"Asian History / Asia" Essays

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Taiwan Is an Island Located in East Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,572 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Taiwan is an island located in East Asia off the coast of mainland China, south of Japan, and north of the Philippines (Taiwan pp). Known as Formosa, Portuguese for beautiful island, it is 245 miles long and 90 miles wide with steep mountains covered by tropical subtropical vegetation (Taiwan pp). The island is bounded on the east by the Pacific… [read more]

Chinese Cultural Revolution, Which Began Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,399 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


On the surface, these bits of fatherly advice seem quite harmless if not downright appropriate, but what Mao was actually attempting to do was control the Chinese populace via propaganda and concealment, meaning that his true goal was the complete manipulation of Chinese culture and society. However, Mao's "Little Red Book" did serve a very good cause, for it brought… [read more]

Specific Country Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,513 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



History as defined in Thailand concentrates more on the Thai people, and not on the history of people living in the present day area defined as being Thailand. This history can be divided into two parts - before Sukhothai and after Sukhothai. Sukhothai is considered to be the first time that the present Thai people were considered a separate… [read more]

Japan's Current and Politic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,844 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In the later part of April, 2005 great anti-Japan protests were demonstrated in China. (UN Security Council: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

About ten thousand tough demonstrations were made on April 9th in Beijing, opposing the World War II records of Japan in China and its claim for a permanent membership in the UN Security Council. The demonstrators hide the Japanese… [read more]

China Is Equivalent to Europe Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (607 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … China is equivalent to Europe in many ways in terms of its internal development and the kind of impact it has on countries around it. It is important to understand China's current rapid growth and its economic, political, social and cultural influence through the prospective of its earlier growth and influence.

Early Influences

China's civilization was recognized for centuries as one of the most important in the world. China "outpaced the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, his successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ch.html)."

Changes and Growth in China

Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, "East Asia was the most dynamic region in the global economy, and China had the highest growth rate in the world (Jung)." In 1997 and 1998 many countries in Southeast and East Asia had to deal with financial difficulties known as the 'Asian flu', however China was able to avoid the financial setbacks experienced by its neighbors. These countries were able to rebound fairly quickly, however "from 1999 to 2000, China continued to grow at the impressive rate of 7% per year. From 2002 through 2003, China grew by an impressive 9% per year in a fairly soft global economy (Jung)."

Since 2000, many of the citizens of China have realized "dramatically improved living standards and the room for personal choice has expanded, however political controls remain tight (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ch.html)."

Impressive Record

China has…… [read more]

Japanese Aggression Against China Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,313 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


"In 1868 Japan had restored Emperor Meiji, who moved the capital to Edo [now Tokyo], abolished the feudal system, launched a series of reforms, opened the nation to Western trade, and developed Japan's interest overseas." 5 In addition, the Japanese navy had become a considerable force enabling the nation to project power more effectively in the region.

It was the… [read more]

Chinese History Document 10.1: An Appeal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (335 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Chinese History

Document 10.1: An Appeal for Greater Openness and Innovation

Before the revolt of Sun Yat-sen, the future revolutionary wrote a letter to Li Hongzhang, detailing his grievances with the current, backward methods of Chinese administration and China's closed set of relations with the West. Sun Yat-sen was heavily influenced by his study of Western philosophy, which encouraged him to emphasize the value of self-empowerment and more democratic systems of government. Sun Yat-sen states this openly in his greeting, praising Chinese adaptation of Western inventions and diplomacy, as well as showing respect to his addressee.

Do not just make use of Western technologies; make use of Western ideas about the value of innovation and individual rights, suggests Sun Yat-sen. Open China to the West and to trade, and thus make better use of China's vast natural resources, scope of land, and numbers of hardworking and dedicated people. Sun Yat-sen points to the example of Japan as an ideal example of such perseverance. China, he suggests, must…… [read more]

China vs. Europe Compare Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (942 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Even speech was highly governed by social norms and governed by social assumptions and "spoken Chinese may have made it less than an ideal medium for expressing or communicating science." (137)

But most critical to China's failure to build upon some of its technical developments as well as its other arts of note was its lack of exposure to other ideas of other civilizations, and hence to the technology and developments of other civilizations. Unlike Marco Polo, the Italian adventurer no Chinese explorers extended similar expeditions into Europe, even after Polo brought many Chinese technologies back to Europe. (131) Chinese technical development within the civil service order of knowledge and learning was hierarchical and enclosed, much like its own political and social systems. Furthermore, even those who excelled at craftsmanship were devalued, despite the acknowledged importance of such innovations as gunpowder. "Craftsmen were generally illiterate and possessed low social status; they learned practical skills." (121) While this was also true of Europe, economically, the more mercantilist emphasis within Europe and the presence of protective fluids allowed technical craftsmen to profit from their technical and crafts-based scientific developments in a way that craftsmen could not in China.

China at the time did not feel as though it needed to imitate other civilizations. Although borders and political units fluctuated, Chinese emperors controlled a huge, densely populated territory about the size of Europe, one of the reasons for its lack of territorial curiosity into other areas. (117) However, this lack of curiosity meant a corresponding lack of exposure to other ideas, a valuable part of scientific and technical ferment. Also, the main valuation in Chinese social status was advancing through the political ranks and producing literary and artistic developments. While leisured middle class arose along with the commercialization of agricultural commodities, increased, this commercialization did not result in the similar valuation of those who produced the agricultural innovations, and most of the focus of the great writings of the period such as of the Chinese sage Confucius (551-479 B.C.) stressed the developments of the past, rather than having an eye upon the future.

China of this periodic proof that it is not enough to exhibit technical brilliance -- one must have political, social, and cultural institutions to support rather than stifle progress. It is sobering to reflect that while gunpowder technologies originated in Asia and he Chinese invented gunpowder in the ninth century A.D. And developed fireworks and rockets, it was Europe's expansion into colonial dominance of the Americas that profited the most from this development -- and European surgeons who also gained new respect with creation of gunpowder weapons, as physicians and surgeons were confronted with treating more severe wounds and burns. (193, 203)

Works Cited

McClellan James E. And Harold Dorn. Science and Technology in World History: An…… [read more]

Gandhi's Perception of His Religion and Civilization Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,295 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Gandhi's perception of his religion and civilization and how these perceptions in turn led to his triumph over the British Empire and later to the independence of India. It will also take into account significant figures such as Nehru and Jinnah when analyzing certain aspects of Gandhi's decisions. Mahatma Gandhi was a great man, a great leader, and… [read more]

China Town Paris Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,036 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Unlike other horoscopes, the year of your birth does not just indicate a person's age. According to the Chinese system of Astrology, the year of birth indicates a certain phase or aspect of a sixty-year cycle of time. And, unknown to many, the Chinese use three systems for counting and classifying the years: The ten Heavenly Stems, the twelve Earthly Branches and the twelve Animals.

Yet another interest fact is that the word Mahjong means sparrow in Chinese and many believe it was used for the game because getting the winning tile is as hard catching a bird.

History, attractions, events and culture are all major draws to the two Chinatowns in Paris. Most residents have come for a better way of life, but, to the benefit of all, have preserved the better parts of the life the came from. The result makes for a spectacular learning experience.


'A History of Mah Jong." Mahjong.com. 04 Dec. 2004 .

"A Tribute." EdithPiaf.com 4 Dec. 2004. .

'Champs-Elysees Hosts Chinese New Year Parade." China Internet Information Center. 04 Dec. 2004. .

'Chinese Astrology History." iVillage. 04 Dec. 2004. .

"Chinois Paris." EASTPIX. 4 Dec. 2004 .

"Culture Week to Kick Off in Paris." China Internet Information Center. 04 Dec. 2004. http://www.china.org.cn/english/2004/Jan/84349.htm

"Examples of Filial Piety (14th Century CE)." Washington State University. 04 Dec. 2004. .

"Paris." Manstouch Travel. 4 Dec. 2004. .

RendezvousFrance. 4 Dec. 2004. .

The Maurice Chevalier Web Site. 04 Dec. 2004. .

"Welcome to Paris." Areaguides.net. 4 Dec. 2004. http://parisfr.ags.myareaguide.com/detail.html?cityguide=gen_intro

RendezvousFrance. 4 Dec. 2004. .

"Chinois Paris." EASTPIX. 4 Dec. 2004 .

RendezvousFrance 4 Dec. 2004 http://www.rendezvousfrance.com/chine.html

"Chinois Paris." EASTPIX. 4 Dec. 2004

"Welcome to Paris." Areaguides.net. 4 Dec. 2004. http://parisfr.ags.myareaguide.com/detail.html?cityguide=gen_intro

"Paris." Manstouch Travel. 4 Dec. 2004. .

"A Tribute." EdithPiaf.com 4 Dec. 2004. .

The Maurice Chevalier Web Site. 04 Dec. 2004. .

"Champs-Elysees Hosts Chinese New Year Parade." China Internet Information Center. 04 Dec. 2004. .

"Culture Week to Kick Off in Paris." China Internet Information Center. 04 Dec. 2004. http://www.china.org.cn/english/2004/Jan/84349.htm

"Examples of Filial Piety (14th Century CE)." Washington State University. 04 Dec. 2004. .

"Chinese Astrology History." iVillage. 04 Dec. 2004. .

"A History of Mah Jong." Mahjong.com. 04 Dec. 2004 .… [read more]

Taiwan vs. Hong Kong Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,797 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Hong Kong and Taiwan

Both Hong Kong and Taiwan have had a long history with China, dating as far back as the mid-1500's. Each country has had vast and far reaching influence on the culture and practices of China, as both independently co-exist with one of the greatest counties of all time. This paper will examine the roles of both… [read more]

China on Hong Kong Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,315 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Far Eastern Economic Review, a storied regional voice of press freedom and a pillar of Hong Kong's media industry since its 1946 founding, halted weekly production on Thursday to go monthly with the loss of 80 jobs.

Despite headlines to the contrary, overall luxury property prices are not yet matching the record levels last seen in 1997, market analysts… [read more]

Multi National Corporation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Multinational Corporations

In this particular scenario, Sealwrap is looking to expand its operations into Europe and Asia. Sealwrap, on a practical level, is first faced with two pressing concerns. Recently, in Asia, fears about SARS, U.S. reports on human rights, the narcotic trade, concerns about religious freedom and trade barriers in Southeast Asia have cause some American firms to actively avoid the region. Jerry still wishes to open a plant in Asia. If he does so he must remember that "many U.S. And China-based companies are eager to break into each other's market[s,]" but they "may not have enough familiarity with the laws, the culture, or even have a contact in the respective country to get started." (U.S. China Biz, 2004)

China and indeed all of Asia, and the European community present any eager corporation with a potentially enormous market but also with the potential for tremendous losses. Although some Asian and European labor and building costs may be comparatively inexpensive the complex bureaucratic structure of doing business within different cultural and political system of governance may generate more headaches than profits, as an American firm finds itself faced with different expectations regarding working hours, benefits, and contracts. This does not mean, although, that Jerry's Sealwrap should completely eschew advancement into the Asian and European market. Simply by being an 'American' firm, Sealwrap might generate interest. In Japan, packaging, even of gifts, is extremely important on a cultural level, often transcending the importance of the gift itself. From a marketing perspective, this is one way to generate interest in this particular product. In general, a firm must position the product's entire, not necessarily how it is positioned within the American market, but in a way that will be attractive to…… [read more]

Lost Identity of Hong Kong Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,958 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Hence, China can do or undo any rules and promises it previously made to the Hong Kongers. China can very easily use its legal documents and texts to justify its actions. Leaders worldwide have now begun to show their concern over the media change in Hong Kong. It is highly essential for Hong Kong to maintain its media identity since… [read more]

20Th Century, a New Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,084 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Easy communications between Europe and colonialist outposts allowed European powers to better manage men, weapons, supplies and strategy.

Taken together, the mass of technologies developed and adapted by colonialist powers played a large role in the success of the new imperialism. Medicines like quinine allowed Europeans access to previously unapproachable areas of Asia and Africa, while modern weaponry almost ensured the defeat of indigenous peoples. Together, these technologies provided Europe with the opportunity to successfully conquer large portions of the globe in the 19th century.

New technologies also enabled trade, which in turn played an important role in the success of new imperialism.

For example, steam-powered railroads and other technologies allowed for an increase in opium trade with China. This opium trade was highly profitable for England, with opium creating a market where users would pay almost any price for a continual supply (Mark).

In India, England flooded the colony with cheap manufactured cotton and jute, thus putting local industries out of business. It was the new technology of the railroad that allowed England the capability to move large amounts of manufactured goods to the subcontinent. This technology enabled England to export raw materials such as jute from India, and later sell them back to India at a tremendous profit. Many Indians suffered from unemployment and poverty as a result (Mark).

Interestingly, the success of the new imperialism acted to further fuel nationalist tendencies and motivations within Europe. As England successfully colonized Africa and India, England's self-perception of itself as the dominant power in the world grew increasingly with each clear success. The success of England in its colonization of the world thus created a self-fulfilling belief that England was destined to oversee the rest of the world. Further, the drought, famine and poverty that were commonly seen in India (and largely exacerbated by British rule) led England to see itself as superior to the Indian people. Similar situations occurred in China and Africa, as the European powers' dominion over these lands reinforced European nationalist motivations (Mark).

In conclusion, the interaction and mutual reinforcement of technological innovations, nationalist motivations, and new imperialism created an entirely new global system by the beginning of the early 20th century. During this time, European powers controlled large portions of the world's landmass, including China, India, and Africa. The root driving force of this explosion in colonialism can be found in the nationalistic motivations of European nations, who desired to affirm the supremacy of their countries through expansion and domination. This nationalistic motivation has existed for a significant amount of time before the new imperialism saw European powers control most of the globe. Ultimately, the success of new imperialism can be traced to the development and adaptation of new technologies like quinine, steel-hulled gunboats, breech-loading rifles, railroads, ad the telegraph. These technologies allowed European powers unprecedented access to India, China, and Africa, thus providing the means for the advent of the new imperialism. In turn, the success of the new imperialism reaffirmed the colonialist belief… [read more]

Japan Pop! Popular Idol Analysis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (585 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Performers aspire to reflect the concerns and dreams of their audiences, and offer a model of attractive lifestyles and strong, popular friendships (Aoyagi, 326).

Popular idols in western cultures typically project images that exonerate the ideals exemplified in the phrase "the squeaky wheel gets the grease." American popular idols use whatever means necessary to gain fame and fortune. They relate to the community in the sense that they often follow popular trends and styles; however, most are also interested in pursuing personal interests that promote personal gain and success. Slick advertising, promotions and marketing campaigns often are the key to success for many American popular idols. Their success has less to do with their ability to relate to the community, and perhaps more to do with their ability to market themselves and enmesh themselves with popular themes at the time they are performing.

American popular idols are more concerned with exonerating individualism and expressing their personal causes and feelings. American popular idols are more often judged for their abilities and talents as performers, actors and entertainers. From a different perspective, Japanese idols are more concerned with building a sense of camaraderie and community.

Japanese performers more often reflect the needs, trends and feelings that are ingrained within the community. Japanese idols are often not necessarily the most talented performers, but rather those individuals who possess the ability to most fervently connect with community members. American popular idols might benefit from examining the Japanese popular culture, and aspiring to connect more with citizens and community members.


Aoyagi, Hiroshi. "Pop Idols and the Asian Identity." From, Japan Pop! Inside the world of Japanese Popular Culture.

Craig, Timothy J. "Japan Pop! Inside the world of Japanese popular culture." M.E.…… [read more]

Power &amp Nationalism Koreans Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,660 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


If we cumulate small offences for half a century, we will probably reach a certain level of saturation.

Another thing that needs to be discussed here, in the end, is the natural dislike of a dominating country that has deployed troops on your territory. It is to be understood that probably most Koreans still see the importance of such an act, but, on the other side, it IS a foreign presence on your territory. If we think of the Korean national pride, we will see how this can lead to an upraise in anti-Americanism. National pride is something not to be ignored in any context. As a parallel, let us consider the example of Eastern Germany, where Americans troops were also stationed during the Cold War. Even if this was an even clearer case of defense against the threat of the Soviet Union, waves of discomfort spread across Eastern Germany with time and there were signs that the American presence in their country was no longer needed.

Finally, we should ask ourselves, as the Koreans have done no doubt: is there still a motivation for American presence in South Korea? Seeing the late negotiations for signing a peace treaty between the two Koreas, we would be inclined to say that there is not. The two Koreas seem closer than ever to signing a peace treaty and perhaps even towards reunification. But if we take a closer look at the North Korean threat, especially as a nuclear force, than the American deployment seems more than justified, if only as a possible threat towards the Northern Korea. However, we can be sure that the Koreans do ask themselves these questions: is there presence really necessary here and how much longer will we have to put up with them?


Korean War History Guide. Can be found on The History Beat, on the World Wide Web at http://www.searchbeat.com / http://www.korea.army.mil/welcome/sofa.htm (for the SOFA agreement)

http://www.yonip.com/main/articles/declaration_on_current_situation.html (for a case of two Americans that crushed to death two Korean girls in a car accident)… [read more]

English Colonialism the Argument Surrounding Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,665 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


During the American Revolution Cornwallis served with distinction. He was responsible for several victories. Eventually the war became non-tenable for the British forces. Cornwallis surrendered on Oct. 19, 1781. He was posted to India as Governor-General and died there at Ghazipur on Oct. 5, 1805. Cornwallis was a soldier and probably is revered in Britain. Not so in the United… [read more]

History of Kim Jong Il Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,105 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The National Defense Commission is a group of 10 men that includes leaders of the air force, army and navy, who are "now considered the most powerful in the country," says Clark. (CNN)

Kim Jong Il introduced his "Red Banner" policy in 1996. Changes in policy began in 1997 when Hwang Jang Yop defected. Hwang Jang Yop was the "architect" of the juche philosophy not to mention the first high-level official to seek asylum in South Korea. Clark reports that Hwang described Kim Jong Il as a "strong willed dictator who is short-tempered and ruthless when it comes to punishing anyone who questions his policies" (CNN).

Cumings quotes Roberto Unger as describing the political structure of North Korea by distinguishing between an inner and outer circle. The inner circle "represents power and dominion, exercised everywhere by the few. The outer circle includes all the rest, and their search for community, decency, and participation through the architecture of politics" (Cumings 432). This problem of the inner and outer circles has never been resolved. In fact, he goes on to say the "Kim family nucleus" is the critical problem with North Korea. (432)

If Kim Sung Il demanded devotion, his son, Kim Jong Il did more so.

In one of his tracts, Cumings finds this statement, which sums up his feelings:

The parental organizations of man's socio-political integrity is the social community... The Korean Communists were united firmly in one socio-political organism around the revolutionary leadership and set the pattern for close ties of kinship based on the collectivism between the revolutionary ranks and the people. (Cumings 413)

Cumings refers to this type of leadership as "Neo-Confucianism in a communist bottle" (Cumings 413). Indeed, many others agree with Cumings.

Some see Kim Jong Il as a "clever manipulator, willing to take great risks to underpin his regime" (BBC). In fact, it is easy for some to demonize Kim Jong Il, reports CNN. He spends an estimated 25% of his North Korea's GNP on the military while people in his country are hungry. However, according to Han S. Park of the Center for Study of Global Issues, North Korea is basically shut off from the rest of the world and therefore views Kim Jong Il is viewed "positively by most people" (CNN). Park goes on to say, "The level of reverence for Kim Jong Il in North Korea is quite underestimated by the outside... he is regarded by many as not only a superior leader but a decent person, a man of high morality. Whether that's accurate is not important if you want to deal with North Korea. You have to understand their belief system. Perception is reality" (CNN).

In conclusion, the life of Kim Jong Il has remained as mysterious as the regard of those who live in his country. His life and the challenges of his military will prove to be a challenge from any perspective.

Works Cited

Carol Clark. "Kim Jong Il: 'Dear Leader' or Demon?" CNN Online. 2000. Site… [read more]

Political Economy Background: Japan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (924 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In the wake of the Cold War, Japan was brought into a kind of strategic balance of power between China and the United States. It was only after this period that Japan actually gained a strategic advantage in international politics. Emerging from the ashes of defeat, Japan had by this time reconstructed itself into an economic power, making use of the favourable external environment that was now available through American support and assistance, and pre-war industrial knowledge and experience.

As for Korea, the external environment was favourable but the internal that is the domestic situation was at polarity. Following the war in Korea, the Korean peninsula was divided along the 38th parallel into North and South Korea, between the communist North with the help of China on the one side and the non-communist South, backed by the Allied forces led by America on the other (Murphy, 2000). This created polarity in one country with China and the States always at loggerheads. The country hence was divided between the two caretakers. Further China was seen as the source of the red menace in Asia, as it was believed to be the major supporter of communist revolts in many parts of Southeast Asia from the 1950s to the 1970s. Its direct involvement in the Korean War led Washington to deploy the U.S. 7th Fleet in the Taiwan Straits in defense of Taiwan (Tarling, 1998). It was in such an environment that Korea existed between the two hostile extremes. It was the Cold War that really proved to be favorable for Korea in the realm of economics and international relations. To help the non-communist nations of the region, which also included Korea stand up to the communist challenge, America provided various categories of foreign aid, access to its markets and transfer of technology. It was essentially American support for Korea as a Cold War ally that enabled it to become one of the economic power centers in not only the Southeast Asia region, also the wider Asia-Pacific. This stood true for so long that only during the Asian crisis did the Korean economy was beset with problems of over-reach and corruption and recession since after the War ended.

In conclusion, it can be seen that Japan and Korea faced a favourable, international environment in the post-war period, only after some time had elapsed after the Second World War. However it is true that both countries gained internationally strategic positions once they had established close alliances with the United States during the Cold War.


Borthwick, Mark. Pacific Century. The emergence of Modern Pacific Asia (Boulder, Westview Press, 1992).

Murphey, Rhoads. A History of Asia, 3rd edn.(New York, Longman, 2000).

Tarling, Nicholas. Nations and States in Southeast…… [read more]

Executive Security in Southeast Asia Essay

Essay  |  12 pages (3,176 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


¶ … supervisor for an elite executive protection team. The organization that is being protected is planning a one-week trip to Thailand. As part of the planning process for that trip, the author of this response will offer a total of six threats that can or might present themselves while the team is in Thailand. The author will offer a… [read more]

Korean History Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (498 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Narrating the Ethnic Nation relates to Korean history from a new and intriguing perspective. The article does not only focus on the significance of this aspect of world history, as it also relates to the significance of knowing as much as possible about the curriculum without ever considering that one knows enough. History is largely a never-ending topic as long as one performs an in-depth study of it.

In contrast to early promoters of Korean cultural values, Sin Ch'aeho considered that in order for Koreans to develop a stronger sense of nationalism they needed to have a better understanding of their background. He believed that Chinese influences strongly influenced the way that Koreans understood their cultural identity. From his perspective, much of Korea's history and sense of cultural identity was owed to outside influences shaping the way that Koreans thought and making them feel that they were connected to these respective foreign powers.

For a long time China was perceived as a central element of Korea's development and as a power that somewhat made it possible for Koreans to improve their condition. Intellectual nationalists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in Korea perceived this as a threat to true Korean national identity and thus concentrated on emphasizing the series of flaws in theories putting China as a primary factor in their country's process of evolution.

Social Darwinism came forward as a leading theory during this period, as Korean intellectuals emphasized the way that their country developed due…… [read more]

UK and Russian Minorities Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,053 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


National Minorities

The shifting of global demographics in the past few decades have created unique situations across the world as countries deal with an influx of minority populations that create difficult circumstances for societies and governments alike. The purpose of this essay is to compare and contrast the situation of national minorities in the countries of the United Kingdom and… [read more]

In Ukraine Provides an Opportunity Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,226 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


What this means is that the Ukraine has very little power to bring about a resolution. Understandably wary of open conflict with Russia, Ukraine is also understandably wary of relying on the West for support. Yet, at some point the West needs to draw its line in the sand. The biggest issue of all here is the respect for international… [read more]

Crimea Reignites Battle: Sovereignty and Self-Rule Term Paper

Term Paper  |  16 pages (5,649 words)
Bibliography Sources: 14


But the nationalism movement has proved weak due to vague Russian and Soviet identities (Sasse, 2007). There are contradicting views among the Crimeans concerning the future of the region. Most people living in the region do not support the idea that Crimea ought to secede from Ukraine. At the same time, the great majority want Crimea to be part of… [read more]

Russia's International Future Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (692 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Russia has gone full circle with respect to alignment: once having denounced NATO, the EU was accepted as Russia's "near abroad," but the EU is now considered to be hostile to Russia. The word is out that Vladimir Putin has conceptualized a Eurasian Union. As long as he plays hardball, Putin relegates Russia to the margins -- neither European nor Asian.

2.Based on our discussions of contemporary Europe, is Russia likely to grow more or less blended with Europe? Why or why not?

Russia is again ratcheting up in its aggression-cooperation cycle, sore about Crimea and with the Ukraine in its sights. With Russian forces perched on the border with the Ukraine, the country is playing a game of Russian roulette. Should Russia invade the Ukraine, it will experience further international isolation.

The tension between Russia and the Ukraine is partly one of identity. While Putin considers the Ukraine and Russia one people, this is clearly not possible because, as Trenin asserts, "Ukrainian themselves are not -- at least not yet -- one people." Moreover, Ukrainian politicians are not pro-Russian any more than they were pro-Soviet Union. Putin's plan to woo the Ukraine with a customs union that would result in greater economic integration is not at all compelling to Ukrainians. Moreover, this scenario is not lost on Putin: should Russia seduce the Ukraine into the Eurasian Economic Commission, Russia would have to give it an infusion of cash and permit more say in the joint body -- and the Ukraine could happily call for separation once economic recovery is achieved. Instead, Russia is likely to push for a decentralized Ukraine, where some degree of harmony can persist and civil war can be avoided.

Works Cited

Charlemagne. "The Eurasian tug-of-war." The Economist. 6 January 2013. 11 April 2014.

Chepurina M "Is Russian Identity European Identity?" Side Menu Society. 21 April 2011.

Shestakov Y "Russia no longer sees itself as part of Europe." Telegraph. 04 January 2012.

Simha RK "Unlocking Russian Identity: European or Asian?" 02 September 2011.…… [read more]

Japan and Korea Occupation Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,300 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


S. As a capitalist leader of allied powers. Both the countries wanted for Korea a political and economic system that could have furthered their ideological agendas. The U.S. wanted for Korea what it had achieved in Japan, modernization of society and economy and a Korean State friendly to the U.S. polices. Same was desired by Russia when it occupied the… [read more]

Mcdonald's in Hong Kong: Consumerism Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,207 words)
Bibliography Sources: 23


5.1. Basic Menu at first

5.1.1 Breakfast services kept with breakfast menu for a while; gradual introduction of American style breakfast menu items

5.2 Cultural approaches aiming at attracting the young to a new way of living, characteristic to the American society

5.2.1. The new McDonalds consumers took this promoted new living style and made it their own

5.3. By the end of the twentieth century McDonalds is no longer the harbor of novelty and exotic, it blends perfectly in the local food scene with competitive prices and costumers of all ages

5.4 The model further repeats itself in China

6. Other advantages that offer McDonalds competitive advantages

6.1 Significantly improved sanitary conditions than most of its traditional competitors on Hong Kong

6.2 Management willing to take into account cultural differences

6.2.1 One cultural difference McDonalds has not attempted to overcome was that of "service friendliness" -- Smiling bears different meanings in the food industry in Hong Kong and is thus not required from the McDonald's employees

6.3 Discipline and cooperation from the customer, but with measure.

6.3.1. Slowly, customers have started to stand in lines instead of grouping in clusters, but they have resisted the idea of busing their own trays

7. Not everything is and needs to be the "McDonald's" way = American way

7.1. Hovering is tolerated - since McDonald's restaurants in Hong Kong are among the busiest in the world, at rush hours, locals use the method of hovering to get a seat

7.2. Longer dining periods on average, compared to their American counterparts

7.3. Napkin stealing -- because of various reasons, such as scarcity of resources in the past, self-service offers older generations the opportunity to stock on napkins. That is why McDonalds does not have public dispensers for napkins

8. Symbolism of public behavior and political protest with pros and cons for the company

8.1 Hovering cannot really be treated as a form of national protest against the American way

8.1.1 Argument sustained by comparison with forms of political protest against Americanization through McDonald's in another Asian country, South Korea

8.2 National protests against transnational corporations present in Hong Kong are weak and infrequent

8.3 The fact that McDonald's imports nearly everything in Hong Kong cannot be held against the company since in most other countries McDonald's is focusing on using local suppliers, provided they are available

8.4 The company is held accountable for some abuses against the environment in Hong Kong. Protests are infrequent and limited, though.

8.5 The company makes a lot of effort to present itself as environmentally conscious

9. Some of McDonald's most important advocates and targets: children

9.1 Child rearing and its importance in marketing. Child rearing has changed tremendously during the last decades of the twentieth century. This has affected Hong Kong, too. McDonald's has taken this area into consideration and went along making children some of its fiercest advocates on their way to independence

9.1 Birthday parties, a novelty from the Western world McDonald's has used to… [read more]

Tokyo Was Formerly Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,021 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


This role is a natural extension of Tokyo's traditional role as a hub for Japanese culture, which has been cultivated since it was the cultural hub of the shogunate during the Edo days. Other cultural legacies include the method of preparing sushi, which originated in the city at a mobile street cart and has since been exported around the world.

With respect to business, Tokyo is home to the national stock exchange and most of Japan's major corporations. The city's population increases by an estimated 2.5 million during the day with commuters from outside the 23 special wards. An extensive transportation network has been developed to cater to the business people. The reputation of Japanese business is to work long hours, and this results in businesses for sleeping capsules and sex hotels, along with bars and restaurants that cater to the business audience.

Tokyo's civilian life still incorporates old traditions. The city has a number of shrines and temples, and religion is still important to the people of Tokyo. Part of this is because the Shinto faith is embedded deeply in Japanese culture and this endures beyond modern life. Because Tokyo is so thoroughly Japanese, it is one of the few major cities where only one language is spoken and where it can be difficult to find multilingual people. The same can be said of Japanese culture -- it can be difficult for outsiders to penetrate. Yet for business or pleasure, many try to understand the culture of Tokyo.

Overall, Tokyo is a fascinating city for many things. Its history is intriguing, if buried underneath the skyscrapers. The fact that there are mountains and farmland within Tokyo is also interesting, because major cities like New York and London do not normally contain such things. With a unique topography and a unique culture, Tokyo is an important cultural, political and economic city in this world. It has grown substantially in the 20th century to become the biggest city in the world. Its growth began in the industrial age, and by the turn of the 20th century Tokyo was already approaching 2 million people.

The city copes with a number of problems, mostly related to supporting its massive population. The population of Tokyo is relatively old for a city, but more than that Tokyo is faced with massive logistical challenges in moving its people around, and in dealing with the water, energy and waste removal needs of its populace. Each special ward government is charged with these tasks and works hard to meet these challenges. It is not easy running a city of thirty million, but Tokyo has proven that it can be done, and the result is an infinitely fascinating city that combines history, modernity and all the pleasures of life.


Japan News. (2013). Retrieved October 29, 2013 from http://the-japan-news.com/

Naito, A. (2003). Edo, the city that became Tokyo. Kodansha International: 2003.

Traulein, S., Alt, M., Yoda, H., Joe, M., Szymanski, A. & Marx, A. (2013). 50 reasons Tokyo is… [read more]

China-u.S. Bilateral Relationship the Past Essay

Essay  |  9 pages (2,957 words)
Bibliography Sources: 11


With China, which supplies Korea with fuel and food, the U.S. feels that China will stand a chance to do more in order to leverage the existing relationship with Korea, and subsequently persuade her to avoid provocations and denuclearize. In addition, the U.S. continues to push China to strengthen its execution of United Nations permits against Korea.

The two countries… [read more]

Cultural Analysis What Values, Attitudes and Behaviors Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,272 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


Cultural Analysis

What values, attitudes and behaviors of yours (that is -- your culture) might clash with the chosen culture?

Butler (2012) in his investigation directs out the subsequent aspects about Indian civilization and attitude and the errors one should keep away from. One should keep away from arrangement of meetings on or close to a national vacation in India.… [read more]

Tamil Tiger of Sri Lanka Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (923 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Tamil Tiger of Sri Lanka

Specific objectives


The Tamil Tigers of Sri Lanka are undoubtedly one of the most organized, effective and brutal terrorist groups in the world.

They invented the suicide vest and, according to the FBI, is the only terrorist group to have assassinated two world leaders.

The rebels, based in northern and eastern Sri Lanka, have been waging a violent offensive against the central government on and off for more than 20 years.

The Tigers, which include 5,000 to 10,000 guerillas, are fighting to secede from the island country of Sri Lanka.

Tamils originally immigrated to Sri Lanka from southern India. They are about 10 to 15% of the population compared to the majority Sinhalese who constitute about 75% (Weiss, 2012).

In 1972, the Sinhalese-controlled Sri Lankan government declared Sinhala and Buddhism the official language and religion.

The Tamils who practice Hinduism and have their own language took this action as an affront and Vellupillai Prabhakaran founded the Tigers later. The group is formally known as the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (De, 2012).


I. Sri Lanka has the least number of women and men being traffic for forced labor, commercial sex work and forced marriage.

II. However, women and children are more subjected to brutal terrorist groups such as the Tamil Tigers. In previous decades, people traveled to foreign nations to work as domestic servants, do construction work, and work in hospitals and German factories.

III. Today, people are forced to abandon their motherland due to forced child labor as illegal child militants by the Tamil Tigers.

IV. This has forced the government of Sri Lanka to block citizens from going overseas to seek for employment. Recently, the highest number of vessels belongs to Tamil Tigers rebel group (De, 2012).


1. Aim

The primary aim of this study will be to find out the potential threats to the government of Sri Lanka due to "the daily struggle that goes on between the Government of Sri and the Tamil Tigers"

2. Scope of project

I. This study will focus on the geographic situation of Sri Lanka in terms of its effectiveness to boost the criminal attempts made by the Tamil Tigers.

II. The scope of the research will be to interview people who have run away from the country due to threats from the tigers. The methods these people used to escape from the tigers.

III. Finally, legal consequences of different countries towards illegal activities of Tamil Tigers and suggestions for viable solutions to eradicate this menace (Chandraprema, 2012).

3. General Objective

General objectives of this study will be to explore the reasons behind "the daily struggle that goes on between the Government of Sri and the Tamil Tigers"

4. Specific objectives

The specific objective…… [read more]

Crossvergence: Questioning the Hofstede Paradigm Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (969 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


The author's hypothesis was relatively simple: from 1985-2000 the cultural dimensions between the U.S., Hong Kong, and Taiwan would fundamentally change within the framework of indigenous banks in all three countries, thanks to the phenomenon of crossvergence. The degree of Hofstede's indicators would not change consistently, reflecting internal dynamism that was not universally present in the global context. The specific subjects under scrutiny were middle managers at indigenous banks, to focus upon specific cultural differences of the Hofstede index with minimal impact of other variables. Nine Likert scale items were used, with particular focus on the constructs of collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, power distance (Kelley, MacNab, & Worthley 2006: 74). Despite the fact that there have been some changes to the Hofstede components since the 1980s when the study was first introduced, the original index of variables was not altered to ensure consistency over the longitudinal framework of the study (Hofstede 2011:15-16).

A comparison of the different attitudes put under scrutiny, according to the researchers, revealed significant crossvergence or deviation from the nation's original starting-places. For example, "the largest shift in our longitudinal sample for the U.S. was in relation to a significant increase in power distance," perhaps due to greater power stratification within the banking industry or the downsizing of the industry after a series of financial crises, leading to fewer intermediaries (Kelley, MacNab, & Worthley 2006: 78). This was matched in Hong Kong but not in Taiwan, indicating not a worldwide shift, but a specific change in culture not predicted by the Hofstede conception of stasis. There was also increased in uncertainty avoidance in Hong Kong (while Taiwan decreased in this measure), perhaps due to anxieties resulting from the 1997 transfer of power from the UK to China. Taiwan, in contrast, had not experienced such a wrenching change in its immediate political situation.

Even on measures of collectivism, supposedly the most significant difference between the U.S. And Asian nations as a whole, "the Taiwanese measure on collectivism decreased, conforming much closer to U.S. And Hong Kong measurements," while the relative positions of U.S. And Taiwanese measures on this value scale remained unchanged (Kelley, MacNab, & Worthley 2006: 79). All of these findings indicated that positioning of nations in terms of cultural worldviews is extremely variable, and researchers must continually reevaluate the paradigms to which they apply to different nations, particularly Asian nations which have been often unfairly painted with a very broad theoretical brush.


Hofstede, G. 2011. Dimensionalizing cultures: The Hofstede Model in context. Online Readings in Psychology and culture, 2 (1): 1-26. Available:

http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1014&context=orpc [15 Jun 2013]

Kelley, L., MacNab, B. & Worthley, R. 2006. "Crossvergence and cultural tendencies: a longitudinal test of the Hong Kong, Taiwan and United States banking sectors." Journal

of International Management, 12 (1): 67 -- 84.

Mead, R and Andrews, T.M. 2009. International management: Culture and…… [read more]

French and Indian War the Seven Years Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (633 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


French and Indian War

The Seven Years War

The Last of the Mohicans is an 1826 novel by James Fenimore Cooper that revolves around the historical conflict between France and its allies, and Great Britain, as part of the North American theater of the Seven Years War, also referred to as the French and Indian War. The Seven Years War can be considered to be one of the first wars fought on a global scale and its outcome forever changed the global landscape in terms of national claims on land and territories, and helped to influence the American Revolution.

The Seven Years War was a conflict involving Austria, Great Britain, France, Spain, Prussia, and Sweden that took place over three continents: Europe, North America, and India (Asia) from 1756 to 1763 ("The French & Indian War"). In Europe, France, Sweden, and Austria allied against Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, while Great Britain and France found themselves pitted against each other in North America, the Caribbean, and India ("The French & Indian War"). The North American conflict between Great Britain and France is one of the focuses of the Last of the Mohicans.

In North America, the tensions between Great Britain and France had been escalating since 1689, and when the colonist population in North America exploded, increasing from 250,000 in 1700 to 1.25 million by 1750, clashes between the two counties increased. This population spike allowed the British to increase revenues through the exportation of hemp, copper, tar, and turpentine exclusively to Great Britain ("The French & Indian War"). It was also during this time that Great Britain deliberately interfered with French commerce by imposing a tax on each gallon of molasses imported from non-British colonies in 1733, thus deterring colonist's and Britons' desires to purchase these types of items ("The French & Indian War").

These small conflicts and skirmishes eventually resulted in more forceful…… [read more]

Japan Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,478 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Nara, the first permanent capital of Japan between 710 and 784, contained wide patterned avenues, worshiping buildings, and pagodas, and was largely similar to the imperial city in Changan. Japanese scholars even turned to Chinese geomancy in an attempt to understand where it was best for them to build the city of Nara. To a certain degree, the Japanese decision… [read more]

San Jose Museum of Art Rising Dragon Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,255 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



"Rising Dragon" Photography Exhibit

Exhibit Overview and General Description

One of the exhibits currently showing at the San Jose Museum of Art is "Rising Dragon." This is a photography exhibit where both the subjects and the artists are Chinese. The photographs are mostly in black and white, with some color prints and some prints that look aged or sepia tone. Hardly any of the photographs take place in an urban setting. Most of the photographs are taken in rural or desolate locations, when the content of the photo is outside. The exhibit overall exudes a kind of quiet hope and a persistent pain. The photographs that compose this are not luxurious or decadent. They are humble and austere mostly.

"Rising Dragon" is a wondrous photography exhibit consisting of over 100 photographs from various visual and artists and photographers, including Yao Lu. Altogether, the exhibit represents the works of approximately forty photographers, all of whom reside and work in China. The photographs serve as a commentary and criticism about the economic and industrial turbulence experienced in China during the 21st century.

A primary theme in the exhibit includes commentary and reflection upon the accelerated rate at which China experiences urbanization in the 21st century, specifically seeing increase in this process following the 2008 Summer Olympics held in Beijing. The exhibit communicates a range of collisions of modernity and ancient tradition as a result of rapid urbanization. Sometimes these collisions are seamless, and sometimes, more often, they are brutal and have many casualties. The photographers illustrate in their works the abrupt and dynamic process by which China has become relatively more integrated in and at the forefront of the global community over the past few decades in particular.

The styles in the exhibit vary, although they are generally united thematically. Some photographs are in the style of photojournalism. Other styles featured in "Rising Dragon" include portraiture, stills from videos of performance art, and staged scenes/tableaus. The exhibit reflects a range of emotions and issues, including pain, change, the influence of the west, decay, and even humor. The photographers challenge the representations of modern China as represented in the media with provocative simplicity.

Critical Account -- What it Says about the World

The artists are communicating that their worlds are changing very quickly and very often. The artists are stating that the changes in their worlds are not often in service of their countrymen and women. The content of the photographs expresses that the world of the Chinese is in a state of flux that the country has not seen, perhaps, ever in its extensive history.

The "Rising Dragon" exhibit is a kind of mirror, which is a fundamental trait of true artworks. The photographs hold a mirror to underrepresented realities of modern Chinese culture and the photographs hold a mirror to the imaginations of artists living and working within this intense cultural flux.

A number of the photographs are in black and white. The choice to use black and white may… [read more]

Human Rights in China Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,764 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Human rights in China

China's human rights condition has long been questioned by the world. The large population of the People's Republic of China is facing problems in civil, political, cultural and religious freedom. China's population is one of the world's largest and its economic strength is entirely dependent on the masses. For such a large population the… [read more]

Dell Theory of Conflict Prevention Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,279 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Flat, Thomas Friedman argues in favor of what he calls "The Dell Theory of Conflict Prevention." William Duiker is not so sure about the trend toward globalization, saying that it may be offset by a simultaneous trend toward fragmentation.

The following paper explains which of the two individuals theories mentioned above are correct.

Thomas Friedman and the "The Dell Theory of Conflict Prevention."

In his book, the World Is Flat, Friedman proposes that the world will soon cease its violence and strife since we are all part of the same global supply chain, we each impact one another, this impact is all the more visible in the 21st century, and our very connection and inter-dependence will compel us to cease rivalry.

To quote Friedman, he in effect says that:

No two countries that are both part of a major global supply chain, like Dell's, will ever fight a war against each other as long as they are both part of the same global supply chain. Because people embedded in major global supply chains don't want to fight old-time wars anymore. (p. 11)

The impact on the economy is so immense that this alone will deter a nation from warring against another.

Friedman brings two cases as examples: India and Pakistan and China and Taiwan. Pakistan and India almost fought a war in 2002 over Kashmir. However, economic concerns and the private sector (specifically corporations) intervened and the war fizzed out.

A similar situation happened with China and Taiwan in the December 2004 parliamentary elections, when the pro-independence candidate for Taiwan was defeated by those who called for closer economic ties between Taiwan and China. Again, economic interests predominated over nationalistic agenda.

To Friedman, this Dell Theory of Conflict Prevention does not eliminate all wars, but it does make countries more reluctant to enter into any battle.

Friedman's reasoning sounds legitimate enough and it explains why many countries are deterred from fighting. However, it does not explain the exceptions, such as continuous fighting in Africa and India, as well as Islamic resolution to continue battering the West. We may need to particularize rather than generalize and realize that there are numerous conditions that go into instigating and maintaining strife.

William Duiker and fragmentation

Whilst Friedman veers towards globalization, William Duiker, on the other hand, is not so sure about the trend toward globalization, saying that it may be offset by a simultaneous trend toward fragmentation. In this, Duiker echoes a classic - some consider it notorious - voice on the subject: that of the historian Samuel Huntington who, in his "The clash of civilizations and the making of the world order" remarked that the world is being torn into two different directions: that of the West on the one hand and that of Islam on the other. To Huntington, the world was becoming increasingly epitomized by fragmentation and a "clash of civilizations" based on ethnic, cultural, or religious difference. He (and Druicker too) saw the 21st century as being… [read more]

India's Culture Has Been Evolving Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (903 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Indian business deals are based on behavior, and respect for mutual parties. In America we base our business beliefs around "time and money." In India, they deal under the belief that examining and debating all aspects of a deal is most important. They are not in a hurry and will make sure all details are in order before moving on. "Regionalism, religion, language and caste are all factors that need to be taken into account when doing business in India. Behavior, etiquette and approach are all modified depending on whom you are addressing and the context in which they are being addressed."(Desal, 2009)

Hinduism is the most followed religion in India, followed by Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Parsism. Diversity in religious practices, as it applies to various regions across the country is another aspect that's taken up very passionately in India. The most striking part of India lies in the diversity of its languages, religious practices, local customs, and traditions. Remarkably India has as many as 22 official languages across its 28 states and 7 union territories. India's official language though is Hindi, spoken by approximately 337 million people.

India places great value on family, and it remains the most important social institution that has lasted through the ages. The fact that India is a huge multicultural society means that public holidays are declared keeping festivals of various religions in mind. Though religious and cultural factors play a role in the way individual small-sized businesses run in India, they hardly have a negative effect on the business culture of multi-national organizations. Labor organizations are common in government organizations of India; however, they are almost non-existent in the private sector.

As part of the economic liberalization program initiated by the Indian government, trade barriers are being lowered, licensing requirements are being eased, and foreign investors are being invited into India. There are however some internal trade barriers between Indian states due to economic, political, social, and cultural reasons.

The popularity of English in India is of particular interest to EDUS. India's 1.1 billion strong population and its dramatic improvement in literacy, health conditions, and reduced poverty are positive signs for EDUS in terms of scope for its business activities. The diversity of India, its economic rise, its positive international trade initiatives, the growth of its middle class, the enormity of its qualified labor force, its emergence as a global player in IT, and the immense potential of its educational market are all good news to EDUS.


A and U. Kohler, (2013). www.sights-and-culture.com

Santosh Desal, 3/15/09 Logic of arranged marriage in India .Timesofindia.indiantimes.com

B.A. Robinson, 1995-2012 Religious tolerance. www.religioustolerance.org

Doing Business in India. www.kwintesstial.co.uk… [read more]

Imphal in 1942, the Japanese Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,281 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


"[footnoteRef:9] [3: Chen, C. Peter. "Battle of Imphal-Kohina."] [4: Chen, C. Peter. "Battle of Imphal-Kohina."] [5: Lyman, Robert 2012. Kohima, The Battle that Saved India. ] [6: Lyman, Robert 2012. Kohima, The Battle that Saved India. ] [7: Lyman, Robert 2012. Kohima, The Battle that Saved India. ] [8: Lyman, Robert 2012. Kohima, The Battle that Saved India.] [9: Lyman, Robert 2012. Kohima, The Battle that Saved India. Retrieved online: http://www.robertlyman.com/kohima1.htm]

Moreover, Lieutenant Sato understood that the Japanese army was ill prepared for the invasion. Their supply lines were weak. Sato knew this, but the ambitious Renya would not listen. As a result, many Japanese troops died due to starvation rather than in combat.

The Japanese were also facing a ground invasion and hand-to-hand combat with the British and the Anglo-Indian armed forces. As Lyman points out, the Japanese army was not up to the task from a purely technological standpoint. "Despite their stunning early successes of the Second World War, the Imperial Japanese Army remained remarkably backwards in adopting modern methods and equipment."[footnoteRef:10] Still, Lieutenant-General Mutaguchi had a healthy 100,000 troops in his command and the Japanese intelligence gathering and reconnaissance methods used at Kohima and to a lesser degree at Imphal were admirable.[footnoteRef:11] [10: Lyman, Robert 2012. Kohima, The Battle that Saved India. Retrieved online: http://www.robertlyman.com/kohima1.htm] [11: "The Battle of Kohima 1944." History Learning Site.]

On the Allied side, Lieutenant General Geoffrey Scoones commanded the Indian IV Corps in Imphal when the Japanese invaded. The Anglo-Indian Fourteenth Army was in control of the entire Imphal plain, headed by Lieutenant-General William Slim. Major-General John "Blackjack" Grover was commander of the British 2nd Division, and Lieutenant-General Montagu Stopford was in charge of the XXXIII Indian Corps. Most of the soldiers were not British, although their commanders were. Fighting in the Anglo-Indian army were soldiers from Burma, India, west and east Africa.[footnoteRef:12] [12: Lyman, Robert 2012. Kohima, The Battle that Saved India. Retrieved online: http://www.robertlyman.com/kohima1.htm]

Unlike the Japanese, the British had a strong sense of how to deploy technology to their strategic advantage in the region. In Imphal, transportation and communication lines were being improved. "Roads and tracks were improved and six new airfields were constructed. Fuel and ammunition dumps were built."[footnoteRef:13] However prepared the British were to meet the Japanese at Imphal, the extent of the invasion at Kohima was much greater than anticipated. "Slim was not even aware of the strength of the Japanese force advancing on Kohima."[footnoteRef:14] [13: "The Battle of Imphal 1944." History Learning Site.] [14: "The Battle of Kohima 1944." History Learning Site. ]

On March 7, 1943, the Japanese began their attack on Imphal. The invasion was known as Operation U-Go. On March 15, On March 15th "another Japanese division, the XXXI, attacked Kohima."[footnoteRef:15] The battle at Kohina lasted for two months and was hard -- fought on both sides. In the end, it was starvation that killed the Japanese soldiers. One war correspondent from Japan reported, "We had no ammunition, no clothes, no food,… [read more]

International Relations Emerging Superpowers: India Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,000 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


These countries both have powerful reputations in the media industry, which is related to other industries in which they are leaders, such as information technology and engineering. Such networks of successful industries will continue to increase the rise to a superpower. Both countries are a part of the continent of Asia, which brings greater attention and prominence to the East overall in the global perspective. The superpowers have thus far been regarded only with respect to the west, with Japan as the most prominent exception.

The nature and scale of the industrial and economic changes within these two countries will absolutely affect their indigenous cultures and political systems. With the order of the changes being made in these countries and out into the world, there is little room for doubt that there will be social and political affects when the coming of superpower status. The United States certainly changed after being deemed a superpower. Suddenly American culture was everywhere and became for more widespread. The United States became more involved or newly involved in nearly every area of industry, from established ones to ones at the forefront. The reach and the influence of America came from and are today reinforced by its status as a country that is a superpower. Certainly, we will see similar or analogous affects with India & China. Relative to a western perspective, the Chinese government is far more openly strict and controlling, as issues related to Internet and website access are modern examples of this kind of control. With increased interaction with the outside world and increased migration from the country to the city, China will have to consider making social changes or accomodations. India is a country that experiences some of the greatest forms of poverty on Earth. Some of the incoming wealth must reach those who need it. Superpower status cannot be achieved and maintained with a majority impoverished population. Both countries are due for social revolutions in tandem with their industrial ones. How those countries handle the changes will be equally as critical to their status as superpowers as the other qualities discussed within the paper.


Badkar, Mamta. "RACE OF THE CENTURY: Is India or China the Next Economic Superpower?" Web, Business Insider, 2011, Available from: http://www.businessinsider.com/are-you-betting-on-china-or-india-2011-1?op=1. 2012 October 31.

Bandow, Doug. "Is India An Economic Superpower In the Making?" Web, Forbes, 2011, Available from: http://www.forbes.com/sites/dougbandow/2011/03/07/is-india-an-economic-superpower-in-the-making/. 2012 November 01.

Chin, Curtis, S., & Collazo, Jose B. "Tracking China to its 'superpower moment.'" The Japan Times Online, Web, 2012, Available from: http://www.japantimes.co.jp/text/eo20120911a2.html. 2012 November 01.

Harris, Jerry. "Emerging Third World powers: China, India, and Brazil." Race & Class, Vol. 46, No. 3, 7 -- 27, 2005.

Hirwade, Mangala Anil, & Rajyalakshmi, D. "Open Access: India is Moving Towards Third World Superpower." 4th International Convention, Gulbarga. INFLIBNET Centre,…… [read more]

India's Economic Development &amp Foreign Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,436 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Hypothesis 2: Changes have occurred in the foreign policy of India and these have been generated by the development of economy.

As it has already been proven, changes have indeed occurred in India's approach of its foreign relationships and policy and the cause for these changes has commonly been represented by changes in the international setting, such as globalization or… [read more]

Mohammed Suharto and Macbeth William Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (649 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


This part of Suharto's story does not reflect the end of Macbeth's life, Macbeth, however, did want to improve on the land ultimately and was only unraveled by his own evil method of acquiring power.

Macbeth did not last long as King, but he did gain power and hold on to it for as long as possible, just like Mohammed Suharto. Suharto finally resigned in 1998 due to the catastrophe of the Asian financial crisis that swept through all of the emerging markets in that region. Indonesia's currency had plummeted, foreign investment dried up, and massive layoffs brought devastation to the cities of Indonesia. Protests broke out, and instead of trying to violently oppress them, like what is happening in Syria, Suharto decided to step down and retire. (Time, 2008) The vice-president, Habibie, then became president, and had to handle the problems that had amassed during the long administration of Suharto.

Mohammed Suharto ruled over Indonesia for thirty years and brought about great change in the country. His rise to power and some of the darker parts of his time as President can be seen as a dramatic backdrop to the 201th century as a century of great change throughout the world. Despite being hundreds of years and thousands of miles apart, the lessons learned in the play Macbeth are the same lessons that are learned by studying the rise of Suharto. Now democracy has taken effect in Indonesia, but back then, after Independence, the country required a strong leader in order to stabilize its form of governance to best suit the needs of the average Indonesian.

Work Cited

Berger, M. (Jan 28, 2008). Suharto Dead at 86. The New York Times. Retrieved from, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/28/world/asia/28suharto.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0.

No Author. (2008). Time. A look back at Suharto's Indonesia. Retrieved from, http://www.time.com/time/photogallery/0,29307,1702682,00.html.

Shakespeare, W. (2011). Sparknotes. Macbeth. Retrieved from, http://nfs.sparknotes.com/macbeth/.… [read more]

China and India Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (826 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


China and India

One of the most basic questions in human history surrounds the move from a hunter-gatherer existence to a settled, urban civilization. Most scholars believe that environmental factors, for instance, allowed societies to develop near the great river valleys of the world (Nile, Tigris/Euphrates), but also, through again, a series of geological factors, included raw materials that contributed to the technological advancement of societies. These early civilizations then, had the advantage of early urbanization and organization, turning into the great empires. In China, for instance, evidence shows that there were communities as early as 400,000 years ago and in South Asia on the Indian Subcontinent, at least 200,000 years ago -- predating the Middle Eastern cultures by millennia. In both China and India, though, population pressures forced agricultural development -- in China along the Yellow and Yangzi River and in India along the Indus Valley river basin (, Bentley, et.al., 48).

Two examples of these early river valley civilizations were the Ancient Chinese and Ancient Harappan society on the Indian subcontinent. In both areas, the development of agriculture allowed nomadic peoples to establish permanent settlements, which, over time, caused more specialization of labor and tasks. Out of this grew civilizations because of the need of government, social structure, writing systems, and technology/science. Some think that climate change - perhaps a mild winter or other social issues, caused tribes to remain in one place long enough for the germination of plants to take place. . This was more of a strategy for survival, scholars believe, than a planned out series of events. Because of the lack of artifacts, it is difficult to say just why hunters and gatherers in this region turned to agriculture. One theory indicates that in settled areas that were developed around a political or religious hierarchy populations increased, infant mortality decreased, and the need for just agricultural workers decreased. (Bentley, 9-10).

Harappan society probably began about 5,000 years ago, centered around the Indus River. Major cities were located all along the fertile plains of the area, but much of the early artifacts now lie underneath the water table. In addition, we are not able to translate the written records, so we rely on artifacts and evidence from other cultures who wrote about the Harappans. The cities were built of brick, had a sewage and drainage system, and the builders had mastered multistoried houses. The Harappans developed weights and measures, likely due to commerce, and, like the Chinese, developed…… [read more]

North Korea's Provocation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,429 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


S. which has enabled them to counter most of the fears and threats that North Korea has posed. North Korea recently had made severe accusations against the South Korean Government and their media has been equally participative in putting allegations that South Korea has threatened that they would take special actions against North Korea. In the past few months North… [read more]

Lowe, Kate. Hong Kong's Missing A2 Coursework

A2 Coursework  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Q6. Contextual information that you find relevant: the biography or credentials of the author, the expertise or reputation of the publication (for a journal or magazine, etc.), how it contributes to an existing conversation.

Kate Lowe was a History Department lecturer at The University of Hong Kong (1985-1988).

Source 2

Kan, Flora & Edward Vickers. "One Hong Kong: Two Histories 'Chinese History' and 'History' in the Hong Kong School Curriculum. Paper presented at the Australian Curriculum Studies. Association Biennial Conference, Perth, September 29 -- October 2, 1999. [8 Jun 2012] http://www.acsa.edu.au/pages/images/99_kan_one_honk_kong.pdf

Q1. Category of the source

This is a paper that was presented at an educational conference.

Q2. Summary of the source

The construction of history shapes how citizens educated within a nation's educational system view their lives and leadership. In the Hong Kong curriculum, 'history' and 'Chinese history' are separated as two different subjects. This paper examines why and how this division evolved and the consequences of this for Hong Kong.

Q3. A quick list of key points

History textbooks in China usually contain anti-foreign references. Until recently, world history was taught in English in Hong Kong schools, although this has gradually changed. However, what has not changed is the maintenance of different national curriculum standards for both Chinese and general history and both subject areas possess different philosophical aims: history has been presented as an analytical subject; Chinese history with a moral, dogmatic orientation.

Q4. How (specifically) this source can be useful to write history?

This illustrates the 'divided consciousnesses' of many Hong Kong residents, a divided consciousness hard-wired into their experience of history from school-age onward.

Q5. The specific limitations or drawbacks of the source

The… [read more]

Korean Peninsula and World Politics Book Review

Book Review  |  5 pages (1,593 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The hatred against the Americans is also highlighted constantly, where even the air raids exercises and the blackouts are all blamed on the Americans. With a single channel and a single radio station which is on at all times, and with no option to be turned off, there is little that can be done against the constant hatred that they are being fed against the American. Even the cartoons that are shown and enjoyed by the family despite their themes of "any action against the Supreme Leader will be punished" are much appreciated by the children.

It seems after watching the documentary that the entire reason for the very survival of North Korea is its position against America. While there is no denying that the horrors of the war and the persecutions of what happened during the "Forgotten War" can't be ignored, it seems equally unjust to base the very future and the prospect of a nation of this singular aim and mission. The entire nation, from the children to the older generation, is absorbed, in this hatred which drives their very existence and their day-to-day activities.

It is high time that North Korea looks into its foreign policy as well as the introduction of certain reforms which can enable a more prosper living for the entire nation and the citizen of the North Korea. The economic indicators are enough to indicate that anything contrary to this would be simply impossible to work out in this state anymore. And moreover, with the many state players that are involved now, in the shape of China and South Korea, it is not possible that Korea can continue on without some reforms in some form and shape.… [read more]

Live vs. China's Past Memories Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (628 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


And while the film offers hope of a better future with China's embracing of Capitalism, the novel ends with a grimmer outlook.

Among the subtle differences of the novel and the film is that the former takes place in a southern rural area while the film takes place in a small town in the north. It is widely assumed that the land reform and the Communist policies during the Great Leap Forward primarily hit hard at China's rural population. Yimou tries to show in the film that both rural and urban areas all over the country were affected by disastrous policies of the Communist Party. Another difference in the film is Fugui's character as a shadow-puppeteer. And the film also offers many elements of humor throughout tumultuous years of Chinese history. This shows the significance of Chinese propensity to survival even during the times of hardship. Yimou tries to show how the Chinese people adapt to new realities and manage to enjoy the life under harsh conditions.

The fact that the Chinese government banned the film although it offered a relatively softer critique of Chinese Communist Party during the last sixty years of Chinese history shows that the government has its own vision of the past and wants to maintain that vision. Unlike novels, films have a wider reach and therefore the Chinese state particularly targeted it for censorship. In the midst of these competitive struggles for constructing the history of China, we encounter disparate retellings of China's past. In other words, China's past is as much about the present as it is about the past.

Works Cited:

Yu, Hua, and Michael Berry. To Live: A Novel. New York: Anchor Books, 2003. Print.

Yimou, Zhang, Ge You, Gong Li, and Fu-sheng Chiu. Huozhe. China: Electric; Century; Era;…… [read more]

Country China and Foreign Policy Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,535 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


But as China has tries to mediate better ties between Pakistan and India in a bid to encourage stability in the region, Chinese Indian relations have also become stronger. Additionally the two countries have put the war of 1962 behind, recognizing each other's might as economic powers and being among the emerging superpowers of the world. The two countries have… [read more]

City of Life and Death Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,408 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


City of Life and Death

Like individual suffering, collective memory is often problematic because of its very nature as memory. Memories are subjective because of the events and emotions surrounding them. This is perhaps even more true for wartime memories. The horror and suffering that occur during times of war often creates for its victims and perpetrators memories that pose… [read more]

Business Strategy India Is a Rapidly Changing Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  5 pages (1,383 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Business Strategy

India is a rapidly changing country that many foreign companies see as an extremely lucrative opportunity for international growth. Avaya is one of those companies. According to the research, Avaya is a "U.S. based manufacturing company [that] is a global leader in communication systems, applications and services. It designs, builds, deploys and manages networks for enterprises."

It has been implementing strategies to slowly focus on entering into the Indian telecommunications market for several years now. Working within the Asia Pacific submarket, India proves an incredibly challenge, but yet also a potential lucrative reward.

Avaya has focused on entering into the country with an approach using strategic partnerships with the example of Tata Telecom, a partnership between Avaya and the Tata Group of India.

Thus, Avaya is essentially tapping into an already established system, banking on its reputation to help increase profit potential in India, as it expects worldwide.


Social Factors

India is a massive nation, with millions of residents. Its demographics very incredibly, thanks to the vast regional differences caused by extreme physical distances. The nation has the second highest population in the world, behind China.

Still, it has a largely rural population base, but with growing population density rates in vast urban sprawls. There are also staunch class differences seem to be embedded into the national culture, because of the long dominance of the caste system which distinctly separated socio-economic classes in India for centuries. Although the government has officially banned the caste system, it still plays a large role in social structures and how different classes interact with one another. This feeds into the immense digital divide that separates Indians who are able to use modern technologies from those within lower socio-economic classes that still do not have access to innovative telecommunications technology. Here, the research states that the "digital divide refers to the unequal availability of Information and Communications Technology (ICTs) to different socio-economic groups."

Technological Factors

Changing technology has continuously redefined the nature of the telecommunications industry worldwide. The major trend today is an increasing mobility within the context of available telecommunications solutions, without having to sacrifice quality of communications themselves. According to the research, "Telecom services are now becoming highly mobile and are delivered by the medium of radio waves. Whereas, until some 50 years ago, a majority of international calls were handled through sort wave radio."

There is now an increasing presence of handheld and mobile devices seen within the Indian marketplace as the technology becomes cheaper and more widely available, both on the consumer end, as well as on a service provider standpoint. Moreover, the liberal government of India has been creating economic policies that are open and inviting opportunities for foreign investors and companies to enter into. In order to help entice foreign companies into working within its borders, India has invested heavily on infrastructure, especially in the case of the telecommunications context. This has also had the impact of increasing the privatization of other industries as well, which… [read more]

Pacific Rim Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (549 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Pacific Rim

The World Bank keeps records of economic indicators from 1960 onwards. It does not have information for North Korea or Taiwan. Statistics for Vietnam were only available beginning in 1984. The first set of data is the GDP in constant 2000 USD (Exhibit A). This chart illustrates a couple of things. First, it indicates how much larger Japan's economy is than any of the other countries. The size of even large economies like Singapore and South Korea is dwarfed by Japan. The People's Republic of China begins to separate itself only in the last 20 years. The other nations, whatever their wealth, have relatively small economies.

Exhibit B. contains the chart for GDP, PPP in constant international $. These figures begin in 1980. This chart illustrates the remarkable growth of the Chinese economy since 1980. China's GDP by PPP is by far the highest in the region. Only Japan and South Korea are relevant on the chart by this measure. The other nations have small GDPs compared to these three and barely register, even the wealthy city-states.

Exhibit C. contains the chart of GDP per capita of the selected Asian nations. This puts the Pacific Rim economic growth into better perspective as it provides a more accurate depiction of national wealth. That much of China remains in poverty is illustrated more clearly with this graph. The wealth of Singapore and Hong Kong also shows clearly. Korea is accurately positioned below the leaders, but well ahead of the smaller economies.

What these charts illustrate is that there has been strong growth in the Asia Pacific economies since 1960, but that this growth is…… [read more]

Economic Growth in Hong Kong Business Plan

Business Plan  |  2 pages (595 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Economic Growth in Singapore:

In addition to the robust economic growth in the recent past, Singapore has been characterized by various structural changes. Some of the methods used to stimulate economic growth for these firms include & #8230;

Technological Progress:

With the rapid structural changes coupled by the depreciating rate of human capital, technological progress is used as one of the methods of stimulating economic growth for firms in Singapore (Thangavelu & Wei, 2006). The country has been trying to increase its technological progress rate because it has realized that its level of economic growth cannot be sustained by increasing inputs into production. Since there is creation of new jobs that require different skills from the traditional jobs, the development of technology-specific skills through technological advances is used as a strategy for stimulating economic growth.

Motivation of Continuous Learning:

Motivation of continuous learning is used as a strategy for encouraging economic growth in Singapore to improve professionalism and employability of the workforce. As firms are encouraged to use this technique, it enables their employees to acquire new skills to meet the new requirements of the changing business requirements. This method is utilized because Singapore's labor market is dominated by an aging workforce population that can't meet the demands of the rapidly changing business environment.


Kwong, S.K. (n.d.). Productivity and What It Means to Hong Kong. Retrieved from Hong Kong

Policy Research Institute Limited website: http://www.hkpri.org.hk/bulletin/12/sunny-kwong.html

Thangavelu, S. & Wei, Y.Y. (2006, July0). Aging and Economic Growth: Issues Relevant to Singapore. Retrieved from National University of Singapore website: http://www.fas.nus.edu.sg/ecs/pub/wp-scape/0613.pdf… [read more]

Feng Shui in Hong Kong Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  4 pages (1,258 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


In his 1990 kidnapping, she only paid half of the $60 million requested ransom, and Teddy was never seen again. Instead, the kidnappers took him out on a sampan and "dumped him, gagged and bound, into the sea" (Donovan 2002).

Nina Wang took over Chinachem after Teddy's disappearance and became its chief executive officially when he was declared legally dead in 1999. In the court battles over his estate, only the 1960 will that divided everything equally between Nina and her father-in-law Wang Din-shin was uncontested. Wang also produced a 1968 will which made him the soul heir, and claimed that Teddy had cut her out because she had had an affair with a warehouse manager. Nina countered that Wang Din-shin "smoked opium and had a mistress," while Teddy had also cheated on her, and that pictures of various ladies were found in his safe deposit box after his 1990 kidnapping (Donovan 2002). She claimed that they had later reconciled and produced a 1990 will that left the entire estate to her. In November 2002, the High Court of Hong Kong ruled found this will to be a forgery and upheld Wang's claims, but the Court of Final Appeal reversed this decision in 2005 and warded the entire estate to Nina (Fishkind 2011). By this time, though, she was terminally ill with ovarian cancer and died two years later, which led to more court battles over the estate and more charges of forgery, in this case against the self-described fenshui guru Tony Can Chun-choen (Tony Chan).

Nina met Tony Chan, a former bartender, in 1990 when he was hired to help locate her husband through fengshui. As they became lovers, the couple "dug over 80 feng shui holes on Chinachem properties all over the city to bury gems and truckloads of cash worth millions" (Fishkind 2011). Chan had little money of his own before he met her, but "lived the life of a kept man" afterwards, in a $30 million house and running his own property development company. In court, he argued that all this money was simply for "feng shui massages and other such services, and commercial investments in his company" (Fishkind 2011). When Nina was dying of cancer, he also manipulated her by "pretending he could magically extend her life with his secret rituals and supernatural powers" (Burnham 2011, Chapter 17).

The Chinachem Charitable Foundation had a 2002 will whose validity was never disputed in which Nina Wang left all her many to charity. Included in this will were "plans for an Asian version of the Nobel Prize and a range of other charitable works, the funds being administered by the UN secretary general, the Chinese government, and the chief executive of Hong Kong's administration" (Blackman, 2008, p. 178). Chinachem's lawyers asserted that if the 2006 will was valid at all, she had only made it for "fengshui purposes so that she would receive eternal life" (Fishkind 2011). In any event, after a very careful examination, the Hong… [read more]

Negotiation and Cultural Differences Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,632 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Negotiation and Culture Differences

Exercise 1: Cultural Differences

One of the most important economic regions in Asia is Hong Kong, because although it is relatively small compared to mainland China, and thus one might expect it to have a similarly sized importance, but in reality its unique political and cultural history make Hong Kong a unique entryway into the wider… [read more]

Internet Cafe in India Marketing Plan

Marketing Plan  |  11 pages (3,349 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Same is also true for this internet cafe business; the super-fast internet services will be available for every class of Indians irrespective of their social status or income level (Export.Gov).

D. Technological Factors in India and their impact on Internet Cafe Business:

The Information Technology is the most successful sector of the Indian economy and contributes a big portion in… [read more]

FDI Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (869 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The current deal would force Blades to find ways to produce at a low enough price to be profitable. If the baht weakens, then the amount of baht that the retailer pays Blades will be worth increasingly less over the coming three years. It may be very difficult to supply these rollerblades at an acceptable level of profit when the revenue is steadily declining.

The tradeoff is that Blades might lose the Thai contract. This is currently worth a substantial amount of money, and there are other competitors that might be willing to enter the Thai market Blades' place. So there is risk that this revenue stream could disappear if Blades is unwilling to make a long-term deal. However, if the terms of the 3-year deal are the same as the current deal, it is too risky for Blades to sign this deal and I would recommend against it.

4. The Thai government should view the establishment of a subsidiary by Blades as positive. If they are viewing the issue rationally, Blades is likely to create jobs. In addition, Blades is likely to introduce new and valuable technology to the company as well. This would benefit Thailand in the short and long run. However, Thailand has a high level of corruption, so government officials may be more concerned with the benefit to themselves than to the country as a whole.

There are two views with respect to purchasing an existing company or starting a new one. If a subsidiary is purchased that would have otherwise gone out of business, the Thai government should view it favorably as new jobs would be created. However, if the local partner does not have equity, the Thai government may prefer to favor a company that does have some Thai ownership. A firm with 100% foreign ownership is less likely to benefit the Thai economy than one with Thai ownership, particularly where technology transfer is concerned.

Overall, Blades should receive a favorable welcome in Thailand, as long as some well-off Thai people benefit from the transaction. Job creation is also positive, but unless the country as a whole gains substantial incremental benefit from the transaction, there might not be strong support at the government level. It should also be mentioned that that the government's response might be impacted by other Thai firms. If there are several firms in Thailand that could make rollerblades, the government is likely to favor a 100% Thai company over one that has some foreign ownership. So the competitive situation is also something that Blades…… [read more]

US or Any Country Customer Perception of Made in China Products Methodology Chapter

Methodology Chapter  |  14 pages (4,943 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 14


¶ … China -- Not Necessarily a Good Thing?

Project Overall Aims - Objective

The United States is deeply involved with China when it comes to finances, as China is the largest foreign holder of American debt. Moreover, China is a major trade partner with the United States, and while thousands of Americans travel to China each year -- and… [read more]

North/South Korea + Korean-Americans Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,125 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Koreans will think themselves American, and thus, the identity crisis ensues. It is difficult, for any immigrant, to come to this country and feel completely at home; however, for those born in this country who are Korean, it is difficult, sometimes, to feel part of it, and to be seen as such by all other peers.

The author adds that it is common to find young Korean-Americans in many parts of the American life, and that often they are found in the best universities. This is a dream for many of these individuals, but it makes them a model minority, and a stereotype, according to Cummings. In other words, the "model minority" is "riven by differences in class, wealth, generation, language, ethnicity […] politics, religion, region and domiciles…" For this reason, many Korean-American don't think their lives are perfect, or even easy, and they can often find marginalized within their own community.

One such example is the 1994 American television show that focused on the "all American girl." The star, comedian Margaret Cho emigrated to the country as a young child. This woman is often the link that Americans have between Koreans and themselves, providing a much-needed humor relief setting in which to speak about the differences in the populations, and how Koreans feel many pressures of the American society. Cho is, in some ways, a pioneer, for those who will make their presence known, if they have not already done so, in American society, according to Cummings. In the show, Cho is caught between home and family, trying to find a respectable date, going to a good university, and other problems that the sitcom posed as usual in the Korean community. Whether this is correct or not, is not the issue here, but rather the search of a girl for identity and an answer to the questions "what is Korean about me," according to the author.

A last point the author makes is on Korea's place in the world, relating to the section of the diaspora as well, in which he states,

"To visit either Korean state today is to encounter a past and a future that intermingle promiscuously: a white-coated yangban elder in horsehair hats paying cards in a park on Seoul's South Mountain, observed the state-of the art exercise room o from the Seoul Hilton; the skyscraper headquarters of the Daewoo corporation towering over a raucous South Gate market that seems unchanged from the 1960s […] pedestrians in blue jackets and wide-brimmed worker's hats passing by the 105-story Yanggang Hotel in P'yongyang, a pyramid in the sky […]…"

All these images described by Cummings in the last paragraphs of his tenth chapter, are in a way, what the diaspora thinks about when it thinks about roots and where it comes from, and one can only be proud of such images, in the South Korean case, the in the North Korean case, only hope for the better future that will surely, and one hopes very soon, come.

Conclusion… [read more]

International and Trade Policy of Early Choson Yi Dynasty Korea Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,928 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


International and Trade Policy of early Choson (Yi) Dynasty Korea

The aim of this paper is to examine key historical forces that shaped Traditional Korea in the period between 1392 and 1910. The paper intertwines political, economic, socio and cultural themes as it highlights a number of major issues during the Early Yi Dynasty. It will provide a through review… [read more]

Manufacturing and Sales Strategy Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,075 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Mfg/Sales Strategy

There are a number of factors that need to be considered with respect to market entry into these three different markets. Some of the relevant factors include trade barriers, the cost and availability of factor inputs, cultural distance, foreign exchange rate risk, corruption, and the ease of shipping. Each of these factors will play a role in determining the best method of market entry. For this company, there are two considerations for each market -- manufacturing and sales. This paper will analyze the three markets -- the EU, India and the United States -- with respect to these different variables and offer some recommendations for the ideal method of market entry into each market.

For this company, a manufacturing and sales strategy for the European Union needs to take a few factors into account. The EU is a trading bloc, which implies that while there may be barriers to trade getting into Europe, production within Europe would allow for the goods to be shipped duty free anywhere within the EU. It is worth considering the differential cost of production in different centres as well. Hamilton can be relatively low-cost by Canadian standards, but there are some lower-cost countries in Europe, particularly in central, southern and eastern parts of the continent, that should be able to product video game devices. One should consider the factor endowment of these nations, however. It may be that the production of such devices is easier in a more developed European country such as Germany, in which case there may not be a cost advantage to European product.

However, there are also economies of scale likely at the Canadian plant that could allow the product to be produced there and shipped to Europe. The trade barriers between Canada and Europe may not be significant, especially if the company has some degree of pricing flexibility. It is recommended therefore that production remain in Canada for the European market, unless a suitable manufacturer in one of Europe's low-cost countries can be found. It is recommended that market entry to the EU be conducted via either a local partnership for production and marketing (if producing in the EU) or via a marketing subsidiary only, with production shipped from Canada. While the former strategy will create an operating hedge, the latter strategy will expose the company to foreign exchange rate risk. This risk can be hedged, however, as the C$-€ derivatives market is fairly liquid and there are a number of types of derivatives hedges available (Harper, 2011).

Moving into the Indian market presents a different set of challenges. The Indian market has low labor costs and low costs for many other factor inputs. In addition, India has much higher trade barriers than the EU in general. This implies that local production is likely to be beneficial. The Indian market is a difficult one for Canadians to operate in. There is a high rate of corruption (Transparency International, 2010) and unique cultural and labor market conditions. This necessitates… [read more]

Nail Houses and Ghost Cities Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,855 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Political dishonesty as a matter of fact has the capability to destroying the societal, substantial as well as monetary surroundings, manufacturing it as a fundamental predicament. Pei, (2007) sees into it that dishonesty or corruption as many people call it in a way challenges the legality of the government of China, stimulates social disturbances, take part openly to the increase in socioeconomic disparity, as well as weakening of China's ecological security. Consequently, this entails that the political structure can have power over results in the said spots and that the tribulations China is at present undergoing can be determined by state exploit if China's political as well as legal enforcement structures turn out to be justifiable as well as reasonable organizations. In spite of the anti-corruption activities promoted by the government thrashes out the observation that corruption remains part of the system and by no means can it be eradicated.

Work Cited

Black, R. Hijacked by Climate Change? Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/8223611.stm 2009 Retrieved on 05/05/2011

Callan, S. & Thomas, J.M. Environmental Economics and Management: Theory, policy and applications. Andover: Cengage Learning. 2007

France24 China wealth gap widened in 2009: state media. Available at: http://www.france24.com/en/201000302-china-wealth-gap-widened-2009-state-media 2010 [Retrieved on 04/05/2011].

Lim, L. 'China's wealth gap widens to gulf'. Available at: http://news, bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/3488228.stm 2004 [Retrieved on 05/05/2011]

Matuszak, S. '1.3 billion problems for China', Anti-War. Available at: http://www.antiwar.com/matuszak/ma030802.html 2002 [Retreived on 05/05/2011].

Miller, G.T. & Spoolman, S. Living in the Environment: Principles, connections and solutions. Andover: Cengage Learning. 2008

Mufson, S. 'In China, fear of a real estate bubble', The Washington Post 11th January. Available at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/01/10/AR2010011002767.html 2010 [Retrieved on 05/05/2011].

Murray, G. & Cook, I.G. Green China: Seeking ecological alternatives. London: Routledge. 2002

Pei, M. 'Corruption threatens China's future' Carnegie Endowment Policy Brief 55, October 2007. Available at: http://www.carnegieendowment.org/publications/index.cfm?fa=view&id=19628 [Retrieved on 05/05/2011].

Veeck, G. China's Geography: Globalization and the dynamics of political, economic and social change. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. 2007

Nail houses and ghost cities Page 7… [read more]

North Korea and Nuclear Weapons Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,853 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … 2006, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) conducted a successful underground nuclear test. The successful test occurred within the context of increasing tension between North Korea, its neighbors to the south and the democratic western world. At roughly the same time, North Korea accused South Korea of stockpiling arms along their shared border for the purpose of… [read more]

Undp Report Study Human Development Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,534 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


These diseases can and do cause unnecessary death. According to photographer Marcus Bleasdale, who has documented the DRC in a short film sprinkled with his photographic work, the numbers of those dying only continue to rise, and as long as the population cannot get back on its feet, it cannot contribute to making the country better. Thus, the cycle of… [read more]

U.S. Role in Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,070 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The Korean Aid Program was a mix of aid for economic development as well as for the development of the military. Between 1953 and 1962, the U.S. gave South Korea over $2 billion dollars in economic aid and over $1 billion in military aid. However, even the military spending spurred economic development in the civilian areas. For instance, after the war many of South Korea's roads and bridges had been destroyed and needed to be rebuilt. The U.S. military aid was used in order to repair and rebuilt a large number of roads and bridges, but the companies which built them for the military were private firms, employing civilian workers. In effect, the military spurred the development of the construction industry through the building of military projects.

Much of the economic aid was delivered in the form of financial grants to banking institutions, and private companies which in many cases provided the start up capital for the development of the automobile industry, shipping and trade, banking, and a large number of other industries. The fact that the United States was able to provide such a large amount of economic and military resources also allowed for the native South Korean resources to be spent on their own economic development.

While the United States was the primary economic assistance provider for the South Koreans from the period of 1953 through 1962, the South Korean economy only grew at a modest rate. "The period of rapid growth in Korea began after 1963 when the United States economic assistance was already on the decline…' (Mason 1980, xxx) The assistance given to South Korea by the United States was essential for the development of the foundation of the South Korean economy. The U.S. provided administrative assistance, in the form of the UNKRA and Tasco missions, but also followed up with financial and military assistance in the form of the Korean Aid Program. But there was also the added benefit of the U.S. military assistance which not only provided funds for projects, which helped stimulate the creation of civilian industries, but also freed Korean economic funds for their own economic growth. However, it was not until the South Koreans took control and responsibility for their own economic development in 1963 that their economy exploded. (Oliver 1993, 283-295) While the Americans provided invaluable assistance in creating the foundations of the South Korean economy, it was the South Koreans themselves who built a massive economic structure on top of that foundation.

Works Cited

Carter, David. "The Korean war at 60 part one: origins and outbreak." Contemporary Review 292.1697 (2010): 158+. Academic OneFile. Web. 20 Apr. 2011.

Hickey, Michael. The Korean War. New York: Overlook Press, 2000. Print.

Mason, Edward S. The Economic and Social Modernization of the Republic of South Korea. Cambridge, MA: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1980. Print.

Medhurst, Martin J. "Text and Context in the 1952 Presidential Campaign: Eisenhower's 'I Shall Go to Korea' Speech." Presidential Studies Quarterly 30.3 (2000):…… [read more]

Business Communications the Purpose of the Research Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (642 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Business Communications

The purpose of the research report is to determine the business potential of the Malaysian market.

Malaysia is a modern economy, one of the Asian tigers, and the country is known for its rich cultural tapestry of Malay, Chinese, Indian and indigenous peoples.

million (43rd)


$416 billion (30th)

GDP capita

$14,700 (77th)


palm oil, petroleum, logging, manufacturing


Malay, English, Chinese & Indian languages


Muslim (60%), Buddhist (20%), Christian (9%), Hindu (6%)


Kuala Lumpur


ringgit (3.01 MYR = $1)

AUDIENCE: The target audience for this report will be the company's executives, who must decide to invest in Malaysia or not.

TOPICS to INVESTIGATE: Economic opportunities, legal/political environment, human resources, key cultural differences, key business contacts, potential barriers to entry, potential local partners, market characteristics.

METHODS and RESEARCH: Many sources including primary research. Secondary sources can include: CIA World Factbook, Geert Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions, Knol@Google, the Malaysian Industrial Development Authority, contacts at the Malaysian Embassy, books on the country such as Malaysian Economics and politics in the new century by Colin Barlow and Francis Loh. Other valuable resources are major news agencies, which run stories on specific issues relating to the country, such as Reuters. International agencies also publish profiles, including the United Nations and the IMF. Lastly, another good source is the Transparency International Global Corruption Report.

QUALIFICATIONS: The author of this report is well-qualified to do so on the basis of extensive experience in research, a global perspective, high quality writing skills and a general knowledge of the Asia-Pacific region. The author has project management experience that will allow the research to be brought in on time and under budget. In addition, the author has a strategic focus that will allow not only for current opportunities to be illuminated but future ones as well.




Create outline, background research, set out research budget, assemble staff


Economy, political, legal environment;…… [read more]

China's Role in Thailand/Cambodia Relation Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,032 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


China's Role in Thailand/Cambodia Relation

Analyze the People's Republic of China's role in the Thailand-Cambodia border dispute.

The border between Cambodia and Thailand has long been a source of conflict between the two countries; much of the recent conflict has to do with Preah Vihear, a temple constructed by the Khmer in the 11th century. Though Cambodia has had legal control of Preah Vihear -- granted by the World Court -- since 1962, the border still remains a site of turmoil for the countries. The People's Republic of China (PRC) is playing an increasingly important role in Asia. Today the PRC has taken a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council as well as other multilateral organizations and asserts its devotion to helping reduce tensions in Asia -- which includes the Cambodia-Thailand border dispute. Since the last dispute in February of 2011, China has appealed (along with several nations) for Cambodia and Thailand to solve their border dispute peacefully. The purpose of this study is to gather information from the site of the dispute and reveal what the PRC's role is in the conflict -- what measures they can take to promote peace and how strengthening bonds with Thailand may aid in finding resolution since it already has quite strong ties with Cambodia.

Background: Cambodia historical concern about potential Thai designs on its western provinces is the background to the only case in which one ASEAN state has suspended diplomatic relations with another (Weatherbee 2008). Cambodia dominated major parts of Thailand from the ninth to the twelfth centuries and the remnants of Khmer rule still can be seen on the Cambodia-Thailand border area -- especially in Esarn (Northeast Thailand). Apart from Angkor Wat and the temples around it, the most amazing Khmer sanctuaries are found in the border region between Cambodia and Thailand (St. John 1993: 4-14). Preah Vihear is considered one of the greatest achievements of Khmer architecture and one of the most awe-inspiring temples in Southeast Asia (1993: 4-14). Preah Vihear is different from most Khmer sanctuaries because it faces north rather than east. Because it faces north, it is facing the highlands that form a part of modern Thailand (St. John 1994: 64) and access to the temple is from the Thai side.

In 1953, Thailand's government, in hopes of strengthening its border, put a police post in the Dangrek Mountains -- north of Preah Vihear -- and sailed their flag over the sanctuary. When prolonged negotiations between 1954 and 1958 failed to produce any kind of positive results, the Cambodian government instituted legal proceedings in October of 1959 against Thailand before the International Court of Justice. In October of 1961, the conflict led to a suspension of diplomatic relations and the closing of the Thai-Cambodian border (St. John 1994: 64). Preah Vihear remained under Thai occupation until the early 1960s. In 1962, however, the World Court heard both Cambodia and Thailand's arguments concerning the 11th century temple and upheld Cambodian control over the temple.

After… [read more]

China the Dragon Awakes Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,018 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


China: The Dragon Awakes

The theories of economic change as applied to Japan shows that after the World War, Japan rose to become the first Asian industrial power. As of now Japan is still the biggest industrial power in Asia. From being an informal colony, Japan has in the last millennium made inroads into almost all industries with self-reliance. Looking back, the industrialization of Japan began during World War I and continued upwards with the setback of World War II. Japan has been influenced by the west ever since 1850. (Moulder, 2) Thus Japanese development was phenomenal in spite of the fact that Japan has poor natural resources. It depends on imports and exports for growth. Only 14% of the land is cultivable; it also imports agricultural products from other countries. (Hanser, 7)

At the beginning of this century before globalization, Japan was the top of the world's economic powers and its economy was the third largest in the world. From the GDP being at the seventh rank in 1945, it reached the third position by 1966. It went to the first position after the break of the U.S.S.R. It was the only country that joined the league of rich nations from Asia. (Alexander, 3)

Japan has a world wide trade presence and this was possible for it even before globalization. That is because after the Second World War, Japan had begun its own growth and industrialization that was common to all ASEAN nations. The primary dependence was on export of agrarian products. Japan had first invested in itself and built infrastructure and then went on to invest overseas. The investment in other ASEAN countries by Japanese companies allowed commerce to expand. (Chng; Hirono, et. al, 125)

Japanese expansion was possible because of the monopoly it enjoyed with countries in Asia. Not being open to the rest of the world like Japan, China, India and many other countries were limited by the governments in overseas expansions by the investors. Globalization changed all that. For example, after China entered the WTO it became mandatory for the country to allow free trade and also tariff reduction. China has however adapted antidumping actions and China has stringent quality control regulations. This from the beginning of liberalization is good for the country. (Tsai, 95)

On the other hand, the Japanese economy is dependent on raw materials and imports most raw materials from other countries and enters the market with the finished goods. Globalization has made the other countries export raw materials and goods direct to the European and U.S. markets thus competing with Japan. The advantage for countries like China is that they have developed their raw material resources, have cheap labor and are not dependent on importing from other countries. (Finn, 41)

The onslaught of these economies slowed Japan. Thus today the situation is getting changed with China becoming a contender dominating most markets and making inroads into the U.S. while U.S., and other manufactures are being made unpopular. Like wise China is… [read more]

Opportunities Does China's Rise Imply Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (811 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


The comprehensive reconciliation is the only way out of this particular quandary. Deciding between being in the favor or against China should not be the subject while involving Asia. It is required by Washington to involve each regional power at the same time in a realistic many-sided model that is depended on collaboration among countries. In order to sustain leadership in Asia, United States is required to change narrow ambitions into synergism, on the other hand, a proper checks and balances is also required to held among the regional powers of Asia. The real question thus is: how this ticklish balance can be reached? (Holslag, 2009)

Outline of the paper

The expansion in the global economic sakes of China is obliging it to enlarge its plans regarding armed forces and the purviews of the policies regarding its defense. The armed forces strength of China will surely be anticipated into remote regions slowly and gradually. The blue-water policing and incorporated distant procedures are already set by the PLA. The projection of the global security aspirations of China is strongly required by the United States (Holslag, 2009).

New ways of cooperation are still required to be determined with China, by regarding it as a collaborator instead of a challenger, keeping in view the general interests, which are most important. However, without resolving the issue of security quandaries in Asia, it would be impossible for the countries in the region to build a cooperative relationship with each other, and it is also necessary to think about other countries of South and East Asia who are afraid of any attack from their neighbor country in future and seek assistance from its partner like Pakistan looking for support from China in case of an attack from India. The comprehensive reconciliation is the only way out for Washington in order to tackle with this particular dilemma. Moreover, in order to stop China from concealing itself behind a "containment complex," this path along with proper check and balance will make China unhide its factual aims. This is the only approach to deal with future challenges successfully, and the most important; security of the world (Holslag, 2009).


Holslag, J. (2009). Embracing Chinese Global Security Ambitions.…… [read more]

Fashion Color Contact Lens Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,792 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


Fashion-Color Contact Lens

Beauty for sale

Globalization has made it possible for a multitude of cultures to interact and influence each-other, with the Western World having an increasing influence on the Eastern community and vice-versa. Asians have gradually come to be more and more appreciative in regard to Western culture, reaching a phase where they go through great efforts to… [read more]

Unrest in China? Book Report

Book Report  |  5 pages (1,409 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Historically, Confucianism and Taoism had gained a foothold; socialism would soon be tested.

The campaign (publicly) began in late 1956. In the beginning of the movement, the issues discussed were relatively minor and unimportant in the grand scheme. The Central Government did not receive much criticism, although there was a significant rise in letters of conservative advice. Premier Z. Enlai… [read more]

Singapore Transnational Issue Book Report

Book Report  |  9 pages (2,719 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


). [footnoteRef:26] [26: East and Southeast Asia: Singapore. (2011). Economy Section.]

Inflation Rate

2.6% (2010 est.). [footnoteRef:27] [27: East and Southeast Asia: Singapore. (2011). Economy Section.]

Labor Force Participation

The total number of workers participating in Singapore's labor force: 3.09 million (2010 est.)

Labor force participation by occupation and percents participating in Singapore's labor force:

Agriculture: 0%;

industry: 23.8%

services:… [read more]

Sleeping Giant Awakens China Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,645 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Sleeping Giant Awakens

China, known as the "sleeping giant," has transformed itself from a rural, pre-industrial society to an economic and political powerhouse in just a few decades. Since 1949, through the Great Patriotic Revolution led by Mao Tse-Tung, China has literally moved from a feudal economic system to one of the world's fastest growing economies in the global environment.… [read more]

China's Economy the Sustainability Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,740 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


Ekins, P., 2000. Economic growth and environmental sustainability: The prospects for green growth. London: Routledge.

Garnaut, R., & Song, L., 2004. China's third economic transformation: The rise of the private economy. New York: Routledge.

Jefferson, G.H., Hu, a., G., & Su, J., 2006. The sources and sustainability of China's economic growth. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity. 2. pp. 1-12.

Kohli, A., Moon, C.-I., & Sorensen., 2003. States, markets, and just growth: Development in the Twenty-First Century. New York: United Nations University Press.

Kong, L., 2009. Making sustainable creative/cultural space in Shanghai and Singapore. The Geographical Review, 99(1). pp. 1-27.

Krumm, K., & Kharas, H., 2004. East Asia integrates: A trade policy agenda for shared growth. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

McMahon, C.J., 2007. Mobilizing sustainable industries. Nature, Society, and Thought, 20(3/4). pp. 407-415.

Menkhoff, T., & Gerke, S., 2002. Chinese entrepreneurship and Asian business networks. London: Routledge Curzon.

Nolan, P., & Fureng, D., 2003. Sustaining China's economic growth in the Twenty-First Century. New York: Routledge Curzon.

Shen, R., 2000. China's economic reform: An experiment in pragmatic socialism. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Soubbotina, T.P., 2004. Beyond economic growth: An introduction to sustainable development. Washington, D.C.:World Bank.

Wu, B., 2003. Sustainable development in rural China: Farmer innovation and self- organisation in marginal areas. New York: Routledge Curzon.

Wu, Y., 2004. China's economic growth: A miracle with Chinese characteristics. New York: Routledge Curzon.

Yusuf, S., & Nabeshima, K., 2006. Postindustrial East Asian cities: Innovation…… [read more]

Rise of Modern Japan Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (964 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


¶ … Rise of Modern Japan

Contrary to public belief time does not progress linearly. Events do not occur one after the other (though it may seem that way). Therefore in order to understand a culture today, we must look at it in the context of yesterday. Additionally, in order to understand that culture's past, one must also examine the present and the suspected future. Only then will one have an adequate comprehension of a nation and, more importantly, that nation's people. The following selections draw from a multi-faceted approach at understanding the development of Japan as a modern world player. It examines both westerner's opinions and understandings with the interpretations by the Japanese themselves, which amongst any culture, will often differ dramatically. The views of outsiders are not always consistent with the views of natives. By synthesizing both internal and external analysis, we are better able to understand the forces that push and pull the Japanese people throughout the nation's history. It surveys the earliest of Japanese history, throughout it's growth as a feudal state, then into imperialism and the influx of the British, concluding with the 20th and 21st centuries. The inclusion of pop culture analysis as well as the analysis of the Japanese cinema-television industries allows for an investigation for the feelings and emotions of the Japanese people themselves through the film and television they choose to watch. This, beyond all other data, can often serve to best explain the true nature of the populace. Of particular note is the portrayal of Japanese society during periods of war. One will find that both the Japanese during World War Two and the American occupational forces used cinema to shape and mold the will of the Japanese populace. Additionally, investigation of the development of Yakuza crime culture shows how excessive involvement by occupational forces and the lack of opportunity for the population to govern themselves will lead to high crime rates, organized gangs, and a natural black market. Of particular note is the manner in which young Japanese -- under the age of thirty -- view their own history and seek to shape it in the future. While traditional Japanese customs do survive in some degree amongst the general population, the youngest of the Japanese seem drawn to it most in multimedia. Japanese video games often deal with issues of honor and duty to one's family in conflict with personal feelings -- giri vs. ninjo. This theme is common throughout Japanese cinema and multimedia as well as the greater Japanese society. The selections suggest a strong conflict in the role of women in Japan. Long repressed legally, even Japanese women in the 21st century are widely marginalized by Japanese males. Even women of popular culture (manga, movies, video games) are portrayed as highly sexualized, cute or innocent, or so overwhelmingly obsessed with revenge, rage, or a variety of other emotions that…… [read more]

Land of Silk Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (879 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Land of Silk [...] discuss thoughts and feelings about the chapter. The chapter tells the story of how silk is made, and some of it is very disturbing.

The chapter starts by describing the difference between unbroken silk and wild silk, and then goes on to describe the life cycle of the silkworm, the insect that creates the silk thread. The chapter then discusses the early history of silkworm culture, and how difficult it must have been in early China to transport the unhatched eggs, and yet nothing is mentioned about these issues in early texts. Then, the text talks about the reeling of the thread and how thread is formed into skeins.

The silk tradition goes back to antiquity in China, and many scholars believe that many arts and crafts in the country go back to Emperor Huangdi, (the Yellow Emperor or the Great Inventor). He invented many things, but it may have been his wife that actually invented silkworm breeding and silk clothing. Leizu, the wife, later became the goddess of the silkworm and a highly important woman in Chinese history. For centuries, the empress took care of the silkworms. There is controversy about where this ancient land was located; some believe it was in Shandong province, while others believe it was in Henan province. Archeologists have found remnants of silk that are at least 4,750 years old.

As the country grew, silkworm breeding and weaving began to develop and become perfected, it became an important commodity for China around the world, and it is still an important export today. Women and girls mostly practiced it, and it was a time consuming process. There were six areas of silk production in ancient China, and it was an important part of Chinese life. The Chinese invented many types of silk fabrics, along with dyeing and embroidery. The Chinese really had no concept of the West, but the emperor built the Great Wall about 200 BC, and the terracotta army was unearthed in 1974, buried to guard his tomb.

This was a very interesting chapter, but it was disturbing, as well. The difference between silk and wild silk is the emergency of the moth from its cocoon. In wild silk, the moth is allowed to emerge, but it breaks the continuous silk thread, so the silk is wild and broken. In silk, the moth is killed in the cocoon before it can emerge, and the fiber remains unbroken. It seems cruel that the cocoon is boiled and the moth is killed that way. Only a certain number of breeding moths are kept alive and allowed to emerge…… [read more]

Tea in Spite of Its Rather Peaceful Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (595 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



In spite of its rather peaceful nature, tea is one of the drinks that literally changed the world. There is much controversy regarding its origin, since legend tends to contradict science in determining the period when tea was first discovered. The beverage is responsible for uniting and dividing people, as they were gravely influenced by it potential. From the early ages and until the present day, tea experienced great progress and is currently wide-spread, with some countries even considering it to be a national drink. The Japanese and the English are two of the nations that are deeply passionate about tea and that have had their societies influenced by the beverage.

There is much mystery regarding the genesis of tea, given that most individuals consider that the legend involving emperor Shennong, who lived about five millennia ago. According to the legend, Shennong's passion toward hygiene influenced him in insisting that all water that he drank should be previously boiled. The emperor at some point discovered that several leaves from a plant had fallen into his water and it turned brown. Also being a dedicated scientist, Shennong drank the infusion and realized its potential, thus discovering tea (Martin, 25).

In contrast to the legend, scientists prefer to believe that tea existed long before China's early emperors. According to science, it is very probable that tea was first produced during the Paleolithic, when the Homo erectus boiled leaves with the purpose of drinking the resulting potion (Martin, 23). It was not until the second millennium that tea became widespread, first in Asia in the early centuries of the millennium, and later across the world, in the last centuries of the millennium. Although the Western World did not initially knew much regarding tea, it quickly adopted the drink and…… [read more]

Why Did the Cultural Revolution Take Place What Were Its Outcomes? Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,572 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10



Why did the Cultural Revolution take place? What were its outcomes

Cultural Revolution

Why did the Cultural Revolution take place? What were its outcomes?

The changes and developments in China's social and economic history over the past one hundred years have been dramatic. It has emerged from a period of extreme social and cultural change and revolution to become… [read more]

Vietnamese Coup Turning Points Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (692 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … turning point represented by the coup d'etat against Ngo Dinh Diem

Conditions in Vietnam were critical during the early 1960s, as the Vietnamese grew more and more impatient as regards the autocratic governance imposed by Ngo Dinh Diem. Even with that, the leaders in Washington did not consider that this threatened their authority in the region. Both Eisenhower and Kennedy were willing to support an anti-communist regime in South Vietnam, regardless of who was in charge of it. The American combat advisors sent into Vietnam were meant to provide guidance to South Vietnamese troops on the subject of guerilla warfare and how it could be fought.

While Ngo Dinh Diem was at a certain moment considered to play an essential role in maintaining the connection with Washington, matters gradually changed, to the point where Kennedy did not think much of Diem. Moreover, the American president was certain that Diem's demise would simply be followed by another individual similarly interested in maintaining good relations with the Washington government. Most of the general public shared Kennedy's thoughts in the matter, considering that the U.S.'s influence in Asia would not be disturbed by conditions in Vietnam.

The 16,000 military advisors in Vietnam were supposed to return from the territory before 1965, at the time when Diem (or any other leader coming to rule over Vietnam) would presumably establish his power. Even after Diem's death, Johnson still hoped that the United States could sustain a non-Communist government in southern Vietnam without having to fight a war in that region" (Moss 136). In contrast to the Americans, the communist Vietnamese were certain that Diem's demise (not considering the circumstances) would have a beneficial effect for their campaign, given that they considered the South Vietnamese leader to be a major impediment.

Observing that Diem's installed a corrupt government, the authorities in the U.S. did not hesitate to support South Vietnamese Generals in the coup they were preparing. Through this support, the U.S. believed that they would strengthen their relationship with Vietnam. However, the Americans failed to understand Diem's influence and…… [read more]

International Business Environment of India Spread Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,971 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20



Business Environment of India

Spread over three million square kilometers and located entirely in the northern hemisphere, India is the seventh country in the world in terms of geographical size. India's neighbors are Bangladesh and Myanmar in the east, Bhutan, China and Nepal in the north, Pakistan in the west and Sri Lanka in the south (Doing in Business… [read more]

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