western influences as those of the Ginza.

In "Sky and Water: The Deep Structures of Tokyo," Henry Smith says that though the city of Tokyo today is extraordinarily modern, so much so it may seem at first to find the sky and water, originally by looking back through the history of the city "its Edo origins reveal that "sky" and "water" in fact control the form and spirit of Tokyo." Smith tells of the history of Edo, that it was "oriented toward hills and mountains" at the intersection of three landscapes.

How do Ginza and Asakusa related to Edo-sakariba? The original Edo was oriented much toward the hilly landscape, the appearance of "sky" vs. "water" most likely much more acute than today. The city may have been described as one of "pictorial imagery" (Smith). Early one, a great five-story Edo Castle dominated the city as a central monument, rising 275 feet above Edo Bay (Smith). This great landmark was eventually destroyed in fire, however many new architectural creations now lay upon the hillsides of the city. Traditional forms of Japanese architecture were much different than the westernized versions in present day Ginza.

Edo had represented a traditional sense of "flatness and expanse" in Tokyo (Smith). Mount Fuji used to be seen until early in the twentieth century when the prevalence of smog cluttered the ability of passersby to find the monument on but one day in ten (Smith). Nowadays the city of Tokyo is cluttered with "utility poles and wires," making for some a "horrid impression" of a city they once considered esthetically pleasing (Smith).

As Seidensticker relates, the Edo of old "in a restrained, monochrome fashion - must have been a rather beautiful town, but now it's very ugly."

The "diversions and entertainments" of old Edo Sakariba are certainly changed in modern Asakusa, but the purpose is the same: to entertain the masses. In Edo, Ginza and Asakusa of old were considered the "center" of entertainment and shopping (Seidensticker). Museums and concern halls still serve as cultural centers today, much as similar structures served in Edo. In Edo sakariba, there were not however the distractions of the modern hubbub, such as automobiles, cell phones and televisions, a constant source of distraction and noise in a modern city, accompanying also many lights and similar attractions (Pocorroba).

Many of the readings have indicated that a sense of community and social life were very strong in Edo traditional. Public baths for example, were commonplace affairs where people might gather to discuss the goings on of the day (Pocorroba). The modernization and westernization of the area has resulted in reliance on electronic methods of communication, which translates into a… [read more]

Origin of Ancient Nepal Neolithic Term Paper

… In the mid-7th century contact with China was initiated as the two countries exchanged missions. The Malla dynasty ruled Nepal between the 10th and 18th century. Yaksa Malla (reigned c.1429-82) divided the kingdom into three independent principalities, which by the 16th century were ruled by independent dynasties.

In 1769 the Gurkhas, led by Prithvi Narayan Shah, conquered the Nepal Valley. He moved the capital to Kathmandu, providing the foundation for modern Nepal.

From 1775 to 1951 Nepali politics were characterized by conflict between the royal family and several noble families. Often the Shah rulers were relegated to honorary positions, while the political power was concentrated within a dominant noble family.


One can probably say that Nepal is as old as the Himalayas, when a great lake filled the Kathmandu Valley. One legend holds that this lake was drained by a thunderbolt thrown against the walls of the Valley by the Hindu god Krishna. Another claims it was drained by the patriarch Manjushri as he wanted to get a closer look at a Swayambhu or Adhi-buddha, the beautiful lotus flower resting on the lake.

But the recorded history of Nepal does not start until around 800 BC, with the beginning of the Kirat Period. After that was the Lichhavi and Thakuri Period, followed by the Malla Period and finally the Shah Period.

Little is know about Nepali history until the British came in contact with them in the early 1500's. The Nepali people resisted the advance of the English, and thereby earned the respect of the British. Nepali warriors known as Gorkhas where known to fight with extraordinary skill and valor. In fact, the Gorkhas so impressed the British that they hired them on as mercenaries (and still do to this day.)

During the late 1700's, the king of Nepal made it illegal for any missionaries or foreigners to come into Nepal. He once said, "Where the Bible goes, the Union Jack (flag of England) follows." For the next two hundred years, Nepal remained a medieval kingdom with no contact with the rest of the world.

In 1950 a revolution in the government threw out the old ruling class and put in a group of royal families. At last, Nepal was open to the outside world. Ironically, airplanes were invented in Nepal before roads were. It was not until the middle of the 1960's that any road was built into Nepal.

Nepal has progressed slowly over the last fifty years, but it now has a road system, an airport, Internet shops, tourism attractions, and a new constitutional monarchy. The cities are much more advanced than the countryside, where people live much as they have for the last five hundred years. Certain villages in the mountains must hike seventeen days without roads to reach a town where they can buy supplies.


Roberts JM History of the World.…… [read more]

Relationship Between South Korea and United States Research Paper

… The two countries worked together with the aim of combating the regional and global threats that enabled them to strengthen their economies. Generally, the United States on the other hand, managed to maintain their Army, Air Force, Navy, and Marine personnel who were in South Korea in the support of their commitment to the United States' relation with the ROK. Mutual Defense Treaty was formed to help the South Korea to defend them against the various external aggressions. Last year, the United States and South Korea marked their 60th anniversary of their alliance (France-Presse, 2013). Conversely, it was evident that a Combined Forces Command contributed to the coordination operations between the U.S. units as well as, the South Korean armed forces. As, a result, the United States and South Korea were able to coordinate closely on the nuclear issue of North Korean. Due to the development of South Korea's economy has developed, trade and investment ties as well have become an increasingly significant aspect of the U.S. And South Korea relationship.


France-Presse, A. (2013). North Korea attacks 'master-servant' relationship between U.S. And South Korea. The Telegraph. Retrieved July 18, 2014, from

Lee, Y. (2011). The U.S.-South Korea Alliance. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved July 18, 2014, from

Power, J. (2007). The Relevance of the South Korea-U.S. Alliance. The Diplomat. Retrieved July 18, 2014, from

U.S. Relations With South Korea. (2014, January 31). U.S. Department of State. Retrieved July 15, 2014, from

Weitz, R. (2012). From Allies to Partners: South Korea and the United States. From Allies to Partners: South Korea and the United States. Retrieved July 18, 2014, from… [read more]

In the South China Sea Research Paper

… The relations that govern this conflict are by no means limited to simplistic realist oil interests.

Complicating Issues and Possible Solutions

There are a number of different complicating issues. Certainly, the social construct issues identified above complicate things -- given… [read more]

Slumdog Millionaire the 2008 British Term Paper

… Slumdog Millionaire

The 2008 British film Slumdog Millionaire became a worldwide hit, earning a slew of awards and nominations as well as mainstream critical acclaim in the United States. Danny Boyle's movie is an adaptation of a novel called Q&A… [read more]

Business Culture and Expansion Trends Research Paper

… From the North comes Kathak, which is understood for its utilization of even more than hundered ankle bells. Odissi is among the earliest dances which likewise come from holy places with the 'devadaisis.' Odissi as well has 2 various designs… [read more]

Best Practices Investment Promotion Term Paper

… The nation has over 120,000 sq. km of farmland, which means that around 10% of the total size of the entire country is land area which can be used for agriculture (, 2007). In fact, when it comes to agriculture,… [read more]

Corporate Social Responsibility in Indian Dissertation

… Therefore, those who are provided with more assets have responsibility of sharing them with the deprived ones in the society. Hence, the owners of the assets are actually trustees in nature who are expected to serve the society, take from… [read more]

How China's Cultures and Politics Affect One Another and Ultimately Affect Social Change Annotated Bibliography

… ¶ … China's Cultures and Politics affect one Another, and Ultimately Affect Social change

Lau, V.P., Shaffer M. A & Au, K. (2007). Entrepreneurial career success from a Chinese

perspective: conceptualization, operationalization, and validation. Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 38, issue 1

The article advances about the social changes that have taken place in the entrepreneurial career fields. Lau, Shaffer, and Au as authors of the article advance a research aimed at conceptualizing and validating career success, from the perspective of the Chinese people. The research involves analyzing the business cultures of the Chinese. The research involved analyzing the values of Hong Kong entrepreneurs, Shanghai entrepreneurs and their employees. The findings from the study indicated that Chinese business culture is oriented in building the society. This is evidenced by the input of the Chinese people in business across the continents such as Africa, Europe, and America. The main finding was that Chinese cultures have played a significant role in developing societies, where the Chinese have invested.

Friedman, R., Chi, S. & Liu, L.A. (2006). An Expectancy Model of Chinese-American

Differences in Conflict-Avoiding. Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 37,

no. 1, pp. 76-91.

Friedman, Chi, and Liu wrote the article trying to compare the Chinese culture with the American culture. In this regard, they made attempts intended to establish the Chinese-American cultural differences. They put their emphasis on how the two cultures handle conflicts. This study involved carrying out tests by making observations and questioning respondents in Taiwan and the United States. The responses collected from Taiwan, and the United States were then analyzed to come up with the findings. In addition, the article also looked at the culture transition among the Chinese and Americans and depicted the findings.

The findings of their research as captured in the article reveals that Chinese cultures, have been designed in such a way as to avoid conflict. The Chinese were found to have a tendency to avoid conflict. This was reached at after considering the Chinese culture expectation that conflict will hurt the relationship that they have maintained with the other party. The other finding was that the Chinese are more sensitive to hierarchy, as compared to the Americans. This affects how the Chinese people relate with others at the work place, and especially those working in places with a different cultural orientation. The authors, however, emphasize that the Chinese culture has affected the speed of cultural change in other countries, where they work.

Haddad, J. (2006). "To Inculcate Respect for the Chinese." Berthold Laufer, Franz Boas,

and the Chinese Exhibits at the American Museum of Natural History, 1899-1912.

Anthropos, vol. 101, H. 1. pp. 123-144.

The article examines the Chinese culture, and its implications on the actions that China took in the past. The author provides insight on Chinese culture and its impacts on the country's stand. In this case, the article argues that Chinese…… [read more]

Science and Western Civilization Essay

… During this process, there was less of emphasis on using hunter-gathering techniques. Instead, everyone became involved in farming and established permanent settlements. (McClellan, 2006, pp. 5 -- 16) (Hodges, 2004) (Hodges, 2012)

Technology had a major impact on history by creating tools and weapons which allowed everyone to change their lifestyle. For example, the timeframe from: 10,000 BC to 2,300 BC invited shifts in the way people were able to hunt and farm. This occurred based on technological innovations with: the development of bronze and sharp knives. Moreover, the tremendous advancements in engineering improved the ability of planners to design and create a variety of structures. These different elements lead to innovations such as: fortified cities (which were protected by armies using copper and other metal tools). This made them more lethal and capable of defending the city against possible attackers. Once this occurred, is when various nations and cities states began to emerge (which ultimately resulted in development of different empires). (McClellan, 2006, pp. 5 -- 16) (Hodges, 2004) (Hodges, 2012)

These societies grew out of the cultural traditions that were practiced by hunter gatherers who lived in particular regions. The way these issues are relevant today is to show how cultural traditions and identities were developed. For example, China is proud of its history and traditions dating back to ancient times. In some cases, these areas are used to make territorial claims in the South China Sea. This is creating conflicts with other nations in the region (who also are making similar claims to the same territory). These kinds of disputes are based upon different historical views and traditions surrounding a specific country. (Weatherbee, 2005, pp. 33 -- 38) ("U.S. Urges Diplomacy in South China Seas," 2012)


US Urges Diplomacy in South China Seas. (2012). Al Jazeera. Retrieved from:

Hodges, M. (2004). History. Ephemeris. Retrieved from:

Hodges, M. (2012). Historically Speaking. Kings Academy. Retrived from

McClellan, J. (2006). Science and Technology in World…… [read more]

East History and Culture A2 Coursework

… East, Culture, History

Beijing, previously known as Peking after Romanization, is the capital of the People's Republic of China and also one of the most populated cities on the entire globe. It is an important city not only because of… [read more]

U.S. vs. China, Cultural Essay

… Considering that the two countries are close neighbors, the expectation would be that there are no differences in the languages. However, Hong Kong people speak the Cantonese language. Consequently, the most popular language in the mainland is mandarin. However, some regions like Shenzhen speak Cantonese. It is also imperative to mention that the cleanliness standards of Hong Kong are extremely high in comparison to China. In fact, spitting is a serious offence in Hong Kong and is illegal under the laws of the country.

The differences between China mainland and the United States

There are vast differences in the cultures of the two countries and activities that each of them partakes. The social classes in China mainland are clearly defined. Therefore, it is hard for occurrence of a situation where people of different social classes will intermingle. In The United States, the social settings are extremely informal. This is the reason why most people will interact regardless of the social classes in which they perceive themselves to be part. Most of food in china mainland is the cuisine. People in this country are not concerned with the type of food that they eat especially if the reasons are health related. However, in The United States, people are extremely meticulous in types of foods, although most of the available food is junk. There are clear differences in the cultural differences between the two countries. In mainland China, marriage is highly discouraged at a young age. In fact, most of the marriages in the country only happen when an individual is in the late twenties. In The United States, there are cases of relaxation of these morals, and there are no fixed morals in this issue.

Reputation of a person is extremely valuable in the mainland China. Therefore, there is putting of considerable effort to avoid situations where the reputation of an individual is at stake. In most cases, whenever there is tainting of the image of an individual, the individual is under pressure to resign from whichever position that they hold. In The United States, the reputation of an individual is not of substantial importance, and the end is most necessary for the individuals. Considering that both countries are economically stable and powerful, there are differences in the manner of conducting businesses. In mainland China, there is a lot of friendliness in the business interactions. Therefore, the partners take a lot of time in acquitting well with each other before they get to the aspect of discussing business. In The United States, the business deal is more valuable than the interaction, and most of them do not go through this stage altogether. Therefore, mainland China sacrifices a lot to ensure that social relations are maintained along with the business…… [read more]

Political Science the World Politics Book Review

… There is constant, though unspoken, attention paid to the difference between government sponsored media representations (propaganda) and the real, lived experiences of the North Korean people under his rule and/or his father's. In this way, the documentary invites the audience member, wherever he/she is from, to consider the same relationship in that country. The film also indirectly draws attention to the fact that despite the recent production (this documentary was produced in 2009) and the advent of the Internet, there is a great deal about the world that we still do not know and of which we are unaware, both good and bad. With Kim Jong-il's death in 2011, the new leader is still in the family, his brother, Kim Jong-un. Just as with his father, the public responded with grief. Beck questions it though as he writes:

"For a leader who ruled with an iron fist and had few accomplishments, images of a grief-stricken public were puzzling to most foreign observers. To what extent the tears were sincere or crocodile was the source of considerable speculation." ("North Korea in 2011," Page 66)

The future of Korea is unclear, partially because the new leader lacks experience and because the previous leader died suddenly of a massive heart attack, according to government media. The future is uncertain for North Korea also because of the existing factions in government and military that have existed since the time of Kim II Sung's latter years and death. There is no real way of telling or predicting Kim Johng-un's strategy or goals. As with most things in life, time will tell.

Using the history of the country as a reference, in addition to documentaries such as "Kimjongilia," it is certain that these kinds of actions continue by the government of North Korea, the world will play a more active role in relations and human rights. In this way, the documentary is a success. Documentaries are supposed to inform people about little known or unknown topics or review an old topic or aspect of an old topic in a new way. "Kimjongilia" blows the lid off of the secret problems and conditions in North Korea in an intriguing and engaging manner.


Beck, Peter M. "North Korea in 2011: The Next Kim Takes the Helm." Asian Survey, Vol. 52, No. 1, Pages 65 -- 71, 2012.

Jeon, Jei Guk. "North Korean Leadership: Kin Jong II's Balancing Act in the Ruling Circle." Third World Quarterly, Vol. 21, No. 5,-Page 761 -- 779, 2000.

Koh, Byung Chul. "Political Leadership in North Korea: Toward a conceptual understanding of Kim II Sung's leadership behavior." Pages 139 -- 157.

The History Channel.…… [read more]

Industrial Revolution and Its Consequences 1750-1850 Essay

… Industrial Revolution and Its Consequences, 1750-

Industrial Revolution

Institution of Learning

Course Code / Title

Industrial revolution refers to the rapid and complex changes, both socially and economically, mainly because of introduction of extensive mechanization resulting in a change in… [read more]

South Korean Government Humanitarian Aid Policy Toward North Research Paper

… ¶ … Korean War is one of those rare events in human history: it had no official ending and had no official ending. Although there is a marked date for the beginning of War, June 25, 1950, when the 75,000… [read more]

Freemasonry in Pre 1917 Russia Research Paper

… Freemasonry in Pre-1917 Russia

Free Masonry in Pre-1917 Russia

The Freemasons were a movement founded in Europe in the 1300's, although freemasonry did not enter Russia until much later. The founding philosophies of the group encompassed ideals including scientific discovery,… [read more]

Asian Culture it Was Created Creative Writing

… 27. The Wuxia Novels.

28. It is a school, established in 1993, to teach kungfu and academic courses, located at the foot of Mount Wudang.

29. Grandmaster Huo Yan Jia and his successors: Chen Gong Zhe, Yao Chan Bo,

and Lu Wei Chang.

30. It is a central martial Arts Academy, established in Nanjing in 1928.

31. Bai Mei Dao Ren (B. 1710 A.D.).

32. Chinese peasant band that formed in response to the unrest and civil war following the floods and famines that accompanied disastrous changes in the course of the Yellow River between ad 2 and 11.

33. Buddhist sect that incorporated Daoism and other Chinese sects beginning in

12th century AD.

34. Chinese secret society whose uprising (184 -- 204 AD) contributed to eventual fall of Han Dynsasty.

35. This could be Hua Mulan, legendary female who takes her aged father's place in the army and fights for 12 years.

36. 1869 -- 1910, legendary martial artist and Chinese national hero.

37. Huang Jiguang (1931 -- 1952), fought for Chinese army in Korean War,

sacrificed himself in Battle of Triangle Hill.

38. 1847 -- 1924, forefather of modern-day martial arts, specifically Hung-Gar; portrayed by Jet Li in Once Upon a Time in China II

39. This makes no sense; the Russians were part of the international force that defeated the Chinese in the Boxer Rebellion.

40. The only Wong Long I can find, other than a fashion design business in Austin, Texas, is a Wing Chun master living in Hong Kong.

41. 15 minutes outside of Dengfeng, China.

42. Wutai Mtn. (Shanxi Province); Putuo Mtn. (Zhejiang Prov.); Emei Mtn. (Sichuan Prov.);…… [read more]

China on the West Unprecedented Essay

… China had grown quite independently at the time, emphasizing the people as the greater resource than the sovereign. The idea fuelled the evolution of the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century in France. It emphasized the role of reason and common sense as a scientific method of thinking (Bodde).

Political and Economic Theories -- China has always been predominantly agrarian, with only minimal industries and trade (Bodde, 2005). The Chinese always upheld agriculture as a primary industry, which deserved intensive government support. They traditionally regarded commerce as secondary and non-productive. They esteemed the farmer far higher than the merchant in social ranking. They influenced the Physiocrats whose ideas later influenced the theories of Adam Smith who wrote "The Wealth of Nations" in 1776. The Physiocrafts, in turn, founded the modern Western political economy. Their insistence for the need for universal education led to the establishment of a 19th-century movement, which became standard practice in Western democracies (Bodde).

Responsibilities and Limits to Chinese Influence

US President Barrack Obama stressed that the relationship between the U.S. And China was important and shaping the course of this present century (Ying, 2009). The Chinese see China as an active and assertive country but nonetheless still a developing country. Chinese economy may be bigger than Britain in size but China's GDP per capita is only 1/15th that of Britain. Comparing, 90% of Britain's population lives in towns and cities, while 60% of China's still lives in the countryside. Its disabled population also exceeds the total population of Britain (Ying).

These data present a dual image for China (Ying, 2009). It ranks high in size and quantity but low in per capita (Ying, 2009). This is why some Chinese analysts think China has a long way to go to attain the same level as world powers. It may contribute to world peace and development, which Western countries ask it to do. But these analysts do not see China as playing that role beyond its honest capability. This difference in perception can be attributed to an imbalance in comments and representations about China in Western media. China and the West differ in political systems and values. Other realities are the legacy of the Cold War and slow response to China's accelerated development. Most importantly, there is the resulting lack of understanding from limited information about China in most Western countries. While information about the West abounds in Beijing, British bookshops do not carry many books about modern China. Hence, its true culture and history remain little known (Ying).

China's growth depends heavily more than ever before on external markets, resources and technology (Ying, 2009). It still needs to state its need for an understanding and acceptance of its peaceful development. It needs to present facts to the world, facts about its achievements and its problems alike and its own efforts to address these problems. It is consoling that there are people in the West who sincerely want to understand China and know more about it. China… [read more]

Multicultural Psychology Japanese Culture Research Paper

… However, while talking about a proper behavior, Japanese have defined different appropriate behaviors for public, private and formal and business settings. These include gestures like maintaining a distance while standing or the manner to behave when at home (James B. 2005).

Despite being a collectivist culture and placing high value to group harmony in the Japanese culture, the concept of status and social differences are noticeable in their environment. The discipline of Multicultural Psychology views diversity to exist in every culture. However, it focuses upon the harmony with which different cultures exist and live in one society. Same is the case with Japan. Although, it does entertain the rights of minorities as seen for the number of religions being widely practiced in Japan as evident by 15,073,723 immigrant foreigners in 2005 (Immigration Bureau, 2005), the issue of racism and discrimination is widely prevalent in the society (Ritts, 2000). This can be seen by the limited opportunities given to the minorities in the field of employment, legislation, education and the access to resources or other services (Berg M, 2011).

Although collective efforts by the government, NGOs and the minorities themselves are being taken place to combat racism, discrimination still exists in Japan. If this continues, it won't qualify to fit into the standards of a proper multicultural society. Thus, there is a dire need for the government and the public of Japan to accept minorities regardless of their culture, history, religion or nationality and give treat them equal and closely similar to the citizens of Japan.


Berg M. (2011). Racism in the Modern World: Historical Perspectives on Cultural Transfer and Adaptation. Berghahn Books. USA.

James B. (2005). Asian Culture Brief: Japan, National Technical Assistance Center, Vol. 2, No. 6. Hawaii.

Immigration Bureau (2005). Statistics for Foreign Residents in Japan. Ministry of Justice. Japan Immigration Association

Ritts, V. (2000). Culture and aging. Retrieved…… [read more]

Korea Term Paper

… Often these fields were used to grow poppy seeds which could then be turned into opium. This narcotic was a popular export to the western world and made the Japanese lots of money, despite the fact that the crops were on formerly private lands and were of such a harsh nature that it could damage the soil irreparably.

During the war years, Japan would enlist Korean soldiers to fight, often through coercion or sometimes by force. As a colony population, the Koreans had far less power within the nation state and thus they were considered less important than their Japanese counterparts. This lack of fairness was battle against through several attempted revolutions. One of the most famous of these was the March 1st Movement. In 1919, in response to the oppressive regime of Japanese rule as well as the seeming incongruity of the League of Nations, a faction in Korea established a movement designed to completely alter the country and allow the common population to have sovereignty.

3. Describe the situation on the Korean peninsula from 1945 to 1950 when the Korean War breaks out.

Following World War II, Korea was finally given sovereignty and a chance to create a government more or less for and by the population. However, tensions were high from the outset. Many people within the country wanted to create a governmental format completely different from what they had experienced under Japanese rule. Influenced by the large country of China, a group within Korea believed that the best form of government for the newly freed country should be Communism. Another group however wanted a form of democracy similar to those they had witnessed from their interactions with western nations like the United States, England, and France. With neither side willing to compromise, it was only a matter of time before a schism would break the nation in two. That is exactly what happened in 1950 when the country of Korea was divided into two: North Korea which was controlled by a Communist government, and South Korea which was more democratic than its northern counterpart. This was not a suitable resolution to the distress of the warring nation and what happened was a bloody police action involving many countries of the world who each had their own individual reasons for helping. Communist countries such as China provided support for North Korea in the form of weapons and other supplies. Much of the free world, such as the United States, England, and France gave equal support to South Korea, hoping that by providing this aid the west would be…… [read more]

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