Study "Asian History / Asia" Essays 111-165

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Chinese Pilgrims in India Assessment

… Chinese Pilgrims in India

The Chinese attitudes of India "vary from total absence of curiosity to wild fanciful misapprehension" and from these attitudes, the perceptions of the Chinese towards India can be derived (Mather, 1992). Though, most accounts that have emerged from History of the Han Dynasty speak to mutual respect- falling in the middle of the spectrum. The account tells of a positive relationship with India and the respect for certain things in Indian society including basic cleanliness, the demeanor of the people, and respect for their customs and traditions describing them as "timid and excitability, their real intentions are pure and genuine" (Mather, 1992). The earlier accounts of the Chinese in regards to India is overwhelmingly positive- there is a certain sense of curiosity, fascination and respect which allows for a strong relationship in the earlier timeframes of their relationship. "The accounts in the various Six Dynasties histories" do not indicate any "condescension" (Mather, 1992).

The factors that affect the perceptions and the account of these themes include some personal accounts. It is along the journey that pilgrims took that certain things were noticed and mentioned- the exchange of goods, people noticing the customs and traditions of the Indian culture, the general cleanliness that was previously mentioned in an account, the overall aura and demeanor of the Indian people. Pilgrims were more or less "ambassadors" of China that represented the country in their spiritual journey; thus, the main factor that impacted these positive perceptions is the people that took this journey. The individual parts that eventually comprised the whole helped develop and establish the relationship that was fostered between ancient India and ancient China.

Though, this overall positive perception of India changed "after the rise of ecclesiastical Taoism" which was influenced by the Indian culture and faith, because of this influence it also made Hinduism a rival faith (Mather, 1992). Because of this rival, Taoism criticized Buddhist and India in many ways. They…… [read more]


Low Cost Airline in Thailand Thesis

… One now needs a BA to be Member of Parliament, setting up a whole new arena for potential corruption. Ironically, it was the military that forced political reform to proceed, easing public tensions and siding with a popular cause against… [read more]


Authoritarian the Modern Nations Thesis

… By the age of European conquest, the people of the various islands in Indonesia were already familiar with autocracy, patriarchy, and plutocracy. Portuguese, British, and Spanish too touched soil in the Indonesian archipelago with the intention of plundering natural resources and imposing European cultural hegemony. Yet it was the Dutch that would mainly prevail in establishing an economic hub in the archipelago. The Dutch East India Company held corporate sway over Indonesia. Yet the Dutch might have underestimated the cohesion and power of the Javanese kingdoms. Java presented the greatest threat to Dutch authorities, leading to a series of semi-successful revolts. Even when unsuccessful and crushed by superior European weapons technologies, indigenous revolts -- especially in Java -- proved the illegitimacy of Dutch authority.

By the beginning of the twentieth century, nationalism was clearly a possibility in both the Philippines and Indonesia. The spread of European political ideas including Marxism helped to foment empowerment movements that appealed to the large, ethnically and culturally diverse peasant populations. When the Japanese invaded both the Philippines and Indonesia, rule by external authorities was so completely intolerable that an artificial nationalism was the only alternative to military dictatorships imposed from the outside. However, Sukarno initially cooperated with the Japanese, enabling his own rise to power in Indonesia. The Sukarno government defined Indonesian political identity, domestic and foreign policy for much of the twentieth century. Artificial nationalism took root in the political vacuum created by centuries of environmental, economic, social, and political plunder.

The Philippine push towards independence came several decades earlier than in Indonesia. War with the United States weakened the Spaniards beyond repair, but did not immediately grant the Philippines a free ride towards self-governance. The Philippine-American War and the creation of interim but unstable national governments fomented nationalism in the archipelago. Just as with Indonesia, nationalism was a viable alternative to the vacuum left by colonialism, which had now linked together the diverse cultures and regions of the Philippines. Economic expediency, the need to compete in the global marketplace, and the broken social systems of indigenous societies all enabled the rise of authoritarian rule in the Philippines and Indonesia. Authoritarian rule created unity against colonialism in the post-colonial era and while the regimes of Marcos and Sukarno proved bloody and dictatorial, the people of Southeast Asia had been too disenfranchised and disempowered to do anything about it.

Works Cited

Anderson, Benedict, Java in a Time of Revolution: Occupation and Resistance, 1944-46 (Ithaca, NY, 1972), pp. 125-66

Huynh Kim Khanh, "The Vietnamese August Revolution," Journal of Asian Studies 30:4 (1970), pp. 761-82.

Steinberg, David J., ed., In Search of Southeast Asia…… [read more]


Chinese Economic History Term Paper

… Chinese Economy

Great Leap v. Gradualism: Maoist and Post-Maoist Approaches to China's Economic Growth and Development since 1949.

In the last decades China was able to maintain almost a steady two-digit economic growth, and this spectacular performance has garnered the… [read more]


Description Interpretation Evaluation Term Paper

… Communications

Several years ago I was walking along a busy commercial street in a mid-sized Japanese city. The street, called Otamai Dori, was the main shopping thoroughfare in Himeji, a city of about 400,000 located south of Kobe and north… [read more]


European Exploration the World Essay

… First a civil war raged across the country, then decades of Communist rule, which included modernization programs such as the "Great Leap Forward," did little to actually modernize China. It was not until the 1970's that China made a serious… [read more]


Korean History Essay

… ¶ … Korean social history from the Silla period through the first centuries of the Yi/Choson dynasty.

Shila (or Silla) (668-935 AD) manifested an elite that focused on modernizing its government and strengthening its relations with the recently established Tang dynasty. Defeating both Paekche and Koguryo it combined both regions and established a unified state. Simulating the format of Chinese government, it structured itself into six bureaus each bureau managing a different part of the State and the entire controlled by one ruler. The era was characterized by cultural growth, peace, and prosperity and became one of the most effective and famous eras within Korean general and social history. Eventually, the Shila Kingdom declined and a rebel leader named Wang Kon challenged Shila but peace was established by the last Shila king granting power to Wang Kon, and so the Koryo Dynasty was established.

The Koryo Dynasty (918-1392 AD) extended the bordered of the kingdom into Koguryo from which the name 'Korea' emerged. Following a traditional Chinese pattern of gaining control, Wang Kon took male members of royal families as captives to live in the capital as well as taking 29 consorts. This, ultimately, rebounded since it transferred power to these families who became powerful.

Following Chinese example in its government, the Koryo dynasty expanded and developed its cultural, educational, industrial, and agricultural ways of life. Although the Shila system has been broken by individuals from the lower class who, in turn, became the new powerful elite, hierarchy still reigned and 6 classes (in level of importance) emerged in this Koryo kingdom: 1) the royal caste group, 2) civil and military officials, 3) palace functionaries, 4) lower government officials, 5) tax-paying citizens, 6) inferior people (generally trades people). The upper and middle ranks were predominately those who possessed land.

The ruling caste had a major impact on the transformation of the Koryo kingdom. Peace was made with the…… [read more]


Outsourcing Jobs to India Research Paper

… Outsourcing jobs to India.

Outsourcing to India

The process of globalization led to significantly increased competition in most business fields. Local companies are forced to compete in their domestic market with foreign companies that come with less expensive products and… [read more]


Dragon Rising Book Report

… ¶ … Dragon Rising by Jasper Becker

Explain why the history of China matters to the present. What can it tell us about modernization in China?

As one of the most ancient civilizations on earth, China's history has been of… [read more]


Kashmir Is a Territory Located Research Paper

… Kashmir is a territory located in the upper northwestern section of Southern Asia. As a country, Kashmir has a long and bitter history as several countries continue to assert their claim over the land. These countries include China, Pakistan, Indian and the inhabitants of Kashmir. At present, India controls approximately 40% of the region, while China controls 20%. Pakistan controls 35% of the region while the Kashmiri people hold the remaining 5% of the territory. From a historical perspective, several land disputes and the Wars of 1947, 1962, 1963, and 1999 have occurred over land ownership. India officials currently maintain that Kashmir is central to India while the Pakistani government heads prefer to resolve the conflict by allowing the Kashmiri people determine rightful ownership of the territory. Such regional conflict can be examined from the primordialism and social constructivism paradigms as a means to explore issues of ethnicity and of federalism.

Ethnic refers to the shared tradition, special socio-physiological characteristics, and goals of a group of people who acknowledge such commonality. From a sociological point-of-view, ethnicity can determine the level of unity of a group of people within a country or region. Such information can be applied to a broader context when examining a primordialism perspective. Such a point-of-view indicates the Kashmiri people can work together as one ethnic group with the common goal of seeking independence from India, Pakistan, and China. By doing so, the Kashmiri people can have their own stronghold over the territory and begin to combat the growing violence that has plagued the area for decades. As such, primordialism can be fully applied to the Kashmir conflict as the Kashmiri people are not divided by ethnicity, but by international ownership disputes. In like manner, the Kashmir conflict can also be applied to social constructivism.

Social constructivism is a…… [read more]


Connection Between Religion and Contemporary Politics Both Public and Private in Indonesia Research Paper

… Indonesia Religion

Indonesian Politics and the Influence of Islam

Indonesia's importance in the world and its considerable wealth as a producer of natural resources are geographical advantages which its native populations have rarely enjoyed. A dense fabric of regional and… [read more]


Original Development and Current State of ASEAN Association of South East Asian Nations Research Paper

… ¶ … ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations)

The Association of Southeast Nations has failed to devise effective strategies in regard to matters such as human rights and pollution across its existence, damaging the overall reputation it managed to develop internationally because of the rapid economic development of a number of countries within its borders. The approach ASEAN took concerning the topic of human rights is actually not very different from the ones the UN took when undergoing similar circumstances, given that both institutions failed to restore and preserve human rights on several occasions.

The human rights commission was only recently (2009) established by ASEAN, but it raised harsh criticism until the present. Although the role of the commission was claimed to be that of "a vehicle for progressive social development and justice, the full realization of human dignity and attainment of a higher quality of life for the peoples of ASEAN" (Association of Southeast, 2010), its line of attack was less than unproductive.

One of the main concepts promoted by ASEAN is that relating to how it does not intervene in the internal affairs of the countries being a part of it. Certainly, this initially seems to be a laudable approach, given that countries are not robbed away of their independent status. However, it became obvious that the non-interference policy ASEAN adopted was more than detrimental for people in countries failing to respect human rights.

Most ASEAN countries are apparently unwilling to accept the approval of all six human rights conventions, with Cambodia and the Philippines being the only two countries in the union to have supported human rights in their complete form. It appears that most of the countries in ASEAN cannot agree to theories put across by the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), considering that only three countries in the union have ratified it.

While the Cold War emphasized the usefulness of ASEAN, matters have gradually changed along with the last decade of the twentieth century, as the war ended and economies in several countries in ASEAN destabilized as a result of economic globalization. This brought forward a series of factors ASEAN did not think about when it created its internal affairs policies, with ethno-nationalist movements wreaking chaos through secession. Ethno-nationalists were quick to take advantage of the non-intervention policy ASEAN was known to profess.

Terrorism was yet another matter ASEAN had not previously dealt with extensively, making it obvious that the union had serious flaws in its organizing abilities. Because of disagreements between their principles and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, ASEAN leaders found themselves creating a new set of theories meant to make up a human rights agenda that would fit their needs.

It is not certain what caused countries within ASEAN to be reluctant to ratify human rights conventions as they were devised in 1948. One of the most probable reasons for which they did so is their desire to keep their independence as a great Asian power. Because… [read more]


Philippines Country Report Term Paper

… Philippines

Country Background: The Philippines is a Southeast Asian counter in the western Pacific Ocean. It is southwest of Vietnam and between Indonesia and Borneo. Rather than an island nation, The Philippines is an archipelago that comprises over 7 thousand… [read more]


Why India Changed Foreign Economic Foreign Policy Since 1991 Dissertation

… INDIA'S EMERGING POWER

FOREIGN ECONOMIC POLICY

In its history, India sometimes substituted "sloganeering" for the implementation of a real foreign policy for its country. Now, however, Indian no longer maintains the position of being on the outside edge of international… [read more]


Korean American Essay

… Korean-American Journal Entry

Korean-Americans have made a contribution to the American experience for over a century. The first wave of immigrants from Korea came after Japan began to exert its dominance over the neighboring nation. Koreans fleeing their homeland were drawn to the island of Hawaii, where they knew they could find work on sugar plantations. However, this first wave of Korean immigration to the U.S. was small, as the Immigration Act of 1924 was passed soon afterwards. This Act severely limited immigration from Asia. The Act was a potent example of how racism affected early immigration policy. Politicians in power intended to keep 'America for Americans' and prevent further waves of immigration of non-whites. Even spouses were prevented from rejoining husbands and wives in America (Korean-American History, 2010, Curriculum guide).

Koreans that were already U.S. residents faced discrimination and a general sense of incomprehension of their culture. Few Americans had heard of Korea, and many simply assumed that Korean immigrants were Chinese or Japanese. Even when Japanese-occupied Korea endured tremendous suffering during World War II, unlike the 'Rape of Nanking' this received little attention even in the anti-Japanese-American press. Tensions between Japan and Korea still exist today: "The idea that Japanese colonialism somehow laid the foundation for Korea's modernizing reforms should not be offered as an apology for Japanese imperialism," wrote one Korean academic, and "while anti-Koreanism is far from the sentiment of all Japanese, a United Nations report conducted last year [2005] concluded that the island nation [of Japan] harbors deeply xenophobic attitudes. Some experts say such thinking can trace its roots to the Meiji period, when Japan's establishment actively tried to copy Western ideas and culture" (Rusling 2006). For Koreans living in the United States, the fact that some Americans tend to elide all Asian identities into one can be profoundly upsetting, given the longstanding divisive history between Korea and Japan that motivated many Koreans to immigrate to the U.S.

It was the Korean War that 'put Korea on the map' in the minds of many Americans. It also initiated another wave of immigration to the U.S., including my parents. Congress passed a series of laws enabling war brides, orphans of war, students, and individuals with special skills from all Asian countries to come to the U.S., beginning with the War Brides Act of 1946 and then followed with the 1952 McCarran-Walter Act. These acts allowed Asians to immigrate in small numbers and eventually to become U.S. citizens. My father came with his parents, who wished to escape war-torn South Korea. My mother immigrated slightly later, after the Immigration Act of 1965 further opened the doors of the U.S. To immigrants from around the world (Korean-American History, 2010, Curriculum guide).

Because both of my grandparents did not speak fluent English, their early years were filled with struggle. My mother, for example, remembers working in my grandfather's grocery store until late every night, even on school days. She would do homework in-between waiting on customers. The neighborhood was… [read more]


Thailand Agriculture Rice Research Proposal

… Thailand Agriculture (Rice)

Thailand agriculture -- Research proposal on the management of rice in Thailand

Thailand is the largest exporter of rice in the world and one of the top global producers. The rice crops in Thailand spread across surfaces larger than 10 million hectares and in all of the state's provinces (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2004). While it is globally recognized that Thailand is a strong international player on the rice market, there are still a multitude of complex issues which should be researched.

The future research endeavor strives to go beyond the commonly known fact that Thailand grows rice and to understand the complexities and the mechanisms of rice cultivation in the southeastern Asian country. In other words, it strives to asses the management of rice through various lenses, such as:

Irrigation of the rice crops

Cultivation of the rice by individual farmers and/or specialized large size farms

Environmental issues concerning rice cultivation

Regulations regarding crop cultivation

Marketing of the Thai rice within the international community

3. Literature review

After the research endeavor has introduced the reader to the general state of rice production in Thailand and has also stated the research scopes, it would move on to reviewing the most noteworthy sources within the literature. The sources would integrate a variety of works from books, journal articles, magazine articles or even internet articles.

R.E. Huke and E.H. Huke (1990) for instance offer a strong starting point in the understanding of the history of rice in Thailand. Apichai Puntasen and Paradorn Preedasak (1998) approach the entire Thai agriculture and argue that it is at a crossroads. Thamrong Mekhora and Laura M. J McCann (2003) look at rice cultivation from the standpoint of its perceived "war" with shrimp production. Lisa Kealhofer (2003) then details on the use of land and the origins of rice domestication in Thailand. K.L. Heong (2005) strives to explain the evolution and the future of rice cultivation in Thailand. Then, there are the editors at Krom Wichakan Kaset, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, International Rice Research Institute (1988) who discuss the epidemics which can impact the rice crops. Finally, Pascale M. Phelinas (2001) is concerned with the sustainability of…… [read more]


Culture in Uzbekistan Cultural Characteristic Research Paper

… Culture in Uzbekistan

CULTURAL Characteristic ONE: A strong musical heritage is an important cultural characteristic of Uzbekistan, according to an article by Alexander Djumaev in the journal Ethnomusicology Forum (Djumaev, 2005, p. 165). Djumaev writes that there were two "key figures" that created the original texts regarding the musical culture in Uzbek. Those figures were Abdurauf Fitrat (who lived 1886-1938) and Abdulla Qodiriy (1894-1940). Unfortunately these two writers were "purged" during the Soviet period of Uzbek ("purged" means they were killed for political reasons). The Soviet communist authorities claimed the two were involved in "bourgeois nationalism" and "pan-Turkism" but in fact the contributions the two writers made "remain crucial even today" (Djumaev, p. 171).

Fitrat published his main research (titled "Uzbek classical music and its history") in 1926. His work provided a "scholarly grounding" for the idea that Uzbekistan indeed had a musical heritage, Djumaev writes. A year later it was published in Arabic script. Fitrat based his justification for a national musicology on four principal aspects (Djumaev, p. 171-72): a) he was the first to attempt a definition of Uzbek music in the culture of the Muslim world as contrasted with European musical culture; b) Fitrat identified Uzbek "classical music"; c) he "integrated achievements of the past into Uzbek musical culture (incorporating Muslim, Persian concepts); and d) he "formulated the principles for the study of traditional Uzbek music" (p. 172). The Soviets took Fitrat's book off the shelves in 1935 and purged him in 1938, but his book has been kept in private collections and in scholarly libraries even today (Djumaev, p. 173).

As to the modern musical tradition that is a cultural characteristic in Uzbekistan, the Embassy of Uzbekistan explains that the "koshuk" is a household song; the "lapar" is part of wedding songs using the "ulan" (performed as a conversation between man and woman); the "dastans" are part of musical heritage -- epic legends -- in Uzbekistan (www.uzbekistan.org).

CULTURAL Characteristics TWO & TREE: women's dance ensemble and the ballet (enjoying and participating in the arts is a cultural characteristic of the Uzbek people). Laura L. Adams asserts in her essay that much of today's culture in Uzbekistan reflects Soviet instituted cultural values, because "there was no unified Uzbek national culture" prior to the repressive Soviet (the Bolsheviks) hegemony (Adams, 1999, p. 358). No doubt exists that "many" Soviet cultural policies had "harmful effects" on the citizens in Uzbek, Adams explains. Other Soviet cultural policies -- like dance and folklore ensembles -- were actually instituted by the Soviets, Adams explains. The women's dance ensemble, "a genre introduced by the Soviets," is accepted in Uzbek culture today as "the most characteristic expression of their cultural identity" (Adams, p. 363) Ironically these ensembles were brought into Uzbek by the Soviets with themes that attempted to "destroy a significant aspect of pre-Soviet culture" -- the seclusion of women.

Keeping women hidden was part of the Muslim culture prior to Soviet hegemony and hence the dance ensemble brought an end to that… [read more]


Portrait of the Warrior in Two Films Film Review

… Portrait of the Warrior in Two Films

Film is a good medium for cultural and political representation. Images and dialogue shape the audience's viewpoint concerning who they are. Without question, film is a signifying system that one can analyze for… [read more]


Why Did Japan Attack the US Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor Was the Attack Successful? Essay

… Japan and Pearl Harbor

Japan decided to strike Pearl Harbor after a series of events pushed her into a corner. Before World War II began, Japan was already at war with China. She had seized control of Manchuria and Nanking, and Beijing. Japan's intent was to establish a major presence in the Pacific. In retrospect, it appears as though Japan formulated a campaign for the Pacific while no one expected them to do so. Part of the campaign was to destroy the Chinese Nationalist party. (Craig 980) Japan also entered the Tripartite Pact with Germany in 1940. Albert Craig writes Japan had always "long admired Germany" (Craig 980) and joined them in a pact to defeat communism. An interesting twist to this pact is that fact that Germany "insisted that any alliance also be directed against the United States and Britain, to which the Japanese would not agree"(980). The idea of war should not be a total surprise since America placed Japan in a tough spot with embargoes from Washington. In addition, Washington was freezing Japanese assets in America. Japan was suffering and there were only a few viable options for them. Japan choices were either to "knuckle under to the Americans or break our of the embargo ring by a desperate attack on the oil supplies and other riches of Southeast Asia" (Bailey 843). Japan wanted to drive Western influences away from Japan and when Washington demanded Japan withdraw troops from China and Asia, she agreed and began deceptive negotiations with America and other concerned nations. While these negotiations were going on, Japan was secretly planning an attack on Pearl Harbor.

Japan's attack was successful and a complete surprise to all nations. America was aware Japan had notions of striking but there was no indication that…… [read more]


Japan vs. Pearl Harbor Essay

… Japan vs. Pearl Harbor

What were Japan's major reasons for its attack on Pearl Harbor? In what ways did the attack connect with their moves into China in the 1930s and Southeast Asia in 1941 and 1942?

Given Japan's lack of natural resources and less developed military capability, Japan knew that the war it began against the United States was an unwinnable war."Even many government leaders of Japan knew that at the time. However, at the same time, it was the war that they had to fight," once the U.S. imposed sanctions on Japan after its invasion of China (Arima 2003). Japan was utterly dependant upon trade, particularly trade with the United States. "Oil was a lifeline for power, but unlike the U.S., Japan could produce only a little amount of oil domestically…Japan had become a member of the imperial powers and one of the most advanced nations in the world of the time. However, such accomplishment and power was impossible to achieve and maintain without oil, which Japan had totally depended upon the U.S. For the supply" (Arima 2003). America supplied approximately 80% of Japan's oil resources at the time. In 1941 President Roosevelt also imposed embargos of scrap metal and other commodities essential in waging an air-based war. The U.S. demanded that Japan withdraw from its alliance with Germany and Italy as well as from Chinese territories.

Although it had been an ally of the United States during World War I, Japan's appetite for imperialist expansion had been whetted in 1894 when Japan defeated China in the Sino-Japanese War for Taiwan. It defeated the Russian Empire in 1904. Japan established control over Korea in 1910 and after its invasion of China it established the state of Manchuria in 1932. The Japanese refused to comply with U.S. demands partially out of a sense of honor: it feared that to capitulate to a Western power would mean a huge loss of face, and also could destabilize the regime of the Emperor. Japan had already suffered heavy financial and military losses to establish a presence in China (Arima 2003). Manchuria was believed to be…… [read more]


Ho Chi Minh Essay

… ¶ … Ho Chi Minh's life from his birth through the Second World War. Ho Chi Minh was the leader of Vietnam and a major force in the socialization of the country. Ho Chi Minh was born in 1890 in Vietnam, and was President of North Vietnam from 1945 until his death in 1969.

Ho Chi Minh was the son of a scholar and grew up in a poor village. According to one biographer, his real name was "Nguyen Van Thanh, which means Nguyen, who will be victorious" (Green 1996). His parents were both involved in the Vietnamese revolution against the French, and his mother was jailed for stealing guns from the French forces in the country, so revolution was in his blood. He attended a French school near his home, but spoke out against the French to the other students, so they threw him out in 1910. After that, he went to China as a teacher, and witnessed the overthrow of the Manchu dynasty in China, be became even more convinced that Vietnam should gain its freedom from the French. He traveled to Saigon to learn to cook, because he thought that as a cook he could find a job anywhere. At the age of 22, he got a job on board a French ship in the galley, and he spent several years sailing around the world, finally ending up in France. He did a lot of reading while on board the ship, and became even more interested in revolutionary activities.

After leaving the ship, he got a job in London at the Carlton Hotel, and immediately noticed the Asian workers at the hotel were being mistreated. He formed a union for the Asian employees to gain better treatment throughout the country. He then became an activist for Vietnamese freedom, and he came under the scrutiny of French spies, he literally became the voice for Indo-China and their rights. During this time, he lived in France and attended intellectual meetings. Author Karnow writes, "Like other nationalists of his generation who had lived in France or attended French schools in Vietnam, Nguyen Ai Quoc adsorbed the influence of the West but rejected its domination" (Karnow 1997, 109). He also became a socialist while he lived in France, which led him to develop communism in Indo-China when he returned home. He later said, "It was patriotism and not Communism that originally inspired me'" (Karnow 1997, 134). Later, he moved to Moscow and met several prominent Soviet leaders, including Stalin and Trotsky, who further influenced him.

In 1925, he became an interpreter and advisor to the Chinese Army, and he then began to plot forming a communist party in China that would fight for freedom for Vietnam. He also began to train some of his followers in guerilla warfare tactics, and they began to attack French forces in Vietnam in an attempt to stir up trouble. He left China after a betrayal by Chiang Kai-shek, and again went to Moscow to escape… [read more]


L Marketing Tassal Is a Tasmanian Company Essay

… ¶ … l Marketing

Tassal is a Tasmanian company engaged in the farming of Atlantic salmon and the subsequent production of frozen salmon entrees. The firm is increasing production and looking to expand overseas in order to increase its sales.… [read more]


International Marketing -- South Korea Term Paper

… South Korea's GDP is for instance greater that that of Australia, Canada, the Netherlands or Switzerland. Four decades ago however, South Korea's GDP was comparable to the national output of the poorer countries in Africa or Asia. This was however… [read more]


Modernization in Early China Term Paper

… At the beginning of the twentieth century, Okakura saw the danger of western expansionism to the East and demanded action against it from the Japanese part.

The Japanese spirit, as he Asian spirit is molded by complex and often contradicting forces: the ability to contemplate the blossoming cherry trees every year or the reddening leaves in autumn and the extreme cruelty that leads to suicide rather than loosing face. Okakura writes about art as "the highest and noblest of our national culture" (The Ideals of the East, p. 1-10).

Exteme violence and simplicity in expression have encountered a mercantile west that brought technological advancement and scientific discoveries that helped the Meiji regime ease the passage from an agrarian economy to an economy based on industry in less than a century. The modernization had come later for Japan than for other countries because of the Tokugawa's politics of complete isolation from the rest of the word for over three centuries, but this same isolation may have caused the strengthening of the Japanese spirit and the ability of the Japanese to embrace the new while keeping their values and cultural identity intact.

Sources of Japanese Tradition, Vol II. Okakura Kakuzo: Aesthetic Pan-Asianism

Rozman, G. The Modernization of China. Simon and Schuster. 1982

The Meiji Restoration and Modernization. Retrieved: Nov 22, 2009. Available at: http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/japan/japanworkbook/modernhist/meiji.html

Cheng, P-K. & Lestz, M with Spence, JD. The Search For Modern China W.W. Norton & Company. New York. London.… [read more]


What Are the Potential Reactions by Other Powers to North Korean Nuclear Capability? Research Paper

… ¶ … Powers to North Korean Nuclear Capability?

2009 has seen North Korea continue to develop its nuclear capabilities. Over the past several years North Korea has shown a need to develop weapons in a more aggressive and protective strategy.

The year has provided several instances for North Korea to threaten the fragile stability of the political relationship with the West. In March, the communist nation test fired a long-range ballistic missile.

Only a few months later, North Korea caused an international spur when it announced an alleged successful test of a nuclear bombing.

This threatened to break a delicate balance between North Korea and the West based on the superiority of the West in terms of weapon capabilities. North Korea even went out and publicly claimed this missile to have been as strong as the one used by the U.S. In World War II.

It was claimed that the test took place in an underground bunker.

In fact, North Korea has been very public in regards to its nuclear development and testing.

The nation has been making claims of nuclear development since as early as 2006

, but this claim is supported by external sources. U.S. satellite imagery was also said to have seen activity at the alleged site.

South Korean officials then confirmed some elements of the story with the revelation that they had recorded a tremor around the time the alleged test was to have taken place.

This sparked through the international political community and created great frustration and uneasiness as the Western world's most dangerous' enemy is continuing to perfect its weapons.

There are reports that North Korea may even have the capability to hit the West Coast of the United States.

The typical reaction in…… [read more]


International and Comparative HRM Term Paper

… Culture and Diversity Issues in Expanding to Singapore

In today's increasingly globalized economy, expansion beyond an organization's national borders offers many benefits. For many organizations, expanding to operations into other countries offers access to a broader consumer base, as well… [read more]


Vietnamese Domination by Other Countries Term Paper

… 56). The Catholics had benefited from the French takeover in Vietnam, because they were largely white or elite Vietnamese, the group who benefited the most from French intervention. It is not surprising that the peasants supported the Viet Minh, because… [read more]


Dr. Veraswami Thesis

… Ambivalence of Dr. Veraswami of George Orwell's Burmese Days

Better known for his classic novels, Nineteen Eighty-Four and Animal Farm, George Orwell was also the author of a number of other compelling books that have attracted a great deal of… [read more]


US Foreign Policy Towards North Korea Research Proposal

… U.S. FOREIGN POLICY TOWARDS NORTH KOREA

The objective of this work is to examine U.S. foreign policy towards North Korea and to identify some policy issue in the area of peace and conflict and analyze the situation and the proposals… [read more]


South Korea: Multilateralism, Regionalism and Its Future Research Proposal

… South Korea: Multilateralism, Regionalism and Its Future Political Outlook

The Korean Peninsula is frequently the provocateur for headlines in the global community, both for its proclivity toward tension and conflict and for its relative importance in its region and the… [read more]


India Pakistan Conflicts Thesis

… India-Pakistan Conflict

A GLOBALLY CATASTROPHIC COMMUNICATION GAP

India

The Republic of India measures 3.1 million square kilometers and is located on the Indian Plate in South Asia (BBC, 2009). It has the second largest population in the world with 1.2… [read more]


China Town Idea Analysis Essay

… ¶ … China Town Idea" Analysis

"the Chinatown Idea:" Chinatown as a concept and geographical location

In his essay, "The Chinatown Idea," author Eric Liu analyzes the concept of a 'Chinatown' within major metropolitan areas. Liu's approach is intriguing, given that the existence of 'Chinatowns' is something many people take for granted, without assessing their ideological implications. Visitors to cities often come to gawk at Chinatowns as tourist attractions, even though 'real' people live there, and conduct their daily lives there. The language of Chinatowns, the appearance of signs in Chinese characters creates a vision of an 'otherworldly' place for outsiders and a sense of a different country and place for both Chinese and non-Chinese observers. Chinatown is thus an epistemological concept as well as a geographically-bound entity -- it is a physical area, true, but it also provides comfort to the residents and visitors that something outside of the laws and restrictions of mainstream culture is preserved. It manufactures its own unique culture as a neighborhood, yet isolates Chinese culture as a museum piece for those who might find such an alternative culture to be threatening.

One of the central metaphors Liu uses is that of an island: he observes that Chinatown is "an island of eternity in a sea of modernity" (Liu 172), indicating its preservation of traditional Chinese practices in a country that is constantly changing. The island does not threaten the 'mainland' of modernity, only streets away, as it is governed by different rules that do not spill over into the larger world. This idea of Chinatown as an exotic country is reinforced by another metaphor -- that of a nation occupied by a colonizing power with some limited ability to govern itself: traditional "Chinese ways" determine how life progresses, as Chinatown is "a zone of 'home rule,' where "the natives govern themselves" (Liu 173). In the perception of non-residents, Chinatown is foreign, intriguing and largely irrelevant, given that Chinatown is usually in a small sector of a city, a mysterious town or realm of surprises of "meaning and moral import" but utterly separate (Liu 172). On one hand, this experience may be frightening to 'non-natives,' that is Caucasian non-residents, but on the other hand, Chinatown provides a kind of safety valve. The presence of a Chinatown suggests that there is no need to integrate the inhabitants: they live according to their own rules and do not want to follow the rules of mainstream society. This is why the habits of Chinatown residences are often condemned and criticized, even while observers flock to witness these practices performed in the flesh. Good examples of this are what type of animals are consumed and how animals are slaughtered and prepared. While newspapers may condemn the 'fresh killing' of animals in public as a health hazard, this often stimulates the desire of the public to see it in action. Somehow public health questions do not seem to matter as much in Chinatown.

There is also a kind of otherworldly… [read more]


Taiwan and Tibet Issue Research Proposal

… Tibet and China: An Eternal and Growing Controversy

Although signs that proclaim 'Free Tibet' are popular on college campuses across the nation, many individuals who hang these likely have little idea what freeing Tibet really means. China's hosting of the Olympics during the summer of 2008 turned the international focus briefly to the issue when pro-independence protesters dotted the road of the torchbearers making their way to Beijing. Even many liberal Chinese were outraged at the sight, as they consider Tibet a part of the Chinese nation, while most of Tibet regards itself as a unique nation-state and a captive of the Republic of China. For human rights activists, the distinct monastic culture and tradition of Tibet are a powerful argument for the need to 'Free Tibet,' in the words of the slogan.

According to this viewpoint, Tibet had long existed as its own separate nation, with a distinct culture and geography, until it was invaded by the People's Republic of China. During the early decades of its existence, the People's Republic, in the name of universal international socialism, strove to extend its control over a wide swath of third-world countries in the region. However, Tibet because of its geographical proximity to China had always enjoyed something of a problematic relationship with mainland China -- the relationship was symbiotic, but not that of an integrated state or province.

Since the very beginnings of relations between the two nations, China has varied widely in its policy, occasionally taking a hands-off attitude to Tibet, at other times enforcing administrative control over the nation. "By the mid-nineteenth century, if not earlier, Manchu Chinese influence was minuscule' (Goldstein & Rimpoche 44). But tensions between Tibet's desire for autonomy and China's leadership have existed as early as the Qing Dynasty: "with the threat posed to their authority by the Dalai Lama, to whom many Qing subjects in both Mongolia and Tibet looked for religious leadership" seen as destabilizing to the authority of the Qing in the neighboring provinces (Waley-Cohen 94). The "elimination of the age-old nomadic threat to their northwest frontiers" was only achieved by the temporary incorporation of Tibet into the Chinese fold (Waley-Cohen 94). Threats posed by Western, Imperialist powers such as France and China only sharpened the desire of the Chinese to continue to have sway over Tibet as a buffer state. And when Tibet was independent during the beginning of the 20th century, when the Japanese military machine severed China's traditional supply routes, the Nationalist Chiang Kai-shek needed a conduit he had sought to create an India-China roadway through Tibet. The nationalist desire to dominate Tibet confirmed the Communist sense that Tibet was necessary to include within their fold to assure their security against internal and foreign invaders.

China thus came to associate control over Tibet with its strength as a nation and resistance to Western imperialism and control over its policy. As the People's Republic secured its power, this "strengthened China's confidence about pursuing a number of other goals in…… [read more]


US China Trading Relations Research Proposal

… U.S. CHINA TRADING RELATIONS

The objective of this work is to examine China and U.S. trading relations of Post-Tiananmen China from the perspective of Chinese businessmen. This work will answer the questions of:

In the context of the U.S. hostility… [read more]


Ethnographic Encounter Thesis

… Ethnographic Study of Chinese Women in America

The objective of this work is to investigate the problem of dealing with the Chinese females became much more complex after they settle in China Town in the United States. Despite the Chinese… [read more]


Taiwanese Identity Term Paper

… Republicanism in British America

The history of the Taiwanese people is an intriguing and at the same time interesting part of the history of the world. It represents the combination of the influences of the traditional way of life and… [read more]


Nationalist Struggles for Self-Determination - The Wave Term Paper

… Nationalist struggles for self-Determination - the wave of decolonization in Algeria and India

The fall of the European Empires in the twentieth century came in different manners, either with a war of independence or by negotiations between the parties involved.… [read more]


Malaysia Cultural Influences on Ethnic Society Political Term Paper

… Malaysia Cultural Influences on Ethnic Society

Political Science: Malaysia

The purpose of this paper is to explain the stability in ethnic relations in Malaysia since 1969. Political, economic, and cultural explanations are reviewed, with the most persuasive answer providing the… [read more]


Decline of China 18th Early 19th Centuries Term Paper

… Decline of China 18th Early 19th Centuries

China has recently gone trough a significant political and economic change, as it has finally taken back all its territories from European control, the last vestiges of colonial interests.

In 1999, China resumed… [read more]


Culture Realms of Southeast Asian Term Paper

… Culture Realms of Southeast Asia

Discuss different culture realms in this region

Discuss what the paper is going to be about

Brunei

Region

People

Economy

Religion

Burma

Region

People

Economy

Religion

Cambodia

Region

People

Economy

Religion

Indonesia

Region

People

Economy… [read more]


Kim Jong Il: North Korea's Dear Leader Book Review

… Kim Jong Il: North Korea's Dear Leader By Michael Breen

Kim Jong-II, North Korea's Dear Leader

Breen, Michael. Kim Jong-II, North Korea's Dear Leader. New York: John Wiley, 2003. Updated 2004.

The purpose and thesis of Michael Breen's biography of… [read more]


Vietnam Policy on Ethnic Affairs Minorities From 1975 to 2000 Term Paper

… Vietnam Policy on Ethnic Affairs (Minorities) From 1975 to 2000.

This paper provides an analysis and evaluation of the role ethnic affairs played in Vietnamese governments from 1975 to 2000. These years are significant because they represent a time where… [read more]


Future of Global Marketing Term Paper

… Future of Global Marketing

Global Marketing

Enhancement of the concept of 'Global Marketing' is being extensively fostered in both the fields of professional as well as domestic societies. The domestic markets cannot single-handedly generate the income as well as the… [read more]


Linguistics East Asian Languages Term Paper

… East Asian Languages

Beijing isn't doing anything different from what the British or the Americans or the French have done - sending emissaries abroad to spread its language and culture," according to Michael Erard in the Wired article "The Mandarin Offensive." Spreading language in fact is spreading culture because language remains the gateway of learning about cultural values, themes, and worldviews. Moreover, spreading language legitimizes societies and encourages social and economic interest in those cultures. The primary reason why the government of China's Hanban is aggressively pursuing a Chinese language education campaign worldwide is to increase popular interest and corporate investment in the world's largest nation. The $25 million per year investment in Chinese language and culture education is justified by expected returns in tourism, consumerism, and acceptance of Chinese culture and values worldwide.

Mandarin Chinese also seems inaccessible and exotic: sending emissaries abroad is essential. The Chinese government cannot rely on Chinese immigrants to carry the…… [read more]


Cold War on the Periphery Term Paper

… Pakistan also announced wanting to negotiate a border-demarcation agreement with China. By the end of Eisenhower's term, he had begun to reverse the alliance with Pakistan over to India.

Under the John F. Kennedy Administration, the alliance with India played… [read more]


Media in the Modern World Term Paper

… Media

In the modern world, it is easy to forget that in the recent past, many of the world's powers are incredibly young as nation-states. Britain controlled India until the mid-20th century; Hong Kong was a British colony until 1997,… [read more]


Anime Is, in Essence, the Japanese Form Term Paper

… Anime is, in essence, the Japanese form of animation. In general, it is characterized by extremely stylized and colorful graphics, and the use of vivacious and vibrant colors. The graphics used depict energetic and effervescent characters that are set in… [read more]


Chinese History Term Paper

… Press, 1962) Contrast life on the steppe to life in China. Which might be better and why?

On the surface, the comparison between life on the Chinese steppe and under the ruling authority of the Mongol Genghis Khan might seem to be an obvious one -- surely a choice would necessitate, on the basis of self-preservation alone, living in the China of the past! But as noted in "Genghis Khan," although Mongol has become almost synonymous with the term barbarian, and the Mongols were indeed a tribal people, living a harsh life as hunters and gatherers, they were not barbaric in the sense that they were bloodthirsty. They raided for a way of obtaining foodstuffs and necessary goods rather than simply to enact sheer bloodshed. The Mongols were not a literate people, but they had a close and clannish sense of primitive obligations to one another, which actually fostered a kind of rough sense of democracy between all Mongol members of a particular tribe. Tribes were not socially stratified by possessions, access to education and material trappings, nor of rural or urban dwelling status, as was characteristic of China.

When comparing the life of a Mongol tribesman or tribeswoman with a Chinese person in China before the Mongol invasion, always one must ask which China, and which Chinese life one was engaging in, as a citizen of the Sung Dynasty? For example, as an ordinary woman living on the Chinese Steppe, foot binding was a common practice, and one might prefer the more free life of a woman following a khan leader and his hordes for sustenance. Rather than being tied to a particular tenant patch of farmed land for a noble in general, and paying disproportionately high taxes, the rough and shared democracy of the harsh steppe, however scarcely it might yield food might seem preferable to either a man or a woman.

Also, the Mongols as rulers were considerably more expansive in their embracing ethnic, cultural, and economic vision of life for ordinary citizens. China retained its sense of specialness, confirmed by the highly structured schema of advancement of its civil administration, where potential officials were examined upon their knowledge of protocol and literature. In the Mongol fold, one was judged upon one's tenacity as a warrior, and simply as a survivor. The more practical Mongols supported foreign mercantile ventures in all spheres of their empire, rather than isolated their peoples from other spheres. Nor were there marked distinctions between urban and rural dwellers, which limited the access of steppe dwellers in China to the range of goods that was open to the dwellers of cities -- as well as the educational opportunities of cities. Even if there was more educational and economic want under the khans, it was a want shared by virtually all, and did not create a geographical caste distinction.

Overall, despite the hardship, the Mongol sense of commonality allowed for a greater shared level of economic prosperity between common individuals, in contrast to socially… [read more]


Expatriate Education for Thailand Access Term Paper

… For example, Thais will readily shake hands with Westerners because they understand that this is the custom, but the vast majority of Thais continue to practice the traditional wai when meeting each other. The wai, or bowing of head with… [read more]


Comparing the Japanese and the Nationalists Colonize Taiwan Term Paper

… Japanese Colonization of Taiwan

Over the past several decades, research has indicated that during the colonization of Taiwan, many different tools and devices have been used by the Japanese during the time period before the relocation of the Kuomintang (KMT)… [read more]


Taiwan Is an Island Located in East Term Paper

… Taiwan is an island located in East Asia off the coast of mainland China, south of Japan, and north of the Philippines (Taiwan pp). Known as Formosa, Portuguese for beautiful island, it is 245 miles long and 90 miles wide… [read more]


Chinese Cultural Revolution, Which Began Term Paper

… On the surface, these bits of fatherly advice seem quite harmless if not downright appropriate, but what Mao was actually attempting to do was control the Chinese populace via propaganda and concealment, meaning that his true goal was the complete… [read more]


Specific Country Term Paper

… Thailand

History as defined in Thailand concentrates more on the Thai people, and not on the history of people living in the present day area defined as being Thailand. This history can be divided into two parts - before Sukhothai… [read more]


Japan's Current and Politic Term Paper

… In the later part of April, 2005 great anti-Japan protests were demonstrated in China. (UN Security Council: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

About ten thousand tough demonstrations were made on April 9th in Beijing, opposing the World War II records of… [read more]


China Is Equivalent to Europe Term Paper

… ¶ … China is equivalent to Europe in many ways in terms of its internal development and the kind of impact it has on countries around it. It is important to understand China's current rapid growth and its economic, political, social and cultural influence through the prospective of its earlier growth and influence.

Early Influences

China's civilization was recognized for centuries as one of the most important in the world. China "outpaced the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, his successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ch.html)."

Changes and Growth in China

Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, "East Asia was the most dynamic region in the global economy, and China had the highest growth rate in the world (Jung)." In 1997 and 1998 many countries in Southeast and East Asia had to deal with financial difficulties known as the 'Asian flu', however China was able to avoid the financial setbacks experienced by its neighbors. These countries were able to rebound fairly quickly, however "from 1999 to 2000, China continued to grow at the impressive rate of 7% per year. From 2002 through 2003, China grew by an impressive 9% per year in a fairly soft global economy (Jung)."

Since 2000, many of the citizens of China have realized "dramatically improved living standards and the room for personal choice has expanded, however political controls remain tight (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ch.html)."

Impressive Record

China has…… [read more]

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