"Astronomy / Planets / Solar System" Essays

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Astronomy the Electromagnetic System Is the Range Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (962 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



The Electromagnetic system is the range of frequency for electromagnetic radiation. It ranges from radio waves, to microwaves, to infrared, the visible region, the ultraviolet, X-rays, and finally, Gamma rays. Not all properties of all the bands in the electromagnetic spectrum are the same, their properties depend upon their frequency. Light is a member of this spectrum, represented as the "visible region." Light is next to both Infrared and Ultraviolet waves. The Sun radiates most intensely in the Ultraviolet band. Stellar Spectra is referring to the classifications of star based on measurements of the wavelengths emitted, all categorized by color.

Refracting Telescopes use lenses to directly form an image. Reflecting Telescopes use mirrors in order to acquire an image. A telescopes F-number is its focal ratio, defined as N = f / D, it determines the "aperture" of a lens, or its ability to collect light. Optical telescopes block the ambient light, and allows light from the subject to be the only focus for the eye. The unaided eye has extra light entering it, which weakens the ability of the naked eye to see outer space. Radio telescopes are similar to optical telescopes, except they measure in radio frequency instead of the electromagnetic spectrum. These telescopes often collect data from space probes and satellites. Radio telescopes can be large dishes, or they can be what's called "radio interferometers," which is a collection of telescopes in a large array linked by computers.

Ex. 3: A stars apparent magnitude its magnitude as seen from Earth, whereas its absolute magnitude is the actual magnitude of the star when seen from space. Absolute magnitude can be measured to see its "red shift," which is a measurement of light that allows scientists to tell how far away the object is. One parsec is 3.262 light years. Sirius is 2.6 parsecs from the Sun.

Ex. 4: The Sun is a G-class star, and is a typical star on the Main Sequence. The main sequence is the common lifecycle of stars from birth until their death, with a defined path for the vast majority of stars. The property determining a stars position on the HR diagram is its color, which is determined by the components on the surface of the star being burned.

Ex. 5: The nearest star to Earth is the Sun. The Sun's atmosphere is called its Corona, the surface is the Photosphere, the interior is called the Radiative Zone, and the core is the super hot and dense. The core is a dense collection of thermonuclear reactions, caused by gravity's pull on Hydrogen atoms at the core, heating them up and causing the nuclear reactions. The Sun rotates in the same direction as Earth, and exists in the Orion Belt of the Milky Way Galaxy. Sunspots are cooler areas of the sun, caused by strong magnetic field that inhibit heat from emerging from the…… [read more]

Discovered Solar System Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (798 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


, 1 bar) (m/s2)

Acceleration (eq., 1 bar) (m/s2)

Escape velocity (km/s)

GM (x 106 km3/s2)

Bond albedo

Visual geometric albedo

Visual magnitude V (1,0)

Solar irradiance (W/m2)

Black-body temperature (K)

Moment of inertia (I/MR2)

J2 (x 10-6)

Number of natural satellites

Planetary ring system

Orbital parameters



Ratio (Jupiter/Earth)

Semimajor axis (106 km)

Sidereal orbit period (days)

Tropical orbit period (days)

Perihelion (106 km)

Aphelion (106 km)

Synodic period (days)

Mean orbital velocity (km/s)

Max. orbital velocity (km/s)

Min. orbital velocity (km/s)

Orbit inclination (deg)

Orbit eccentricity

Sidereal rotation period (hours)

Length of day (hrs)

Obliquity to orbit (deg)

System III (1965.0) coordinates

Jupiter Observational Parameters


Discovery Date: Prehistoric

Distance from Earth

Minimum (106 km)

Maximum (106 km)

Apparent diameter from Earth

Maximum (seconds of arc)

Minimum (seconds of arc)

Mean values at opposition from Earth

Distance from Earth (106 km)

Apparent diameter (seconds of arc)

Apparent visual magnitude

Maximum apparent visual magnitude

Jupiter Mean Orbital Elements (J2000)

Semimajor axis (AU)

Orbital eccentricity

Orbital inclination (deg)

Longitude of ascending node (deg) 100.55615

Longitude of perihelion (deg)

Mean Longitude (deg)

North Pole of Rotation

Right Ascension: 268.05-0.009T


64.49 + 0.003T

Reference Date: 12:00 UT 1 Jan 2000 (JD 2451545.0)

Julian centuries from reference date

Jovian Magnetosphere

Goddard Space Flight Center O4 Model

Dipole field strength: 4.28 gauss-Rj3

Dipole tilt to rotational axis: 9.6 degrees

Longitude of tilt: 201.7 degrees

Dipole offset (planet center to dipole center) distance: 0.131 Rj

Latitude/Longitude of offset vector: -8.0 degrees/148.57 degrees

Note: All latitudes/longitudes are given in Jovian System III (1965.0) coordinates.

Rj denotes Jovian radii, 71,398 km

Jovian Atmosphere

Surface Pressure: >>1000 bars

Temperature at 1 bar: ~165 K (-108 C)

Temperature at 0.1 bar: ~112 K (-161 C)

Density at 1 bar: ~0.16 kg/m3

Wind speeds

Up to ~150 m/s (<30 degrees latitude)

Up to ~40 m/s (>30 degrees latitude)

Scale height: 27 km

Mean molecular weight: 2.22 g/mole

Atmospheric composition (by volume, uncertainty in parentheses)

Molecular hydrogen (H2) - 89.8% (2.0%); Helium (He) - 10.2% (2.0%)

Minor (ppm): Methane (CH4) - 3000 (1000); Ammonia (NH3) - 260 (40);

Hydrogen Deuteride (HD) - 28 (10); Ethane (C2H6) - 5.8 (1.5);

Water (H2O) - ~4 (varies with pressure)


Ammonia ice, water ice, ammonia hydrosulfide

This planet is similar enough to Jupiter at first glance that it will be…… [read more]

Solar System Formation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (483 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It was the initial first billion years that there was still a significant amount of large pieces of rock and ice flying around the solar system. These were the materials that had not accreted into a planet, until about 3.8 billion years ago rife in collisions were formed. The following picture shows the same (The Columbia Encyclopedia, 2004).

As the cloud continued to fall in, eventually the center got so hot that it became a star, the Sun, and thus, blew most of the gas and dust of the new solar system with a strong stellar wind. The figure given below shows our solar system. This sets the horizontal scale (in AU). The picture has solar system with 9 different stars that are orbited by a planet. In the middle of the diagram the name of the star is given in red. The planet is shown both in brown or green since it is at proper location from its parent star while the mass of the planet is given in Jupiter-masses. (Booth, 1996; Weissman, 1998; Beatty, 1999; Jones, 1999).

Works Cited

Solar System. Encyclopedia Title: The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Publisher:

Columbia University Press. New York. 2004.

Solar System Formation: UCAR. http://www.windows.ucar.edu

N. Booth, Exploring the Solar System (1996);

P.R. Weissman et al., ed., Encyclopedia of the Solar System (1998)

J.K. Beatty et al., ed., The New Solar System (4th ed. 1999);

B.W. Jones, Discovering…… [read more]

Earth Like Solar Planets Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,270 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The age of the star is considered to be about 100 billion years old and it is located in a solitary star. It is about 100 million miles from the sun. There are other companion planets that orbit this star. However, none are capable of sustaining any kind of life. This celestial body is not considered to be very earth like. The reason why is from the temperature being much hotter than Earth. As a result, it is unlikely to sustain any kind of basic or intelligent life. (Miller 46 -- 51)


Kepler-10b has a temperature of approximately 88.4 degrees Fahrenheit. The planet is 4.56 times bigger than the Earth. The age of the star is about 50 billion years old and it is considered to be a part of an M. type of solar system. Its distance from the sun is about 250 million miles. There are many other planets that are known to be with in the general vicinity to include: Kepler-20e, Kepler-20f and Kepler-22b. It has very similar temperatures to earth and it is about the same distance from the sun. The combination of these factors is showing how the planet is capable of being able to sustain some kind basic and intelligent life forms. ("Kepler Discoveries")


Kepler-20e is considered to have a temperature of 87.50 degree Fahrenheit. The mass is 1.67 times larger than the Earth. The age of the star is about 50 billion years old and it is considered to be a part of an M type of solar system. Its distance to the sun is about 200 million miles. There are many other planets that are known to be with in the general vicinity to include: Kepler-10b, Kepler-20f and Kepler-22b. This has similar temperatures to earth and it is within the same proximity from the sun. As result, this means that it is capable supporting basic and intelligent forms of life. ("Kepler Discoveries")


Kepler-20f has a temperature of 88.8 degrees Fahrenheit. The mass is considered to be 3.5 times larger than the Earth. . The age of the star is about 50 billion years old and it is considered to be a part of an M type of solar system. Its distance to the sun is about 180 million miles. There are many other planets that are known to be with in the general vicinity to include: Kepler-10b, Kepler-20e and Kepler-22b. This means that it has the same kind of climate as the earth. Therefore, it can be able to sustain basic and intelligent life. As the planet, is considered to be a part of a list or earth like bodies. ("Kepler Discoveries")


Kepler-22b has a temperature of 89.74 degrees Fahrenheit. The mass is 36 times the size of the Earth. The age of the star is about 50 billion years old and it is considered to be a part of an M type of solar system. Its distance to the sun is about 150 million miles. There are… [read more]

Astronomy Carbon Dioxide Snow Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (706 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


I suspect that part of the reason there is all this research dedicated to Mars is because some of the very wealthy are looking to find alternatives to Earth in case conditions become irreversibly disastrous on Earth. This research propels the current interest and in a way, pushes the research in new directions.

Scientists have known for decades that carbon-dioxide exists in ice in Mars' seasonal and permanent southern polar caps. Frozen carbon dioxide, sometimes called "dry ice" here on Earth, requires temperatures of about -125 Celsius (- 193 degrees Fahrenheit), which is much colder than needed for freezing water. Even though we like to think Mars is a lot like Earth, findings like this remind us that Mars is indeed quite different. (Atkinson, 2012)

I think that this kind of research is extremely inspirational and hopeful. It widens the astronomical imagination and scope as to what is possible in the universe, and even in our own backyard, so to speak.

This article appeals to me because there seemed to be something of a magical quality about carbon dioxide snow. From a layman's perspective, there is something very science fiction about the occurrence. It is as if the carbon dioxide snowfalls come from a story, novel, or film. To me, carbon dioxide snowfalls are kind of hopeful and lovely. The research dispels some stereotypes that Mars is a dead, desolate planet. There is still some kind of life cycle going on the planet. Who knows what other activities are going on Mars? I did not have much knowledge about Mars. I had no knowledge regarding snowfall on Mars. I was aware of the frozen polar caps. I had no knowledge of the water cycle on the planet. I chose this article because this is subject upon which I have no knowledge, but I still retain great interest in Mars, the solar system, and astronomy in general.


Atkinson, Nancy. "It Only Happens on Mars: Carbon Dioxide Snow is Falling on the Red Planet." Universe Today, Web, Available…… [read more]

Astronomy Explain How the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,790 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



Explain how the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is constructed of the four main groupings of stars. Identify characteristics of the four main groupings of stars on the diagram. The H-R Diagram shows the similarities among stars in the sky. The diagram is used for understanding the life cycle of the stars. The diagram effectively classifies or categorizes the stars by certain… [read more]

Earth Science Astronomy Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,330 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Earth Science / Astronomy

Ptolemy focused on a series of earlier ideas when he devised his theory regarding the geocentric movement of the planets. The theory emphasized the fact that the Earth was stationary and at the center of the universe. All the objects in the universe were believed by Ptolemy to revolve around earth. The Greek astronomer observed that the celestial bodies appear every day in the same place they did a day before and that the Earth appeared to be at rest because of its presumed stability. This theory contributed to the belief that the Earth was spherical, not flat as most people formerly believed.

The Earth performs a complete revolution every twenty-four hours, relative to the sun. Every year the Earth revolves around the sun, this motion lasting for approximately three hundred and sixty five days. The Earth performs a complete cycle of precession once in approximately 26000 years, with the current angle between its rotational axis and the plane to its trajectory being 23.44 degrees.

Q3. Nicolaus Copernicus is responsible for devising a reasonable heliocentric theory. Tycho Brahe was a Danish astronomer who devoted his life to studying astronomy and the movement of the planets, bringing large contributions to the field of astronomy and providing his assistant, Johannes Kepler, with information which the latter used in developing the laws of planetary motion. Kepler's studies were essential in assisting Sir Isaac Newton in devising the theory of universal gravitation. Galileo Galilei lived contemporary to Kepler, with the latter mentioning a series of the former's achievements for astronomy, namely the confirmation of Venus's phases and the finding of Jupiter's four largest satellites. Galilei is also responsible for perfecting the telescope.

Q4. There are eight planets in the solar system, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are referred to as "terrestrial planets" while Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are called "gas giants." The terrestrial planets are mainly composed out of rock and metal whereas the gas giants are principally made out of water, ammonia, and methane. The terrestrial planets are much smaller than the gas giants. There are also other planets in the solar system, with Pluto, Haumea, Makemake, Eris, and the asteroid Ceres representing the system's dwarf planets, which do not comply with all the requirements necessary for a celestial object to be classified as being called a principal planet in the solar system.

Q5. Stellar parallax is the phenomenon through which one can approximate the distance to a celestial object by observing the position of an object in the universe at different times in the year, the measuring tool most often used to do this being a heliometer.

Q6. Earth only has one natural satellite, the Moon. It is only surpassed by five other satellites in the solar system when considering its size, the largest satellite in the solar system in comparison to the size of the planet it revolves around, and the second densest satellite in the solar system. The lunar maria are dark areas on the… [read more]

Ancient Greeks Contributed Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … ancient Greeks contributed much to our modern knowledge of the universe. Still, there concepts often differed because of the lack of scientific technology we have today. One of the prominent ideas of the Greeks that have been discredited was the geocentric view of the universe. Thus, all the planets and even the sun all orbited the Earth which was at the center. This was a view that placed the Earth at the very center of the universe. Ptolemy helped mold the concept and accounted for the motions of the celestial bodies through explaining that each planet and star moved around the universe in circles, known as epicycles. Planets moved at different speeds, depending on what point they were on in their epicycle. Thus, although the Earth is not the center of the universe, Ptolemy contributed to the concept of orbiting bodies.

Two minor members of the solar system include asteroids and comets. These are members of the solar system which have their own unique orbits, but cannot be classified as a planet or a start. Asteroids are small rocky objects that orbit the sun, in a similar fashion as a planet would. There is a major grouping of them in the asteroid belt, although some can be knocked out of their orbits and be a danger to planets. Comets are similar, but are actually made of frozen ice and dust rather than rock. They too have an orbit around the sun. They are known for their fiery tales of gas and dust that can light up the night sky.

Moving into a modern image of astronomy was a long and difficult process. There have been many great minds who have contributed to this progress. One of the major proponents of a heliocentric model in its early stages was Nicolaus Copernicus. He fought the conservatism of the Church in order to put forward the radical idea that the solar system had the sun at the very center. Moreover, Tycho Brahe was another figure that challenged the traditional Greek system. He found evidence that the universe was constantly changing, rather than staying exactly the same. He took observations which showed there were newer stars and also that comets actually crossed through the celestial spheres, and did not occur below Earth's atmosphere. Johannes Kepler was a mathematician who calculated a more realistic image of planetary motion. According to Kepler, there were three major laws of planetary motion. Orbital planes were ellipses, and not circles, these ellipses were at equal lengths during specific periods of time, and finally that the square of an orbital period holds a…… [read more]

Planet Venus Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,231 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Planet Venus

Venus: A Planet of Knowledge and Mystery

With the exception of perhaps Mars, more lore and mythology exists about the planet Venus than any of its solar system brothers and sisters. According to Ev Cochrane's book the Many Faces of Venus: The Planet Venus in Ancient Myth and Religion, "cultures everywhere assigned [Venus] a prominent role in their mythological traditions and religious rituals." In fact, Cochrane suggests that the ancient astronomers' observations about Venus should be compared with today's scientists' knowledge in order to make some startling discoveries about the history of the planet. Regardless of whether or not Cochrane's theory is correct, it illustrates the importance of the planet Venus in both mythic and scientific disciplines. An understanding of what science knows and does not know about the planet Venus will lead to a further understanding of the planet's importance.

What We Know terrestrial planet of rock and metal, Venus is second in the solar system, spinning 108.2 million kilometers from the sun ("Venus"). An orbital period of 224.68 days, the Venus year is much shorter than the Earth year, and with an atmosphere composed of 96% carbon dioxide, a finding discovered by a Soviet Union probe dropped into the planet's atmosphere ("Venus," "Missions to Venus"). Scientists have gathered this information both through earth-based study and missions to Venus. In fact, the planet was one of the first to experience a mission from earth. In fact, during the space race, Venus was a common destination for both the United States and the Soviet Union. While many of the missions were failures, over 20 succeeded ("Missions to Venus"). Winning the space race in terms of Venus, NASA's Mariner 2 was the first mission to successfully complete a flyby of the planet. Discoveries from this first successful mission included extraordinarily high temperatures, around 800 degrees Fahrenheit. The probe's findings also included the lack of a magnetic field or water vapor around the planet ("Missions to Venus"). Other missions to the planet detected extreme atmospheric pressure, transmitted photos, analyzed the planet's heavy cloud cover, and drew a radar map of the planet ("Missions to Venus"). In addition to missions that launch satellites to Venus, observations from the Russian space station have similarly aided in scientists' knowledge of the planet. In fact, a clear view of the planet in 1983 allowed for an exemplary view of the dust cloud that, while visible from earth, was studied in much more detail from space (Robinson 20).

While robotic missions to Venus have certainly provided a great deal of data and information about the planet, scientists have also conducted earth-based studies based on the visibility of the planet. Although the ability to view Venus from a telescope changes based on the time of the year and the planet's position in the sky relative to earth's, the visions in March of 2008 suggested to both scientists an casual observers the closeness of Venus and Mercury, which came as close together as one degree and were… [read more]

Stars Sun and Moon Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (1,988 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Sun, Moon and Stars

Data and results from your diameter of the sun activity:

Image diameter: .93 cm

Distance from pin-hole to image: 100 cm

.95 cm x 150000000km / 100cm

Calculated diameter of the sun: 1425000 km

How does your calculated value for the diameter of the sun compare with its actual value?

My calculated value for the diameter… [read more]

Physcical Science Procedures Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,461 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The things that we know now about science are giving some kind of thanks to the tools invented in order to obtain better answers about the unknown. Much of the knowledge that we have about our solar system and universe would not had been discover if it wasn't for the invention of the a telescope. The telescope is an optical… [read more]

Planetary Comparison the Earth and Other Planets Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,104 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Planetary Comparison

The Earth and other planets in the Solar System: a comparative analysis

As the only planet known wherein life exists, the Earth contains characteristics and properties that make living organisms live and thrive along with non-living elements. These properties and characteristics distinguish the Earth from other planets in the solar system. In the same way that the Earth contains properties that make it conducive for supporting human life, the other planets in the solar system have properties that hinder it from making possible for humans and other organisms from living. This paper provides a comparative analysis of the Earth and other planets in the solar system, centering the discussion on each planet's properties and unique characteristics that make it distinct from other planets.

Apart from the fact that the Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the fifth largest planet in the solar system, is an oblate spheroid planet, and has an atmosphere and bodies of water, it is also composed of five parts: the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, mantle, and core.

The atmosphere is the gaseous envelope of the Earth. It contains a mixture of gases, wherein the principal components are nitrogen (at 78%) and oxygen (21%). The remaining 1% of the gases is composed of argon, carbon dioxide, water vapor, hydrogen, ozone, methane, carbon monoxide, helium, neon, krypton, and xenon. This gaseous mixture was primarily generated from volcanic eruptions that have evolved through the years to create other mixtures of gases. The abundant supply of oxygen was due to the existence of life on Earth: as more living organisms thrived and survived, there has been a corresponding increase in oxygen. Other gases, meanwhile, came from factories, plants, and vehicles that consume energy and later converted to other forms of gases. Throughout the years, the amount of ozone present in the atmosphere increased with the continuous and increasing use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The increased presence of CFCs in the atmosphere destroys the stratosphere, the layer which protects the Earth from the sun's ultraviolet radiation. At present, the Earth's atmosphere has been experiencing radical changes, which also led to changes in planet's climate.

The Earth's hydrosphere is mainly comprised of oceans and secondarily with other bodies of water such as seas, lakes, and rivers. The hydrosphere is composed of about 1/4400 of the total mass of the Earth.

The third, fourth, and fifth parts are lithosphere, mantle, and core. The lithosphere is composed of oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, titanium, hydrogen, and phosphorus. Apart from these elements, the lithosphere also contains trace amounts of carbon, manganese, sulfur, barium, chlorine, chromium, fluorine, nickel, strontium, and vanadium. However, these elements are not extant in their free state, but as compounds, forming the rocks that make up 99.5% of the lithosphere.

While the lithosphere contains the crust and the upper mantle, the lower part of the Earth contains the mantle and core. The mantle is primarily made up of olivine, a mineral that is found in volcanoes.… [read more]

Electromagnetic Waves Are Energy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (688 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Most stars have masses between 0.3 to 3.0 times the mass of the Sun.

8. Stars begin to die when they run out of hydrogen. High mass stars, although containing more hydrogen, have a shorter life span than low mass stars. This is because high mass stars have the required conditions in their core (higher pressures and temperatures) for quicker conversion of hydrogen atoms into helium.

9. As the Sun runs out of its hydrogen (an estimated 7 billion years from now) it will balloon into a red giant star engulfing its nearest planet Mercury; will begin to collapse, eventually becoming a small, dense, cool star called a "white dwarf." Much before dying of cold, life on earth would perish from heat as the Sun would be 2000 times brighter than at present at the time it runs out of hydrogen.

10. Low mass (and medium mass) stars eventually become "white dwarfs" when they die. High mass stars explode in supernovae events when they cease to generate fusion energy in its core and collapse inward. The Sun will eventually become a white dwarf as it is categorized as a low mass star.

11. The Solar System, containing the Sun, its nine planets, their moons, asteroids and comets is a small part of the Milky Way Galaxy

located in its outer region known as the Onion Arm. The Galaxy is spiral shaped and about 100,000 light years across while the Solar system is much smaller. The age of the Milky Way is 15 billion years compared with 4.5 billion years of the Solar System.

15. Most planets around other stars have so far have been detected by using Doppler Spectroscopy that relies on the periodic velocity shift of the stellar spectrum caused by an orbiting giant planet. A few have also been found due to brightness variations, i.e., if a planet passes in between its parent star and the observer, the light from the parent star dips slightly.

Neutrino, an elementary particle produced in a fusion reaction,…… [read more]

Brown Dwarf With a Satellite Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (336 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The satellite planet could be categorized simply as a moon. "Astronomers Discover Beginnings of 'Mini' Solar System" is also significant because it might lend some insight into how solar systems are formed in general and how life evolves on planets. Because brown dwarfs are relatively dim and have less power than full-fledged stars, it would be difficult for life to form on nearby planets, which would have to be unusually close to the brown dwarf sun. With this new discovery, scientists have more information about the contents of our cosmos as well as more information about how solar systems, planets, and perhaps even life, evolves in the universe.

Works Cited

Clavin Whitney. "Astronomers Discover Beginnings of 'Mini' Solar System." NASA.gov. 7 Feb 2005. .… [read more]

Observational Experience Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,130 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Stars

The sights in the night sky are particularly refreshing as you can see the movement of many of the stellar bodies. The one that was of the greatest interest to me as I examined the sky was the view of three starry actions. The first was the interaction of Mars and the Beehive cluster. The second item of interest was the Andromeda galaxy. The final was the Great Red spot on Jupiter. These three sights were exciting and mysterious. Each represents something that is unique about the universe and combined they are constant reminders that the universe is diverse and unending.

Mars in the BeeHive cluster could be observed early in the morning. The sky was clear and the air crisp. The BeeHive cluster closely resembles a number of bees in a hive if you look at some imaging from a book. Using the eyes however aided with a telescope only the center stars are clear. There are a number of bright stars in this cluster. Around twenty of the stars appear to be very distinct and larger than the others that are nearby. The other stars look like lighted dust particles as they form a non-distinct shape. The brightest stars appear blue and white.

The Andromeda galaxy was found by first identifying the square of Pegasus. Then beginning at the top left star in the square I looked about two stars to the left. This was followed by making a 90 degree turn to the right. There as a bright star in the view and that was used as a gauge to look nearby and find Andromeda. The sky was particularly dark so that even without the use of the telescope the star was reasonably visible.

The final draw was the Red Spot on Jupiter. The Red Spot appeared as just that a red oval shaped dot against the planet. It was interesting only because it appeared to be out of harmony with the other elements of the planets structure. There were elements radiating from the spot and it could be easily missed. It was noticed because previously I was aware that it would be present.

The observation that will be examined for this report is the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. The Red Spot is of interest as researchers attempt to discover what is the cause of the Red Spot and the conditions under which the spot develops? The spot is not a permanent feature of the Jupiter atmosphere and consequently there must be specified conditions for its development and maintenance. This report will examine some of the theoretical considerations that are thought to explain the spot and some of the data that supports these positions.

The first consideration is a brief background on Jupiter itself. Jupiter lies fifth in terms of distance from the sun. It is the largest planet within the Solar System. The atmosphere consists of a lot of gas and the mass of Jupiter is smaller than the sun but more… [read more]

Earth Science and Astronomy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (904 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Earth science and astronomy are incredibly broad, ever-expanding fields. The disciplines incorporate the varying and intersecting strains of scientific investigation aimed at better understanding the world around us. As such, we have made tremendous innovations in the field of meteorology with the interest of better predicting and understanding weather patterns around us. Biology provides us with a comprehensive knowledge of plants, animals and humans that allows us to better understand the implications of our interconnected ecosystem. Geology offers us clues as to the age, formation and composition of the earth itself. These sub-disciplines of Earth Sciences imply an interconnectedness that makes each field a powerful strand of a yet more powerful area of study. This interconnectedness, in fact, extends even beyond the boundaries of our planet. So denotes Astronomy, the study of the stars and planets in our broader solar system, galaxy and universe. As the discussion here will demonstrate, the study of astronomy is a critical one which connects closely to a number of decidedly earth-bound phenomena.

Among those phenomena, one of the most familiar and simultaneously most fascinating is that which pertains to the tides. Most visible on the shores of our oceans but also evident in some measure in smaller bodies such as lakes, ponds and underground springs, the movement of the tides is actually created directly by a lunar gravitational pull. Here, the field of astronomy provides the most useful lens through which to understand the cycles projecting high and low tide. According to Cooley (2002), "tides are created because the Earth and the moon are attracted to each other, just like magnets are attracted to each other. The moon tries to pull at anything on the Earth to bring it closer. but, the Earth is able to hold onto everything except the water. Since the water is always moving, the Earth cannot hold onto it, and the moon is able to pull at it. Each day, there are two high tides and two low tides. The ocean is constantly moving from high tide to low tide, and then back to high tide. There is about 12 hours and 25 minutes between the two high tides." (Cooley, p. 1)

As Cooley indicates, it is incumbent upon us to understand exactly how these variances in magnetic attraction cause the variances that we experience with the ebb and flow of the tide. The Cooley text explains that what we are actually seeing as we witness the swelling and shrinking of the waters which reach the shoreline is the end result of a bulging within the broader body of water. That is, during low-tide for instance, the magnetic pull of the moon will attract a bulge in the middle of the…… [read more]

English System of Measurement Is so Complicated Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,433 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … English system of measurement is so complicated to some people is that it has a different basis for different measurements. For most things, the metric system is used and is based on powers of 10, in other words decimalized. This has been the preferred European and scientific method of measuring since the late 1700s, and is not part… [read more]

Astronomy Uranus Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (740 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Just like the other gas planets, Uranus has bands of clouds that blow around quickly. But they are exceptionally faint. Some observations done with HST have shown larger and more pronounced streaks. Further HST observations show even more activity. Uranus is no longer the very boring planet that Voyager saw twenty five years ago. It has been discovered that the dissimilarities seen are due to seasonal effects since the Sun is now at lower latitude. This is thought to cause more pronounced days and nights along with weather effects. Uranus' blue color is the consequence of absorption of red light by methane in the upper atmosphere. It is thought that there may be colored bands like Jupiter's but they are hidden from view by the overlaying methane layer (Uranus, 2011).

Like the other gas planets, Uranus also has rings. Like Jupiter's, they are very dark but like Saturn's they are made up of fairly big particles ranging up to ten meters in diameter in addition to fine dust. There are thirteen known rings, which are all very faint. The brightest is known as the Epsilon ring. The Uranian rings were the first after Saturn's to be discovered. This was of significant importance since it is now known that rings are a widespread feature of planets, not an oddity of Saturn alone. Voyager 2 discovered ten small moons in addition to the five large ones that were already known. It is thought that there are several more tiny satellites within the rings (Uranus, 2011).

Uranus is at times just barely visible with the naked eye on a very clear night. It is fairly easy to spot with binoculars, if one knows know exactly where to look. A small astronomical telescope will show a small disk. There are several Web sites that show the current position of Uranus along with the other planets in the sky, but much more detailed charts are required to actually find Uranus (Uranus, Seventh Planet in Earth's Solar System Was First Discovered Planet, 2011).


Uranus. (2011). Retrieved from http://nineplanets.org/uranus.html

Uranus, Seventh Planet in Earth's Solar System Was…… [read more]

Meteorite Offers 2-Billion-Year-Old Glimpse of Mars Sindya Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,395 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Meteorite Offers 2-Billion-Year-Old Glimpse of Mars

Sindya Bhanoo, New York Times, 3 January 2013

URL: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/08/science/space/in-ancient-meteorite-hint-there-was-life-on-mars.html?ref=science&_r=0

The article covers a study led by the University of New Mexico that happened upon a meteorite in the Sahara Desert. The study was ran by planetary scientist Carl B. Agee. The object in question was a 0.7 pound meteorite fragment from Mars. It becomes one of about 100 other known meteorites that also came from the planet Mars. Most Martian meteorites found are roughly 200 million years old. The method used to discover the object was searching and surveying in the Sahara Desert at the point at which it was found. Like other meteorites found in the past, it was studied to ascertain its water content in parts per million so as to verify whether or not it was consistent with prior meteorites from Mars that have been found or it was higher or lower. This measurement is used as a metric as to whether life existed on Mars or not and, if projected as being so, when exactly the life existed. The study used the measured water content to date the age of the meteorite. Any water that is found to be present is locked into the mineral structure of the meteorite's surface. The findings of the study were published in a journal for academic review. The particular journal that the study was published in was Science (Bhanoo).

The main finding about this meteorite that took scientists aback was the fact that it had 6,000 parts per million in water content whereas most of the prior 100 or so meteorites found only had about 200 parts per million. This finding, in large part, led the study's leaders to ascertain that the meteorite is 20 times as old as the other Martian meteorites that have been found. This would make the meteorite roughly 2 billion years old. The study theorized that the meteorite came from an active volcano during what is known as the Amazonian period, which is the most geologic epoch on Mars. The actual composition of the meteorite, aside from the higher water content, is consistent with other rocks found as well as findings and telemetry from rovers and satellites. It was also theorized that the fragment came from the planetary crust of the planet Mars and probably had high water content because it came from an area of underground water or from surface water at the site of the volcanic explosion. The study concluded that life very well could have existed on Mars roughly 2.1 billion years ago, but the study's spokesperson did concede that it was simply a possibility based on what is known and theorized at this time (Bhanoo).

As for whether this research could be relevant or important to anyone other than astronomers, the answer the author of this response would give is that aside from people fixated on whether life on other planets exists and people that have a strong interest in astronomy in… [read more]

Surviving 2012 and Planet X Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,770 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Surviving 2012 and Planet X

There has been much in the media lately about the infamous 2012 deadline and associated Ancient prophesies. Most of the beliefs around the time range from spiritual transformation to apocalyptic. Many of these versions center around the Mayan Calendar, ostensibly the year is the time in which the world as the Mesoamerican cultures predicted would… [read more]

Life Form Found on Mars Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,101 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Another author notes, "Mars is almost certain to have been warmer and wetter in its distant past, so the existence of primitive life has been a tantalizing possibility for some time, but the real search may be just beginning" (Williams).

All of this physical and scientific evidence leads to a discussion of what type of life form might evolve to live on Mars. First, it would probably have to be a life form that lived underground or could burrow underground, in order to deal with all the dust storms that occur on Mars. It would also have to be able to endure large temperature differences, because Mars temperatures fluctuate widely. It can be 195 degrees below zero at the poles, and up to 70 degrees at the equator, so life would have to tolerate those extremes. The life form would probably be small, with six or eight legs that would allow it to dig and burrow. It would look like an insect with a very thick skin or shell, to help protect it from the winds, dust storms, and extreme temperatures. It would come out to forage during the day, during the warmer temperatures, and it would burrow deep into the Martian crust at night for safety and warmth. It would eat microscopic bacteria present in the Martian dust. It would be about the size of a large spider or beetle, and it would probably resemble one of those creatures. It would be reddish brown, to help it blend into the Martian landscape, and it would have large eyes and a keen sense of smell to help it locate the microscopic bacteria.

This life form adapts to its environment by using what Mars has to offer, and minimizing the problems. It is small, so the atmospheric pressure is not as important to it as it might be to a larger creature. It is quick and can burrow to get away from dust storms and other Martian weather. It has adapted a thick skin to help protect it from the cold, and it can burrow deep in the landscape to keep warm. More importantly, the creature has adapted to survive on carbon dioxide, the major gas prevalent in the Martian atmosphere. It does not need oxygen, it thrives on carbon dioxide, turning it into oxygen and releasing it back into the Martian atmosphere. This life form would never survive on Earth, just as humans could not survive on Mars without special suits or in oxygen-rich enclosures. This life form adapted to the harsh Mars environment by adapting and evolving, just as the life forms here on Earth did. It is not hard to believe that the microscopic evidence from the Antarctic meteor could, under the right circumstances, evolve into something like this life form on Mars. It would just need the right conditions, and have the ability to adapt to its environment. As the Mars environment changes, it would continue to adapt, and become stronger and perhaps a lot more prevalent.… [read more]

Planets Do Planets Around Other Stars Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (651 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2



Do planets around other stars have ecliptics?

Ecliptic is the great circle representing the apparent annual path of the sun; ecliptic plane is the plane of Earth's orbit around the Sun. The other planets in our solar system also have their orbits near this plane and in the same direction of rotation as Earth.

So it's likely that other stars in the universe have ecliptics since the star- and planet-formation mechanisms are similar throughout the universe. When stars form, the leftover gas and dust accumulate by mutual gravitational attraction into planets. Observation of disk-shaped dust clouds around newly formed stars are an indication of planet formation in progress (O'Connell).

In 1999 astronomers announced the first-ever detection of an entire solar system around a star. Only 44 light-years from Earth, three large planets were found circling the star Upsilon Andromedae, a sun-like star visible to the naked eye on Earth. Again the presence of the planets was inferred from gravitational wobbling. Astronomers suspect the planets are similar to Jupiter and Saturn -- huge spheres of gas without a solid surface. One of them completely circles its star in only 4.6 Earth days (O'Connell).

Do they have Seasons?

What causes seasons? Earth is tilted with respect to its orbit. So when our North Pole is tilted toward the sun, we get summer in the Northern Hemisphere (winter in the south). When the South Pole is tilted toward the sun, we get winter. So if a planet is tilted with respect to its orbit, it should have seasons (Imhoff). The same would apply in another solar system. However,

the term "seasons" is relative depending on the distance the planet is from its star. Extreme distances from its sun may cause a planet to always experience freezing -- summer or winter.

Must they have Seasons?

If a planet has no tilt with respect to its orbit, it has no seasons. In this case, on every part of the…… [read more]

Extra-Solar Planets Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,829 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Spectral analysis of radiated light yields clues to the terrestrial and atmospheric composition of distant planets. Other direct and indirect methods of astronomical analysis provide data into the relative proximity of orbiting planets to their host stars, which primarily determines terrestrial climate conditions likely to prevail on planets.

To date, we have catalogued 108 extra-solar planetary systems comprising 123 individual planets including 13 multiple planet systems (Schneider). It is not yet possible to determine their relative ability to support biological life, but this is the eventual goal of future projects utilizing the latest generation of powerful telescopes and interferometers launched into deep space, which are already under preparation.

In the words of Frank Drake, one of the original scientists to concentrate on the search for intelligent life elsewhere in the universe and father of the SETI and Phoenix projects:

Our needle in the haystack is elusive, but many of us feel that searching for it is one of the greatest quests our species can undertake." (Davies)

Works Cited

Butler, R. Paul, et al. "Three New 51 Pegasi-Type Planets." Astrophysical Journal

1997): 474; 115-118

Davies, Paul. Are We Alone? Philosophical Implications of the Discovery of Extraterrestrial Life. New York: Basic Books, 1995.

Engelbert, Phillis and Dupuis, Diane, L. The Handy Space Answer Book.

Detroit: Visible Ink, 1998

Hawking, Stephen W. A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes

New York: Bantam, 1988

Kolb, Rocky. Blind Watchers of the Sky: The People and Ideas that Shaped Our View of the Universe. New York: Addison Wesley, 1996.

Lemonick, Michael, D. "Can We Find Another Earth?" Discover Magazine (2002) Vol. 23, No.3: 32-37

Reuters (CNN.com). "Cosmic Magnifying Glass Finds Distant Planet." (April 15, 2004). Accessed May 1, 2004, at http://www.cnn.com/2004/TECH/space/04/15/space.planet.reut/

Sagan, Carl. Billions & Billons: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium. New York:…… [read more]

Astronomy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Please answer all questions show your work and explain your reasoning in a short to the point answer.

Comet Halley has an orbital period of 75 years and when it enters the inner Solar System, it passes within a few AU of the Sun.

Determine the average distance of Comet Halley in AU.

The relation of the orbital period to the semi-major axis is given by the equation P2=a3, where P. is the orbital period and a is the semi-major axis. P is given as 75 and taking the cube root of both sides leaves 752/3=a, or a=17.78. The average distance of Comet Halley (assuming "a few AU" can be interpreted as close to 0) is thus about 18 AU.

Right now, Comet Halley is just about past the orbit of Neptune, which has an average distance from the sun of about 30 AU. Explain how this is possible given the average distance you found from its orbital period.

AU represents the average distance because it is half the major axis measurement, meaning the comet travels twice this linear distance in the completion of its orbit. Comet Halley as a very elliptical orbit if it traverses this distance in this time period, which explains why it can be near Neptune now and back near the sun in about 32.5 years (half its orbital period).

HIPPARCOS (an acronym for HIgh Precision PARallax COllecting Satellite) was a scientific mission of the European Space Agency (ESA), launched in 1989 and operated between 1989 and 1993. It was the first space experiment devoted to astrometry, the accurate measurement of star positions, distances from us, parallaxes, and proper motions.

(a). If the measured parallax shift of star a was 0.1 arcsecs and the parallax shift of star B. was 0.05 arcsecs, which star was farther away from the Earth, why?

The star with the smaller parallax shift, star B, if farther away from the Earth. Distant objects appear to "move" less than nearer objects -- the parallax shift is smaller for distant objects as the Earth moves along its orbit around the Sun.

(b). What is the distance of the farthest star in parsecs?

A parsec is defined as the distance between the Sun and an object with a parallax shift of one arcsec (a 1:1 ratio). Star B. has a parallax shift of 0.05 arcsecs, therefore is at a distance of 1/0.05 parsecs or 20 parsecs.

(c). What is the distance of the farthest star in light-years?

One parsec = approx. 3.26 light years, therefore 20 parsecs = 65.2 light years. Star B. is approx. 65.2ly away.

There…… [read more]

Mars Saturn Earth Nebular Theory Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,761 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … large scale features of this planet? This would include size, rotation and orbit, magnetic field and interior structure.

Mars has a polar radius of 3.37 km and an equatorial radius of 3.39 km. This is roughly half the size of the Earth. The rotation is 1.02 days and the orbit is 686 calendar days. There is no magnetic… [read more]

Astrophysical Object Phenomenon Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (2,104 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Astrophysical Object

Pluto's Demotion: From Fully-Fledged Planet to One of a Hundred Dwarfs

My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nine Pizzas" (Greene 2006). For years, every school child memorized this mnemonic device, to better recall the order of the planets in the solar system: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. However, all of this changed… [read more]

Uranus Is One of Nine Planets Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,519 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Uranus is one of nine planets in the same solar system as the Earth. It is the seventh planet from the Sun. It is approximately 2.87 billion kilometers from the Sun. This distance is about 19 times the distance of the Earth from the Sun. With the information that is currently available, scientists believe that Uranus is the third farthest… [read more]

Ever Life on Mars Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,270 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Life on Mars

Life of man is not only full of basic bare truths as can be evidenced through physical facts, as we may not know all physical facts of the world that we live in even till the time that we ultimately loose it as a group. The reason for this is the beliefs that come to us from… [read more]

Chemical Properties of the Universe Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,130 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The element plays a significant role in acid-base chemistry as it allows reactions that exchange protons between soluble molecules. Molecular clouds of hydrogen are thought to be vital to star formation because it plays a vital role in the proton-proton reaction and resultant nuclear fusion fueling of the star. In the universe, though, hydrogen is found largely in the atomic and plasma states. As plasma, hydrogen's electron and proton properties are not bound together, resulting in robust electrical conductivity and high emissivity (producing light). The charged particles are also highly influenced by magnetic and electrical fields. Molecular hydrogen (protonated molecular hydrogen or H3+) is found in interstellar gases. This form is generated by the ionization of molecular hydrogen from cosmic rays and becomes relatively stable in low temperatures of space (Gagnon).

Helium -- Helium, atomic number 2, is also colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, and inert with boiling and melting points the lowest among the elements and existing as a gas only in extreme conditions. It is the second lightest and second most abundant element in the universe, or about 24% of the total elemental mass, or more than 12 times the mass of all the other heavier elements combined. Helium is rare on earth, and the vast majority was formed by nuclear synthesis during the Big Bag event. It is formed by the nuclear fusion o9f hydrogen as part of stellar nucleosynthesis. This is a process in which chemicals assemble inside the cores of stars. Then, as the star ages, there are chemical changes of the elements within the stars. In other words, as stars lose their mass the abundance of elements heavier than helium increase (Jones).

Thus, chemically, the universe is about 98% hydrogen and helium, with other elements being generated by stellar processes. These include, in order of abundance: oxygen, carbon, neon, iron, nitrogen, silicon, magnesium and sulfur. The universe, however, is likely made up of between 70-80% dark matter; a substance not totally understood because it interacts with gravity -- but neither reflects, emits or obstructs light and cannot be observed directly. There are, in fact, about 90 total chemicals in the universe, but most of a very small percent. See Figure 2 for the other common chemical elements in the universe, after the 98% of hydrogen and helium (SAO Encyclopedia of Astronomy; Hubble Space Telescope Project).

Figure 2 - Chemicals after Hydrogen and Helium


Gagnon, S. "Hydrogen." March 2006. Jefferson Labs. Web. May 2013. .

Hubble Space Telescope Project. "Coposition of the Universe." May 2009. spacetelescop.org. Web. May 2013. .

Jet Propulsion Laboratory. "The Planets and Their Composition." March 2011. Nasa.gov. Web. May 2013. .

Jones, L. Stars and Galaxies. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing, 2010. Print.

Palmer, D. Prehistory past Revealed: The Four Billion Year History of Life on Earth. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2003. Print.

Palmer, J. "Multiverse theory suggested by microwave background." 3 August 2011. BBC News - Science. Web. May 2013. .

Richmond, M. "The Chemical Compsition of Stars and… [read more]

Terraforming Mars Is This a Good Idea or a Bad Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,463 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Terraforming Mars: Is this a good idea or a bad one?

Terraforming mars

Mars is the 4th planet from the sun. It is the 2nd smallest planet in the solar system as after Pluto (Markley, 2005). The planet derived its name from the Roman god of war. Red planet is an alternative name of mars as the iron oxide present… [read more]

OP ED on Environmental Friendly New Year's Resolutions 2012 Article

Article  |  3 pages (924 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Environment

There could be no more important New Year's Resolution than all of us promising to do whatever is in our power to support the global environmental movement although an even better term to describe it would be political ecology. Some scientists today are now describing the current geological epoch as the Anthropocene of the "Age of Man," in order to emphasize just how much damage humans have inflicted on the environment in modern times, especially since the beginning of industrialization. Over the years, we have learned that ecosystems are not stagnant entities, but that does not justify our depleting the ozone, carelessly releasing carbon dioxide, damaging biodiversity or even intensifying natural disasters, allowing global corporation to take control over human, animal and plant genomes, or even cannibalize human beings in poor countries for their organs, as if these were spare parts. Political ecology is of vital importance to all life on this planet, in both the Global North and Global South, and for us in the wealthier nations, some of the solutions are undemanding no-brainers like planting a tree, recycling paper, using energy efficient light bulbs.

Unfortunately, the Earth is past the point of minor reforms and alternations in personal lifestyles to bring about recovery of the environment. When older fossil fuel systems are eliminated entirely and the world's population is dependent on solar, wind and maybe even nuclear energy, one considerable step towards preservation of the environment for future generations will have been taken, but even that is not enough. Hoping to preserve nature completely untouched by humans is in fact a very unrealistic and utopian idea. What needs to be understood clearly is that our actions must have boundaries to keep the human population from preventing the preservation of the irreplaceable natural balance that sustains life as we know it on this planet. To prevent a complete environmental catastrophe, radical measures will have to be taken in the future, not simply to reduce consumption but to reduce the number of consumers. There is no other way to do this except population control measures in a rather extreme form.

One of the major problems the world has to face is that the population has exceeded its carrying capacity and will have to be reduced. Population control measures, including abortion, contraception and sterilization will have to be supported and encouraged to reduce the overload. In China, which still has a one-child-per-family policy, ultrasound is used to detect the gender of the fetus, and because sons have always been far more valued than daughters, the girls are being aborted in larger numbers. Indeed, this is also a problem in South Korea and other Asian countries, but in China, boys now outnumber girls by 117 to 100. This means that eventually…… [read more]

Satellite Communication With Mars Term Paper

Term Paper  |  18 pages (6,133 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Satellite Communication With Mars

Satellite Communication

The use of Satellites Communication satellites for data and information transfer are now becoming common for both national as well, as international usage. As one pundit notes," Our world is becoming one of ever closer contact with our neighbors, and the most advanced system for relaying instantaneous messages is the communication satellite" (Cassata &… [read more]

Organic Evolution Essay

Essay  |  12 pages (4,338 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Organic Evolution

Please discuss the pre-biotic conditions on planet earth. Why did it take approximately one half billion years before the earliest bacteria-like life evolved? Why did the formation of oxygen by photosynthesizers make such a difference on the planet? Specifically, why does it appear that the aerobic metabolic pathway is a mirror image of the photosynthetic pathway? What would… [read more]

Pluto Why Is Pluto No Longer Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,636 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4



Why is Pluto no longer a Planet?

Once upon a time, not so long ago, schoolchildren all over the world learned that the planet farthest away from the sun in our solar system was Pluto. They learned mnemonic devices to remember the names of all nine planets, made models and mobiles, all with Pluto orbiting at the very end… [read more]

Milky Way Galaxy Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (609 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Hershel had to grind his own mirrors and spent his nights, with his sister and brother, gazing at the stars, making observations and relating them to anyone who would listen. He eventually devised a telescope large enough that he could see the previously unnoticed planet Uranus just beyond the rings of Saturn (or so it appeared to him) (Soylent Communications, 2012).

Hershel had many great discoveries in his lifetime, and many would say that his method for determining the distances to stars and the discovery of twin rotating solar bodies, but he also was interested in the breadth and depth of the Milky Way Galaxy. He had determined that the Sun was at the edge of "the bifurcation of the Milky Way, and that all the stars visible to us lie more or less in clusters scattered throughout a comparatively thin, but immensely extended stratum" (Soylent Communications, 2012). His desire was to determine the extent of the Galaxy, but he realized that with the technology he had to use he would be unable to see the edges of the Milky Way. One of his last paper to the Royal Society (a scientific society that included astronomy among other pursuits) was with regard to his discoveries related to the Milky Way, and he was worried that he would not be able to complete his observations because he was growing old and because the instrument had not yet been made that could see wanted to see (Soylent Communications, 2012). His discoveries, from the solar system out to the edge of the galaxy have made him one of the most revered astronomers in history.


Soylent Communications. (2012). William Hershel. Retrieved from http://www.nndb.com/people/661/000096373/

Wethington, N. (2009). Facts about the Milky Way. Retrieved from http://www.universetoday.com/22285/facts-about-the-milky-way/… [read more]

Scientific Knowledge There Lies Question Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,208 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Biology is an area that has proved science knowledge because the bigger portion of our knowledge bases on investigations and observations of the environment around us. A good example is the knowledge that living things have organs. This proves through dissecting different organisms and identifying the different organs.

This brings about the issue of generalization through reasoning. This is true… [read more]

Big Bang Theory Blake Williams Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (977 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


It is also imagined that the big bang involved a fireball but this would not have been possible because at the time that the big bang occurred the necessary elements for creating a fire did not exist. The big bang occurred at a time when there was a vast nothingness. A fire was not possible.

Evidence for the legitimacy of the Big Bang Theory grew throughout the twentieth century. First, simple reason dictates that the universe had to have a beginning. For centuries other explanations were offered but as science began to play a more significant role in society the value of reason became more widely accepted as well.

Second, the adoption of Hubble's Law which demonstrates that the galaxies are moving away from the earth's galaxy supports the expansion of the universe and correspondingly that the universe was once quite compacted. Hubble's Law, which was named after the individual who discovered the phenomena, Edwin Hubble, was formulated in 1929.

Finally, in 1965, two astronomers, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, discovered an extremely hot cosmic microwave that was suspected to be a remnant of the conditions that existed at the time of the Big Bang. This microwave was found in the distant universe where it would be expected to be as a result of the universe's expansion.

As was pointed out earlier, the Big Bang Theory is a difficult concept to understand and imagine. There remain a great number of detractors and a number of contrasting theories but it remains a popular one (Cowen, 2009). Obviously, one of the contrasting theories involves God's involvement in creation. In some ways, creation and the Big Bang Theory are closely aligned (Oppy, 2009). There are supernatural aspects to both actions but the fact that the Big Bang Theory relies upon the idea that before the big bang occurred there was a vast nothingness is strangely supportive of the fact that someone or something like God could have been responsible for starting the whole thing in action. Big Bang theorists reason that the universe had a beginning. Is the possibility that God was the motivator of the beginning so implausible?

As with all theories, it is important to remember that the Big Bang Theory remains just an idea. It is not law like the law of gravity which is indisputable but is more like the Theory of Evolution. It remains for future generations to prove whether or not the Big Bang Theory ever develops into a law. At the present time, it is only one possible explanation for the creation of the universe. It is an explanation that is difficult to understand but one that is widely accepted. How it stands up to the test of time will also determine how widely it is ultimately accepted.


Cowen, R. (2009). The solar system's Big Bang. Science News, 26-29.

Dominey, B. (2011). What Triggered the Big Bang. Astronomy, 24-29.

Oppy, G.…… [read more]

History of Understanding the Science Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,123 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


In the Field Guide to Meteors and Meteorites (Norton, et al., 2008, p. 20) the authors claim that in November, 1799, a German naturalist, Alexander von Humboldt, and a French botanist, Aime Bonpland, had taken a five-year scientific expedition to South America when "unexpectedly just before dawn on the morning of November 11 the sky lit up with thousands of meteors." The meteors appeared to originate in the constellation Leo, Norton explains; research conducted with local inhabitants revealed that the meteor showers came about every 33 years or so. This was the first time, Norton asserts, that scientists understood there was a periodicity (other than annual) attached to a specific raining down of meteors. Indeed, in November, 1833, the meteor showers reappeared, Norton continues (20).

Meanwhile, in The American Journal of Science (Dana, et al., 1886), the authors explain that two German scientists, Brandes and Benzenberg, revealed in scientific papers that these "bright flights were in the upper atmosphere." Brandes, according to Dana's research, was riding in an open "post-wagon" on December 6, 1798, when he looked up and witnessed "hundreds of shooting stars or meteors" (Dana, 88). They were seen at a rate of about six or seven a minute and it is known today that they were particles from Biela's comet. The 1798 date is one year previous to when von Humboldt and Bonpland reported seeing a similar cosmic phenomena, which appeared again in November 1833, Dana explains (88).

That 1833 explosion of meteors gave two New Haven, Connecticut professors, Twining and Olmsted, "the clue to the true theory of the shooting stars," Dana explains (88), and from that time forward "shooting stars have belonged to astronomy," Dana continues (88). Three years after the 1833 meteor shower, M. Quetelet (of Brussels, Belgium) reported that heavy meteor showers occurred around the 10th day of August each year, Dana points out (88). And a few months following Quetelet's research a Mr. Herrick reported a similar time frame for that meteor shower,

Meanwhile from what Brandes had witnessed in December, 1798, Herrick determined that a myriad of meteors could be viewed on the 6th and 7th of December, 1838. It was a "shrewd guess," Dana explains, but it "was justified" because on those particular evenings meteor showers were witnessed in Asia, Europe, and in America, and it was known that they were debris from the comet Biela (Dana, 88).

In conclusion, the history of the discovery and scientific understanding of meteors in the 19th century is a long leap from when ancient peoples believed demons were arriving from space. Human understanding of cosmic forces did not come quickly -- given that thousands of years ago humans gazed up at the sky wondering what caused those darting fiery lights -- but now that modern humanity understands the origins of meteors, civilization can concentrate on locating and understanding asteroids -- before they come dangerously close to Planet Earth again.

Works Cited

Andrews, Tamra. Dictionary of Nature Myths: Legends of the Earth, Sea, and… [read more]

Giordano Bruno Commemoration Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (606 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Giordano Bruno Commemoration

Giordano Bruno was a gifted mathematician and early astronomer who lived from 1548 until 1600. Among his prescient deductions were the fact that our sun was just an ordinary star whose brightness was explained by its proximity to earth and not because it was the center of the universe. Bruno rejected the idea that God had a special relationship to earth or to our solar system and he rejected the idea of the fixed spherical theory of planetary and stellar orbits. Bruno also argued that the universe was infinitely large and whose borders were impossible to image. Finally, he promoted the belief that there was nothing special about earth or about the existence of man on earth and that the universe was likely full of sun-like stars that supported life on the planets that orbited them exactly the way life on earth is supported by our sun.

Bruno's ideas were extremely advanced for his time and demonstrated imagination and the ability to think in original, creative, and open-minded ways. It would take another 400 years of scientific thought and empirical experimental research for scientists to confirm Bruno's ideas, but they were indeed confirmed. Today, we know that our sun is merely a medium size star on the inside of one of the arms of an ordinary spiral galaxy that contains more than 100 billion star and countless planets, many of which may be very similar to earth. We also know that the boundaries of the universe are defined by a complex concept of space time. Unfortunately, the world was not ready for these ideas in Bruno's time because they conflicted with the dominant view of the universe held by religious authorities. Instead of recognizing his brilliance, the Church authorities tried him for heresy, and when he refused to…… [read more]

Earth Science When Teaching Essay

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Earth Science

When teaching Earth Science to students there are many options today and many things that need to be addressed in the lesson plans. Most school districts have certain scope and sequence areas that are to be addressed in the classroom, first in the lesson plans themselves and later in the standardized testing that is done once a year, usually at the end of the year.

Mapping data helps students learn about and explore Earth processes. Data mapping helps scientists learn about the how the earth fits together and this allows them to keep an eye on troubled hotspots such as volcanoes and areas that have earthquakes. Children can learn about the earth processes by watching videos and studying websites that have data mapping on their sites. Depending on the ages of the students, they can learn about plate tectonics when they are younger students, and older students can learn about how scientists actually map the data. Some of these processes that are most utilized by data mapping are plate tectonics, which is the study of the earth. As early as the 16th century, mapmakers discovered that the continents looked like they fit together and were just separated by water. Later, when scientists started uncovering fossils, it was discovered that of the fossilized remains and geological formations were the same across the different continents. During the 1960s, when the Navy funded studies to map the ocean floor to improve submarine warfare, scientists discovered and later confirmed that the ocean floor was spreading.

In 1985, the Navy launched a satellite that used radar to map the ocean floor and scientists studied this data and validated the theory of plate tectonics. Scientists now understand that the Earth's surface (the upper 40-60 miles of the crust) is divided into massive plates that move 1-4 inches a year. This helps explain volcanoes, earthquakes and tsunamis. However, it is still not understood why the plates were joined originally or how they originally broke apart.

Deep time refers to the stretch of geological history. We have a hard time visualizing how old the Earth is, but we can discover it through the different layers shown in different rocks. The earth is approximately 4.6 billion years old and it has been altered significantly by climate swings, volcanoes, drifting continents (plate tectonics) and more. These conditions have, in turn, influenced every living thing on earth. Scientists utilize every type of science to discover our history and one of the best ways to learn about deep time is by the cycles of extinctions. Scientists speculate that only one in a thousand species that have ever lived are alive today. The other 99.9% are extinct -- gone forever. With few exceptions, the life span of individual species last between 2 and 10 million years, on average. No matter how well a creature adapts to the environment, history shows that even the most dominant can be wiped out. Picture the woolly mammoth or T-Rex. However, ironically, extinction is not the… [read more]

Aspects of the Film Two Small Pieces of Glass Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Small Pieces of Glass: The Amazing Telescope

In the era of the ancient Greeks, science was a subset of philosophy. The scientific method for the Greeks was conducted mainly through empirical observation and deduction, rather than by using technical instruments. Some of the Greeks' findings predated modern theories, despite their limits in methodology, such as the pre-Socratic philosopher Empedocles' concept of atoms (Fowler 2008:2). However, although Empedocles may have been correct in his theories, he lacked the ability to conclusively prove them. The reliance upon observation and the lack of technical instruments at the disposal of the Greeks is one reason why some grave errors were made in their calculations, such as the commonly-held Ptolemaic viewpoint that the planets revolved around the sun (Fowler 2008:2). This makes sense to the eye, but through mathematical calculations and observations his telescope the great astronomer Galileo was able to prove this ancient theory wrong.

The film Two Small Pieces of Glass: The Amazing Telescope describes Galileo's philosophy and the impact it had upon the world. In the film a group of teenagers learn about the importance of the telescope. By observing natural phenomenon through modern instruments, like sunspots and the rings of Saturn, they are able to see how a telescope enabled Galileo to prove, against all accepted conventional wisdom, that the earth went around the sun, rather than vice versa. This created a foundation for virtually all of modern understanding of the solar system, as well as the technology used today. Now, observation no longer takes place with the naked eye alone. "Galileo dropped all Aristotelian talk of why things moved and focused instead on the how, through painstaking observations and measurements….Galileo sought quantifiable entities such as time, distance, and acceleration to describe the way everyday objects move, bend, break, and fall. His emphasis on the practical application and value of science set him apart from most philosophers of his time" (Sobel 2002).

The importance of early Greek philosophy, however, cannot be discounted in its importance. Anaximander, one of the very earliest Greek scientific philosophers, for example, theorized "that the earth was a cylinder, and the sun, moon and stars were located on concentric rotating cylinders: the first recorded attempt at a mechanical model. He further postulated that the stars themselves were rings of fire. Again, a very bold conjecture -- all heavenly bodies had previously been regarded as living gods" (Fowler 2008:2). The clash between religion and science would manifest itself again more starkly in the instance of Galileo, given that the idea that the heavens revolve around the earth had become a codified part of Church dogma.

The Greeks used Euclidian geometry and observation to arrive at their conception of a cosmological worldview. Although most believed that the earth was at the center of the universe, as early as Aristarchus some philosophers of science came to the hypotheses "that the fixed stars and the sun remain motionless, that the earth revolves about the sun in the circumference of… [read more]

Neptune When Most People Talk Research Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 5



When most people talk about the outer planets of the solar system, they will often think of Jupiter as the largest and most dominant one. While this is true for the most part, the fact of the matter is that Neptune is another gas giant that plays an equally dominate role among the outer planets. Where, it has a blue like color and an equatorial diameter of 30,760 miles. To put it another way, Neptune could easily hold 60 planets the size of Earth. Despite being photographed by Voyagers 1 and 2, the planet continues to capture the imagination of scientists along with the general public. (Hamilton) to fully understand the planet itself requires examining: how chance played a role in the discoveries of the outer planets, what is causing Neptune to have its colors, looking at its interior, studying how the planet was discovered, examining the different moons of the planet, discussing the various rings and explaining what the outer moons tell us about its past. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights as to why Neptune continues to remain such an enigma.

Describe how both chance and calculation played major roles in the discoveries of the outer planets

The outer planets of the solar system were discovered based on mathematical calculations and chance. What happened is both Neptune and Pluto were thought to exist. Yet, there was no way to actually confirm this fact with a telescope. Instead, scientists would use mathematical calculations and the gravitational pull on other planets (i.e. Uranus) to determine the general location of these celestial bodies. In this aspect, the two were discovered based upon: mathematical calculations, estimation and chance. (Smith) ("The Planet Pluto")

What is responsible for the colors of Neptune?

The reason why Neptune has a blue color is because it consists of: hydrogen, methane, helium and water that are frozen. The planet does not have solid surface like the Earth. (Smith) as a result, the sun will reflect the color of the methane in the atmosphere (giving the planet its blue reflection). ("Neptune's Color")

How is the interior of Neptune thought to be constructed?

The interior of the planet consists of silicates and thick condensed gases. Silicates are minerals that make up the crust of the planet (similar to those found on Earth). In the case of Neptune, these elements intermingle with others to create a frozen like surface of condensed gas (even though the surface is not considered to be solid). (Smith)

How was Neptune discovered?

Like what was stated previously, Neptune was discovered based upon: estimation, theory and mathematical calculations. What happened was Uranus was thought to be the most distant planet in the solar system. However, the orbit of the planet was being affected by some unknown force. This would lead John Adams to begin working to identify the planet through various mathematical calculations. He determined the location of the celestial body and sent his findings to George Airy (an astronomer with Royal England).… [read more]

AME's Travel Matrix Research Paper

Research Paper  |  29 pages (7,976 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


¶ … overarching objectives and background and the solution that was developed in response to the problem.

The background of this project concerns a federal contractor, ABC Services ("the company"), which has been in operation since September 1993. The company provides business-driven solutions to government as well as small and medium-sized businesses (ABC Services, 2003). The company currently provides contracting… [read more]

Is Space Exploration Necessary? Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,266 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … Space Exploration Necessary

More than most of us can imagine, astronomy as a study has been around for long. Our first tour into the unknown realm outside our atmosphere started only just after half a century ago. Hitherto, we have made enormous coverage which has exceeded the projections despite the various setbacks. We have made successful landing on… [read more]

Mercantilism: This Term Refers to an Economic Essay

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This term refers to an economic system within a nation-state with the purpose to build wealth and prosperity. Usually attributed to Adam Smith, mercantilism was based upon the idea that a nation-state can best build its wealth through limiting its imports from other nation-states while focusing on exporting goods and materials created within its own boundaries. As an economic… [read more]

Post Big Bang Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Big Bang and the Evolution

Of The Universe

One of the most important questions posed by astronomers and cosmologists revolves around exactly how the universe was created and although most lay persons think that the universe is infinite with no beginning and no end, this viewpoint has been shown to be inaccurate, due to many advances in the science of… [read more]

Missions to Mars Term Paper

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Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Physics - Mission to Mars


The Apollo Space Program that culminated in a spectacular series of moon landings concluded in 1973 and the focus of subsequent American space programs shifted to developing reusable space vehicles like the Space Shuttle. At the time, the Lunar landings restored national pride in our technological accomplishments after a few particularly difficult… [read more]

Science of the Sunlight and Stars Term Paper

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Stellar Evolution and Hydrostatic Equilibrium in the Study of Stars in the Field of Astronomy

Science of Stars

In studying the science of stars in the field of astronomy, it is vital to determine its physical properties and chemical composition in order to have an understanding of how equilibrium takes place and is a vital process that stars undergo. Stars are generally known as spheres containing hot gases and emit light and electromagnetic radiation.

The chemical components of stars mainly include the presence of incandescent gases, specifically hydrogen and helium. Stars' physical properties include mass, size, luminosity, temperature, and energy output. Combining both the chemical components and physical properties of stars make up the stellar structure, a fact generated from the theory of stellar structure.

In the theory of stellar structure, it was posited that the mass and chemical components of a star ultimately determines a star's other characteristics. This theory was especially applicable to stars with different masses, since all of the stars have no difference in chemical composition (i.e., hydrogen and helium). A star that has greater mass would have greater and increased luminosity as compared to a star with lesser mass.

Over time, however, as stars consume the hydrogen contained within them, the process of equilibrium takes place. The death of a star occurs when the hydrogen is consumed, and it no longer has capability to induce nuclear reactions as a result of this loss of hydrogen component. Its death, however, is compensated and buffered by the birth of another star…… [read more]

Fallibilism Brought Up in a Rather Superstitious Term Paper

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Brought up in a rather superstitious society, Joan was warned throughout her childhood not to walk under ladders as they bring bad luck. Her mother would often tell her the story of how she once walked under the ladder and then the same day had an accident.

Steve believes that Jupiter orbits around the sun in about 12 earth years because he was taught in his geography class that the fifth planet from the sun, Jupiter, was the largest planet in the solar system and its one complete orbit around the sun is in a period of nearly 12 earth years.

After Jonathan began to attend medical school, he was taught that penicillin is to be administered during infections as it is very efficient in curing it.

Mike is a die hard music fan and keeps a track of all the Music Awards just to be a witness to the moment when his favorite singer is awarded. Every year since the past three years he has been watching the Video Music Awards hosted by MTV and thus knows that MTV hosts it every year.

5. Living in the dark ages, Samantha was often told that she should not visit the old forest at night as witches come out then and cast spells and curse on those who enter their territory.


6. If one picks up the newspaper of the past or any book on the recent history of the…… [read more]

Evolution and the Big Bang Theory Term Paper

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Evolution and the Big Bang Theory

The metaphysical questions that have haunted us since the dawn of mankind are perhaps answered by the theory of evolution and "the Big Bang Theory." The Big Bang theory regarding the origin of the universe was created about 50 years ago, and soon became the creed of the evolutionary establishment. It has had much… [read more]

Scientific Revolution of 1600-1715 Term Paper

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But this mathematician is most famous for making his first telescope in 1609, modeled after telescopes produced in other parts of Europe that could magnify objects three times. (Wilde, "Biography," The Galileo Project Website, 2004)

Galileo created a telescope that could magnify objects twenty times. With this telescope, he was able to look at the moons, satellites of Jupiter, and sunspots. His discoveries proved the Copernican system to be true as opposed to the geocentric system. (Wilde, "Biography," The Galileo Project Website, 2004) The sun did not revolve around the earth, as stated in Aristotle's cosmology of a central Earth surrounded by concentric spherical shells carrying the planets and fixed stars was the basis of European thought from the 12th century CE onward. ("Copernican System," The Galileo Project Website, 2004)

Born the same year Galileo died, Newton made a huge impact on theoretical astronomy. He defined the laws of motion and universal gravitation. He used these to predict precisely the motions of stars, and the planets around the sun. Using his discoveries in optics Newton constructed the first reflecting telescope. (Chew, 1995) But what is least known about Newton is that he was also a religious philosopher as well. He denied the doctrine of the trinity, for instance. (Newton, 17)

Although not as provable as the laws of gravity, Newton's freethinking and anti-trinitarianism shows how, when individuals learned to question scientific truths with observation, they threatened the unquestioned beliefs in religious doctrines that attempted to solidify falsehoods as dogmas. As humanity learned to question the church with observation, the technology of telescopes, and mathematical proofs, so they also learned how to question other truths -- such as the divine authority of the Pope and sovereigns.

Works Cited

Chew, Roy. "Sir Isaac Newton Scientist and Mathematician." Library. 1995. Last Updated. August 19, 2004. (October 19, 2004)


Matthews, Roy T. And F. DeWitt Platt. The Western Humanities. New York: McGraw hill, 2003.

Newton, Isaac. "A Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture." 1690. Available online. (October 19, 2004). http://www.cyberistan.org/islamic/newton1.html

Wilde, Megan. "Copernican System." Galileo Project of Rice University. Official Website. 2004. (October 19, 2004)


Wilde, Megan. "Galileo: Biography." Galileo Project of Rice University. Official Website. 2004. (October 19, 2004)

http://galileo.rice.edu/bio/tov.html… [read more]

Galileo Term Paper

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Galileo was certainly one of the most formative and important figures in the history of science -- among the inventions and contributions to science attributable to him are the refinement of lens-grinding and telescope making technologies as well as the creation of the scientific method in any real and meaningful form, and, certainly neither last nor least among his discoveries,… [read more]

Computers in Space Science Term Paper

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These are only a few of the literally thousands of technologies and advances created by NASA computers and technology ("Spin-offs"). Therefore, computer technology in space often ultimately leads to people living better lives as the technology makes its way into everyday living. Today we take items like microcomputers and Velcro for granted, but we really have NASA to thank for many of the technological advances we enjoy in our lives every day. Without computerized technology, the space program would probably still just be a dream, and all of the advances that have come along with it would just seem like so much science fiction.


Author not Available. "Computers at NASA." NASA. 1994. 29 Oct. 2003. http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/news/factsheets/computers.pdf

Barber, Jennifer Lauren. "Close Encounters on Your Desktop." Bright Magazine. 2001. 29 Oct. 2003. http://journalism.medill.northwestern.edu/journalism/magazine/bright/brightlite/peer4.html.

Dubinski, John. "Cosmology." Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics. 26 June 1997. 29 Oct. 2003. http://www.cita.utoronto.ca/webpages/CITA/annrep96/node20.html

Editors. "Hubble's Computers and Automation." HubbleSite. 2003. 29 Oct. 2003. http://hubble.stsci.edu/sci.d.tech/nuts_.and._bolts/spacecraft_systems/#comp

Spin-offs: Bringing Space Down to Earth." The Ultimate Space Place. 2000. 29. 0ct. 2003. http://www.thespaceplace.com/nasa/spinoffs.html#computer

Testbed." JPL/NASA. 2003. 29 Oct. 2003. http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/technology/testbed/testbed_index.cfm… [read more]

Geology I Am Implementing Term Paper

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Using comparative planetology I would analyze the terrain of Planet X. I would search for areas indicative of lava flows, which naturally be in lower ground, and would attempt to differentiate the amount of cratering between such lowlands and the highlands of Planet X. I would date the samples of the surface to see how new the surface is to see if there is great recycling going on, or if there was in the past in different regions. I would check the atmosphere and attempt to determine how the atmosphere was created.

I would check the density of Planet X to determine how dense the core was. Wrinkling of the crust may be indicative of shrinking of the planet due to cooling and the size of the core. I would hope that the surface temperature of the planet would allow extensive testing and that the atmosphere did not consist of acids as Venus's does. The planet may be so large like Jupiter or Saturn that it has been able to retain much of its hydrogen and helium. This will give this planet a much lower density than our terrestrial planets. If the planet is extremely large, I would analyze the electric currents that may be occurring from high pressures converting hydrogen to a liquid metal. (and thus creating conduction).

This planet may be large like Jupiter or Saturn but lack the same interiors and maybe have the same interiors or similar interiors to Uranus and Neptune. I would study the density, rotation periods and oblateness of the planet to determine how much heavy metals and frozen ices mixed with rock are in the core. If the planet is very small like Pluto, I will check for few impact craters. (that would tell me the crust is active). Then I would try to determine if there is an atmosphere. In such a case, using Pluto's example, my analysis would point towards initially finding a thin atmosphere of nitrogen, carbon monoxide and methane. That is assuming the small planet actually is able to capture and retain this…… [read more]

Eternal Circle of Time Electrons Term Paper

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Eventually, the leaf falls off of its tree, tumbles to the ground, and is carried off by the wind. The wind might drop somewhere else, into another field, or perhaps into the sea. Each and every one of the steps in the leaf's cycle of life and death is governed in accordance with the laws of action and reaction. Nothing… [read more]

Mars Mystery by Graham Hancock Term Paper

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The following observations mentioned above were not merely established as speculations. These evidence are products of numerous space exploration sponsored and funded by the government in an effort to know more about Mars and other heavenly bodies which might pose potentials to cultivating human life. Of course, the space explorations are not primarily focused on the human cultivations aspect of a heavenly body; information is also needed for any danger that might happen to Earth (and human civilization) because of the spontaneous and often accidental explosions and collision activities of these heavenly bodies. According to Hancock, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration launched two probes in 1996. Called the Pathfinder, these probes aims to explore the planet in many ways possible, and this includes the obtaining specific and precise information about the biological, atmospheric, and geological foundations and composition of the planet. Hancock states that these studies are mainly de to a program that plans to "terraform" Mars, changing or conforming it to the Earth planet, which can be beneficial since there is the possibility that it can cultivate life on it. Prior to these two probes in 1996, similar space mission programs were sponsored by the U.S.S.R. In the 1960s, and these missions were followed by the U.S. afterwards, through its Mariner space program (Portree Microsoft Encarta 2002).

These space probes and explorations about Mars brought about numerous information and even pictures of the planet's surface. However, it is difficult to obtain quality shots of the planet's surface because of its distance from the Earth, and accuracy and precision was sacrificed when information brought by these probes came into existence and knowledge of scientists and astronomers. One speculation that resulted from these studies and explorations is that aside from the possibility that Mars is capable of cultivating human life, there has been evidence supporting some scientists' claim that there existed a form of civilization in Mars. One evidence that somehow supports this claim are the pictures taken by the Viking showing the Cyadonia region of Mars, which illustrates and shows the features of a humanoid face (on the planet's surface). Some scientists even speculated further that some parts of the images shows the presence of 'pyramids' that are similar to Egypt's famous pyramid tombs. However, as the images became more clearer and precise due to increased technological advances, the images that were once thought of as 'humanoid faces' and 'pyramids' are just hills along the terranous plains of Mars (Schaefer Microsoft Encarta 2002). Thus, any speculations that there is an existing civilization in Mars are still unfounded until now.

The following facts… [read more]

Universe the Dictionary Term Paper

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¶ … Universe

The dictionary defines it as the total of all known or believed objects and phenomena existing throughout space. It is also called cosmos. Planets, stars, meteors are among these.

Some scientists believe that the universe will reach a point called a Big Crunch (Universe Today, 2009). It means that the universe will contract until it stops existing. When it reaches that point, it will be followed by what these scientists believe a Big Bang. When this happens, a new Universe will replace this one we know at present. This the basis of the science called cosmology (Universe Today).

Many other scientists also believe that the universe is really flat (Universe Today, 2009). This belief was published in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. There are scientists who disagree, however. And this theory or belief is not new. Discoverers and explorers in olden times had the same assumption about the shape of the earth. This is reported in history books until the more popular assumption that the world is round replaced it. Explorers who proved that the earth was round did so by traveling from one point and then reaching it by going in a circle (Universe Today).

There are many things about the universe that the human mind can never know in a lifetime. Scientists through generations make their own conjectures and discoveries about what objects ad phenomena float or exist in the universe. They pass on their theories to succeeding generations to increase human knowledge and understanding of this unlimited space called the universe. As of now, our knowledge is that there are nine planets, one big star called the sun and many moons revolving around the planets. No one knows for sure just how many planets or even solar systems are out and up there. Human beings like ourselves are only specks in this vastness we can never fully understand.

II. Atmospheric Effects

The heat of the sun has major effects on the surface of the earth (PV Education, n.d.). The first is reduced power of solar radiation as…… [read more]

Geologic History of Mars Article Review

Article Review  |  3 pages (778 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Geologic History Of Mars

Consequent to the formation of the Solar System the planet Mars developed, accumulating and differentiating into crust, covering, and core. Michael H. Carr and James W. Head lll's article "Geologic history of Mars" goes at offering insight regarding this planet and the events which gave it the look it has today.

The document provides a history on Mars from the pre-Noachian period up to the present day. The information concerning the recent era is more complex, taking into consideration that space programs have included the planet in the last few decades.

The text written by Carr and Head III primarily analyses surface processes experienced by the planet Mars from its formation and until the present. By doing this, it is expected to provide readers with a thorough account on the geological evolution that the planet went through.

In attempting to create a geological history of Mars, the writers also turn to explaining other processes that have made their presence felt on the planet, such as the development of climate and of Mars's atmosphere.

Even though the two writers have made good use of a series of verified sources when writing this article, they are also aware that the data present in it can very well be open to discussion, as it is extremely difficult and even impossible for one to claim that he can come up with incontestable information providing evidence that Mars has gone through a series of specific events about three gigayears ago. Nevertheless, in spite of the debatable aspect of this article, its authors do not hesitate to provide the world with their findings.

According to the article, the largest percentage of Mars's crust developed approximately four gigayears ago because of natural events, such as large floods. Consequent to that period, the planet's surface was transformed because of less influential factors, with volcanism being among the most important of them. Obviously, such a claim cannot be verified, as most evidence dating from that time is surely lost.

Mars's geologic record is most likely to contain information from the Hesperian and Amazonian periods for the most part, and little to no information from the Noachian and pre-Noachian episodes. At certain points in the article, the writers tend to come up with presumptions that can only be imagined, as there is no evidence to…… [read more]

Space Manned vs. Unmanned Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,339 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


A second disadvantage in regard to man on flights to space is the fact that men do not have the same longevity as unmanned situations may offer. Because man is mortal, he may not make it alive to a far off location. The Hubble craft for instance is still going strong after decades of use and it never once asked for a lunch or dinner break. A third disadvantage is the fact that man may make more mistakes than a programmed process or robot. Man may make a decision that at the time seems like the right thing to do but it may in fact be ac completely illogical judgment based on panicking.

Pros unmanned

Robotic flight has a clear advantage over manned in the sense of how long a flight could potentially take. Man cannot last nearly as long and men have human functional needs that robotic programs do not have. A second advantage is the fact that robotic programs will do routine tasks over and never get bored with that repetitive cycle. Space travel is for all intense of purpose a boring process. The ship takes off and there is really not too much to do as the ship flies to its location. Machines will not get bored. The cost of adding robotics as compared to humans is greatly less as well. NASA and space programs do not have to add as many fail safes that are costly into programs that will go unmanned. "Additionally, NASA has launched a number of significant scientific probes such as the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft that have explored the Moon, the planets, and other areas of our solar system. NASA has sent several spacecraft to investigate Mars including the Viking and Mars Pathfinder spacecraft. The Hubble Space Telescope and other space science spacecraft have enabled scientists to make a number of significant astronomical discoveries about our universe." (NASA)

Cons unmanned

The disadvantages of unmanned space travel are similar to that of manned. The problems associated with unmanned travel into space occur mainly in the sense of troubleshooting. What happens if something goes wrong on a flight and there are no humans to intervene? The robotic process can not deviate from any existing preprogrammed process so if anything goes wrong the entire mission may have to be aborted. A second disadvantage would be similar if the communications process is eliminated or damaged in some way. If there is no way of communicating with the unmanned ship then the mission is as good as lost. A third disadvantage is based on the exploration of the end of the mission. When there are no humans directing the show on sight, long distance communications may or may not be able to navigate the robotic process into place as needed. For example, consider the simple expectation of taking a picture of something that is slightly lower and to the left of the camera. Humans make this adjustment very easily but robotic processes may not.


The space… [read more]

Scientific Revolution the Enlightenment Industrial Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (893 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Scientific Revolution, Industrial Revolution, and American Revolution demonstrate the power of the human mind as ingenuity. Mankind refuses to be restrained, whether it be within the frame of a small universe, to the old-fashioned way of doing things, or to oppression of any kind. The human spirit is meant to evolve and the human mind was created to think and grow. These revolutions with discoveries of the boundless universe to the steam engine demonstrate what life and history are all about. With new ideas come social and religious change and, while this change might seem frightening at first, it always proves to be one that answers a need and provides hope for the future.

The Scientific Revolution describes the period of time in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries when scientific ideas began to separate itself from ancient thought and look at laws of the universe in new ways. Perhaps the most significant discoveries during this time was the fact that the earth was just one planet orbiting the sun and the sun was one of many stars. Nicolaus Copernicus was the first to challenge the Ptolemaic system of the universe with the notion that the earth rotated around the sun. His ideas did not solve many problems with the Ptolemaic system but it allow for thinking in a new direction. (Craig 665) Tycho Brahe took this idea a bit further, suggesting earth and the other planets in the solar system revolved around the sun. His notations were the "most accurate tables that had been drawn up for centuries" (666). In 1609, Galileo Galilei was the first man to turn a telescope to the heavens. His discovery of Venus and sunspots would be the bane of his existence as both of these discoveries supported the idea of a "moving Earth" (Goldsmith 32), which disputed the Church and Aristotelian teachings.

In 1633, Galileo published Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief Systems of the World, which expounded on his notions of a moving earth. This book was significant for science but a "disaster" (35) for Galileo. The pope "hated" (36) it and Galileo was sent to trial for heresy. He was treated like a "criminal" (White 55) and placed under house arrest. His books were banned but not forgotten. Isaac Newton was next great scientific mind to contribute to the Scientific Revolution. He posed the existence of gravity and, in 1687, his findings, "not only accounted for motion but definitely united heaven and earth in a single scheme and created a convincing picture of an orderly nature" (Noble 724). This notion left room for God and as he aged, he realized the "limits of the capacity of human…… [read more]

Federal Legislator Thesis

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United States Senator Bill Nelson


United States Senator Bill Nelson (Democratic Party) was born in 1942 in Miami, Florida and served as a captain in the U.S. Army from 1965 to 1971 during some of the hottest years of the Vietnam conflict. He was elected to the U.S. Senate in 2000 after serving six years in the Florida cabinet. As of November, 2009, Nelson also serves on the Senate Commerce, Armed Services, Budget, Finance, Intelligence and Aging committees and is also recognized as an expert on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). According to his official website, Senator Nelson "has taken on the cause of privacy by supporting measures to protect consumers from identity theft and working on legislation to stop unsolicited e-mails that plague individuals and businesses;" he has also "worked tirelessly for the families of Florida's men and women serving overseas by addressing their concerns about basic equipment needs" and has opposed all efforts to "reduce the military's aircraft carrier fleet as our nation continues to fight the global threat of terrorism" ("U.S. Senator Bill Nelson," Internet).

Some of Senator Nelson's career highlights includes winning federal assistance for cleanup activities after Florida's devastating hurricane season of 2004, arranged a substantial settlement between the Negro League Baseball players and Major League Baseball "to ensure aging former players received compensation for their years of service; created strict criminal penalties "for spammers who send junk e-mail schemes that involve fraud, identity theft, obscenity, child pornography and the sexual exploitation of children" and help to amend the Fair Credit Reporting Act of 2003 to "increase consumer privacy protections by requiring businesses to dispose properly of any client information derived from credit reports" ("U.S. Senator Bill Nelson," Internet).

Since Senator Nelson is considered by many of his senatorial peers as an expert on NASA, one of his most important missions is to guarantee that America's space program remains vital and funded. On October 22, 2009, Senator Nelson met with President Barack Obama who assured him that the space program will…… [read more]

Aristotelian View Thesis

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Aristotelian View of the Universe

From a Aristotelian Model to Heliocentrism

As long as mankind has existed, we have questioned the world around us. It is from this great curiosity that great discoveries are made and great truths are told. However, sometimes truths can change with new developments in advancing technologies. This was the case for our model of the universe. The Aristotelian view of the universe reigned supreme for thousands of years, until new developments in the telescope and the brave scientific inquiry of two men, Nicolaus Copernicus and Galileo Galilei presented a new heliocentric version of the construction of the universe.

The Aristotelian view of the universe was much different than how we know it in the modern context today. In fact the primary principles of our modern view of the universe were completely reversed in this ancient model of our solar system and beyond. First posited by Aristotle in the days of the ancient Greeks, the model presented the Earth as the center of the universe. The Earth was then surrounded by the moon, the sun, and all the planets, with the stars further out. In this model, the universe was composed of fifty-five concentric spheres that all fit one inside the other, each getting bigger and bigger as you moved further away from the Earth. The moon, planets, sun, and stars were all connected to these spheres, each of them rotating at different spheres. In between the spheres containing planets or stars were buffering spheres that helped separate each celestial body. The moon was closest to the Earth, and then can Mercury and Venus. The sun was next, and separated the rest of the planets: Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. The furthest realm was the fixed stars that contained the constellations and did not rotate. The very outermost sphere was that of what Aristotle called the "Prime Mover," which rotated at a steady angular speed. This movement was what caused the other spheres to begin their rotation. According to this view, however, the Earth never rotated. Rather, each planet on its own individual sphere moved because of its connection to the "Primary Mover" and that explained the movement of the celestial bodies across the Earth's sky.

This model of the universe was prevalent for thousands of years. It gained even more fervor in the Middle Ages, as Medieval Europe saw a revitalized interest in Greek philosophy, especially in the works and teachings of Aristotle. Additionally, this model of the universe worked nicely within the strict Christian philosophies of the day, which adamantly posited the idea that Earth was God's greatest creation, and therefore it must have been the center of the universe. Aristotle's "Prime Mover" was quickly replaced with the Christian God, and the last sphere of the universe became symbolic…… [read more]

Titan Chemistry Science Daily Website Article Review Research Proposal

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Science Daily website article review: Titan's atmosphere

According to the 2009 Science Daily website article "Chemistry of Titan's hazy atmosphere unraveled," Saturn's moon Titan has long been regarded as unique by scientists because it is the only object in the solar system "besides Venus and Earth with a solid surface and thick atmosphere" despite its remote location in the outreaches of our solar system (Chemistry, 2009, Science Daily). Until recently, the reasons for the appearance of Titan's atmosphere were elusive. Now, scientists have been able to simulate the conditions of the molecular collisions that take place in Titan's atmosphere through the use of new technology and calculations.

University of Hawaii researchers have discovered that "an ethynyl radical is produced in Titan's atmosphere by the photodissociation of acetylene by ultraviolet light. Photodissociation is a process in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons" (Chemistry, 2009, Science Daily). This stimulates the creation of triacetylene, which serves as a building block to form more complex and longer polyynes and produces "potential precursors for the aerosol-based layers of haze surrounding Titan" (Chemistry, 2009, Science Daily).

Triacetylene and diacetylene are molecules "consisting of six and four carbon atoms, respectively, and two hydrogen atoms. The atoms in each molecule are connected by alternating single and triple bonds" (About that, 2009, Scientific Blogging). Ethynyl is a highly reactive substance. It is made of two carbon atoms connected by a triple bond and one hydrogen atom connected by a single bond. A single electron on the exterior carbon atom gives ethynyl the impetus to "attack" other molecules (About that, 2009, Scientific Blogging). Thus triacetylene is formed in a chemical process whereby the radical present in the ethynyl molecule and a diacetylene molecule collide. Diacetylene must come into contact with…… [read more]

Human Race's Exploration of the Moon Thesis

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Although the moon, Earth's only natural satellite, has been the focus of much study and inquiry for hundreds of years, it was not until the dawn of the age of technology circa the early 1950's that humans began to seriously consider sending rockets, probes and man himself to this lonely and mysterious outpost some 230,000 miles from planet Earth. Of course, the United States and the Soviet Union (i.e., today's Russia) are the nations best-known for their activities related to exploring the moon, but beginning around the mid-1990's, other nations like China, Japan, India and France set out to explore this body in space via a number of probes and satellites, some of which were highly successful and have added substantially to our knowledge concerning the moon and its environment.

Under the auspices of its own National Space Administration, the nation of China successfully launched an unmanned lunar orbiter known as Chang'e 1 in 2007 and plans on sending other orbiters sometime in 2009. The main purpose behind these and future lunar probes is to tap into the moon's immense reserves of naturally-occurring metals like iron and what is known as helium-3 for use in nuclear fusion power plants. Certainly, due to its burgeoning economy, the nation of China sees the moon as a great source of energy and materials for future use in a number of technologically-related endeavors (Heiken, 156).

Much like China, the nation of Japan has demonstrated much interest in exploring the moon which began in the mid-1980's with the LUNAR -- a and SELENE lunar projects. This was followed in 1990 by the launching of a satellite known as MUSES-a/HITEN, aimed at "establishing the technologies including satellite trajectory control which would be required for future lunar and planetary exploration projects" ("Japan's Lunar Exploration," Internet) by Japan. In 1994, Japan's Space Activities Commission created a "long-term vision with the moon as a main target for national space development" in conjunction with the National Space Development Agency and the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science. These and other ambitious lunar projects have succeeded greatly and have provided much data and knowledge related to areas of the moon which are still under intense investigation by the U.S. And Russia ("Japan's Lunar Exploration," Internet).

Similarly, the nation of India sent its first exploratory mission to the moon in September of 2008 known as Chandrayaan-1, aimed at studying the lunar surface for possible naturally-occurring elements which are rare on the Earth. The entity responsible for this successful mission, the Indian Space Research Organization (IRSO), is quite impressive and plans on making some huge strides in the exploration of not only the moon but also other solar bodies (O'Neill, Internet). Established in 1972, this organization was created in order to "develop space-based technologies aimed at enriching" India's ever-growing economy and has plans to launch similar missions sometime after 2010 (O'Neill, Internet).

Obviously, the two nations with the longest and most successful missions to the moon are the… [read more]

Apollo 11 Neil Armstrong Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,666 words)
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Buzz Aldrin - Apollo 11 Landmark Mission

Each person is a witness to history in the making as the events of the world unfold each day. Some of the events will stand as remarkable over the course of a person's life, and some will take on a significance that is larger than life, meaning that a person might perceive it… [read more]

California Science Center Term Paper

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¶ … museum that was visited for purposes of this report was the California Science Center. Five earth science exhibits were reviewed and related to a corresponding California educational standard in earth science. The first exhibit to be observed was entitled "Stars and Telescopes." The educational standard it relates to is item 2(d) from the earth sciences unit for grades 9-12 that states, "students know that stars differ in their life cycles and that visual, radio, and x-ray telescopes may be used to collect data that reveal those differences."

The way this particular exhibit relates to the standard is that it focuses on teaching students about how scientists use the telescope to learn about different aspects of the universe, such as the creation of galaxies and the life cycles of different types of stars. Different types of telescopes are explained about through the exhibit such as the Chandra x-ray observatory, the Hubble optical telescope in space, and the first orbiting x-ray telescope named Uhuru. The way the exhibit conveys the standard to visitors from grades 9-12 is by displaying models of the different types of telescopes available and by showing how telescopes collect information such as images from the visible spectrum, infrared, and x-ray data.

The second exhibit to be observed was entitled "Mission to the Planets," one of its highlights being in particular the SAGE I satellite. Observation of this satellite is related to the educational standard 4© from the earth sciences unit for grades 9-12. It states that, "students know the different atmospheric gases that absorb the Earth's thermal radiation and the mechanism and significance of the greenhouse effect."

The way this exhibit relates to the standard is that it teaches about these atmospheric gases by revealing how this satellite was responsible for measuring the concentration of ozone and aerosol particles in the Earth's atmosphere. It performed this measurement by collecting data on the amount of radiation entering the atmosphere from the sun. This satellite was responsible for helping scientists find out how much change the Earth's climate and atmosphere had undergone over the years. The exhibit's way of conveying the standard to visitors from grades…… [read more]

Global Warming Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,478 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The researchers tried to mimic a high level of exposure that humans might experience, and "found no statistically significant increases in any tumor type, including brain, liver, lung or kidney, compared to the control group" (Cell pp).

The common theory behind evolution is the idea that living things have come into existence through "unguided naturalistic processes starting from a primeval… [read more]

Humans Traveling to Mars Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,377 words)
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Humans on Mars

Humans upon Mars -- Resist the Pull of the Red Planet!

That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind," said Neil Armstrong on that fateful day of July 20, 1969, when for the first time humankind strode upon the moon. (Stephen, 2004) it was hard to believe after the first, sputtering attempts to bring a United States program into being in the wake of the horror of the Russian Sputnik launch that an American now stood upon the moon. It seemed as if anything were possible in the eyes of the nation staring at 'one of their own' upon the cratered surface. But now, however, it is difficult for many Americans to believe that sending human beings into space via the national or even an international space program is such an important effort today. This is partly in the light of a reconfigured geopolitical balance between Russia and America, and partly due to the increased costs and perceived risks of the space program. And perhaps such doubting American may be right. For although it may become technically possible for humans to stride and boldly go where none have gone before, namely to Mars, the fourth planet of out solar system and the one that most closely resembles our own earthly sphere's climate and gravitational force, this paper will argue that human travel to Mars should not be the primary goal of the American space program. ("Mars," Columbia Encyclopedia, 2001)

First of all, travel to Mars would be expensive, perhaps prohibitively so. The peer-reviewed journal of politics and economics the New Statesman soberly calculates that "a trip to Mars would take as long as three years, travelling a good 100 million miles. A crew would have to consist of at least six -- doctors to cope with medical emergencies, a geologist and a biologist, as well as at least two trained astronauts." To provide a point of contrast, "the launch cost of a space shuttle mission is around $20m per-ton and just getting 1,000 tons of Mars equipment into space would cost $20bn, more than Nasa's annual budget. The Apollo spacecrafts that carried astronauts to the moon weighed just 45 tons at departure, and carried enough material to support three people over ten days in a journey of around 750,000 miles. The probes that have just landed on Mars each weigh a single ton and cost a total of $820m to despatch. Using the same cost scale, a single Mars mission at today's prices would set the country back at least $600bn." (Stephen, 2004)

Also, according to National Geographic Magazine in 2001, there are still considerable technical glitches to be worked out, given "the only means of extended space travel is by chemically propelled rockets, similar to those used today. Using such rockets, it would take about six months to fly to Mars, and the amount of fuel needed just to get there would be so large that the fuel would make up a… [read more]

Earth's Moon Term Paper

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The regolith varies from 3 to 5 meters (10 to 16 feet) in the maria to 10 to 20 meters (33 to 66 feet) in the highlands.

Over time, comets and meteorites continually bombard the Moon. Many of these objects are water-rich. Energy from sunlight splits much of this water into its constituent elements hydrogen and oxygen, both of which usually fly off into space immediately. However, it has been hypothesized that significant traces of water remain on the Moon, either on the surface, or embedded within the crust. The results of the Clementine mission suggested that small, frozen pockets of water ice may be embedded unmelted in the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar crust. Although the pockets are thought to be small, the overall amount of water was suggested to be significant -- 1 km3.

Compared to Earth, the Moon has a very weak magnetic field (Tarbuck, Lutgens, & Tasa, 2002). While some of the Moon's magnetism is thought to be intrinsic (such as a strip of the lunar crust called the Rima Sirsalis), collision with other celestial bodies might have imparted some of the Moon's magnetic properties. A long-standing question in planetary science is whether an airless solar system body, such as the Moon, can obtain magnetism from impact processes such as comets and asteroids. Magnetic measurements can also supply information about the size and electrical conductivity of the lunar core -- evidence that will help scientists better understand the Moon's origins.


Korotev, R.L. (2004). Planetary science. A unique chunk of the Moon. Science, 305(5684), 622-623.

Palme, H. (2004). Planetary science. The…… [read more]

Gaia Hypothesis and Daisy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,120 words)
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While the black and white daisies do cooperate, the level of cooperation involved is implicit; there is no "committee" of organisms that decide how hard to work for the good of all. Each organism, by doing what it does best (exploit the environment to perpetuate its own survival) works for the greater good quite by accident.

Of course, the problem… [read more]

Star-Gazing: The Story Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (381 words)
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The earth is reborn symbolically in the form of these organisms everyday, in the variegated folds and crevices of rock and loam -- even the smell of rot gives life to something, even the charred remains smells like a star, like carbon, life's elemental energy that is regenerated on a daily basis.

Insects chirp monotonous, the night's true music, though many human composers have written symphonies dedicated to night. Repetition is life's true music, and these insects spawn will live on long after humanity is dead, even after humans have mutated into another two-legged species. All will eventually grow silent -- silent as the stars and the sun's reflected light on the moon seems.

This thought tastes bitter -- bitter as the humidity on the air, on the tongue of the open mouth -- the earth will die as it was born, absorbed into fire or the void, and no stories will be remembered, even the concept of narrative, story, the senses will vanish.

This moment, this perspective of life, star, and earth will not remain, and die as well.… [read more]

Scientific Revolution &amp Enlightenment Term Paper

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Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment

Scientific Revolution is considered as the process by which "new ideas and methods of science challenged modes of thought associated with medieval times and Scholasticism" (Kagan, 1995:514). This social change brought within new ideologies such as the application of rational and scientific thought in the pursuit for intellectual development.

The social change that is the Scientific Revolution differed from 16th century notions of science and intellectual development. Prior to this social and intellectual movement, there is a general agreement that the Earth was the center of the universe, which was derived from Ptolemy's work on the solar system (also called the Ptolemaic system). The Ptolemaic system's earth-centric view of the universe is parallel with the Christian belief that the earth is the center of the universe that God created.

However, in the middle of 16th century, new scientific thought had pervaded Western society, and through Nicolaus Copernicus, humankind became informed of the fact that contrary to Ptolemy and Christianity's claims of an earth-centric universe, he (Copernicus) declared that the sun was actually the center of the universe, with the earth as one of the planets revolving around it. Although he lived a life of condemnation for opposing the Church, Copernicus opened the doors for new scientific discoveries and thought to prevail during the Scientific Revolution. Another important individual who had made significant contributions to the Scientific Revolution is Isaac Newton, whose subsistence to empiricism allowed him to establish the laws governing the force of gravity, another discovery that illustrates how empirical thinking leads to the acquisition of new knowledge and intellectual development.

The Enlightenment period, which flourished during the 17th…… [read more]

Space Program Term Paper

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It cannot, however, be denied that nearly all of these achievements could have been accomplished at a fraction of the cost that was spent on "manned" flights into space if the policy objectives had been to scientific benefits only.

Supporters of "manned" flights, on the other hand, argue that the human dexterity and ingenuity cannot be matched by robots. For… [read more]

Creationism: Is There Any Credible Term Paper

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These estimates indicate that the Earth and our Solar System was formed about 4.5 billion years ago. These figures conflict greatly with the contention of the creationists who believe that the universe was created just 6,000 to 10,000 years ago.

The other key creationist beliefs about the creation of life and Noah's flood are also in conflict with scientific knowledge. The scientists estimate that the first life form started on the earth at least 3.5 billion years ago and gradually developed into more complex forms through the process of "evolution." According to the theory of evolution the modern man evolved from its sub-human ancestor (named Australopithecine) about 150,000 years ago. (Ibid. "Evidence about Biological..") The creationists, of course, believe that the first man and woman were Adam and Eve who were expelled from the paradise by God 6,000 years ago. The scientific evidence against the occurrence of Noah's flood just a few thousand years ago when, according to the creationists, the entire earth's surface was covered with water for an entire year, is even more compelling. Geological records, inter-tidal and terrestrial deposits indicate that at no recorded time in the past has the entire planet been under water. Scientists have also calculated that the volume of water required for a universal flood of the magnitude such as the Noah's flood, has never existed on and in the Earth, since the formation of its solid crust formed about 4 billion years ago. Most of the creationists' arguments in support of their beliefs are either based on religious "evidence" or on the observation that the Big Bang and evolutionary theories are mere theories that have not been seen by anyone or proved by observation. The scientists counter this argument by stating that all scientific knowledge is not based on direct observation and experimentation. For instance, physicists cannot directly observe subatomic particles, but they still make accurate inferences about the weight, speed, and other properties of the particles. Furthermore, all scientific theories are subject to the possibility of rejection or modification in the light of new knowledge, but according to the current state of scientific knowledge, which is backed up by compelling evidence based on observation, experimentation and inference, the Big Bang and Evolutionary theories are established "facts" rather than mere conjectures.

As we saw in this essay, there is no credible evidence that support the creationists' beliefs about the origins of the universe or life forms. In fact, their beliefs about the age of the earth and divine intervention in creating life forms are in direct conflict with compelling scientific evidence. The creationists, in my opinion, are pursuing a futile goal by attempting to "prove" purely religious beliefs through logical explanations. Literal interpretations of theological writings cannot possibly compete with the knowledge achieved by science through detailed observation and experimentation. There is no "competition" between religion and science -- both are separate fields and should remain so.

Works Cited

Science and Creationism: A view from the National Academy of Sciences. Second Edition,… [read more]

Earth and Space Term Paper

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Space is so large; we do not know where it ends, or how large it really is. Space is infinite, but Earth is quite finite, and therefore, our planet does not make any real difference in the vastness of the universe that surround us. We might seem huge and important when seen from the moon, or from a space shuttle orbit, but from a far-away star, we are only another star among millions on the horizon. Space is so big it is incomprehensible, and because of that, the Earth does not matter at all in the real scheme of things. More importantly, space does not need Earth for oxygen, or gravity, or anything at all. The universe is so vast that one star or one planet cannot really affect the whole, any more than one grain of sand on Earth can affect the entire planet. One grain of sand is infinitesimal, and so are we in the universe. What is most interesting about our position in space is how we are so perfectly aligned for our life and well being, and yet we are really nothing more than a grain of sand in the ultimate scheme of things.

In conclusion, Earth and space have many commonalities, but in the end, it is the differences between them that keep Earth functioning in space. Earth has an atmosphere, a climate, and human life that are all dependent on the vast outer space that surrounds us. We have a perfect place in space, and we may be the only speck in the universe that has found its perfect niche. Space, however, is not dependent on our being here, or even on the planet existing. Space does not need us as much as we need space - it is that simple, and that perplexing. Earth and space have an interesting relationship, and if it changes in any way, it could mean the end of life as we know it on Earth, but space would continue…… [read more]

Plate-Tectonic the Earth Term Paper

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Plate tectonics, as defined in the article, is the continuous motion of parts of the earth's surface that causes its changes. Compared to Venus, our sister planet, the earth changes its components faster. In fact, Magellan's space probe orbiting radar found that plate tectonics do not occur in Venus. Venus doesn't show signs of equivalent processes the earth's surface experiences.


The pre-studied formations and changes that take place in the earth's surface can make us aware of taking care of our environment. The natural activities of the earth's surface may be the effect of the things that we do to our environment and on how we deal with our mother earth.


S. Ross Taylor and Scott M. McLennan. The Evolution of Continental Crust.

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, January 1996 Volume 274 Number 1 Pages 76-81. http://euclid.dne.wvnet.edu/~jvg/Env105/lecture%20notes/cont_crst.html… [read more]

Space Debris and Junk: Causes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,293 words)
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However, this policy is still limiting to the efforts of solving the space debris problem, since most of the massive junk in space were contributed by government programs. This policy is only applicable to commercial companies, and does not put the responsibility of the space debris and junk problem to the government and space agencies concerned.

The Lund Remote Sensing… [read more]

NASA and Integrated Financial Management Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,705 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


However, the landing on the moon and the decline of the Cold War, among other factors, initiated changes in NASA's direction. Budget cuts caused officials to become more concerned about the survival of the space agency. NASA was forced to subcontract research and development that was previously conducted in-house (McCurdy).

As funding and accountability to Congress became an issue, the… [read more]

Nausea the Depleted Life "Things Essay

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As a result, he questioned his very existence, his very purpose for living. What happened to Fitzgerald is the same thing that happens to Antoine, he became completely dispossessed of the person he once was.

The Nausea is, therefore, a process of losing one's convictions, aspirations, and desires. It leads one to question his/her very existence. Like Antoine does, "My existence was beginning to cause me some concern. Was I a mere figment of the imagination?" It's a hollowing out of the soul.

So, like all diseases, is there a cure? Is there something one can do to overcome 'the Nausea?"

Well, Antoine eventually finds solace in the idea of free will, the notion that one can create meaning, assign meaning, value, worth, etc. even if there is none.

However, to give something meaning is a tenuous and fragile action. For one thing the meaning is arbitrary and, for another, the onus for keeping the meaning intact relies solely on the individual's fortitude to keep it there, especially if that something that has been given meaning has been ascribed with an abstract idea or concept, i.e. Antoine is a great person and a good friend. In order for this to be valid, Antoine has to believe it and, ideally, get other people to believe it as well. He has to have unwavering commitment to that meaning.

As for Fitzgerald, he created a new slant on life. He became resigned to the notion that his former self, his better self, was gone forever. His new persona, his new attitude toward life was that of a codger. Fitzgerald wrote, "I do not any longer like the postman, nor the grocer, nor the editor, nor the cousin's husband, and he in turn will come to dislike me, so that life will never be very pleasant again, and the sign Cave Canem is hung permanently just above my door. I will try to be a correct animal though, and if you throw me a bone with enough meat on it I may even lick your hand."

Personally, I find Antoine's cognition regarding free will a little too optimistic. Human volition is an illusion as evidence by the fact that life is, in and of itself, meaningless. We control so very little. Six billion years from now the sun will explode destroying the earth and the entire solar system. We can do nothing except wait for night.… [read more]

Lithium and I Am a Glowing Soft Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (704 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Lithium and I am a glowing soft, silver-white metal (alkali), nicknamed Li and living under atomic address 3. My group, my period, and my block is 1,2,s. When cut open (and I am soft enough to be cut with your classroom scissors), I appear metallic, but contact with moist air soon makes me tarnish. I am commonly obtained from brines and clays; commercially, I am isolated from lithium chloride and potassium chloride. My children were christened helium and beryllium. Of all my family, I am proud to say, I am the lightest metal and the least dense (approximately 0.534g/cm; my standard atomic weight is 6.941(2)g.mol-1) -- but, I warn you, do not mess with me! I am flammable and apt to tear you apart. In fact, I have the highest specific heat capacity of the solid members of my family!

On the other hand, I am good for your nerves too, and help you in a variety of manner: not only to calm those of you who are mentally ill (specifically, depression and bipolar disorder or mania), but I am also used in glass and ceramics, aircraft, and certain types (lithium, of course) batteries. Actually, I also appear in nuclear physics -- thermonuclear weapons, in fact -- but that may not be pleasing to everyone.

My best friend is magnesium. We are soul mates with close chemical resemblances and similar salt makeup. Something else that you need to know about my character: I am composed of two isotopes 6Li and a large mass of 7LI (and my electron configuration is 2:1). Because my characters have low nuclear binding energy, I am less common in the solar system than most of my family, but let that not concern you! It is possible that a small amount of my characteristics are produced in young brown and certain orange stars (not in older stars), and generated by wind, and from the early solar system.

Since I am dangerous, my Creator was very careful in how He dispersed me through the universe, since He, obviously, didn't want to burn you folks up (although you…… [read more]

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