Study "Asian History / Asia" Essays 331-384

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Nobi vs. Western Slaves Essay

… Slaves and Nobi in Korean History

The Nobi system in Korea designated a form of ownership where the property constituted of human beings. The system sustained the Korean society from the early 1400s until the end off the nineteenth century was it was abolished. There were various forms of servitude and degrees of dependence, but they all had one thing in common: ownership. People were owned either privately or state owned. As in many parts of the world at various times in the development of human societies, this system was extremely complex and worked well over centuries to support a privileged ruling minority. The upper, privileged class depended entirely on the services or taxes of the so called Nobi class.

Kichung Kim points out that the real thoughts and voices of those who were known as Nobi could never carry testimonies of their life style and concerns over to us since most of them were illiterate and even if there were possibilities for one of them to leave written record, there would have been little interest form the part of their owner to preserve them. The official records will show provide the numbers to assist the historian or the sociologist in their work, but they will never really provide an in-depth picture of the lives of these people over generations.

As in most slave owning societies, those who owned human beings developed a philosophy that never allowed them to treat their slave servants as their fellow humans. The system worked best when the nobi remained in an uncertain inferior category that would never designate them as human beings.

During the dynasty, most of the nobi were sanobi (privately owned) and there were mainly two types of them: those who were directly in service (iby0k nobi) and those who paid an annual tax in exchange for their personal services (napgong nobi). The latter did not live with their master, although…… [read more]

China Influence the Social, Political, and Religious Essay

… ¶ … China influence the social, political, and religious characteristics of Japan?

Perhaps more so than any other country, China played a profound influence on the social, political and religious characteristics of Japan. It was able to affect these pivotal areas of life in Japan due to its lengthy history with the latter. In many ways, the geography of Japan is situated as islands off the shores of China, which provides the mainland. This fact, as well as the lengthy history of Chinese civilization in various aspects of government and religion created a situation in which China was able to assert influence over Japan as though the latter were a colony [gimme better thesis].

Perhaps the most tangible way in which Chinese civilization has impacted Japanese civilization is in terms of religion. Although Japan is primarily associated with Shinto which largely serves as its national religion in contemporary times, Buddhism took root on the island relatively early on in Japanese history. When Buddhism was formally introduced to Japan in the 6th century, residents of China were responsible for introducing the religion there. Since one of the principle ways in which China was able to influence Japan was in terms of its political structure, Buddhism became popular with the imperial ruling class of China before eventually spreading to the lower classes. Gradually, certain traditions associated with Buddhism -- such as practices related to death and the way that people were buried -- became manifest in Japanese culture and functioned as markers of China's influence.

As previously denoted, China's influence on Japanese civilization is demonstrated extremely saliently in the political characteristics of Japan. At various stages in the history of Japan, China occupied it and maintained a substantial presence with the various royal entities that governed the islands. Subsequently, the very structure of the Japanese government was based on a Chinese model in which there was a centralized administration supporting the royal court…… [read more]

Selected Essay

… Though a nuisance, the faces of the two show that the flood nuisance can take a backstage at the moment and the basic needs that they are going after are more urgent and a point of worry. The clear sky is also a detail that stands out as it bring absolute contrast in the entire situation captured in the photo, the whole region is flooded by the rains that pound the area but for now the skies are very clear with no slightest sign of rain having pounded the area so much.

The interpretation that could be given to the photo is that of contrast through the lens since almost everything that is captured in the photo has its contrast within the same photo making the image to speak volumes to the viewer. The challenge that befell the old mother also befell the young boy hence worrying both the old and young. The poor neighborhood depicted by the shanty houses is contrasted against the high-rise buildings at the horizon. The pandemic of flood all over is contrasted with the clear skies overhead. The challenge of poor drainage and need for food for the two people in the image is contrasted sharply by the optimistic faces that they wear essentially making this an image f contrast at its best.

This image as picked from a library of the images from Bangladesh and most of the images therein were of the challenges that the country faces, the killings, war, floods, famine, drought, riots, collapsed buildings and hungry faces. This had some bearing in the interpretation of the photo since once started studying the image, I was looking for points of problems or challenges depicted in the image, as was the overriding theme in the others, hence this could be an intervention in my interpretation of the image. The caption of the photo read "Bangladesh is frequently struck by the worst tropical storms and cyclones, but the country has started an effective disaster risk reduction system." Perhaps this also influenced significantly how I interpreted the image since in as much as there are challenges depicted in the photo, there is hope also depicted in the photo, there are positive points captured just as the government interventions have been captioned as effective.

Generally, the image, apart from being a god piece of art it also tells the real story of this region, it gives hope to the people of this region that it is possible for the flooding to cease, it is possible to have the better housing and also that humanity can still prevail over the challenges that come their way as the mother and the son are doing.


Allianz, (2014). Disaster Protection in Bangladesh: Shouting Saves Lives.… [read more]

Tragedy of Othello Essay

… On the other hand, Cyprus is considered more of a place where lawlessness is prominent and chaos and violence is found.

In Othello's revenge, the major focus is placed on Cyprus and there is no sign of Venice in the… [read more]

Trade Agreements Essay

… International Trade

Pacific Alliance captures zeitgeist in era of 'mega' trade agreements

This article discusses a recent agreement between four Latin American countries (Chile, Columbia, Peru and Mexico) to lower tariff and non-tariff barriers and create a commercial framework that can increase and substantiate the connections and economic links between these countries. The overall objective of such an agreement is to make all four economies more competitive in the international arena, more able to compete with rising Asian economies.

The article looks in detail at the premises of such a deal, pointing out correctly that most of the large commercial blocks (the EU, the U.S., Japan etc.) have grown tired of the inconsistency of negotiations and, particularly, of the results of the latest Doha Round within the WTO. As a consequence, many of them are looking at bypassing the WTO by working out big, strategic, regional deals. Examples in this sense include the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), between the EU and the U.S., or the Trans-Pacific Partnership.

Within that context and against this background, the article aims to place the Pacific Alliance, between the four states previously mentioned. On one hand, these countries are not isolated: they are part of the Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations and many, if not all, have separate free trade agreement with either the U.S. Or the EU or both. So, their own commercial partnership is formed on the background of a larger, more ample context of commercial cooperation.

Second, initiatives such as the Pacific Alliance are an intelligent way of building small in order to get bigger. Rather than reaching the large multilateral trade agreements previously discussed in single-handed negotiations, another way to get there is to have smaller agreements, such as this, that could eventually be linked with others to build the whole.

Obama Highlights Need for U.S.-EU Energy Cooperation

This article focuses on a particular area of interest for the commercial relationship between the U.S. And the EU, namely the energy sector. This is a timely discussion, in the context in which Europe is depending on Russian gas for a large part of its energy needs and in which the Russians are playing a strong political hand in Ukraine and the region.

President Obama declared that including energy into the trans-Atlantic free trade deal would be a most important step in solving the energy dependency problem that the European Union has. The president emphasized that it is necessary to place this in a free trade agreement framework, because this would allow facilities in terms of export licenses for energy such as liquefied gas.

The article shows that the fact that the Europeans could change their primary source of energy (Russia supplies about 33% of the total energy needs in Europe) would make sanctions such as the ones that Europe has applied due to Russia's policy in Ukraine, more efficient.

An interesting fact that the article reveals is that, while this appears to be a helpful, outstretched hand…… [read more]

Culture Conflict Research Paper

… Culture Conflict

The conflict that I have chosen is the ongoing issue with the Senkaku Islands in the East China Sea. A few days ago, China unilaterally claimed an air protection zone around the islands, informing airlines that they would… [read more]

Rights and Developing Countries Human Essay

… These communal groupings have been present in India since the colonial times. There have been several incidences where members of these communities have massacred one another. In one occurrence, Islamic militants murdered Hindus in Kerala. There was also an event during the partition of India where people of all religions died in great numbers. The riots and murder in India has brought to light the importance of human rights. Development and knowledge have made India develop policies that are able to safeguard human rights. There is a shift in ideology to previous human rights issues that concentrated on liberty and civil rights to the present model (Stefancic and Delgado, 1992). In the present world, non-governmental organizations have just changed their tactics to remain relevant.


Kieran, M. 2007. "Beyond legalism: towards a thicker understanding of transitional justice." Journal of Law and Society 34(4), Pp. 411-440.

Kapoor, I.2008. The postcolonial politics of development. New York: Routledge.

Agnes, F. Sudir C, and Monmayee, B.1999. Law and gender inequality: The politics of women's rights in India. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Spipati, V.2001. "Human Rights in India-Fifty Years After Independence." Denv. J. Int'l L. & Pol'y 26. Pp. 93.

Stefancic, J. And Delgado, R.1992. "Shifting Balance: Freedom of Expression and Hate-Speech Restriction, A." Iowa L. Rev. 78, Pp. 737.

Puddington, A.2009. "Freedom in the world 2009: Setbacks and resilience." Freedom House,


Geetanjali.M. 2009.…… [read more]

Korean War Cause and Effects Essay

… The Soviet Union, which had a permanent seat on the Security Council and would have been in a place to veto both measures, was boycotting the session. Because the newly established Communist nation of China had not been given a permanent seat on the council, the Soviet Union decided to boycott the session and was not there to oppose the resolutions. Without this turn of events, it is unlikely that the United Nations would have authorized the use of force to aid the South leading to the collapse of the South and the unification of the Korean Peninsula under Communist rule.

But the war did happen and as a result the nation remains split to this very day. While the border is not exactly the same as it was prior to the war, Korea is still split roughly along the 38th parallel. This split has led to the biggest result of the war, two very different nations. North Korea remains a communist dictatorship with a centralized government, a police state, an economy that is in ruins, starving people and is isolated from the world in general. On the other side of the border is one of the most thriving democracies with a booming economy and international acceptance. South Korea currently is one of Asia's leading economic powers and its people experience free elections, a free press, and a free society.

However, the results of the war were not all beneficial, one of the more negative results of the war was the confirmation on the part of the United States and its allies of the "Domino Theory." This theory stated that if one country fell to the Communists, then, like a series of dominos, others would follow. Because of this theory the United States adopted a policy of containment toward Communist expansion and pledged to aid any nation who was resisting Communist aggression. This led to the U.S. becoming directly involved in Vietnam and one of the nation's…… [read more]

Political Economy of Kazakhstan Essay

… Political Economy of Kazakhstan

When most people think of Kazakhstan, the will often associate it with one the former Soviet Republics. While this is true, there are many other factors that help to make the country unique. To fully understand… [read more]

Policies That UK Government Essay

… How can social class affect individuls business.

For many centuries, Japan was a feudal nation ruled by an emperor and occupied by a hierarchy of shoguns, daimyos, samurais, farmers and merchants. This system closely resembled the noble landowner hierarchy that persisted in Europe until the French Revolution. In Japan, the feudal system's end came with the devastation of the atomic bombs that ended World War II. These brought to an end the all-encompassing rule of Japan's Emperor Hirohito and ushered in an era of dominant western influence. The forces of capitalism and democracy would be especially powerful during the inception period.

The result has actually been a fairly thorough dismantling of the class system in Japan's highly egalitarian socio-economic structure. Accordingly, we find that "the gaps between rich and poor are not as glaring in Japan as they are in many countries, and a remarkable 90% or more of Japanese people consider themselves middle class. This contrasts with most of Japan's previous recorded history, when profound social and economic distinctions were maintained between Japan's aristocracy and its commoners." (Countries Quest, p. 1)

While the enormity of the middle class in Japan does represent a great achievement in the spirit of capitalism, it also imposes considerable strain on its participants. As this impacts business organizations in Japan, competition for work and career advancement are rigorous and the pressure on young working men and women can be especially fierce. The result is exceptionally high levels of depression, suicide and heart attacks in for young working Japanese.

Works Cited:

Clegg, N. (2012). Opening Doors, Breaking Barriers: A Strategy for Social Mobility. Deputy Prime Minister.…… [read more]

North Korea Political Position Research Paper

… S. Options. CRS Report for Congress.]

Proliferation to the states

Us representatives stated that North Korea have to develop the further nuclear artillery within the red-line to all states. For instance, after the China's nuclear test in 1964, the United States share their nuclear powers with and technologies with India but after that sharing United States have their own thousands of nuclear arsenal and up till after the establishment, these weapons are nonproliferation according to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty[footnoteRef:10]. [10: Ibid. ]

In 2002, the CIA stated that North Korean agency provide WMD technology practices to other recipients either of other states or non-actor states. CIA also reports that North Korea nuclear agency just provides the ballistic fissile material, components or expertise of missiles not provide their nuclear artillery. North Korea willingly sells their nuclear armaments or fissile substance to other states including United States. In 1988, the Unites States adds the name of North Korea in the list of terrorism sponsors because according to the U.S. reports North Korea have sell their weapons to the most of the terrorist groups in 2000. Moreover, in 2000, Unites States and North Korea have signed a statement that the selling of their artillery to the terrorist huddle would diminish the harmony and serene of the whole nation. As well as, it will become a threat for international security[footnoteRef:11]. By viewing the history of North Korea, they were involved in selling fissile material an were involved in black business like smuggling shows that the old leader Jim Jong-Il openly deals with the terrorist groups because of which North Korea signed an agreement in 2001 related to the financing of terrorism. [11: Dunlop, W. & Smith, H. (2006) Who Did It? Using International Forensics to Detect and Deter Nuclear Terrorism. Arms Control Today. ]

Impact on other proliferators

While the North Korean nuclear artillery capabilities persuade other states in the constituency by performing their nuclear test. In addition, this nuclear would become a lesson for other states that can also build the equivalent capabilities to demonstrate themselves within the region. The response of a nuclear test can resolve so many consequences regarding international norms[footnoteRef:12]. [12: Ibid. ]


In the above research, we put the light on the relationship between North Korea and United States. And we conclude that North Korea poses threats to United States after developing their new and innovative atomic technology which is made up of fissile missile and is made by uranium and plutonium. They developed the third atomic device, the first two atomic missiles were failed to proceed, and they were of short-range, but afterward under the rule of Jim UN, theory run the test of third atomic device and get succeed that time. Then they pose threats to three countries which include South Korea, Japan and United States. As we know U.S. is the top most leading country cannot bear that threats and decided to denuclearize the threats on the peninsula at North Korea. Chine, one of the… [read more]

Ancient Chinese Contributions ) Identify Essay

… Saltern: in the harvesting salt, one of salterns considered being earliest and found in Yungsheng Lake, Shaanxi around 6000 BC. Zhongba ruins where salt making evidence can be tracked that dates back to about 2000 BC (Ornstein, Levine, & Gutek, 2011).

(2) Nominate four that you believe are the most ingenious or innovative. (3) Explain why you believe these four inventions or contributions are the most useful inventions or contributions from the ancient Chinese.

Paper publishing and printing: possible, the Chinese had the desire to make serious developments in the print word. Lun TS'ai invented manufacturing of paper and its process. In addition, its first introduction was carried out in China. Using the baked clay, the paper had a very recommendable quality. In other areas, parchment and papyrus were being used. In 693 AD, China invented the first printing press ever. The first ever newspaper was availed in Beijing; this took place in 700 AD. This was woodblock printing (Needham, 2009).

Papermaking: the Chinese invented papermaking. The original term that was used to refer to paper money was flying money. This was because the money in paper form was very light and wind could easily carry it. The government quickly adapted paper money as business merchants as certificates for exchange were using it: the government sought to use it for tax payments forwarding. In the year 1024, the government of Song took the process of printing money and made it be used as an exchange medium; it was accompanied with coins, which were commonly referred to as deposited cash (Ornstein, Levine, & Gutek, 2011).

Fireworks and gunpowder: As one of the four most great and significant Ancient China inventions, gunpowder was the firs ever explosive to be used by man. The invention should be attributed to the great alchemist of the Ancient China. His inspiration was drawn from fire-ignition that came due to the process of pill making. In the process, there was the use of niter, sulfur among other substances. The gunpowder formulae were subsequently created (Ornstein, Levine, & Gutek, 2011).

Compass: the compass in Chinese is known as Si Nan and the earliest version of the current compass was in the form of an instrument that was in two parts. The first one was a metallic spoon that had magnetic loadstone, while the other one was a square plate made of bronze, which was a feature in the Chinese characters, four main directions of the compass including west, east, south, and north. The components were opposite in physical and spiritual terms. The spoon was a representation of heaven while the plate represented the earth. When these two components came together, they gave one direction (Needham, 2009).

(4) Identify one invention or contribution that you cannot live without and explain why.

Zero: In the whole, it is in recognition that the Chinese were the first to take the step of developing the zero concepts. The zero is very much important even in the computation of mathematics that are considered… [read more]

Aggression and Violence Expression Essay

… Gestures are not an important communication tool in Japanese culture" (Cultural information -- Japan, 2009, Centre for Intercultural Learning). It has been noted that in Japan, public displays of emotion are less accepted. "Violent outbreaks can happen, though not common, and also that they can be displayed more overtly than other feelings such as affection, grudges or jealousy" (Cultural information -- Japan, 2009, Centre for Intercultural Learning).

The complexities regarding how aggression is viewed in Japan demonstrate how aggression is never merely regarded as a positive or negative attribute. Physical touching considered friendly in the U.S. might be regarded as aggressive in Japan, yet aggression itself is in Japan is regarded as 'normal' even though some of that violent aggression must be socialized and contained for society to function. Socialization is viewed as a positive value in Japan, even though aggression is often construed in the U.S. As antisocial. Violence, although not common in Japan, is less off-putting than other types of displays of emotion of a sexual nature. And violence compared with other types of negative social losses such as a 'loss of face' is not seen in as negative a fashion, at least according to stated perceptions.


Cultural information -- Japan. (2009). Centre for Intercultural Learning. Retrieved:

Friedman, Ray, Liu, Wu, Chen Chao C., Chi, Shu-Cheng Steve. (2007). Causal attribution for interfirm contract violation: A comparative study of Chinese and American commercial arbitrators. Journal of Applied Psychology 92 (3) 856 -- 864

Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama, Teten, Andra L., DeGarmo, David S., Sue, Stanley, Stephens,

Kari A. (2005). Ethnicity, culture, and sexual aggression: Risk and protective factors Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73 (5) 830 -- 840

Osterweil, Zahava & Nagano-Nakamura, Keiko. (1992). Maternal views on aggression: Japan

and Israel Aggressive Behavior, 18(40): 263 -- 270.

Ramirez, J. Martin, Andreu, Manuel, & Fujihara, Takehiro. (2001). Cultural and sex differences in aggression: A comparison between…… [read more]

Radical Art From India Contested Terrain Essay

… Indian Art

For centuries, philosophers have puzzled the human condition. Questions abound about why humans act the way they do, why they form groups, what role cultural and social norms have for learning, how societies form, the nature of society, social change, and the way integration and alienation fit in with modern societies. . In particular, the changes in urbanization and technology, and access to other cultures, spurred even more study of what it means to be human. Together, these paradigms form a notion of human history in which theories have tried to explain different aspects of human behavior and interaction. One way of looking at a particular issue on the human condition is through art. We ask ourselves, then, what is it we can learn from art that may enhance or become more experiential than literature. In the most basic sense, we learn to benefit from the insight of others and to open our minds to new ways of thinking, of the ambiguities of meaning, and of different interpretations that come into our own tool box of life. Art is a part of the extreme and most availably knowledge about humanity. Even simple sketches contain our overall beliefs about ourselves and the universe, our assumptions about the world, and how we found ways to understand and live to the next generation. Art forces us to pause a bit and think about what we see and feel; we can visualize it on the surface, or we can look for deeper meaning and ask, "what is the artist telling us?" Of course, we know that life is not simple and cannot always be expressed in simple terms.

This is a powerful way to introduce some of the material from post-colonial India. K.S. Kulkarni, (1916-1994), for instance, lived during a time of turbulence and change for India. He was born while the Raj still controlled almost every aspect of Indian life, during the transfer of power and the initial conflict between Hinduism and Islam, the assassination of Gandhi and the formation of a new democracy, and even into the post-Cold War India in which the tenets of globalism began to drastically change Indian Society. Krishna Kulkarni studied art in Bombay and had his first one-man show in 1945 when he was almost 30. In 1948 he founded the Triveni Kala Sangam and served as the director of the Art Department for the next 20 years. In the mid-1950s, he began to travel throughout Central and South America, and was heavily influenced by both the Mayan and Incan artistic expression (Kulkarni -- Profile, 2012).

Kulkarni focused primarily on the form of art -- and thought that art could hold meaning and emotion in a way that literature could not. In his artwork, this comes through in the manner in which his images have no real cultural context -- they can be peasants in India, Mexico, or Guatemala; and the dwellings and views of the micro can be almost anyplace and anytime. It seemed,… [read more]

China it Was the End Essay

… China had its eye on the development of railroads and shipyards, as well as mining and light industries that could modernize the economy ("China in Decline"). The Self-Strengthening Movement even allowed for the translation of key Western texts, when those texts would aid in an understanding of science, government, and the economy ("China in Decline").

Japan, on the other hand, dealt with Western Imperialist threats with more foresight and efficiency. One of the factors that ensured Japan's victory in the Sino-Japanese War was Japan's greater social cohesion. During the Meiji Restoration, the government radically restructured Japanese society, from a feudal model to a modern democratic one. China did no such thing. By neglecting the importance of social and political reforms, China missed out on an opportunity for thorough modernization that would have helped it fare better in the Sino-Japanese War.

Japan was therefore better prepared for the Sino-Japanese War than China was, and this victory reverberated throughout the world. The successful industrialization programs that started during the Meiji Restoration had paid off. Japan invaded and occupied Korea. After the war, China also agreed to cede Taiwan. Japan, bolstered by its victory, vied for the Chinese Concessions right along with Western powers. The Japanese brand of imperialism grew to become a global threat. Japan at first enjoyed a more equal footing with the Western powers. Yet the Second World War would pit the Western powers and Japan pitted against each other. The Sino-Japanese War can therefore be viewed as an important precursor to the Pacific front of Second World War.

Works Cited

"China in Decline" [Lecture Notes]

"The First Sino Japanese War." Retrieved online:

"Meiji Period." Retrieved online:… [read more]

International Culture and Disaster Management Research Paper

… Various NGOs, national and international took part in the relief operation. After the relief period was closed many of them slowly withdrew, the reason for withdrawal was due to lack of funds to take part in reconstruction program, large and strong NGO's proceeded and got involved in rehabilitation programs. The government played an important role advocating for NGO's to adopt a particular village for rehabilitation. The governments supported by contributing a half of the cost of rehabilitation.

Sources of funding for reconstruction included:

Through Multilateral loan funding from the World Bank and Asian Development Bank.

From the corporate sector and NGOs

From the Government of India and the Government of Gujarat.

Through grants and loans of bilateral agencies.

Through the prime ministers and chief minister's relief funds

From insurance companies, banks and financial institution

Reconstruction activities.

UN system plays a major role in responding to various disasters, the progressing programmers of the UN family have provided the organization with an expansion in a broad variety of activities in India .UN has built up networks of NGOs partners with strong field participation.

The World Bank and Asian Development Bank has done a great job in reconstruction in the Indian state.

Culture of preparedness

Disaster risk management refers to the systematic process of using administrative decisions, organization operating skills and knowledge to implement rules and regulations, strategies and duplicating capacities of the society and communities to lessen the impacts of natural hazards and related environment technological disaster (Bilham, 2004).

The essential role that disaster preparedness lays is in saving lives and livelihoods especially when integrated into an overall disaster risk reduction approach.

It also increases capacity to predict, monitor, and prepared to reduce damage or deal with potential threats and strengthening preparedness to act upon in an emergency, hence assisting those who have been severely affected.

Preparedness is essential and effective since early warnings can be detected with application of sound scientific information and risk knowledge in place and being able to communicate.

Cultural practices such as spread areas of land use, housing construction and traditional decision making process, this affect the willingness to prepare and to respond to disasters. In societies where they cooperate and work together to ensure that they achieve community goals it can help mitigate the effects of many hazards.

Increase in population and lack of employment to young people create economic tension hence causing economic consequences.


Humanitarian aid is assistance provided for humanitarian purposes for example in this case of earthquake disaster in India, humanitarian aid was provided in response to the humanitarian crises. Its major objectives are to save lives, remove suffering and maintain human dignity.

Humanitarian aid is normally funded by donations from individuals, corporations and governments it's mostly international making it much faster and more responsive. Humanitarian aid enhances safety.


Bilham, (2004) the 1737 Calcutta Earthquake and Cyclone Evaluated, Bull. Seism. Soc. Amer.

Gujarat Emergency Earthquake Reconstruction Project- Quarterly Progress Report, July -- September 2003, Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority, Government of… [read more]

Superpower China = Superpower? Essay

… On the other hand, if it still manages to succeed in the alleviation of poverty, China has inherent weaknesses in the arena of politics, diplomacy and governance which could become a hurdle in its way to become a superpower. In addition, the international community has constantly criticized China "over its authoritarian handling of dissent, and limiting the right to free assembly, free press and free speech" (Arora, 2011). Moreover, it has supported oppressors and domineering governments like Sudan, North Korea and Zimbabwe, and this support has raised several questions regarding China's role as a geopolitical power in the future (Arora, 2011).

However, if the other side of the picture is observed, it is obvious that the rapid economic growth, strong trading ties with affluent countries around the world, and increasing diplomatic collaboration have made China one of the first-ranked nations. Although, there are other latent challengers for future global authority as superpowers like Brazil and India, China is likely the subsequent peer contender to the United States. Though it's not known to anyone, but there are chances that a day will come when the People's Republic of China and America will be meeting as equals (Bandow, 2007).

Therefore, it is important for the United States to be observant and suspicious of China but take actions not as onsite nuisance but as an offshore balancer. Rather, the Americans must act as encouragers of China's unrelenting incorporation into the larger universal community. It is exceedingly important for United States to work analytically in order to close out or restrain the two-sided misapprehensions and conflicts. The two countries must also increase security discussions and military exchanges. Also, it is required of the United States to avoid treating the People's Republic of China as an enemy. Expectations are that the twenty first century would be more nonviolent and successful in case the Americans and Chinese governments work together to make it their common century (Bandow, 2007).

Concluding the whole scenario, it is clear that the importance of China in a progressively more multi-polar world cannot be devalued. However, the country still has a lot of challenges to rise above before achieving the status of a superpower. In the approaching time, factors such as "huge income inequalities within the country, likelihood of greater dissent and unrest among the population and growing unpopularity abroad" will decide China's role in the world (Arora, 2011).

The good news is that the Chinese government recognizes the country's development constraints and challenges. It has strategized various policies and has implemented them to resolve the mentioned problems. However, in case of the failure of these policies, the development in China can decelerate that might eventually lead to higher joblessness levels and more poverty. In such a scenario, the chances of China to become a superpower will be very small. On the other hand, the effective implementation of all policies will enable China to preserve its high growth, to lessen inequality, alleviate poverty, and put an end to corruption, to make production… [read more]

Cold War in 1945 Essay

… During this time, one American player, Glenn Cowan, when a Japanese man came to the close the table tennis court. Cowan then realized that he had missed his bus. At the same time, a Chinese player waved to him, offering a ride in their own bus. After a while on the bus, a Chinese player, Zhaung Zedong went up to Cowan and spoke to him on friendly terms through an interpreter. Later, Zedong gave him a silk portrait of the Huangshan Mountains which was highly appreciated. All of this caught the attention of news reporters, eager to ask of the ongoing events. (Cohhen et al. 2000)

That year again the U.S. team had requested to come to China but the Chinese Government declined their offer as usual. However, when Mao Zedong read of this news, he appreciated the Chinese player's act and further, invited the U.S. team to China. This act improved Sino-American relations greatly.

As an aim improve relation, President Nixon's National Security Advisor, Henry Kissinger, visited China in July, 1971 and made way for the president's visit in the next year. Nixon held several meetings with Chinese leaders and covered much ground and even passed the Shanghai Communique, which included foreign policy. In this, both countries agreed to normalize diplomatic policy. It was also mentioned that the U.S. forces in Taiwan would be withdrawn. This way, President Nixon took advantage of improved relations after the ping pong diplomacy and visited China to improve diplomatic relations.

The improvement of relations with China led the American leaders to believe that they should work on having constructive relations with the Soviet countries. The turnout of the talks held in China was an encouragement. Therefore, President Nixon reached out to the Soviet Union to hold talks on limiting strategic missiles. These talks were known as SALT that is Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. It was Nixon's visit to China in 1972 which primarily pressurized the Soviet Union to come into an agreement with the United States. (Reardon 2001)


Cohhen, Warren, and . America's Response to China: A History of Sino-American Relations. Columbia University Press, 2000.

Reardon, Lawrence. "China Confidential: American…… [read more]

Resource Review Kan, F. And Vickers Research Paper

… Resource Review

Kan, F. And Vickers, E. (2002). "One Hong Kong, Two Histories: 'History' and 'Chinese History' in the Hong Kong School Curriculum." Comparative Education, Vol. 38, No. 1: 73 -- 89.

Scholarly Secondary Source -- Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A scholarly analysis of the origin, development, and current state of education in Hong Kong as pertains to the teaching of Chinese and world history as two distinct subjects.

Key Purposes

Explain the difference between the way history is taught in Hong Kong and elsewhere

Present the history of that phenomenon

Distinguish Hong Kong and mainland Chinese educational approach

This source will be useful because it provides an extremely comprehensive explanation about how the national political agenda has shaped education in Hong Kong.

Limitation: The only apparent limitation is that the thorough analysis pertains only to Hong Kong.

The most interesting aspects of this article is that Chinese and World history are taught as completely different subjects and that Hong Kong rejected the more general Chinese approach to political indoctrination through public education.

7. "There are two types of schools in Hong Kong, categorized as English medium and Chinese medium schools. English medium schools are often referred to as Anglo -- Chinese schools in which all subjects are taught in English except Chinese Language & Literature, and Chinese History. Chinese medium schools are commonly termed Chinese Middle schools where all subjects are taught in Chinese except English Language."

"In the past, Chinese studies in China tended to aim at producing arrogant and bigoted Chinese nationalists. This is not educationally sound and should be strongly discouraged in Hong Kong…Since the founding of the Republic, the Chinese

politicians have striven hard to unite the nation by appealing to the people's patriotism, narrow nationalism and racialism."

Source #2

Constitution of the People's Republic of China. Accessed online 11 June 2012, from:

1. Primary Source -- National Constitution of China.

2. The national constitution of the People's Republic of China. National Constitution of China, organized into 32 separate articles outlining the founding principles, government structure, and the rights of the individual in China.

3. Key Constitutional Purposes:

Acknowledgment of the previous accomplishments of the Chinese people.

Definition of basic obligations and authority of the State

Outline of legal obligations and rights of citizens of the State.

4. This source will be useful because it provides the original formal basis of the fundamental rules and outlines of rights and authorities of state entities and of the citizens of the People's Republic of China.

5. Limitations: The major limitation of this source is that the historical information provided is extremely subjective and the content and tone of the entire document is reflective of a nation whose authorities have a documented history of relying on propaganda.

6. The most interesting element of this source is that, unlike other national constitutions, the Constitution of the People's Republic of China provides a comprehensive outline of the State's version of the nation's history. Apart from its historical accuracy, this… [read more]

India Cultural Identity Challenges Essay

… India Cultural Identity Challenges

Many non-Western countries went through a phase of decentering due to the influence of Western countries This led them to lose their identities and embrace Western influence as part of its society. This decentring had a big impact on their social and cultural aspects and led to the formation of a new society that has a mix of Western and native culture today. Many Asian and African countries were ruled by European colonial powers during between the 18th and 20th centuries and one such country was India. It was ruled by the British for two centuries and this led to a substantial decentering of their culture.

Prior to British Imperialism

India was a predominant Hindu nation before the arrival of the British in the early 1600s. The country was divided into many regional kingdoms and each was ruled by a dynasty. There was constant strife and war among these dynasties and the powerful one held control over substantial parts of the country. Each kingdom took care of their administration and people's welfare and there was good economic relations between the different kingdoms.

All this changed with the arrival of the British during the 1600s. They started trading with the Mughal dynasty of northern India under the rule of Jehangir in 1617. Soon, they established the East India Company and began to take advantage of the growing weakness in the Mughal empire and the discord between neighboring kingdoms.

Impact of British Imperialism

The British ruled India for almost two centuries. The British East India Company took an active role in the trade and economics of the country from 1757 to 1858 and slowly, this influence began to extends to other aspects of the society as well. They established a direct rule from 1858 until the country's independence in 1947 (, 2010). Such an extensive rule left a big impact on the country and this led to a decentering of the Indian culture. The British rule had its share of positive and negative impacts on the country and its society.

Decentering of Indian Culture

One of the biggest decentering aspects of culture was the introduction of Christianity into the society. Though Muslim influence was present in the country even before the British arrived, it still continued to be a predominant Hindu country. The British brought Christianity with them and this shifted the country from a Hindu-majority to a secular one that embraced Muslim and Christianity as a part of its society. Numerous people began to voluntarily convert to the new religion to please their British superiors, for better economic benefit and also due to an interest in the new religion. This shaped the society and has contributed to the secularism that is seen today.

British influence also led to the slow death of the caste system in India. Prior to their arrival, the society was divided into four prominent castes and they were the Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Sudras in the hierarchical order. The Brahmins were the learned… [read more]

Indian Nationalism the Age Essay

… Conflicts between Hindu and Muslim Indians started brewing during the early 20th century. In 1905, the state of Bengal was divided -- partitioned along religious lines. Indians did not approve of the British interference with their nationalist movement, seeking instead of more holistic political rubric under which to form a new nation. The populist revolt forced the British to reunify Bengal. After British conscripted Indian soldiers to fight in World War One, the anger against the colonialist government grew. The British passed ever-stricter acts in an attempt to quell the civic unrest. Protests that began peacefully ended in violence on the part of the British government.

Gandhi's model was appealing to Indians on many levels and from many backgrounds. Satyagraha hearkened to the roots of Indian philosophy, which transcended sectarian beliefs. Non-violence and peaceful coexistence with neighbors had been part of the Indian culture for centuries prior to the Raj. The Raj seemed to exacerbate ethnic and religious differences, as if a "divide and conquer" methodology was used by the Crown in order to rule over the complex colony. The Indian Nationalist movement therefore became linked inextricably with Gandhi's nonviolence movement. Gandhi became a model for India's future: one that was free of colonial rule but which would also be poised to be a world leader.

Unfortunately, continued clashes between Hindu and Muslim citizens led to an imperfect solution in the subcontinent: partition. As early as the 1930s, the foundation for Pakistan was laid. There were many stones left unturned in the northern subcontinent, though: as Bangladesh later separated itself and the Kashmir issue has yet to be…… [read more]

Krakatoa by Simon Winchester) Portent of "Pepper Essay

… ¶ … Krakatoa by Simon Winchester)

Portent of "Pepper" in Indonesia

Simon Winchester's work of literature, Krakatoa: The Day the World Exploded, is a fairly exhaustive and comprehensive study about the volcano that erupted in the late 19th century and was the greatest known catastrophe to mankind that has been recorded. Although the author demonstrates a wide variety of evidence that is indicative of the magnitude of this catastrophe, he is also prudent enough to discuss the results of this event from a political perspective that proved as influential as the ecological effects of the Krakatoa's eruption. An examination of this text shows that the rise of Islamic fundamentalism that was spurred by the volcano's eruption descended from the poor relationship between the Indonesian natives and their Dutch colonizers.

The author provides ample evidence of the tension between both cultures that would eventually result in an overthrow of the Dutch colonists in the first chapter of his manuscript. The inauspicious beginning of the relationship between the Dutch and the Java inhabitants who they first encountered in this region is illustrated by the following quotation. "…the Dutch…had a reputation for being crass and insensitive in their dealings with the "primitives" they met. Corenlius de Houtman…insulted the Banten sultan…and was ordered to leave" (Winchester 34). This quotation illustrates the fact that the Dutch behaved pejoratively to the natives who they encountered early on in the history of the relationship between these two peoples. Eventually, " the destiny of the Indonesian people was completely in the hands of the men making decisions in the European capitals" (Deidre). It is not surprising that the natives then used the eruption of Krakoa as an impetus to attack and overthrow their colonizers.

Additionally, Winchester underscores the fact that the Islamic roots that asserted themselves in the name of jihad during the revolt that ensued after Krakoa erupted were in place long before the Dutch ever arrived. The following quotation is indicative of…… [read more]

Vinoba Vhabe Vinoba Bhave Thesis

… The constructive work agencies established under the supervision of Gandhi united to form Sarva Seva Sangh. This society was meant for the Service of All. Sarva Seva Sangh became the central part of Sarvodaya Movement and the main organization that… [read more]

Republic of China in Taiwan Essay

… [3: Blanchard, Ben, and Ralph Jennings. "ANALYSIS - China military threat to Taiwan rises despite detente." September 1, 2009. ]

Evidence supporting possible limited intervention, include Premier Hu Jintao's request to the United Nations. The United Nations Security Council agreement to Hu Jintao's request giving more weight to a diplomatic solution. In addition, President Obama's caution to Shu Chin-Chiang to accept the "status quo" by not increasing the current tensions, represents multi-lateral participation, was a strong indicator that the key stakeholders in the crisis were more than willing to find an amicable political or diplomatic solution and not a military one. The United States has all a long shielded Taiwan against People's Republic of China's military threats. During the Taiwan Straits Crisis, United States sent two aircraft carrier battle ships to the region to prevent possible war. The weight of this hypothesis, lyes on the involvement of the United Nations Security Council and the United States in the crisis in prevention of possible direct attack.

Section IV-- Least Likely to Occur: Direct Attack

It is unlikely that the people's Republic of China will engage direct attacks or military force against Taiwan in the ongoing crisis. Taiwan Affairs Office of the State Council, states that the People's Republic of China succeeded the Republic of China as the new government of China, implying that Taiwan is part of the PRC.[footnoteRef:4] Based on this fact, direct attack is possible since Taiwan is subject to the Anti-Cessation Law, which allows violent means against the island in case it declares independence. Examining historical events in the region suggest that indeed PRC is ready to engage non-peaceful means in maintaining Taiwan as a province. However, there is a general assumption that the People's Liberation Army will not attack Taiwan because of the United States commitment in protecting Taiwan. However the ranking of this hypothesis is most likely to change, if the value of a diplomatic solution is compromised on a deception. [4: Taiwan Affairs Of-ce of the State Council. The Taiwan Question and Reuni-cation of China . Beijing: PRC's government, 1993.]

The evidence representing a judgment of direct attack as unlikely include, the PLA issuing orders to tentatively mobilize several air and ground units throughout the PRC, which are believed to be in preparation for deployment into the Nanjing Military District, located directly across from Taiwan. Furthermore, the National Security Agency (NSA) reported that the PLA has ordered submarines from Canton, Zhangzhou, and Whenzhou to prepare for "operations." In addition, the Linchpin evidence of Chief of the PLA's General Staff, General Liang Guanglie instruction to review all applicable plans as well as the U.S. Pacific Command reports on the increase by 50% of Fighter Regiment patrols within the Taiwan Straits. On the contrary, Hu Jintao values the economic and cultural ties between PRC and Taiwan, therefore, this can be key in averting military action. This could have been the major reason for his call to the United Nation's intervention.


Blanchard, Ben, and Ralph Jennings.… [read more]

How Globalization Affected China Positively Essay

… ¶ … Globalization Affected China Positively

In this paper, we are examining the positives and negatives of globalization on China. We then analyze how a solution can be introduce that will address both viewpoints. Once this occurs, is when everyone… [read more]

Contact Lenses Industry the Growth Research Paper

… S. And even around the globe. Out of all the fits, 54% of fits in Asia fall in daily disposable category while 38% fits in Europe enjoy the same category. Even though the industry for daily disposables is growing steadily, it is still being prescribed in 34% of cases worldwide.

United States remain the largest market for contact lenses followed by Europe and Asia but while it was the largest in 2010, it was still the one showing slowest growth compared to other world markets. The most rapid growth was noticed in Asia Pacific region. It must be made clear that despite the market growth, some of the U.S. companies remain market leaders due to their presence in many important regions of the world.

Around the world, it is Italy which remains the most dominant contact lens manufacturer after U.S.. It enjoys 22% of the world market. It is closely followed by China with 17% of the market. Australia comes next with 13% market share. Italy is also the most dominant player in high-end eyewear enjoying 70% of the market. Exports are one of the major sources of income generation for the U.S. And in 2006 alone; U.S. exported contact lenses worth $1.5 billion overseas with Japan, Canada and the UK being the most common destinations. U.S. also imported contact lenses and other eyewear worth $2.97 million mainly from Italy, China, and Japan. (Industry Report, 2011)

The growth for this industry is visible more in other parts of the world than in the U.S. But things have been much better for the industry in 2009 and 2010 once the recession began receding. However in the coming few years, if cheaper options become available to the public due to the presence of China and India in this field, there is a possibility that U.S. dominance might recede slightly.


Jason J. Nichols, 2011. Market and survey data show that the industry remained largely unaffected in 2010 by the state of the economy.

Industry Report,…… [read more]

Feng Shui's Course in Hong Thesis

… Those aspects of a culture that is very different might seem to be exotic and exciting and therefore attractive on a very basic human level. However, while this is something that can occur sometimes, it can also be the case… [read more]

Global Business Cultural Analysis India Term Paper

… Global Business Analysis - India

Global Business Cultural Analysis:


During the past few decades, global trade agreements have opened up one of the most important international markets: India. Due to these agreements, and especially with regards to internet businesses,… [read more]

Korean Diaspora by Charles Armstrong (Pg 88-129) Book Report

… ¶ … Korean Diaspora by Charles Armstrong (pg 88-129)

The Korean Diaspora by Charles Armstrong chronicles patterns of Korean immigration and discusses the presence of Koreans in different nations such as Japan and China, as well as population in America, Canada, and Australia. Immigration has become an integral part of the Korean experience. However, Koreans frequently experience discrimination abroad, especially in Japan, where they were often encouraged to conceal their Korean surnames and identity. This is ironic, given that Japan has a plummeting birthrate, and one would think that new, younger immigrants could inject some vitality into its economy. However, Japan seems reluctant to diversify its relatively homogeneous society, or even to admit the discrimination that does occur against Japanese citizens of Korean origin. There is also a substantial, slow growing minority of Koreans in Mainland China, which has a long-standing history of absorbing ethnic minorities into its fold. Many Koreans moved to China to escape the Japanese control of their homeland and hunger during World War II, just as many Koreas immigrated to the U.S. after the Korean War to seek a better life and freedom from national conflicts.

The Japanese and Chinese examples are potent illustrations of the desperation that drove many Koreans from their homelands. Koreans have not been fully integrated and accepted into either Japan or China, despite the fact that both societies could logically benefit from the contributions made by immigrants, culturally as well as economically. Koreans exist 'betwixt and between' their two cultures in both societies. Even in societies where Koreans have emerged as a strong community presence, such as the United States, full assimilation has proven elusive in many areas.

Reaction Paper:

"Our adoptee, our alien: Transnational adoptees as specters of foreignness and family in South Korea" by Eleana Kim (pg 497-525)

The popular American notion that…… [read more]

Sri Lanka's Openness to Future Research Paper

… " (World Bank) This is proposed to be achieved by creating autonomy in decision-making and resource sharing to the community organizations. There are also the elected local governments and the federations of village organizations and non-governmental organizations that have been brought into the project to create more opportunities in the backward areas that have been further devastated by the civil war. (World Bank)

The project which is under way concentrates on development of villages, institutions and providing capital to create infrastructure and caring for the community demands. There have been experiments at attaining self sufficiency and these are bearing fruit. For example at the Ilavalai North GN division near Pandateruppu in the Jaffna District as an initial measure about fifty one families who were resettled agriculturalists with expertise in "paddy, grapes, betel and onion," was used as a model to develop an alternate industry under the Jaffna Rehabilitation Project that was funded by 'UNDP Bureau for Crisis Prevention.' (UNDP, Success Stories: Mushrooming Businesses! proud of her produce) The project began with mushroom cultivation. It is thus shown that there is a possibility to develop the business, and also create more businesses of this type to bring about a change in the economic situation of these backward regions.


Ahmad, Alia. Sri Lanka: Institutions, Economic Policies and Economic Growth. Swedish International Development Agency, 1999.

Caldwell, John Cope. Let's visit Sri Lanka.

Burke, 1984.

Gunawardena, Charles A. Encyclopedia of Sri Lanka.

Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd., 2005.

UNDP. Sri Lanka launches its second Millennium Development Goals Progress Report.

21 September, 2010.

UNDP. Success Stories: Mushrooming Businesses! proud of her produce. 14 September, 2010

U.S. Department of State. Background Note: Sri Lanka. Bureau of South and Central Asian

Affairs, April 6, 2011.

World Bank. Community Development and Livelihood Improvement "Gemi Diriya" Project.

[read more]

Negotiating With the Chinese Research Paper

… ¶ … Yin and the Yang of Western-Chinese Negotiations

It is easy for Westerners to blame the Chinese side when it comes down to contract misunderstandings. Unfortunately, Western management has often been its very own worst enemy in China. If they do not understand the cultural nuances of the country in which they have come to negotiate, they will fail in negotiating contracts that are advantageous to them. While this many seem simple, westerners constantly fail because they are not able to step out of their world view and put themselves in the position of those on the other side. The Chinese negotiator does not possess an exact negotiating style but rather embraces a several roles together Confucian and Maoist together. Socialist and communist tendencies still weigh heavily from the period from before the 1980's. The Chinese negotiating strategy is a combination of cooperation and competition. Trust is the ultimate indicator of Chinese negotiating propensities and role choices which is gained only after a long process of bargaining.

What Westerners have to learn in China is that things come much slowly rather than quickly. Rather, it is a battle of centimeters eked out slowly as opposed to large strides. In the Fang article, the author reveals that the Chinese negotiator does not really possess an absolute negotiating style but rather embraces a complex mixture of different roles together. The Chinese negotiating strategy is very much a combination of cooperation as well as competition. Westerners tend to universally depict the Chinese negotiator and hostile and manipulative or naively the actual the Chinese negotiating style. There is very much a double think process going on. In actuality, the truth is paradoxical in that the Chinese negotiating style really reflects a type of Yin and Yang thinking. A Chinese negotiator has a built in cultural capacity to negotiate simultaneously sincerely and deceptively. He and/or she changes their coping strategies based upon situation and context on the ground. This reflects the level of trust or mistrust between the negotiating partners (Fang 52-55). Mastering this negotiating style is the key to winning in negotiating sessions with the Chinese.

During business to business negotiations it has been suggested by experts to first ask a lot of questions such as "I did not get that" or can you go over that again? This can expose the weaknesses in the other side's arguments. Once this occurs, the other opposing negotiators should probably have to concede or yield. Chinese negotiators very much admire and respond to relentlessness rather than to resignation and weakness.

To show endurance by going to great lengths is admired. Finally, the Chinese rarely make concessions immediately following persuasive appeals without broader consultation. Indeed, the combination of group decision making and social status can make things quite complicated on the Chinese side. Moreover, the Chinese are skilled in using delay as a persuasive tactic. Therefore, you need the full backing and understanding of your home office so you can bide your time. Meanwhile, the Chinese can… [read more]

Chinese Earth Metals Research Paper

… On March 31, 2011, the Chinese government announced a huge tax increase on rare earth metals (Jing). China's Ministry of Finance and State Administration of Taxation has announced that some of these metals will have a tax increase of 100%. For years the Chinese government has been producing rare earth metals at lower rates than other nations and forcing those governments to abandon the practice because of the financial burden. This has led to the monopoly on the production and now China is in a position of economic power and can raise the rates on the rare earth metals to any percentage they desire.

With the ban on exports of rare earth metals first to Japan and now to the United States, it would appear that the Chinese government is raging a war through importation and exportation of necessary materials. Since they are the ones who possess the materials, they can set the price. Even though the cost of the product may be justly unfair, there is little recourse the nations of the world have but to pay or go without. If some sort of international jurisdiction is made and a decision on the limitation of pricing with regard to rare earth metals, it is quite possible that the Chinese government could continue to raise fees until the whole of the world is both financially and technologically dependent on that nation.

Works Cited:

Fernando, Vincent. "China Denies Cutting Off Rare Earth Metal Exports to Japan as a Political

Weapon." Business Insider. 2010. Print.

Jing, Jin. "China to Raise Tax on Rare Earth Metals." The Epoch Times. 2011. Print.

Lubin, Gus. "China Just Banned Export of Rare Earth Metals…… [read more]

Comparative Development India and China Research Proposal

… Comperative Development / India and China

China and India are two of the most important elements in the new world order equation, as both countries are becoming more and more powerful politically and economically. If one hundred years ago the two countries did not mean much on the international politics power relations, the latest news states that China has officially become the world's second biggest economy, overtaking a slow and inefficient Japanese economy. India is also one of the fastest growing economies, having in view its large territory and immense population.

The two countries are comparable in their economic developments, even if China is more advanced. The latest report (October 2010) of the International Monetary Fund, places China's real GDP growth at 10,3% and with a sustained growth in industrial production and retail sales, with a small decrease in growth projected for 2011 of 9,6%. India has had a comparable pace of growth with a 9,7% in 2010 and a projected 8.4% in 2011. (IMF, 2010)

An important starting point in the debate on the world order political competition between China and India is to be found in the Economist's analysis on their relation not accidentally called the "Contest of the century" (the Economist, 2010). Besides the obvious economic competition, the higher level political and strategic disputes can transform the Asian continent in the most heated continent. In the constant debate of whether politics is an end or a means, the research paper will focus on the hypothesis that politics is a means, as well as economy, for the overall development of the country and its global influence. In this case, the main difference between the two countries can be found in the way they formulate their foreign policy.

The differences between the two countries in what regards global political influence can be separated in 3 levels: institutional, partnerships and military power. At the institutional, multilateral level, China, as a Permanent Member of the Security Council has permanently blocked a seat in the Council for India and has a main role in the global decisions that also affect India. Also, at the level of partnerships, India has allied in many instances with the U.S. In defying Chinese positions on various topics and assisting American interests in the region. On the side of military power, both countries posses nuclear arsenal and impressive armies, with a slight advantage on the Indian side. India has little or no problems…… [read more]

Nationalism and Singapore Term Paper

… ¶ … nationalism in Singapore. It is important for policy due to the fact that such a phenomenon can explode into a serious political situation that may well have international ramifications. Nationalism is the struggle of a local people to assert themselves, but this assertion almost always involves a physical conflict with aliens / foreigners (the enemy as they see them; immigrants as we know them). Aside from this conflict seeding dissension within a present-time peaceful and attractive county and, most likely, destructing this country, effects of this conflict can spill aboard causing other countries to step in to either aid or impede the conflict, and, in this manner, disseminate a war. Nationalism has, frequently, resulted in international war. On two occasions, it has consequented in a World War. For this reason, discussion of nationalism in Singapore is a significant topic.

My hypothesis is that Singapore is on the brink of nationalism. My alternate hypothesis is that Singapore will lack the courage to eventuate this nationalism. The following essay examines both theories and produces evidence for my conclusion which is that nationalism is an already existent-phenomenon.

The evidence for nationalism

Immigrants have flooded Singapore causing many local people to lose their job and aggravating an already troubled economic situation. Nationalism has, invariably, originated and flourished in economically challenging times, and this seems to be no less the situation in Singapore right now. Ripples are beginning to be felt, and once quiescent voices are gaining in strength and gaining adherents (see Seah Chiang Ne; Online)

As Abdul Malik comments: "The people of Singapore cannot remain blind to the fact that given the current rate of immigration of foreigners, they will eventually outnumber the population of True Born Singaporeans - the true sons of the land!"

Nationalists in Singapore -- and there is a core of them -- maintain that the land is small (only 642 square kilometers), and that much of this land is already taken up with industry and military products, for instance, leaving little to house a meager population. It is insufferable, therefore, that this precious land should be squandered on nearly a million foreigners who have come to rob Singaporeans of their business. Furthermore, it is part of the social contract that the government protects its citizens first. These are the reasons that the Singaporean nationalist gives for promoting nationalism. (Malik, online).

Finally, were one to argue that Singapore benefits from the immigrant's wealth and is a prosperous nation, Alvin Toffler's observation on resurgence of nation-state in the 21st century asserts that it is precisely these sort of states that rebel. In the past it was poverty that drove people to demand rights, but now it will be the wealthy regions who will refuse to pay taxes for money that will go to foreigners. The government, also, is compelled to relinquish some of its power to, oftentimes, the more powerful corporate organizations that are owned…… [read more]

Singaporean Youth and No Sense Essay

… This country has a very strong sense of who an American is and the people who choose to live here are proud to call themselves Americans. Even immigrants and aliens are working hard to achieve the dream of becoming an American because there is a strong sense of ownership and belonging that comes with being a citizen of this country.

However the same is not true for Singapore where youth is becoming more and more alienated from its own country and looking elsewhere for sense of belonging. The reason for this difference is grounded in length of history and national building initiatives. While America came into being in 1776, Singapore only appeared on the map in 1965. America is an old nation now that has stories and narratives of heroism through which to build its national fabric. Singapore has no such narratives available. There are no stories, no symbols, and no traditions per se that can underscore the need for a land called Singapore. But America and all other strong nations have those stories to connect with and to reflect upon.

"The national myth of Singapore is the story of struggle against economic and political odds to achieve a first world standard of living. It is not surprising, then, that a national identity, forged on economic progress, would have little emotional or motivational hold on the populace. Indeed, as will be demonstrated later, this very economic progress, and the values of pragmatism, entrepreneurship, and opportunism that it demands, has also contributed to the undermining of national identity." (Kluver & Weber, p.378)

For any nation to have a sense of who it really is, there must be some emotional symbols to connect with and these symbols must be rooted in things other than economic progress. Japan has a long history of evolution. It understands how it has become what it is today after struggling with cultural and social barriers for ages. It has myths that emerge from its great Samurai tradition and its geisha culture, so there is a sense of what Japan once was and where it is coming from. The same isn't true for Singapore and thus a nation that was forced to become a nation has lost its identity has passed that weak sense of who is it on to its younger generation as well. Thus the youth no longer feels connected to Singapore and this is a very alarming trend because every nation needs a strong sense of what and who it is and what it believes in so that it can survive in this rapidly globalizing world.

Interestingly even some very young nations have been able to achieve that strong sense of identity but when we study their history, we realize that these nations emerged after much struggle for existence and did not have an existence thrust upon them.


Kluver, R. & Weber I. Patriotism and the Limits of Globalization: Renegotiating Citizenship in Singapore. Journal of Communication Inquiry…… [read more]

Hong Kong Was Colonized Essay

… Part of this government set up allowed for the first election of the people in 1995. It was believed that this decision was strategic as those elected would still be in power when the hand off was made to China. In response the Chinese government set up a "provisional legislature" which would have the power to overrule those elected after July 1.

It should be noted that no emissaries from either Britain or the United States participated in the celebration of the Chinese takeover. Australian foreign minister Alexander Downer was quoted as saying, "Gone are the days when we would wait to the see that Britain and the U.S. did before deciding our own agenda. We are an Asia-Pacific country. Britain is a Eurpean country. Our future, our destiny, is in the Asia-Pacific" (Pomeroy 1997). Some critics of the world have labeled the situation with Hong Kong and China as a turning point in terms of the world's perception of the two larger Western powers.

Since the colonization of Hong Kong by China, there has been little published disharmony, at least in comparison with that of when Great Britain was in control of the location. Part of this is that the Chinese government is far more secretive and the Communist regime is far less likely to allow any negative information to be released to the media. By contrast, when Hong Kong was under control of Great Britain, the Chinese were far more willing to let unkind information out and would encourage, publish, and exploit the negative attitudes of the people to their colonizers.

Works Cited:

"The Decolonization of Hong Kong" (1997). Retrieved from http://www.hartford-

Pomeroy, William (1997). "British colonialism exits Hong Kong." People's Weekly…… [read more]

China the Dragon Awakes Research Paper

… ¶ … 1972, China's economy could best be described as a disaster. From the beginning of the Communist takeover of China in 1949, the Chinese leadership under Mao Tse Dong had instituted a series of failed economic policies. These policies had been designed to bring China's economy into the modern world; and compete with other nations. However, policies like the "Great Leap Forward," which between 1959 and 1961 resulted in the greatest famine in human history and the deaths of millions of Chinese, failed to meet expectations. (Naughton 59-64)

After the disastrous results of the "Great Leap Forward," China began to recover. Throughout the early 1960's, China's "Agriculture First" program managed to stabilize the food supply and avoid the famines which had devastated the nation. However, beginning in 1966, China took a major turn for the worse. The "Great Proletariat Cultural" Revolution, begun personally by Mao, attempted to rid the county of any capitalistic tendencies which had begun to spring up. This turned out to be as much as a failure as the Great Leap Forward, and had consequences just as disastrous. (McMillan 139-140)

The first phase of the Cultural revolution was the military phase which lasted from 1966-1971. During this time China was in a state of economic chaos as cadres of young Chinese destroyed whole parts of the Chinese economy in the name of socialism. The second phase was the succession phase, which lasted from 1972-1976, and involved infighting between Communist hardliners and reformers inside the government. It was during the second phase that American President Richard Nixon visited China and marked a dramatic change in policies both for countries.

February 21-28, 1972, was a week that changed the world, for it was the week Richard Nixon established formal relations between the People's Republic of China and the United States of America. It was also the week that the balance of power between the Communist World and the Free World shifted in favor of the Free World. For decades the world had been trapped in a power struggle between the Soviet Union and the United States, China had…… [read more]

United Nations Development Program, Specialized UN Agency Term Paper

… ¶ … United Nations Development Program, specialized UN agency, is in charge of providing the necessary means, infrastructure, and know how to empower peoples all over the world to create a more developed society for themselves and future generations. In this sense, one of the most important measurements to assess the way in which the development of the countries is progressing is the Human Development Index (HDI). More precisely, according to the UN, the HDI represents "a composite measure of achievements in three basic dimensions of human development -- a long and healthy life, access to education and a decent standard of living. For ease of comparability, the average value of achievements in these three dimensions is put on a scale of 0 to 1, where greater is better, and these indicators are aggregated using geometric means" (Human Development Index, 2010).

The purpose of the present exercise is to create a personal Human Development Index by using the database and the Internet infrastructure of the Human Development Index for India and China, two countries that have experienced particular historical experiences in terms of democracy, economic development as well as political structure. In this sense, the HDI is a valuable tool for assessing their degree of development related to the issue of sustainable development as seen by the UN.

The table below presents the HDI for the two countries when only certain criteria are taken into account, as opposed to the UNDP HDI, which, as stated above, represents a composite index and is therefore more limited in pointing out specific core development problems.


My rank

My Index

HDI rank

HDI Index










Taking into account five general criteria, the personal HDI was created. These included income, inequality, poverty, sustainability, empowerment and governance. I considered them to be important particularly given the past and current situation in the two countries. Firstly, the two experienced a different history in the sense that while India is considered at this point to be the largest democracy in the world, China is still viewed as the largest communist country in the world. This political factor is important because it points out two different economic standards, methods, and economic ideologies. Secondly, the factors taken into consideration are necessary for establishing whether the massive decade old economic development of China and India is indeed sustainable at all the levels of the society.

The table resulted following an introduction of elements related to the five criteria mentioned above. In more detail, the income was considered as GDP per capita as representing one of the main elements of assessing economic strength.

Secondly, the inequality index measures the loss due to inequality in life expectancy, education and income. Thirdly, poverty was taken into account with two elements: intensity of deprivation and population living below $1.25. This is crucial because it points out two main issues. On the one hand, deprivation implies lack of food and on the other hand the level of… [read more]

China's Modern Society Term Paper

… China's Modern Society

During the eighteenth century, China would undergo a transformation. Part of the reason for this was because different innovations (such as the invention of gun powder), would allow both the European Monarchs and the Emperors of China… [read more]

Dongria Kondh People of Niyamgiri Hills in Eastern India Research Paper

… Dongria Kondh Peoples of India

The Dongria Kondh tribe are among the few truly primitive cultures remaining in the world. The Dongria Kondh live in the plateaus of Niyamgiri hill country in India. Their natural environment is surrounded by dense… [read more]

Princess Mononoke Term Paper

… Princess Mononoke

Although Japanese culture is generally perceived, particularly within the Western world, to be a homogeneous culture who has lived under a top-down structure of government, there is instead a profound sense of identity loss. According to some authors,… [read more]

Japanese Spirit, Western Things While China Article Review

… Japanese Spirit, Western Things

While China is often referred to as "the sleeping giant," Japan has been known as "the rising Sun," for a variety of reasons. Many Westerners do not realize that Japan, in fact, has been open to the West for only a century and a half, and are reluctant to consider the events of the 20th century in context with the longer historical paradigm of Japanese culture, social and cultural traditions, and the view Japan has held about the "outside" world for centuries. In fact, it is this island nation template that has played such a strong role in the making of modern Japan.

Japan had been visited by European missionaries and traders as early as the late 16th century, but it was not until 1854 when U.S. Naval forces, under the common of Commodore Matthew Perry, that forced the opening of Japan to the outside world with the Convention of Kanagawa. Once this occurred two trends spiraled; competition with Russia and China and Japan realizing that in order to become part of the modern world, they needed far more resources than their island could provide. Eventually, this resulted in the militarization of the country and a process of modernization without embracing Western culture that has been part of a tradition of centuries -- namely opening up the culture slightly, only enough to take what is necessary to slowly and steadily modernize without jeopardizing traditional values and, more importantly, the traditional hierarchical system of authority and tradition. Historically, this may be seen in the Japanese appetite for Western technological innovations -- the telephone, camera, movies, etc., all which actually began in the late 19th century.

This slow, stead, but segmented opening of the culture is also known as "Japanese spirit, western things." "Instead of simply trying to preserve small cultural traditions, Japan's power-brokers tried to absorb western technology in a way that would shield them from political competition and protect their interests. Imitators still abound in Japan and elsewhere"("Japanese Spirit, Western Things," 2003). This is a cultural, political and social modernization technique that allows for Western technology and culture, but a continual strong push for traditional values and mores that transcend technology. Arguably, this technique was certainly successful up to 1945 and the end of World War II. However, once the United States occupied post-War Japan and began the process of helping to rebuild the war-torn economy, each succeeding generation seems to move towards Western culture without the same veneration and adherence to Japanese tradition as past generations.

Modernization, of course, has been extremely successful for Japan. Since 1956 it has been a member of the United Nations, and served as a non-permanent member of the Security Council for two…… [read more]

Country Report of India Research Paper

… Globalization and National Differences in Political Economy

India is in the process of transforming from a developing country to a developed one. In spite of dire problems such as overpopulation, environmental degradation, poverty and corruption, quick economic development is fueling… [read more]

Assistant to the President for National Security Term Paper

… Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs


President Barack Obama

National Security Advisor

Policy toward People's Republic of China

Strategic Recommendations:

Promote increased bilateral trade with China through the GATT/WTO framework.

Aggressively pursue engagement with China across the entire spectrum of international relations to improve human rights practices while simultaneously developing additional trade networks.

Pressure China to restrain North Korea, especially during the imminent change in regime leadership.

Adopt a "wait-and-see" approach to the Taiwan problem for the short-term while encouraging additional and ongoing negotiations between the Taiwanese and Chinese leadership concerning viable -- and peaceful -- alternatives for the future; this approach would require continuing but increasingly restricted arms and military technology sales to Taiwan consistent with stated U.S. policy.

Continue to pursue strengthening of economic and security relations with countries on the periphery of China.

6. Provide technical assistance and expertise in Chinese political reform efforts.

7. Promote cultural, economic and military dialogues between China and the U.S.

8. Identify additional value-added opportunities for American exports.

9. Pursue reduction of agricultural subsidies and trade protections used by China to improve access to Chinese markets.

10. Pursue collaborative alternative energy research programs that will become essential in the future as China's growing energy demands rival energy use in the United States.

In sum, the United States should identify ways to increase engagement and cooperation with China while maintaining a pragmatic recognition of the country's potential military might. These recommendations are also congruent with the best interests of both countries. China is increasingly important to the United States, and the United States is increasingly important to China. The United States and China must find ways to manage their differences and to collaborate and these issues are discussed further below.

Economic Aspects, Including Bilateral Trade and Multilateral Issues:

From a strictly pragmatic perspective and irrespective of any human rights considerations otherwise, the 1,330,141,295 people of China represent a vitally important market for U.S. goods and services currently and the potential for additional growth is readily apparent. For example, although the United States is China's largest export partner at 20.03%, China is only America's fourth largest import partner at just 7.66% (China, 2010). Consumers in China's rapidly growing middle class will likely want and need American products and services provided they are perceived as being of equal or superior quality and are competitive in price. The economic playing field is being leveled every day as average GDP in China continues to outpace growth in the United States; at some point, the playing field will be level and then perhaps even swing in China's favor, fulfilling the prediction of this era being "The Century of Asia" with China in the lead. China's economic growth, though, has been due in part to overly restrictive trade practices that placed American producers at a disadvantage. Although China membership in the World Trade Organization in 2001 was viewed as a new opportunity to forge improved bilateral trade, to date, the WTO has been unable… [read more]

Enter Japan Market for Coach, Inc Research Paper

… Coach Japan

Demand for luxury products is strong in Japan. The company is one of the world's leading markets for luxury goods, and most producers of luxury goods have enjoyed tremendous success when entering the market (Prasso and Brady, 2003). The Japanese economy is the 3rd largest in the world and the country enjoys a GDP per capita of $32,700, roughly on a part with that of France (CIA World Factbook, 2010). Japanese consumers first became attracted to luxury brands during the 1980s, and have maintained demand for luxury brand products even through the country's prolonged recession. The Japanese market is of critical importance to most luxury brand producers, representing between 20-36% of total revenue for major luxury brand firms, and the country consumes as much as 41% of the world's luxury goods (JETRO, 2010).

Growth in Japan, however, has been declining in recent years. A survey of the global luxury market in 2008 saw spending in Japan decline 7%, one of the few regions to see such a decline, although this decline is attributed mainly to the high level of Japanese spending on luxury goods -- they remain the world's biggest market for luxury brands and the highest per capita spenders. Japanese consumers have maintained their focus on conspicuous consumption in the pursuit of social esteem (Degen, 2009). The market is expected to remain strong, even if sales continue to slump, and some in the industry believe Japan may see a surprise rebound (Kirby, 2010).

Competition in the Japanese market is intense. All of the world's major luxury brands are in that market, and each major shopping district will have a number of competing brands. There are no major entry barriers to the Japanese market, however. In addition, consumers are price takers, as are suppliers, allowing luxury goods companies to enjoy considerable profitability in the Japanese market despite the competition.

In general, the government does not involve itself in the luxury goods industry in Japan. Even to the extent such products are subject to duties, there is almost no price elasticity of demand so the company can pass any duties on to the customer. Taxes in Japan can be high, as are general operating costs but again, Japanese luxury goods stores tend to be exceptional profitable due to the high per capita spending on luxury goods by Japanese consumers.

The Japanese market should be able to meet Coach's needs for salespeople. Japanese culture can be very service-oriented and many Japanese have great respect for luxury brands. As the leather goods will be transported from their place of manufacture to Japan, there are no known major supply chain or resource issues with entering the Japanese market. Transportation and marketing infrastructure is adequate, as Japan has many good ports, a good road network, a good rail network and a number of airports. Many luxury goods providers use courier services, such FedEx, and these services have a strong presence in the Japanese market, including hubs at Narita Airport.

There are ample locations… [read more]

JCB Analysis What Was the Strategic Rational Essay

… JCB Analysis

What was the strategic rational underlying JCB's entry into India in 1979 and China in 2005? Given that capital to fund expansion is limited, does it make more sense for JCB to expand its presence in these markets, as opposed to more developed markets, such as those of Western Europe?

JCB realized that the Indian economy in 1979 and the Chinese economy in 2005 were experiencing exceptionally rapid growth that was also fueling capital investment in new building and construction. As JCB manufactures high-end back-hoe, earth moving and construction equipment, the investments these nations were making in infrastructure projects, combined with the rapid pace of economic growth overall, made each country in each of these years the most attractive globally. These two emerging economies required intensive levels of investment to gain a foothold in and be able to sell successfully into over time. The more established or developed markets were located in economies not growing as quickly, therefore did not need the level of financial investment that India and China did in order to grow. This approach to defining investments by nations parallels the portfolio-based strategies as mentioned in our textbook (Hill, 2009).

2. Why do you think JCB chose to enter India via a joint venture, as opposed to some other entry mode?

JCB was forced to enter India through a joint venture due to the high tariffs the Indian government places on suppliers headquartered outside their nation. A second factor was the Indian government's requirement that a percentage of any business operating in India also be owned by an Indian company. These two factors were defined by the Indian government and forced the issue of shared ownership for JCB. Of the many forms of shared ownership, JCB deliberately chose a joint venture to minimize both financial risk and the risk of losing control of its intellectual property. These are specifically the advantages of joint ventures as defined by Hill…… [read more]

Good Cook Essay

… ¶ … Cook" shows the interaction of an individual with a system, a totalitarian society and the other participants to the two. The author, Barbara Demick, through a truly reflective essay, as well as one that enumerates and narrates in a news-like manner, tells the story of Song Hee-Suk, a regular individual living in North Korea and the way she relates to her own self, to the others around her, to the system and to the figures that make up the system (namely, Kim Il-sung, founder of the Communist regime in the country). With all these pieces of the puzzle, Demick aims to create an overwhelming picture of life in the North Korean society.

In terms of the relationship of the character with herself, there is not much information in the essay as to what her most inner thoughts are. This is mainly because the character is defined through her relationship with others rather than the reflective relations with the self. The reader finds out a few physical characteristics (even those are, in fact, contrary to reality: her plump face does not mean that she is also well-fed) and, above all, a pride to be part of the North Korean society, one of the underlying themes of Demick's work. Despite all the hardships, Song Hee-Suk remains a strong supporter of the regime and of its leaders.

The character becomes much better defined in her presence in society. The dedication with which she does her jobs, as a mother, as a worker in society and as a member of the party show her will to contribute to supporting the Communist Party's propaganda of making North Korea the greatest country on Earth. There are several clear elements pointing in that direction, most notably her long work hours, her constant participation to the ideology classes, raising four children (which, as in many…… [read more]

Difficulty of the Korean Culture in the US Research Paper

… Korea America

Korean-Americans: The Difficult Balance Between Identity and Acclimation

Adjusting to life in a new country is inherently difficult. For those enduring the immigrant experience, there is often a sense of isolation, an experience of cultural otherness and a… [read more]

Conflict Diagnosis Term Paper

… Conflict Diagnosis in the News: Applying the Steps of Conflict Diagnosis to the Current Korean Tension

The method of analyzing and resolving conflicts known as conflict diagnosis can be highly effective in a wide range of issues, from individual conflicts between co-workers to relationship issues to major international incidents with very large global ramifications and highly complex power struggles. Utilizing this method can help break down the complexities of these issues into clearly observable and more concrete parts, allowing more definite patterns to emerge with far greater clarity than would be possible if trying to address complex conflicts without such a system. An application of the conflict diagnosis method to a current international conflict receiving media attention will demonstrate both the efficacy and the broad applicability of the conflict diagnosis system, as well as the simplicity of its use.

North and South Korea

In the worst military disaster South Korea has experienced since the end of the major war that led to this nation's political separation from the Northern part of the Korean peninsula, March 2010 saw the sinking of a South Korean warship and the death of the forty six sailors that were onboard at the time. Though there is not absolute certainty surrounding the issue, the South Koreans and the international community both firmly believe that North Korea was responsible for this sinking, and have stated as such. North Korea vehemently denies involvement, and warns that any actions taken against them will be met with the full force of the North Korean military.

This conflict, of course, stretches back for decades, when the Communist revolution in North Korea took place and the South Koreans, with the help of the United States and other international forces, fought the war to an effective draw, with the thirty-eight parallel marking a division between the communist North Korea and the democratic and free-market South Korea. Since that time, the economic situation in North Korea has deteriorated hugely under the dictatorships first of Kim Il-Sung and then his son, Kim Jong-Il. Kim Jong-Il has proven especially volatile in his dealings with the international community, developing and openly testing nuclear weapons in direct violation of international law (to which North Korea does not subscribe) and otherwise taunting and threatening his opponents in the international community, which are legion. This has led to economic isolation for North Korea, which has deepened the poverty in the country and placed it in a very precarious position with few allies but a growing ability to significantly harm the civilian populations of many of its neighbors. This has kept tensions in the area very high for some time.

It is believed that North Korea sunk South Korea's warship in an attempt to force international attention on the country, heightening the tensions and requiring that the nation be dealt with somehow. Denying these accusations leaves some room for holding diplomatic talks while still affording the country the spotlight it desires, and so far this plan (if indeed it was North… [read more]

Precious Than Independence and Liberty Ho Chi Essay

… ¶ … Precious Than Independence and Liberty

Ho Chi Minh

Ho Chi Minh, which means 'He Who Enlightens', represents a leader whose early background is a mystery. His exact date of birth and birth name cannot be verified and changes depending on the research site. One thing that represents facts in relation to Ho Chi Minh is the loyalty of most Vietnamese people and the contributions he made in making Vietnam the independent country it has become.

The purpose of this essay is to summarize the early life of Ho Chi Minh from birth through the 2nd World War and determine how he was able to gain the admiration of the Vietnamese people.

Ho Chi Minh was born in 1890 but the exact date is the topic of debate. Charles Kirkpatrick, in the Vietnam magazine article, "Ho Chi Minh: North Vietnam Leader," as cited by declares, "He was probably born Nguyen Van Thanh, the youngest son of three children of Nguyen Tat Sac, in Kim Lien Village of Nghe an Province in Central Vietnam, on May 19, 1890" (Kirkpatrick 2010). His father was a teacher but according to one source, Minh was not allowed to teach because of his refusal to learn French as required by the French ruling Vietnam at this period in time (Historylearningsite 2010).

Minh spent time traveling the Vietnamese country using his education to help the poor by composing letters for them and offering basic medical services. According to Rit Nosotro, in the article, "Ho Chi Minh 1890-1969 Father of Guerilla Warfare and Free Vietnam," Minh and his father engaged in rebellious actions including a tax revolt against the French government (Nosotro 2003). This along with the fierce determination of Minh to end the outside rule of Vietnam by the French, Japanese, and other nations lead to Minh being called 'Uncle Ho' by both his friends and his enemies (Wars and Battles 2010 Overview).

Ho Chi Minh joined his father and sister at an early age in the quest to make Vietnam an independent nation. The French had taken control of the country in the 1860's and the oppression of the people began with the loss of their homes and land to the French people as they established their territories. The Vietnamese could not live the district they inhabited without identity papers and many ended up in China and Thailand as exiles. The people were not allowed to organize, the education of the people caused many to become illiterate, and any form of expression was strictly prohibited.

Ho Chi Minh traveled extensively in his younger life living in England, the United States, and France before he joined the Communist Party and studied in Russia and China. He left Vietnam around 1911 and according to most sources did not return until after the 2nd World War had broken out. Due to the possibility of arrest by the French in Vietnam, Minh lived at times along the Chinese/Vietnamese border. Minh was a member of the French, Indochinese,… [read more]

Indian Foreign Policy and Security Essay

… Indian Foreign Policy -- When Will it Emerge?

Harsh V. Pant: Contemporary Debates in Indian Foreign and Security Policy

Rajiv Sikri: Challenge and Strategy: Rethinking India's Foreign Policy

As India continues to emerge as an important player in international power… [read more]

Country Case Report Term Paper

… Russia Case Report

"You need to be pro-active; go and seek knowledge so that you can become a valuable resource to Gulf Air and to Bahrain"

Jassim Al Marzooqi, Chief Technical Officer

(Marzooqi, as cited in Gulf Air welcomes…, 2009).

Russian Federation

Russian Federation, the official name for Russia, a Federation, consists of 17 million square kilometers (6.5 million square miles); approximately1.8 times the size of the United States (U.S.). Out of Russia's ppopulation which totalled approximately 141.9 million in January 2009, Moscow, the capital, has a population of 10.4 million (Background Note: Russia).

During the 12th century, the Principality of Muscovy was founded after emerging from 200 years of Mongol domination. From 1682-1725, when Peter the First ruled, the Russian Empire was founded. The article, "Introduction: Russia," published by the Central Intelligence Agency, asserts "repeated devastating defeats of the Russian army in World War I led to widespread rioting in the major cities of the Russian Empire and to the overthrow in 1917 of the imperial household" (¶ 1). Vladimir Lenin seized power and the communists formed the U.S.S.R.

From 1928-1953 in the U.S.S.R., during the rule of the brutal leader, Iosif Stalin, thousands of individuals lives were abruptly lost.

The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the following decades until General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev (1985-91) introduced openness and restructuring in an attempt to modernize Communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the U.S.S.R. into Russia and 14 other independent republics (Introduction: Russia, ¶ 1).

Russia gained its independence August 24, 1991 and its constitution established December 12, 1993. Russia, divided into nine different time zones, geographically borders the Arctic Ocean between the North Pacific Ocean and Europe. Russia's west borders Northern Asia. Figure 1 portrays a map of Russia today.

Figure 1: Map of Russia (Russia).

Economic Growth

When under the Soviet Union's control, the government centrally planned Russia's globally isolated economy. Since the Soviet Union's collapse in 1991, Russia has moved toward a market based and globally integrated economy. In the 1990s most industries were private. The government, however, maintained control of the energy and defense sectors. "Nonetheless, the rapid privatization process, including a much criticized 'loans-for-shares' scheme that turned over major state-owned firms to politically-connected 'oligarchs', has left equity ownership highly concentrated" (Introduction: Russia, Flag section, ¶ 3). The Russian economy and industries are divided between globally competitive and commodity producers. In 2009, Russia became the world's largest exporter of natural gas, the second largest oil exporter, and the third biggest exported of primary aluminum and steel.

Research and Development; Infrastructure and Institutions

Russia has other…… [read more]

Changes Peter the Great Brought to Russia Research Paper

… Peter the Great: Brutal Reformer

From the perspective of the 17th century, few state ambitions were of greater consequence than those pertaining to territorial expansion, particularly where great landmasses with monarchical hierarchies are concerned. To one view, the success of… [read more]

External Analysis of International Disney Parks Research Paper

… Disney Parks

Disney's International Theme Parks: Paris and Tokyo

Though it would not be until 1985 that France and Disney would come to an official agreement on the site a conceived Euro-Disney, there had been consideration of this market roughly since the first successful years of the original American Disney theme parks. The process which began in the early 1970s when the Disney Corporation first seriously entertained the notion of entering the European theme park market would, by 1984, reach a point of serious realization. At this juncture, its key decision-makers were considering as many as 1200 different locations throughout the continent, with a determined vision to replicate the model successfully exercised in the United States, where an ideal plot of land would be acquired and converted into its own town. (DLP, 1)

The Paris-area site was selected, research ultimately demonstrates, due to the circumstantial elimination of most other sites, each of which presented a challenge demonstrative of the complicated process which is invested into an operation of this scale. Paris would present its own challenges though, particularly as Disney's labor orientation would be concerned. The distinctly American company's approach to its internal organizational culture would immediately class with French labor laws, seeming to run aground of the protections to which many had grown accustomed. This would be a major legal stumbling block for Disney, which has historically maintained an explicitly stated 'appearance code' forbidding unshaven faces, long hair, tattoos, piercings or other distinguishing aesthetic features. Accordingly, many opponents "criticised Disney as being insensitive to French culture, individualism, and privacy, because restrictions on individual or collective liberties were illegal under French law, unless it could be demonstrated that the restrictions are requisite to the job and do not exceed what is necessary." (Wikipedia, 1) This sense of hostility would only be further reinforced by the Disney policy of conducting all meetings and business in English, a clear divergence from French linguistic norms.

Another stumbling block would be the less-than-ideal seasonal change in climate in the French site. The climate issue was evaluated according to the previously successful venture abroad for Disney. In 1983, Tokyo Disneyland opened to momentous success in spite of a similar weather conflict in Tokyo. (Plowright, 1) Disney had planned to adapt many of the strategies that it had employed to…… [read more]

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