"Asian History / Asia" Essays

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Best Practices Investment Promotion Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,387 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The nation has over 120,000 sq. km of farmland, which means that around 10% of the total size of the entire country is land area which can be used for agriculture (people.com.cn, 2007). In fact, when it comes to agriculture, China is able to grow a wealth of cash crops such as wheat, rice and corn, among a range of… [read more]

Business Culture and Expansion Trends Research Paper

Research Paper  |  25 pages (8,186 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 24


From the North comes Kathak, which is understood for its utilization of even more than hundered ankle bells. Odissi is among the earliest dances which likewise come from holy places with the 'devadaisis.' Odissi as well has 2 various designs within it, Abhinaya (stylized) and the Nritta (non-representational). Manipuri dance is called after the North-Eastern area of Manipur from where… [read more]

Corporate Social Responsibility in Indian Dissertation

Dissertation  |  32 pages (10,268 words)
Bibliography Sources: 30


Therefore, those who are provided with more assets have responsibility of sharing them with the deprived ones in the society. Hence, the owners of the assets are actually trustees in nature who are expected to serve the society, take from their assets as per their needs and use their property to the best interest of society. It is important to… [read more]

U.S. vs. China, Cultural Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (935 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Considering that the two countries are close neighbors, the expectation would be that there are no differences in the languages. However, Hong Kong people speak the Cantonese language. Consequently, the most popular language in the mainland is mandarin. However, some regions like Shenzhen speak Cantonese. It is also imperative to mention that the cleanliness standards of Hong Kong are extremely high in comparison to China. In fact, spitting is a serious offence in Hong Kong and is illegal under the laws of the country.

The differences between China mainland and the United States

There are vast differences in the cultures of the two countries and activities that each of them partakes. The social classes in China mainland are clearly defined. Therefore, it is hard for occurrence of a situation where people of different social classes will intermingle. In The United States, the social settings are extremely informal. This is the reason why most people will interact regardless of the social classes in which they perceive themselves to be part. Most of food in china mainland is the cuisine. People in this country are not concerned with the type of food that they eat especially if the reasons are health related. However, in The United States, people are extremely meticulous in types of foods, although most of the available food is junk. There are clear differences in the cultural differences between the two countries. In mainland China, marriage is highly discouraged at a young age. In fact, most of the marriages in the country only happen when an individual is in the late twenties. In The United States, there are cases of relaxation of these morals, and there are no fixed morals in this issue.

Reputation of a person is extremely valuable in the mainland China. Therefore, there is putting of considerable effort to avoid situations where the reputation of an individual is at stake. In most cases, whenever there is tainting of the image of an individual, the individual is under pressure to resign from whichever position that they hold. In The United States, the reputation of an individual is not of substantial importance, and the end is most necessary for the individuals. Considering that both countries are economically stable and powerful, there are differences in the manner of conducting businesses. In mainland China, there is a lot of friendliness in the business interactions. Therefore, the partners take a lot of time in acquitting well with each other before they get to the aspect of discussing business. In The United States, the business deal is more valuable than the interaction, and most of them do not go through this stage altogether. Therefore, mainland China sacrifices a lot to ensure that social relations are maintained along with the business…… [read more]

Political Science the World Politics Book Review

Book Review  |  5 pages (1,970 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


There is constant, though unspoken, attention paid to the difference between government sponsored media representations (propaganda) and the real, lived experiences of the North Korean people under his rule and/or his father's. In this way, the documentary invites the audience member, wherever he/she is from, to consider the same relationship in that country. The film also indirectly draws attention to the fact that despite the recent production (this documentary was produced in 2009) and the advent of the Internet, there is a great deal about the world that we still do not know and of which we are unaware, both good and bad. With Kim Jong-il's death in 2011, the new leader is still in the family, his brother, Kim Jong-un. Just as with his father, the public responded with grief. Beck questions it though as he writes:

"For a leader who ruled with an iron fist and had few accomplishments, images of a grief-stricken public were puzzling to most foreign observers. To what extent the tears were sincere or crocodile was the source of considerable speculation." ("North Korea in 2011," Page 66)

The future of Korea is unclear, partially because the new leader lacks experience and because the previous leader died suddenly of a massive heart attack, according to government media. The future is uncertain for North Korea also because of the existing factions in government and military that have existed since the time of Kim II Sung's latter years and death. There is no real way of telling or predicting Kim Johng-un's strategy or goals. As with most things in life, time will tell.

Using the history of the country as a reference, in addition to documentaries such as "Kimjongilia," it is certain that these kinds of actions continue by the government of North Korea, the world will play a more active role in relations and human rights. In this way, the documentary is a success. Documentaries are supposed to inform people about little known or unknown topics or review an old topic or aspect of an old topic in a new way. "Kimjongilia" blows the lid off of the secret problems and conditions in North Korea in an intriguing and engaging manner.


Beck, Peter M. "North Korea in 2011: The Next Kim Takes the Helm." Asian Survey, Vol. 52, No. 1, Pages 65 -- 71, 2012.

Jeon, Jei Guk. "North Korean Leadership: Kin Jong II's Balancing Act in the Ruling Circle." Third World Quarterly, Vol. 21, No. 5,-Page 761 -- 779, 2000.

Koh, Byung Chul. "Political Leadership in North Korea: Toward a conceptual understanding of Kim II Sung's leadership behavior." Pages 139 -- 157.

The History Channel.…… [read more]

Multicultural Psychology Japanese Culture Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (648 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


However, while talking about a proper behavior, Japanese have defined different appropriate behaviors for public, private and formal and business settings. These include gestures like maintaining a distance while standing or the manner to behave when at home (James B. 2005).

Despite being a collectivist culture and placing high value to group harmony in the Japanese culture, the concept of status and social differences are noticeable in their environment. The discipline of Multicultural Psychology views diversity to exist in every culture. However, it focuses upon the harmony with which different cultures exist and live in one society. Same is the case with Japan. Although, it does entertain the rights of minorities as seen for the number of religions being widely practiced in Japan as evident by 15,073,723 immigrant foreigners in 2005 (Immigration Bureau, 2005), the issue of racism and discrimination is widely prevalent in the society (Ritts, 2000). This can be seen by the limited opportunities given to the minorities in the field of employment, legislation, education and the access to resources or other services (Berg M, 2011).

Although collective efforts by the government, NGOs and the minorities themselves are being taken place to combat racism, discrimination still exists in Japan. If this continues, it won't qualify to fit into the standards of a proper multicultural society. Thus, there is a dire need for the government and the public of Japan to accept minorities regardless of their culture, history, religion or nationality and give treat them equal and closely similar to the citizens of Japan.


Berg M. (2011). Racism in the Modern World: Historical Perspectives on Cultural Transfer and Adaptation. Berghahn Books. USA.

James B. (2005). Asian Culture Brief: Japan, National Technical Assistance Center, Vol. 2, No. 6. Hawaii.

Immigration Bureau (2005). Statistics for Foreign Residents in Japan. Ministry of Justice. Japan Immigration Association

Ritts, V. (2000). Culture and aging. Retrieved…… [read more]

Korea Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (884 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Often these fields were used to grow poppy seeds which could then be turned into opium. This narcotic was a popular export to the western world and made the Japanese lots of money, despite the fact that the crops were on formerly private lands and were of such a harsh nature that it could damage the soil irreparably.

During the war years, Japan would enlist Korean soldiers to fight, often through coercion or sometimes by force. As a colony population, the Koreans had far less power within the nation state and thus they were considered less important than their Japanese counterparts. This lack of fairness was battle against through several attempted revolutions. One of the most famous of these was the March 1st Movement. In 1919, in response to the oppressive regime of Japanese rule as well as the seeming incongruity of the League of Nations, a faction in Korea established a movement designed to completely alter the country and allow the common population to have sovereignty.

3. Describe the situation on the Korean peninsula from 1945 to 1950 when the Korean War breaks out.

Following World War II, Korea was finally given sovereignty and a chance to create a government more or less for and by the population. However, tensions were high from the outset. Many people within the country wanted to create a governmental format completely different from what they had experienced under Japanese rule. Influenced by the large country of China, a group within Korea believed that the best form of government for the newly freed country should be Communism. Another group however wanted a form of democracy similar to those they had witnessed from their interactions with western nations like the United States, England, and France. With neither side willing to compromise, it was only a matter of time before a schism would break the nation in two. That is exactly what happened in 1950 when the country of Korea was divided into two: North Korea which was controlled by a Communist government, and South Korea which was more democratic than its northern counterpart. This was not a suitable resolution to the distress of the warring nation and what happened was a bloody police action involving many countries of the world who each had their own individual reasons for helping. Communist countries such as China provided support for North Korea in the form of weapons and other supplies. Much of the free world, such as the United States, England, and France gave equal support to South Korea, hoping that by providing this aid the west would be…… [read more]

Low Cost Airline in Thailand Thesis

Thesis  |  40 pages (11,802 words)
Bibliography Sources: 40


One now needs a BA to be Member of Parliament, setting up a whole new arena for potential corruption. Ironically, it was the military that forced political reform to proceed, easing public tensions and siding with a popular cause against an 'unusually corrupt' and incompetent government. For example, 123 members of the Thai parliament received envelopes containing fifty 1000 baht… [read more]

European Exploration the World Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,821 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


First a civil war raged across the country, then decades of Communist rule, which included modernization programs such as the "Great Leap Forward," did little to actually modernize China. It was not until the 1970's that China made a serious effort to industrialize and modernize which began to show real advances. The result was that it was not until the… [read more]

Political Economy Background: Japan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (924 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In the wake of the Cold War, Japan was brought into a kind of strategic balance of power between China and the United States. It was only after this period that Japan actually gained a strategic advantage in international politics. Emerging from the ashes of defeat, Japan had by this time reconstructed itself into an economic power, making use of the favourable external environment that was now available through American support and assistance, and pre-war industrial knowledge and experience.

As for Korea, the external environment was favourable but the internal that is the domestic situation was at polarity. Following the war in Korea, the Korean peninsula was divided along the 38th parallel into North and South Korea, between the communist North with the help of China on the one side and the non-communist South, backed by the Allied forces led by America on the other (Murphy, 2000). This created polarity in one country with China and the States always at loggerheads. The country hence was divided between the two caretakers. Further China was seen as the source of the red menace in Asia, as it was believed to be the major supporter of communist revolts in many parts of Southeast Asia from the 1950s to the 1970s. Its direct involvement in the Korean War led Washington to deploy the U.S. 7th Fleet in the Taiwan Straits in defense of Taiwan (Tarling, 1998). It was in such an environment that Korea existed between the two hostile extremes. It was the Cold War that really proved to be favorable for Korea in the realm of economics and international relations. To help the non-communist nations of the region, which also included Korea stand up to the communist challenge, America provided various categories of foreign aid, access to its markets and transfer of technology. It was essentially American support for Korea as a Cold War ally that enabled it to become one of the economic power centers in not only the Southeast Asia region, also the wider Asia-Pacific. This stood true for so long that only during the Asian crisis did the Korean economy was beset with problems of over-reach and corruption and recession since after the War ended.

In conclusion, it can be seen that Japan and Korea faced a favourable, international environment in the post-war period, only after some time had elapsed after the Second World War. However it is true that both countries gained internationally strategic positions once they had established close alliances with the United States during the Cold War.


Borthwick, Mark. Pacific Century. The emergence of Modern Pacific Asia (Boulder, Westview Press, 1992).

Murphey, Rhoads. A History of Asia, 3rd edn.(New York, Longman, 2000).

Tarling, Nicholas. Nations and States in Southeast…… [read more]

History of Kim Jong Il Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,105 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The National Defense Commission is a group of 10 men that includes leaders of the air force, army and navy, who are "now considered the most powerful in the country," says Clark. (CNN)

Kim Jong Il introduced his "Red Banner" policy in 1996. Changes in policy began in 1997 when Hwang Jang Yop defected. Hwang Jang Yop was the "architect" of the juche philosophy not to mention the first high-level official to seek asylum in South Korea. Clark reports that Hwang described Kim Jong Il as a "strong willed dictator who is short-tempered and ruthless when it comes to punishing anyone who questions his policies" (CNN).

Cumings quotes Roberto Unger as describing the political structure of North Korea by distinguishing between an inner and outer circle. The inner circle "represents power and dominion, exercised everywhere by the few. The outer circle includes all the rest, and their search for community, decency, and participation through the architecture of politics" (Cumings 432). This problem of the inner and outer circles has never been resolved. In fact, he goes on to say the "Kim family nucleus" is the critical problem with North Korea. (432)

If Kim Sung Il demanded devotion, his son, Kim Jong Il did more so.

In one of his tracts, Cumings finds this statement, which sums up his feelings:

The parental organizations of man's socio-political integrity is the social community... The Korean Communists were united firmly in one socio-political organism around the revolutionary leadership and set the pattern for close ties of kinship based on the collectivism between the revolutionary ranks and the people. (Cumings 413)

Cumings refers to this type of leadership as "Neo-Confucianism in a communist bottle" (Cumings 413). Indeed, many others agree with Cumings.

Some see Kim Jong Il as a "clever manipulator, willing to take great risks to underpin his regime" (BBC). In fact, it is easy for some to demonize Kim Jong Il, reports CNN. He spends an estimated 25% of his North Korea's GNP on the military while people in his country are hungry. However, according to Han S. Park of the Center for Study of Global Issues, North Korea is basically shut off from the rest of the world and therefore views Kim Jong Il is viewed "positively by most people" (CNN). Park goes on to say, "The level of reverence for Kim Jong Il in North Korea is quite underestimated by the outside... he is regarded by many as not only a superior leader but a decent person, a man of high morality. Whether that's accurate is not important if you want to deal with North Korea. You have to understand their belief system. Perception is reality" (CNN).

In conclusion, the life of Kim Jong Il has remained as mysterious as the regard of those who live in his country. His life and the challenges of his military will prove to be a challenge from any perspective.

Works Cited

Carol Clark. "Kim Jong Il: 'Dear Leader' or Demon?" CNN Online. 2000. Site… [read more]

English Colonialism the Argument Surrounding Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,665 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


During the American Revolution Cornwallis served with distinction. He was responsible for several victories. Eventually the war became non-tenable for the British forces. Cornwallis surrendered on Oct. 19, 1781. He was posted to India as Governor-General and died there at Ghazipur on Oct. 5, 1805. Cornwallis was a soldier and probably is revered in Britain. Not so in the United… [read more]

Japan Pop! Popular Idol Analysis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (585 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Performers aspire to reflect the concerns and dreams of their audiences, and offer a model of attractive lifestyles and strong, popular friendships (Aoyagi, 326).

Popular idols in western cultures typically project images that exonerate the ideals exemplified in the phrase "the squeaky wheel gets the grease." American popular idols use whatever means necessary to gain fame and fortune. They relate to the community in the sense that they often follow popular trends and styles; however, most are also interested in pursuing personal interests that promote personal gain and success. Slick advertising, promotions and marketing campaigns often are the key to success for many American popular idols. Their success has less to do with their ability to relate to the community, and perhaps more to do with their ability to market themselves and enmesh themselves with popular themes at the time they are performing.

American popular idols are more concerned with exonerating individualism and expressing their personal causes and feelings. American popular idols are more often judged for their abilities and talents as performers, actors and entertainers. From a different perspective, Japanese idols are more concerned with building a sense of camaraderie and community.

Japanese performers more often reflect the needs, trends and feelings that are ingrained within the community. Japanese idols are often not necessarily the most talented performers, but rather those individuals who possess the ability to most fervently connect with community members. American popular idols might benefit from examining the Japanese popular culture, and aspiring to connect more with citizens and community members.


Aoyagi, Hiroshi. "Pop Idols and the Asian Identity." From, Japan Pop! Inside the world of Japanese Popular Culture.

Craig, Timothy J. "Japan Pop! Inside the world of Japanese popular culture." M.E.…… [read more]

Lost Identity of Hong Kong Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,958 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Hence, China can do or undo any rules and promises it previously made to the Hong Kongers. China can very easily use its legal documents and texts to justify its actions. Leaders worldwide have now begun to show their concern over the media change in Hong Kong. It is highly essential for Hong Kong to maintain its media identity since… [read more]

20Th Century, a New Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,084 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Easy communications between Europe and colonialist outposts allowed European powers to better manage men, weapons, supplies and strategy.

Taken together, the mass of technologies developed and adapted by colonialist powers played a large role in the success of the new imperialism. Medicines like quinine allowed Europeans access to previously unapproachable areas of Asia and Africa, while modern weaponry almost ensured the defeat of indigenous peoples. Together, these technologies provided Europe with the opportunity to successfully conquer large portions of the globe in the 19th century.

New technologies also enabled trade, which in turn played an important role in the success of new imperialism.

For example, steam-powered railroads and other technologies allowed for an increase in opium trade with China. This opium trade was highly profitable for England, with opium creating a market where users would pay almost any price for a continual supply (Mark).

In India, England flooded the colony with cheap manufactured cotton and jute, thus putting local industries out of business. It was the new technology of the railroad that allowed England the capability to move large amounts of manufactured goods to the subcontinent. This technology enabled England to export raw materials such as jute from India, and later sell them back to India at a tremendous profit. Many Indians suffered from unemployment and poverty as a result (Mark).

Interestingly, the success of the new imperialism acted to further fuel nationalist tendencies and motivations within Europe. As England successfully colonized Africa and India, England's self-perception of itself as the dominant power in the world grew increasingly with each clear success. The success of England in its colonization of the world thus created a self-fulfilling belief that England was destined to oversee the rest of the world. Further, the drought, famine and poverty that were commonly seen in India (and largely exacerbated by British rule) led England to see itself as superior to the Indian people. Similar situations occurred in China and Africa, as the European powers' dominion over these lands reinforced European nationalist motivations (Mark).

In conclusion, the interaction and mutual reinforcement of technological innovations, nationalist motivations, and new imperialism created an entirely new global system by the beginning of the early 20th century. During this time, European powers controlled large portions of the world's landmass, including China, India, and Africa. The root driving force of this explosion in colonialism can be found in the nationalistic motivations of European nations, who desired to affirm the supremacy of their countries through expansion and domination. This nationalistic motivation has existed for a significant amount of time before the new imperialism saw European powers control most of the globe. Ultimately, the success of new imperialism can be traced to the development and adaptation of new technologies like quinine, steel-hulled gunboats, breech-loading rifles, railroads, ad the telegraph. These technologies allowed European powers unprecedented access to India, China, and Africa, thus providing the means for the advent of the new imperialism. In turn, the success of the new imperialism reaffirmed the colonialist belief… [read more]

China on Hong Kong Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,315 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Far Eastern Economic Review, a storied regional voice of press freedom and a pillar of Hong Kong's media industry since its 1946 founding, halted weekly production on Thursday to go monthly with the loss of 80 jobs.

Despite headlines to the contrary, overall luxury property prices are not yet matching the record levels last seen in 1997, market analysts… [read more]

Slumdog Millionaire the 2008 British Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,156 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Slumdog Millionaire

The 2008 British film Slumdog Millionaire became a worldwide hit, earning a slew of awards and nominations as well as mainstream critical acclaim in the United States. Danny Boyle's movie is an adaptation of a novel called Q&A by Vikas Swarup. Slumdog Millionaire is a rags-to-riches coming of age story of a poor street urchin who, though a… [read more]

In the South China Sea Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,236 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The relations that govern this conflict are by no means limited to simplistic realist oil interests.

Complicating Issues and Possible Solutions

There are a number of different complicating issues. Certainly, the social construct issues identified above complicate things -- given the history between China and Japan it is entirely unlikely that China can back down without being humiliated. The United… [read more]

Relationship Between South Korea and United States Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,602 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The two countries worked together with the aim of combating the regional and global threats that enabled them to strengthen their economies. Generally, the United States on the other hand, managed to maintain their Army, Air Force, Navy, and Marine personnel who were in South Korea in the support of their commitment to the United States' relation with the ROK. Mutual Defense Treaty was formed to help the South Korea to defend them against the various external aggressions. Last year, the United States and South Korea marked their 60th anniversary of their alliance (France-Presse, 2013). Conversely, it was evident that a Combined Forces Command contributed to the coordination operations between the U.S. units as well as, the South Korean armed forces. As, a result, the United States and South Korea were able to coordinate closely on the nuclear issue of North Korean. Due to the development of South Korea's economy has developed, trade and investment ties as well have become an increasingly significant aspect of the U.S. And South Korea relationship.


France-Presse, A. (2013). North Korea attacks 'master-servant' relationship between U.S. And South Korea. The Telegraph. Retrieved July 18, 2014, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/northkorea/10048136/North-Korea-attacks-master-servant-relationship-between-U.S.-and-South-Korea.html

Lee, Y. (2011). The U.S.-South Korea Alliance. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved July 18, 2014, from http://www.cfr.org/south-korea/us-south-korea-alliance/p11459

Power, J. (2007). The Relevance of the South Korea-U.S. Alliance. The Diplomat. Retrieved July 18, 2014, from http://thediplomat.com/2014/04/the-relevance-of-the-south-korea-us-alliance/

U.S. Relations With South Korea. (2014, January 31). U.S. Department of State. Retrieved July 15, 2014, from http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2800.htm

Weitz, R. (2012). From Allies to Partners: South Korea and the United States. From Allies to Partners: South Korea and the United States. Retrieved July 18, 2014, from http://www.worldpoliticsreview.com/articles/13080/from-allies-to-partners-south-korea-and-the-united-states… [read more]

Comparing Two Stories Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,949 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Japanese militarism intensified in the decade of the 1930's a mood of deepening crisis swept over the Korean people."

Lee states here the dire sentiment that characterized Korea during Japanese imperialism from 1910 to 1945. Nahm says, "The Korean people, their land, and natural resources were ruthlessly exploited by the Japanese capitalists."

Much of this exploitation was in… [read more]

Korean Culture and Business Relations Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,333 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Korean Culture and Business Relations

Today, the "Land of the Morning Calm" is anything but calm. Indeed, South Korea is booming economically and the southern half of the divided Koreas has emerged from the devastation of the 20th century to become one of the so-called "Asian tigers" that is dominating the global economy. Despite the tensions that exist between the divided Korean states, South Korea enjoys favorable relations with many of its neighbors as well as the international community and an increasing number of transnational corporations are seeking to establish strategic alliances with South Korean companies. Although the Korean people are generous and friendly and foreigners can expect to be warmly received, there are some important cultural practices that must be observed in order to establish and sustain effective business relations in the country. This paper provides a review of the relevant literature to identify the cultural practices that affect business relations in South Korea, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

By any measure, the Korean people have witnessed their fair share of strife and violence over the years and these experiences have manifested themselves in the country's culture. According to Austin (2007), "The business culture of Korea is a fascinating subject. It is representative of North Asian culture norms but has also been forged and tempered over the fiery anvil of the country's history" (p. 7). Although the Korean people can trace their ancestry back thousands of years during which they jousted with first one invader then another, modern South Koreans have been primarily preoccupied with their nuclear neighbor to the north. In this regard, Villegas (2006) reports that, "Korea was born on the frontlines of the Cold War and throughout its existence has conducted its domestic politics within the looming shadow of a reclusive and potentially dangerous North Korea" (p. 37). Traditional Korean culture therefore has a powerful influence on Korean businesses and as a result of the country's cruel subjugation by the Japanese during the early 20th century, a strong desire to win has become evident among many Korean businesspeople today (Austin, 2007). This strong desire to win has been translated into the highest rate of export growth among the top 20 exporting nations of the world and the third strongest economy after Japan and China (Lee, 2005).

Notwithstanding this strong desire to win and achieve, the pace of business itself is somewhat slower than in the West and foreigners should be prepared to invest the time and effort needed to forge lasting relationships with their Korean business contacts before enjoying significant levels of success. In this regard, Austin emphasizes that, "Strong relationships are fundamental for business success in Korea. Building such bonds takes time and cannot be achieved in a single visit; you must be prepared to invest in the relationship to make it work" (p. 8). The South Korean people have also been highly influenced by the forces of globalization, especially in the major metropolitan… [read more]

Effects of Slavophilic Russian Ideas vs. The Modern World Globalization Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (4,190 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Slavophilic Russian Ideas vs. The Modern World/Globalization

The effects of Slavophilic Russian Ideas vs. The Modern World/Globalizatio

An Overview of Russia


According to Russia Travel Guide, Russia is the largest country in the world by far; spanning nine time zones, its territory covers nearly twice as much of the earth as that of the next largest country,… [read more]

Business Role of China as Emerging Manufacturing Superpower Pros and Cons of Production Outsourcing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,168 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Business Role of China as Emerging Manufacturing Superpower

China is fast emerging as a world superpower due to the roles taken in becoming a major source of the outsourcing sector. China, with its weakened economic state of previous years, has now become a major part of the world's economy with the amount of outsourcing work that they have acquired. While… [read more]

China's Role in Thailand/Cambodia Relation Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,032 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


China's Role in Thailand/Cambodia Relation

Analyze the People's Republic of China's role in the Thailand-Cambodia border dispute.

The border between Cambodia and Thailand has long been a source of conflict between the two countries; much of the recent conflict has to do with Preah Vihear, a temple constructed by the Khmer in the 11th century. Though Cambodia has had legal control of Preah Vihear -- granted by the World Court -- since 1962, the border still remains a site of turmoil for the countries. The People's Republic of China (PRC) is playing an increasingly important role in Asia. Today the PRC has taken a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council as well as other multilateral organizations and asserts its devotion to helping reduce tensions in Asia -- which includes the Cambodia-Thailand border dispute. Since the last dispute in February of 2011, China has appealed (along with several nations) for Cambodia and Thailand to solve their border dispute peacefully. The purpose of this study is to gather information from the site of the dispute and reveal what the PRC's role is in the conflict -- what measures they can take to promote peace and how strengthening bonds with Thailand may aid in finding resolution since it already has quite strong ties with Cambodia.

Background: Cambodia historical concern about potential Thai designs on its western provinces is the background to the only case in which one ASEAN state has suspended diplomatic relations with another (Weatherbee 2008). Cambodia dominated major parts of Thailand from the ninth to the twelfth centuries and the remnants of Khmer rule still can be seen on the Cambodia-Thailand border area -- especially in Esarn (Northeast Thailand). Apart from Angkor Wat and the temples around it, the most amazing Khmer sanctuaries are found in the border region between Cambodia and Thailand (St. John 1993: 4-14). Preah Vihear is considered one of the greatest achievements of Khmer architecture and one of the most awe-inspiring temples in Southeast Asia (1993: 4-14). Preah Vihear is different from most Khmer sanctuaries because it faces north rather than east. Because it faces north, it is facing the highlands that form a part of modern Thailand (St. John 1994: 64) and access to the temple is from the Thai side.

In 1953, Thailand's government, in hopes of strengthening its border, put a police post in the Dangrek Mountains -- north of Preah Vihear -- and sailed their flag over the sanctuary. When prolonged negotiations between 1954 and 1958 failed to produce any kind of positive results, the Cambodian government instituted legal proceedings in October of 1959 against Thailand before the International Court of Justice. In October of 1961, the conflict led to a suspension of diplomatic relations and the closing of the Thai-Cambodian border (St. John 1994: 64). Preah Vihear remained under Thai occupation until the early 1960s. In 1962, however, the World Court heard both Cambodia and Thailand's arguments concerning the 11th century temple and upheld Cambodian control over the temple.

After… [read more]

China the Dragon Awakes Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,018 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


China: The Dragon Awakes

The theories of economic change as applied to Japan shows that after the World War, Japan rose to become the first Asian industrial power. As of now Japan is still the biggest industrial power in Asia. From being an informal colony, Japan has in the last millennium made inroads into almost all industries with self-reliance. Looking back, the industrialization of Japan began during World War I and continued upwards with the setback of World War II. Japan has been influenced by the west ever since 1850. (Moulder, 2) Thus Japanese development was phenomenal in spite of the fact that Japan has poor natural resources. It depends on imports and exports for growth. Only 14% of the land is cultivable; it also imports agricultural products from other countries. (Hanser, 7)

At the beginning of this century before globalization, Japan was the top of the world's economic powers and its economy was the third largest in the world. From the GDP being at the seventh rank in 1945, it reached the third position by 1966. It went to the first position after the break of the U.S.S.R. It was the only country that joined the league of rich nations from Asia. (Alexander, 3)

Japan has a world wide trade presence and this was possible for it even before globalization. That is because after the Second World War, Japan had begun its own growth and industrialization that was common to all ASEAN nations. The primary dependence was on export of agrarian products. Japan had first invested in itself and built infrastructure and then went on to invest overseas. The investment in other ASEAN countries by Japanese companies allowed commerce to expand. (Chng; Hirono, et. al, 125)

Japanese expansion was possible because of the monopoly it enjoyed with countries in Asia. Not being open to the rest of the world like Japan, China, India and many other countries were limited by the governments in overseas expansions by the investors. Globalization changed all that. For example, after China entered the WTO it became mandatory for the country to allow free trade and also tariff reduction. China has however adapted antidumping actions and China has stringent quality control regulations. This from the beginning of liberalization is good for the country. (Tsai, 95)

On the other hand, the Japanese economy is dependent on raw materials and imports most raw materials from other countries and enters the market with the finished goods. Globalization has made the other countries export raw materials and goods direct to the European and U.S. markets thus competing with Japan. The advantage for countries like China is that they have developed their raw material resources, have cheap labor and are not dependent on importing from other countries. (Finn, 41)

The onslaught of these economies slowed Japan. Thus today the situation is getting changed with China becoming a contender dominating most markets and making inroads into the U.S. while U.S., and other manufactures are being made unpopular. Like wise China is… [read more]

Fashion Color Contact Lens Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,792 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


Fashion-Color Contact Lens

Beauty for sale

Globalization has made it possible for a multitude of cultures to interact and influence each-other, with the Western World having an increasing influence on the Eastern community and vice-versa. Asians have gradually come to be more and more appreciative in regard to Western culture, reaching a phase where they go through great efforts to… [read more]

Rise of Modern Japan Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (964 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


¶ … Rise of Modern Japan

Contrary to public belief time does not progress linearly. Events do not occur one after the other (though it may seem that way). Therefore in order to understand a culture today, we must look at it in the context of yesterday. Additionally, in order to understand that culture's past, one must also examine the present and the suspected future. Only then will one have an adequate comprehension of a nation and, more importantly, that nation's people. The following selections draw from a multi-faceted approach at understanding the development of Japan as a modern world player. It examines both westerner's opinions and understandings with the interpretations by the Japanese themselves, which amongst any culture, will often differ dramatically. The views of outsiders are not always consistent with the views of natives. By synthesizing both internal and external analysis, we are better able to understand the forces that push and pull the Japanese people throughout the nation's history. It surveys the earliest of Japanese history, throughout it's growth as a feudal state, then into imperialism and the influx of the British, concluding with the 20th and 21st centuries. The inclusion of pop culture analysis as well as the analysis of the Japanese cinema-television industries allows for an investigation for the feelings and emotions of the Japanese people themselves through the film and television they choose to watch. This, beyond all other data, can often serve to best explain the true nature of the populace. Of particular note is the portrayal of Japanese society during periods of war. One will find that both the Japanese during World War Two and the American occupational forces used cinema to shape and mold the will of the Japanese populace. Additionally, investigation of the development of Yakuza crime culture shows how excessive involvement by occupational forces and the lack of opportunity for the population to govern themselves will lead to high crime rates, organized gangs, and a natural black market. Of particular note is the manner in which young Japanese -- under the age of thirty -- view their own history and seek to shape it in the future. While traditional Japanese customs do survive in some degree amongst the general population, the youngest of the Japanese seem drawn to it most in multimedia. Japanese video games often deal with issues of honor and duty to one's family in conflict with personal feelings -- giri vs. ninjo. This theme is common throughout Japanese cinema and multimedia as well as the greater Japanese society. The selections suggest a strong conflict in the role of women in Japan. Long repressed legally, even Japanese women in the 21st century are widely marginalized by Japanese males. Even women of popular culture (manga, movies, video games) are portrayed as highly sexualized, cute or innocent, or so overwhelmingly obsessed with revenge, rage, or a variety of other emotions that…… [read more]

Sleeping Giant Awakens China Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,645 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Sleeping Giant Awakens

China, known as the "sleeping giant," has transformed itself from a rural, pre-industrial society to an economic and political powerhouse in just a few decades. Since 1949, through the Great Patriotic Revolution led by Mao Tse-Tung, China has literally moved from a feudal economic system to one of the world's fastest growing economies in the global environment.… [read more]

Land of Silk Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (879 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Land of Silk [...] discuss thoughts and feelings about the chapter. The chapter tells the story of how silk is made, and some of it is very disturbing.

The chapter starts by describing the difference between unbroken silk and wild silk, and then goes on to describe the life cycle of the silkworm, the insect that creates the silk thread. The chapter then discusses the early history of silkworm culture, and how difficult it must have been in early China to transport the unhatched eggs, and yet nothing is mentioned about these issues in early texts. Then, the text talks about the reeling of the thread and how thread is formed into skeins.

The silk tradition goes back to antiquity in China, and many scholars believe that many arts and crafts in the country go back to Emperor Huangdi, (the Yellow Emperor or the Great Inventor). He invented many things, but it may have been his wife that actually invented silkworm breeding and silk clothing. Leizu, the wife, later became the goddess of the silkworm and a highly important woman in Chinese history. For centuries, the empress took care of the silkworms. There is controversy about where this ancient land was located; some believe it was in Shandong province, while others believe it was in Henan province. Archeologists have found remnants of silk that are at least 4,750 years old.

As the country grew, silkworm breeding and weaving began to develop and become perfected, it became an important commodity for China around the world, and it is still an important export today. Women and girls mostly practiced it, and it was a time consuming process. There were six areas of silk production in ancient China, and it was an important part of Chinese life. The Chinese invented many types of silk fabrics, along with dyeing and embroidery. The Chinese really had no concept of the West, but the emperor built the Great Wall about 200 BC, and the terracotta army was unearthed in 1974, buried to guard his tomb.

This was a very interesting chapter, but it was disturbing, as well. The difference between silk and wild silk is the emergency of the moth from its cocoon. In wild silk, the moth is allowed to emerge, but it breaks the continuous silk thread, so the silk is wild and broken. In silk, the moth is killed in the cocoon before it can emerge, and the fiber remains unbroken. It seems cruel that the cocoon is boiled and the moth is killed that way. Only a certain number of breeding moths are kept alive and allowed to emerge…… [read more]

Tea in Spite of Its Rather Peaceful Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (595 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



In spite of its rather peaceful nature, tea is one of the drinks that literally changed the world. There is much controversy regarding its origin, since legend tends to contradict science in determining the period when tea was first discovered. The beverage is responsible for uniting and dividing people, as they were gravely influenced by it potential. From the early ages and until the present day, tea experienced great progress and is currently wide-spread, with some countries even considering it to be a national drink. The Japanese and the English are two of the nations that are deeply passionate about tea and that have had their societies influenced by the beverage.

There is much mystery regarding the genesis of tea, given that most individuals consider that the legend involving emperor Shennong, who lived about five millennia ago. According to the legend, Shennong's passion toward hygiene influenced him in insisting that all water that he drank should be previously boiled. The emperor at some point discovered that several leaves from a plant had fallen into his water and it turned brown. Also being a dedicated scientist, Shennong drank the infusion and realized its potential, thus discovering tea (Martin, 25).

In contrast to the legend, scientists prefer to believe that tea existed long before China's early emperors. According to science, it is very probable that tea was first produced during the Paleolithic, when the Homo erectus boiled leaves with the purpose of drinking the resulting potion (Martin, 23). It was not until the second millennium that tea became widespread, first in Asia in the early centuries of the millennium, and later across the world, in the last centuries of the millennium. Although the Western World did not initially knew much regarding tea, it quickly adopted the drink and…… [read more]

Why Did the Cultural Revolution Take Place What Were Its Outcomes? Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,572 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10



Why did the Cultural Revolution take place? What were its outcomes

Cultural Revolution

Why did the Cultural Revolution take place? What were its outcomes?

The changes and developments in China's social and economic history over the past one hundred years have been dramatic. It has emerged from a period of extreme social and cultural change and revolution to become… [read more]

Vietnamese Coup Turning Points Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (692 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … turning point represented by the coup d'etat against Ngo Dinh Diem

Conditions in Vietnam were critical during the early 1960s, as the Vietnamese grew more and more impatient as regards the autocratic governance imposed by Ngo Dinh Diem. Even with that, the leaders in Washington did not consider that this threatened their authority in the region. Both Eisenhower and Kennedy were willing to support an anti-communist regime in South Vietnam, regardless of who was in charge of it. The American combat advisors sent into Vietnam were meant to provide guidance to South Vietnamese troops on the subject of guerilla warfare and how it could be fought.

While Ngo Dinh Diem was at a certain moment considered to play an essential role in maintaining the connection with Washington, matters gradually changed, to the point where Kennedy did not think much of Diem. Moreover, the American president was certain that Diem's demise would simply be followed by another individual similarly interested in maintaining good relations with the Washington government. Most of the general public shared Kennedy's thoughts in the matter, considering that the U.S.'s influence in Asia would not be disturbed by conditions in Vietnam.

The 16,000 military advisors in Vietnam were supposed to return from the territory before 1965, at the time when Diem (or any other leader coming to rule over Vietnam) would presumably establish his power. Even after Diem's death, Johnson still hoped that the United States could sustain a non-Communist government in southern Vietnam without having to fight a war in that region" (Moss 136). In contrast to the Americans, the communist Vietnamese were certain that Diem's demise (not considering the circumstances) would have a beneficial effect for their campaign, given that they considered the South Vietnamese leader to be a major impediment.

Observing that Diem's installed a corrupt government, the authorities in the U.S. did not hesitate to support South Vietnamese Generals in the coup they were preparing. Through this support, the U.S. believed that they would strengthen their relationship with Vietnam. However, the Americans failed to understand Diem's influence and…… [read more]

International Business Environment of India Spread Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,971 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20



Business Environment of India

Spread over three million square kilometers and located entirely in the northern hemisphere, India is the seventh country in the world in terms of geographical size. India's neighbors are Bangladesh and Myanmar in the east, Bhutan, China and Nepal in the north, Pakistan in the west and Sri Lanka in the south (Doing in Business… [read more]

Best Export Strategy to Expand Highest Quality Table Wines to India Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,137 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


Export Strategy

Expansion of Highest Quality Table Wines to India

India: Business, Economy and Trade Policy.

Many Indian businesses "Look East" toward ASEAN, the Association of South East Asian Nations. They believe that in the long-term the ASEAN countries will offer better opportunities than the West (Maizels, 2000. PG 12).

Until quite recently ASEAN countries looked askance at India, even… [read more]

China vs. ASEAN in the South China Sea Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,353 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


China and U.S. Naval Competition

China's New Growing and Aggressive Navy: Friend of Foe?

The spurn in the development of the Chinese Navy, over the last ten years, as well as Chinese activities in the South China Sea has created cause for concern in many areas. The diplomatic, trade and military arenas in the U.S., the traditional watchdog of the… [read more]

Caste in Contemporary India Book Report

Book Report  |  6 pages (1,668 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Indian Caste

An Ethnography of the Caste System and Modernization in India

Among societies in Central Asia, few has intercoursed so thoroughly and peaceably with the developed and western worlds as India. Following its hard-fought emergence from British occupation in the early 20th century, India would experience both rapid ascension with regard to its philosophical, scientific and economic contributions to… [read more]

Business Communications the Purpose of the Research Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (642 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Business Communications

The purpose of the research report is to determine the business potential of the Malaysian market.

Malaysia is a modern economy, one of the Asian tigers, and the country is known for its rich cultural tapestry of Malay, Chinese, Indian and indigenous peoples.

million (43rd)


$416 billion (30th)

GDP capita

$14,700 (77th)


palm oil, petroleum, logging, manufacturing


Malay, English, Chinese & Indian languages


Muslim (60%), Buddhist (20%), Christian (9%), Hindu (6%)


Kuala Lumpur


ringgit (3.01 MYR = $1)

AUDIENCE: The target audience for this report will be the company's executives, who must decide to invest in Malaysia or not.

TOPICS to INVESTIGATE: Economic opportunities, legal/political environment, human resources, key cultural differences, key business contacts, potential barriers to entry, potential local partners, market characteristics.

METHODS and RESEARCH: Many sources including primary research. Secondary sources can include: CIA World Factbook, Geert Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions, Knol@Google, the Malaysian Industrial Development Authority, contacts at the Malaysian Embassy, books on the country such as Malaysian Economics and politics in the new century by Colin Barlow and Francis Loh. Other valuable resources are major news agencies, which run stories on specific issues relating to the country, such as Reuters. International agencies also publish profiles, including the United Nations and the IMF. Lastly, another good source is the Transparency International Global Corruption Report.

QUALIFICATIONS: The author of this report is well-qualified to do so on the basis of extensive experience in research, a global perspective, high quality writing skills and a general knowledge of the Asia-Pacific region. The author has project management experience that will allow the research to be brought in on time and under budget. In addition, the author has a strategic focus that will allow not only for current opportunities to be illuminated but future ones as well.




Create outline, background research, set out research budget, assemble staff


Economy, political, legal environment;…… [read more]

Textile Museum Opening, Mumbai India Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (704 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Textile Museum Opening, Mumbai

India is known for a number of traditional handicrafts and especially for rich textiles. Any visitor to the country is struck by the plethora of saree and fabric-by-the-yard stores lining city streets. The history of Indian textiles is also fascinating from a cultural perspective, even for those otherwise uninspired by fabrics. In Mumbai, a new textile museum is set to open on a plot of four acres near the Kohinoor mills. The museum will focus on the history of textiles in Maharashtra province. A Times of India article recently covered the proposed museum, which is still in its planning stages. I would like to propose a piece that covers both the opening of the new textile museum in Mumbai while comparing it to others in the country. A story on this museum, which has not yet open, will inspire tourism and is therefore an excellent means of attracting and retaining travel-related sponsors. Moreover, covering the museum opening will be relatively easy given that the government is one of the sponsors. Acquiring official information about the museum will involve simple interviews on telephone that we can conduct from our home office. However, traveling to Mumbai will offer an in-depth preview of what the museum offers visitors. We can take a small crew to the museum site as well as the textile mills surrounding it. The initial article will doubtlessly inspire opportunities to investigate deeper issues such as economics and ethics of the textile industry in India.

2. Religious Practices: Firewalking Children

Inspired by a recent CNN article entitled "Indian school kids walk barefoot on fire," I thought it would be interesting to cover this and possibly a few other religious practices. It is feasible to combine a trip to Mumbai with coverage of this event in New Delhi. As domestic flights in India are inexpensive, our small crew shall have little difficulty traversing the distance between Mumbai and New Delhi. Moreover, we will not delve too deeply but simply provide readers with a fun and colorful snapshot of the phenomena. Because India is replete with fascinating religious practices like…… [read more]

North Korea and Nuclear Weapons Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,853 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … 2006, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) conducted a successful underground nuclear test. The successful test occurred within the context of increasing tension between North Korea, its neighbors to the south and the democratic western world. At roughly the same time, North Korea accused South Korea of stockpiling arms along their shared border for the purpose of… [read more]

India Burma and China Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (989 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


India, Burma and China

During 1850-1870, the histories of India, Burma and China became intertwined in a few different ways. Lower Burma at the time was in the possession of the British Raj. The Qing Dynasty was in charge of China, under the rule of the Empress Dowager Cixi. Despite Cixi's anti-western stance, the Qing Empire was in a position of weakness as the British were expanding their rule. The British has already earned a victory in the Second Anglo-Burmese War, which was a major trend of the era -- the strengthening of British imperialism in Asia.

The Anglo-Burmese War and the consequent strengthening of the British Raj was a contributing factor to the Qing's Self-Strengthening Movement. The expansion of the British at the time caused the Qing to fear further incursions. Their response was the Self-Strengthening Movement, in which the Qing sought to learn Western technologies in order to bolster itself against the threat of incursion into its territory. This resulted in an increase in trade between China and the West, as China opened up ports such as Tianjin and Shanghai in order to acquire Western goods that it could use to help surpass the West.

This episode illustrates the convergence of British action in India/Burma and British action in China, because it opened the door for the British to move into China more aggressively. They were able to, over the course of the rest of the 19th century, to gain a toehold in Shanghai and to solidify its possession of Hong Kong.

The reason that the Qing feared the British to the extent that they did was not only because of the British takeover of Lower Burma, but also because of the Second Opium War. Between 1856-1860, the British and French waged war against the Qing in order to fulfill a variety of objectives. For the Qing, the desired objective was to remove the British, who were poisoning the Chinese by importing opium into the country. For the British, the importation of opium was a means to earn hard currency and therefore a means to help its commercial interests in China.

The opium's source was Burma. Prior to the outset of the Second Opium War, the British had moved to expand the British Raj. The Anglo-Burmese War had given the British increased access to opium, which allowed wholesale export of the product to China. The expansion of the Raj, therefore, was instrumental is setting up the Second Opium War. While the two sides fought that war over a variety of grievances, it was the use of opium as a means to resolve trade conflicts that was a key point of contention. When the British won the war, one of its acts was to legalize opium in China, which would further enslave that populace to the drug and thus improve its position.

Opium was also grown in India. During the early part of the 1850s, when the India was governed by the East…… [read more]

Leethal Fashion Accessories and Outsourcing to India Case Study

Case Study  |  8 pages (2,311 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Leethal Fashion Accessories and Outsourcing to India

The forces of globalization allowed economic agents to transcend boundaries and exploit the comparative advantages of other countries. The movement created a context in which the exchange of commodities, natural resources, capitals and even workforce became not only possible, but even natural. Given this state of events, economic agents would often outsource their… [read more]

HK Disneyland Hong Kong Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,179 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


HK Disneyland

Hong Kong Disneyland has been successful thus far, and has a generally favorable operating environment. The park faces strong competition, however, and must take steps to improve its product/service offering, its marketing program and its partnerships with related firms in the industry in order to bring more business to its park and improve its market share.

Hong Kong… [read more]

Vietnamese Immigration to California Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,731 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Vietnamese Immigration to California: 1975 to 1995

The United States is a country of immigrants, and except for the Native Americans who were already here, everyone in the nation can trace their roots to another country. Indeed, wave after wave of European and Asian immigrants arrived on the shores of America during the 19th and 20th centuries, and millions of… [read more]

Globalizing Cultures Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,453 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Globalizing Cultures

Globalization is one of the most discussed issues in the present, with people from around the world being both supportive towards it and criticizing the concept. Those supporting it normally claim that it should be accepted mainly for the fact that it is an inevitable process, and, moreover, because of the fact that it brings people together, eventually… [read more]

Can the United States Persuade North Korea of Nuclear Disarmament Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,568 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


¶ … United States Persuade North Korea to Disarm Its Nuclear Capability?

Today, North Korea represents one of the last vestiges of hard-core Communism left on the face of the earth, and the so-called "Hermit Kingdom's" current ruler, Kim Jong Il, is fully committed to a policy of brinksmanship in which the international community is threatened on a regular basis… [read more]

What Should Be Done to Solve the North Korean Crisis? Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,309 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


North Korea

Punishing the Petulant Toddler: U.S. Policy In North Lorea

It was the first conflict of the Cold War and a politically charged area since the division of the region, but today, the word North Korea inspires fear in the hearts of some Americans. And the feeling is not without some cause. Certainly, a nuclear warhead in the hands of a government that most of the world feels less than stable is not the most sought after position for the international system. Although it would not be wise to advise the current administration to do absolutely nothing about situation under pressure in Asia, media coverage North Korea's missile tests, or satellite launches, is enough to inspire overreaction. In a recent article of Foreign Policy in Focus, Editor Emily Schwartz Greco (2009) writes that North Korea's repeated rocket launches are a cry for attention, much like that of a disobedient child. Of course, a short glance at North Korea's antisocial history gives an accurate explanation of why they would want to capture the attention of the West. A communist legacy from the post-WWII era and the seat of the first violent conflict after the cold war, North Korea has always been a symbol for East-West conflict. In this politically charged era, where terrorism and war in the Middle East, tensions between the United States and China and Russia, and a transitioning government in the United States have made the differences between East and West more pronounced, provocation for North Korea could have been much more subtle.

Examining the history of North Korea's missile testing sets precedent for the nation's precocious behavior. In 1998, North Korea launched what was called a satellite by the East and a missile by the West. Confusion over the type of launch occurred because the technology needed to launch a rocket and the technology needed to launch a satellite in North Korea are quite similar. Greco (2009) argues that North Korea was attempting to abide by its treaty, which was signed after the 2007 nuclear test, is a sign to keep dialogue open between a delinquent North Korea in the United States. Of all of the tests and launches completed by the state -- including the 2006 nuclear test and the most recent rocket launch this past April -- all have failed, suggesting that even if the North Koreans were serious about starting warfare on a global scale, it is likely that they would lack the means to do so. More importantly, however, these past tests suggest that North Korea stages failing launches in such a way that it ads to the political mayhem surrounding the East-West conflict without doing much physical damage (Greco, 2009). What this suggests is that North Korea cannot be considered a threat equal with other, real threats to the United States, like China and Russia, should their commitments to communism become renewed. Certainly, the United States' efforts in the Middle East are of greater significance than the current state of North… [read more]

Global Immigration Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,749 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Global Immigration -- the Immigration Problem in Singapore

The modern society is the result of numerous processes of change at all levels of the everyday life. Globalization represents one of the most notable mechanisms that generated a multitude of effects upon virtually all parts of the globe. The fact that cultural, political, economic or technological values could transcend boundaries from… [read more]

Wild Swans: Three Daughters of China Book Review

Book Review  |  5 pages (1,789 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Wild Swans: Three Daughters of China by Jung Chang. Specifically it will contain a book review of the book. This book tells the story of three remarkable women from an equally remarkable family that lived through several generations of change in China. The book is a history text and an autobiography rolled into one, and reading it gives… [read more]

How Far Do Globalization and External Relations Impact on South Korean Politics Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,277 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … globalization and external relations impact on South Korean politics?

External relations affect and change South Korean politics and its position toward the United States in so far that it may come to contradicting terms for some important issues. The way the United Stated chooses to handle its relationship with North Korea is influencing the political class made mainly of the 368 generation.

South Korea's most important foreign relation, that with its neighbor North Korea went through a series of changes due to two main factors: South Korea's enormous economic advancement since the 1960s and North Korea's downfall. The two opponents changed in economic potential in a reversed proportion. The Bush administration chose not to continue in the spirit of increased cooperation between the United States and North Korea, triggering a negative reaction from the South Korean partner. "In an address to the World Affairs Council of Los Angeles in November 2004, President Roh unequivocally stated that South Korea would be op-posed to policies of military attack, containment, or regime change toward North Korea, even though Washington had made it clear that these options remained on the table" (Kim&Lim 2007, 77).

In spite of the nuclear tests performed by North Korea in 2006, South Korea expressed its intentions to continue the economic cooperation initiated as a part of the agreements relating to the management of foreign relation in the triangle: United States, South and North Korea.

The second most important Asian partner, China has undergone tremendous changes in economic a political terms. Even if the country is still governed by a communist regime, its globally integrated economy and normalization of relations with South Korea since 1992 led to a shift in this relationship, too. China became the most important export partner for South Korea, overcoming by a percent the amount of exports South Korea had with the United States. On the other side, China's relations with North Korea causes another reasons for concerns in the South Korean side (Kim&Lim 2007, 78). According to Kim and Lim, South Korea is not shifting toward a political assertiveness to China, to the loss of the cooperative relations with the United States.

South Korea's ambitions to develop economically and its self-assertive aspirations placed the country in the race for integration in a more and more global economy. "Kim Young-sam's globalization was primarily a status drive, an easy way of projecting a new Korean national identity -- as a newly industrialized and democratized country deserving membership in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)" (the Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York 2000, 3). The economic recovery under the government of president Kim Young-sam and eventually the economic boom led to an exaggerated increase in foreign direct investment and in domestic lending. South Korea became a liberalized economy too rapidly. The liberalization by all means led to the creation of conditions that encouraged the unrestricted and unmonitored circulation of large amounts of money. The politics of the south Korean government… [read more]

North Korea Amid Famine in 2000 Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,329 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


North Korea

Amid famine in 2000, North Korean dictator for life Kim Jong-Il bought a brewery in England, had it dismantled it and shipped it to Pyongyang so the North Korean elite could drink better beer. Kim bragged at the time that he was a "better drinker" that South Korean leader Kim Dae-Jung (BBC, 2000). This situation, which occurred in the midst of famine and the complete collapse of North Korea's command economy, exemplifies the disconnect between Kim Jong-Il and the people of his nation.

North Korea, famously branded a member of the "Axis of Evil," is one of the world's most enigmatic states. The nation nominally adheres to Communism, but might be more aptly described as a theocratic dictatorship. Kim Jong-Il is ruler for life, and head of the Juche religion that his father began. The power of Kim is tied to his standing within this religion as a godlike figure. With this power, however, comes paranoia. Kim has built North Korea into one of the world's strongest military powers. North Korea has one of the largest armies in the world at 1.2 million soldiers, and spends nearly a quarter of its GDP on the military (U.S. State Department, 2009). The country is widely believed to be a nuclear power, having declared itself as such in 2005 (Faiola, 2005). Kim's eccentricities make him the butt of jokes around the world, but he is unpredictable, paranoid, and possesses substantial military might. Because of that, North Korea is one of the greatest threats to stability in the world today.

This essay will analyze the North Korean situation, and discern what North Korea means for the United States military today. I will examine the history and capabilities of the nation. Then, I will analyze the military implications of North Korea for the U.S. Finally, the paper will draw some conclusions about the ways in which the U.S. can react to North Korea to minimize the threat.


Located in northeastern Asia, North Korea occupies the northern half of the Korea peninsula. To the north it is bordered by China and Russia, to the south by South Korea, with whom it is technically still at war. The demilitarized zone - actually the world's most heavily militarized area - sits between the two Koreas. North Korea operates a command economy in which military products are the most significant component of the GDP. North Korea also relies on subsistence farming (though food is allocated primarily through a central agency), electric power and mining for income. International aid is frequently needed to meet the food needs of North Korea's 23 million people.

North Korea's people do not have the freedom to voice their level of content or discontent. They are commanded under strict punishment to follow Juche and swear allegiance to Kim Jong-Il. The nation has largely abandoned its pre-Juche traditions, but has not embraced many elements of modern life as well. The cult of personality that Kim has cultivated is the driving social force in… [read more]

Economic Growth on Korea Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (889 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Korean Economy

When Park Chung Hee ascended into leadership of South Korea in 1961, the country was an economic backwater. Per capita income was below $100 USD. North Korea was the more industrialized state on the peninsula, and this represented a direct threat to the South. Partly as a result of these national security concerns, Park sought to transform the South Korean economy from dependence on light industry and agriculture to one dependent on heavy industry and exports. The results were phenomenal. By 2007, GDP per capita was over $20,000 and the nation was the 14th largest economy in the world.

The first step in the transformation of Korea's economy was partnership with the existing powerful businesses at the time, firms that would become known as the chaebols. The chaebols were South Korea's answer to the Japanese keiretsu, powerful conglomerates that worked closely with government to develop the nation's economy. The chaebols and Park's government worked together to increase exports.

Park recognized that one of his country's major economic problems was that it did not have any oil resources. This led him not only to his policy of shifting dependency from imports to exports, but also to a policy of increasing savings rates. The Solow model tells us that the capital accumulation - necessary to import critical raw materials - accelerates if savings rates increase at a rate faster than population growth. One of Park's earliest economic policies was to encourage savings. As a result savings increased from 3.3% of GNP in 1962 to 35.8% in 1989. This growth in savings mirrored growth in the economy. Per capita income grew from $87 in 1962 to $4,830 in 1989; the GNP grew from $2.3 billion to $204 billion over the same period.

Another major factor was investment. Park normalized relations with Japan in order to gain foreign direct investment. This represented a shift away from the reliance on U.S. subsidies of the previous regime. In the first year, Japan delivered $800 million in aid. This helped to jumpstart investment in infrastructure. Massive infrastructure investments followed increases in productivity. These productivity increases began as a result of a shift to manufacturing. At first the shift focused on light manufacturing. From 1962 to 1975, manufacturing's share of the South Korean GDP went from 9% to 27%; agriculture from 45% to 25%.

By the 1970s, productivity increases were negligible, and the key driver of growth became increased physical capital. This hints at the role of the Korean people in the country's transformation. Not only were the Korean people motivated, but the government had begun to make significant investments in the nation's education infrastructure. Park had centralized the nation's…… [read more]

Vishnu Temple Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (373 words)
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Chandra, M.R. Vakataka Gupta Age: 200 to 500 A.D. New Delhi, India: Motilal
Publishers, 2006. 230 pgs.

M.R. Chandra, professor of ancient Indian history at the University
of New Delhi, examines the political, cultural and religious history of
ancient India during the Gupta Period, 320 to circa 600 A.D., a time when
India was flourishing under a resurgence of Hinduism as opposed to it
religious rival Buddhism. This period, as Chandra so brilliantly explores
in this book, produced some of the finest Indian architecture of all time,
particularly the Vishnu Temple at Deogarh in north central India which
Chanda maintains served as the foundation for all Hindu temples that
Hinds, Kathryn. India's Gupta Dynasty. New York: Benchmark Books, 1996. 145

In this well-researched book, Kathryn Hinds, professor of ancient
history at Yale University, examines the cultural and artistic significance
of the Gupta Dynasty, beginning in 320 A.D. and up until the emergence of
the Pallava Period, circa 600 A.D. Hinds also includes a rather lengthy
discussion on Hindu temples and how they were constructed and designed with
the…… [read more]

Thai Massage Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,483 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Massage, sometimes referred to as Thai Yoga Massage is a very active and aggressive form of massage, almost entirely unlike other forms of massage. The practitioner of the massage stands above the receiver and often utilizes his or her own weight and leverage to pull and manipulate the body of the receiver, who is usually lying on the… [read more]

International Business Venture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,464 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


International Business Plan Venture - Launching Low Cost Cell Phones into India

Introducing a series of low-cost and ultra-low cost mobile phones into India is an opportunity that is significant enough in market size that is accentuated in its potential for long-term growth by the Indian governments' lowering of call tariffs in 2002. As of April 1, 2002 there is… [read more]

What Threat if Any Does the Rise of China Pose for International Order Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,861 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Rise of China

Much in international relations has changed over the past two decades beginning with the dissolution of the Soviet bloc and the disintegration of the Soviet Union and continuing now with the slow growth of a more open market in China. For decades, both the U.S.S.R. And China were seen as enemies of the West as both were… [read more]

What Threats Are There to Peaceful Coexistence Between China and India Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,430 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


China India Peace Threats

Analysts predicted a probable shift in world politics and economy to a global balance of power between China and India (Sengupta 2005). One-third of humanity comes from these two countries that waited for 3,000 for the event to come close to becoming real. Both countries' economies have grown at a marvelous rate in recent years since… [read more]

International Economics - South Korea Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,517 words)
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International economics - South Korea

The international context is subjected to numerous changes that not only affect the greatest powers of the world, but also the more insignificant players on the global scene. The palette of examples in this sense is various but one could simply look at the American automobile industry, which has decreased in sales in favor of… [read more]

Negotiation Styles and Communication Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,387 words)
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Intercultural Negotiation

We live in a global world now and do business with people who are products of very different cultures from our own. Because one's values, motivations, and non-verbal communication habits are largely shaped and molded by the culture from which we emerge, it is very important to understand cultural differences when negotiating; otherwise, ignorance of styles, goals, and expectations may result in misunderstanding, frustration, and even failure to conclude the deal and reach an agreement. This essay will explore differences between American negotiators and Asian. The difference begins with the goals of each as they come to the negotiating table. Americans come to seal the deal. Asians come to establish a long-term mutually productive relationship.

Far-Eastern negotiating styles show both similarities and differences. For example, all Asians believe it is very important to gain knowledge beforehand of the other's cultural customs and assumptions. Not only do they find out what they can about the business, but they also obtain personal information about individuals on the negotiating team -- where they went to school, for instance, and what their favorite foods are. They feel they have to know with whom they are dealing in order to develop a productive working relationship in which there is a strong sense of rapport. The relationship is everything to Asians. The deal and the money are secondary. The relationship is much more important than merely getting things done. Asian team members have already formed solid relationships with each other as well. American teams members may never have worked together before and barely know each other. This puts them at a disadvantage when dealing with Asians.

Asian negotiating teams usually have more people on them than American teams, which puts small American teams at a disadvantage. Fewer negotiators cost the company less and minimize disagreements among themselves, thus shortening the time it takes to reach an agreement. Saving time is important to Americans who believe that "time is money." Japanese and Chinese negotiators do not. They believe there is always enough time to do whatever is necessary to develop a valuable, long-term business relationship.

Japanese teams are bigger because they send individuals from all levels of the company who must reach a consensus before they seal the deal. They feel insulted when faced with only one or two negotiators on the other side. Chinese teams are also larger but more hierarchical with status levels -- a leader and experts -- on the team. Chinese teams focus on respect for authority, and to them, the number of negotiators sent expresses a level of respect. In contrast, Korean teams are usually smaller but still hierarchical like Chinese. Chinese teams are similar to Japanese in that members must reach a consensus. Koreans, like Chinese, get upset if an opposing team doesn't send members with the same status as their team members hold. Thus, the Korean style of negotiating seems to combine aspects of Japanese and Chinese styles. Like both the others, they send larger teams. Like the… [read more]

First Time Expatriates Experience Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,303 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Expatriate's Experience in a Joint Venture in China begins with the image of American manager James Randolf flying from China to the United States. His initial contract had been signed for a period of three years, but after 13 months, he was being sent back to the U.S. The company he was working for was an American-based one, with a joint venture in China, developed in hope for further expansion and success through the easy penetration of the Chinese market.

Filtration Inc., and through generalization most of the American companies, place a rather strong emphasis on their human resource. For instance, prior to their departure in China, both James and his wife participated to numerous courses that would help them reintegrate in the Chinese society and best get passed the cultural barriers. The Chinese human resource is also increasing in the role and importance perceived by the management and proof of it stand the numerous laws and regulations implemented in regard to managing the personnel. The labour force in China is under the direct influence of six major forces: National Economic Plans, the Four Modernization Programs, Political Leadership, Chinese Cultural Values, Labour Unions and the Special Economic Zones, namely the SEZs (Stanbury).

But the Asian country is still far behind North America in regard to the management of the human resource. In U.S. For instance, managers encourage employees' involvement in the decision making process and regard the personnel as the company's most valuable asset. They often remunerate additional efforts and reward the employees which made significant contributions. Foremost, the American business community embraces the practice of internal promotions as a form of reward. Many U.S. companies simply promote one of their skilled and experienced employees in a leading position, rather than hiring external workforce. In China however, the personnel has yet to change its status of people operating the machines. Foremost, they have limited to none influence or power in the decision making process. "James observed that when Chinese managers were dealing with subordinates, decision making was very top-down. This resulted in virtually all decisions of any consequence being made by the managing director." (Stanbury)

The role of the human resource in the process of decision making in Singapore is rather mixed mostly due to the mixed culture of the country. In this particular sense, the city state was under the direct rule and influence of both United Kingdom as well as Japan, preserving traditions from both economies. Then, the majority of the population living in Singapore is Chinese, but the official administrative language is English (Asian Studies Network Information Center). As a result, the decision making process involves the staff to various extents, depending in most cases on the elected or unelected quality of the leader. "For those groups without elected leaders, GDSS (group decision support systems) promoted lower influence imbalance, which means a more even distribution of influence compared to a no-support treatment. For the groups with an elected leader, no difference was observed for the… [read more]

Colonization in India From English Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (985 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … colonization in India from English colonization until today. Specifically it will discuss whether colonialism was a better alternative for India. When the British first began colonizing India in the mid 1750s, the country was ruled by emperors and other leaders who tried to fight British Imperialism, but could not win out over the powerful British. The British occupied Delhi in 1803, and the country was under British control from then until the 20th century. Since then, India has made great strides in many areas including their economy and in technology, which has helped the nation grow stronger and more successful.

While the British took over control of India in the early 19th century, it was not until 1857 and the Rebellion of 1857 that it became formal. In actuality, India was relatively profitable and successful before the English colonization. They were growing agriculturally and economically, and it was not until after the British took over that some of the legendary famines of Bengal and northern India occurred. Two historians note, "Overall, a favourable land-labour ratio had enabled highly mobile peasant and tribal labour to negotiate reasonable terms with controllers of land" (Bose, and Jalal 43). Essentially, India was becoming financially and politically strong when the English took over, and the British used that to their own advantage. Historians Bose and Jlal continue, "European dominance over external trade and shipping, and hence over long distance cash flows, as well as their slight edge in military technology, contributed to the wrecking of the eighteenth-century Indian regional state system" (Bose, and Jalal 46). Therefore, while India was certainly not on the level of Great Britain or the United States at the time, it had a viable economy, successful agriculture, and was on the brink of becoming a more powerful and successful nation. Under British rule, India became just another Third World country that sometimes had trouble feeding its people and could not make any decisions for itself. All that changed in 1947 when India and Pakistan were granted their freedom. The British attempted to control society, religion, and most of Indian beliefs. Another writer notes, "Certain Indian social or religious practices that the British found to be abhorrent were outlawed, such as sati in 1829, and an ethic of 'improvement' was said to dictate British social policies" (Lal). This led to the uprising of 1857, and indicates how strictly the British ruled India, and how they influenced whole generations of Indians. They used military force to keep the people in check, and their practices led to many freedom groups building up by the beginning of the 20th century, including the group led by Mahatma Gandhi, who fought for Indian independence throughout his adult life.

Of course, there are some advantages to British rule. Another writer notes, "Though the Indian languages were well developed before the arrival of the British in India, the standardization of these languages, and the creation of the first grammars…… [read more]

Sources of Conflict Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (945 words)
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¶ … Conflict

The Chechen Conflict

The conflict between the Russia federal forces and the secessionist North Caucasian republic of Chechnya has been underway since 1994. As this paper will discuss, while the Chechen problem is usually seen as a primarily modern phenomenon the sources and root causes of this conflict have their origins in history even prior to the last century. (the Conflict in Chechnya, 2000)

Chechnya declared independence from the Soviet Union in November 1991. (Q&a: The Chechen conflict) the then Russian President, Boris Yeltsin, seen troops into the area to reinstate the rule of Russian federal law and to stop secession. In essence, the conflict of is the fight for national independence and the attempt to separate from the Soviet Union.

Chechnya is traditional homeland of the Chechen people and is bordered by Georgia to the south. The population of the region is mainly Muslim and the country is surrounded by the Russian Federation republics of Ingushetia and North Ossetia to the west, Dagestan to the east and north, and the Russian province of Stavropol to the north-west. (the Conflict in Chechnya, 2000)

After the declaration of independence, the Chechen war followed and the conflict with Russian troops continued from 1994 to 1996. However, the Russian army of approximately 35, 00000 heavily armed troops failed to suppress the Chechen rebels in the area. While the Russian troops succeeded in capturing the capital of Groznyy in 1995, the Chechen rebels staged an intensive guerilla campaign. A peace agreement was signed in 1996 and the rebel leader Aslan Maskhadov was elected present of Chechnya. Despite this, the Russian concern about the independence of the territory was to continue.

This resulted in the continuation of the conflict and many "terrorist" acts being perpetrated against the Russian government. In 1999, the Russian Prime Minister at the time, Vladimir Putin, took action against the Chechen guerrillas and in various anti-terrorist operations sent troops in to suppress the Chechens. However, these efforts also proved to be largely unsuccessful.

The causes and source of this conflict lie ostensibly in the Chechen people's desire for self-rule and independence. However, the root causes of the conflict can be traced back to the eighteenth century. During this period of Russian expansionism into the Caucasus, they met with resistance from the indigenous people of that region - which is Chechnya today. During this period various Chechen clan groups and their Circassian and the Dagestani neighbors "...engaged in a prolonged and violent conflict in a bid to preserve their distinct cultural identities and prevent the annexation of the region by the Russian Empire" (the Conflict in Chechnya, 2000).

Therefore, the foundational causative factors of the conflict lie in a long-standing attempt by the indigenous peoples of the region to retain their independence and unique identity and not to be assimilated into…… [read more]

Which Current Nation State Poses the Greatest Threat to America's National Interests Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (367 words)
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International Relations

The Greatest Threat believe the nation-state of China poses the greatest threat to America's national interests. One world expert notes, "And as the world's largest country emerges not from within but outside the established post-World War II international order, it is a drama that will end with the grand ascendance of China and the onset of an Asian-centered world order" (Ikenberry, 2008). China poses a threat not only economically, because of their burgeoning economy that has been mushrooming for the past two decades or more, but for a number of other reasons, as well. As the author notes, China is poised to take over an "Asian-centered world," and this is the largest area of communism remaining in the world. China has been hesitant to really raise sanctions on neighboring North Korea and their nuclear program, and allied with nations like North Korea and even Vietnam, it could conceivably turn most of Asia into a communist nation-group. This could threaten the strength and military advantage of the United States, posing a great threat to the country.

However, I feel the greatest threat…… [read more]

Political Culture Ideas in Conflict Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,371 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Political Ideas in Conflict

One of the best examples of a country where political ideas are in conflict is mainland China and the island of Hong Kong.

It has been more than ten years now since Hong Kong, after having been a British holding for a century, was returned to mainland China by the United Kingdom in 1997, after the expiration of the UK's one hundred and fifty year lease of the island. On one hand, the mother country, Communist China, where students protesting in Tieneman Square were cut down by Chinese soldiers like blades of grass; was receiving back under its control Hong Kong, a multicultural blend of Asian, European, American and nearly every other nationality in the world was being returned to its mainland mother.

The Chinese government promised to be sensitive to Hong Kong's ill-fitting transition as a subordinate of the mainland. However, no one believed it was going to be easy, and people the world over watched, some curious, others horrified. There could not be two political philosophies that were further apart than Hong Kong and mainland China. The research here examines that transition, now, more than ten years later, how the changes and evolution of Hong Kong as it readjusted itself back into the fold of mainland China has gone between one nation politically divided for one hundred and fifty years (with the exception of the Japanese occupation from 1941 to 1945) (Ash, Ferdinand, Hook and Porter 3).

Hong Kong was not just diverse, it was liberal, sophisticated, business over the hundred year lease by Britain, it was a globally economic and trading center. Hong Kong had become synonymous with world trade, exchange, Wall Street and other world stock and bond trading centers. It was as sophisticated as New York City, with as much to offer in the way of art, history, culture, business, and education. The transition would not be an easy one from the enterprising liberalism of the UK, to the suppressive control of the mainland. Researchers and experts Robert Ash, Peter Ferdinand, Brian Hook and Robin Porter (2007) discuss the transition in their book, Hong Kong in Transition: The Handover Years.

On July 1, 1997, the People's Republic of China (PRC) received Hong Kong back into its mainland political auspices from the UK (Ash, Ferdinand, et al. 3). There was speculation circling the globe about whether or not Hong Kong would be able to sustain its free market participation and philosophies, and its liberal freedoms enjoyed by its residents for a hundred and fifty years (Ash, et al. 3).

Hong Kong, of course, has been a highly successful economic entity for the last 30 years. Its Gross National Product (GNP) has grown at an annual rate of approximately 7 per cent in real terms during most of that time. Per capita GNP in the territory has overtaken that of the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia (by 1990 more investment was flowing from Hong Kong to Britain than from Britain to Hong Kong)… [read more]

Origins of the 3rd World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,554 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Origins of the 3rd World

Critical review of Making of the Third World by Mike Davis

While climatic conditions and geographical factors play a large part in the shaping of the various regions of the world in terms of their development, economic, political and social factors are also a part of the complex causative origins of regional and country development.… [read more]

India's System of Reservation for Scheduled Castes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (725 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … India's System of Reservation for Scheduled Castes

Reservation' is another term for 'affirmative action' in India -- the law through which the members of backward ('Scheduled') castes and tribes are given preferential treatment in job and education admission quotas. Such Reservation laws have been in existence almost since the time of the country's independence about sixty years ago and arguments still rage both for and against the laws. However, in my opinion, the reservation system is seriously flawed as it has not only failed to better the lives of the less privileged classes in India, but also runs counter to the very spirit of democracy and equality of citizens, which India purports to follow.

There is no doubt that the Indian society has suffered badly from a centuries-old Hindu Caste system creating rigid religion-sanctioned classes, with those at the bottom of the ladder being classified as 'untouchables' and relegated to the most demeaning tasks. Through the reservation laws, the Indian government has attempted to help the less privileged castes such as the Dalits (previously known as the 'untouchables') and to redress the historic injustice meted out to them over the centuries. The arguments for Reservation laws, therefore, are almost the same as have been forwarded for the 'Affirmative Action' laws in the United States that seek to rectify the effects of slavery and the blatant discrimination meted out to its black population until recently. Unfortunately, while Affirmative Action in the U.S. may arguably have benefited the black community in some ways, the effect of the Indian reservation laws has mostly been negative.

For one, reservation has served to further divide an already polarized Indian society. While the intention of the founding fathers, especially Gandhi, was to reach out to the Dalits and to integrate them into the rest of the society, reserving jobs and seats in educational institutions for them has created further resentment against them. Moreover, poverty in India is so widespread and is not just restricted to the lower castes, resulting in demands by other groups and tribes in India to have their social status lowered in order to benefit from the reservation quotas. For example, there were…… [read more]

Origin of Indigenous People in Taiwan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,138 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Taiwan & its Origins

The Republic of china more commonly known as Taiwan and formerly known as Formosa is an island off the South-East coast of China spread over an area of 36,000 square kilometers. Taiwan is one of the densely populated countries of the world. This land has its own culture and languages which can be traced back in… [read more]

Buddhism Theravada or Mahayana Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,437 words)
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The foundations and travels of world philosophies and religions are often bound by the ascetic images, as they are demonstrated by the different cultures of the periods in which they travel. As the faith travels the imagery and discipline is translated regionally through mission works and local artisan style and craft. Theravada Buddhism can serve as a stark example… [read more]

Japan Thailand Economic Partnership Agreement the Challenges and Promises of Bilateral Trade Policy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,156 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Japan and Thailand have made serious efforts for the conclusion of their Economic Partnership Agreements (EPA). The prominent features of the EPA include Free Trade Agreement. In the past both the countries have been involved in wide range of economic and investment opportunities. According to 2002 trade statistics, the trade between both the countries stood at JPY 2.85 trillion, Thailand… [read more]

Social Impacts of the Khmer Rouge Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,220 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Khmer Rouge & Cambodian Education


Murdering of Cambodian Teachers

Cambodian Children's Propaganda Song

Child Prostitution / Sex Slavery & Child Labor

Methods, Research Design & Analyses

Results, Discussion, Implications

What many people in the U.S. remember about events in Southeast Asia in the year 1975 is the hasty… [read more]

Constitution, Both the One Drafted Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,336 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Constitution, both the one drafted during the Meiji Era and the one drafted during the Occupation Era were inspired from Western Constitutions. The former was of Prussian expression, with large powers awarded to the emperor as head ruler, active in making decisions and in the political scene. On the other hand, this power was mediated by a political elite who formed the Diet, a parliamentary body with legislative functions. Basically, the Constitution defined and regulated a constitutional monarchy.

On the other hand, the role of the emperor was quite vast and he was awarded, at least on a nominal level, all the three powers in state, combined with the fact that he was the Supreme Commander of both the Army and the Navy and that he had the capacity to name and revoke members of the Government.

The emperor's role remained entirely ceremonial according to the 1946 Constitution. He no longer is involved in the political life of Japan and can no longer take any decisions in his quality as head of state. Of American inspiration, the Japanese 1946 constitution has taken the form of a liberal democracy, with exclusive accents on the Diet as the form of popular representation. So, from this point-of-view, the 1946 Constitution was meant to delimit any possible future attempts towards military or political dictatorship.

Both Constitutions constitutionally encouraged, however, an openness towards the West and the fact that they were both of foreign inspiration is a reasonable argument in this sense.

From an economic point-of-view, both periods encouraged an economic surge and trade relations with the West. During the Meiji period, the once feudal economy transformed itself to become one of the successful industrial economies of the beginning of the 20th century. This progress was realized with the help of connections with the West and inspiration in terms of training, managerial perspectives etc. Nevertheless, we may point out that, because of the State subsidies and increasing role of national zaibatsus, a national trait characterized the Japanese economy as well. Western influences melded in a traditional, national approach in many economic sectors.

During the Occupation, the importance of trade and external commercial relations remained very high. Indeed, Japanese relied on imports of foreign raw supplies and high levels of manufacturing to restore their economy to previous levels. The zaibatsus were broken down after the war, but similar entities such as the keiretsus still ensured economic cooperation.

The interaction between Japan and the West was strong during both periods in the educational sector as well. First of all, the Japanese educational system was strongly influenced by the British and American ones, with the succession of the primary and secondary cycles. Second of all, during both periods, with an extra accent on the Meiji era, students were continuously encouraged to continue their studies in the United States or in Great Britain, so, from this point-of-view, we can sensibly show that there was a strong level of interaction with the Western culture and society that brought… [read more]

Kazakhstan Culture Today Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,203 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Borat may have genuinely if not inadvertently "make benefit glorious nation of Kazakhstan." Although initial publicity for the former Soviet nation seemed negative, the enormous popularity of the Borat character and feature film has lent a cult mystique to Kazakh culture. Kazak culture is a unique synthesis of tribal and modern customs, and the composition of the nation's 15 million people is relatively diverse. About half of Kazak's citizens can trace their ancestry to Turk-Mongol nomadic shepherds. Kazak culture might not exhibit the exaggerated extremes embodied in Borat but the nation is plagued by several social and political problems including widespread poverty and environmental degradation. As a result, quality of life for most Kazaks is low in spite of burgeoning economic interest in the nation's oil and energy reserves.

Sovereign for just over a decade, Kazakhstan has been inhabited by Turk and Mongol nomadic groups for centuries. The region was conquered by the Russians in the 18th century and later, Kazakhstan became one of the republics of the Soviet Union. Modern Kazakhstan reflects a commingling of indigenous Kazak and Russian influences. Russians comprise about one-third of the nation's population and both Russian and Kazak are widely spoken. Russian is more commonly used than Kazak as the language for business and commercial transactions, whereas Kazak is the official state language. In spite of robust economic and political ties with Russia, Kazakhstan does not permit dual citizenship. According to the BBC Country Profile, ethnic Russians in Kazakhstan "resent the lack of dual citizenship and having to pass a Kazakh language test in order to work for government or state bodies." One of the motivations for Kazakhstan's strict citizenship policy is the struggle to create a "cohesive national identity," (CIA).

In addition to Kazaks and Russians, the nation is also home to a number of ethnic minorities including Ukrainians, Germans, Uzbeks, Chechens, and Kurds. Before the breakup of the Soviet Union, Kazakhstan had a substantial Slavic population too, many of whom immigrated as part of a governmental program to cultivate Kazak lands. Since independence, Kazakhstan's population has dwindled consistently due to substantial out-migration of Soviet-era settlers.

Kazakhstan is an ethnically and religiously pluralistic state. Most ethnic Kazaks are Sunni Muslim, and most ethnic Russians are Russian Orthodox. Kazak Islam is syncretic and can be described as "folk Islam," combining the indigenous animism with Tatar-influenced Sunni Islam (Bashiri). Shamanism and animism remain part of the fabric of Kazak religious and cultural life, especially in rural regions. Religious and ethnic discords are not major social issues in Kazakhstan in spite of its diverse make up (BBC).

Governmental corruption, environmental degradation, and income disparity are, however, major problems in the Central Asian nation. Many of these problems can be traced to Soviet rule. The U.S.S.R.'s policies left an indelible stamp on Kazakhstan, which was used as a nuclear testing ground and toxic waste dump. The Aral Sea is severely polluted, and has shrunk due to inefficient irrigation projects (BBC). Kazakhstan has signed onto a series… [read more]

How Do Immigrants Influence the Economy in Taiwan? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (2,871 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


¶ … Immigrants on Economy of Taiwan

Taiwan was initially inhabited by the people of Malay-Polynesian descent. The migration of the people from China, and foreign aggression of Dutch compelled those early inhabitants to move into mountains. The country was exposed to the international community by Dutch navigator on a Portuguese ship. The region was called, 'Ilha Formosa' i.e. beautiful… [read more]

India Relationship With the United States Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,329 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


India-U.S. Relations: A Look back and forward

With a booming capitalist society, a large population, a strategic location and an established democracy, India would be a natural ally in a region of the world where the United States has few. However, only within the past 5 years has a once-chilly relationship between India and the United States really begun to… [read more]

History Through Fiction India Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,828 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … British occupation of India was the showcase of modern imperialism and the conflicts that result when two such cultures clash. In E.M. Foster's insightful novel "A Passage to India," we can develop a much better holistic picture of how Muslims and Indians lived under British rule. The book begins and ends with a simple question, can the English… [read more]

Tibet and China Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,405 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Tibet and China

The relationship between Tibet and China, despite the various ups and downs seen over the past several centuries, continues to remain fluid. The points-of-view of the Chinese and the Tibetans about the sovereignty of Tibet are diametrically opposite. The Chinese are firmly of the view that Tibet has been an indivisible part of China de jure since… [read more]

India's Foreign Policy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,562 words)
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India is the second most populous country in the world after China and has one of the fastest growing economies in the world. It is located in a very strategic location as it borders several countries in South Asia such as Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and China. India used to have a policy of non-alignment with the rest of the… [read more]

Urban and Rural Economics of the Tokugawa Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,227 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Japanese History

Urban and Rural Economic Development During the Tokugawa Period

The Transition of the Tokugawa Era

The Tokugawa period in Japanese history (1600-1868) remains one of the most transformative eras in the society's history (Platt 965). At the start of the period, feudalism still dominated most aspects of Japanese culture. Caste distinctions were rigid and the social status that… [read more]

International and Trade Policy of Early Choson Yi Dynasty Korea Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,928 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


International and Trade Policy of early Choson (Yi) Dynasty Korea

The aim of this paper is to examine key historical forces that shaped Traditional Korea in the period between 1392 and 1910. The paper intertwines political, economic, socio and cultural themes as it highlights a number of major issues during the Early Yi Dynasty. It will provide a through review… [read more]

US or Any Country Customer Perception of Made in China Products Methodology Chapter

Methodology Chapter  |  14 pages (4,943 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 14


¶ … China -- Not Necessarily a Good Thing?

Project Overall Aims - Objective

The United States is deeply involved with China when it comes to finances, as China is the largest foreign holder of American debt. Moreover, China is a major trade partner with the United States, and while thousands of Americans travel to China each year -- and… [read more]

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