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Astronomy the Electromagnetic System Is the Range

Astronomy The Electromagnetic system is the range of frequency for electromagnetic radiation. It ranges from radio waves, to microwaves, to infrared, the visible region, the ultraviolet, X-rays, and finally, Gamma rays. Not all properties of all the bands in the electromagnetic spectrum are the same, their properties depend upon their frequency. Light is a member of this spectrum, represented as the "visible region." Light is next to both Infrared and Ultraviolet waves. The Sun radiates most intensely in the Ultraviolet band. Stellar Spectra is referring to the classifications of star based on measurements of the wavelengths emitted, all categorized by color. Refracting Telescopes use lenses to directly form an image. Reflecting Telescopes use mirrors in order to acquire an image. A telescopes F-number is its focal ratio, defined as N = f / D, it determines the "aperture" of a lens, or its ability to collect light. Optical telescopes block the ambient light, and allows light from the subject to be the only focus for the eye. The unaided eye has extra light entering it, which weakens the ability of the naked eye to see outer space. Radio telescopes are similar to optical telescopes, except they measure in radio frequency instead of the electromagnetic spectrum. These telescopes often collect data from space probes and satellites. Radio telescopes can be large dishes, or they can be what's called "radio interferometers," which is a collection of telescopes in a large array linked by computers. Ex. 3: A stars apparent magnitude its magnitude as seen from Earth, whereas its absolute magnitude is the actual magnitude of the star when seen from space. Absolute magnitude can be measured to see its "red shift," which is a measurement of light that allows scientists to tell how far away the object is. One parsec is 3.262 light years. Sirius is 2.6 parsecs from the Sun. Ex. 4: The Sun is a G-class star, and is a typical star on the Main Sequence. The main sequence is the common lifecycle of stars from birth until their death, with a defined path for the vast majority of stars. The property determining a stars position on the HR diagram is its color, which is determined by the components on the surface of the star being burned. Ex. 5: The nearest star to Earth is the Sun. The Sun's atmosphere is called its Corona, the surface is the Photosphere, the…

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Discovered Solar System and How

, 1 bar) (m/s2) Acceleration (eq., 1 bar) (m/s2) Escape velocity (km/s) GM (x 106 km3/s2) Bond albedo Visual geometric albedo Visual magnitude V (1,0) Solar irradiance (W/m2) Black-body temperature (K) Moment of inertia (I/MR2) J2 (x 10-6) Number of natural satellites Planetary ring system Orbital parameters Jupiter Earth Ratio (Jupiter/Earth) Semimajor axis (106 km) Sidereal orbit period (days) Tropical orbit period (days) Perihelion (106 km) Aphelion (106 km) Synodic period (days) Mean orbital velocity (km/s) Max. orbital velocity (km/s) Min. orbital velocity (km/s) Orbit inclination (deg) Orbit eccentricity Sidereal rotation period (hours) Length of day (hrs) Obliquity to orbit (deg) System III (1965.0) coordinates Jupiter Observational Parameters Discoverer: Discovery Date: Prehistoric Distance from Earth Minimum (106 km) Maximum (106 km) Apparent diameter from Earth Maximum (seconds of arc) Minimum (seconds of arc) Mean values at opposition from Earth Distance from Earth (106 km) Apparent diameter (seconds of arc) Apparent visual magnitude Maximum apparent visual magnitude Jupiter Mean Orbital Elements (J2000) Semimajor axis (AU) Orbital eccentricity Orbital inclination (deg) Longitude of ascending node (deg) 100.55615 Longitude of perihelion (deg) Mean Longitude (deg) North Pole of Rotation Right Ascension: 268.05-0.009T Declination 64.49 + 0.003T Reference Date: 12:00 UT 1 Jan 2000 (JD 2451545.0) Julian centuries from reference date Jovian Magnetosphere Goddard Space Flight Center O4 Model Dipole field strength: 4.28 gauss-Rj3 Dipole tilt to rotational axis: 9.6 degrees Longitude of tilt: 201.7 degrees Dipole offset (planet center to dipole center) distance: 0.131 Rj Latitude/Longitude of offset vector: -8.0 degrees/148.57 degrees Note: All latitudes/longitudes are given in Jovian System III (1965.0) coordinates. Rj denotes Jovian radii, 71,398 km Jovian Atmosphere Surface Pressure: >>1000 bars Temperature at 1 bar: ~165 K (-108 C) Temperature at 0.1 bar: ~112 K (-161 C) Density at 1 bar: ~0.16 kg/m3 Wind speeds Up to ~150 m/s (<30 degrees latitude) Up to ~40 m/s (>30 degrees latitude) Scale height: 27 km Mean molecular weight: 2.22 g/mole Atmospheric composition (by volume, uncertainty in parentheses) Molecular hydrogen (H2) - 89.8% (2.0%); Helium (He) - 10.2% (2.0%) Minor (ppm): Methane (CH4) - 3000 (1000); Ammonia (NH3) - 260 (40); Hydrogen Deuteride (HD) - 28 (10); Ethane (C2H6) - 5.8 (1.5); Water (H2O) - ~4 (varies with pressure) Aerosols: Ammonia ice, water ice, ammonia hydrosulfide This planet is similar enough to Jupiter at first glance that it will be……

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Solar System Formation of the

It was the initial first billion years that there was still a significant amount of large pieces of rock and ice flying around the solar system. These were the materials that had not accreted into a planet, until about 3.8 billion years ago rife in collisions were formed. The following picture shows the same (The Columbia Encyclopedia, 2004). As the cloud continued to fall in, eventually the center got so hot that it became a star, the Sun, and thus, blew most of the gas and dust of the new solar system with a strong stellar wind. The figure given below shows our solar system. This sets the horizontal scale (in AU). The picture has solar system with 9 different stars that are orbited by a planet. In the middle of the diagram the name of the star is given in red. The planet is shown both in brown or green since it is at proper location from its parent star while the mass of the planet is given in Jupiter-masses. (Booth, 1996; Weissman, 1998; Beatty, 1999; Jones, 1999). Works Cited Solar System. Encyclopedia Title: The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Publisher: Columbia University Press. New York. 2004. Solar System Formation: UCAR. http://www.windows.ucar.edu N. Booth, Exploring the Solar System (1996); P.R. Weissman et al., ed., Encyclopedia of the Solar System (1998) J.K. Beatty et al., ed., The New Solar System (4th ed. 1999); B.W. Jones, Discovering……

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Earth Like Solar Planets Throughout

The age of the star is considered to be about 100 billion years old and it is located in a solitary star. It is about 100 million miles from the sun. There are other companion planets that orbit this star. However, none are capable of sustaining any kind of life. This celestial body is not considered to be very earth like. The reason why is from the temperature being much hotter than Earth. As a result, it is unlikely to sustain any kind of basic or intelligent life. (Miller 46 -- 51) Kepler-10b Kepler-10b has a temperature of approximately 88.4 degrees Fahrenheit. The planet is 4.56 times bigger than the Earth. The age of the star is about 50 billion years old and it is considered to be a part of an M. type of solar system. Its distance from the sun is about 250 million miles. There are many other planets that are known to be with in the general vicinity to include: Kepler-20e, Kepler-20f and Kepler-22b. It has very similar temperatures to earth and it is about the same distance from the sun. The combination of these factors is showing how the planet is capable of being able to sustain some kind basic and intelligent life forms. ("Kepler Discoveries") Kepler-20e Kepler-20e is considered to have a temperature of 87.50 degree Fahrenheit. The mass is 1.67 times larger than the Earth. The age of the star is about 50 billion years old and it is considered to be a part of an M type of solar system. Its distance to the sun is about 200 million miles. There are many other planets that are known to be with in the general vicinity to include: Kepler-10b, Kepler-20f and Kepler-22b. This has similar temperatures to earth and it is within the same proximity from the sun. As result, this means that it is capable supporting basic and intelligent forms of life. ("Kepler Discoveries") Kepler-20f Kepler-20f has a temperature of 88.8 degrees Fahrenheit. The mass is considered to be 3.5 times larger than the Earth. . The age of the star is about 50 billion years old and it is considered to be a part of an M type of solar system. Its distance to the sun is about 180 million miles. There are many other planets that are known to be with in the general vicinity to include: Kepler-10b, Kepler-20e and…

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Astronomy Explain How the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram Is

Astronomy Explain how the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is constructed of the four main groupings of stars. Identify characteristics of the four main groupings of stars on the diagram. The H-R Diagram shows the similarities among stars in the sky. The diagram is used for understanding the life cycle of the stars. The diagram effectively classifies or categorizes the stars by certain…

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Earth Science Astronomy

Earth Science / Astronomy Ptolemy focused on a series of earlier ideas when he devised his theory regarding the geocentric movement of the planets. The theory emphasized the fact that the Earth was stationary and at the center of the universe. All the objects in the universe were believed by Ptolemy to revolve around earth. The Greek astronomer observed that the celestial bodies appear every day in the same place they did a day before and that the Earth appeared to be at rest because of its presumed stability. This theory contributed to the belief that the Earth was spherical, not flat as most people formerly believed. The Earth performs a complete revolution every twenty-four hours, relative to the sun. Every year the Earth revolves around the sun, this motion lasting for approximately three hundred and sixty five days. The Earth performs a complete cycle of precession once in approximately 26000 years, with the current angle between its rotational axis and the plane to its trajectory being 23.44 degrees. Q3. Nicolaus Copernicus is responsible for devising a reasonable heliocentric theory. Tycho Brahe was a Danish astronomer who devoted his life to studying astronomy and the movement of the planets, bringing large contributions to the field of astronomy and providing his assistant, Johannes Kepler, with information which the latter used in developing the laws of planetary motion. Kepler's studies were essential in assisting Sir Isaac Newton in devising the theory of universal gravitation. Galileo Galilei lived contemporary to Kepler, with the latter mentioning a series of the former's achievements for astronomy, namely the confirmation of Venus's phases and the finding of Jupiter's four largest satellites. Galilei is also responsible for perfecting the telescope. Q4. There are eight planets in the solar system, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are referred to as "terrestrial planets" while Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are called "gas giants." The terrestrial planets are mainly composed out of rock and metal whereas the gas giants are principally made out of water, ammonia, and methane. The terrestrial planets are much smaller than the gas giants. There are also other planets in the solar system, with Pluto, Haumea, Makemake, Eris, and the asteroid Ceres representing the system's dwarf planets, which do not comply with all the requirements necessary for a celestial object to be classified as being called a principal planet in the solar system. Q5. Stellar parallax is the…

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Astronomy Carbon Dioxide Snow on

I suspect that part of the reason there is all this research dedicated to Mars is because some of the very wealthy are looking to find alternatives to Earth in case conditions become irreversibly disastrous on Earth. This research propels the current interest and in a way, pushes the research in new directions. Scientists have known for decades that carbon-dioxide exists in ice in Mars' seasonal and permanent southern polar caps. Frozen carbon dioxide, sometimes called "dry ice" here on Earth, requires temperatures of about -125 Celsius (- 193 degrees Fahrenheit), which is much colder than needed for freezing water. Even though we like to think Mars is a lot like Earth, findings like this remind us that Mars is indeed quite different. (Atkinson, 2012) I think that this kind of research is extremely inspirational and hopeful. It widens the astronomical imagination and scope as to what is possible in the universe, and even in our own backyard, so to speak. This article appeals to me because there seemed to be something of a magical quality about carbon dioxide snow. From a layman's perspective, there is something very science fiction about the occurrence. It is as if the carbon dioxide snowfalls come from a story, novel, or film. To me, carbon dioxide snowfalls are kind of hopeful and lovely. The research dispels some stereotypes that Mars is a dead, desolate planet. There is still some kind of life cycle going on the planet. Who knows what other activities are going on Mars? I did not have much knowledge about Mars. I had no knowledge regarding snowfall on Mars. I was aware of the frozen polar caps. I had no knowledge of the water cycle on the planet. I chose this article because this is subject upon which I have no knowledge, but I still retain great interest in Mars, the solar system, and astronomy in general. References: Atkinson, Nancy. "It Only Happens on Mars: Carbon Dioxide Snow is Falling on the Red Planet." Universe Today, Web, Available……

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Planet Venus

Planet Venus Venus: A Planet of Knowledge and Mystery With the exception of perhaps Mars, more lore and mythology exists about the planet Venus than any of its solar system brothers and sisters. According to Ev Cochrane's book the Many Faces of Venus: The Planet Venus in Ancient Myth and Religion, "cultures everywhere assigned [Venus] a prominent role in their mythological traditions and religious rituals." In fact, Cochrane suggests that the ancient astronomers' observations about Venus should be compared with today's scientists' knowledge in order to make some startling discoveries about the history of the planet. Regardless of whether or not Cochrane's theory is correct, it illustrates the importance of the planet Venus in both mythic and scientific disciplines. An understanding of what science knows and does not know about the planet Venus will lead to a further understanding of the planet's importance. What We Know terrestrial planet of rock and metal, Venus is second in the solar system, spinning 108.2 million kilometers from the sun ("Venus"). An orbital period of 224.68 days, the Venus year is much shorter than the Earth year, and with an atmosphere composed of 96% carbon dioxide, a finding discovered by a Soviet Union probe dropped into the planet's atmosphere ("Venus," "Missions to Venus"). Scientists have gathered this information both through earth-based study and missions to Venus. In fact, the planet was one of the first to experience a mission from earth. In fact, during the space race, Venus was a common destination for both the United States and the Soviet Union. While many of the missions were failures, over 20 succeeded ("Missions to Venus"). Winning the space race in terms of Venus, NASA's Mariner 2 was the first mission to successfully complete a flyby of the planet. Discoveries from this first successful mission included extraordinarily high temperatures, around 800 degrees Fahrenheit. The probe's findings also included the lack of a magnetic field or water vapor around the planet ("Missions to Venus"). Other missions to the planet detected extreme atmospheric pressure, transmitted photos, analyzed the planet's heavy cloud cover, and drew a radar map of the planet ("Missions to Venus"). In addition to missions that launch satellites to Venus, observations from the Russian space station have similarly aided in scientists' knowledge of the planet. In fact, a clear view of the planet in 1983 allowed for an exemplary view of the dust cloud that, while…

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Ancient Greeks Contributed Much to Our Modern

¶ … ancient Greeks contributed much to our modern knowledge of the universe. Still, there concepts often differed because of the lack of scientific technology we have today. One of the prominent ideas of the Greeks that have been discredited was the geocentric view of the universe. Thus, all the planets and even the sun all orbited the Earth which was at the center. This was a view that placed the Earth at the very center of the universe. Ptolemy helped mold the concept and accounted for the motions of the celestial bodies through explaining that each planet and star moved around the universe in circles, known as epicycles. Planets moved at different speeds, depending on what point they were on in their epicycle. Thus, although the Earth is not the center of the universe, Ptolemy contributed to the concept of orbiting bodies. Two minor members of the solar system include asteroids and comets. These are members of the solar system which have their own unique orbits, but cannot be classified as a planet or a start. Asteroids are small rocky objects that orbit the sun, in a similar fashion as a planet would. There is a major grouping of them in the asteroid belt, although some can be knocked out of their orbits and be a danger to planets. Comets are similar, but are actually made of frozen ice and dust rather than rock. They too have an orbit around the sun. They are known for their fiery tales of gas and dust that can light up the night sky. Moving into a modern image of astronomy was a long and difficult process. There have been many great minds who have contributed to this progress. One of the major proponents of a heliocentric model in its early stages was Nicolaus Copernicus. He fought the conservatism of the Church in order to put forward the radical idea that the solar system had the sun at the very center. Moreover, Tycho Brahe was another figure that challenged the traditional Greek system. He found evidence that the universe was constantly changing, rather than staying exactly the same. He took observations which showed there were newer stars and also that comets actually crossed through the celestial spheres, and did not occur below Earth's atmosphere. Johannes Kepler was a mathematician who calculated a more realistic image of planetary motion. According to Kepler, there were…

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Stars Sun and Moon

Sun, Moon and Stars Data and results from your diameter of the sun activity: Image diameter: .93 cm Distance from pin-hole to image: 100 cm .95 cm x 150000000km / 100cm Calculated diameter of the sun: 1425000 km How does your calculated value for the diameter of the sun compare with its actual value? My calculated value for the diameter…

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Planetary Comparison the Earth and Other Planets

Planetary Comparison The Earth and other planets in the Solar System: a comparative analysis As the only planet known wherein life exists, the Earth contains characteristics and properties that make living organisms live and thrive along with non-living elements. These properties and characteristics distinguish the Earth from other planets in the solar system. In the same way that the Earth contains properties that make it conducive for supporting human life, the other planets in the solar system have properties that hinder it from making possible for humans and other organisms from living. This paper provides a comparative analysis of the Earth and other planets in the solar system, centering the discussion on each planet's properties and unique characteristics that make it distinct from other planets. Apart from the fact that the Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the fifth largest planet in the solar system, is an oblate spheroid planet, and has an atmosphere and bodies of water, it is also composed of five parts: the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, mantle, and core. The atmosphere is the gaseous envelope of the Earth. It contains a mixture of gases, wherein the principal components are nitrogen (at 78%) and oxygen (21%). The remaining 1% of the gases is composed of argon, carbon dioxide, water vapor, hydrogen, ozone, methane, carbon monoxide, helium, neon, krypton, and xenon. This gaseous mixture was primarily generated from volcanic eruptions that have evolved through the years to create other mixtures of gases. The abundant supply of oxygen was due to the existence of life on Earth: as more living organisms thrived and survived, there has been a corresponding increase in oxygen. Other gases, meanwhile, came from factories, plants, and vehicles that consume energy and later converted to other forms of gases. Throughout the years, the amount of ozone present in the atmosphere increased with the continuous and increasing use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The increased presence of CFCs in the atmosphere destroys the stratosphere, the layer which protects the Earth from the sun's ultraviolet radiation. At present, the Earth's atmosphere has been experiencing radical changes, which also led to changes in planet's climate. The Earth's hydrosphere is mainly comprised of oceans and secondarily with other bodies of water such as seas, lakes, and rivers. The hydrosphere is composed of about 1/4400 of the total mass of the Earth. The third, fourth, and fifth parts are lithosphere, mantle,…

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Physcical Science Procedures in the

The things that we know now about science are giving some kind of thanks to the tools invented in order to obtain better answers about the unknown. Much of the knowledge that we have about our solar system and universe would not had been discover if it wasn't for the invention of the a telescope. The telescope is an optical…

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Brown Dwarf With a Satellite

The satellite planet could be categorized simply as a moon. "Astronomers Discover Beginnings of 'Mini' Solar System" is also significant because it might lend some insight into how solar systems are formed in general and how life evolves on planets. Because brown dwarfs are relatively dim and have less power than full-fledged stars, it would be difficult for life to form on nearby planets, which would have to be unusually close to the brown dwarf sun. With this new discovery, scientists have more information about the contents of our cosmos as well as more information about how solar systems, planets, and perhaps even life, evolves in the universe. Works Cited Clavin Whitney. "Astronomers Discover Beginnings of 'Mini' Solar System." NASA.gov. 7 Feb 2005. .…

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Electromagnetic Waves Are Energy Waves

Most stars have masses between 0.3 to 3.0 times the mass of the Sun. 8. Stars begin to die when they run out of hydrogen. High mass stars, although containing more hydrogen, have a shorter life span than low mass stars. This is because high mass stars have the required conditions in their core (higher pressures and temperatures) for quicker conversion of hydrogen atoms into helium. 9. As the Sun runs out of its hydrogen (an estimated 7 billion years from now) it will balloon into a red giant star engulfing its nearest planet Mercury; will begin to collapse, eventually becoming a small, dense, cool star called a "white dwarf." Much before dying of cold, life on earth would perish from heat as the Sun would be 2000 times brighter than at present at the time it runs out of hydrogen. 10. Low mass (and medium mass) stars eventually become "white dwarfs" when they die. High mass stars explode in supernovae events when they cease to generate fusion energy in its core and collapse inward. The Sun will eventually become a white dwarf as it is categorized as a low mass star. 11. The Solar System, containing the Sun, its nine planets, their moons, asteroids and comets is a small part of the Milky Way Galaxy located in its outer region known as the Onion Arm. The Galaxy is spiral shaped and about 100,000 light years across while the Solar system is much smaller. The age of the Milky Way is 15 billion years compared with 4.5 billion years of the Solar System. 15. Most planets around other stars have so far have been detected by using Doppler Spectroscopy that relies on the periodic velocity shift of the stellar spectrum caused by an orbiting giant planet. A few have also been found due to brightness variations, i.e., if a planet passes in between its parent star and the observer, the light from the parent star dips slightly. Neutrino, an elementary particle produced in a fusion reaction,……

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Observational Experience

¶ … Stars The sights in the night sky are particularly refreshing as you can see the movement of many of the stellar bodies. The one that was of the greatest interest to me as I examined the sky was the view of three starry actions. The first was the interaction of Mars and the Beehive cluster. The second item of interest was the Andromeda galaxy. The final was the Great Red spot on Jupiter. These three sights were exciting and mysterious. Each represents something that is unique about the universe and combined they are constant reminders that the universe is diverse and unending. Mars in the BeeHive cluster could be observed early in the morning. The sky was clear and the air crisp. The BeeHive cluster closely resembles a number of bees in a hive if you look at some imaging from a book. Using the eyes however aided with a telescope only the center stars are clear. There are a number of bright stars in this cluster. Around twenty of the stars appear to be very distinct and larger than the others that are nearby. The other stars look like lighted dust particles as they form a non-distinct shape. The brightest stars appear blue and white. The Andromeda galaxy was found by first identifying the square of Pegasus. Then beginning at the top left star in the square I looked about two stars to the left. This was followed by making a 90 degree turn to the right. There as a bright star in the view and that was used as a gauge to look nearby and find Andromeda. The sky was particularly dark so that even without the use of the telescope the star was reasonably visible. The final draw was the Red Spot on Jupiter. The Red Spot appeared as just that a red oval shaped dot against the planet. It was interesting only because it appeared to be out of harmony with the other elements of the planets structure. There were elements radiating from the spot and it could be easily missed. It was noticed because previously I was aware that it would be present. The observation that will be examined for this report is the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. The Red Spot is of interest as researchers attempt to discover what is the cause of the Red Spot and the conditions under which…

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English System of Measurement Is so Complicated

¶ … English system of measurement is so complicated to some people is that it has a different basis for different measurements. For most things, the metric system is used and is based on powers of 10, in other words decimalized. This has been the preferred European and scientific method of measuring since the late 1700s, and is not part…

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Earth Science and Astronomy Are Incredibly Broad,

Earth science and astronomy are incredibly broad, ever-expanding fields. The disciplines incorporate the varying and intersecting strains of scientific investigation aimed at better understanding the world around us. As such, we have made tremendous innovations in the field of meteorology with the interest of better predicting and understanding weather patterns around us. Biology provides us with a comprehensive knowledge of plants, animals and humans that allows us to better understand the implications of our interconnected ecosystem. Geology offers us clues as to the age, formation and composition of the earth itself. These sub-disciplines of Earth Sciences imply an interconnectedness that makes each field a powerful strand of a yet more powerful area of study. This interconnectedness, in fact, extends even beyond the boundaries of our planet. So denotes Astronomy, the study of the stars and planets in our broader solar system, galaxy and universe. As the discussion here will demonstrate, the study of astronomy is a critical one which connects closely to a number of decidedly earth-bound phenomena. Among those phenomena, one of the most familiar and simultaneously most fascinating is that which pertains to the tides. Most visible on the shores of our oceans but also evident in some measure in smaller bodies such as lakes, ponds and underground springs, the movement of the tides is actually created directly by a lunar gravitational pull. Here, the field of astronomy provides the most useful lens through which to understand the cycles projecting high and low tide. According to Cooley (2002), "tides are created because the Earth and the moon are attracted to each other, just like magnets are attracted to each other. The moon tries to pull at anything on the Earth to bring it closer. but, the Earth is able to hold onto everything except the water. Since the water is always moving, the Earth cannot hold onto it, and the moon is able to pull at it. Each day, there are two high tides and two low tides. The ocean is constantly moving from high tide to low tide, and then back to high tide. There is about 12 hours and 25 minutes between the two high tides." (Cooley, p. 1) As Cooley indicates, it is incumbent upon us to understand exactly how these variances in magnetic attraction cause the variances that we experience with the ebb and flow of the tide. The Cooley text explains that what…

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Astronomy Uranus Was the First

Just like the other gas planets, Uranus has bands of clouds that blow around quickly. But they are exceptionally faint. Some observations done with HST have shown larger and more pronounced streaks. Further HST observations show even more activity. Uranus is no longer the very boring planet that Voyager saw twenty five years ago. It has been discovered that the dissimilarities seen are due to seasonal effects since the Sun is now at lower latitude. This is thought to cause more pronounced days and nights along with weather effects. Uranus' blue color is the consequence of absorption of red light by methane in the upper atmosphere. It is thought that there may be colored bands like Jupiter's but they are hidden from view by the overlaying methane layer (Uranus, 2011). Like the other gas planets, Uranus also has rings. Like Jupiter's, they are very dark but like Saturn's they are made up of fairly big particles ranging up to ten meters in diameter in addition to fine dust. There are thirteen known rings, which are all very faint. The brightest is known as the Epsilon ring. The Uranian rings were the first after Saturn's to be discovered. This was of significant importance since it is now known that rings are a widespread feature of planets, not an oddity of Saturn alone. Voyager 2 discovered ten small moons in addition to the five large ones that were already known. It is thought that there are several more tiny satellites within the rings (Uranus, 2011). Uranus is at times just barely visible with the naked eye on a very clear night. It is fairly easy to spot with binoculars, if one knows know exactly where to look. A small astronomical telescope will show a small disk. There are several Web sites that show the current position of Uranus along with the other planets in the sky, but much more detailed charts are required to actually find Uranus (Uranus, Seventh Planet in Earth's Solar System Was First Discovered Planet, 2011). References Uranus. (2011). Retrieved from http://nineplanets.org/uranus.html Uranus, Seventh Planet in Earth's Solar System Was……

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Surviving 2012 and Planet X

Surviving 2012 and Planet X There has been much in the media lately about the infamous 2012 deadline and associated Ancient prophesies. Most of the beliefs around the time range from spiritual transformation to apocalyptic. Many of these versions center around the Mayan Calendar, ostensibly the year is the time in which the world as the Mesoamerican cultures predicted would…

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Life Form Found on Mars

Another author notes, "Mars is almost certain to have been warmer and wetter in its distant past, so the existence of primitive life has been a tantalizing possibility for some time, but the real search may be just beginning" (Williams). All of this physical and scientific evidence leads to a discussion of what type of life form might evolve to live on Mars. First, it would probably have to be a life form that lived underground or could burrow underground, in order to deal with all the dust storms that occur on Mars. It would also have to be able to endure large temperature differences, because Mars temperatures fluctuate widely. It can be 195 degrees below zero at the poles, and up to 70 degrees at the equator, so life would have to tolerate those extremes. The life form would probably be small, with six or eight legs that would allow it to dig and burrow. It would look like an insect with a very thick skin or shell, to help protect it from the winds, dust storms, and extreme temperatures. It would come out to forage during the day, during the warmer temperatures, and it would burrow deep into the Martian crust at night for safety and warmth. It would eat microscopic bacteria present in the Martian dust. It would be about the size of a large spider or beetle, and it would probably resemble one of those creatures. It would be reddish brown, to help it blend into the Martian landscape, and it would have large eyes and a keen sense of smell to help it locate the microscopic bacteria. This life form adapts to its environment by using what Mars has to offer, and minimizing the problems. It is small, so the atmospheric pressure is not as important to it as it might be to a larger creature. It is quick and can burrow to get away from dust storms and other Martian weather. It has adapted a thick skin to help protect it from the cold, and it can burrow deep in the landscape to keep warm. More importantly, the creature has adapted to survive on carbon dioxide, the major gas prevalent in the Martian atmosphere. It does not need oxygen, it thrives on carbon dioxide, turning it into oxygen and releasing it back into the Martian atmosphere. This life form would never survive on Earth,…

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Planets Do Planets Around Other Stars Have

Planets Do planets around other stars have ecliptics? Ecliptic is the great circle representing the apparent annual path of the sun; ecliptic plane is the plane of Earth's orbit around the Sun. The other planets in our solar system also have their orbits near this plane and in the same direction of rotation as Earth. So it's likely that other stars in the universe have ecliptics since the star- and planet-formation mechanisms are similar throughout the universe. When stars form, the leftover gas and dust accumulate by mutual gravitational attraction into planets. Observation of disk-shaped dust clouds around newly formed stars are an indication of planet formation in progress (O'Connell). In 1999 astronomers announced the first-ever detection of an entire solar system around a star. Only 44 light-years from Earth, three large planets were found circling the star Upsilon Andromedae, a sun-like star visible to the naked eye on Earth. Again the presence of the planets was inferred from gravitational wobbling. Astronomers suspect the planets are similar to Jupiter and Saturn -- huge spheres of gas without a solid surface. One of them completely circles its star in only 4.6 Earth days (O'Connell). Do they have Seasons? What causes seasons? Earth is tilted with respect to its orbit. So when our North Pole is tilted toward the sun, we get summer in the Northern Hemisphere (winter in the south). When the South Pole is tilted toward the sun, we get winter. So if a planet is tilted with respect to its orbit, it should have seasons (Imhoff). The same would apply in another solar system. However, the term "seasons" is relative depending on the distance the planet is from its star. Extreme distances from its sun may cause a planet to always experience freezing -- summer or winter. Must they have Seasons? If a planet has no tilt with respect to its orbit, it has no seasons. In this case, on every part of the……

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Meteorite Offers 2-Billion-Year-Old Glimpse of Mars Sindya

¶ … Meteorite Offers 2-Billion-Year-Old Glimpse of Mars Sindya Bhanoo, New York Times, 3 January 2013 URL: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/08/science/space/in-ancient-meteorite-hint-there-was-life-on-mars.html?ref=science&_r=0 The article covers a study led by the University of New Mexico that happened upon a meteorite in the Sahara Desert. The study was ran by planetary scientist Carl B. Agee. The object in question was a 0.7 pound meteorite fragment from Mars. It becomes one of about 100 other known meteorites that also came from the planet Mars. Most Martian meteorites found are roughly 200 million years old. The method used to discover the object was searching and surveying in the Sahara Desert at the point at which it was found. Like other meteorites found in the past, it was studied to ascertain its water content in parts per million so as to verify whether or not it was consistent with prior meteorites from Mars that have been found or it was higher or lower. This measurement is used as a metric as to whether life existed on Mars or not and, if projected as being so, when exactly the life existed. The study used the measured water content to date the age of the meteorite. Any water that is found to be present is locked into the mineral structure of the meteorite's surface. The findings of the study were published in a journal for academic review. The particular journal that the study was published in was Science (Bhanoo). The main finding about this meteorite that took scientists aback was the fact that it had 6,000 parts per million in water content whereas most of the prior 100 or so meteorites found only had about 200 parts per million. This finding, in large part, led the study's leaders to ascertain that the meteorite is 20 times as old as the other Martian meteorites that have been found. This would make the meteorite roughly 2 billion years old. The study theorized that the meteorite came from an active volcano during what is known as the Amazonian period, which is the most geologic epoch on Mars. The actual composition of the meteorite, aside from the higher water content, is consistent with other rocks found as well as findings and telemetry from rovers and satellites. It was also theorized that the fragment came from the planetary crust of the planet Mars and probably had high water content because it came from an area of…

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Extra-Solar Planets the Word Planet

Spectral analysis of radiated light yields clues to the terrestrial and atmospheric composition of distant planets. Other direct and indirect methods of astronomical analysis provide data into the relative proximity of orbiting planets to their host stars, which primarily determines terrestrial climate conditions likely to prevail on planets. To date, we have catalogued 108 extra-solar planetary systems comprising 123 individual planets including 13 multiple planet systems (Schneider). It is not yet possible to determine their relative ability to support biological life, but this is the eventual goal of future projects utilizing the latest generation of powerful telescopes and interferometers launched into deep space, which are already under preparation. In the words of Frank Drake, one of the original scientists to concentrate on the search for intelligent life elsewhere in the universe and father of the SETI and Phoenix projects: Our needle in the haystack is elusive, but many of us feel that searching for it is one of the greatest quests our species can undertake." (Davies) Works Cited Butler, R. Paul, et al. "Three New 51 Pegasi-Type Planets." Astrophysical Journal 1997): 474; 115-118 Davies, Paul. Are We Alone? Philosophical Implications of the Discovery of Extraterrestrial Life. New York: Basic Books, 1995. Engelbert, Phillis and Dupuis, Diane, L. The Handy Space Answer Book. Detroit: Visible Ink, 1998 Hawking, Stephen W. A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes New York: Bantam, 1988 Kolb, Rocky. Blind Watchers of the Sky: The People and Ideas that Shaped Our View of the Universe. New York: Addison Wesley, 1996. Lemonick, Michael, D. "Can We Find Another Earth?" Discover Magazine (2002) Vol. 23, No.3: 32-37 Reuters (CNN.com). "Cosmic Magnifying Glass Finds Distant Planet." (April 15, 2004). Accessed May 1, 2004, at http://www.cnn.com/2004/TECH/space/04/15/space.planet.reut/ Sagan, Carl. Billions & Billons: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium. New York:……

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Astrophysical Object Phenomenon

Astrophysical Object Pluto's Demotion: From Fully-Fledged Planet to One of a Hundred Dwarfs My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nine Pizzas" (Greene 2006). For years, every school child memorized this mnemonic device, to better recall the order of the planets in the solar system: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. However, all of this changed…

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Ever Life on Mars

Life on Mars Life of man is not only full of basic bare truths as can be evidenced through physical facts, as we may not know all physical facts of the world that we live in even till the time that we ultimately loose it as a group. The reason for this is the beliefs that come to us from…

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Uranus Is One of Nine Planets in

Uranus is one of nine planets in the same solar system as the Earth. It is the seventh planet from the Sun. It is approximately 2.87 billion kilometers from the Sun. This distance is about 19 times the distance of the Earth from the Sun. With the information that is currently available, scientists believe that Uranus is the third farthest…

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Mars Saturn Earth Nebular Theory

¶ … large scale features of this planet? This would include size, rotation and orbit, magnetic field and interior structure. Mars has a polar radius of 3.37 km and an equatorial radius of 3.39 km. This is roughly half the size of the Earth. The rotation is 1.02 days and the orbit is 686 calendar days. There is no magnetic…

Pages: 4  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 8


Astronomy Please Answer All Questions Show Your

Astronomy Please answer all questions show your work and explain your reasoning in a short to the point answer. Comet Halley has an orbital period of 75 years and when it enters the inner Solar System, it passes within a few AU of the Sun. Determine the average distance of Comet Halley in AU. The relation of the orbital period to the semi-major axis is given by the equation P2=a3, where P. is the orbital period and a is the semi-major axis. P is given as 75 and taking the cube root of both sides leaves 752/3=a, or a=17.78. The average distance of Comet Halley (assuming "a few AU" can be interpreted as close to 0) is thus about 18 AU. Right now, Comet Halley is just about past the orbit of Neptune, which has an average distance from the sun of about 30 AU. Explain how this is possible given the average distance you found from its orbital period. AU represents the average distance because it is half the major axis measurement, meaning the comet travels twice this linear distance in the completion of its orbit. Comet Halley as a very elliptical orbit if it traverses this distance in this time period, which explains why it can be near Neptune now and back near the sun in about 32.5 years (half its orbital period). HIPPARCOS (an acronym for HIgh Precision PARallax COllecting Satellite) was a scientific mission of the European Space Agency (ESA), launched in 1989 and operated between 1989 and 1993. It was the first space experiment devoted to astrometry, the accurate measurement of star positions, distances from us, parallaxes, and proper motions. (a). If the measured parallax shift of star a was 0.1 arcsecs and the parallax shift of star B. was 0.05 arcsecs, which star was farther away from the Earth, why? The star with the smaller parallax shift, star B, if farther away from the Earth. Distant objects appear to "move" less than nearer objects -- the parallax shift is smaller for distant objects as the Earth moves along its orbit around the Sun. (b). What is the distance of the farthest star in parsecs? A parsec is defined as the distance between the Sun and an object with a parallax shift of one arcsec (a 1:1 ratio). Star B. has a parallax shift of 0.05 arcsecs, therefore is at a distance of 1/0.05 parsecs…

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Satellite Communication With Mars

Satellite Communication With Mars Satellite Communication The use of Satellites Communication satellites for data and information transfer are now becoming common for both national as well, as international usage. As one pundit notes," Our world is becoming one of ever closer contact with our neighbors, and the most advanced system for relaying instantaneous messages is the communication satellite" (Cassata &…

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Organic Evolution

Organic Evolution Please discuss the pre-biotic conditions on planet earth. Why did it take approximately one half billion years before the earliest bacteria-like life evolved? Why did the formation of oxygen by photosynthesizers make such a difference on the planet? Specifically, why does it appear that the aerobic metabolic pathway is a mirror image of the photosynthetic pathway? What would…

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Pluto Why Is Pluto No Longer a

Pluto Why is Pluto no longer a Planet? Once upon a time, not so long ago, schoolchildren all over the world learned that the planet farthest away from the sun in our solar system was Pluto. They learned mnemonic devices to remember the names of all nine planets, made models and mobiles, all with Pluto orbiting at the very end…

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Terraforming Mars Is This a Good Idea or a Bad One

Terraforming Mars: Is this a good idea or a bad one? Terraforming mars Mars is the 4th planet from the sun. It is the 2nd smallest planet in the solar system as after Pluto (Markley, 2005). The planet derived its name from the Roman god of war. Red planet is an alternative name of mars as the iron oxide present…

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Chemical Properties of the Universe

The element plays a significant role in acid-base chemistry as it allows reactions that exchange protons between soluble molecules. Molecular clouds of hydrogen are thought to be vital to star formation because it plays a vital role in the proton-proton reaction and resultant nuclear fusion fueling of the star. In the universe, though, hydrogen is found largely in the atomic and plasma states. As plasma, hydrogen's electron and proton properties are not bound together, resulting in robust electrical conductivity and high emissivity (producing light). The charged particles are also highly influenced by magnetic and electrical fields. Molecular hydrogen (protonated molecular hydrogen or H3+) is found in interstellar gases. This form is generated by the ionization of molecular hydrogen from cosmic rays and becomes relatively stable in low temperatures of space (Gagnon). Helium -- Helium, atomic number 2, is also colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, and inert with boiling and melting points the lowest among the elements and existing as a gas only in extreme conditions. It is the second lightest and second most abundant element in the universe, or about 24% of the total elemental mass, or more than 12 times the mass of all the other heavier elements combined. Helium is rare on earth, and the vast majority was formed by nuclear synthesis during the Big Bag event. It is formed by the nuclear fusion o9f hydrogen as part of stellar nucleosynthesis. This is a process in which chemicals assemble inside the cores of stars. Then, as the star ages, there are chemical changes of the elements within the stars. In other words, as stars lose their mass the abundance of elements heavier than helium increase (Jones). Thus, chemically, the universe is about 98% hydrogen and helium, with other elements being generated by stellar processes. These include, in order of abundance: oxygen, carbon, neon, iron, nitrogen, silicon, magnesium and sulfur. The universe, however, is likely made up of between 70-80% dark matter; a substance not totally understood because it interacts with gravity -- but neither reflects, emits or obstructs light and cannot be observed directly. There are, in fact, about 90 total chemicals in the universe, but most of a very small percent. See Figure 2 for the other common chemical elements in the universe, after the 98% of hydrogen and helium (SAO Encyclopedia of Astronomy; Hubble Space Telescope Project). Figure 2 - Chemicals after Hydrogen and Helium REFERENCES Gagnon,…

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OP ED on Environmental Friendly New Year's Resolutions 2012

¶ … Environment There could be no more important New Year's Resolution than all of us promising to do whatever is in our power to support the global environmental movement although an even better term to describe it would be political ecology. Some scientists today are now describing the current geological epoch as the Anthropocene of the "Age of Man," in order to emphasize just how much damage humans have inflicted on the environment in modern times, especially since the beginning of industrialization. Over the years, we have learned that ecosystems are not stagnant entities, but that does not justify our depleting the ozone, carelessly releasing carbon dioxide, damaging biodiversity or even intensifying natural disasters, allowing global corporation to take control over human, animal and plant genomes, or even cannibalize human beings in poor countries for their organs, as if these were spare parts. Political ecology is of vital importance to all life on this planet, in both the Global North and Global South, and for us in the wealthier nations, some of the solutions are undemanding no-brainers like planting a tree, recycling paper, using energy efficient light bulbs. Unfortunately, the Earth is past the point of minor reforms and alternations in personal lifestyles to bring about recovery of the environment. When older fossil fuel systems are eliminated entirely and the world's population is dependent on solar, wind and maybe even nuclear energy, one considerable step towards preservation of the environment for future generations will have been taken, but even that is not enough. Hoping to preserve nature completely untouched by humans is in fact a very unrealistic and utopian idea. What needs to be understood clearly is that our actions must have boundaries to keep the human population from preventing the preservation of the irreplaceable natural balance that sustains life as we know it on this planet. To prevent a complete environmental catastrophe, radical measures will have to be taken in the future, not simply to reduce consumption but to reduce the number of consumers. There is no other way to do this except population control measures in a rather extreme form. One of the major problems the world has to face is that the population has exceeded its carrying capacity and will have to be reduced. Population control measures, including abortion, contraception and sterilization will have to be supported and encouraged to reduce the overload. In China, which…

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Is Space Exploration Necessary?

¶ … Space Exploration Necessary More than most of us can imagine, astronomy as a study has been around for long. Our first tour into the unknown realm outside our atmosphere started only just after half a century ago. Hitherto, we have made enormous coverage which has exceeded the projections despite the various setbacks. We have made successful landing on…

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Neptune When Most People Talk About the

Neptune When most people talk about the outer planets of the solar system, they will often think of Jupiter as the largest and most dominant one. While this is true for the most part, the fact of the matter is that Neptune is another gas giant that plays an equally dominate role among the outer planets. Where, it has a blue like color and an equatorial diameter of 30,760 miles. To put it another way, Neptune could easily hold 60 planets the size of Earth. Despite being photographed by Voyagers 1 and 2, the planet continues to capture the imagination of scientists along with the general public. (Hamilton) to fully understand the planet itself requires examining: how chance played a role in the discoveries of the outer planets, what is causing Neptune to have its colors, looking at its interior, studying how the planet was discovered, examining the different moons of the planet, discussing the various rings and explaining what the outer moons tell us about its past. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights as to why Neptune continues to remain such an enigma. Describe how both chance and calculation played major roles in the discoveries of the outer planets The outer planets of the solar system were discovered based on mathematical calculations and chance. What happened is both Neptune and Pluto were thought to exist. Yet, there was no way to actually confirm this fact with a telescope. Instead, scientists would use mathematical calculations and the gravitational pull on other planets (i.e. Uranus) to determine the general location of these celestial bodies. In this aspect, the two were discovered based upon: mathematical calculations, estimation and chance. (Smith) ("The Planet Pluto") What is responsible for the colors of Neptune? The reason why Neptune has a blue color is because it consists of: hydrogen, methane, helium and water that are frozen. The planet does not have solid surface like the Earth. (Smith) as a result, the sun will reflect the color of the methane in the atmosphere (giving the planet its blue reflection). ("Neptune's Color") How is the interior of Neptune thought to be constructed? The interior of the planet consists of silicates and thick condensed gases. Silicates are minerals that make up the crust of the planet (similar to those found on Earth). In the case of Neptune, these elements intermingle with others to create a frozen…

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Aspects of the Film Two Small Pieces of Glass

¶ … Small Pieces of Glass: The Amazing Telescope In the era of the ancient Greeks, science was a subset of philosophy. The scientific method for the Greeks was conducted mainly through empirical observation and deduction, rather than by using technical instruments. Some of the Greeks' findings predated modern theories, despite their limits in methodology, such as the pre-Socratic philosopher Empedocles' concept of atoms (Fowler 2008:2). However, although Empedocles may have been correct in his theories, he lacked the ability to conclusively prove them. The reliance upon observation and the lack of technical instruments at the disposal of the Greeks is one reason why some grave errors were made in their calculations, such as the commonly-held Ptolemaic viewpoint that the planets revolved around the sun (Fowler 2008:2). This makes sense to the eye, but through mathematical calculations and observations his telescope the great astronomer Galileo was able to prove this ancient theory wrong. The film Two Small Pieces of Glass: The Amazing Telescope describes Galileo's philosophy and the impact it had upon the world. In the film a group of teenagers learn about the importance of the telescope. By observing natural phenomenon through modern instruments, like sunspots and the rings of Saturn, they are able to see how a telescope enabled Galileo to prove, against all accepted conventional wisdom, that the earth went around the sun, rather than vice versa. This created a foundation for virtually all of modern understanding of the solar system, as well as the technology used today. Now, observation no longer takes place with the naked eye alone. "Galileo dropped all Aristotelian talk of why things moved and focused instead on the how, through painstaking observations and measurements….Galileo sought quantifiable entities such as time, distance, and acceleration to describe the way everyday objects move, bend, break, and fall. His emphasis on the practical application and value of science set him apart from most philosophers of his time" (Sobel 2002). The importance of early Greek philosophy, however, cannot be discounted in its importance. Anaximander, one of the very earliest Greek scientific philosophers, for example, theorized "that the earth was a cylinder, and the sun, moon and stars were located on concentric rotating cylinders: the first recorded attempt at a mechanical model. He further postulated that the stars themselves were rings of fire. Again, a very bold conjecture -- all heavenly bodies had previously been regarded as living…

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AME's Travel Matrix

¶ … overarching objectives and background and the solution that was developed in response to the problem. The background of this project concerns a federal contractor, ABC Services ("the company"), which has been in operation since September 1993. The company provides business-driven solutions to government as well as small and medium-sized businesses (ABC Services, 2003). The company currently provides contracting…

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Mercantilism: This Term Refers to an Economic

Mercantilism: This term refers to an economic system within a nation-state with the purpose to build wealth and prosperity. Usually attributed to Adam Smith, mercantilism was based upon the idea that a nation-state can best build its wealth through limiting its imports from other nation-states while focusing on exporting goods and materials created within its own boundaries. As an economic…

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Post Big Bang

Big Bang and the Evolution Of The Universe One of the most important questions posed by astronomers and cosmologists revolves around exactly how the universe was created and although most lay persons think that the universe is infinite with no beginning and no end, this viewpoint has been shown to be inaccurate, due to many advances in the science of…

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