"Asian History / Asia" Essays

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Regional Technical Efficiency and Technology Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (867 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Last, the third finding reached by Wenjun Liu is represented by the ruling that the efficiency of technology within the selected rural areas of China increased throughout the years, yet the gaps have remained rather constant. This virtually means that each region has evolved at the same pace and no major differences were observed in one relative to the other.

The topic approached by Wenjun Liu is interesting and relevant in the context of the modern day society, which is more and more characterized by the advent of technology. In this setting, the population across the globe becomes more interested in technology and the academic community becomes more interested in assessing the levels of technologization, use of technology, benefits of technology and so on. In this context then, Liu's article is a useful addition to the research community as it researches a specific topic related to technology and it creates new findings. From this angle then, the significance of the article is a highly theoretical one.

The findings can nevertheless be assessed and utilized by technology creators and providers in China, meaning as such that Liu's article also has a practical applicability and significance. For instance, the technology creators could use the findings to create technologies for agricultural activities, which respond to the specific needs of the Chinese farmers.

Also from the academic standpoint, it has to be mentioned that the article is written in a highly formal manner, integrating a complex set of knowledge and a specific vocabulary. This subsequently means that its readability is fairly limited to specialized individuals, rather than novice economists, sociologists, technology amateurs and other people who might reveal some degree of interest in the topic.

Overall, Wenjun Liu's article is a useful piece of writing since it addresses a novel and interesting topic, within a specific setting, namely the technical efficiency and gaps in rural China. The topic is rather niche and limitedly addressed within the specialized literature, meaning that its findings are useful. At the level of the audience to which the article is accessible however, it has to be noted that this is limited to specialized individuals.


Li, Guojie (2011) "Information science and technology in China: a roadmap to 2050" Springer.

Liu, Wenjun. (2012) "Regional technical efficiency and technology gaps in rural China: evidence from CHIP surveys" in China Economic Journal. Vol. 4, No. 2-3. pp.125-144

Vogt, W, Paul (2007) "Quantitative research methods for professionals" Pearson / Allyn and Bacon.

(2013) "Style guidelines for accepted papers" in Canadian Journal of Economics. Online…… [read more]

World Is Flat Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (610 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


As Friedman shows in example after example, outsourcing is a very real dynamic due to its effectiveness at re-packaging jobs many American see as menial and below them. This entitlement trap Americans have could cost them even further opportunities in the future if they ignore working in the hopes of a more prestigious position. In reality those prestigious jobs could end up in India or 3rd world nations too.

Another trend directly impacting the United States that Thomas Friedman writes about is the decision on the part of very large, highly advanced corporations to set up R&D facilities in nations whose educational levels surpass the U.S. today. These include China, India, in addition to Nordic states including Sweden and Norway. The decision to move Research & Development (R&D) offshore signals a serious threat to what America has long done better than anyone in the world, and that is innovate and bring new products to market faster than anyone else (Harvey, Novicevic, 211, 212). This outsourcing of the design function of R&D will eventually impact the Gross National product (GNP) of the Untied States if left unchecked. The World is Flat is a warning call that the United States has to get focused on competing with intelligence and intensity again to grow.

Works Cited

Harvey, Michael G., and Milorad M. Novicevic. "The World is Flat: A Perfect Storm for Global Business?" Organizational dynamics 35.3 (2006): 207-19.

Leamer, Edward E. "A Flat World, a Level Playing Field, a Small World After all, Or None of the Above? A Review of Thomas L. Friedman's the World is Flat." Journal of Economic Literature 45.1 (2007):…… [read more]

Third Wave Is a 2007 Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (669 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Honestly, despite the volunteers' good intentions and their efforts, the documentary comes off more like a public service announcement or a commercial intended to raise awareness and collect donations. It feels as the only thing missing from the end of the film is a 1-800 number or a website where a person can find out more information as to how to donate to the cause. Granted, it is a little bit upsetting that the documentary brings to light the misappropriation of funds from legitimate donations, the fact that the volunteers are not affiliated with any organization makes the claim slightly less impactful. I think I would understand and be more upset if the volunteers were part of an official organization that was promised money and did not receive it because of corruption, but the volunteers don't actually have any ties to any official organization and they are in Sri Lanka at their own risk. The quality of the documentary itself is also sub-par and looks more like a video diary than a professional endeavor. The documentary even has intertitles with statistics that try to make the viewer more sympathetic to what is going on in the area. There is no arguing that the volunteers helped the Sri Lankans, however the documentary makes it appear as though they did it more for themselves than for other people; they just want to give and give and do not care who they help and how they help them as long as they feel like they are making a contribution.

Ultimately, I feel that the documentary made the volunteers look like they were helping Sri Lankans to make themselves feel better and not to really create a lasting impact -- if they had they would have gone through legitimate organizations that would guarantee continued support and assistance to the villagers. If the volunteers were helping the Sri Lankans out of the goodness of their hearts, why was there a need for their actions to…… [read more]

U.S. Justice System vs. India Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,789 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


And 2,880 victims of child rape have been reported but the system has failed "to contain it. This is very disturbing" (Malimath, 16). And one enormous problem exists in the Indian justice system that keeps it from functioning to its fullest capacity, and that is, "The Criminal Justice System does not trust the police" (Malimath, 19). The courts also view… [read more]

Attribution First and Foremost Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (443 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The independence that Person A demonstrated and maintained further prepared him/her for his/her future as a guardian -- essentially both sister and parent to the younger sister. The younger sister would have an entirely different set of challenges in adaptation, but with the support of Person A, the younger sister can concentrate on learning the culture and new ways of life.

Person A is not lazy. he/she is responsible, proactive, and industrious. Person A is a hardworking person. Person A completed his/her studies, took care of a household, found a job, and supported his/her younger sister entirely. The person would have been able to been involved in all those activities and excel if he/she was a predominantly lazy person. It simply would not happen without sustained effort. This person additionally has the ability to prioritize tasks effectively, set goals and reach them, and demonstrates aptitude with successful time management.

Person A scheduled his/her classes around the younger sister's schedule and needs. Person A still maintained a strong and important presence in the younger sister's life even as Person A got the assistant position and flourished at work. This experience overall brought strong qualities in Person A, all of which would be assets in the workplace.… [read more]

U.S. China BRIC Auto Market Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (615 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


, 2010). Again, China will account for the vast majority of this growth (Lang, et al., 2010).

GM has regained the title of world's largest automaker from Toyota again, and if the company wishes to maintain that title it will have to invest heavily in emerging markets. Since the G6 nations are stagnating as far as automobile consumption is concerned, it is necessary to look at the next group of nations that will take their place in the global marketplace. At present, China's economy is growing at a much faster rate than the other BRIC nations and should thus be the focus of any planned expansion into these markets. Because China is already a consumer of GM goods, name recognition is not a problem and distribution should be relatively simple also. For GM to expand at a greater rate into the Chinese market before it takes more drastic measures makes sense also as China can be used as a test market for the others. Over the next two decades as the economies of the other BRIC nations grow, GM can implement similar plans of expansion into each of them.

It is imperative that GM begin this transformation now as China is growing rapidly and other automakers are already making great strides in that market. Toyota has a favorable location, and Ford has been heavily involved in the truck market for many years. To maintain its leading share of the global market, GM needs to quickly implement a strategy of expanded growth into China.


Lang, N.S., Mauerer, S., Aguiar, M., Kreid, E., Bhattachariya, A., & Nettesheim, C. (2010). Winning the BRIC auto markets. Retrieved from https://www.bcgperspectives.com/content/articles/automotive_globalization_winni ng_the_bric_auto_markets/

Wilson, D., & Purushothaman, R. (2003). Dreaming with BRICs: The path to 2050. Goldman Sachs Global Economics Paper,…… [read more]

Superpower Definition Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,130 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


It has modernized its armed forces and spent a large sum on defense. According to the report of Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), China increased its defense spending from $30 billion in 2000 to $120 billion in 2010 (Sim 2012). America's defense budget is four and half times more than China but if China continues to extend its budget figure than its military budget will overtake the America's budget in 2035 (Sim 2012).

Along with focusing on the defense side, Chinese leaders have adopted the policy of peaceful world relations, making route to their success. Their stabled economy and political standards have created a major concern for the whole world. Chinese government is playing an important role in establishing friendly relations with the other nations of the world. It is promoting the Chinese language through different programs and announcing publically about the China's reformations to its policies. These political, economic and military achievements of China have encouraged people to think and believe that China fits to be the next super power.

A superpower state or nation is the one, which is capable of influencing other nations and the international markets. A superpower state is a step ahead than the great power. It can also be described as a nation that is able to dominate other nations, through the foundation of political, economical and military strengths. However, China is not stronger than America in terms of political and military factors but its continuous increase in military spending and establishment of friendly relations with all countries of the world; gives a sign that in it will take over the super power status from America in coming years.

Contrary to this approach, some experts are looking at the opposite side of the story. They believe that China will not be able to handle this sharp rise in power and a huge global disaster will appear when the economy of China will collapse. This disaster will result in unforeseen consequences that will affect the entire globe. The huge population of China, which is around 20% of the world, will create several problems, including refuge problems, internal conflicts, increasing crime and a bag of other complexities that will almost be impossible to manage simultaneously.

Despite these predictions, majority perceives China as the next superpower. However, along with China, there are also some other nations that fulfill the eligibility to be counted in the list of emerging superpowers are; Turkey, Russia, France, Germany, Brazil, Japan and United Kingdom. Perhaps, America is still on top scale in the counting of superpower and many perceptions have been drawn; it is an hot issue that that whether China will take over America and become the world's super power or not.

Experts expect that U.S. will lose superpower status as the globe has already entered in the China's supremacy. In last couple of years, economics predicted that China would take another 10-15 years for becoming economically so strong that it takes America's place. However, China is running faster than… [read more]

China's New Guard Susan Lawrence Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (503 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Previous party appoints have attempted to bring the province back under control and failed. Should Li succeed he will certainly strengthen his standing in the party.

Wen Jiabao

Wen is seen as genial competent and has a wide range of experience. He was deputy director of the party's Central Committee General Office and survived the purging party chief Hu Yaobang and Zhao Ziyang to become both a politburo member and a vice-premier. He oversees agriculture, poverty relief, forestry, and water resources. Additionally, he was named to head the party's Central Work Commission on Finance, leading an overhaul and recapitalization of China's banks, cleaning up and stabilizing the securities markets and reorganizing the Ministry of Finance. Wen regularly travels with Jiang, the Chinese leader on trips outside of Beijing.

Wu Bengguo

Wu is oversees state-enterprise reform. Critics view his record with less than enthusiastic praise; however the task is not an easy one. Lawrence reports Wu has been ineffective in attempting to mediate disputes among the many industrial fiefdoms that see their interests threatened by party reform. Wu was Shanghai party chief and served under Jiang and Zhu. He is known to be loyal.

Jia Qinglin

Jia, besides being on the politburo, is also the mayor and party boss of Beijing. He is also a Jiang loyalist. Jia has recently announced plans to rejuvenate the infrastructure if the city as well as develop high-tech industry. He is described as the "least dynamic of the…… [read more]

Gandhi Influenced Martin Luther King Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,888 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


On the other hand, king organized historic walks and processions to raise awareness for his cause. He also made several articulate and memorable speeches including the most moving of them all, I Have a Dream.

Unlike Gandhi, King advocated greater participation and interaction between the Black Americans and the White Americans to achieve a harmonious society. Since Gandhi was then struggling against a foreign power, he probably did not feel the necessity of greater cooperation and interaction between the Indians and the British. As a result, King's philosophy appears to be more active and vigorous than the philosophy of Gandhi. King invited the confrontation with his antagonists more often than Gandhi although Gandhi had to endure personal suffering at the hands of British forces in power.

It can be said that the difference in the philosophies of both Gandhi and King is not a very fundamental one since both believe in the importance of nonviolence as a tool for bringing about constructive social change. But both are affected by their unique environmental circumstances in how far and how openly they can be vocal about their philosophical outlook.


It can be said that King was heavily inspired by the nonviolence philosophy of Gandhi to the extent that it was a better and more effective form of resistance to social injustice with regard to building a better society and community for the future. His philosophy was also colored by the Christian values of compassion, patience and charity. In addition, he was also inspired by Gandhi's high regard for personal values such as discipline and commitment to the cause. In contrast to Gandhi, King's philosophy is characterized by a more active and confrontational role in bringing about social change and does not place a high value on personal suffering to bring about the change.

Works Cited

Center for Compassionate Living. Principles of Nonviolence. Center for Compassionate Living, 2012. Accessed on 25 April 2012.

King, Mary, E. Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr.: The Power of Nonviolent Action UNESCO Publishing. 1999. Print

Nojeim, Michael, J. Gandhi and King: The Power of Nonviolent Resistance Greenwood Publishing. 2004. Print

The King Center. The King Philosophy. The King…… [read more]

Cultural Attitudes Towards Animals Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (698 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


S.K. Ranjhan, the director of Hind Agro Industries Limited, who believes that religious attitudes may stand to change once the extent of business opportunities are realized. 'I think five-to-10 years from now, people won't be so scandalized by the sale of cow beef'" (Rezvani, Gottlieb & Hennigan 2012). Although India officially has laws against cow slaughter, there is a thriving illegal trade in beef. An "estimated 1.5 million cows, valued at up to $500 million, are smuggled out of India annually, which some analysts say provide more than 50% of beef consumed in neighboring Bangladesh" (Rezvani, Gottlieb & Hennigan 2012).

In ancient Hindu scriptures, many animals besides the cow have sacred significance. "In order to indicate the aquatic origin of the animals, the Lord [Krishna] incarnates in the form of a Mathsya, a fish. This is followed by an amphibious animal Kurma, a turtle" ("Animals in Indian culture," Sri.Venkateswara Zoological Park, 2012). In the Hindu concept of reincarnation, the soul moves back and forth between various bodies, animal and human. Yet despite the reverence given to the sacred cow and other animals in law and scripture, in practice Indians often have a very unsentimental attitude towards animals. Once again, this can be traced to the extreme poverty under which many Indians labor. A lack of money, even to support one's human family, often means there is little compassion left to care for animals. In many areas, it is not unusual for packs of street dogs to roam the area, unattended to and uncared for, and violence against these dogs is common if they become nuisances, as is the case with other stray animals (Morris 2010).

Works Cited

"Animals in Indian culture." Sri.Venkateswara Zoological Park [24 Apr 2012]


Harris, Marvin. "India's sacred cow." Sociology 101. [24 Apr 2012]


Morris, Bartleby. "A dog's life." NRI.15 Sept 2010. [24 Apr 2012]


Rezvani, Arezou, Benjamin Gottlieb & Elise Hennigan. "Growing beef trade hits India's sacred cow." CNN. 18 Apr 2012 [24 Apr 2012]

http://edition.cnn.com/2012/04/18/business/beef-trade-india/index.html… [read more]

North Korea the First Words Book Review

Book Review  |  4 pages (1,349 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Indeed, this role that songun plays is portrayed in the National Geographic Explorer episode. The military in North Korea is the world's fourth largest standing army, even though the country is very small. There are, according to the narrator, one million men in the Korean army. The North Koreans also have plutonium and nuclear weapons. The border with South Korea is the most heavily militarized border in the world. In fact, the film points out that there was never even a peace treaty at the end of the Korean War. There is simply a cease fire, meaning that the border is a tense area on which anything can happen. If it was not for the strong military presence, North Korea would be unable to fend off the invaders from the outside. The country would be also unable to prevent social unrest and uprisings from within. In fact, the latter purpose may be far more important than the former. Even though the people in North Korea cry and bow down to the supreme leader, there are many who try to escape at the risk of their own deaths and the condemnation of their family. The people could easily start an uprising, were it not for the power, strength, and size of the Korean military. Songun ensures that military comes first. The people are willing to believe the importance of military because of the way North Korea has appropriated Confucianism to suit its goals. Kang states that North Korea "has selectively utilized the Confucian value system and cultural legacy to reinforce the Chuche's ideology and its poltical and cultural systems," (65). Loyalty and "filial piety" are cornerstones of original Confucianism, as Kang points out. Although distorted, Confucianism holds sway over the North Korean people. The enduring link between Confucianism, songun, and juche explains why and how North Korea has the political and social culture that it does. The sort of "neo-Confucianism" that Kang describes makes it possible for the mythology of the great leader to be perpetuated in North Korea.

However, fear is at the root of North Korean political and social life. The concentration camps are one example of how terror is used to induce conformity. As the defector who used to be a concentration camp guard points out in the film, the government of North Korea would not survive without the use of concentration camps. The camps are use to punish not only those who were not loyal to the regime, such as attempted defectors. The camps are also used to punish the entire family of defectors. Therefore, the camps create a fear-based mentality and behavior system in North Korea. They "keep people loyal," the escaped guard admits.

In spite of the fear, many people from North Korea do successfully defect. Most of them escape via the north on the border with China, because the DMZ to the South is all land mines and also has a high-voltage electric fence. The policies of songun ensure that the border to the… [read more]

Post-War Japan the Depiction Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (773 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


And I don't want to talk about it" (Voice of Hibakusha). The documentary was made forty years after the attack and she is still impacted by the tragedy. She is unable to speak about it and does not want her children to know about the experience. The people who were interviewed for the documentary all suffered some sort of emotional trauma from the bombings and their victimization continues even after the events have become a part of the past.

These to depictions of victimization differ mainly by the cause of it. Voice of Hibakusha deals with real events and cannot be interpreted by an artistic lens; whereas, Gojira is an artistic representation of Japanese victimization. In Gojira the Japanese are the cause of their victimization and are the only ones who can stop the monster. This is not the only way the film shows the Japanese taking control of their role as victim. In both works the people do not just see themselves as victims, but also as survivors. In these works the duty of the survivor is to make sure that the tragedies that they suffer do not happen again. In Gojira, Dr. Serizawa uses his oxygen destroyer to kill the monster even though he was vehemently against it originally. As a survivor of both the monster attacks and World War II, Serizawa feels obliged to stop the continued victimization of his fellow countrymen. The same can be seen in Voice of Hibakusha. Many of the interviewees feel that by speaking out about their experiences they can stop another nuclear attack from happening. Isao Kita, who was 33 at the time of the bombing, states, "The atomic bomb does not discriminate […] I think it cannot be allowed to happen again anywhere in the world" (Voice of Hibakusha). Kita shows that by speaking out he is helping stop future crises.

In the end, both works show that the Japanese people still see themselves as victims. They portray themselves as constant victims, but in their role as victim they are able to impact the world around them. The Japanese stop seeing themselves as victims and start seeing themselves as survivors who can change the world…… [read more]

Gandhi's Philosophies Mahatma Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (602 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


In this context, the people of India could come together in collaboration in order to exercise satyagraha to attain their swaraj. Civil disobedience through non-violence was essentially a path that Indian people could take in order to free themselves from the over burdensome rule of the British crown and reach a level of independence, where the Indian people could govern over their own affairs.

There is also a connection between Gandhi's image of the role of God and punishment with his notion of non-violent resistance as a way to free them from unjust British rule. The pain the Indian people were feeling under British rule was essentially unjust. This was an unjust punishment being imposed on them by a government that had no Godly right to commence such punishment on innocent people. Only God can punish the individual, not the British crown. Yet, at the same time, people are often victims of unjust punishments. Here, he gave the example of "the son refuses to be subdued by the unjust father but he puts up with the punishment that he may incur through disobeying the unjust father. We can similarly free ourselves of the unjust rule of the Government by defying" the obedience required under British rule (Gandhi 53). Essentially, Gandhi saw passive resistance as a way to end the unjust punishment of the governing body, in this case the British crown. Through non-violent resistance, the Indian people were undoubtedly going to still face the punishment inflicted upon them by their unjust rulers. Yet, this punishment could not be seen as strict enough to stop the overall fight for independence and freedom from these unjust British rulers.

Works Cited

Gandhi, Mahatma. Mahatma Gandhi: Selected Political Writings.…… [read more]

Changing Political Situation in North Korea Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … changing political situation in North Korea to determine if the new political leadership headed by Kim Jong Un can be persuaded to abandon its nuclear arms program and what, if anything, he will likely demand in return. Although hard facts about North Korea are scarce in the West, it may be possible to identify potential opportunities for nuclear disarmament given the recent change in the country's top leadership using a critical review of the relevant secondary and primary literature to develop an in-depth case study of North Korea and the West's efforts in the region to gain fresh insights that might otherwise go undiscerned. A summary of the research, important findings and salient recommendations are presented in the study's conclusion.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction

Statement of the Problem

Purpose Statement

Research Questions

Importance of Study

Scope of Study

Rationale of Study

Overview of Study

Review of Related Literature

Chapter 3: Methodology

Research Design and Analysis

Description of Data Analysis

Chapter 4: Data Analysis

Chapter 5: Summary and Recommendations

North Korea Nuclear Disarmament: Can The West Prevail?

The International Atomic Energy Agency has determined North Korea to be a full-fledged nuclear power since April of 2009. Since then, its foreign policy has revolved around brinksmanship, diverting the attention of the international community from the deprivation of the citizenry to the flamboyant posturing of the country's leader. -- Kristine Lee, 2011

Chapter 1: Introduction

Statement of the Problem

Perhaps the most bizarre country on earth today is North Korea. Not only does North Korea have the highest civilian-to-military ratio in the world, it is also the world's only Marxist dynastic regime. The recent promotion of Kim Jong-Il's son, 28-year-old Jim Jung Un, to the nation's top leadership position…… [read more]

Japanese Watersheds an Island Nation Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,429 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Such continuous efforts have ensured that one of the world's largest economic developments has been able to safeguard its population in the high-risks region. (Greater Tokyo, 2004)

The above description demonstrates one of the ways in which watersheds (in this case, the one that exists under the city of Tokyo) come to be endangered by human activity.

When humans view… [read more]

Career Goals Admission Essay

Admission Essay  |  1 pages (406 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Doing so, we employ workers from India and pay them strong living wages. By the time the company went public, we had sold our ideas and spawned subsidiaries in nations around the world.

Before I started my visionary alternative energy company, I sought opportunities to work with industry leaders in India. Mentors guided me towards the best means of creating economies of scale, and towards acquiring the best balance of human and financial capital. I helped Indian firms achieve their ethical and financial goals, while acquiring the leadership skills necessary for me to ultimately become a Forbes-renowned business leader myself. It took me about five to seven years to acquire the amount of experience I needed in order to successfully branch out on my own and start my own global firm.

Had it not been for my stellar business education, I might not have been able to land desirable internships as I did once I graduated from college. The first step towards achieving my long-range vision of changing India and contributing to society is the fulfillment of my academic degree. With enthusiasm and confidence, I thank you for your consideration.… [read more]

Russian &amp Chinese Intelligence PRC Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,525 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Russia's focus seems more on using technologies for old-style spying and information gathering that Putin seems set on maintaining control of.

Based on what is currently happening it appears that China has a superior model. Theirs is business-based and allows for profitmaking to be a part of what their eyes and ears are doing. This has helped them to develop a stronger economic base that is capable of growing for them even during tough economic times. Putin, on the other hand, is being accused of rigging elections and there are open confrontations against his authority. It is very likely that the infrastructure of traditional spying could be turned against him now just as it has against leaders in the past.


Cooper, D.M. How China Steals U.S. Military Secrets. Popular Mechanics. July 10, 2009. http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/military/news/3319656?do=print (accessed December 14, 2011).

Global Security, Ministry of State Security. GlobalSecurity.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/intell/world/china/mss.htm (accessed December 14, 2011).

Russian Statutes. Text of Statute on Federal Security Service of Russian Federation and Structure of Federal Security Service Agencies. Rossiyskaya Gazeta, 15 August 2003. http://www.fas.org/irp/world/russia/fsb/statute.html (accessed on December 14, 2011). 1-15.

Starr, R.F. And Tacosa, C.A. Russia's Security Services. Mediterranean Quarterly. Winter 2004. 39-57.… [read more]

Cultural Conflict of Two Stories Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (758 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Cultural Conflict of Two Stories

Cultural conflicts: Anglo-Indian writing

On first glance, Thomas Babington Macaulay's essay "Minute on Indian Education" (1835) seems to exhibit the worst excesses of British colonial attitudes about native culture. Macaulay, who admits he cannot read Indian languages, pronounces them inferior to English, and states that they have never produced literature on par with European civilizations. He states that it is vitally necessary to educate Indian peoples in 'real' literature and language -- by which he means the literature of his own civilization. The need to educate nonwhite people and to 'carry the white man's burden' is seen as a positive benefit of colonial enslavement, given the poverty of the culture of natives. "The dialects commonly spoken among the natives of this part of India contain neither Literary nor scientific information, and are, moreover, so poor and rude that, until they are enriched from some other quarter, it will not be easy to translate any valuable work into them" (Macaulay 1835). There is a clear lack of cultural comprehension in Macaulay's wording, but he is incapable of perceiving his blindness. He judges the culture of the 'other' solely upon his own culture's terms. He utterly rejects the ability of Indian culture to offer anything to his own.

Instead, a common language is needed Macaulay argues, and that should be English, given that Sanskrit and Arabic are also inferior to English in terms of their literary output. Better to create an Indian who talks like an Englishman, and reads English, he states. "I certainly never met with any Orientalist who ventured to maintain that the Arabic and Sanscrit poetry could be compared to that of the great European nations. but, when we pass from works of imagination to works in which facts are recorded and general principles investigated, the superiority of the Europeans becomes absolutely immeasurable" (Macaulay 1835). Macaulay does not judge the quality of these other 'Oriental' civilizations based upon testimony from cultural insiders, but from Western Orientalists who purport to interpret 'the Orient' for a Western audience.

It might be presumed that a post-colonial writer such as Salman Rushdie would decry the fact that English was imposed upon the Indian subcontinent, and call for a return to the native tongues that were spoken before…… [read more]

Notable Gardens Comparison of Landscape Design Topologies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (676 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Gardens/Comparison of Landscape Design Topologies

Architectural comparison:

The Shalimar Garden of Kashmir, India vs. Blithewold, Bristol, RI

The name of the Shalimar Garden of Kashmir, India is translated as the 'Abode of Love.' It was founded by the Emperor Jahangir and his wife, Nur Jahan in the 6th century ("The Shalimar Garden of Kashmir, India," 2011, Garden Visit). The garden's design has been characterized as a variation of the uniform Persian chahar bagh layout. These gardens are symmetrical in design, planned around a water centerpiece. Four streams coming from the source provide the organizing design of the garden. To adapt the design to the local, mountainous topography, the central water fountain is given emphasis, and the channels coming forth from the water are proportionately reduced in size to create centrality of focus upon the interior ("Shalimar Gardens," Arch Net, 2011).

Over the centuries, the garden has been altered. Its first incarnation featured two private separate gardens, one for the emperor and the other for ladies of the court ("The Shalimar Garden of Kashmir, India," 2011, Garden Visit). Now, however, there are three levels: The central water canal of the garden unites the three terraces with sycamore tree-lined fountains. At the top of the garden, the water canal runs through each pavilion in the garden and at each terrace, "the canal flows into a larger pool, highlighting its baradari. Within the Shalimar Bagh, each of the three terraces had a different function and level of privacy: a public garden (first terrace), a private garden, also called the Emperor's Garden (second terrace) and the zenana (harem) garden, on the third terrace" ("Shalimar Gardens," Arch Net, 2011). When they visited these public gardens, Westerners were often asked to stay in the marble pavilion near during the reign of Ranjit Singh ("Shalimar Gardens," Arch Net, 2011).

"The site of Shalimar seems to have been ideally suited to a garden; it contained a natural canal, and a small nearby spring-fed stream was diverted to the garden site to provide continuous running…… [read more]

Eli Lilly Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (635 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Eli Lilly should the Ranbaxy share of the joint venture. The company has grown and now has the ability to stand on its own. The Indian market has tremendous potential, but bringing in another Indian partner is too risky and could compromise the company's ability to unlock this potential.

The situation that Lilly is faced with in India is whether to buy out partner Ranbaxy or to take on another partner. The joint venture has been a success for Lilly, and allowed it to enter the Indian market profitably. Ranbaxy wants to leave the JV, and Lilly needs to determine if it can run the venture as a wholly-owned subsidiary or if it should take on another Indian partner.

The Indian market has favorable conditions for market entry. With patent protection coming on stream, the margins in India should increase. This might allow Eli Lilly to bring some of its patent-protected drugs to market, something it has not wanted to do in the past. The subsidiary has witnesses a strong increase in sales in recent years (up 56.5%) in the last two years and an even stronger increase in profits (up 103%) in that same span. The balance sheet has become weaker, however, with liquidity declining in that period.

There are a number of opportunities within the Indian market. These include a growing population and growing middle class. The country also has potential as a home for drug testing, if standards can be met that will allow tests conducted in India to be applicable for Western drug approval applications. This could represent significant cost savings to Lilly. However, it is worth noting that despite the high potential level of emerging markets, foreign sales as a percentage of revenues has been declining for Lilly -- its core business right now is in the U.S. market.

It appears the Lilly is committed to maintaining its subsidiary in India, because…… [read more]

Fengshui Is an Ancient Chinese Hypothesis Chapter

Hypothesis Chapter  |  2 pages (500 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


By contrast, when Hong Kong was under control of Great Britain, the Chinese were far more willing to let unkind information out and would encourage, publish, and exploit the negative attitudes of the people to their colonizers.

One of the primary reasons that fengshui was able to transform from a national heritage to a larger worldwide practice was because of the articles that were written by Yang for Ming Pao Newspaper. In the article "Constructing a Transnational Multilocal Sense of Belonging," the author Hau Ling Chen states that when those from Hong Kong, China immigrated to Canada, they brought with them the circulation of their local newspaper. Locally the city of Vancouver became known as Hongcouver because of the vast amounts of Chinese immigrants living in the area who would circulate the issues of this particular newspaper (Chen 149). Besides allowing the Chinese immigrants to continue to participate in their own culture by circulating the newspaper, the popularization of the paper allowed the culture of that region to spread into the majority Canadian culture as well.

Works Cited:

Brunn, Ole. "The Fengshui Resurgence in China: Conflicting Cosmologies Between State and Peasantry." The China Journal. 36. 1996. 47-65. Print.

Chen, Hau Ling. "Constructing a Transnational, Multilocal Sense of Belonging: an Analysis of Ming Pao." Journal of Communication Inquiry. Sage. 29:141. 2005. Print.

Lee, Francis L.F. And Angel M.Y. Lin. "Newspaper Editorial Discourse and the Politics of Self-

Censorship in Hong Kong." Discourse and…… [read more]

Cultural Characteristics of China Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,001 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


China: 21st Century Cultural Changes

Once upon a time, China was seen as a poor nation, the source of manufactured goods for the world. However, China's expanding middle class is changing its world image. More Chinese citizens can afford cars, consumer goods, and also to aspire to a new life far different from that of their parents: "For China's emerging middle class, this is an age of aspiration -- but also a time of anxiety. Opportunities have multiplied, but each one brings pressure to take part and not lose out, and every acquisition seems to come ready-wrapped in disappointment that it isn't something newer and better. An apartment that was renovated a few years ago looks dated; a mobile phone without a video camera and color screen is an embarrassment. Classes in colloquial English are fashionable among Shanghai schoolchildren, but everything costs money" (Chang 2008:1). While poverty still exists, particularly in rural areas, the appetite for what is new and foreign has been sharpened, particularly in urban areas.

Currently, China's middle class is said to number between 100 million and 150 million people, with a household income of at least $10,000. More and more middle class families have their own (rather than shared) apartments, their own cars (where once they might have walked or ridden a bike), eat fast food with American brand names splattered upon them, and wear foreign clothes. Although the wealth has not 'trickled down' to all Chinese, "in 2007, China had the second largest number of billionaires in the world, behind the U.S., where the number of Chinese billionaires totaled at 108, rising about tenfold from the previous year. Meanwhile, there were about 300,000 Chinese millionaires in 2007" (The Chinese consumer, 2011, China Knowledge). Consumer spending has surged amongst the new rich and also the new middle class. Speculation in the domestic property and shares market, continues to fuel the expansion of wealth (The Chinese consumer, 2011, China Knowledge).

This culture of aspiration is both intensely Chinese and intensely American. For example, the child of one middle-class Chinese couple's favorite foods is Pizza Hut and KFC -- yet she is also subjected to hours of tutoring a day, to ensure she receives entry to a competitive middle school, which is deemed critical in ascending the economic ladder. These fears are not entirely unfounded, given that only 10% of the Chinese population will attend college, versus 64% of the U.S., and openings are scarce. Thanks to China's one child policy, the pressure is on Chinese 'only children' to succeed (Chang 2008:1).

Chinese teens today are more wiling to sexually experiment, to talk frankly about homosexuality, to challenge their elders than the previous generation. Many parents, while they once might have proudly exercised authority over their children, are now reticent to do so because they believe their knowledge has sank into obsolescence: "Fathers used to give orders, but now fathers listen to their sons" (Chang 2008:3). Consumerism and the desire for quality is particularly acute amongst the 18-29-year-old…… [read more]

Book's Comments Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (681 words)
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¶ … Sky Burial

The story of lost love told by Shu Wen was very sad, both because she lost her husband so soon after their marriage and also because, in a sense, her life ended at that time as well. Hoping to find out what had happened to her husband, Shu Wen, a young doctor, traveled to Tibet not knowing that the information she sought would cost her thirty years of her own life and change her life so profoundly. Initially, she only knows that her husband, also a doctor for the Chinese military, was killed in action in Eastern Tibet, but she receives no other information or details about the circumstances of his death. It seemed incredibly romantic to me that she followed her husband's last known travels to find out exactly what had happened to him.

The novel seems to present the contrast between the tremendous changes that the protagonist, Shu Wen, undergoes over the next three decades and the lessons that she learns from the Tibetans about all things being connected. On one hand, she undergoes incredible changes in her life orientation and cultural identity because she spends thirty years in Tibet and learns the Tibetan perspective. On the other hand, she learns through the Tibetan philosophy that the loss of her husband is merely a change in the external ways that he was part of the physical world and that in another larger sense, he is still connected to her and to the world in the more philosophical sense where all things and all living consciousnesses are permanently connected.

During her search for information about the death of her husband, Shu Wen encounters a woman whose life is in peril in the company of Chinese soldiers, some of whom suspect her as possibly being a spy or a member of the Tibetan resistance movement. Shu Wen rescues the woman and treats her medically to save her life. Shu Wen is then taken in by the woman's family and they begin to teach Shu Wen about…… [read more]

Comparison and Contrast of South Korea and USA Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (777 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … South Korea and USA

Culture is defined as the shared pattern of behavior, cognitive systems and effective understanding that is learnt through a process of socialization (Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA), 2009). Therefore culture can be used to differentiate between members of one community from the members of the other.


There are various differences that exist between the American culture and the South Korean culture. Here are the major differences that exist between American and South Korean cultures as outlined in various sources as will be noted below.

The Americans consider self-reliance and self-promotion more acceptable because they value freedom from external interferences, while among the South Koreans there is a preference to group perspective and they value self modesty as well (Kwintessential, 2011). They have an ardent belief in Confucius practices that puts the father as the head of the family and the son having a significant part to play in the family, which is not the case with Americans.

In social relationships, the Americans are more comfortable with peers and there is less social ranking yet this is the opposite of the South Korean culture who would like to know who is in charge and they are highly formal and respect authority and ranks. Indeed it is common to see a younger person, a junior or person of lower rank bowing before greeting a person of higher caliber or age.

The South Korean are also known to value doing the good thing to the person who did it to you and they feel people should be responsible for each other, i.e. they value and instill the harmonious and communal co-existence, yet among the Americans there is an open avoidance of dependence on each other and any situations that will bring up long-term commitment and responsibility for the other is highly avoided.

There is more respect to personal relationships than the written laws and procedures for the South Korean. They will consider first what effect the action will have on the social web and the individual's well being before they take any action rather than looking at the law. Americans on the other hand will give preference to the law and the written rules. They assume that it is the rules that produce fair and good results and fair results for…… [read more]

First Kashmir War 1947-1948 Background Information Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (638 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Kashmir War 1947-1948

India and Pakistan have always been bitter historical rivals and conflicts have risen not only because of territorial disputes but religious / ideological differences as well. During the mid-20th, the Indo-Pakistani Wars ensued and the first amongst these occurred in from October 1947 to December 1948 and was commonly known as the First Kashmir War. The reference to Kashmir was apropos since the clash was due to territorial disputes between India and Pakistan regarding sovereignty of the state of Kashmir. There are three main reasons on why this region is being disputed by the two nations (Worthview 2009):

The territory of Kashmir was hotly contested even before India and Pakistan won their independence from Britain in August 1947.

Under the partition plan provided by the Indian Independence Act of 1947, Kashmir was free to accede to India or Pakistan.

The Maharaja, Hari Singh, wanted to stay independent but eventually decided to accede to India, signing over key powers to the Indian government -- in return for military aid and a promised referendum.

Generally, both sides believed that they each have legal and historical claims to Kashmir but the arguments prior to 1947 rested mostly on the political and diplomatic levels. The escalation into an armed hostility started when tribal and Pakistani forces entered the Kashmir region during the last quarter of 1947. Since this was considered an act of war by India, the nation retaliated in kind and tried stopping the attacks of the opposing forces. But prior to India mobilizing its forces, it was the Kashmiri government forces that bore the brunt of the initial onslaught. They were not as successful though because of the overwhelming force released by Pakistan. The Kashmiri government forces had no recourse nut to withdraw.

Although the tribal and Pakistani forces initially made headways especially because of the weak Kashmiri government forces, the Maharaja of Kashmir had to…… [read more]

Swimming Lessons by Rohinton Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (846 words)
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Life is not so much a swimming lesson as it is a survival lesson.

Moreover, it is important to read these stories with an understanding of the diaspora that was occurring in the Indian community at that time. First, there was an internal diaspora; Indians were fleeing rural communities for urban communities because of job opportunities. Therefore, many Indians were experiencing an abrupt break with traditional family and community structures. It is also important to understand that this diaspora occurred before the established Indian communities that now thrive in North America. Therefore, early immigrants had to create their own sense of home.

Kersi's relationship with his family, as demonstrated in his letters home, show one of the ways that people would try to maintain family ties, despite the distance. Family ties are a very strong in Indian society, a fact that is repeatedly reflected throughout Mistry's short stories. The stories basically represent a series of letters by the narrator to his parents, though they do depict events outside of the personal experience of any of those characters. One of the more interesting things that Mistry does is focus on Kersi's erotic voyeurism as a way of showing the son's love for his family and home. This has been described as using the lens of the perverse, a description that seems simultaneously accurate and inaccurate. Perversion refers to something outside of the sexual norm, and there is nothing more normal than a young man getting sexually stimulated though things he sees. However, men are supposed to pretend like this is not the case. Likewise, it is normal for Kersi to miss home and miss his family, but his image as a man requires maintaining a balance between acknowledging that and being independent. Moreover, when one looks at certain images, such as his discussion of whether the bathing suit will contain all of his manly equipment, one sees a conflict between two dueling concepts. On the one hand, as the other, an immigrant man, Kersi seems concerned that he will be offensive to the women he sees if his equipment is prominently displayed. On the other hand, Kersi seems proud that he cannot be contained. Clearly this scenario is a metaphor for the entire immigrant experience; Kersi is supposed to want to assimilate so that he can be viewed by others as safe and non-threatening, but he is proud of the very otherness that makes him appear threatening to those westerners that he encounters.… [read more]

Macroeconomic Activity Poverty Around the World Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (619 words)
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The economic quality of life is correlated to the GDP, but the two are not one and the same. The GDP per capita figure gives a pretty good indication of a country's wealth, but wealth distribution must also be taken into account when considering the overall quality of life. With respect to per capita GDP, the CIA World Factbook is led primarily by smaller countries whose economies are driven either by banking (Liechtenstein, Jersey, Bermuda) or oil (Qatar, Kuwait, Brunei). While citizens of the former group have a normal Western quality of life, citizens in the oil nations lead lives more akin to second-world developing nations. Wealth inequality is high in these countries because land ownership is concentrated in the hands of a few individuals. The sultan of Brunei, for example, is one of the wealthiest people in the world but the country's citizens enjoy a quality of life not much different than that of any of the nearby Malaysian cities.

To analyze this question further, we can study two countries with a high per capita GDP, Brunei being one and the other being Andorra, one of the small European nations that dominates the top of the per capita GDP list on the CIA World Factbook. Brunei has a per capita GDP of $50,300 while Andorra has a per capita GDP of $46,700. These two countries will be compared against measures such as life expectancy, adult literacy, infant mortality, and other measures of quality of life.

Brunei has an adult literacy rate of 92.7%, 90.2% for females. Life expectancy at birth is 76.17 years and the infant mortality rate is 11.51 deaths per 1000 live births. The unemployment rate is 3.7%. The country has 425,000 cellular phones for 401,890 people, a rate of 1.05 per person. The rate of landlines is 0.2. There are 314,900 internet users, or…… [read more]

Coca-Cola India Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (627 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Coca-Cola India Case Study

One of the most popular and recognized brands across the planet is Coca-Cola; with it's products available virtually anywhere in the world. Beginning in the 1970's Coca-cola had been attempting to make inroads into the markets of India. Just at a time when Coca-Cola seemed to be making significant progress, they were hit by a calamitous revelation. On August 6, 2003, the Center for Science and Environment, an Indian non-governmental environmental organization, made public charges that they had discovered pesticides in many popular soft drinks, including Coca-Cola. (Vedwan) by the end of August 2003, the Indian government created a Joint Parliamentary Committee to look into the allegations. Coke immediately joined forces with Pepsi, Coke's main rival and who also was defending charges of pesticide contamination in it's products, in a number of responses. Together the soft drink giants attacked the CSE's credibility as well as their testing methods, released their own lab results which determined there was no contamination, petitioned the Delhi High Court to challenge the CSE's findings, and threatened to sued. Despite protests and denials by Coca-Cola, and other international soft drink companies, the Indian public in general believed these allegations and as a result sales of Coca-Cola plummeted.

In response to this Coke India CEO Sanjiv Gupta initiated a number of policy changes designed to counter the allegations that Coca-Cola products were unsafe. Firstly, Gupta knew that the public has a short memory and the CSE report would eventually fade from memory. So he immediately began to communicate with the government, media, employees, and even the CSE in order to discover the cause of the contamination. Coca-Cola then partnered with environmental groups to enact changes which would ensure that something like this never happened again. Sanjiv Gupta demonstrated publicly that Coke India's production was transparent and safe, slowly regaining the public's confidence. And finally, Coke India…… [read more]

Japanese Popular Culture Ramen Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (647 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Japan/Ramen Noodles

Ramen is a Japanese style of noodle. It is one of the most famous of Japan's food and it has become a representation of Japanese culture. It is part of Japanese culture that while eating ramen, one slurps as loud as they can. Slurping one's food might seem to be rude for those not familiar with Japanese culture, but slurping ramen is actually considered polite in Japan. Slurping is only considered polite with ramen or other noodles, but not with any other foods. Because ramen is such a traditional Japanese food, it even has a museum in honor of it -- the Ramen Museum in Yokohama. While ramen originated in China, ramen has become synonymous with Japanese culture and has thus shown that it has developed "hybridity" -- that is, it has been successful at transgressing national borders.

Ramen is a cultural hybrid in and of itself. It is technically a Chinese noodle that was brought to Japan in the beginning of the 20th century by Chinese immigrants. The noodle has undergone several changes since then for the purpose of making the noodle more "Japanese-like." The ramen in Japan today has changed in texture from the Chinese style noodle, and the stock that it is cooked in is more Japanese as well -- using Miso oftentimes, a type of Japanese broth made of soy bean. Even though the noodle is essentially a Chinese hybrid, it has become synonymous with "Japan-ness" and people all over the world eat the food without realizing its original origins.

Eating ramen in Japan, as mentioned, is something that takes on significant meaning. The slurping of the noodles has become a ritual that is considered polite -- but only with ramen. It is one of the most beloved foods in Japan and thus eating it correctly is something that must be taken very seriously.

Ramen became very popular in Japan during World War II because it was…… [read more]

Stereotyping and Culture Film Review Film Review

Film Review  |  7 pages (1,827 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Hunt Arrives in Japan

Interrupts several different individuals in an effort to locate appropriate building

Creates disturbances throughout Tokyo

Hunt Intrudes on "Management Training Seminar"

Hunt does not remove his shoes

Hunt barges into rooms demanding direction

Hunt interrupts Kazihiro's session of self reproachment

Hunt presents his pitch

Hunt barges into the conference room late

Hunt begins by rudely asking… [read more]

Age of Industrialization High Imperialism and Late Colonialism in This Earth of Mankind Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (632 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … United States had to penetrate the Japanese Empire as a way of countering the European dominance of trade in the Western Pacific. To do this, Perry attempted to intimidate the Japanese and superior Western technology.

To do this, Perry attempted to intimidate the Japanese and superior Western technology. Although he did not accomplish this during the Fillmore administration, he accomplished it on his return trip to Japan in 1854 when he returned with even more ships and repeated his intimidating actions, flaunting superior American firepower in their ships and convincing the Japanese leadership that they could not hopefully win in a competition with the United States and repel a naval attack.

Very simply, the Tokugawa government in Edo succumbed to American pressure without any resistance and abandoned its two-centuries'-old seclusion policy because they were cowed by the American naval presence. Previous attempts to secure trade concessions without such force had failed. The significant consequences of Tokugawa's signing of the Treaty of Kanagawa with the United States were to open up Japan to trade with the West.

President Fillmore wrote the letter to the emperor in an attempt to secure the trade agreement. In this way, they could support part of the Japanese side. The shogun was the defacto ruler of Japan. The letter was an example by President Fillmore of a classic strategy of divide and conquers. Millard Fillmore was a member of the Whig Party. He sent the Perry Mission when he did to beat a Russian mission to Japan.

The opening of Japan to the West by Commodore Matthew C. Perry profoundly affected the American imagination at the time and laid the basis for the later U.S. penetration of the Pacific, including the acquisition of the Hawaii and the Philippines many years later at the end of the nineteenth century. While Fillmore did so cautiously, Americans would do later with much more…… [read more]

on the Aluminum Industry Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,152 words)
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Alusaf Hillside Project: Case Study

Alusaf Hillside Project refers to the case of rapidly declining aluminum prices in South Africa in the first half of 1990s which made Alusaf reconsider its plan to invest in a new smelter at Richard's Bay. When the feasibility study was conducted two years prior to the actually decline in prices, everything looked positive for Alusaf. It was clear that Alusaf could gain a lot from developing a new facility at Richard's Bay since it had been the only large producer of aluminum in SA. The company had been raking in huge profits in early 1990s as they reached $220.2 million, up 1% from two years ago. However they had failed to foresee the future which resulted in a huge setback when in 1994 Russia entered the aluminum market and suddenly everything went awry.

For one, Russia had aluminum in excess after its break up from the Soviet Union. This meant that now Russia needed to discard off its excess production stock as quickly and as cheaply as possible. Since SA was a good market, Russia entered this market with full force and quickly took over as people preferred the cheaper prices and equally good quality as they had previously been getter from Alusaf.

But that also meant that Alusaf had to suffer since it had been producing aluminum at a much higher cost compared to the prices it was now forced to compete with. Preparation of aluminum required huge electricity reserves and hence Alusaf had been contracting with electricity providers at a huge cost. But the main problem with the development of a smelter was that it was an unstoppable process. This meant that once a project had been started it was not easy to close it off or end it abruptly as this could lead to serious electricity loss along with serious leak of unwanted substances in the air.

Hence Alusaf was now in a fix. It had to decide quickly if it would go ahead with the plan or if it would stop the entire project because it may never be able to recover the costs that it had once hope to recover quickly. With the entrance of Russia in the market, it had become clear that Alusaf was no longer the only large producer and now it was easier to get aluminum at a much cheaper rate from Russia producers. Alusaf could suffer a major setback if its smelter plan was withdrawn and it could also suffer if they went ahead with it and were unable to rake in the profits to at least cover the operating costs.

Alusaf thus had to decide what it would do and for this reason, we shall conduct pros cons analysis and see what would work for Alusaf in the light of the available information.


Alusaf needs to understand that despite the presence of Russia, it was still the market leader in SA because buyers were aware of its reputation as against the Russian… [read more]

How India Caste System Affects Political Structure Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (818 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … India's Caste System on Political Structure and Dynamics

India's political structure is based upon its social caste system. This system dictates the opportunities and cultural climate of the country as well as the social potential and limitations of each person in society. The system originated thousands of years ago as away to create and maintain order within the society. Originally, there were five separate levels within the caste system. Currently, most scholars agree that there are really only three castes, or social levels within the society. The caste system also dictates, to a large degree, the family structure and genetic makeup of the country. Since people are discouraged from marrying outside of their own caste, or social group, it is highly unlikely that social mobility will become more common in India because of the caste system (Pruthi, 2004). However, the recent social and cultural rebirth of the nation, over the past few decades, has begun to place more and more emphasis on western ideas of equal representation and a democratic system of government.

Since there is no opportunity for social mobility, the political landscape of the country has also been altered quite dramatically by the caste system as well. People who ordinarily belong to the lowest level of society, sometimes referred to as the untouchables, do not have a voice politically (Cohn and Singer, 2007). The country is set up around the premise of a progressive, representative government, but in reality, the caste system makes it impossible to have a true representative democracy or the like. Also, the politicians in Indian society all belong to upper levels within the caste system, and typically make decisions based upon their own perspectives, experiences, and social goals (Cohn and Singer, 2007). In this way, the separation or stratification of Indian society through the caste system creates political barriers to involvement and representation. The political structure has already been decided at the time of birth, and the pool of politicians, whether democratically elected or not, is relatively small. This contributes to the stagnation of political ideas and reform, which is one of the largest obstacles in Indian politics and society to overcome.

Recently, more emphasis has been put on changing the political structure of Indian society. More and more advocates of social and political justice are beginning to speak up (Bailey, 2009). But the centuries old tradition of the caste system is still ingrained in the Indian psyche. Slowly, changes are…… [read more]

Globalization and Social Change in India Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (957 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Globalization in India

Globalization, generally speaking, is a process whereby economies and societies become increasingly integrated with one another. The free-flow of information, ideas, technologies, goods, services, capital, finance and people joins different cultures together, which then creates an entirely new sort of culture. Economically speaking, the main parts of globalization or integration are trade, movement of capital and finance, as well as people.

Globalization in India has made it easier for foreign companies to expand their base of operation, as well as their workforce, while spending minimal amounts of money. For India, this process has meant the growth of outsourced IT and business process outsourcing services, such as call centers. Quite often now, for example, whenever an American calls a company for service regarding a product of some sort, they are connected to somebody working out of India. An increase in the number of skilled professionals in the country over the last few years, by both local and foreign businesses, as well as a low cost, but English-speaking workforce, has not only helped corporations lower their operating costs, but also given rise to a new Indian middle class, which has developed around the wealth that the IT and BPO industries have produced. This new middle class, furthermore, represents a new consumer base. Some of the most successful multi-national companies in India include Pepsi, Coca-Cola, McDonald's, and Kentucky Fried Chicken. (1)

Indian companies, also, are increasingly becoming major players in the globalization process through international expansions. Among the products Indian companies are offering the world, from steel to film industry, cars to IT, a massive potential for growth exists.

Since 2007, India and the European Union have been negotiating a free trade agreement. Such an agreement would be far-reaching, considering that nine EU-banks controlled 65% of total assets of foreign banks operating in India in 2008. Of the top 10 foreign banks working in India, six of them are European. India offers European banks great opportunities to expand profit share. They are focused on three niche markets, including up-market consumer finance, wealth management services and investment banking. One key question regarding any agreements is how much access to European markets Indian banks can expect to receive. Most European countries are restrictive when it comes to letting foreign lenders into their markets. In India, European banks have neglected rural areas. Although many European banks have been in India for over 140 years, their lending to agriculture, SMEs, as well as weaker sections has been quite negligible. In urban areas, the banks have failed to serve poor and low-income persons.

Free trade, a main component of globalization, has not necessarily meant fair trade, and this has enabled the rich and industrially advanced countries to benefit greatly in comparison to developing countries, such as India. The advanced countries have required developing countries to do away with trade barriers, while simultaneously been…… [read more]

Year of the Dragon by Frank Chin Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (926 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Dragon

The American Dream in the Year of the Dragon

Frank Chin's play the Year of the Dragon recounts the story of the ENG family, particularly through the perspective of the eldest son of the family Fred Eng. The children of the family are all largely grown up, at least insofar as age is concerned, and yet Fred has not managed to find his true place in his life in Chinatown, caught between the Chinese persona that is thrust upon him in his work as a tour guide and the American identity he feels but unable to assert due to the way the rest of the country seems to see him. Fred's struggle is in this manner reflective of the larger Chinese immigrant experience, at least for many of the immigrants who made their way to the United States' shores during the second half of the nineteenth century and in waves and trickles ever since. Fred's siblings -- his married and Americanized sister Sissy and his younger and misguided brother Johnny, have found their own paths in this country, showing other parts of the immigrant experience.

There was work to be had in this country for immigrant workers willing to break their backs for relatively little pay, especially after slavery was abolished, and this brought many Chinese immigrants to the country in the latter half of the nineteenth century. At the same time, there was a great deal of mistrust and dislike for these foreigners, with their strange looks, language, and customs. The Exclusion Acts of 1882 and 1924 put legal caps on the number of Chinese immigrants that would be allowed in the country, distinguishing them from other groups of immigrants (though certain other specific immigrant groups were also the focus of legislation, albeit to a lesser degree). This meant that there was a need for and appreciation of Chinese labor, but ill feelings towards the laborers themselves.

For some immigrants, large populations of Chinese made it perfectly possible to insulate themselves from such complexities by simply dealing with other Chinese people. In his ignoring of the American Dream, Johnny exemplifies this type of immigrant experience. He is uninterested in any life outside of Chinatown and the life and business that his father has built. Despite the wealth of opportunity that exists in the wider world, and even the opportunities that could be had in Chinatown with a wider perspective and engagement, Johnny wants nothing to do with it. Life is not about a struggle to make things better for Johnny -- an aspect essential to the American Dream's ideal of pulling oneself up by one's own bootstraps -- but instead he simply wants to live his life with the customs he is used to. It is an essentially lazy…… [read more]

Non-Western Cultures Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (600 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Non-Western Cultures

Globalization is known as having had an enormous influence of all nations, with people from all backgrounds involuntarily adapting to society's needs. The tendency for most cultures has been to reproduce what they saw in the presumably more civilized western culture. Indians have kept their customs and traditions across time, with the western culture having had a less decisive effect on them than it had on other cultures. India has proved the unity that its people had by surviving the Imperialism era and declaring its independence once again. Even with that, the country did not escape the western influences having entered the land through various sources. The Indian culture has experienced a decrease in popularity during the recent decades, with Indians starting to adopt elements coming along with globalization.

Because India has a high rate of poverty, it has been difficult for people to keep their traditions when they had come across matters which demanded certain changes from them. A poor Indian family, for example, is likely to perform radical changes in order to adapt to the tough society. One can go as far as changing his or her religion, abandoning thousands of year of culture, in exchange for a minor gain such as a low-wage job in the U.S. Money play an important factor in changing the lives of Indians, as they prefer to put their past behind, in order to assimilate into a new culture which is actually much younger than theirs.

However, in contrast to a poor family from India, one that comes from a wealthier social group is likely to filter the information and services that they receive from the western world. Such an act would mean that they would profit from the performance, by exploiting the western world so as to fit their…… [read more]

2003, I Went on a Christmas Vacation Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (698 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … 2003, I went on a Christmas vacation to Bangladesh, my country of origin. It was my first return since first coming to America at the age of six. I had been very eager to see my relatives, many of whom I didn't even remember. In retrospect, I was in for something of a surprise that would actually change the way I perceive the world. In my early childhood, I had no idea how harsh the world could be in places like Bangladesh

In America, we are rarely exposed directly to overt cruelty such as that to which many people in the Third World are routinely subjected. In Bangladesh, millions of people struggle desperately just to put food on the table or to clothe themselves. By their standards, even ordinary Americans live in incredible luxury. Being re-exposed to my culture of origin at an older age has had a profound effect on the way I view the world.

When I arrived at Zia International Airport in Dhaka, Bangladesh, I expected to the environment to be somewhat similar to my neighborhood in Queens, New York, which is hardly a high-brow area. However, the streets of Dhaka were incredibly filthy; there were people begging for change everywhere, as well as homeless children. The experience left me with profound questions about why people in my country of origin are in such a desperate situation. Prior to this experience, I genuinely had no idea such wide-scale poverty and human misery existed; I thought that the world was more or less a perfect place where the average person could achieve success and happiness in life. I saw hundreds of people in the course of a single day who had obviously not eaten in a long time. In fact, by the standards I saw in Bangladesh, homeless people in New York are blessed with relative good fortune.

I encountered a boy about my age who was selling flowers and water. He had two smaller children with him and it seemed to me that they were his younger siblings and that they had no parents.…… [read more]

International Perspectives and Issues Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (569 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


International Perspectives and Issues

The article, "China's Computer Wasteland" by Benjamin Joffe-Walt, published in 2005 is an illustration of how developing countries assume an unfair share of the costs of globalization.

China produces computers for export mostly to more developed Western countries. After they are ready to be recycled, China gets billions of them back. Joffe-Walts describes a situation where e-waste sweatshops have "made poor mainland farming regions an ecological disaster area."

Sweatshops exact their toll mostly on poor immigrants who have to work in them. The average salary for sweatshop work is only $3 to $4 per day for men and about half that for women. This is a low amount for a job that requires breathing in toxins from burning rubbish which causes pulmonary problems, heart attacks and other diseases. The workers are not necessarily "free" to make the decision to not work in the sweatshops because jobs are scarce and the work is the only way the immigrant workers can support their families. Many fear retaliation if they speak out.

Joffe-Walt argues that China's e-waste crisis is due in part to its unequal development within the country. Globalization is supposed to lift countries out of poverty, but in China its has only increased the divide between the urban middle class the rural poor. E-waste recycling, like some many other business ventures, is just another example of a few getting rich off of the poor masses.

The author wants to see the practice of e-waste sweatshops in China end. He believes that the solution is to have developed countries take responsibility for their own waste rather than exporting the problem and to require manufactureers to discontinue using hazardous materials in their products.…… [read more]

Cross-Cultural Communication Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (771 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Cross-Cultural communication: A Japanese case study

Imagine this scenario: a businessman from Japan and a businessman from America sit down at a table. The American presses and presses the Japanese man to agree to his terms, often vigorously pounding the table. The American feels confident in his mastery over the situation, as he has been regaled with hospitality since entering the country. But all he can extract is a polite and indifferent 'maybe' from his Japanese colleague. When he speaks to his supervisor over the phone later in the evening, the American 'boss' back in America, laughs and says little was accomplished -- when the Japanese say 'maybe,' they mean no.

In less individualistic Japan, no one would be bold enough to say 'no' and cause the other person to lose face. Moreover, in this particular instance, the Japanese person sent to negotiate with the American was from a lower stratum of the company, and therefore had no authority to agree to anything, without the approval of his supervisor. Obviously, the decision had already been made not to agree to the American's proposed venture, and the meeting had been staged simply as a sign of perfunctory respect for the American.

The American businessman is livid, and does not understand what transpired. The concepts behind the Japanese company's behavior are anathema to someone from a nation with a relatively low power index like the United States, which disdains hierarchy in favor of individual creativity, and sees no value in an elaborate pretence of politeness. The American's body language, his spatial proximity to the Japanese man, and even his 'sensorics' of presentation in terms of his smell and demeanor may also have been off-putting. His haptics of touching the Japanese man during his presentation, and shaking hands too firmly further indicated the businessman failed to do his 'homework' about a nation that prefers bowing. Furthermore he America's directness, his statement of 'let's get down to business' as is typical of the uni-directional, linear, monochromatic style of the U.S. clashed with the polychromatic Japanese style that seeks to balance negotiation with sensitivity and awareness of others (Hall & Hall 1990). Not only was this deal bungled, but the Japanese company would likely feel as if the American's style was not harmonious with their own, no matter how favorable…… [read more]

Negotiation Approaches Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (709 words)
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Negotiation Approaches

Suppose that a Japanese company would like to sell supplies to an American company and to negotiate the deal, the Japanese company sends over a representative. How should the Japanese representative conduct himself in negotiating the deal while in United States? And suppose through the course of the deal, the American company sends a representative to Japan for further negotiations, how should the American negotiate with the Japanese?

According to Suplico (2002), American's negotiation style is very informal. This style of negotiation is reflected in their manner of speaking. Suplico (2002) said that Americans "exude a relaxed and carefree attitude" compared to the negotiators from other cultures. It is therefore necessary for the typically formal Japanese negotiator to adapt to the American way of negotiating by trying to be "energetic, confident, and persistent" (LeBaron, 2003). Americans are also known for being straight to the point and for conducting deals that are fast-paced. The Japanese negotiator should prepare himself to adjust to this negotiation model. He should remember to be straight to the point, direct, expressive, and to not worry about establishing a relationship first before closing a deal, as Japanese usually do in their country (Suplico, 2002). The Americans are also known for their open-mindedness and their openness to criticisms, which the Japanese aren't used to. Hence, the Japanese negotiator should also prepare himself for this. He should be open to criticisms and to some disagreements while negotiating. The Japanese should also be aggressive in negotiating with the Americans since American negotiators are known to be aggressive. LeBaron (2003) also said that "American negotiators tend to concentrate on one problem at a time," which might be something new to the Japanese negotiator who is used to package negotiation (Suplico, 2002). Thus, the Japanese negotiator should also prepare himself to negotiate the deal item by item. Finally, negotiated deals in United States are closed and certain, whereas in Japan, negotiated deals are usually open-ended and flexible (D'Herbais, et al., n.d.) so the Japanese representative should know that the flexibility in Japanese deals are not to be expected in the United States.

Meanwhile, the…… [read more]

Korea Trade Issue Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (643 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


South Korea's GDP was estimated at $1.335 trillion. Its exports totaled $433.5 billion, making it the 12th largest exporter in the world. Its imports totaled $427.4 billion, making it the world's 10th largest importer. Today, South Korea provides the United States with one of America's largest markets for agricultural products.

In 2006, the United States was Korea's third-largest trading partner, second-largest export market, third-largest source of imports, and its second-largest supplier of foreign direct investment.

However, South Korea is often accused of protectionism by the U.S. One of the most contentious issues in the negotiations over the U.S.-South Korean Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA) was the degree to which Korea's regulation of U.S. beef was due to actual "unsanitary" U.S. practices. Korea was accused of standing against the spirit of trade liberalization embodied by free trade agreements (FTA) s.

Problem: The U.S. versus South Korea on the issue of beef imports

The recently proposed free trade agreement (FTA) between the U.S. And South Korea covers a wide range of subjects, including the divisive issue of beef imports. The issue of beef is unique, because the debates over the product do not merely concern questions of free trade vs. protectionism. There is also the issue of product safety. The Koreans allege that the safety of U.S. beef is in doubt. U.S. has criticized the Koreans for using concerns safety as a mask for the real issue, the desire to keep U.S. agricultural products out of Korea, or to keep the prices for such products prohibitively high.

Concerns about beef safety reached a fever-pitch in December 2006. South Korean meat inspectors prohibited the entry of all U.S. beef into the nation after they found bone fragments in a shipment of approved, non-boned U.S. beef. Bone-in beef from the U.S. was prohibited, given that ground pieces of bone are more likely to contain traces of mad cow. South Korea claimed that the shipments violated…… [read more]

Caste System in India Has Been Outlawed Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (371 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Caste system in India has been outlawed in that nation's constitution (BBC, 2009). As such, the system lingers only in terms of social norms and codes, rather than the rule of law. The way that I would deal with unwinding the caste system is twofold. The first step is education, to counter the influence of existing social norms. The second step is to eradicate the caste system from government functions and services. The provision of education and health care, to the extent the government provides these, must be for all castes with no segregation. Likewise, political and economic institutions must be open to all Indians equally. Recent economic liberalization has been shown to improve caste mobility and reduce oppression on dalits, the lowest class (Ross, 2005). This will reinforce the message we are spreading through the education programs. Lastly, I would target caste-based violence as a special crime with higher penalties, also serving to reinforce the already-instituted outlawing of the system.

The caste system is entrenched in India's economic life, with professions often designated by one's caste. Thus, I would expect resistance from the stronger…… [read more]

Grandfather Cho Was a Kindly Man Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,003 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Grandfather Cho was a kindly man, a highly intelligent and resourceful man. His face was friendly and his hands were weathered, reflecting years of hard work and effort. All his children, his grandchildren, his nieces and nephews and cousins respected him and loved him. Unlike some other Korean patriarchs of distinction and wealth, Grandfather Cho's family did not fear him because he was not a controlling or violent man. He had his values, his expectations and his rules, but he did not believe in using force or being cruel to make his point or to mete out punishment if a child or grandchild disobeyed. He was a peaceful man, a well-known man in Korea, a man who liked to gather his family around the fireplace on a cold winter's night and read stories aloud.

When Japan was "authorized" to take over Korea, in a treaty called the "Treaty of Portsmouth," it was a terrible time for native Korean people. The United States actually helped to allow Japan to put Korea under its ownership, which made Korea bitter towards America for many years. So Japan occupied Korea beginning around 1906; it was also called the "Japanese Imperial Period." Later, before and during the World War II period, the Japanese rounded up over five million Koreans to fight the war for Japan and to work at hard labor in Japan. Japan had placed so many of their own men in their army that they had a shortage of manpower to work in their factories. So they basically forced about 700,000 Korean men prisoners and stole them off to Japan. Many were beaten and given harsh treatment in terrible working conditions. Many died.

Some called it cultural genocide. The occupying Japanese changed Korean songs so the words became adorations to the Japanese Emperor instead of the Korean Emperor. Street signs were changed to Japanese names. Monuments and statues and churches were given Japanese names. Beautiful buildings like the Sungnyemun were changed by putting horns at the top to make it look like a Japanese Shinto place of worship. The Japanese demolished some famous Korean buildings that had cultural and spiritual significance, and built their own new government buildings right where the Korean building had stood.

My grandfather was smart, and although it broke his heart to do it, he pretended that he was Japanese during the occupation. He went along with the Japanese by changing his name to a Japanese name. Some say the Japanese demanded that Koreans change their names to Japanese names, but others refused and were beaten or killed. Grandfather even learned some Japanese phases so when Japanese authorities in Korea questioned him, he could answer them in their language, to make things easier. He did not want to be taken from his family. He did not want to be a slave to the Japanese after working hard his whole life in Korea to provide for his family and to give his children and grandchildren a better life than he… [read more]

Global Immigration Russia Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,812 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Global Immigration: Russia

This is a template and guideline for the client to write his/her own original paper.

Russia has a population crisis. High death rates and a low rate of birth, means that in 2006 the number of pensioners in Russia exceeded the number of young men starting their careers.

A recent forecast that studied Russia's demographic trends until… [read more]

Controversy Between North and South Korea Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (387 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4



North and South Korea are technically still at war -- no armistice has ever been signed between them. As a result, tensions are still high on the Korean peninsula. While South Korea has emerged as a powerful economic force, North Korea remains a highly controversial nation.

North Korea operates as a communist dictatorship, but its lack of relations with the rest of the world is what makes it such a threat. The country is pursuing nuclear capabilities and is testing missiles that could reach Japan, Hawaii or even Alaska (Heliker, 2009). This has put the country in a cycle where they are condemned by the world community, then demand more concessions. At this point, however, direct action against North Korea seems unlikely, as that would essentially mean full-scale conflict (Ibid).

However, North Korea's actions have a destabilizing economic effect on both South Korea and Japan, two major trading partners of the U.S. North Korea is not only testing missiles, but running war drills (Moon, 2009). This threat is not expected to have much incremental effect on South Korea's economy, but it may raise the nation's cost of capital somewhat (Yoo, 2009). The…… [read more]

Effectiveness of the G8 Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (461 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … improve people's welfare (250- 350 words). The IFIs include the WTO, IMF, World Bank, the G8 or the G20.

G8: Effective or not?

Controversy has dogged the G8, the organization made up of the eight most industrialized countries as measured by economic output since its inception in 1975. The organization, then known as the G6 was born in response to the world oil crisis. Current membership consists of the United Kingdom, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia and the United States ("G8 -- The group of 8," Global Knowledge Contents, 2009). The heads of state of G8 countries and the President of the European Commission gather for summits to discuss issues of economic concern, environmental issues, and aid to the developing world. "The European Union is represented at the G8 by the president of the European Commission and by the leader of the country that holds the EU presidency. The EU does not take part in G8 political discussions" ("Profile: G8," BBC, 2009). The leadership and the hosting duties of the organization rotate from member state to member state.

The positions of the G8 are not binding, and given the absence of India and China from its membership, many critics say it is growing increasingly irrelevant in the more multilateral global economy. Conversely, many critics have questioned the elitist nature of the G8, which can have tremendous influence…… [read more]

Customer's Document to Make it Worse George Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,419 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



George Orwells essay, "Shooting an Elephant," showa alot of things about human nature. Like for one thing orwell wrote about the inner struggle as far as doing the right things and not just doing things that looks real good. He uses the example of how it is not always so easy to… [read more]

Shooting of Elephant Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,022 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Symbolism in "Shooting an Elephant"

George Orwell's story, "Shooting an Elephant," tells a story about humanity through symbolism. The elephant is the most powerful symbol in the story in that it represents British imperialism. The elephant's death is even a symbol in the story. The narrator of the story becomes a symbol in more than one way. He symbolizes the British rule but he also symbolizes the Burmese people. The symbolism in "Shooting an Elephant" is powerful because it deals with real people and matters of life and death. Through symbolism, Orwell demonstrates the danger that exists in one group of people attempting to rule over another with the intention that the rule will be better for those under rule. The narrator's conflicting emotions regarding shooting the elephant reflect his sentiments toward spreading imperialism. The symbolic death brings the Burmese a false sense of security. Symbolism operates in this story to inspire thought toward freedom, oppression, death, and honor.

The elephant become the most powerful symbol in the story. Our first impression of the elephant is that it represents the Burmese society crumbling under British imperialism. What the narrator sees when he looks upon the creature is not a creature for which he should be afraid. He knows that he should not kill the elephant. Kenneth Keskinen maintains, "Colonialism, like the great elephant with its royal blood, like velvet, is dying. Trusteeships are created. Individuals seize power. Political structures are made, altered, replaced" (Keskinen). He goes on to say, "However, it is not simply that the British . . . should go home; but those who help and lead, those who are helped and led, must recognize the individual human being, with feelings and dignity, as well as the political being seeking civil rights" (Keskinen). The narrator begins to understand the importance of humanity through a sense of dignity. The elephant is also a symbol for humanity in general, emphasizing the notion that no one should suffer under the rule of anyone else. Asker maintains that the elephant "comes to represent a complex symbol of the Burmese people and the tide of historical contradiction that threatens (literally and metaphorically) to overwhelm the colonial ruler" (Asker 154). The animal's death symbolizes the slow death of the Burmese. Before the British arrived, the Burmese were getting along fine; they experienced struggle after the British entered their land. Like the elephant, Burma is dying slowly and painfully as it surrenders its freedom. The narrator's sentiments regarding the animal's death are a direct analogy to what is happening to the Burmese. He knows what the British are doing is wrong. The Burmese should be left alone like the elephant.

The narrator is a symbol in more than one way. He symbolizes the Burmese in that he is a man in a situation where he has no real control. He literally hates where he is and is aware that those he feels pity for hate him. He realizes that he is an "absurd puppet" (Orwell… [read more]

International Negotiation Thesis

Thesis  |  12 pages (3,222 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Negotiation Between North Korea (dprk) and South Korea (rok) Over the Issue of Kaesong Industrial Complex

Presently Seoul repatriates workers from North Korea and as well the future of the industrial complex in Kaesong is uncertain. On December 1, North Korea guaranteed work at the industrial complex of Kaesong for 880 South Korean workers - contrary to the agreement reached… [read more]

Bollywood in Search of the Ideal India Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (2,047 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2



In Search of the Ideal India

Bollywood has become one of the world's biggest producers of films. Bollywood represents Indian national ideals, portraying and idyllic picture of what Indian culture is supposed to look like. These films utilize gender, class, and religion to paint their picture of a "perfect" India. However, often this image is marred by negative images… [read more]

Ethnic Chinese Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (676 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Ethnic Chinese

The ethnic differences matter got tensed in Indonesia in the late twentieth century as the ethnic Indonesians had begun to feel that people of other nationalities had been harming the country's economic system. One of the worst situations in terms of ethnicity was that of the Chinese, most probably because of their merchant qualities and presumed fortunes.

Chinese people have been living in Indonesia for hundreds of years and have contributed to building some of the country's values. Living in Indonesia ever since the Colonial era, the Chinese had been specialized in trading and in providing assistance to the Dutch that were then controlling Indonesia. As soon as the Dutch departed and Indonesia had become independent, the Indonesians have begun to express their hatred towards the Chinese minority.

With the coming of President Suharto at the leadership, Chinese people had been sure of losing all hope in an impartial system. Suharto only seemed to favor some of the Chinese, respectively those that were very rich. Thus, the best way for one that had a Chinese nationality in Indonesia to live without any restrictions had been to have friends within Indonesia's leaders. The conflict between the Chinese minority and the majority in Indinesia is also based on religious grounds, as most of the latter are Muslims while little of the former praise Islam. (BBC) Despite Suharto's belief that the favoring of wealthy Chinese would be profitable, most Indonesians have decided to turn against their leader. The reason for why the Indonesians did so is that Suharto's act had proved to be in opposition to all that his people believed in: a free country which would not be under Chinese control. In order to calm spirits, Suharto demanded that all Chinese people should hand over to the country 25% of their possessions. (BBC)

Before Suharto's fall, in the year of 1998, the Indonesians had started an action of major proportions meant to exterminate all Chinese the country. The atrocities during that period had been compared to the pogroms…… [read more]

International Business Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,194 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


International Business

The objective of this work is to develop a report acting as the employees of a consulting company who have been hired by the Australian Trade Commission (AUSTRADE). Austrade's mission is to help Australian Companies succeed in International Business by providing advice, market intelligence and support to Australian Companies to reduce the costs and risk involved in the… [read more]

Country Focus on India Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (475 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


India Economy and Its Prospects for Growth

India's economy continues to grow at one of the most rapid rates in worldwide (Shroff, 2008) with the Gross National Product (GNP) growing at a consistent rate of 6% or more per year. The catalyst of this economic growth has been the investments in education, architecture, and the favorable tariffs to information technologies and high technology investments. These three factors, education, investments in infrastructure, and the Indian governments' approach to lowering tariffs on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) have all combined over the last twenty years to create the foundation for economic growth they are experiencing today (Chakraborty, Nunnenkamp, 2008).

India is developing strength in software and pharmaceuticals are due to the country's long-term investments in these three areas. Specifically in the area of education and the country's decision to concentrate on turning their universities into the best at engineering, sciences and technology has resulted in other nations outsourcing work to them through their outsourcing firms. The Indian impact on the worldwide software industry particularly shows how a twenty-year investment in education has transformed the country into a global leader (Aggarwal, 2008). The same is the case in pharmaceuticals as well where the companies worldwide are turning to India for R&D of new drug treatments as well.

India's success in it and pharmaceuticals will translate into other areas of the economy providing the Indian government takes a more aggressive approach to…… [read more]

Samurais Garden by Gail Tsukiyama Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (791 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Samurai's Garden

Love, Loyalty, and Loss that Transcends Time and Nation:

The Samurai's Garden by Gail Tsukiyama

The Samurai's Garden by Gail Tsukiyama is a tale of bridging cultural divisions, namely those of the historical tensions between Japan and China. It is set right on the cusp of World War II. Over the course of the book, a young Hong Kong student named Stephen recovering from tuberculosis forms a friendship with a number of the local residents while recuperating at his grandfather's house in Tarumi, Japan. He forms a particularly strong bond of respect and devotion with the house's caretaker and gardener Matsu, hence the title of the book: The Samurai's Garden. The book's theme is that friendship proves to be stronger than the cultural tensions between different peoples. Through cultivating love and generosity within the heart, and bestowing unconditional love, regardless of physical appearances of beauty or nationhood, emotional and spiritual healing can be achieved, even in the most unlikely of circumstances, for the most unlikely of people.

Every day I work in the garden with Sachi, I feel stronger" says Stephen of Matsu's old, dear friend Sachi (Tsukiyama 57). As the Chinese student finds strength rebuilding a Japanese garden, even while Japan is at war with China, Tsukiyama suggests that there are no essentially Chinese or Japanese values, only human values, such as the courage shown by Matsu's friend Sachi, which proves instructive to Stephen. Like Stephen, Sachi is wounded by a physical ailment. Stephen's illness is not visible to the world, unlike Sachi's illness Sachi is affected with the disfiguring disease of leprosy. Initially, the illness has seemed to destroy her beauty. When Stephen first meets her, he is shocked at the white puckers on her skin, which she tries to hide with a scarf. People are prejudiced at times against Sachi, and call her appearance monstrous. But Stephen soon can appreciate the extraordinary loveliness of her face that is not destroyed and more importantly the loveliness within her soul, including her love for Matsu. Sachi is still beautiful because Sachi is still capable of helping others, and for that reason she still has and inspires hope. Matsu's care for her is also inspiring to Stephen, as Matsu cares for all wounded people, just as he tends to his garden: "I realized how good she must feel, to live a normal life…… [read more]

Country I Have Chosen Is the Democratic Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (462 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … country I have chosen is the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), also know as North Korea. The dictator is Kim Jong-Il. He is the son of the former dictator, Kim Il-Sung, who died in 1994.

Technically, the DPRK is at war with the Republic of Korea (South Korea). The war has been ongoing since the Korean War. Even though physical hostilities ended in 1953, there was an armistice, but there was no formal treaty to end the war. The two countries seldom engage in formal relations and maintain the most heavily militarized region in the world between theme, the Demilitarized Zone.

North Korea has one neighboring democratic country in South Korea. The DPRK also has a small border with Russia, which is nominally a democratic country as well, though Western observers are suspicious of the Russian government's commitment to democracy. The nearest democratic country is South Korea, with a direct land border. This border is officially closed, however. The Russian frontier, across the Tumen River, is one of the most remote parts of Russia, far removed from that nation's political and industrial power base. Japan is also nearby, across the Sea of Japan.

North Koreans have few of the freedoms that Americans enjoy. They do not have freedom of movement, and have no freedom of speech. They must worship the ideology of Kim Jong-Il, known as juche. No…… [read more]

Japanese Tattoo Irezumi Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (598 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Japanese Tattoo Irezumi

The Japanese word irezumi refers to the placing of ink beneath the skin to place an everlasting typically ornamental spot or in other words tattooing. The utterance can be written in various techniques both with somewhat dissimilar implications. The most ordinary style of writing irezumi is mostly with the Chinese letterings factually meaning to placing ink. The typeset imply beautifying the body. It is more obscure as being printed with the fonts for hang about or stays, mostly in blue or green color and almost certainly refers to the look of the foremost gloominess ink beneath the skin. Tattooing is infrequently used and the fonts unite with the meanings pierce, spear or hole and in blue or green, referring to the customary Japanese technique of tattooing by hand. Tattooing for sacred and ornamental objective in Japan is thinking to lengthen back to as a minimum from the Jomon or Paleolithic era at about 10000 BC. Few researchers have recommended that the distinguishing twine stain designs experiential on the faces and bodies of the models dated to that era to symbolize tattoos but this allege is worth of no means undisputed. In the Yayoi era, 300 BC to 300 AD, tattoo patterns were experiential and commented ahead by Chinese guests. Initially in the Kofun era, 300 to 600 AD tattoos started to presume unenthusiastic nuances. As an alternative of being worn for custom or position reasons, tattooed patches began to be sited on immoral people as a penalty. However, the Ainu people or the native people of Japan are identified to have used tattoos for decorating and communal purposes as there is no well-known relationship to the growth of Irezumi. Until the Edo era, 1600 to 1868 AD, the function of tattoos in Japanese community changed. Tattooed…… [read more]

Cross Cultural Management Cross Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,381 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Cross Cultural Management

Cross-Cultural Management

The article this analysis is based on, Learning to 'Do Time' in Japan a Study of U.S. Interns in Japanese Organizations, presents a theoretical framework for analyzing the impact of U.S.-based interns travelling to Japan to work in corporations there with specific focus on studying how time is perceived differently between their Japanese managers and… [read more]

WTO and Russia Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,233 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Russia and the WTO

Membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO) benefits the trade posture of member nations and so is sought as a way of gaining access to more external markets. WTO membership has been important in China, for example, and Russia has also sought membership, though Russia has also experienced some opposition.

When Russia changed its form of government after 1989, it also sought to join the world trade in goods and services just as China has been trying to do. Russia also liberalized domestic trade and eliminated many non-tariff restrictions on foreign trade. State-subsidized imports were phased out in 1994 along with the system of quotas and licensing for exports. To increase foreign trade in the future, Russia applied in June 1993 to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the predecessor to the World Trade Organization (WTO). The United States supported Russia's efforts to join the WTO, and Clinton and Yeltsin set a target date for Russia to gain admittance (Background Notes 7).

By 1997, Russia's average tariff rate was 13%. Russia had a trade surplus since 1993 with major trading partners in Europe and the United States. China and Japan also had a strong trading presence in Russia, and the nation had a strong presence in the industrialized products markets in the NIS. Russia also continued to supply large amounts of energy to the NIS at a discount (Background Notes 7).

Russia and the United States also worked to advance bilateral co-operation through eight working committees and several working groups known as the U.S.-Russian Joint Commission on Economic and Technological Cooperation (the Gore-Chernomyrdin Commission). The committees addressed issues in the fields of science and technology, business development, space, energy policy, environmental protection, health, defense conversion and agriculture. In addition, the commission provided for high-level discussions of high priority security and economic issues ("Russian Outlook Improving, but Still Uncertain" 29).

Becoming a member of the WTO (referred to as "acceding to the WTO") involves a process set forth by the organization. Any state of customs territory with full autonomy in the conduct of its trade and economic policies is eligible, if WTOI members agree to the terms. There are four stages to the process. In the fist stage, the applicant must describe all trade and economic policies that bear on WTO agreements. This data is submitted in the form of a memorandum, and this document is then examined by the working party created to deal with the country's application. Such working parties are open to all WTO members.

The second stage involves working out elements of the trade policies of the applying country. This stage is conducted in the form of bilateral talks between the prospective new member and individual countries. Different countries have different trading interests, and talks cover such elements as tariff rates and specific market commitments. Even though commitments made by the prospective member are developed in bilateral talks, the provisions agreed to apply equally to all WTO members under non-discrimination rules.… [read more]

Buddhism Images of the Buddha Appear Remarkably Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (638 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



Images of the Buddha appear remarkably similar across cultures. In spite of the variations in rendition of form, an icon on the Buddha is usually identifiable and easy to. distinguish from images of deities or boddhisattvas. For example, many artisans have represented Buddha with extended earlobes, a third eye, or in a series of characteristic meditation postures and specific hand mudras. The lotus-coil headdress is also a universal part of Buddhist imagery and especially common in Mahayana art. Reclining Buddhas also make their way into the art of most cultures touched by Buddhism.

In spite of their similarities, though, renditions of the Buddha do differ according to their culture of origin. Some Buddha images are quintessentially Japanese, Chinese, Korean, or Indian. Japanese Buddhas share much in common with their Indian and Chinese counterparts but some Nyorai are uniquely Japanese. Wood is a far more common sculpture medium in Japanese Buddhist art than in the Buddhist art of other countries. Paintings reveal some of the most notably Japanese expressions of Buddhism. Iconography of Japanese Buddhas differs depending on whether the image reflects Pure Land or Mahayana traditions.

One of the most famous Japanese Buddha statues is the huge Kamakura bronze from the 13th century. The blossoming of both Pure Land and Zen during this period meant that images of Buddha proliferated throughout Japan, giving rise to large-scale statues like this one. Size itself is not a Japanese feature, as many Indian and Chinese Buddha statues were also huge. Furthermore, the Kamakura Buddha reveals a synthesis of styles that preceded it.

However, the Kamakura Buddha differs from other seated Buddhas in many respects. A seated image of the Buddha from 4th century China is also sculpted in Bronze. Both Buddhas exhibit a mudra with hands n the lap, thumbs touching as in meditation. The Chinese image depicts the Buddha with a mustache: a rare feature in Buddhist art. Moreover, the…… [read more]

United States Should Apply Greater Economic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (986 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … United States should apply greater economic and diplomatic pressure on China to improve its human rights practices

China is one of the few existing communist countries in the world and it has known a rapid growth in the past decades, economically specking. Considering the growing economy and the large population, China is one of the important actors on the international scene. It is important for U.S. To develop close relationships with China, especially in economic terms. However, the continuous disrespect and constant proves of human rights breaking in China make it impossible for the United States, as one of the strongest advocates of human rights, to ignore the issue and develop normal economic relations with China.

China is well-known throughout the world for its human rights practices and for having a totalitarian regime, but perhaps the most obvious proof of China's views regarding human rights is the 1989 Tiananmen Square Massacre. At that time President Bush was forced by the public opinion to impose economic sanctions on China despite the good economic collaboration the two countries were having. The economic sanctions imposed on China in 1989 made it clear that our country is not willing to ignore how one of its partners breaks one of the fundamental rights of the American society and the democratic world in general. However, despite the fact that U.S. imposed several sanctions regarding weapons export and ceased all developing programs it was supporting in China, the sanctions were not harsh enough to clearly make a point about U.S.' intolerance regarding the breaking of human rights. More strict trade sanctions would have obliged the Chinese government to try to change its attitude regarding human rights practices, but the economical aspect was obviously a lot more important.

During the Clinton administration the issue of sanctions against China for its human rights practices came up again, but the policy remained that only a constant contact with U.S. companies would improve China's views on human rights. The logic behind this argument was that by imposing further sanctions, China would become more isolated and it will not change, while the exposure to democratic practices through trade with American companies would gradually change mentalities.

Of course, the American government is not directly supportive towards human rights practices in China and it couldn't be as the U.S. is the most fervent supporter of human rights. But the fact that our country refuses to impose strict economic sanctions on China proves once again that economic interest prevails over democratic principles. China's rapid economic growth makes it be the largest emerging market and U.S. investors are unwilling to give up their profit for creating a better human rights environment.

In fact, U.S. investors are part of the supporters of poor human rights conditions in China, as they chose the Chinese market particularly for using low-paid labor for their production. In China, workers are not allowed to form unions. Naturally, U.S. companies that employ Chinese labor…… [read more]

Traditional Indian Music Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (373 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Traditional Indian Music

Traditionally, music plays a very important part in the culture of India. There are many classical and traditional genres of music that make up the rich musical culture of the country today. The North Indian Classical Music tradition (Cowdery & Scott, 1999, p.87), for example, is practiced even today, with its learning incorporating both modern and traditional elements. In the past, classical Indian music was taught via the "master-disciple" tradition, or the guru-sishya parampara. Students and masters had a very close relationship, with students even sharing the master's home for periods of time. While the aristocracy were the main patrons of classical music in the past, this changed during the twentieth century, when this role shifted to the urban middle-class in the country (Cowdery & Scott, 1999, p. 88).

Another form of traditional Indian music is the folk tradition, which catered to the general population of the country. There are many different fold styles, including the Bhangra, the Lavani and the Thumri, among others (IndianetZone), in order to cater for the many different cultures within the Indian population. Bhangra was popular among the…… [read more]

Finances the Style of Chinese Negotiating Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (424 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 2



The style of Chinese negotiating is very different from that traditional in most Western, and even Japanese, business settings. Although China's extensive building and modernization process has altered its traditional negotiating system, it still remains uniquely Chinese. What is interesting is that instead of seeing China alter its negotiating style in order to compete in the global economy, which is currently Western dominated, the Western nations are altering their negotiating style in order to compete in the emerging Chinese marketplace. Instead of the typical Westernization of a new market economy, as occurred in Japan, in China there is a unique China-ization of the market place, which is changing how business is done on the global scale, and giving the Chinese the upper hand.

Since China's implementation of the open-door policy and its emergence into the global community, much work has been done on the uniquely Chinese negotiation style. However, much of this information is based on stereotypes and traditions that are no longer dominate in Chinese culture. For example, most Western studies focus on the importance of relationships and trust in the Chinese negotiation process. However, although these were important components in traditional negotiation styles, they are no longer as central in the new, global China. For this reason, in order…… [read more]

International Business Report on the Revolutionary High Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,009 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


International Business

Report on the revolutionary high technology product and entering the market of INDIA

This report will concisely present the advantages and disadvantages of expanding on the Indian market. This expansion is analyzed on three different levels: either manufacture at home and export from Australia or establish a licensing agreement with a high technology firm in India to manufacture… [read more]

Japanese Society the Typical Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (333 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Japanese Society

The typical Japanese is a woman, working for a small company without the guarantee of a permanent job. She would not belong to a labor union, nor would she have a university education.

The religions of Shintoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism are intertwined in Japan's culture. Many Japanese belong to more than one of these religions at the same time, and the three make up a foundation of festivals and folk celebrations in the country. Buddhism is not as important as the other two, but still plays a part in some activities, such as funerals.

Yes, a country, such as Japan, can be democratic and still have authoritarian tendencies. Japanese society is very authoritarian and rigid, and yet they enjoy many of the freedoms associated with democracy. However, the author notes, "[T]here lingers a suspicion that the Japanese system is not really arranged to give first priority to the human rights that are regarded as the cornerstone of democracy" (Sugimoto 272). Thus, the authoritarian tendencies…… [read more]

Gandhi His Life and Message for the World Term Paper

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Fischer, Louis. Gandhi: His Life and Message for the world. 1954.

The author Louis Fischer attempts to present the life and thoughts of the great Indian nationalist, pacifist, and Indian spiritual leader in a way that is comprehensible to Westerners. Fischer was an American journalist who had met with Gandhi on several occasions before writing this text, after Gandhi's assassination. Fischer considered Gandhi one of the greatest men he had ever met. Over the course of the book, Fischer justifies his project of reconstructing the life of against charges that it was too intimate a look into the man's life and focused too much on biographical details. The author stresses that it is consistent with the way that Gandhi used his own personal spiritual quest during his lifetime as a kind of map or blueprint for his political project for the independence of India from British rule, and the freedom of all people, regardless of race, creed, or caste.

The book begins with the end of the man's life, with Gandhi's assassination. The first part of the text mainly deals with Gandhi's struggles in South Africa, the second section with Gandhi's involvement in the Indian independence movement and his conversion to nonviolent resistance, and the third section with the tumultuous pre-independence negotiations, partition and the end. Rather than constructing his subject as a private person, Fisher stresses that Gandhi believed in revealing himself and regarded secrecy as the enemy of freedom-not only the freedom of India but the freedom of humanity. Fisher deflates the common notion that Gandhi was perfect, and never struggled within himself, as he fought for freedom by using Gandhi's biography, and his engagement with the author on a personal level, as its own text. This also shows how the author acknowledges his own subjectivity, including his admiration for his subject.

One of the most interesting aspects of the book is how Gandhi explains to Fisher how he came to accept his Indian nationality and spiritual faith. Originally, as a man born in the British Empire, he was enamored of British ways and customs. Gandhi's family came from the Indian Vaisyna caste of merchants (the word "Gandhi" means grocer in Sanskrit), and initially strove for social success by training as a lawyer and getting married. Gandhi's father died when he was young, and he struggled with his mother against some of her beliefs, including the vegetarianism that he was later to embrace. Gandhi did not regret these early struggles, saying he was glad he chose to accept vegetarianism, for example, in a mindful fashion, rather than to merely accept it as a custom. A willingness to challenge unsubstantiated beliefs and political ideology, such as the caste system, of both British and Indian nationals, was at the core of Gandhi's philosophy. Fischer suggests that such moral courage was how Gandhi was able to risk, and to dare so much, over the course of his lifetime.

The South African section of the text also shows that although Gandhi…… [read more]

Older Sister "Why Are You Studying Geisha? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,294 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … older sister "Why are you studying geisha? Geisha are no different from anybody else," Liza Dalby replied "not quite." Perhaps this reply holds in it the entire fascination of Western Civilization to one of the defining elements of Japanese society, at least in an Occidental perception: geishas. Starting to explain geishas' role in society, their place, their relation to art (music, poetry, dancing), to culture and tradition, to prostitution and wives, one needs to state from the very beginning that geishas' role fits in the Japanese society as ambiguously as anything else. Japan is a country of contrasts and a country of ambiguities. You can have extreme politeness and close rudeness, a relaxed perception on life evolution with the stress of doing your duty properly -- all alongside. Similarly, you can have geishas who are not prostitutes, but who entertain men and often take lovers to act as their protectors, who have a rather low rank in a social scale, but are otherwise greatly appreciated and who are often cultured enough to be anything else other than geishas.

Without even attempting to cover the personality of geishas and their role, a few nouns are likely to help in defining geishas, both as a concept and as persons. First of all, we may state the fact that geishas are performers. Their role is to entertain at private parties, often for exorbitant sums of money. In Kyoto, in the traditional geisha neighborhood, filled with lots of restaurants and private houses, one can often see in the streets (especially after eight or nine in the evening), geishas can be seen walking around the street in their tight, exquisite kimonos and lavishly done hairstyles, entering the restaurants where they are appointed. Dancing, singing and reciting, alongside witty and smart conversation are some of the trades that geishas are taught ever since the beginning of their lives in the geisha schools. Notoriously, one of the most famous geishas of all time, Sada Yakko, who lived in the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, went on to become a remarkable actress, with tours that astounded the Western world at the beginning of the 20th century. Reputably, her conversation would stand the test of any of the potentates of those times.

The sexual interferences of geishas' activities are perhaps the most notoriously ambiguous. As the author herself stated in a recent interview, "Most geisha have patrons, yes, for economic as well as emotional reasons"

. In fact, the choice of patrons is essential in order to ensure the positioning of a geisha both in the "flower and willow world" and in the Japanese society. The choice of patrons is in fact a choice for influence and it is often the case that the patrons help economically. Going back again to Sada Yakko, one of her patrons was Count Ito, prime-minister of Japan at the time and foreign minister later on. Even if the sexual favors lasted only a period of time of… [read more]

Imperial Russia Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,067 words)
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¶ … Mongol Origins of Muscovite Political Institutions

There have for centuries existed arguments both for and against the effect of the Mongols on the Muscovite Political Institutions on the 13-16 centuries. Arguments exist which support the effect of Mongol khans on Muscovy yet there are some who believe that the effects which are attributed to the Mongols come into effect far to late to be considered truly attributable to Mongol origins and instead represent some sort of modernization or alteration of Byzantine Practices. In his article, The Mongol Origins of Muscovite Political Institutions" Donald Ostrowski puts forth a compelling argument regarding what he believes to be the extensive effect of the Mongols on Muscovy and the resultant development and derivation of Russian political institutions.

From the beginning it is probably important to say that by no means in Ostrowski an absolutist in his theories. He takes great pains to explain that he has no significantly vested interest in the influence of Mongols upon the sociopolitical bent of Muscovy and instead emphasizes that his theories are based upon conclusions which he has drawn after careful study and also, that the conclusions are made in the absence of any other absolute information. There is a remarkable paucity of historical records from this time, and Ostrowski bases his opinions on comparisons between the Mongol and Muscovite political institutions. He appears open to the fact that someone may come in at any time and raise other ideas which may at any time invalidate his argument or at least modify what he feels to be some of the essential truths of the sociopolitical text of the time. Some of his comparisons and constructs are quite interesting, however, and seem to make more sense than those put forward by other historians studying the period.

Ostrowski agrees that there is no significant consensus among historians as to when and where the most influential timing of Mongol on Muscovy occurred. It is interesting to note that according to the records which exist, there appears to be evidence of the Mongol influence on Muscovy in cases which show its effect only after the Muscovites were fully released from Mongolian influence and somewhat emancipated. Ostrowski explains this phenomenon in two ways; one which has been put forward by the historian Vedansky in which the Mongolian influence appears to be one caused mostly by some form of delayed action which is not clearly defined. In another case, Ostrowski refers to the possibility of an "institutional time bomb" which exerted a delayed effect upon the sociopolitical climate of Muscovy. Ostrowski is clearly willing to accept the fact that the spatial and temporal differences in the apparent influences of the Mongols on the Muscovite princes may cause many to reject the idea that Muscovy borrowed heavily from the Mongols, and is willing to consider the fact that it would appear somewhat ridiculous for a 16th century dynasty which is essentially a successful conqueror state to adopt the sociopolitical aspects of a system… [read more]

Coca-Cola Company Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (893 words)
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Coca-Cola Company in India

The Coca-Cola Company began its expansion into India during 1993. While this market has displayed great potential for growth and profit, the Company has struggled to gain a foothold in India. The reasons for this are mostly strategic and cultural. However, a number of market-driven and customer-focused changes have turned the tide in favor of the Coca-Cola Company, and it is currently a top competitor in the Indian soft drinks market. The global marketing issues covered below include the company's reasons for expansion, its entry modes into the country and the characteristics and importance of the Indian market.

Reasons for Expansion

The Coca-Cola Company has conducted business on an international scale for decades. The expansion into India is then part of its growth and globalization process. This growth also entails competition with other soft drink manufacturers such as Pepsi-Cola, which has accumulated a large customer base in India. Hence the Coca-Cola Company's to further its competition with this rival.

The success of Pepsi-Cola and other soft drink companies in India, as well as focused market research, has shown that India has huge growth potential in the soft drink market. A company such as Coca-Cola would then potentially benefit from Indian consumers, reportedly greater in number than the average in other Eastern countries.

Before the benefits of this market can however be reaped, it is vitally important to gain an understanding of the culture and concerns of this market. Entry modes should therefore be tailored according to consumer requirements.

It should also be recognized that the culture in the country is substantially different from that in the United States, and that sensitivity should be displayed with regard to management and hiring practices. If these are not taken into consideration, the market benefits cannot be utilized to their full potential.

Entry Modes

After several failures, the Coca-Cola Company has changed some of its entry mode practices in order to gain favor with the Indian market. One of these is selling a substantial amount of its shares through private placement with institutional investors and employees. In this way the company imparts some of its shares to the Indian market itself, thus giving India greater involvement in the company.

Another technique is the promotion of local brands of the soft drink that has shown potential in the Indian market. An example is Thums Up, which proved to be a favorite in the Indian market. Local brands and products proving useful specifically to the Indian market requirements are beneficial for entry and growth within the country. Kinley bottled water is an example of this, especially through the company's distribution network to villages.

Pricing is also an important…… [read more]

China Documents Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (344 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



Documents 6.4 and 6.5

The first document, entitled "The First Edict," or Document 6.4, is explicitly intended for the audience of the British King, George III alone, not the audience of one of the King's ministers or ambassadors. Speaking as one leader to another, although he approves of what he considers George's appropriate humility before himself as the leader of the Celestial Empire, the Emperor of China refuses the offer of Britain of diplomatic connections and trade with England, as well as with the other nations of Europe. The Emperor of China defends its exclusivity of status and protocols as a unique and enclosed world power. The Emperor states that the methods and customs of its empire cannot be tailored to suit the different diplomatic requirements of varied European countries. Although the initial language is deferential, the actual substance of the text is quite firm as to this regard.

The Second Edict" deals more specifically with the notion of trade between Europe and China, as defined by specific requests made by…… [read more]

Blair Water Purifiers India Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,396 words)
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Blair Water Purifiers, India

There are two sets of key issues in the potential entry of Blair Company, Inc.', and its projected entry into the Indian consumer water purification market in India. The first set of issues involves the structure of the company. The second set of issues involves the positioning of the product in the market.

Concerning the issues of company structure, several alternates are possible. There are advantages and disadvantages to each of the three possibilities Chatterjee identified.

The first alternative was a joint working arrangement. If this manner of entry were chosen, the Indian company, to which Blair would supply key purifier components, would remit license fees to Blair for, typically, five years with an additional three-year renewal option.

In a joint venture, Blair Company would partner with an existing Indian company to produce the water purifiers. The third option would be for Blair Company to purchase an existing company and expand its production to include the water purifier. In either the joint working arrangement or purchase, Blair would received the profits; in the partnership, a division would need to be worked out; if there were a problem with this later on, because India is a signatory to the Geneva Convention covering Foreign Arbitral Awards, conceivably that sort of problem could be worked through in that way, instead of through lawsuits which can take enormous amounts of time in India. The same option would be available regarding Blair's patents.

Among these three options, Chatterjee had recommended that Blair Company should find an Indian partner. While this might obviate some of the repatriation problems for profits, it also was the least streamlined of the possibilities. Like any merger or marriage of individual corporate entities, it offered not only the obvious potential for management and profit problems, but also the not inconsiderable aspect of cultural conflict. The water purification market in India is a large one already, with potential for additional growth. However, India is also a traditional country and the fact that so many households still depend on the candle method of filtering, cumbersome and sometimes ineffective (odors, bacterial contamination especially in storage) indicates that there is likely to be some market resistance to new technologies. It also makes it likely that the 'early adopter' segment of the consumer population is the most likely market. In any case, in order to maintain complete control of its market entry, it would be more advisable for Blair Company, Inc., to acquire an Indian company with most of the components -- manufacturing, distribution -- already in place. It would be a more expensive entry, but an acquisition would give Blair the assets of that company, and its existing market for whatever else it manufactures -- small appliances, small electronics or whatever the case may be -- in the event that Blair's water purifiers were unable to penetrate the market and Blair decided to withdraw.

Another advantage to entering the market in this manner would be the substantial boost the company could… [read more]

Cross-Cultural Experience the Japanese and American Languages Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (984 words)
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Cross-Cultural Experience

The Japanese and American languages and cultures are quite different, so it is not surprising that I had some difficulty when traveling alone to an inn at a small Japanese village where the residents still do not speak any other language other than their own. During the time I stayed at the inn, with its traditional Japanese tatami mats, steaming hot baths, meals and decor, both the manager/owner of the establishment and I had to depend entirely on body language, hand signals and other similar means of communication.

Although Japanese youth must all take English lessons at school, earlier generations -- especially individuals over the age of 60 -- do not necessarily speak any English. Furthermore, considerably more people in the city speak other languages such as English and French. In rural areas, this is not as usual.

I heard about this Japanese inn from a friend of mine in Nagoya, a major urban area south of Tokyo. Because I had spent so much time in the crowded and noisy city, I wanted to head off to a more quiet and tranquil location. I was warned by my friend that language would be a problem, but I was not concerned. I figured that there are certain similarities with all cultures -- eating and sleeping, for example -- that I would receive proper attention.

When I arrived at the inn, the manager was quite surprised. Foreigners had not come there often. I also believe that she was immediately concerned because of the communication problems. However, a smile and low bow on both of our parts broke some of the tension. From there on in, we communicated primarily by gestures.

First, she showed me to the one room that would act as my bedroom and sitting room. She opened up the cabinet to point to the mat, which would be put out at night when it was time to sleep. She made a motion to signify eating with chopsticks and I responded by pretending to wash my hands. After going to the washroom, I went back to my room where a bowl of rice, pickles and chicken awaited me.

After lunch, I decided to take a walk. The manager became confused when I started away from the inn, but she understood when I aped the body language for hiking. That night after dinner, my hostess used my expression for washing. Many Japanese take baths in communal bathing areas, which was not high on my list. When I shook my head, she beckoned me to follow her to an inside single bath with the drain on the outside to wash myself. I laughed in acceptance and was honored to be the first to be able to use the hot water that night.

After the very hot bath, I was more than content. However, it did not take long for the very cool evening to make the residual heat disappear, despite the fact that…… [read more]

Nike vs. Coca-Cola's Sense Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (709 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" ("Global Alliance," 2004)

In short, the conditions for Nike workers in Indonesia, as is representative of Nike facilities around the world, are not the worst one could imagine, but not the best -- they are in short adequate compared to indigenous factory conditions under appropriate government supervision. Coca-Cola, in contrast, touts its inclusively on its website, stressing that all of the world loves a coke, all the while it also makes use of its image as an American brand, produced in the Southern heart of the country. (Official Website, 2004) It has given back to the Atlanta community, earning nearby Emory University the moniker of 'Coca Cola U' but on a managerial level, Coca-Cola culture is often characterized as insular.

And Coke has not been immune from attacks from its international locations. In India, Coca-Cola has been attacked for toxic fertilizer gifts to farmers, when the Coca-Cola plant in Kerala has been providing commercial waste to local farmers as fertilizer, which has proved to be contaminated with toxic substances. But Coke, in contrast to Nike, makes no references, even to rebut these allegations on its official website, and when attacked by the Indian government, it stonewalled these allegations about toxicity. (Mallen Baker, 2003)

When comparing the social responsibility efforts of both of these companies both have given back to the community and taken away from the quality of life of the community in pursuit of profits. Perhaps the only reason to give more credence to Nike is that it has at least attempted to admits its errors of the past, and redress them over the course of the future.

Work Cited

Coca-Cola. (2004) Official Website. Retrieved November 22, 2004 at http://www2.coca-cola.com / 'India" (2003) Mallen Baker. http://www.mallenbaker.net/csr/CSRfiles/page.php?Story_ID=1011

Global Alliance Indonesia report on Nike (2004) Retrieved November 22, 2004 at http://www.theglobalalliance.org/pdfs/indonesia1.PDF & http://www.theglobalalliance.org/pdfs/indonesia2.PDF

'Nike." (November 13, 2004) Mallen Baker. Retrieved November 22, 2004 at http://www.mallenbaker.net/csr/CSRfiles/nike.html… [read more]

Kashmir Dispute Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Realism: Kashmira

L. Jones

The Kashmir Issue:

realist perspective

Whenever one tries to understand a controversial issue of any kind, it is important to consider the core issues at hand. After all, by definition any controversial issue is made up of at least two opposing sides, each with some pretty convincing arguments. If this were not the case,… [read more]

Hong Kong to China Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (581 words)
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For example, I might have included the option of having respondents simply answer the question "How do you feel about the change" or "How has this change impacted you." This might have provided additional insight into people's true opinions about the recent change. The questionnaire did ask respondents if they would prefer that Hong Kong simply remain an administrative region. It did offer some other options including becoming an independent nation. It did not however ask respondents to explain their answer. A more comprehensive approach would have been to allow respondents to offer an answer followed by their reasoning for selecting the answer they did.


This case study caused me to think a great deal about surveys and survey questions. I did enjoy learning about the recent changes that have occurred with regard to the administration and governance of Hong Kong.

In this case the case study's intent was to focus on the attitudes of people in Hong Kong with regard to the recent political and administrative shift that occurred when China took power. In my opinion the study only barely touches the surface of the real issues that people living in Hong Kong are facing. Though the intent of the researchers was to collect information about public opinions, I believe it does so only in a very limited fashion. It definitely brings to mind the importance of offering in some situations more open ended questions to get a better feel for where people are coming from in a given situation. I think it would have been interesting to see what the people living in China felt about the acquisition of Hong Kong, and whether their opinions different substantially from the people living…… [read more]

Revolutions in India Mexico and Russia at the Beginning of the 20th Century Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,186 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Revolutions of the Early 20th Century

This is a paper on revolutions in India, Mexico, and Russia at the beginning of the 20th century. There are three references used for this paper.

For centuries, there have been revolutions throughout the world. It is interesting to compare the differences among the revolutions in India, Mexico and Russia at the beginning of the 20th century, including the motivations behind the revolutions.

Great Britain vs. India

India came under British rule in 1757 with the "defeat of the Nawab of Bengal at Plassey, and by 1818 the British controlled nearly all of India south of the Sutlej River and had reduced to vassalage their most powerful Indian enemies, the state of Mysore and the Marathas. Only Sind and Punjab remained completely independent (Unknown)." While Great Britain controlled the agricultural interests of India and created a negative impact on the exportation of cotton goods, they were instrumental in improving irrigation and transportation.

As the British control expanded to include Sind and Punjab, social unrest began to surface. While the Indian Mutiny of 1857 was suppressed, it led to reforms which resulted in more Indians in the British army and "native rulers being guaranteed the integrity of their domains as long as they recognized the British as paramount (Unknown)." As government universities were established, an "Indian middle class emerged and advocated further reform. Popular nationalist sentiment was perhaps most strongly aroused when in 1905, for administrative reason, Viceroy Curzon partitioned Bengal into two presidencies. In the early 1900s the British had widened Indian participation in legislative councils, and separate Muslim constituencies, introduced for the first time, were to be a major factor in the growing split between the two communities (Unknown)."

When World War I began, Great Britain had the full support of India. However, there quickly became discontent among the Indians when the promise of eventual self-government never materialized, millions died due to influenza and the country experienced crop failures between 1918 and 1919. The passage of the Rowlatt Acts in 1919 by Britain, "which enabled authorities to dispense with juries, and even trials, in dealing with agitators, lead Mohandas K. Gandhi to organize the first of his many passive-resistance campaigns. The massacre of Indians by British troops at Amritsar further inflamed the situation (Unknown)." Although the "Government of India Act in late 1919 allowed elected Indian ministers to share power with appointed British governors and ministers, and created provisions for periodic revisions, Gandhi felt too little progress had been made, and he organized new protests (Unknown)." These protests led to Imperial conferences in the early 1930's, resulting in elections of entirely "Indian provincial governments and a federal legislature in Delhi (Unknown)."

Mexican Revolution

The Mexican revolution is considered "one of the great social upheavals of the early twentieth century, a reaction to centuries of poverty and inequality in the countryside and to the depredations of foreign investment and rapid capitalist development of industry in the late nineteenth century (MacEwan)." The upperclass citizens, who… [read more]

Bollywood Indian Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,436 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


They have a traditional, low caste wedding at the same time as the family's bride and groom, under an umbrella of marigolds in the monsoon downpour on a bridge in the garden and then are welcomed into the family's wedding tent as a n expression of the modern acceptance of the lower castes.

The filmas most overt visual references to… [read more]

Foreign Exchange Markets Have Analyzed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (323 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


On the other hand, because the Singapore dollar has been strengthening against the U.S. dollars, the U.S. exports to Singapore will be encouraged. The U.S. producer will produce the good at a fixed price Y and will receive more by exporting to Singapore, because the export will be paid in Singapore dollars, hence, this will mean more U.S. dollars.

As for the foreign direct investments into Singapore, following the same criterion, these will be encouraged, because it will mean gaining revenues in the Singapore currency, which has been appreciated during the period of time…… [read more]

Companies Such as Credit Card Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (410 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Perhaps the biggest risk is the insecurity of data in Indian databases, and data leakage. Security and precautions tend not to be as high in offshore operations, and there is danger of crucial customer information being sold or stolen for personal gain. Since the financial records of credit card clients are at stake, security must be at a premium, and some Indian companies have fallen down in that regard. In addition, the international copyright laws were insufficient to provide ownership of the data to American companies, and India had to update the laws in order to placate foreign companies. Working with the European Union (EU), many laws have been amended, but there are still some issues to work out, including the length of the ownership, and what (if any) rights the database producers have. Clearly, there are great benefits and great risks involved in the Indian databasing industry, but as American companies continue to worry about bottom line finances, it seems clear more companies will move their databases to India to cut costs and increase efficiency.


Vandrevala, Phiroz. "A Study on the Impact of Protection of Unoriginal Databases on Developing Countries: Indian Experience." WIPO.org. 2002. 9 Feb. 2004. http://www.wipo.org/documents/en/meetings/2002/sccr/doc/sccr7_5.doc… [read more]

Power Politics, by Arundhati Roy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,076 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Therefore, to speak out against them is seen as basically speaking out against the country itself, but Roy is trying to dispel that image by illustrating just how destructive the dams can be. In fact, Roy likens keeping silent to "good middle-class Germans" (Roy 65), who kept silent about the Nazi regime in Germany in the 1930s. Her illusion is that the dams, in the long run, are just as dangerous as the Nazis, and to her country, they very well could be. Roy feels the government is deceiving the people, and she hopes to set the record straight by writing the truth. She also wants the people to know that the dams are really only benefiting a few people, while all the citizens are paying for them, and many of them are uprooted from their homes and displaced because of them. The government also touts the dams as a source of irrigation, thereby leading to more food production, but the author asserts that actual food production has only risen by 10%, and that India regularly loses 10% of its food production to spoilage or eating by rats. Thus, she says, "India must be the only country in the world that builds dams, uproots millions of people, and submerges thousands of acres of forests in order to feed rats" (Roy 66). It is easy to see that the author is quite passionate about what she believes in, and she wants to share her knowledge with others, so they can stop India from creating any more dams, and losing any more land to the projects.

The average citizen in the United States has absolutely no stake in the outcome of this conflict - except of course in the moral sense. They can protest what the Big Dams will do to the global environment and population, but they have no personal stake in the outcome - but some U.S. corporations have a gigantic stake in the outcome, as Roy notes here. "For a variety of reasons, there is little (read: almost zero) additional demand for power equipment in the first world. This leaves these mammoth multinationals with a redundant capacity that they desperately need to offload. India and China are their biggest target markets [...] (Roy 46). Thus, these large U.S. corporations, such as General Electric (GE), have a huge stake in the construction of Big Dams in India, and they use their political power and influence on the Indian government to see the projects go through and are completed. The big power equipment manufacturers are just the tip of the iceberg, however. U.S. financial institutions, which will lend funds for the dam's construction, will make millions of dollars in interest on their investments, and dam construction companies will share in the profits. Therefore, while the average American citizen (except perhaps a stockholder or two) will not realize a thing from the construction of these Big Dams, many American companies certainly have quite a big stake in their completion, and that is… [read more]