"Asian History / Asia" Essays

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Nonkilling Korea Edited by Glenn Book Report

Book Report  |  4 pages (1,169 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

The author traces the nonviolent spiritual movements in Korea, which are traced back to indigenous Korean religious traditions and then to Buddhism. There have also been nonviolent political protest movements in modern Korea. For example, in 1919, the Samil Independence Movement is qualified as nonviolent resistance. This was the uprising against the Japanese occupation and colonization. The Japanese regime entailed "brutal colonial rule," and the Samil Independence Movement combined from the ideals of self-determination and nonviolent protest (Jang-seok Kang 31).

In Michael Nagler and Stephanie N. Van Hook's essay "From Nonkilling to beloved Community," the authors extend the argument that nonviolence as an ethical and spiritual ideal is integral to American culture as well as Korean culture. There have been trends in many societies to shift away from the warlike tendencies that characterize brutal, greedy regimes, and shift towards a more peaceful and egalitarian social and political model. This model precludes any sort of exploitation, from economic to political.

Dahua Tang takes the argument across the border to speak about Chinese indigenous nonviolent movements in "Possibilities of a Peaceful Nonkilling China. Here, the author claims that there can be social institutions that exist for the specific purpose of discouraging violence. Chinese history reveals several cultural elements that promote peace and nonviolence as ideals of human behavior and of public policy. China need not be demonized to the extent that it has in the West, in America in particular, claims Tang. There are essential social values and ethics that prove that Chinese culture can become one that cultivates peace rather than militarism. The author provides evidence of these values and trends.

Mitsuo and Tamayo Okamoto write about "Nonkilling in Japanese Culture" to bolster the debate. Drawing from ancient Japanese culture and even its cosmology, the authors show that violence is not essential to Japanese civilization. For example, the authors mention Amaterasu and other goddess stories to provide a feminist perspective that discourages violence. Although violence has been a part of Japanese history, there are equally as powerful spiritual, moral, and cultural trends that show that peace is highly valued in the society.

Russian history would also seem to suggest that violence is inextricable from Russian society, but it is not, according to William V. Smirnov. In "nonkilling in Russian Culture," Smirnov fills in the blanks in history, showing that history books are selective in what they choose to chronicle. Russian religion and culture do not condone violence as an acceptable means of addressing social problems. There are folk stories and traditions that prove that peace is preferable to violence in the Russian worldview. The author argues that to draw from this peaceful trend rather than from the belief that Russia is always an aggressor, would help to change the way Russians are perceived and hence alter Russian foreign policy.

Nonkilling Korea collects scholarly perspectives on nonviolence in the cultures that have mattered the most to Korea in the twentieth century. The collection of essays was curated so that the editors Paige… [read more]


Enlightened Revolutionary Asoka Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,283 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

After accepting the teachings of Buddha and following his enlightenment path, Asoka stopped thinking of himself as the most important person in the kingdom. Instead, he used to think of the marginal groups in his kingdom as the most indispensable (Thurman, 129).

King Asoka's Edicts

A large number of edicts of King Asoka came to light in Afghanistan, India, Nepal… [read more]


War Without Mercy John Book Review

Book Review  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Japanese propaganda literally demonized the Western imperialists and their culture as greedy, exploitive and materialistic while completely ignoring the actions of its ally Nazi Germany, which was the most genocidal imperialist power of them all.

American political and military leaders were gravely concerned about the rise of nationalism in Asia and its threat to the Western powers there, particularly if it became allied to the communism and the Soviet Union, which later happened in China, Korea and Vietnam. Yet in the end, Japan's own racism and imperialism alienated potential Asian allies like Ba Maw in Burma, since its Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere "proved to be as overweening as the Westerners had been before."[footnoteRef:1] According to the "Global Policy with the Yamato Race as Nucleus," produced by the Japanese bureaucracy in 1942-43, Japan intended to be the dominant power in Asia permanently once the Western powers were defeated. In the Pacific after the initial surrenders of 1941-42, very few Allied troops gave up or took prisoners, while the Japanese glorified the suicidal experience of the kamikazes and banzai charges as the highest ideal of heroism and self-sacrifice. In reality, millions of Asians died as a result of Japanese atrocities and slave labor, far more than the number of whites killed in the Pacific War. [1: Dower, p. 7.]

For the U.S. And Britain, of course, racism and calls for extermination against the Japanese were routine, at both the popular and elite levels, as were depictions of the Japanese are monkey-men. In this theater of the Second World War "it is easy to forget the visceral emotions and the sheer race hate that gripped virtually all participants" with led to the conflict becoming literally… [read more]


Origin of Ancient Nepal Neolithic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,987 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

In the mid-7th century contact with China was initiated as the two countries exchanged missions. The Malla dynasty ruled Nepal between the 10th and 18th century. Yaksa Malla (reigned c.1429-82) divided the kingdom into three independent principalities, which by the 16th century were ruled by independent dynasties.

In 1769 the Gurkhas, led by Prithvi Narayan Shah, conquered the Nepal Valley. He moved the capital to Kathmandu, providing the foundation for modern Nepal.

From 1775 to 1951 Nepali politics were characterized by conflict between the royal family and several noble families. Often the Shah rulers were relegated to honorary positions, while the political power was concentrated within a dominant noble family.

ORAL PRESENTATION

One can probably say that Nepal is as old as the Himalayas, when a great lake filled the Kathmandu Valley. One legend holds that this lake was drained by a thunderbolt thrown against the walls of the Valley by the Hindu god Krishna. Another claims it was drained by the patriarch Manjushri as he wanted to get a closer look at a Swayambhu or Adhi-buddha, the beautiful lotus flower resting on the lake.

But the recorded history of Nepal does not start until around 800 BC, with the beginning of the Kirat Period. After that was the Lichhavi and Thakuri Period, followed by the Malla Period and finally the Shah Period.

Little is know about Nepali history until the British came in contact with them in the early 1500's. The Nepali people resisted the advance of the English, and thereby earned the respect of the British. Nepali warriors known as Gorkhas where known to fight with extraordinary skill and valor. In fact, the Gorkhas so impressed the British that they hired them on as mercenaries (and still do to this day.)

During the late 1700's, the king of Nepal made it illegal for any missionaries or foreigners to come into Nepal. He once said, "Where the Bible goes, the Union Jack (flag of England) follows." For the next two hundred years, Nepal remained a medieval kingdom with no contact with the rest of the world.

In 1950 a revolution in the government threw out the old ruling class and put in a group of royal families. At last, Nepal was open to the outside world. Ironically, airplanes were invented in Nepal before roads were. It was not until the middle of the 1960's that any road was built into Nepal.

Nepal has progressed slowly over the last fifty years, but it now has a road system, an airport, Internet shops, tourism attractions, and a new constitutional monarchy. The cities are much more advanced than the countryside, where people live much as they have for the last five hundred years. Certain villages in the mountains must hike seventeen days without roads to reach a town where they can buy supplies.

Bibliography

Roberts JM History of the World.…… [read more]


Edo-Tokyo: History &amp Culture Edo-Sakariba Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,360 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

"

The following amusements are available in Asakusa: rare shows, performing monkeys, cheap photographers, street artists, jugglers, wrestlers, toy vendors and a huge crowd (Smith). Asakusa if representative of Edo-sakariba in it's ability to attract enormous crowds of pleasure seekers and entertainers, to a street-side venues that have not yet been as tarnished by Western influences as those of the Ginza.

In "Sky and Water: The Deep Structures of Tokyo," Henry Smith says that though the city of Tokyo today is extraordinarily modern, so much so it may seem at first to find the sky and water, originally by looking back through the history of the city "its Edo origins reveal that "sky" and "water" in fact control the form and spirit of Tokyo." Smith tells of the history of Edo, that it was "oriented toward hills and mountains" at the intersection of three landscapes.

How do Ginza and Asakusa related to Edo-sakariba? The original Edo was oriented much toward the hilly landscape, the appearance of "sky" vs. "water" most likely much more acute than today. The city may have been described as one of "pictorial imagery" (Smith). Early one, a great five-story Edo Castle dominated the city as a central monument, rising 275 feet above Edo Bay (Smith). This great landmark was eventually destroyed in fire, however many new architectural creations now lay upon the hillsides of the city. Traditional forms of Japanese architecture were much different than the westernized versions in present day Ginza.

Edo had represented a traditional sense of "flatness and expanse" in Tokyo (Smith). Mount Fuji used to be seen until early in the twentieth century when the prevalence of smog cluttered the ability of passersby to find the monument on but one day in ten (Smith). Nowadays the city of Tokyo is cluttered with "utility poles and wires," making for some a "horrid impression" of a city they once considered esthetically pleasing (Smith).

As Seidensticker relates, the Edo of old "in a restrained, monochrome fashion - must have been a rather beautiful town, but now it's very ugly."

The "diversions and entertainments" of old Edo Sakariba are certainly changed in modern Asakusa, but the purpose is the same: to entertain the masses. In Edo, Ginza and Asakusa of old were considered the "center" of entertainment and shopping (Seidensticker). Museums and concern halls still serve as cultural centers today, much as similar structures served in Edo. In Edo sakariba, there were not however the distractions of the modern hubbub, such as automobiles, cell phones and televisions, a constant source of distraction and noise in a modern city, accompanying also many lights and similar attractions (Pocorroba).

Many of the readings have indicated that a sense of community and social life were very strong in Edo traditional. Public baths for example, were commonplace affairs where people might gather to discuss the goings on of the day (Pocorroba). The modernization and westernization of the area has resulted in reliance on electronic methods of communication, which translates into a… [read more]


International Political Economy of East Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (387 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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It is these nationalistic movements that shaped what to become of many Southeast Asian economies later.

Take the first example of Indonesia. Under the Dutch colonial rule, the economy was neatly divided into the primary product export sector and the traditional agrarian sector (Paauw, 1981). This dualistic pattern of the economy where the modern, enclave-styled, export sector coexisted with the traditional, backward agricultural sector indeed typified the 'colonial pattern' of many Southeast Asian economies at the end of the war.

But the change does not come this way. When the Japanese were gone, back came the former colonial rulers to frustrate emerging nationalistic movements.

Nowhere in Southeast Asia was the postwar fight for independence more traumatic than in Indonesia. The bitter colonial experience led the postwar Indonesian leader (Sukarno) to spend a lot of time and resources uprooting the Dutch colonial heritage, and perhaps emphasizing too much on economic nationalism.

Thus there is a framework which is based on the power relationships among individuals or groups of individual or institutions (which contain individuals or groups of individuals) in deciding on certain policies that affect…… [read more]


Dawenkou Culture the Emergence Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,118 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Archaeologists have dated the tomb to approximately 2300 B.C. Upon speculating about the items in Tomb 10, one could guess as to the reason for those particular items being entombed with the person. The items found within the confines of the burial plot obviously demonstrate the planning of a next life. In other words, it is possible that the spirit was preparing the previous life's wealth for the next opportunity on earth. As far as facing the heads east, one could speculate that some type of sun worship or other religious philosophy like a Muslim facing East to Prey. In addition, some plots appeared to be family units. However, the theory of servants going to the afterlife is also very viable but based on community arrangements, family plots seem more sound an option.

In conclusion, this work focused on the burial assemblages of the Dawenkou site in Shandong Northern China. Up until the most recent discoveries in the Shandong region, scholars thought that China developed from two unique cultures. New discoveries have provided new insights into the development of the people of China. The new and future thinking will revolve around the fact that indeed, we must assume that there were many sites throughout China which developed its own culture and these various cultures did have some interaction such as trade and other relationships. There is more than enough evidence that that over one hundred these burial sites represent social complexity. There is also legitimate proof that the Dawenkou culture played a major role in the emerging complexity of the Neolithic Chinese period. The research therefore provides consensus. The Dawenkou culture and the Neolithic period each demonstrate that there was complex sociologic presence.

Neolithic Tomb at Dawenkou)

Works Cited

Aung-Thwin, Michael A. "Origins and development of the field of prehistory in Burma" Asian Perspectives: the Journal of Archaeology for Asia and the Pacific Vol. 40, (Neolithic China) (2001).

Bellwood, Peter. Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago. Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press, 1997.

Chi, Li. Anyang. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1977.

Dematte, Paola. "Longshan-Era Urbanism: The Role of Cities in Predynastic China." Asian Perspectives: the Journal of Archaeology for Asia and the Pacific Vol. 38, (1999).

Guldin, Gregory Eliyu. Anthropology in China: Defining the Discipline. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 1990.

Kealhofer, Lisa. "Looking Into The Gap: Land Use And The Tropical Forests Of Southern Thailand" Asian Perspectives: the Journal of Archaeology for Asia and the Pacific Vol. 42, (2003).

Keightley, David N. "Graphs, Words, And Meanings: Three Reference Works For Shang Oracle-Bone Studies, With An Excursus On The Religious Role Of The Day Or Sun" The Journal of the American Oriental Society Vol. 117, (1997).

Lui, Li. "Mortuary Ritual and Social Hierarchy in the Longshan Culture." Journal of East Asian Archaeology Vol. 20 (1996): 1-46.

Lu, Lie Dan. "The Microblade Tradition In China: Regional Chronologies And Significance In The Transition To Neolithic." Asian Perspectives: the Journal of Archaeology for Asia and the Pacific Vol. 37, (1998).

Neolithic China.… [read more]


Chinese Community the Paradox Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (760 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Individuals whom would never have known one another in China became married and had children, or pursued occupations they never would have dreamed of pursuing in their national land of origin. By participating in this American experiment of pluralism, they created a new form of Chinese identity, and also became more unified with individuals from China whom they may have perceived as alien, had they met them in their original cultural context.

The paradoxes of the Chinese-American identity are perhaps even more manifest upon a stroll through San Francisco's Chinatown itself. At first glance to an outsider's eyes, the 'exotic' elements of local cuisine draw his or her attention. An individual simply wishing to catalogue such exotica might take pictures of fortune cookies being made by hand in a shop window, or a dead duck still bearing its head hanging in a butcher's shop. However, busy people with cell phones, rapidly switching from one language to another, show that modernity and the trappings of tradition are constantly juxtaposed on the streets of Chinatown. Yet even the Chinese slang words of such modern teens are not those of a Chinese youth of China, but of individuals particular to the Chinese population of San Francisco.

The various rituals currently observed, from the paper dragons to the music played, that accompany the celebration of this lunar year of the Monkey, are not a transplantation of Chinese traditions in their totality, but a blend of various Chinese provincial traditions of the past, and an entertainment spectacle put on for individuals whom have traveled to Chinatown to eat American-sized quantities of Chinese food to celebrate a calendar they do not observe, with fire crackers and joy.

Chinatown is thus a series of paradoxes, of conglomerations of different traditions, and also an entertainment spectacle of bounty. It is thus quintessentially American as the Fourth of July in its Chinese-American celebration of a holiday of tradition, but characterized by constantly reinterpreted traditions from the native land. The dragons are made with ancient faces, and faces of American cartoon characters. The food encompasses monkey brains and oily Peking duck of the kind only found in the United States. Thus, the celebration is spectacular in its plurality, in a way that is again truly American and truly Chinese-American.… [read more]


History of Pakistan and India Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (4,300 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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The League' won 76% of the vote for reserved Muslim seats, but still partition was not inevitable. However, the British were forced to leave by a huge rebellion from the end of 1945 to 1946 that surpassed even the Quit India Movement.

In 1945 the British authorities put on trial Indian National Army prisoners who were Hindu, a Muslim and… [read more]


Indian Art Reflection Activity: Ashoka Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (744 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Reflection activity: Amaravati stupa

Study the use of narrative sculpture on the Amaravati stupa. Go to the Buddha page on the British Museum's Ancient India website. Click on 'Explore' to discover more about the Amaravati stupa. Then, from the Buddha page, click on 'Challenge' to test your knowledge of symbols of the Buddha.

6. Reflection activity: Narrative

What sculptural conventions were adopted by Indian artists in order to clearly convey the narrative?

There were seven distinct modes of narration in Indian monuments that portrayed the life and legend of Buddha and many of the styles are portrayed in a similar fashion on various monuments (Dhejia, 1990).

7. Discussion activity: Image of the Buddha (IMPORTANT ACTIVITY REQUIRES MORE DESCRIPTION)

Select an image of the historical Buddha from one region of South Asia (Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Nepal, or Sri Lanka) from the images available at the Los Angeles County Museum's Collections Online, the Metropolitan Museum or the British Museum's Explore website.

Figure 1 - Sandstone figure of the seated Buddha (British Museum, N.d.)

• How do I know it is the Buddha?

Images of the historical Buddha, Shakyamuni, are found in a limited number of gestures, relating to the most spiritually important moments in the Buddha's biography; instead of the more usual cross-legged position, this Buddha sits enthroned, and holds his hands in the dharmachakra-mudra, the gesture of preaching, or 'turning the wheel of Law' (British Museum, N.d.).

• How do I know where it was made?

Because it was made out of sandstone it is believed to be made in Eastern India

• What do I know about the period of its production?

Researchers believe that it was produced in the 5th century AD.

• Identifying the Buddha: The hand gestures

The Buddha holds his hands in the dharmachakra-mudra, the gesture of preaching, or 'turning the wheel of Law' (British Museum, N.d.).

Works Cited

British Museum. (N.d.). Sandstone figure of the seated Buddha. Retrieved from British Museum: http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/asia/s/sandstone_figure_of_the_seated.aspx

Dhejia, V. (1990). On Modes of Visual narration in Early Buddhist Art. The Art Bulletin, 374-392.

Smart History. (N.d.). The Stupa. Retrieved from Smart History: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/the-stupa.html… [read more]


Cambodia Economic Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  14 pages (4,151 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12

SAMPLE TEXT:

Royaume Du Cambodge

Cambodia is one of the poorest countries in the world, and certainly in Asia. After emerging from the rule of the Khmer Rouge, Cambodia had nothing as was forced to start over. From that starting point, the country's economic development was never going to be easy, and even its low levels today represents healthy progress. Yet, by… [read more]


Ho Chi Minh Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,033 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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¶ … Ho Chi Minh's life from his birth through the Second World War. Ho Chi Minh was the leader of Vietnam and a major force in the socialization of the country. Ho Chi Minh was born in 1890 in Vietnam, and was President of North Vietnam from 1945 until his death in 1969.

Ho Chi Minh was the son of a scholar and grew up in a poor village. According to one biographer, his real name was "Nguyen Van Thanh, which means Nguyen, who will be victorious" (Green 1996). His parents were both involved in the Vietnamese revolution against the French, and his mother was jailed for stealing guns from the French forces in the country, so revolution was in his blood. He attended a French school near his home, but spoke out against the French to the other students, so they threw him out in 1910. After that, he went to China as a teacher, and witnessed the overthrow of the Manchu dynasty in China, be became even more convinced that Vietnam should gain its freedom from the French. He traveled to Saigon to learn to cook, because he thought that as a cook he could find a job anywhere. At the age of 22, he got a job on board a French ship in the galley, and he spent several years sailing around the world, finally ending up in France. He did a lot of reading while on board the ship, and became even more interested in revolutionary activities.

After leaving the ship, he got a job in London at the Carlton Hotel, and immediately noticed the Asian workers at the hotel were being mistreated. He formed a union for the Asian employees to gain better treatment throughout the country. He then became an activist for Vietnamese freedom, and he came under the scrutiny of French spies, he literally became the voice for Indo-China and their rights. During this time, he lived in France and attended intellectual meetings. Author Karnow writes, "Like other nationalists of his generation who had lived in France or attended French schools in Vietnam, Nguyen Ai Quoc adsorbed the influence of the West but rejected its domination" (Karnow 1997, 109). He also became a socialist while he lived in France, which led him to develop communism in Indo-China when he returned home. He later said, "It was patriotism and not Communism that originally inspired me'" (Karnow 1997, 134). Later, he moved to Moscow and met several prominent Soviet leaders, including Stalin and Trotsky, who further influenced him.

In 1925, he became an interpreter and advisor to the Chinese Army, and he then began to plot forming a communist party in China that would fight for freedom for Vietnam. He also began to train some of his followers in guerilla warfare tactics, and they began to attack French forces in Vietnam in an attempt to stir up trouble. He left China after a betrayal by Chiang Kai-shek, and again went to Moscow to escape… [read more]


Why Did Japan Attack the US Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor Was the Attack Successful? Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (595 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Japan and Pearl Harbor

Japan decided to strike Pearl Harbor after a series of events pushed her into a corner. Before World War II began, Japan was already at war with China. She had seized control of Manchuria and Nanking, and Beijing. Japan's intent was to establish a major presence in the Pacific. In retrospect, it appears as though Japan formulated a campaign for the Pacific while no one expected them to do so. Part of the campaign was to destroy the Chinese Nationalist party. (Craig 980) Japan also entered the Tripartite Pact with Germany in 1940. Albert Craig writes Japan had always "long admired Germany" (Craig 980) and joined them in a pact to defeat communism. An interesting twist to this pact is that fact that Germany "insisted that any alliance also be directed against the United States and Britain, to which the Japanese would not agree"(980). The idea of war should not be a total surprise since America placed Japan in a tough spot with embargoes from Washington. In addition, Washington was freezing Japanese assets in America. Japan was suffering and there were only a few viable options for them. Japan choices were either to "knuckle under to the Americans or break our of the embargo ring by a desperate attack on the oil supplies and other riches of Southeast Asia" (Bailey 843). Japan wanted to drive Western influences away from Japan and when Washington demanded Japan withdraw troops from China and Asia, she agreed and began deceptive negotiations with America and other concerned nations. While these negotiations were going on, Japan was secretly planning an attack on Pearl Harbor.

Japan's attack was successful and a complete surprise to all nations. America was aware Japan had notions of striking but there was no indication that…… [read more]


Portrait of the Warrior in Two Films Film Review

Film Review  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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Portrait of the Warrior in Two Films

Film is a good medium for cultural and political representation. Images and dialogue shape the audience's viewpoint concerning who they are. Without question, film is a signifying system that one can analyze for patterns of meaning and representation. One perspective analyzes film as an Orientalizing "system of signification that represents non-Western cultures to… [read more]


Korean History Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (636 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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¶ … Korean social history from the Silla period through the first centuries of the Yi/Choson dynasty.

Shila (or Silla) (668-935 AD) manifested an elite that focused on modernizing its government and strengthening its relations with the recently established Tang dynasty. Defeating both Paekche and Koguryo it combined both regions and established a unified state. Simulating the format of Chinese government, it structured itself into six bureaus each bureau managing a different part of the State and the entire controlled by one ruler. The era was characterized by cultural growth, peace, and prosperity and became one of the most effective and famous eras within Korean general and social history. Eventually, the Shila Kingdom declined and a rebel leader named Wang Kon challenged Shila but peace was established by the last Shila king granting power to Wang Kon, and so the Koryo Dynasty was established.

The Koryo Dynasty (918-1392 AD) extended the bordered of the kingdom into Koguryo from which the name 'Korea' emerged. Following a traditional Chinese pattern of gaining control, Wang Kon took male members of royal families as captives to live in the capital as well as taking 29 consorts. This, ultimately, rebounded since it transferred power to these families who became powerful.

Following Chinese example in its government, the Koryo dynasty expanded and developed its cultural, educational, industrial, and agricultural ways of life. Although the Shila system has been broken by individuals from the lower class who, in turn, became the new powerful elite, hierarchy still reigned and 6 classes (in level of importance) emerged in this Koryo kingdom: 1) the royal caste group, 2) civil and military officials, 3) palace functionaries, 4) lower government officials, 5) tax-paying citizens, 6) inferior people (generally trades people). The upper and middle ranks were predominately those who possessed land.

The ruling caste had a major impact on the transformation of the Koryo kingdom. Peace was made with the…… [read more]


Outsourcing Jobs to India Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,981 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

Outsourcing jobs to India.

Outsourcing to India

The process of globalization led to significantly increased competition in most business fields. Local companies are forced to compete in their domestic market with foreign companies that come with less expensive products and services. In order to maintain their competitiveness, companies must apply strategic alternatives that allow them to reduce their costs while… [read more]


Kashmir Is a Territory Located Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (604 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Kashmir is a territory located in the upper northwestern section of Southern Asia. As a country, Kashmir has a long and bitter history as several countries continue to assert their claim over the land. These countries include China, Pakistan, Indian and the inhabitants of Kashmir. At present, India controls approximately 40% of the region, while China controls 20%. Pakistan controls 35% of the region while the Kashmiri people hold the remaining 5% of the territory. From a historical perspective, several land disputes and the Wars of 1947, 1962, 1963, and 1999 have occurred over land ownership. India officials currently maintain that Kashmir is central to India while the Pakistani government heads prefer to resolve the conflict by allowing the Kashmiri people determine rightful ownership of the territory. Such regional conflict can be examined from the primordialism and social constructivism paradigms as a means to explore issues of ethnicity and of federalism.

Ethnic refers to the shared tradition, special socio-physiological characteristics, and goals of a group of people who acknowledge such commonality. From a sociological point-of-view, ethnicity can determine the level of unity of a group of people within a country or region. Such information can be applied to a broader context when examining a primordialism perspective. Such a point-of-view indicates the Kashmiri people can work together as one ethnic group with the common goal of seeking independence from India, Pakistan, and China. By doing so, the Kashmiri people can have their own stronghold over the territory and begin to combat the growing violence that has plagued the area for decades. As such, primordialism can be fully applied to the Kashmir conflict as the Kashmiri people are not divided by ethnicity, but by international ownership disputes. In like manner, the Kashmir conflict can also be applied to social constructivism.

Social constructivism is a…… [read more]


Connection Between Religion and Contemporary Politics Both Public and Private in Indonesia Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (2,937 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9

SAMPLE TEXT:

Indonesia Religion

Indonesian Politics and the Influence of Islam

Indonesia's importance in the world and its considerable wealth as a producer of natural resources are geographical advantages which its native populations have rarely enjoyed. A dense fabric of regional and ethnic conflicts have long been the determinant factors in the success with which Indonesians have been able to cultivate the… [read more]


Original Development and Current State of ASEAN Association of South East Asian Nations Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,212 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations)

The Association of Southeast Nations has failed to devise effective strategies in regard to matters such as human rights and pollution across its existence, damaging the overall reputation it managed to develop internationally because of the rapid economic development of a number of countries within its borders. The approach ASEAN took concerning the topic of human rights is actually not very different from the ones the UN took when undergoing similar circumstances, given that both institutions failed to restore and preserve human rights on several occasions.

The human rights commission was only recently (2009) established by ASEAN, but it raised harsh criticism until the present. Although the role of the commission was claimed to be that of "a vehicle for progressive social development and justice, the full realization of human dignity and attainment of a higher quality of life for the peoples of ASEAN" (Association of Southeast, 2010), its line of attack was less than unproductive.

One of the main concepts promoted by ASEAN is that relating to how it does not intervene in the internal affairs of the countries being a part of it. Certainly, this initially seems to be a laudable approach, given that countries are not robbed away of their independent status. However, it became obvious that the non-interference policy ASEAN adopted was more than detrimental for people in countries failing to respect human rights.

Most ASEAN countries are apparently unwilling to accept the approval of all six human rights conventions, with Cambodia and the Philippines being the only two countries in the union to have supported human rights in their complete form. It appears that most of the countries in ASEAN cannot agree to theories put across by the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), considering that only three countries in the union have ratified it.

While the Cold War emphasized the usefulness of ASEAN, matters have gradually changed along with the last decade of the twentieth century, as the war ended and economies in several countries in ASEAN destabilized as a result of economic globalization. This brought forward a series of factors ASEAN did not think about when it created its internal affairs policies, with ethno-nationalist movements wreaking chaos through secession. Ethno-nationalists were quick to take advantage of the non-intervention policy ASEAN was known to profess.

Terrorism was yet another matter ASEAN had not previously dealt with extensively, making it obvious that the union had serious flaws in its organizing abilities. Because of disagreements between their principles and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, ASEAN leaders found themselves creating a new set of theories meant to make up a human rights agenda that would fit their needs.

It is not certain what caused countries within ASEAN to be reluctant to ratify human rights conventions as they were devised in 1948. One of the most probable reasons for which they did so is their desire to keep their independence as a great Asian power. Because… [read more]


Why India Changed Foreign Economic Foreign Policy Since 1991 Dissertation

Dissertation  |  24 pages (6,660 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

INDIA'S EMERGING POWER

FOREIGN ECONOMIC POLICY

In its history, India sometimes substituted "sloganeering" for the implementation of a real foreign policy for its country. Now, however, Indian no longer maintains the position of being on the outside edge of international politics. Currently, perceived as more than a mere "South Asian" power, India has begun to engage in the international arena.… [read more]


Philippines Country Report Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,700 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Philippines

Country Background: The Philippines is a Southeast Asian counter in the western Pacific Ocean. It is southwest of Vietnam and between Indonesia and Borneo. Rather than an island nation, The Philippines is an archipelago that comprises over 7 thousand islands, grouped into three major political divisions with the capital in Manila. The Philippines is the 12th most populous country… [read more]


Thailand Agriculture Rice Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (734 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

SAMPLE TEXT:

Thailand Agriculture (Rice)

Thailand agriculture -- Research proposal on the management of rice in Thailand

Thailand is the largest exporter of rice in the world and one of the top global producers. The rice crops in Thailand spread across surfaces larger than 10 million hectares and in all of the state's provinces (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2004). While it is globally recognized that Thailand is a strong international player on the rice market, there are still a multitude of complex issues which should be researched.

The future research endeavor strives to go beyond the commonly known fact that Thailand grows rice and to understand the complexities and the mechanisms of rice cultivation in the southeastern Asian country. In other words, it strives to asses the management of rice through various lenses, such as:

Irrigation of the rice crops

Cultivation of the rice by individual farmers and/or specialized large size farms

Environmental issues concerning rice cultivation

Regulations regarding crop cultivation

Marketing of the Thai rice within the international community

3. Literature review

After the research endeavor has introduced the reader to the general state of rice production in Thailand and has also stated the research scopes, it would move on to reviewing the most noteworthy sources within the literature. The sources would integrate a variety of works from books, journal articles, magazine articles or even internet articles.

R.E. Huke and E.H. Huke (1990) for instance offer a strong starting point in the understanding of the history of rice in Thailand. Apichai Puntasen and Paradorn Preedasak (1998) approach the entire Thai agriculture and argue that it is at a crossroads. Thamrong Mekhora and Laura M. J McCann (2003) look at rice cultivation from the standpoint of its perceived "war" with shrimp production. Lisa Kealhofer (2003) then details on the use of land and the origins of rice domestication in Thailand. K.L. Heong (2005) strives to explain the evolution and the future of rice cultivation in Thailand. Then, there are the editors at Krom Wichakan Kaset, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, International Rice Research Institute (1988) who discuss the epidemics which can impact the rice crops. Finally, Pascale M. Phelinas (2001) is concerned with the sustainability of…… [read more]


Culture in Uzbekistan Cultural Characteristic Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,090 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Culture in Uzbekistan

CULTURAL Characteristic ONE: A strong musical heritage is an important cultural characteristic of Uzbekistan, according to an article by Alexander Djumaev in the journal Ethnomusicology Forum (Djumaev, 2005, p. 165). Djumaev writes that there were two "key figures" that created the original texts regarding the musical culture in Uzbek. Those figures were Abdurauf Fitrat (who lived 1886-1938) and Abdulla Qodiriy (1894-1940). Unfortunately these two writers were "purged" during the Soviet period of Uzbek ("purged" means they were killed for political reasons). The Soviet communist authorities claimed the two were involved in "bourgeois nationalism" and "pan-Turkism" but in fact the contributions the two writers made "remain crucial even today" (Djumaev, p. 171).

Fitrat published his main research (titled "Uzbek classical music and its history") in 1926. His work provided a "scholarly grounding" for the idea that Uzbekistan indeed had a musical heritage, Djumaev writes. A year later it was published in Arabic script. Fitrat based his justification for a national musicology on four principal aspects (Djumaev, p. 171-72): a) he was the first to attempt a definition of Uzbek music in the culture of the Muslim world as contrasted with European musical culture; b) Fitrat identified Uzbek "classical music"; c) he "integrated achievements of the past into Uzbek musical culture (incorporating Muslim, Persian concepts); and d) he "formulated the principles for the study of traditional Uzbek music" (p. 172). The Soviets took Fitrat's book off the shelves in 1935 and purged him in 1938, but his book has been kept in private collections and in scholarly libraries even today (Djumaev, p. 173).

As to the modern musical tradition that is a cultural characteristic in Uzbekistan, the Embassy of Uzbekistan explains that the "koshuk" is a household song; the "lapar" is part of wedding songs using the "ulan" (performed as a conversation between man and woman); the "dastans" are part of musical heritage -- epic legends -- in Uzbekistan (www.uzbekistan.org).

CULTURAL Characteristics TWO & TREE: women's dance ensemble and the ballet (enjoying and participating in the arts is a cultural characteristic of the Uzbek people). Laura L. Adams asserts in her essay that much of today's culture in Uzbekistan reflects Soviet instituted cultural values, because "there was no unified Uzbek national culture" prior to the repressive Soviet (the Bolsheviks) hegemony (Adams, 1999, p. 358). No doubt exists that "many" Soviet cultural policies had "harmful effects" on the citizens in Uzbek, Adams explains. Other Soviet cultural policies -- like dance and folklore ensembles -- were actually instituted by the Soviets, Adams explains. The women's dance ensemble, "a genre introduced by the Soviets," is accepted in Uzbek culture today as "the most characteristic expression of their cultural identity" (Adams, p. 363) Ironically these ensembles were brought into Uzbek by the Soviets with themes that attempted to "destroy a significant aspect of pre-Soviet culture" -- the seclusion of women.

Keeping women hidden was part of the Muslim culture prior to Soviet hegemony and hence the dance ensemble brought an end to that… [read more]


Dragon Rising Book Report

Book Report  |  10 pages (3,209 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Dragon Rising by Jasper Becker

Explain why the history of China matters to the present. What can it tell us about modernization in China?

As one of the most ancient civilizations on earth, China's history has been of interest to and highly influential on the West ever since Marco Polo first returned with glowing accounts of the exotic… [read more]


Korean American Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,232 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Korean-American Journal Entry

Korean-Americans have made a contribution to the American experience for over a century. The first wave of immigrants from Korea came after Japan began to exert its dominance over the neighboring nation. Koreans fleeing their homeland were drawn to the island of Hawaii, where they knew they could find work on sugar plantations. However, this first wave of Korean immigration to the U.S. was small, as the Immigration Act of 1924 was passed soon afterwards. This Act severely limited immigration from Asia. The Act was a potent example of how racism affected early immigration policy. Politicians in power intended to keep 'America for Americans' and prevent further waves of immigration of non-whites. Even spouses were prevented from rejoining husbands and wives in America (Korean-American History, 2010, Curriculum guide).

Koreans that were already U.S. residents faced discrimination and a general sense of incomprehension of their culture. Few Americans had heard of Korea, and many simply assumed that Korean immigrants were Chinese or Japanese. Even when Japanese-occupied Korea endured tremendous suffering during World War II, unlike the 'Rape of Nanking' this received little attention even in the anti-Japanese-American press. Tensions between Japan and Korea still exist today: "The idea that Japanese colonialism somehow laid the foundation for Korea's modernizing reforms should not be offered as an apology for Japanese imperialism," wrote one Korean academic, and "while anti-Koreanism is far from the sentiment of all Japanese, a United Nations report conducted last year [2005] concluded that the island nation [of Japan] harbors deeply xenophobic attitudes. Some experts say such thinking can trace its roots to the Meiji period, when Japan's establishment actively tried to copy Western ideas and culture" (Rusling 2006). For Koreans living in the United States, the fact that some Americans tend to elide all Asian identities into one can be profoundly upsetting, given the longstanding divisive history between Korea and Japan that motivated many Koreans to immigrate to the U.S.

It was the Korean War that 'put Korea on the map' in the minds of many Americans. It also initiated another wave of immigration to the U.S., including my parents. Congress passed a series of laws enabling war brides, orphans of war, students, and individuals with special skills from all Asian countries to come to the U.S., beginning with the War Brides Act of 1946 and then followed with the 1952 McCarran-Walter Act. These acts allowed Asians to immigrate in small numbers and eventually to become U.S. citizens. My father came with his parents, who wished to escape war-torn South Korea. My mother immigrated slightly later, after the Immigration Act of 1965 further opened the doors of the U.S. To immigrants from around the world (Korean-American History, 2010, Curriculum guide).

Because both of my grandparents did not speak fluent English, their early years were filled with struggle. My mother, for example, remembers working in my grandfather's grocery store until late every night, even on school days. She would do homework in-between waiting on customers. The neighborhood was… [read more]


Japan vs. Pearl Harbor Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (707 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Japan vs. Pearl Harbor

What were Japan's major reasons for its attack on Pearl Harbor? In what ways did the attack connect with their moves into China in the 1930s and Southeast Asia in 1941 and 1942?

Given Japan's lack of natural resources and less developed military capability, Japan knew that the war it began against the United States was an unwinnable war."Even many government leaders of Japan knew that at the time. However, at the same time, it was the war that they had to fight," once the U.S. imposed sanctions on Japan after its invasion of China (Arima 2003). Japan was utterly dependant upon trade, particularly trade with the United States. "Oil was a lifeline for power, but unlike the U.S., Japan could produce only a little amount of oil domestically…Japan had become a member of the imperial powers and one of the most advanced nations in the world of the time. However, such accomplishment and power was impossible to achieve and maintain without oil, which Japan had totally depended upon the U.S. For the supply" (Arima 2003). America supplied approximately 80% of Japan's oil resources at the time. In 1941 President Roosevelt also imposed embargos of scrap metal and other commodities essential in waging an air-based war. The U.S. demanded that Japan withdraw from its alliance with Germany and Italy as well as from Chinese territories.

Although it had been an ally of the United States during World War I, Japan's appetite for imperialist expansion had been whetted in 1894 when Japan defeated China in the Sino-Japanese War for Taiwan. It defeated the Russian Empire in 1904. Japan established control over Korea in 1910 and after its invasion of China it established the state of Manchuria in 1932. The Japanese refused to comply with U.S. demands partially out of a sense of honor: it feared that to capitulate to a Western power would mean a huge loss of face, and also could destabilize the regime of the Emperor. Japan had already suffered heavy financial and military losses to establish a presence in China (Arima 2003). Manchuria was believed to be…… [read more]


Description Interpretation Evaluation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,689 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Communications

Several years ago I was walking along a busy commercial street in a mid-sized Japanese city. The street, called Otamai Dori, was the main shopping thoroughfare in Himeji, a city of about 400,000 located south of Kobe and north of Okayama. It was Saturday afternoon, which is a busy shopping time in Japan as most schools and businesses that… [read more]


Chinese Economic History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,985 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Chinese Economy

Great Leap v. Gradualism: Maoist and Post-Maoist Approaches to China's Economic Growth and Development since 1949.

In the last decades China was able to maintain almost a steady two-digit economic growth, and this spectacular performance has garnered the interest of many Chinese and non-Chinese economists, policy makers, media commentators, and lay people. Many leaders and economic thinkers of… [read more]


L Marketing Tassal Is a Tasmanian Company Essay

Essay  |  12 pages (4,158 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … l Marketing

Tassal is a Tasmanian company engaged in the farming of Atlantic salmon and the subsequent production of frozen salmon entrees. The firm is increasing production and looking to expand overseas in order to increase its sales. Tassal has targeted the Hong Kong market, both for its sophistication and acceptance of ready meals, and as a gateway… [read more]


International Marketing -- South Korea Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (3,531 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

South Korea's GDP is for instance greater that that of Australia, Canada, the Netherlands or Switzerland. Four decades ago however, South Korea's GDP was comparable to the national output of the poorer countries in Africa or Asia. This was however the time when the state officials became engaged in processes of modernization, global integration and introduction of high technology applications… [read more]


Modernization in Early China Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,761 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

At the beginning of the twentieth century, Okakura saw the danger of western expansionism to the East and demanded action against it from the Japanese part.

The Japanese spirit, as he Asian spirit is molded by complex and often contradicting forces: the ability to contemplate the blossoming cherry trees every year or the reddening leaves in autumn and the extreme cruelty that leads to suicide rather than loosing face. Okakura writes about art as "the highest and noblest of our national culture" (The Ideals of the East, p. 1-10).

Exteme violence and simplicity in expression have encountered a mercantile west that brought technological advancement and scientific discoveries that helped the Meiji regime ease the passage from an agrarian economy to an economy based on industry in less than a century. The modernization had come later for Japan than for other countries because of the Tokugawa's politics of complete isolation from the rest of the word for over three centuries, but this same isolation may have caused the strengthening of the Japanese spirit and the ability of the Japanese to embrace the new while keeping their values and cultural identity intact.

Sources of Japanese Tradition, Vol II. Okakura Kakuzo: Aesthetic Pan-Asianism

Rozman, G. The Modernization of China. Simon and Schuster. 1982

The Meiji Restoration and Modernization. Retrieved: Nov 22, 2009. Available at: http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/japan/japanworkbook/modernhist/meiji.html

Cheng, P-K. & Lestz, M with Spence, JD. The Search For Modern China W.W. Norton & Company. New York. London.… [read more]


What Are the Potential Reactions by Other Powers to North Korean Nuclear Capability? Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Powers to North Korean Nuclear Capability?

2009 has seen North Korea continue to develop its nuclear capabilities. Over the past several years North Korea has shown a need to develop weapons in a more aggressive and protective strategy.

The year has provided several instances for North Korea to threaten the fragile stability of the political relationship with the West. In March, the communist nation test fired a long-range ballistic missile.

Only a few months later, North Korea caused an international spur when it announced an alleged successful test of a nuclear bombing.

This threatened to break a delicate balance between North Korea and the West based on the superiority of the West in terms of weapon capabilities. North Korea even went out and publicly claimed this missile to have been as strong as the one used by the U.S. In World War II.

It was claimed that the test took place in an underground bunker.

In fact, North Korea has been very public in regards to its nuclear development and testing.

The nation has been making claims of nuclear development since as early as 2006

, but this claim is supported by external sources. U.S. satellite imagery was also said to have seen activity at the alleged site.

South Korean officials then confirmed some elements of the story with the revelation that they had recorded a tremor around the time the alleged test was to have taken place.

This sparked through the international political community and created great frustration and uneasiness as the Western world's most dangerous' enemy is continuing to perfect its weapons.

There are reports that North Korea may even have the capability to hit the West Coast of the United States.

The typical reaction in…… [read more]


International and Comparative HRM Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,845 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 12

SAMPLE TEXT:

Culture and Diversity Issues in Expanding to Singapore

In today's increasingly globalized economy, expansion beyond an organization's national borders offers many benefits. For many organizations, expanding to operations into other countries offers access to a broader consumer base, as well as distribution networks. In addition, organizations many realize increased efficiencies by locating production processes and conducting business transactions outside of… [read more]


Vietnamese Domination by Other Countries Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,501 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

56). The Catholics had benefited from the French takeover in Vietnam, because they were largely white or elite Vietnamese, the group who benefited the most from French intervention. It is not surprising that the peasants supported the Viet Minh, because they received little benefit from the French, and were generally outcasts in the elite French society.

Yet another group that… [read more]


Dr. Veraswami Thesis

Thesis  |  15 pages (5,289 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

SAMPLE TEXT:

Ambivalence of Dr. Veraswami of George Orwell's Burmese Days

Better known for his classic novels, Nineteen Eighty-Four and Animal Farm, George Orwell was also the author of a number of other compelling books that have attracted a great deal of scholarly attention over the years. In his first novel, Burmese Days, though, Orwell provides modern readers with some poignant examples… [read more]


US Foreign Policy Towards North Korea Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (2,229 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

U.S. FOREIGN POLICY TOWARDS NORTH KOREA

The objective of this work is to examine U.S. foreign policy towards North Korea and to identify some policy issue in the area of peace and conflict and analyze the situation and the proposals to resolve this issue upon some theoretical understanding of the problem and its resolution.

The forceful stance taken by the… [read more]


South Korea: Multilateralism, Regionalism and Its Future Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  15 pages (4,551 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

South Korea: Multilateralism, Regionalism and Its Future Political Outlook

The Korean Peninsula is frequently the provocateur for headlines in the global community, both for its proclivity toward tension and conflict and for its relative importance in its region and the world. Perhaps most problematically and tellingly captured by the Korean War that brought so many American, Soviet and Chinese forces… [read more]


India Pakistan Conflicts Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,332 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

India-Pakistan Conflict

A GLOBALLY CATASTROPHIC COMMUNICATION GAP

India

The Republic of India measures 3.1 million square kilometers and is located on the Indian Plate in South Asia (BBC, 2009). It has the second largest population in the world with 1.2 billion people, according to United Nations 2008 statistics. Mumbai or Bombay as the most populated city while the capital is… [read more]


China Town Idea Analysis Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,009 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … China Town Idea" Analysis

"the Chinatown Idea:" Chinatown as a concept and geographical location

In his essay, "The Chinatown Idea," author Eric Liu analyzes the concept of a 'Chinatown' within major metropolitan areas. Liu's approach is intriguing, given that the existence of 'Chinatowns' is something many people take for granted, without assessing their ideological implications. Visitors to cities often come to gawk at Chinatowns as tourist attractions, even though 'real' people live there, and conduct their daily lives there. The language of Chinatowns, the appearance of signs in Chinese characters creates a vision of an 'otherworldly' place for outsiders and a sense of a different country and place for both Chinese and non-Chinese observers. Chinatown is thus an epistemological concept as well as a geographically-bound entity -- it is a physical area, true, but it also provides comfort to the residents and visitors that something outside of the laws and restrictions of mainstream culture is preserved. It manufactures its own unique culture as a neighborhood, yet isolates Chinese culture as a museum piece for those who might find such an alternative culture to be threatening.

One of the central metaphors Liu uses is that of an island: he observes that Chinatown is "an island of eternity in a sea of modernity" (Liu 172), indicating its preservation of traditional Chinese practices in a country that is constantly changing. The island does not threaten the 'mainland' of modernity, only streets away, as it is governed by different rules that do not spill over into the larger world. This idea of Chinatown as an exotic country is reinforced by another metaphor -- that of a nation occupied by a colonizing power with some limited ability to govern itself: traditional "Chinese ways" determine how life progresses, as Chinatown is "a zone of 'home rule,' where "the natives govern themselves" (Liu 173). In the perception of non-residents, Chinatown is foreign, intriguing and largely irrelevant, given that Chinatown is usually in a small sector of a city, a mysterious town or realm of surprises of "meaning and moral import" but utterly separate (Liu 172). On one hand, this experience may be frightening to 'non-natives,' that is Caucasian non-residents, but on the other hand, Chinatown provides a kind of safety valve. The presence of a Chinatown suggests that there is no need to integrate the inhabitants: they live according to their own rules and do not want to follow the rules of mainstream society. This is why the habits of Chinatown residences are often condemned and criticized, even while observers flock to witness these practices performed in the flesh. Good examples of this are what type of animals are consumed and how animals are slaughtered and prepared. While newspapers may condemn the 'fresh killing' of animals in public as a health hazard, this often stimulates the desire of the public to see it in action. Somehow public health questions do not seem to matter as much in Chinatown.

There is also a kind of otherworldly… [read more]


Taiwan and Tibet Issue Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,001 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Tibet and China: An Eternal and Growing Controversy

Although signs that proclaim 'Free Tibet' are popular on college campuses across the nation, many individuals who hang these likely have little idea what freeing Tibet really means. China's hosting of the Olympics during the summer of 2008 turned the international focus briefly to the issue when pro-independence protesters dotted the road of the torchbearers making their way to Beijing. Even many liberal Chinese were outraged at the sight, as they consider Tibet a part of the Chinese nation, while most of Tibet regards itself as a unique nation-state and a captive of the Republic of China. For human rights activists, the distinct monastic culture and tradition of Tibet are a powerful argument for the need to 'Free Tibet,' in the words of the slogan.

According to this viewpoint, Tibet had long existed as its own separate nation, with a distinct culture and geography, until it was invaded by the People's Republic of China. During the early decades of its existence, the People's Republic, in the name of universal international socialism, strove to extend its control over a wide swath of third-world countries in the region. However, Tibet because of its geographical proximity to China had always enjoyed something of a problematic relationship with mainland China -- the relationship was symbiotic, but not that of an integrated state or province.

Since the very beginnings of relations between the two nations, China has varied widely in its policy, occasionally taking a hands-off attitude to Tibet, at other times enforcing administrative control over the nation. "By the mid-nineteenth century, if not earlier, Manchu Chinese influence was minuscule' (Goldstein & Rimpoche 44). But tensions between Tibet's desire for autonomy and China's leadership have existed as early as the Qing Dynasty: "with the threat posed to their authority by the Dalai Lama, to whom many Qing subjects in both Mongolia and Tibet looked for religious leadership" seen as destabilizing to the authority of the Qing in the neighboring provinces (Waley-Cohen 94). The "elimination of the age-old nomadic threat to their northwest frontiers" was only achieved by the temporary incorporation of Tibet into the Chinese fold (Waley-Cohen 94). Threats posed by Western, Imperialist powers such as France and China only sharpened the desire of the Chinese to continue to have sway over Tibet as a buffer state. And when Tibet was independent during the beginning of the 20th century, when the Japanese military machine severed China's traditional supply routes, the Nationalist Chiang Kai-shek needed a conduit he had sought to create an India-China roadway through Tibet. The nationalist desire to dominate Tibet confirmed the Communist sense that Tibet was necessary to include within their fold to assure their security against internal and foreign invaders.

China thus came to associate control over Tibet with its strength as a nation and resistance to Western imperialism and control over its policy. As the People's Republic secured its power, this "strengthened China's confidence about pursuing a number of other goals in…… [read more]


US China Trading Relations Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  14 pages (3,988 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 11

SAMPLE TEXT:

U.S. CHINA TRADING RELATIONS

The objective of this work is to examine China and U.S. trading relations of Post-Tiananmen China from the perspective of Chinese businessmen. This work will answer the questions of:

In the context of the U.S. hostility towards China after Tiananmen incident, how privatized firms and businesses flourished along the southeastern coast of China during the 90s.… [read more]


Ethnographic Encounter Thesis

Thesis  |  12 pages (3,071 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Ethnographic Study of Chinese Women in America

The objective of this work is to investigate the problem of dealing with the Chinese females became much more complex after they settle in China Town in the United States. Despite the Chinese cultural women remain traditional the globalized American culture have many way to influence the social life of Chinese women in… [read more]


Taiwanese Identity Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,963 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Republicanism in British America

The history of the Taiwanese people is an intriguing and at the same time interesting part of the history of the world. It represents the combination of the influences of the traditional way of life and the European contribution to the creation of the cultural heritage that is today Taiwan. However, in order to have a… [read more]


Nationalist Struggles for Self-Determination - The Wave Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,334 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Nationalist struggles for self-Determination - the wave of decolonization in Algeria and India

The fall of the European Empires in the twentieth century came in different manners, either with a war of independence or by negotiations between the parties involved. The uprising in nationalism after the First World War, following the famous Wilson points, led the way for a wave… [read more]


Malaysia Cultural Influences on Ethnic Society Political Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,743 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

Malaysia Cultural Influences on Ethnic Society

Political Science: Malaysia

The purpose of this paper is to explain the stability in ethnic relations in Malaysia since 1969. Political, economic, and cultural explanations are reviewed, with the most persuasive answer providing the explanation for Malaysia's stability (culture). The author postulates and discourses on how cultural explanations help account for today's peaceful stability… [read more]


Culture Realms of Southeast Asian Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,053 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

Culture Realms of Southeast Asia

Discuss different culture realms in this region

Discuss what the paper is going to be about

Brunei

Region

People

Economy

Religion

Burma

Region

People

Economy

Religion

Cambodia

Region

People

Economy

Religion

Indonesia

Region

People

Economy

Religion

Laos

Region

People

Economy

Religion

Malaysia

Region

People

Economy

Religion

Philippines

Region

People

Economy

Religion

Summarize main points

Outline… [read more]


Kim Jong Il: North Korea's Dear Leader Book Review

Book Review  |  5 pages (1,736 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Kim Jong Il: North Korea's Dear Leader By Michael Breen

Kim Jong-II, North Korea's Dear Leader

Breen, Michael. Kim Jong-II, North Korea's Dear Leader. New York: John Wiley, 2003. Updated 2004.

The purpose and thesis of Michael Breen's biography of North Korea's leader Kim Jong II is neatly encapsulated in its deliberately ironic title: Kim Jong-II, North Korea's Dear Leader.… [read more]


Vietnam Policy on Ethnic Affairs Minorities From 1975 to 2000 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,144 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Vietnam Policy on Ethnic Affairs (Minorities) From 1975 to 2000.

This paper provides an analysis and evaluation of the role ethnic affairs played in Vietnamese governments from 1975 to 2000. These years are significant because they represent a time where the Vietnamese government moved from supporting greater autonomy among minorities to adopting policies that supported a unified state, where ethnic… [read more]


Future of Global Marketing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,030 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Future of Global Marketing

Global Marketing

Enhancement of the concept of 'Global Marketing' is being extensively fostered in both the fields of professional as well as domestic societies. The domestic markets cannot single-handedly generate the income as well as the growth potentialities needed by several business enterprises. Several business enterprises are desirous of marketing in global markets; however they are… [read more]


Chinese Pilgrims in India Assessment

Assessment  |  2 pages (651 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Chinese Pilgrims in India

The Chinese attitudes of India "vary from total absence of curiosity to wild fanciful misapprehension" and from these attitudes, the perceptions of the Chinese towards India can be derived (Mather, 1992). Though, most accounts that have emerged from History of the Han Dynasty speak to mutual respect- falling in the middle of the spectrum. The account tells of a positive relationship with India and the respect for certain things in Indian society including basic cleanliness, the demeanor of the people, and respect for their customs and traditions describing them as "timid and excitability, their real intentions are pure and genuine" (Mather, 1992). The earlier accounts of the Chinese in regards to India is overwhelmingly positive- there is a certain sense of curiosity, fascination and respect which allows for a strong relationship in the earlier timeframes of their relationship. "The accounts in the various Six Dynasties histories" do not indicate any "condescension" (Mather, 1992).

The factors that affect the perceptions and the account of these themes include some personal accounts. It is along the journey that pilgrims took that certain things were noticed and mentioned- the exchange of goods, people noticing the customs and traditions of the Indian culture, the general cleanliness that was previously mentioned in an account, the overall aura and demeanor of the Indian people. Pilgrims were more or less "ambassadors" of China that represented the country in their spiritual journey; thus, the main factor that impacted these positive perceptions is the people that took this journey. The individual parts that eventually comprised the whole helped develop and establish the relationship that was fostered between ancient India and ancient China.

Though, this overall positive perception of India changed "after the rise of ecclesiastical Taoism" which was influenced by the Indian culture and faith, because of this influence it also made Hinduism a rival faith (Mather, 1992). Because of this rival, Taoism criticized Buddhist and India in many ways. They…… [read more]


Authoritarian the Modern Nations Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (894 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

By the age of European conquest, the people of the various islands in Indonesia were already familiar with autocracy, patriarchy, and plutocracy. Portuguese, British, and Spanish too touched soil in the Indonesian archipelago with the intention of plundering natural resources and imposing European cultural hegemony. Yet it was the Dutch that would mainly prevail in establishing an economic hub in the archipelago. The Dutch East India Company held corporate sway over Indonesia. Yet the Dutch might have underestimated the cohesion and power of the Javanese kingdoms. Java presented the greatest threat to Dutch authorities, leading to a series of semi-successful revolts. Even when unsuccessful and crushed by superior European weapons technologies, indigenous revolts -- especially in Java -- proved the illegitimacy of Dutch authority.

By the beginning of the twentieth century, nationalism was clearly a possibility in both the Philippines and Indonesia. The spread of European political ideas including Marxism helped to foment empowerment movements that appealed to the large, ethnically and culturally diverse peasant populations. When the Japanese invaded both the Philippines and Indonesia, rule by external authorities was so completely intolerable that an artificial nationalism was the only alternative to military dictatorships imposed from the outside. However, Sukarno initially cooperated with the Japanese, enabling his own rise to power in Indonesia. The Sukarno government defined Indonesian political identity, domestic and foreign policy for much of the twentieth century. Artificial nationalism took root in the political vacuum created by centuries of environmental, economic, social, and political plunder.

The Philippine push towards independence came several decades earlier than in Indonesia. War with the United States weakened the Spaniards beyond repair, but did not immediately grant the Philippines a free ride towards self-governance. The Philippine-American War and the creation of interim but unstable national governments fomented nationalism in the archipelago. Just as with Indonesia, nationalism was a viable alternative to the vacuum left by colonialism, which had now linked together the diverse cultures and regions of the Philippines. Economic expediency, the need to compete in the global marketplace, and the broken social systems of indigenous societies all enabled the rise of authoritarian rule in the Philippines and Indonesia. Authoritarian rule created unity against colonialism in the post-colonial era and while the regimes of Marcos and Sukarno proved bloody and dictatorial, the people of Southeast Asia had been too disenfranchised and disempowered to do anything about it.

Works Cited

Anderson, Benedict, Java in a Time of Revolution: Occupation and Resistance, 1944-46 (Ithaca, NY, 1972), pp. 125-66

Huynh Kim Khanh, "The Vietnamese August Revolution," Journal of Asian Studies 30:4 (1970), pp. 761-82.

Steinberg, David J., ed., In Search of Southeast Asia…… [read more]


China on the West Unprecedented Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,218 words)
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China had grown quite independently at the time, emphasizing the people as the greater resource than the sovereign. The idea fuelled the evolution of the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century in France. It emphasized the role of reason and common sense as a scientific method of thinking (Bodde).

Political and Economic Theories -- China has always been predominantly agrarian, with only minimal industries and trade (Bodde, 2005). The Chinese always upheld agriculture as a primary industry, which deserved intensive government support. They traditionally regarded commerce as secondary and non-productive. They esteemed the farmer far higher than the merchant in social ranking. They influenced the Physiocrats whose ideas later influenced the theories of Adam Smith who wrote "The Wealth of Nations" in 1776. The Physiocrafts, in turn, founded the modern Western political economy. Their insistence for the need for universal education led to the establishment of a 19th-century movement, which became standard practice in Western democracies (Bodde).

Responsibilities and Limits to Chinese Influence

US President Barrack Obama stressed that the relationship between the U.S. And China was important and shaping the course of this present century (Ying, 2009). The Chinese see China as an active and assertive country but nonetheless still a developing country. Chinese economy may be bigger than Britain in size but China's GDP per capita is only 1/15th that of Britain. Comparing, 90% of Britain's population lives in towns and cities, while 60% of China's still lives in the countryside. Its disabled population also exceeds the total population of Britain (Ying).

These data present a dual image for China (Ying, 2009). It ranks high in size and quantity but low in per capita (Ying, 2009). This is why some Chinese analysts think China has a long way to go to attain the same level as world powers. It may contribute to world peace and development, which Western countries ask it to do. But these analysts do not see China as playing that role beyond its honest capability. This difference in perception can be attributed to an imbalance in comments and representations about China in Western media. China and the West differ in political systems and values. Other realities are the legacy of the Cold War and slow response to China's accelerated development. Most importantly, there is the resulting lack of understanding from limited information about China in most Western countries. While information about the West abounds in Beijing, British bookshops do not carry many books about modern China. Hence, its true culture and history remain little known (Ying).

China's growth depends heavily more than ever before on external markets, resources and technology (Ying, 2009). It still needs to state its need for an understanding and acceptance of its peaceful development. It needs to present facts to the world, facts about its achievements and its problems alike and its own efforts to address these problems. It is consoling that there are people in the West who sincerely want to understand China and know more about it. China… [read more]


Power &amp Nationalism Koreans Term Paper

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If we cumulate small offences for half a century, we will probably reach a certain level of saturation.

Another thing that needs to be discussed here, in the end, is the natural dislike of a dominating country that has deployed troops on your territory. It is to be understood that probably most Koreans still see the importance of such an act, but, on the other side, it IS a foreign presence on your territory. If we think of the Korean national pride, we will see how this can lead to an upraise in anti-Americanism. National pride is something not to be ignored in any context. As a parallel, let us consider the example of Eastern Germany, where Americans troops were also stationed during the Cold War. Even if this was an even clearer case of defense against the threat of the Soviet Union, waves of discomfort spread across Eastern Germany with time and there were signs that the American presence in their country was no longer needed.

Finally, we should ask ourselves, as the Koreans have done no doubt: is there still a motivation for American presence in South Korea? Seeing the late negotiations for signing a peace treaty between the two Koreas, we would be inclined to say that there is not. The two Koreas seem closer than ever to signing a peace treaty and perhaps even towards reunification. But if we take a closer look at the North Korean threat, especially as a nuclear force, than the American deployment seems more than justified, if only as a possible threat towards the Northern Korea. However, we can be sure that the Koreans do ask themselves these questions: is there presence really necessary here and how much longer will we have to put up with them?

Bibliography

Korean War History Guide. Can be found on The History Beat, on the World Wide Web at http://www.searchbeat.com / http://www.korea.army.mil/welcome/sofa.htm (for the SOFA agreement)

http://www.yonip.com/main/articles/declaration_on_current_situation.html (for a case of two Americans that crushed to death two Korean girls in a car accident)… [read more]


Asian Culture it Was Created Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  2 pages (556 words)
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27. The Wuxia Novels.

28. It is a school, established in 1993, to teach kungfu and academic courses, located at the foot of Mount Wudang.

29. Grandmaster Huo Yan Jia and his successors: Chen Gong Zhe, Yao Chan Bo,

and Lu Wei Chang.

30. It is a central martial Arts Academy, established in Nanjing in 1928.

31. Bai Mei Dao Ren (B. 1710 A.D.).

32. Chinese peasant band that formed in response to the unrest and civil war following the floods and famines that accompanied disastrous changes in the course of the Yellow River between ad 2 and 11.

33. Buddhist sect that incorporated Daoism and other Chinese sects beginning in

12th century AD.

34. Chinese secret society whose uprising (184 -- 204 AD) contributed to eventual fall of Han Dynsasty.

35. This could be Hua Mulan, legendary female who takes her aged father's place in the army and fights for 12 years.

36. 1869 -- 1910, legendary martial artist and Chinese national hero.

37. Huang Jiguang (1931 -- 1952), fought for Chinese army in Korean War,

sacrificed himself in Battle of Triangle Hill.

38. 1847 -- 1924, forefather of modern-day martial arts, specifically Hung-Gar; portrayed by Jet Li in Once Upon a Time in China II

39. This makes no sense; the Russians were part of the international force that defeated the Chinese in the Boxer Rebellion.

40. The only Wong Long I can find, other than a fashion design business in Austin, Texas, is a Wing Chun master living in Hong Kong.

41. 15 minutes outside of Dengfeng, China.

42. Wutai Mtn. (Shanxi Province); Putuo Mtn. (Zhejiang Prov.); Emei Mtn. (Sichuan Prov.);…… [read more]


Freemasonry in Pre 1917 Russia Research Paper

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Freemasonry in Pre-1917 Russia

Free Masonry in Pre-1917 Russia

The Freemasons were a movement founded in Europe in the 1300's, although freemasonry did not enter Russia until much later. The founding philosophies of the group encompassed ideals including scientific discovery, intellectualism, and deism. Although there have been some unofficial sects that permitted women members, the group has been predominantly male.… [read more]


South Korean Government Humanitarian Aid Policy Toward North Research Paper

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¶ … Korean War is one of those rare events in human history: it had no official ending and had no official ending. Although there is a marked date for the beginning of War, June 25, 1950, when the 75,000 North Korean soldiers invaded South Korea across the 38th parallel, War was never officially declared and in July of 1953… [read more]


Multi National Corporation Term Paper

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Multinational Corporations

In this particular scenario, Sealwrap is looking to expand its operations into Europe and Asia. Sealwrap, on a practical level, is first faced with two pressing concerns. Recently, in Asia, fears about SARS, U.S. reports on human rights, the narcotic trade, concerns about religious freedom and trade barriers in Southeast Asia have cause some American firms to actively avoid the region. Jerry still wishes to open a plant in Asia. If he does so he must remember that "many U.S. And China-based companies are eager to break into each other's market[s,]" but they "may not have enough familiarity with the laws, the culture, or even have a contact in the respective country to get started." (U.S. China Biz, 2004)

China and indeed all of Asia, and the European community present any eager corporation with a potentially enormous market but also with the potential for tremendous losses. Although some Asian and European labor and building costs may be comparatively inexpensive the complex bureaucratic structure of doing business within different cultural and political system of governance may generate more headaches than profits, as an American firm finds itself faced with different expectations regarding working hours, benefits, and contracts. This does not mean, although, that Jerry's Sealwrap should completely eschew advancement into the Asian and European market. Simply by being an 'American' firm, Sealwrap might generate interest. In Japan, packaging, even of gifts, is extremely important on a cultural level, often transcending the importance of the gift itself. From a marketing perspective, this is one way to generate interest in this particular product. In general, a firm must position the product's entire, not necessarily how it is positioned within the American market, but in a way that will be attractive to…… [read more]


Industrial Revolution and Its Consequences 1750-1850 Essay

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Industrial Revolution and Its Consequences, 1750-

Industrial Revolution

Institution of Learning

Course Code / Title

Industrial revolution refers to the rapid and complex changes, both socially and economically, mainly because of introduction of extensive mechanization resulting in a change in production. Mechanization changes the formerly small scale hand-based production to a large scale production system that employs extensive use of… [read more]


Gandhi's Perception of His Religion and Civilization Term Paper

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¶ … Gandhi's perception of his religion and civilization and how these perceptions in turn led to his triumph over the British Empire and later to the independence of India. It will also take into account significant figures such as Nehru and Jinnah when analyzing certain aspects of Gandhi's decisions. Mahatma Gandhi was a great man, a great leader, and… [read more]


East History and Culture A2 Coursework

A2 Coursework  |  5 pages (1,777 words)
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East, Culture, History

Beijing, previously known as Peking after Romanization, is the capital of the People's Republic of China and also one of the most populated cities on the entire globe. It is an important city not only because of its position as capital of China but also because of its historical significance to the region and to the country… [read more]


China Town Paris Term Paper

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Unlike other horoscopes, the year of your birth does not just indicate a person's age. According to the Chinese system of Astrology, the year of birth indicates a certain phase or aspect of a sixty-year cycle of time. And, unknown to many, the Chinese use three systems for counting and classifying the years: The ten Heavenly Stems, the twelve Earthly Branches and the twelve Animals.

Yet another interest fact is that the word Mahjong means sparrow in Chinese and many believe it was used for the game because getting the winning tile is as hard catching a bird.

History, attractions, events and culture are all major draws to the two Chinatowns in Paris. Most residents have come for a better way of life, but, to the benefit of all, have preserved the better parts of the life the came from. The result makes for a spectacular learning experience.

Bibliography

'A History of Mah Jong." Mahjong.com. 04 Dec. 2004 .

"A Tribute." EdithPiaf.com 4 Dec. 2004. .

'Champs-Elysees Hosts Chinese New Year Parade." China Internet Information Center. 04 Dec. 2004. .

'Chinese Astrology History." iVillage. 04 Dec. 2004. .

"Chinois Paris." EASTPIX. 4 Dec. 2004 .

"Culture Week to Kick Off in Paris." China Internet Information Center. 04 Dec. 2004. http://www.china.org.cn/english/2004/Jan/84349.htm

"Examples of Filial Piety (14th Century CE)." Washington State University. 04 Dec. 2004. .

"Paris." Manstouch Travel. 4 Dec. 2004. .

RendezvousFrance. 4 Dec. 2004. .

The Maurice Chevalier Web Site. 04 Dec. 2004. .

"Welcome to Paris." Areaguides.net. 4 Dec. 2004. http://parisfr.ags.myareaguide.com/detail.html?cityguide=gen_intro

RendezvousFrance. 4 Dec. 2004. .

"Chinois Paris." EASTPIX. 4 Dec. 2004 .

RendezvousFrance 4 Dec. 2004 http://www.rendezvousfrance.com/chine.html

"Chinois Paris." EASTPIX. 4 Dec. 2004

"Welcome to Paris." Areaguides.net. 4 Dec. 2004. http://parisfr.ags.myareaguide.com/detail.html?cityguide=gen_intro

"Paris." Manstouch Travel. 4 Dec. 2004. .

"A Tribute." EdithPiaf.com 4 Dec. 2004. .

The Maurice Chevalier Web Site. 04 Dec. 2004. .

"Champs-Elysees Hosts Chinese New Year Parade." China Internet Information Center. 04 Dec. 2004. .

"Culture Week to Kick Off in Paris." China Internet Information Center. 04 Dec. 2004. http://www.china.org.cn/english/2004/Jan/84349.htm

"Examples of Filial Piety (14th Century CE)." Washington State University. 04 Dec. 2004. .

"Chinese Astrology History." iVillage. 04 Dec. 2004. .

"A History of Mah Jong." Mahjong.com. 04 Dec. 2004 .… [read more]


Taiwan vs. Hong Kong Term Paper

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Hong Kong and Taiwan

Both Hong Kong and Taiwan have had a long history with China, dating as far back as the mid-1500's. Each country has had vast and far reaching influence on the culture and practices of China, as both independently co-exist with one of the greatest counties of all time. This paper will examine the roles of both… [read more]


China vs. Europe Compare Term Paper

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Even speech was highly governed by social norms and governed by social assumptions and "spoken Chinese may have made it less than an ideal medium for expressing or communicating science." (137)

But most critical to China's failure to build upon some of its technical developments as well as its other arts of note was its lack of exposure to other ideas of other civilizations, and hence to the technology and developments of other civilizations. Unlike Marco Polo, the Italian adventurer no Chinese explorers extended similar expeditions into Europe, even after Polo brought many Chinese technologies back to Europe. (131) Chinese technical development within the civil service order of knowledge and learning was hierarchical and enclosed, much like its own political and social systems. Furthermore, even those who excelled at craftsmanship were devalued, despite the acknowledged importance of such innovations as gunpowder. "Craftsmen were generally illiterate and possessed low social status; they learned practical skills." (121) While this was also true of Europe, economically, the more mercantilist emphasis within Europe and the presence of protective fluids allowed technical craftsmen to profit from their technical and crafts-based scientific developments in a way that craftsmen could not in China.

China at the time did not feel as though it needed to imitate other civilizations. Although borders and political units fluctuated, Chinese emperors controlled a huge, densely populated territory about the size of Europe, one of the reasons for its lack of territorial curiosity into other areas. (117) However, this lack of curiosity meant a corresponding lack of exposure to other ideas, a valuable part of scientific and technical ferment. Also, the main valuation in Chinese social status was advancing through the political ranks and producing literary and artistic developments. While leisured middle class arose along with the commercialization of agricultural commodities, increased, this commercialization did not result in the similar valuation of those who produced the agricultural innovations, and most of the focus of the great writings of the period such as of the Chinese sage Confucius (551-479 B.C.) stressed the developments of the past, rather than having an eye upon the future.

China of this periodic proof that it is not enough to exhibit technical brilliance -- one must have political, social, and cultural institutions to support rather than stifle progress. It is sobering to reflect that while gunpowder technologies originated in Asia and he Chinese invented gunpowder in the ninth century A.D. And developed fireworks and rockets, it was Europe's expansion into colonial dominance of the Americas that profited the most from this development -- and European surgeons who also gained new respect with creation of gunpowder weapons, as physicians and surgeons were confronted with treating more severe wounds and burns. (193, 203)

Works Cited

McClellan James E. And Harold Dorn. Science and Technology in World History: An…… [read more]


Chinese History Document 10.1: An Appeal Term Paper

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Chinese History

Document 10.1: An Appeal for Greater Openness and Innovation

Before the revolt of Sun Yat-sen, the future revolutionary wrote a letter to Li Hongzhang, detailing his grievances with the current, backward methods of Chinese administration and China's closed set of relations with the West. Sun Yat-sen was heavily influenced by his study of Western philosophy, which encouraged him to emphasize the value of self-empowerment and more democratic systems of government. Sun Yat-sen states this openly in his greeting, praising Chinese adaptation of Western inventions and diplomacy, as well as showing respect to his addressee.

Do not just make use of Western technologies; make use of Western ideas about the value of innovation and individual rights, suggests Sun Yat-sen. Open China to the West and to trade, and thus make better use of China's vast natural resources, scope of land, and numbers of hardworking and dedicated people. Sun Yat-sen points to the example of Japan as an ideal example of such perseverance. China, he suggests, must…… [read more]


Japanese Aggression Against China Term Paper

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"In 1868 Japan had restored Emperor Meiji, who moved the capital to Edo [now Tokyo], abolished the feudal system, launched a series of reforms, opened the nation to Western trade, and developed Japan's interest overseas." 5 In addition, the Japanese navy had become a considerable force enabling the nation to project power more effectively in the region.

It was the… [read more]


Comparing the Japanese and the Nationalists Colonize Taiwan Term Paper

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Japanese Colonization of Taiwan

Over the past several decades, research has indicated that during the colonization of Taiwan, many different tools and devices have been used by the Japanese during the time period before the relocation of the Kuomintang (KMT) to the island in 1945. Historians, Taiwanese citizens, and scholars have offered various theories for the noted preference by the… [read more]


Expatriate Education for Thailand Access Term Paper

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For example, Thais will readily shake hands with Westerners because they understand that this is the custom, but the vast majority of Thais continue to practice the traditional wai when meeting each other. The wai, or bowing of head with palms of hands together showing respect, depends on an individual's status (Steinfatt, 2002). Younger people will place their hands together… [read more]


Chinese History Term Paper

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Press, 1962) Contrast life on the steppe to life in China. Which might be better and why?

On the surface, the comparison between life on the Chinese steppe and under the ruling authority of the Mongol Genghis Khan might seem to be an obvious one -- surely a choice would necessitate, on the basis of self-preservation alone, living in the China of the past! But as noted in "Genghis Khan," although Mongol has become almost synonymous with the term barbarian, and the Mongols were indeed a tribal people, living a harsh life as hunters and gatherers, they were not barbaric in the sense that they were bloodthirsty. They raided for a way of obtaining foodstuffs and necessary goods rather than simply to enact sheer bloodshed. The Mongols were not a literate people, but they had a close and clannish sense of primitive obligations to one another, which actually fostered a kind of rough sense of democracy between all Mongol members of a particular tribe. Tribes were not socially stratified by possessions, access to education and material trappings, nor of rural or urban dwelling status, as was characteristic of China.

When comparing the life of a Mongol tribesman or tribeswoman with a Chinese person in China before the Mongol invasion, always one must ask which China, and which Chinese life one was engaging in, as a citizen of the Sung Dynasty? For example, as an ordinary woman living on the Chinese Steppe, foot binding was a common practice, and one might prefer the more free life of a woman following a khan leader and his hordes for sustenance. Rather than being tied to a particular tenant patch of farmed land for a noble in general, and paying disproportionately high taxes, the rough and shared democracy of the harsh steppe, however scarcely it might yield food might seem preferable to either a man or a woman.

Also, the Mongols as rulers were considerably more expansive in their embracing ethnic, cultural, and economic vision of life for ordinary citizens. China retained its sense of specialness, confirmed by the highly structured schema of advancement of its civil administration, where potential officials were examined upon their knowledge of protocol and literature. In the Mongol fold, one was judged upon one's tenacity as a warrior, and simply as a survivor. The more practical Mongols supported foreign mercantile ventures in all spheres of their empire, rather than isolated their peoples from other spheres. Nor were there marked distinctions between urban and rural dwellers, which limited the access of steppe dwellers in China to the range of goods that was open to the dwellers of cities -- as well as the educational opportunities of cities. Even if there was more educational and economic want under the khans, it was a want shared by virtually all, and did not create a geographical caste distinction.

Overall, despite the hardship, the Mongol sense of commonality allowed for a greater shared level of economic prosperity between common individuals, in contrast to socially… [read more]


Taiwan Is an Island Located in East Term Paper

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Taiwan is an island located in East Asia off the coast of mainland China, south of Japan, and north of the Philippines (Taiwan pp). Known as Formosa, Portuguese for beautiful island, it is 245 miles long and 90 miles wide with steep mountains covered by tropical subtropical vegetation (Taiwan pp). The island is bounded on the east by the Pacific… [read more]


China Is Equivalent to Europe Term Paper

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¶ … China is equivalent to Europe in many ways in terms of its internal development and the kind of impact it has on countries around it. It is important to understand China's current rapid growth and its economic, political, social and cultural influence through the prospective of its earlier growth and influence.

Early Influences

China's civilization was recognized for centuries as one of the most important in the world. China "outpaced the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, his successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ch.html)."

Changes and Growth in China

Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, "East Asia was the most dynamic region in the global economy, and China had the highest growth rate in the world (Jung)." In 1997 and 1998 many countries in Southeast and East Asia had to deal with financial difficulties known as the 'Asian flu', however China was able to avoid the financial setbacks experienced by its neighbors. These countries were able to rebound fairly quickly, however "from 1999 to 2000, China continued to grow at the impressive rate of 7% per year. From 2002 through 2003, China grew by an impressive 9% per year in a fairly soft global economy (Jung)."

Since 2000, many of the citizens of China have realized "dramatically improved living standards and the room for personal choice has expanded, however political controls remain tight (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ch.html)."

Impressive Record

China has…… [read more]


Specific Country Term Paper

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Thailand

History as defined in Thailand concentrates more on the Thai people, and not on the history of people living in the present day area defined as being Thailand. This history can be divided into two parts - before Sukhothai and after Sukhothai. Sukhothai is considered to be the first time that the present Thai people were considered a separate… [read more]


Chinese Cultural Revolution, Which Began Term Paper

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On the surface, these bits of fatherly advice seem quite harmless if not downright appropriate, but what Mao was actually attempting to do was control the Chinese populace via propaganda and concealment, meaning that his true goal was the complete manipulation of Chinese culture and society. However, Mao's "Little Red Book" did serve a very good cause, for it brought… [read more]


Japan's Current and Politic Term Paper

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In the later part of April, 2005 great anti-Japan protests were demonstrated in China. (UN Security Council: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

About ten thousand tough demonstrations were made on April 9th in Beijing, opposing the World War II records of Japan in China and its claim for a permanent membership in the UN Security Council. The demonstrators hide the Japanese… [read more]


Anime Is, in Essence, the Japanese Form Term Paper

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Anime is, in essence, the Japanese form of animation. In general, it is characterized by extremely stylized and colorful graphics, and the use of vivacious and vibrant colors. The graphics used depict energetic and effervescent characters that are set in a large number of scenes and settings. The storylines used too are numerous, and comprise a large variety, and they… [read more]


Media in the Modern World Term Paper

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Media

In the modern world, it is easy to forget that in the recent past, many of the world's powers are incredibly young as nation-states. Britain controlled India until the mid-20th century; Hong Kong was a British colony until 1997, when it became governed by China, which was only founded in 1949. In the shadow of nation-states like Britain, whose… [read more]


Cold War on the Periphery Term Paper

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Pakistan also announced wanting to negotiate a border-demarcation agreement with China. By the end of Eisenhower's term, he had begun to reverse the alliance with Pakistan over to India.

Under the John F. Kennedy Administration, the alliance with India played a crucial role. The concern over the growing interest of the Soviet Union from Europe to Third World countries was… [read more]


Linguistics East Asian Languages Term Paper

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East Asian Languages

Beijing isn't doing anything different from what the British or the Americans or the French have done - sending emissaries abroad to spread its language and culture," according to Michael Erard in the Wired article "The Mandarin Offensive." Spreading language in fact is spreading culture because language remains the gateway of learning about cultural values, themes, and worldviews. Moreover, spreading language legitimizes societies and encourages social and economic interest in those cultures. The primary reason why the government of China's Hanban is aggressively pursuing a Chinese language education campaign worldwide is to increase popular interest and corporate investment in the world's largest nation. The $25 million per year investment in Chinese language and culture education is justified by expected returns in tourism, consumerism, and acceptance of Chinese culture and values worldwide.

Mandarin Chinese also seems inaccessible and exotic: sending emissaries abroad is essential. The Chinese government cannot rely on Chinese immigrants to carry the…… [read more]


Decline of China 18th Early 19th Centuries Term Paper

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Decline of China 18th Early 19th Centuries

China has recently gone trough a significant political and economic change, as it has finally taken back all its territories from European control, the last vestiges of colonial interests.

In 1999, China resumed control of Macau, the last of its held territories, after resuming control of Hong Kong in 1997. Macau had been… [read more]


How China's Cultures and Politics Affect One Another and Ultimately Affect Social Change Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  2 pages (969 words)
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¶ … China's Cultures and Politics affect one Another, and Ultimately Affect Social change

Lau, V.P., Shaffer M. A & Au, K. (2007). Entrepreneurial career success from a Chinese

perspective: conceptualization, operationalization, and validation. Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 38, issue 1

The article advances about the social changes that have taken place in the entrepreneurial career fields. Lau, Shaffer, and Au as authors of the article advance a research aimed at conceptualizing and validating career success, from the perspective of the Chinese people. The research involves analyzing the business cultures of the Chinese. The research involved analyzing the values of Hong Kong entrepreneurs, Shanghai entrepreneurs and their employees. The findings from the study indicated that Chinese business culture is oriented in building the society. This is evidenced by the input of the Chinese people in business across the continents such as Africa, Europe, and America. The main finding was that Chinese cultures have played a significant role in developing societies, where the Chinese have invested.

Friedman, R., Chi, S. & Liu, L.A. (2006). An Expectancy Model of Chinese-American

Differences in Conflict-Avoiding. Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 37,

no. 1, pp. 76-91.

Friedman, Chi, and Liu wrote the article trying to compare the Chinese culture with the American culture. In this regard, they made attempts intended to establish the Chinese-American cultural differences. They put their emphasis on how the two cultures handle conflicts. This study involved carrying out tests by making observations and questioning respondents in Taiwan and the United States. The responses collected from Taiwan, and the United States were then analyzed to come up with the findings. In addition, the article also looked at the culture transition among the Chinese and Americans and depicted the findings.

The findings of their research as captured in the article reveals that Chinese cultures, have been designed in such a way as to avoid conflict. The Chinese were found to have a tendency to avoid conflict. This was reached at after considering the Chinese culture expectation that conflict will hurt the relationship that they have maintained with the other party. The other finding was that the Chinese are more sensitive to hierarchy, as compared to the Americans. This affects how the Chinese people relate with others at the work place, and especially those working in places with a different cultural orientation. The authors, however, emphasize that the Chinese culture has affected the speed of cultural change in other countries, where they work.

Haddad, J. (2006). "To Inculcate Respect for the Chinese." Berthold Laufer, Franz Boas,

and the Chinese Exhibits at the American Museum of Natural History, 1899-1912.

Anthropos, vol. 101, H. 1. pp. 123-144.

The article examines the Chinese culture, and its implications on the actions that China took in the past. The author provides insight on Chinese culture and its impacts on the country's stand. In this case, the article argues that Chinese…… [read more]


Science and Western Civilization Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (674 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

During this process, there was less of emphasis on using hunter-gathering techniques. Instead, everyone became involved in farming and established permanent settlements. (McClellan, 2006, pp. 5 -- 16) (Hodges, 2004) (Hodges, 2012)

Technology had a major impact on history by creating tools and weapons which allowed everyone to change their lifestyle. For example, the timeframe from: 10,000 BC to 2,300 BC invited shifts in the way people were able to hunt and farm. This occurred based on technological innovations with: the development of bronze and sharp knives. Moreover, the tremendous advancements in engineering improved the ability of planners to design and create a variety of structures. These different elements lead to innovations such as: fortified cities (which were protected by armies using copper and other metal tools). This made them more lethal and capable of defending the city against possible attackers. Once this occurred, is when various nations and cities states began to emerge (which ultimately resulted in development of different empires). (McClellan, 2006, pp. 5 -- 16) (Hodges, 2004) (Hodges, 2012)

These societies grew out of the cultural traditions that were practiced by hunter gatherers who lived in particular regions. The way these issues are relevant today is to show how cultural traditions and identities were developed. For example, China is proud of its history and traditions dating back to ancient times. In some cases, these areas are used to make territorial claims in the South China Sea. This is creating conflicts with other nations in the region (who also are making similar claims to the same territory). These kinds of disputes are based upon different historical views and traditions surrounding a specific country. (Weatherbee, 2005, pp. 33 -- 38) ("U.S. Urges Diplomacy in South China Seas," 2012)

References

US Urges Diplomacy in South China Seas. (2012). Al Jazeera. Retrieved from: http://www.aljazeera.com/news/asia-pacific/2012/06/20126822641136713.html

Hodges, M. (2004). History. Ephemeris. Retrieved from: http://ephemeris.com/history/prehistoric.html

Hodges, M. (2012). Historically Speaking. Kings Academy. Retrived from http://www.kingsacademy.com/mhodges/05_World-Cultures/01_Primitive+Ancient-Cultures/01_Primitive+Ancient-Cultures-2.htm

McClellan, J. (2006). Science and Technology in World…… [read more]

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