"Astronomy / Planets / Solar System" Essays

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Space Telescopes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,194 words)
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Space Telescopes

Ever since its launch in 1990, the Hubble telescope has been orbiting the Earth at 600 kilometers above, bringing valuable information and photos from space. Its history goes back to 1977, when the Congress approved the project funds. However, operations didn't take off until 1981, when the Space Telescope Science Institute was founded, designed especially for the production and research of the Hubble Space Telescope.

In 1990, on April, 25th, the telescope was deployed into orbit. Several problems appeared during the first years of use. An aberration in one of the mirrors was soon discovered and needed to be changed later in 1993. A new computer was installed in 1999 and the telescope was placed in "safe mode" after "the failure of a fourth gyroscope." However, it continued to produce generously relevant data on the Universe and its components.

One can never underestimate the importance and the extent of Hubble's accomplishments. Some facts and figures are relevant in this case. We should mention, for example, the fact that Hubble sends everyday 10 to 15 gigabytes of data to Earth. In total, up to the year 2000, Hubble has taken 330,000 separate observations, traveled close to 1,500 billion miles, created an archive of 7.3 terabytes and has observed close to 25,000 astronomical targets.

The initial cost of the telescope was $2 billion. However, one may wonder what the costs of keeping it running every day are. According to Ed Weiler, NASA's chief Hubble scientist, "each American is paying less than $1 a year in taxes for the telescope - less than 2 cents a week." This calculation is a result of the $230 million needed to operate and maintain the Hubble.

2. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) may be considered Hubble's successor in space, in case the latter is bound for retirement. The JWST is scheduled to be launched in 2011 and contains some last hour technologies. These include the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Space Support Module (SSM).

The Science module integrates some extremely performing instruments, such as the near infrared camera, the near infrared spectrograph and the detectors. Given the fact that its primary mission, initially, will be to study early galaxies that are better seen in infrared, as well as the birth and formation of stars and the origins of our planetary system, the telescope's detectors are of extremely high quality.

Further more, the telescope itself uses a new type of mirror, aimed at being able to perceive characteristics of galaxies billions of light years away. The primary mirror will be 6.5 meters in diameter. Compared to Hubble's 2.4 meters main mirror, the differences are obvious. The problem, however, is the fact that one needs to be able to build a 6.5 meter mirror that will also be light enough to be carried on board of the launching shuttle and, on the other hand, it needs to be strong enough.

The technology that JWST will be using is… [read more]


Aristotle's Astronomy Besides Giving Term Paper

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¶ … Aristotle's Astronomy besides giving a brief overview of Aristotle's life and accomplishments.

Life and Accomplishments

Aristotle (384-322 BCE) is one of the three most famous ancient philosophers whose work have left an indelible mark on the Western Civilization. Aristotle was born in Macedonia where his father was a physician in the royal court. He went to study in… [read more]


Optical Revolutions How the Telescope Essay

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Optical Revolutions

How the Telescope was a More Significant Invention to the Microscope

Advances in optical technology made it possible for early modern scientists to explore both the vastness of the universe and the minute complexities of the microbial world. However, while the invention of the microscope has transformed medicine and, ultimately, the lives of virtually every living person on Earth, these advances took decades to play out and were initially considered trivial. In contrast, the telescope may have had a less profound impact on everyday life, but, through its influence on a seminal figure, sparked an explosive revolution in early modern European thought, challenged the intellectual hegemony of the Church, and, ultimately, shifted our sense of the universe and our place in it.

The first modern working telescopes were built in 1608 and were almost immediately adopted as astronomical instruments by Galileo Galilei. As Bernard Cohen notes, "it is impossible to exaggerate the effects of the telescopic discoveries on Galileo's life, so profound were they" (57). Armed with a tool that let him to observe celestial objects more finely than the naked eye allows, Galileo soon realized that the planets he saw through the lens was very different from the celestial spheres of classical and medieval astronomical thought:

There were only two possibilities open: One was to refuse to look through the telescope or to refuse to accept what one saw when one did; the other was to reject the physics of Plato and Aristotle and the old geocentric astronomy of Ptolemy (78).

Galileo chose the latter option and thus became a divisive figure within the European scientific community, both in life and, as a symbol of intellectual dissent, after his death in prison. Other scientists, looking through the telescope to see for themselves, did likewise, and the Copernican Revolution began to gather momentum.

In Galileo's Italy, scientific revolt was indistinguishable from religious dissent. In the wake of the Protestant Reformation and its attendant wars, the Catholic Church was currently engaged in the ambitious Counter-Reformation in order to answer the challenges posed by Martin Luther a century before (Fermi and Bernardini 65). Within that milieu, both intellectual conformity and adherence to established orthodoxies were both considered essential. The Ptolemaic system was part of that orthodoxy; therefore, challenging that system was seen as both a challenge to religious orthodoxy and thus potentially seditious. As Konnert (72) notes, "religious unity was seen as an essential precondition for peace and stability; conversely, religious dissent was seen as a certain recipe for civil disorder and civil war."

While relatively unwelcome in Catholic Italy, Galileo's observations were truly revolutionary elsewhere in Europe, where they fed into the radical transformation of ideas about the nature of the universe and humanity's place in it. By around 1620, the geocentric system was in serious danger (Cohen 81). The old system had enshrined the Earth at the center of a relatively…… [read more]


Astronomy Keck Telescope Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (610 words)
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Astronomy- Keck Telescope

Overview of the telescope

A telescope according to the Webster's dictionary is referred to as "an optical instrument used in viewing distant objects and heavenly bodies."

The telescope has over the years gone through a series of modification up from the tiny manual device to a now fully automated and digital telescope. However, in all this transitional development these two properties: the light collecting power which allows one to detect fainter and distant objects and the angular resolution which allows one to view the smaller and fainter images better have mainly been important. The optical accuracy has thus been maintained throughout these developments.

The keck telescope

From W.M.Keck observatory, both keck I telescope and its twin, keck II were funded; the project being under the management of California institute of technology and the University of California. Science observation with the keck I telescope began in 1993 where as with keck II, it was in 1996; it is then that National Aeronautics and space administration partnered with the observatory. Keck II (twin keck) telescope is considered to be the biggest optical and infrared telescope in the world. Each of the telescopes is about eight stories high, weighs around 300 tons and its primary mirror has a diameter of 10 meters each with 36 hexagonal segments. These large size primary mirrors give the keck telescope a lead in astronomy as it offers the best clarity and potential sensitivity. (W.M.Keck Observatory, 2012).

Their performance however just like other telescopes is limited by atmospheric turbulence which ends up distorting images. This has been recently overcome by astronomers incorporating a fundamental technique known as the adaptive optics which compared to what was formerly possible in terms of clarity of the images has to a great extent improved. The deployment of 'the laser guide star adaptive optics system'…… [read more]


Astronomy the Moon Research Paper

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ELEVEN: Venus orbits the Sun (inside Earth's orbit) so because it never goes outside the earth's orbit it can never be more than 47 degrees above the horizon at sunset (law of physics). Venus is an inferior planet because its orbit is between earth's orbit and the sun.

TWELEVE: The Seasons on earth are caused by the tilt of the earth on its axis and by the fact that as the earth orbits the sun different hemispheres receive less direct rays from the sun; for example, when it is summer in Australia it is winter in North America, and vice -- versa.

THIRTEEN: Kepler's 3 laws of planetary motion: a) planets move around the Sun in ellipses and the Sun is at one focus; b) the line connecting the Sun to a planet sweeps equal areas in equal times; and c) the square of the orbital period of a planet is "proportional to the cube (3rd power) of the mean distance from the Sun" (Stern, 2007).

FOURTEEN: Three of Galileo's most important discoveries with the telescope: a) he discovered that the moon was mountainous and pock-marked; b) he found that Jupiter has moons; and c) the earth orbits around the sun and hence the earth is not the center of the universe. Aristotle's theories in conflict with Galileo: he believed that all bodies move naturally and are not the result of one body pulling another; he believed the cosmos was made up of a central earth surrounded by stars, the moon and the sun rotating in circles around earth.

FIFTEEN: mass is a measure of how much matter is contained in any given object; how strongly gravity pulls on that same object is its weight. Speed is the magnitude of velocity and velocity has a certain direction and a certain magnitude.

SIXTEEN: By moving the object twice as far away the gravitational pull on that object will be one quarter of what it was previously. The velocity would be changed by minus 25%.

Works Cited

Cornell University. (2008). Kirchhoff's Laws. Retrieved November 17, 2012, from http://astro.cornell.edu.

Stern, David P. (2007). Kepler's Three Laws of Planetary Motion:…… [read more]


Space Data While Technological Advances Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (871 words)
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Space Data

While technological advances have helped and assisted mankind in nearly all of his endeavors, the burdens associated with its applications cannot be ignored or misinterpreted. This problem is glaring in the case of Astronomy and its ability to use technology to gather enormous amounts of data. This stockpile of nearly 60 petabytes (PB) of data available to these scientists have revealed that humanity cannot keep up with the pace of acquiring data.

The purpose of this essay is to discuss the issues with data collection and performance degradation in the subject of astronomy. The essay will first examine how data is collected and how this process has led us to this problem. The next section discussed in this essay will address the emerging technologies that are becoming available that might alleviate the situation. Finally the writing will address the costs associated with fixing this problem and the general outlook of the practicality of the solutions that are being applied to the case.

Data Gathering Techniques

Berriman & Groom's (2011) argument suggested that the availability of large amounts of data have " transformed research in astronomy and the STScI now reports that more paper are published with archived data sets than with newly acquired data, (p.1). Astronomy as a practice is being threatened due to extreme degradation in acquiring real time information and applying it in a useful and practical manner.

Technology is truly a Pandora's box. In this case, technology has allowed for the gathering of so much information and data, covering an immense span of time and distance, there is no way that the current structure of astronomical study can fully come to grips with what they are gathering. The scenario is changing too fast for humans to keep up. The changing nature of the cosmos is not waiting for human kind to keep up and nature appears to keep producing and evolving whether we can model these changes or not. As a result the science itself appears to becoming somewhat obsolete if this tsunami of data is somehow incorporated in a useful manner that helps bring reason and understanding to the situation.

Emerging Technologies

Wall (2010) wrote that "the challenge will be for astronomers to sift through and follow up on the instrument's observations. Researchers are just now figuring out how they might be able to tackle such a job. Universities and colleges need to train future astronomers more fully in computer science and data management, in the short-term, astronomers should team up with computer scientists." Graphic processing units (GPUs) seem to have some of the answers to help reduced the…… [read more]


C. S. Lewis Out of the Silent Planet Term Paper

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¶ … Silent Planet Report was looking for a good book to read, and someone recommended the Space Trilogy by C.S. Lewis. I knew he had written the Chronicles of Narnia and other good books, so I started with the first one, Out of the Silent Planet. The others are Perelandra and That Hideous Strength. Out of the Silent Planet was a very unusual book, and when I was asked to do a report on a book, I immediately chose this one. The book is memorable because it has characters that are believable and could actually live in the little English town described. The main character, Elwin Ransom, has a former friend, Professor Weston, who has built a rocket ship. Weston drugs Ransom and puts him on a rocket ship, which, when he awakes he realizes is heading into outer space. He escapes from Weston and his helper, Devine, as soon as they land on Malacandra, which is the Red Planet, and has some fantastic adventures there. I think the real reason this book is memorable is because the character thinks, as I would, that landing on another planet is scary and would put me into a world where nothing was the same as on earth.

C.S. Lewis' descriptions of the planet and the environment he walks around in are vivid and imaginative. He describes everything as if he were actually looking at it with new eyes. The unusual colors and inhabitants are described, as well as the landscape, very well. He gets mixed up with some of the inhabitants of the planet during the course of the book, and barely escapes with his life in order to return to earth.

The plot is that after arriving on Malacandra, Ransom escapes from Weston and Devine, runs off into the fantastic countryside, encounters a "hross" named Hyoi and lives in his village, learning the language of the "hrossa." He also learns that there is much gold on the planet and that is one of the reasons why Weston and Devine have gone there. Ransom helps the hrossa hunt a hnakra and is told that he needs to meet with Oyarsa, the "eldil" in charge of the whole planet. He refuses, but after killing the hnakra his friend Hyoi is killed by Weston and Devine and he goes to meet Oyarsa. On the way he meets the dreaded sorn, but the sorn is friendly and takes him to Oyarsa. Oyarsa tells him that Earth is the "silent planet" and wants to know more about it. Ransom is embarrassed that he does not know more than he does about the earth and the humans, who seem very foolish when he describes them to Oyarsa. Meanwhile Oyarsa has captured Weston and Devine and brings them in. Oyarsa tells Ransom he can stay on Malacandra, but Ransom misses the earth and wants to go home. The three are again put on the space ship and sent back to earth (a very difficult journey). When he… [read more]


Kepler's Mathematization of Gravity and Planetary Motion Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,791 words)
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Johannes Kepler was a key figure in the 17th century revolution of astronomy. His greatest accomplishment was the explanation of the laws of planetary motion which codified the rotation and planetary motion that was carefully researched and articulated by Brahe and Aristotle. Before Kepler's groundbreaking work, astronomers viewed planetary motion as combinations of circular motions of celestial orbs. Kepler's research… [read more]


Hubble Space Telescope Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,457 words)
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After much discussion among the scientists and engineers, NASA "discovered a major flaw in the giant mirror, (for it) was too flat on one edge by 1/50th of the width of a single human hair" (Stathopoulos, Internet). In technical terms, the primary mirror was suffering from spherical aberration which meant that the mirror had been ground incorrectly. The curve at… [read more]


Article Was Kepler's Supernova Unusually Powerful Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (932 words)
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Kepler's Supernova

Keplers Supernova

Before plunging into the points of discussions regarding Keplar's Supernova, it is essential to known about Supernova. Supernova is an advanced form of nova i.e. white dwarf star which could be explained as more energetic than a nova. The radiations emitted by a supernova are far rich in energy and comprises almost as much energy as estimated by the sun throughout its entire life. Although no supernova has been observed since 1650 and it appears once in every 50 years. Now moving towards Keplar's supernova that was befallen in the constellation Ophiuchus. This being a point of discussion was so obvious in front of the naked eye and was at the extreme of its brightness at night sky. Johannes Keplar was actually the one who kept on observing this supernova on Oct 17, 1604 (Chandra, pg. 3).

It was named after Keplar because of his vast research study on it and stated in his book entitled De Stella nova in pede Serpentarii ("On the new star in Ophiuchus's foot," Prague 1606). Thus, it has been considered as one 'prototypical' point of subject that is it has been in study in astronomical world since its inception was discovered. Keplar started a systemic study of this supernova based on the work criteria of Tycho's work. Tycho Brahe's work has been remarked as he determined the detailed motion of planets. In particular, Brahe assembled widespread data on the planet Mars, which would later prove crucial to Kepler in his formulation of the laws of planetary motion because it would be adequately precise to validate that the trajectory of Mars was not a circle but an ellipse (Chandra, pg. 4).

Spans of time after this discovery the wreckage of this supernova was known as ' Keplar's supernova leftovers' which were further studied by NASA's Chandra X observations to actually comprehend the formation of this Supernova. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls Chandra's science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass. Studies revealed that other than being powerful Keplar's supernova was far distant than stated before at the time of its visibility to the human naked eye. It was figured out that Keplar's supernova is a type of 'la supernova' i.e. those supernova which are formed because of two white dwarfs evolving together then they shatter as a result of thermonuclear explosions but unlike typical 'la supernova' they are asymmetrical with an x-ray emissions inside (Chandra, pg. 5). These results were published in the September 1, 2012 edition of the Astrophysical Journal. The authors of this study are Daniel Patnaude from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, MA; Carles Badenes from University of Pittsburgh in Pittsburgh, PA; Sangwook Park from…… [read more]


Aeronautics Degree Program as Enrolled Thesis

Thesis  |  25 pages (8,672 words)
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¶ … Aeronautics degree program as enrolled in by the student who wrote this report. There were several topics looked at for this project including increased visual intraocular pressure and other impairments during human spacefl9ight, the effects on space travel of the increase commercialization of the space programs around the world, the utilization of flight simulators by NASA and the… [read more]


Aeronautics National Space Craft Program Proposal Establishment Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,747 words)
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Aeronautics

National Space Craft Program Proposal

Establishment of a Special committee on Special development

Apollo 1 (as-204)

Apollo 7 (as 205)

Apollo 9 (as 504)

Apollo 10 (as 505)

Apollo 11 (as 506)

Apollo 12 (as 507)

Apollo 13 (as 508)

Apollo 14 (as 509)

Apollo 15 (as 510)

Apollo 16 (as 511)

Apollo 17 (as 512)

Management Lessons

Apollo… [read more]


Is Space Exploration Necessary? Research Paper

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¶ … Against Deep-Space Exploration

In April 2010, U.S. President Barack Obama announced his intention to support continued space exploration as a fundamentally valuable human endeavor. More specifically, President Obama reiterated his belief that the nation should commit itself to putting a man on Mars much the way the nation did in connection with the effort to land a man… [read more]


Columbus Discovering the Americas Essay

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Scientific Discoveries That Changed the World

Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton radically altered thoughts regarding the earth's place in the universe. Astronomy underwent a significant change in much the same way as the natural world did when Columbus discovered the Americas. In the same sense as Columbus' discovery, Galileo and Newton did not simply challenge traditional ideas about the world, they offered considerable proof. Columbus discovered new land and Galileo and Newton discovered new aspects of the universe that forced the world to realize that there is more to it than they once believed. These men were "on their own" for all intents and purposes; the world did not readily embrace ideas that challenged conventional thought. They had the character to persevere and the world benefited as a result. Just as the world had to face the fact that the Earth was not flat, the world had to face the fact that the Earth was not the center of the universe.

Galileo's discoveries forced society to realize certain things about the universe. The universe was thought to be smaller than it is and from the days of Aristotle, people believed the Earth was the center of all things. Galileo discovered the supernova, which supported a new notion that things were happening and changes were occurring in "distant parts of the universe" (Pasachoff 40). While this notion makes perfect sense to us today, in his day and time, Galileo was going against all traditional thinking. He was speaking out against the greatest minds the world had known up until that point. He was a lone voice fighting for the "paradoxes of science against the tyranny of common sense" (316 Boorstin). To those that could not see what he saw, he was nothing more than a madman. Entertaining such thoughts would mean thinking about the Earth and the universe in a completely different way and that was difficult to do.

However, Galileo saw many things and made many astonishing revelations about the universe that made traditional thinking seem less plausible. When he discovered sunspots, he stumbled upon more trouble for himself in the form of debate. Galileo butted heads with Chrisoph Scheiner, a supporter of Aristotelian physics firmly believed the "Sun itself was perfect and unmarked, which meant that the spots had to be caused by something between the Sun and Earth" (Goldsmith 29). Galileo disagreed, arguing that the spots were on the Sun and he proudly published his theory. This move was dangerous because Galileo was challenging more than Aristotle; he was defying the Church. Galileo did not stop there and went on to proclaim that the Earth was a moving object in the universe. His book, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief Systems of the World, openly discussed his theory about the Earth. While we can look at this book today as one of the most significant books published in the scientific world, it was nothing but "disaster" (35) for Galileo. The pope hated the book and the ideas it supported… [read more]


Philosophy on Life Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (1,692 words)
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Personal Beliefs -- Philosophy of Life

Origin and Nature of the Universe

To the best of our current ability to make meaningful assumptions about the origin and nature of the universe, it seems that the universe started out approximately 10 billion years ago as an explosion of energy. During the 20th century, astronomers and astrophysicists learned exactly what happened from… [read more]


Structure of the Universe Essay

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Structure of the Universe

From the beginning of time mankind had been fascinated with the Universe and the wonders of the sky. The first reports of astronomers existing had been in the early ages in Egypt, as people believed that the sun and the moon had been of great importance. With time, people evolved, astronomy also evolved along and astronomers had continuously become better by analyzing earth and the surrounding planets.

The early Egyptians had been very limited when regarding their astronomy knowledge. Egypt had been considered to be the center of the Universe, while the stars were enormous lamps. One of the reasons which stopped Egyptian astronomers from further examining the world of astronomy was that they believed that everything had been controlled by gods.

At about 600 B.C., after some time of constant improvements in the country, the Greeks became interested in astronomy. The Greeks invented the world astronomy after bringing together the words law and star with the intention of providing a somewhat complete documentation on the subject. Despite of the fact that the Greeks had indeed made a huge step for astronomy, some of the information supplied by them had been erroneous.

Among the hundreds of great astronomers in the history of mankind, Aristotle is famous for having studied astronomy next to the fact that he had been one of the greatest philosophers ever to live. However, he wrongfully considered that the Universe had been composed of four essential elements: earth, water, fire and air. Furthermore, he believed that the heavenly object, such as the sun and the moon, had been perfect by having a fifth essential element in their composition, named ether.

In the more civilized world people began to pay more attention to astronomy and the results were beginning to show, as Nicholas Copernicus, the Polish astronomer, put a stop to the belief that the Earth had been the center of the Universe. He did that by presenting the world's first heliocentric model, in which all the planets revolved around the sun, then believed to be the center of the Universe.

The world had been advancing when regarding astronomy, with people from all countries being attracted to the topic. Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei had been determined to build a device that would assist him in watching heavenly objects more carefully. By working intensely, he managed to build the world's first telescope and to be able to look at the moon and at the sun. After inspect both the sun and the moon he discovered sun spots and craters, thus proving Aristotle's theory of the heavenly objects as being flawless as wrong. Galileo's discovery had not been appreciated by the rest of the world, as the people of the 16th century had been reluctant from accepting any breakthrough that would influence the previous theories. After Galileo mad his discovery public, he had been punished…… [read more]


Rhetorical Analysis of the Ideologies of Gore's an Inconvenient Truth Term Paper

Term Paper  |  40 pages (11,687 words)
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¶ … Inconvenient Truth

Former Vice President Al Gore, who, in his documentary film on global warming, by director Davis Guggenheim, an Inconvenient Truth (2006), introduces himself, "I am Al Gore, I used to be the next president of the United States," won an Academy Award for the documentary. It is not the first time that a controversial documentary film… [read more]


Compare and Contrast Atmospheres on Mars and Venus to the Earths Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,702 words)
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¶ … atmospheres on Mars and Venus and compare and contrast them with the Earth's weather. Mars and Venus are Earth's closest neighbors, and it could be assumed their weather is similar to Earth's weather, but nothing could be further from the truth. The weather on Mars and Venus is far different from Earth's, and cannot support life, as we… [read more]


Spaceship Two Term Paper

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Spaceship 2 and the Push for Low Earth Orbit Vehicle Development

The Spaceship 2 project is the first privately funded space exploration project to achieve the goal of entering sub-orbital space. From a development perspective, this project was designed to encourage private interests to become involved in space exploration. More specifically, the project represents an attempt to explore all possible options relative to the future of space flight, both privately and publicly funded. Aiming to make spaceflight more accessible, Spaceship 2 carries a crew of two and up to six passengers. The spacecraft will be carried into space by a separate vehicle, dubbed "White Knight," which is in development stages currently (Virgin Galactic, 2011).

The Spaceship 2 project also represents a privately funded foray into the development of commercialized space flight, which is something that is just now on the horizon as a viable option. The project is a collaboration between many different people and funding sources, including Virgin's Richard Branson and Microsoft's Paul Allen (Virgin Galactic, 2011). Eventually an entire fleet of spaceships will be created that are centered on these original ideas and innovations. The project is a dry run so to speak of the future spaceflight programs in which certain design and implementation flaws are worked out and the project can be streamlined into a future commercial venture. As far as a timeline, the project was projected to produce results in 2008, when the aircraft was slated for rollout. However, the project was delayed and the first flight of Spaceship 2 did not occur until 2010. In early 2011, the program moved forward wit its initial flight of the spaceship in a specific configuration.

Looking at the program itself, from a critical perspective, it has followed many of the same lines as the X Prize creators have drawn out relative to commercial spaceflight vehicles (Virgin Galactic, 2011). This is to say that the X Prize has been much of the central motivation for the initial project, which includes the ship's predecessor, Spaceship 1. Since the Space Shuttle Program is no longer and now that NASA has really no other short or medium term direction relative to space flight, travel, and exploration by humans, the Spaceship 2 project is alone in scope and scale, and offers humans the ability to fly into space in the near future. Therefore, looking at the investors and the market involved with this project, there can really be no specific timeline for development, since there is no competition to the project.

However, as people begin to expect that spaceflight will be within reach for the general public over the next generation, the development of the Spaceship 1 program will be an important step toward the commercialization of space flight and sub-orbital experiences. Looking at the way NASA developed its spaceflight program, the Spaceship 2 project is leaps and bounds ahead. This is to say that design, implementation, and testing is far quicker within the private sector for this industry than it has historically… [read more]


Astroarchaeology There Is Little Doubt Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,157 words)
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But even Hawkins admits that most scientists are sure the pre-Columbians knew more than was written down even by the early historians. "Toward the end of the Conquest they (the Mayan) even gave deliberately wrong information to protect their knowledge" (Hawkins 1983 68).

In fact, the pre-Mayans had mirrors, dull though they now seem to be. Did they make a sort of telescope with mirrors to better view the stars? Hawkins doesn't want to speculate, especially since no object that might have been used as an eyepiece has been found. However, Hawkins notes that:

When someone points out that the glyph for Venus in the Tajin panels is sectored like the moon, and that Venus through a telescope shows phases like the moon, I am equally baffled. Present-day eyesight cannot detect the crescent shape of Venus morning star -- it is far too small. We have no reason to expect pre-Columbian eyesight to be any better than ours. Perhaps, and this is only a speculation, they reasoned that if Venus was really a globe like the moon it ought to show phases like the moon (Hawkins 1983 68).

That sort of thinking gives rise to the sort of speculation Stearns attributes to Arguelles.

But speculations require proof, and in this case there is none. There are, however, several additional and suggestive monuments that may provide sufficient suggestion for the 'intuitives' to construct such predictions, based on Mayan astrology, as the 2012 doomsday scenario. One of these is Chichen Itza in Yucatan. There, the grand staircase runs "toward the most northerly point on the horizon reached by this planet" (Hawkins 1983 69). Although the observatory is badly ruined, it is possible to see the halls of windows as a sort of viewing tube; priests looking from one window sightline to another would see the northernmost setting of Venus through one, the southernmost through the other.

Another great Mayan city, Uxmal, also offers a sort of Venusian vista that could be made into more than it actually was, or less. There, a ruin known as the governor's palace hosts another Venus lineup, this one also involving an eight-year cycle. The sightlines involve a phallic stone, "a two-headed jaguar altar, and on the far horizon, rising above the jungle treetops, the line touches the ancient, so far unexcavated, temple mound of Nohpat"(Hawkins 1983 69). Hawkins does not pretend to know what, specifically, all this means. He does contend that "enough clues are left to show the imprint of the cosmos on those civilizations. Astronomical numbers whirled in their minds, and their lives were dominated by the sun, moon, Mars and Venus-Quetzalcoatl" (Hawkins 1983 69)

Conclusion

It was noted earlier that the Mayan destroyed much of their knowledge rather than give it to the Conquistadores. Arguelles, however, is Mexican. Just as, I am told, most people who live in the area in Ireland can tell you exactly where their great hero of 1000 years ago, Brian Boru, is buried, perhaps native Mexicans have somehow… [read more]


Aviation Project - Spacex Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,108 words)
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But meanwhile as the SpaceX Dragon is currently berthed / docked on the ISS, off-loading science materials and other supplies for the ISS, down on Planet Earth SpaceX is testing yet another revolutionary technology -- a rocket that is reusable and can take off and land vertically. On March 7, the "Grasshopper" reusable rocket roared off the launch pad and soared to 262.8 feet, and then it hovered for about half a minute and slowly inched back down to the launch pad for a perfect landing on its permanent steel and aluminum legs. Why is a reusable rocket that can land back on the spot it took off from an important innovation? Charles Black writes in SEN that enabling rockets to return to their launch pads avoids "…the need…to retrieve rocket parts from the ocean" and lowers costs (Black, 2013). All the tests for the "Grasshopper"; technically, this reusable rocket is called a "vertical takeoff vertical landing" (VTVL) rocket, Black explains. The SpaceX press release after the most recent VTVL launch explained that the Grasshopper will enable "…a launched rocket to land intact, rather than burning up upon reentry to the Earth's atmosphere" (Black, p. 2).

The Dragon's details

The Dragon can carry over 2,300 pounds of "pressurized and unpressurized cargo" to the ISS, and can bring over 3,000 pounds back to earth (Ra, 2013). The payload going up to the ISS is extremely important because valuable science investigations are ongoing on the ISS. The Dragon has three main elements: a) the nosecone protects the vessel and the docking adaptor during its flight to the ISS; b) the spacecraft itself, which will house a crew (with a "habitable cabin") and the cargo including the "service section (avionics, the RCS system, parachutes and other support materials); and the "Trunk," which carries "unpressurized" cargo and which supports the solar arrays that provide electricity for the craft (Ra, p. 2).

The Dragon has 18 thrusters for maneuvering, and it uses nitrogen tetroxide / monomethylhydrazine as propellants, Ra explains. Once in space, the Dragon has two large solar arrays to provide electricity and for re-entry into the earth's atmosphere the Dragon has "…the most powerful heat shield in the world," made with PICA-X, which is a variant of NASA's original heat shield (Ra, p. 2). And the crew has an "escape system" which the Space Shuttle program did not offer.

In conclusion, the SpaceX engineers ran into some problems during the design and development of the Falcon 9 and the Dragon, but they were ironed out and this space transportation system SpaceX has created is cheaper and more effective than previous NASA-built systems. It bodes well for the future of America's space program that a private commercial company could build systems that work well and cost less.

Works Cited

Black, Charles. (2013). SpaceX tests its vertical takeoff and vertical landing rocket. SEN.

Retrieved March 18, 2013, from http://www.sen.com.

Money, Stewart. (2012). Why SpaceX is setting the pace in the commercial space race. NBC

News.… [read more]


Gemini Project NASA's Gemini Program Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,740 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

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Kennedy Space Center. Retrieved from: http://www-pao.ksc.nasa.gov/history/gemini/gemini-manned.htm

Gemini Mission I (2000) John F. Kennedy Space Center. Retrieved from: http://www-pao.ksc.nasa.gov/history/gemini/gemini-manned.htm

Gemini Mission II (2000) John F. Kennedy Space Center. Retrieved from: http://www-pao.ksc.nasa.gov/history/gemini/gemini-manned.htm

Gemini Mission III (2000) John F. Kennedy Space Center. Retrieved from: http://www-pao.ksc.nasa.gov/history/gemini/gemini-manned.htm

Gemini Mission IV (2000) John F. Kennedy Space Center. Retrieved from: http://www-pao.ksc.nasa.gov/history/gemini/gemini-manned.htm

Gemini Mission V (2000) John F. Kennedy Space Center. Retrieved from: http://www-pao.ksc.nasa.gov/history/gemini/gemini-manned.htm

Gemini Mission VI (2000) John F. Kennedy Space Center. Retrieved from: http://www-pao.ksc.nasa.gov/history/gemini/gemini-manned.htm

Gemini Mission VII (2000) John F. Kennedy Space Center. Retrieved from: http://www-pao.ksc.nasa.gov/history/gemini/gemini-manned.htm

Gemini Mission VIII (2000) John F. Kennedy Space Center. Retrieved from: http://www-pao.ksc.nasa.gov/history/gemini/gemini-manned.htm

Gemini Mission XII (2000) John F. Kennedy Space Center. Retrieved from: http://www-pao.ksc.nasa.gov/history/gemini/gemini-manned.htm

Appendix A

(Source: John F. Kennedy Space Center, 2000)

Gemini III, Molly Brown - March 23, 1965 - Virgil I. Grissom, John W. Young

4 hours, 52 minutes 31 seconds - First manned Gemini flight, three orbits.

Gemini IV - June 03-07, 1965 - James A. McDivitt, Edward H. White II - 4 days 1 hour 56 minutes 12 seconds - Included first extravehicular activity (EVA) by an American; White's "space walk" was a 22 minute EVA exercise.

Gemini V - August 21-29, 1965 - L. Gordon Cooper, Jr., Charles Conrad, Jr.

7 days 22 hours 55 minutes 14 seconds - First use of fuel cells for electrical power; evaluated guidance and navigation system for future rendezvous missions. Completed 120 orbits.

Gemini VII -… [read more]


Copernican Revolution Has a Pivotal Term Paper

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These two fields have never found going in harmony (Brooke ppn 8-12).

Thomas Kuhn

In 1962 Thomas Kuhn, in his book, the structure of scientific revolutions, projected a radical model of scientific progress throughout ages. He mainly addressed the question of presence of science as a source of finding the truth about nature. He tried to explain that there is also another possibility of scientific development, which can be the drive to solve the puzzles put forward by nature when every time one untangled piece leads to more bewildered labyrinth. Progress of science takes place after refuting once convincingly held proposition and replacing it another brand new idea which is open to be challenged anytime in future. According to Kuhn's model new knowledge swap places with incompatible knowledge (Kuhn pp 215).

Arthur Koestler

Arthur Koestler in his book 'Sleepwalkers', takes us back in the times of Greeks and Egyptians when knowledge, philosophy, science and religion all were in their infancy. He also explains how shifting nature of planets provoked human interest in the motion of planets. So it is mainly the urge of human mind to feed on something call it the process of a falling apple or a shooting star.

The substantial part of Arthur's book put Johannes Kepler in focus. Kepler was exactly the first one in the field scientific knowledge who came up with physical rules and formulas and with the help of which he tried to forecast the precise location of each planet in the sky. His cosmology was perfect from others that it laid on firm grounds of experimentation and correct mathematical equations. The author applauded Kepler in many ways. According to him, Kepler was modest about his knowledge, and was quick to admit his mistakes, a trait which others cosmologists of his time and before were lacking. The knowledge of science is full of mistakes, and one solved puzzle points toward another meticulous direction. In this case, it is important to keep on fixing flaws in first attempt to reach successfully to the real answer (Cesarani, pp 142).

Why some People accept changes late

Change occur all the time, but it can at times be intricate to accept. Since most individuals feel easier with familiar people, spaces, thoughts and situations than we do with new ones, likewise change can appear foreign. However change itself is a procedure, so is the steady progress towards accepting it. It has been found out by researchers that if we want someone to acknowledge change, we must first recognize why they may refuse to accept. By anticipating their probable response to the plan or proposal, we can formulate smart decisions regarding how to instigate the change. There are four elements to understand: emotions are unavoidable, change equals loss, approval requires scheduling and certain aspects increase resistance. The initial response to change is often negative. People seem to automatically scan a new situation for anything that is not to their benefit. Then they complain about it. This negative focus often… [read more]


Earth Extinction Similar to Mars Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Some scientists are looking at the fact that Mars might have been destroyed similar to how Earth was once hit by an asteroid. They are exploring the fact that Mars may have some living bacteria that Earth might be able to use. There may similarities in Earth and Mars. This might be useful. However, if the people in Earth do not begin to take care of Earth, then it will be destroyed too (Warmflash 1). More studies of the Earth may show how the Earth was hit with a meteor and possible what scientists can help to save the earth (This Week 1). In the book, "The Case of Mars" it discusses how Mars might actually have living microbes. Many scientists do believe the Earth and Mars both were destroyed similarly. Finding out if there are bacteria or other substances that Earth could use might be beneficial for saving Earth from being destroyed. Jennifer Vegas, and ABC News Specialist, states that Mars is the most similar planet to the Earth. "It has accessible oxygen and water" (Vegas 3). If the earth does get low on oxygen and face extinction, then people from Earth might have to travel to Mars. One of the largest problems facing Earth is oxygen. People have been warned about not cutting down the forests, but the problem continues. If needed scientists want to know more about Mars, in case something happens.

In 1996, a team from the Johnson Space Center analyzed a Mars meteorite and found possible evidence for microorganisms. Since that discovery, scientists have learned microbes are extremely hearty here on Earth. They thrive in superheated water, freezing glaciers and nuclear reactors" (Vegas 3).

If Earth is destroyed by an asteroid or meteor, then perhaps some people might find life again in Mars seems far likely but then who knows what might happen in 2050 or even 3000. The possibilities that Earth could be destroyed seem possible when you consider than Earth was destroyed once.

Works Cited

Asteroid or Comet Triggered Largest Mass Extinction in Earth's History, Foreshadowing Fate of Dinosaurs" Press Release Feb 22, 2001

Davis, Sumner W. Dr. "A Model of Thermonuclear Extinction on Planet Mars" Nuclear Age Peace Foundation 2002

Matthews, Robert. "Meteor Clue to End of Middle East Civilizations Found" The Telegraph London Nov 11, 2001 News Release

Meteorite Frequency and Cambrian Explosion?" San Francisco Examiner Natural Science Highlights March 15, 200

Moomaw, Bruce. "Mars Invades Earth" Terradaily June 4, 2001

Viegas, Jennifer "Humans: 21st Century Martians" ABC News

Warmflash, David M. "Why Microbes Matter" Terradaily Sep 4, 2001

Weiss, Peter H. "Dead Mars, Dying Earth" The Crossing Press 1999

OUTLINE

WILL EARTH BE EXTINCT SOMEDAY?

Will Earth Suffer the Same Fate as…… [read more]


Global Positioning Satellites the History Term Paper

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com).

Ephemeris data contains information on the satellite status; its remaining life expectancy, fitness and performance. The ephemeris data is vitally required for the effective management of the global positioning satellites system and thus, is continually communicated by every satellite. Additionally, the data provides precise current time and date, without which, the receptor application would not be able to calculate… [read more]


Gaia Theory: A Critical Analysis Term Paper

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Many of the specific mechanisms detailed by Lovelock have, indeed, been confirmed by chemists and biologists. On one hand, that might be taken as confirmation of Gaia theories. Alternatively, critics would argue that these phenomena simply represent the sum total of all the adaptations evolved by biological life forms successful enough to have survived long enough to be catalogued by Homo sapiens.

Ninety-nine percent of all biological life forms ever to have existed on Earth eventually became extinct, and the remaining one percent are simply, by definition, the best adapted to life on their home planet. They evolved in order to thrive under terrestrial conditions, and they may very well also have some effect on the Earth, reciprocally. However, unless the Earth is competing for reproductive success the way all forms of biological life forms do, sometimes co-evolving with others forms, it is difficult to maintain that this supports the living Earth idea.

Ultimately, as pointed out by the late Stephen J. Gould (and others) it may just boil down to the semantics of metaphorical expression, rather than issues capable of scientific proof or disproof.

References

American Association for the Advancement of Science. Science (Feb 3/98)

Gaia Hypothesis to Get Some Respect? Accessed August 20, 2004, at http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1P1:28868503&num=18&ctrlInfo=Round5b%3AProd%3ASR%3AResult&ao=

Enteractive. Earth Explorer (Feb 1/95) Gaia: Theory of a Living Earth. Accessed August 20, 2004, at http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1P1:28013470&num=11&ctrlInfo=Round5b%3AProd%3ASR%3AResult&ao=

Gould, S.J. (1991) Bully for Brontosaurus: Reflections in Natural History

New York: W.W. Norton & Co.

Lovelock, J. (1991) GAIA: The Practical Science of Planetary Medicine,

New York: Oxford University Press

Smolin, L. (1997) The Life of the Cosmos. New York: Oxford University Press.… [read more]


Mars Story Term Paper

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Manned Mission to Mars

It was Meretzky's turn in the exercise pod again. For reasons that IRIS, the ship's diagnostic computer, could not figure out, Meretzky had been losing bone density faster than any of his colleagues. For weeks now, IRIS had been rearranging the crew's schedule to accommodate Meretzky's extra time in the exercise pod -- Meretzky had also… [read more]


Logistics of Building a Lunar Research Paper

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A number of other potential disadvantages, the researcher asserts, relate to technical requirements MacCallum notes that have not yet been resolved, including oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange and the precise materials to permit the right amount of sunlight in, yet also block out excessive, harmful sunrays (Lunar Gardening).

The exact type of plants to be grown in lunar greenhouses are not yet confirmed, however, scientists predicts green plants, rather than plants like tomatoes will intitally be grown (Greenhouses for Mars). Figure 4 portrays a picture of peas grown onboard the International Space Station, one of the plants projected to one day be grown in lunar greenhouses.

Figure 4: Photo of Peas Grown Onboard the International Space Station (Greenhouses for Mars).

Another plant currently being considered for lunar greenhouses, the arabidopsis, a member of brassicaceae family, includes significant crops such as cabbage, radish and rape, however, does not possess any agronomic significance. Routinely utilized in genetics and molecular biology, Arabidopsis offers essential advantages for basic research. "It possesses a rapid life cycle (about 8 weeks from germination to mature seed) and one of smallest genome (125 Mb) amongst plant species" (Arabidopsis Seeds). Plants such as the arabidopsis, genetically optimized for research on the moon's surface, may be among the first earthly life forms astronauts colonize the moon. Scientists predict that plants such as the arabidopsis, which adapt to survival in hostile environments, may contribute to feeding future human colonists, as they simultaneously condition their life-giving atmosphere. During future lunar explorations, the arabidopsis plants and similar ones may also piggyback in microhabitats.

In the foreground of Figure 5, researchers positioned two trays of germinating Arabidopsis seeds among the rocks at the Haughton-Mars Project site in far-northern Canada, a polar region geographically similar to Shackleton Crater at the south pole of the moon (Greenhouses for Mars). -Mars Project, please visit:

Figure 5: Germinating Arabidopsis Seeds at Canadian Polar Region (Greenhouses for Mars).

In "Tulips on The Moon," along with presenting the concept that tulips will one day be among plants grown in lunar greenhouses, Bernard Foing (2005), Chief Scientist at the European Space Agency, also Project Scientist for SMART-1, a spacecraft orbiting the Moon and mapping the lunar surface topography and mineralogy during 2005, purports that when humans return to the moon, they will likely transport plants with them. Prior to this time, however, as NASA continues to support research for lunar greenhouses, the researcher asserts, the potential for a spacecraft to approach the lunar pole, spit out a pod and extend a number of tubular arms to bury itself in the soil, and begin to grow plants in preparation for man's return to the moon (Sorenson) may become a real vision.

WORKS CITED

Arabidopsis Seeds. (2006). 17 Apr. 2009 .

Foing, Bernard. "Tulips On The Moon." Space Daily, Distributed by United Press

International.

(2005).

Retrieved 13 Apr. 2009 . Greenhouses for Mars. (2004, February 25).

. Hemert, Grant Van . (2009, January 1). Plant Engineering Live. Water/wastewater:

achieving the three levels of redundancy. 13… [read more]


Is NASA Still Needed? Research Paper

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¶ … National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has provided the United States with some of the most captivating moments in our nation's history. It has inspired generations of bright minds to think beyond the confines of the planet we live on. It has expanded our knowledge of the known universe, and through that knowledge, has imparted to us a… [read more]


Economics of Producing Return Fuel FR Research Paper

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¶ … Economics of a Fuel-Producing Mars

Human beings have long since been fascinated with the stars. Myths tell of their origin. Legends tell of their destinies. So it's no surprise that we are on the very edge of a breakthrough in the exploration of the Final Frontier as Gene Roddenberry's Captan Picard of Star Trek called it. Space is a dangerous place, so before any excursion to another planet, let alone another star system, we must have adequate safety measures to get our explorers there and, more importantly, get them home.

Americans landed on feet-first on the moon in 1969 -- or didn't, depending on your perspective -- and with that achievement, Mars became the next target for American space superiority. But a trip to Mars requires significantly more time, more money, and carries with it more risk. The first obstacle is first and foremost the 220 million kilometers between Earth and Mars. Conventional rocket technology only allows for a small launch window every two years and even then, a round-trip between the planets would require almost a two-year commitment including travel, time spent on the ground, and waiting for the right alignment for a return trip. Aside from the exposure of Astronauts to high-levels of cosmic radiation, extended weightlessness would wreak havoc on bone density, and the psychological effects would be completely unknown. Astronauts and flight command alike would need to carefully ration food, water, and fuel to allow for a return journey. Damage to the stores of any of the stores above would prove lethal.

Thus, conventional rockets have yet to put a human on Martian soil. A more efficient delivery vehicle could get us there faster, but if a remote refueling station were built in orbit or upon the Martian surface then ships traveling to the red planet could burn longer and harder knowing they could swap energy cells, refill tanks, recharge batteries or whatever power source they were using. Ships would be lighter, further increasing their efficiency. Greater accessibility would boost trips to the surface exponentially, building upon new developments in rocket technology. Science fiction could very well become science fact. but, as every house needs a foundation, any fuel producing base on Mars would need infrastructure.

Given Mars' differing geological structure, a mining operation will be limited by the minerals and resources found on the planet. While laser analysis has estimated where the richest deposits are, it will ultimately require physical exploration of the soil. Explorative core sample would need to be taken and processed before a large-scale operation could begin. Most of the initial work would need to be performed by remote vehicles and robots again, to minimize the risk to humans. Processing and production equipment could be designed and built on Earth, then shipped via rocket to unpack itself after landing on Mars. After a small stockpile of fuel was processed and stored, a manned mission to the Martian surface could build more permanent facilities for larger operations and more frequent trips,… [read more]


Does God Exist? Journal

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¶ … God Exist?

The debate as to whether God exists or not has gone on for centuries. Those convinced that there is no God turn to human misery, violence against innocents, natural disasters and other horrific events and argue that if there was a God, He wouldn't allow such cruel events to happen. Those who argue that there is definitely a God, say that He created the earth and the universe but He doesn't seek to control every event every moment and even though He was the Creator of all things in the Cosmos; in other words, He can't be blamed for events that happen on Earth.

If God Exists, then why…. What did ministers and other spiritual leaders say about God, or example, following the terrorists attaches on the United States on September 11, 2001? An article in the journal America quotes Mother Angelica (the Catholic nun who founded the Eternal Word Television Network, EWTN) said that there must be a distinction between "God's desirous will and permissive will" (Waznak, 2001, p. 1). Mother Angelica turned to the words of philosopher / theologian Thomas Aquinas, who stated: "God… neither wills evil to be done, or wills it not to be done, but wills to permit evil to be done, and that is a good" (Waznak, p. 1).

On September 16, 2001, Pope John Paul II told the people, "I pray that the Virgin Mary might help them [the Americans] not to fall into temptation of hatred and violence, but rather to commit themselves to justice and peace" (Waznak, p. 2).

But do those quotations prove that God exists? No. They are likely fairly typical of how the clergy responds to difficult questions. Aside from the fact that those remarks don't prove anything, they all assert that God is inexistence, but humans fail when it come to fully explaining extreme happenings that hurt people.

Meanwhile, Donald R. Morse claims God does exist and his reasoning is five-fold: a) the Earth's size is "just as it has to be… the only known planet that has an atmosphere containing the right mixture of gases to sustain plant, animal and human life" [hence, how did Earth get this way without a Creator?]; b) the universe began with the big bang, the "singular…… [read more]


Jocelyn Bell Burnell Term Paper

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Jocelyn Bell Burnell was born in Belfast on July 15, 1943. Her interest in astronomy sparked early in that it was her father who constructed the Armagh Observatory near her home. She attended Mount School in York, Great Britain and then took her studies to the University of Glasgow in Scotland. In 1965, she graduated with a Bachelor of Science and went on the Cambridge University to study under Antony Hewish. Her first two years were spent aiding in the construction of a radio telescope that would find and record radio signals. In addition to this, Bell Burnell studied newly discovered quasars, which are galaxy-size clusters of stars or star formations that appear to as single stars because they are so far away from Earth. Bell Burnell was to study the pulses of these stars. During this study, and with the new telescope, Bell Burnell observed curious activity regarding these pulses. They were not typical to the pulses she had been observing. Her observation is described as "curious variations in signals which had been recorded at about midnight the night before" (Branca). These pulses were coming from a direction opposite our sun and appeared odd because "strong changes in signals from quasars occur as a result of the solar wind and thus are usually weak during the night" (Branca). When Bell Burnell told Hewish about the problem, he thought the new telescope might be at fault. After several tests, everyone had to realize something they had never considered before, which was the fact that "stars could emit radio signals" (Branca). Branca notes that Bell Burnell studies the activity precisely for about a month and established "the signals continued and remained fixed with respect to the stars -- which meant they were coming from somewhere other than the earth or the sun" (Branca). From August to November, she recorded very strong signals that occurred regularly.

The regularity of the pulses is what astounded and confused the research team under Hewish. Branca notes that they felt "obliged, at least initially, to consider the possibility that the source of the signals was a beacon from some extraterrestrial civilization" (Branca). Until further research was done, the team referred to the pulsars as LGM1, which stands for Little Green Men 1. With more time and study, Bell Burnell discovered more pulses in other parts of the sky. By January the following year, the research team felt confident that they had discovered something new in the heavens. In February, the team announced this discovery to the world and Ruskin says the announcement was "sensational" (Ruskin). The name pulsar…… [read more]


Scientists Who Study the Evolution Term Paper

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Scientists who study the evolution of our planet sometimes look to other planets for data that is not available on Earth. That is because the Earth is a dynamic environment where climactic changes, erosion, and the shifting of huge tectonic plates deep within the planet's crust have eliminated any evidence of certain aspects of planetary processes. Mars is no longer climactically active and therefore may offer clues as to its early evolution and development, as well as that of the Earth.

By analyzing soil and rock samples collected by the Mars rovers launched from Earth to explore that planet, scientists compare those analyses with elements of certain geological and chemical processes known to have occurred on Earth. However, sometimes, initial assumptions about those processes lead to confusing situations that make more difficult to learn about the geology of one planet by studying another planet.

For one example, on Earth, volcanic eruptions releases vast amounts of carbon dioxide, which is subsequently dissolved into the waters of the oceans, where it forms limestone (or calcium carbonate) buried in underwater sedimentary rock. For years, scientists hoping to understand how Mars could have supported an environment that included water have focused on the same carbon cycle that characterizes oceanic environments on Earth. Independent evidence has suggested that Mars did indeed contain water at one time in the past, but scientists have not been able to explain the absence of sedimentary calcium carbonate on the Martian surface because that is a universal feature of water environments on this planet.

That paradox seems to have been solved by the finding of a mineral known as jarosite on Mars, contained in samples collected by the rover Opportunity. Since jarosite is known to form only in strongly acidic water, planetary scientists at Harvard University and MIT realized that…… [read more]


Challenger Space Shuttle Disaster Term Paper

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Challenger Space Shuttle Disaster

It was on the twenty eight of January, 1986 that the American space shuttle, Challenger, exploded in the air, killing the seven astronauts, five men and two women who were on board the shuttle. The shuttle had taken off from Cape Canaveral in Florida, just minutes before, and the entire episode was telecast to the nation,… [read more]


Moon Landing Conspiracy Theory Term Paper

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Moon Landing Conspiracy Theory

The aim of this paper is to present elements that might point towards a possible conspiracy theory related to the Apollo mission to land a human being on the moon and return safely on Earth. Among the topics that will be discussed we shall include background information, evidence of conspiracy and possible reasons that lead to the existence of this conspiracy theory. In the end, the conclusion will make reference to the issues related to the persons involved - politicians and the suspect disappearance conditions of the staff and astronauts.

Human beings were always led by instincts of exploring the surrounding areas and space was a particular attraction in human history. The Moon, as the largest visible cosmic entity, has filled legends and history of mankind history and reaching it, landing on the Moon, exploring it or inhabiting it had been a human obsession for plenty of years.

The Apollo mission that occurred in 1969 had managed, according to NASA officials, to land two men on the Moon, Earth's natural satellite, and recover them safely back on Earth. However, there are different opinions about the authenticity of the moon exploration process.

Astronauts: The space crew consisted of three persons: Commander Neil Alden Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin Eugene 'Buzz' Aldrin. The Apollo 11 mission was the fifth human space flight and the third human moon voyage. However, the most defining aspect of this mission is that this was the first crew to manage to put foot on the moon earth and interact physically with the moon atmosphere.

Landing a man on the moon represented a national goal for the American people, as it was put in a public speech by President Kennedy at a meeting in 1961. The full relative citation of Kennedy's speech would be discussed later on. Nevertheless, according to recent evidence, there is an opinion that the entire mission was a bluff, due to the fact that America needed the accomplishment of the national ideal and in order to distract the attention of public opinion from other current matters - wars (the War in Vietnam was not developing well from the beginning, while the Cold War provided even more reasons to worry), social aspects, important budget spending etc..

Agency: The main agency behind the Apollo mission was the NASA. It was responsible for achieving all mission - related tasks, starting with the fund raising, spacecraft construction, crew selection and instruction, publicity. The specialists discuss the fact that NASA could lie behind this national hoax, so as to meet the immediate objectives for which the agency was intended - attract the attention of the entire mankind and transmit the idea of American superiority over other nations, and other competitors, notably the Soviet Union.

It was a well-known fact that America and the Soviet Union were involved in a cold war and a superpower struggles - meaning that a deep and intense competition was held between the two states,… [read more]


Circumference and Radius of Earth Term Paper

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¶ … Circumference & Radius of Earth

In order to evaluate radius and circumference of Earth it was chosen to measure the shadow of sun from gnomon on September, 17th. The length of the shadow was approximately 39.8 cm

We can find the angle ? using simple trigonometric formula for arcos.

A arcos (30.3/50)

Since we know that sun angle for Sep. 17th in New Mexico site is equal to 57.19 (degrees) we can evaluate the radius of Earth.

R= (L*360)/(?*2?), where L=518 kilometers (distance between Denver, CO and site in New Mexico)

R= (518*360)/(4.49*3.14159*2)

R=6610,075 kilometers

References give the following data for Radius of Earth

R=6356,755 kilometers (polar radius)

R=6378,140 kilometers (equatorial radius)

So we can evaluate our result, since both locations are closer to equator then to North Pole we should take equatorial radius for estimation:

error is equal to ?=|6378,140-6610,075|/6378,140

Circumference of earth using my measurements is equal to L= 2?R which is L=2*3.14159*6610,075 kilometers or L=41532.291 kilometers

Why did you have to do this at local solar noon, that is, when the Sun is due…… [read more]


Amateur Radio Term Paper

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Amateur radio has long been a part of the American broadcasting landscape. Current advents in technology have changed in some ways, the manner in which people communicate through amateur radio. The purpose of this discussion is to examine Amateur radio as it relates to what it is, how it works, who uses it, the educational application and the telecommunications systems… [read more]


Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Term Paper

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Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

Cosmic Microwave

Most of the cosmic rays comprise of the nuclei of atoms which have really been hastened to increasingly high speeds and hence emit energies by ignition of stars or potent strong magnetic fields available in the space. Most of the cosmic rays emit energies to the magnitude of millions or even billions of electron volts, but some are considered to be really more vigorous. Such awfully energetic particles become even rare at the highest level of energies and other than for the 3 ultra powerful energy particles, none of the cosmic rays have appeared to be with energy exceeding 30,000,000 to 40,000,000 trillion of electron volts. This is partly because of the rate events that can fasten the particles to such enormous energies, and partly due to such particles gradually leaving some energy since they are in collision with the omnipresent cosmic microwave background radiation. 2.

Penzias and Wilson could win the Nobel Prize in 1978 for Physics as a result of their unexpected findings relating to the 'excessive noise' that is presently regarded as the cosmic microwave background radiation. 7. The engineers of Bell Labs, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in the year 1965 quite unexpectedly found a weak, smooth signal being emitted from throughout the sky. Presently, it has been recorded by NASA's COBE satellite. There are over billions of such photons for each atom present in the universe; however the energy being radiated by them is about 10 million times less than that of a 100-watt light bulb. Almost one percent of the noise coming out from TV while tuning between stations is because of the interactions with that of the cosmic background radiation. The concept of big bang as an evidence is around us. 6.

The cosmic microwave background radiation is the most ancient fossil that has been found ever, and it bears much evidence with regard to the Universe's origin. The cosmic microwave background -- CMB is considered as shower of photons spreading out all directions. Such photons are the exhilaration of the Big Bang, and the ancient photons that has ever been visualized. Their long process of evolution has lasted over 99.99% of the Universe's age and initiated when the Universe was about 1000 times smaller in comparison that of present day. The CMB was released by the Universe's hot plasma much prior to the origin of the stars, planets or even the galaxies. The CMB-taken to be the red-shifted relic of the really powerful Big Bang is really an isotropic field of that of the electromagnetic radiation. The background radiation's temperature could be affected by any physical influence which upsets the density or the frequency relating to the electromagnetic radiation. There are three concerned tendencies: Gravity encourages gravitational shifts which could be red and/or blue; changes in density generate heating or compression as well as cooling or that of rarefaction; Velocities are capable of varying the temperature of photons by encouraging Doppler shift at the time of… [read more]


Information Technology Management Case Study

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Obviously, regular meetings at various levels could have identified this major problem at some point long before the failure of the Orbiter by crashing into its destination planet. Regular meetings are especially important involving joint projects with various components of the project being completed by entirely different units. The same principle holds true even in situations involving only two members of the same team performing work that is interdependent to any degree.

3. Why is it important to celebrate the small but important successes?

That probably depends substantially on the person (or people) involved. Generally, working in a team environment produces various forms of interpersonal stress that cannot be allowed to interfere with the team's mission. However, that does not necessarily mean that those stressful incidents or patterns or interpersonal relationships cannot undermine team unity and efficiency in the future. In that respect, celebrating small successes allows members of the team to interact without overriding concerns about project schedules. The opportunity of sharing positive experiences allows individuals and teams to decompress psychologically and to contribute in a positive way toward interpersonal relations within the team. Ideally, team members could use small but important successes to express mutual appreciation and maybe to establish mechanisms to promote optimal communication in the future.

Reference

CNN.com. (1999). "Metric mishap caused loss of NASA orbiter." (September 30, 1999)

Accessed online:

http://articles.cnn.com/1999-09-30/tech/9909_30_mars.metric.02_1_climate-orbiter-spacecraft-team-metric-system?_s=PM:TECH… [read more]


Genesis & Cosmology in Chapter Term Paper

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Also, this creationism tale is scientifically wrong, for it does not take into account the various laws related to physics, nor does it even mention exactly how long it took God to create the earth, the sun, the moon and the stars.

Generally, most modern cosmologists assume that the laws that govern the workings of the world as found on Earth apply throughout the universe, whether within another galaxy, a star system or a planetary system outside of the Milky Way galaxy. Cosmologists also construct cosmological models, being simplified mathematical descriptions of the structure and past history of the universe that incorporates its principle features. Also, these models involve specific properties, such as density and temperature, whose values can only be found by observation.

The main problem with the account of the creation of the universe as found in the Book of Genesis has much to do with time itself. As previously mentioned, this tale in Genesis does not say how long it took God to create the universe. Logically, one can assume that it took billions and billions of years for the universe to achieve its present condition. This is closely related to the "Big Bang" theory, meaning that the universe was created in an instant via an immense explosion or expansion which can still be detected through cosmic microwave background noise. Also, there is hard scientific evidence that the universe is not static but is indeed expanding which supports the idea of the "Big Bang" theory. Exactly how long the universe has been expanding is unknown; also, a number of cosmologists and astronomers are certain that the universe may never stop expanding.

Although the "Big Bang" theory cannot be precisely proven, cosmologists are quite convinced that something of this nature must have occurred to create the universe in which we live today. But according to Genesis, God obviously "thought" the universe into being which raises a very important question-if nothing existed before the creation of the universe, where did God obtain the material to create it in the first place? Without a doubt, the creationism tale in Genesis is completely unscientific and is much closer to being a myth designed by man to satisfy his yearnings to understand the unknown.

In conclusion, the creationism tale in the Book of Genesis completely lacks any and all scientific credibility, for it is told in a very broad manner without any specifics. But most importantly, this tale of creation does not hold up when it is examined from a scientific standpoint, and was obviously designed by ancient human beings who could not explain the universe except in very simple and easy to understand terms.… [read more]


Stars That One Might Observe Term Paper

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Stars that one might observe with the naked eye have a life of their own. Many of the visible stars such as the sun are as old as the universe itself and their formation and lifespan gives clues to the processes of creation and destruction that have fueled the creation of the universe. Stars have a definite structure, defining characteristics, a life cycle, and a place in the universe.

Everyone knows that stars emit light and are, therefore, visible to the naked eye and to astronomers who use technology to observe the photons. A casual observer might even think the stars "twinkle," but this effect is a result of Earth's air movements that change the straight path of the stars' rays. Stars are considered light-emitting or luminous bodies. Their luminosity is "the rate at which a star emits energy" and is measured in watts compared relatively with the luminosity of the sun (Green, 2005, p. 2). Another facet of visibility of stars is their color spectrum. There are six bands that make up the electromagnetic spectrum and stars are capable of emitting all six, but not all of them do. The six bands are radio waves, infrared rays, visible light, ultraviolet rays, X rays, and gamma rays (Green, 2005, p. 3). A star's color is affected by the energy produced by it and measuring the emission lines in the star's electromagnetic spectrum is one way for scientists to determine the temperature and energy of a star.

Stars have many variants such as age, size, mass, and luminosity, but one thing they have in common is that "about 75% of all stars are members of a binary system, a pair of closely spaced stars that orbit each other" (Green, 2005, p. 1). Stars are also grouped together in galaxies such as the Milky Way which hosts more than 100 billion stars. "Three-dimensional computer models of star formation predict that the spinning clouds of dust may break up into two or three blobs; if true, this would explain why the majority of the stars in the Milky Way are paired or in groups of multiple stars" (, p.1). Clearly, the structure and formation of individual stars mimics the structure of other important elements of the universe.

What exactly is a star? "A star is a huge, shining ball in space that produces a tremendous amount of light and other forms of energy. The sun is a star, and it supplies Earth with light and heat energy...The sun and most other stars are made of gas and hot, gaslike substance known as plasma (Green, 2005, p. 1). The characteristics that define stars fall into five categories that are all related and interdependent. These categories are brightness, color, surface temperature, size, and mass. "These characteristics are related to one another in a complex way. Color depends on surface temperature, and brightness depends on surface temperature and size. Mass affects the rate at which a star of a given size produces energy and so affects… [read more]


Gemini Throughout History Research Paper

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This made it possible for the Gemini to effectively dock and perform the necessary requirements for traveling to the moon.

Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than comments from Hacker (1977) who said, "Gemini neared its operational phase, however, things were different. Apollo managers and engineers quickly sought help in various areas. James Church wanted to… [read more]


Big Bang Theory Term Paper

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Big Bang Theory is a theory that attempts to explain the origins of the universe. "Discoveries in astronomy and physics have shown beyond a reasonable doubt that our universe did in fact have a beginning. Prior to that moment there was nothing; during and after that moment there was something: our universe" (All About Science). However, scientists have not been able to establish, beyond that same reasonable doubt, how the universe came into being. One theory is the Big Bang Theory. Currently the Big Bang Theory is the preferred theory about the origins of the universe, but it remains only a theory.

History of the Theory

The Big Bang Theory has been around for just under a century, though it was not fully developed when it originated. George Lemaitre first proposed the idea that the universe began much smaller than it currently is. This idea was reinforced by Edwin Hubble's observations that the universe is currently expanding. Finally, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson's discovery of cosmic radiation seems to support the notion of a Big Bang (National Geographic).

George Lemaitre

George Lemaitre was a Belgian scientist and Catholic Priest. In 1927, he published a paper that suggested that the universe was expanding. While prior scholars had discussed the theory that systems might be expanding, Lemaitre was the first one to really suggest that the universe in which we live is expanding (Soter and Tyson). The idea of an expanding universe is a central component of the Big Bang Theory.

Edwin Hubble

While Lemaitre was able to suggest that the universe was expanding, he could not prove his suggestion. However, Edwin Hubble, an astronomer who had already made a groundbreaking discovery when he proved the existence of galaxies other than the Milky Way, was able to provide that proof. In 1929, Hubble "determined that the farther a galaxy is from Earth, the faster it appears to move away. This notion of an "expanding" universe formed the basis of the Big Bang theory, which states that the universe began with an intense burst of energy at a single moment in time -- and has been expanding ever since" (Space Telescope Science Institute).

Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson

Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson discovered further support for the Big Bang Theory in a different area. While prior researchers had suggested that the universe's continuing expansion helped provide support for a Big Bang, Penzias and Wilson provided a different type of evidence. "The glow of cosmic microwave background radiation, which is found throughout the universe, is thought to be a tangible remnant of leftover light from the big bang. The radiation is akin to that used to transmit TV signals via antennas. But it is the oldest radiation known and may hold many secrets about the universe's earliest moments" (National Geographic).

The Beginning

One of the most difficult concepts of the Big Bang Theory is the idea that the universe was once nothing. According to the Big Bang Theory, somewhere between 10 billion and… [read more]


Twin Stars Twins - Typically Term Paper

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The beginning of the Big Bang can be measured to as far back as 13.7 billion years ago.

9. cosmic microwave background -- The light radiation that has been left over after photons decoupled from matter a mere 300,000 years after the Big Bang.

10. data-intensive simulations -- Series of high performance analysis, simulation, and modeling technologies that address data-driven complexities of various science-related researches; cosmological research being one of them.

11. Population III stars -- Also known as "metal-free stars" or "hyperstars," believed to be a population of highly hot and massive stars with no surface metals, save for those formed in the Big Bang. The stars were said to have formed during in the early universe.

12. "twin" stars -- Binary star system that consists of two stars orbiting a common center of mass. The twins usually comprise of the brighter, primary star and the secondary star.

13. mass equivalent to about 10 suns -- The sun's mass is about 330,000 times Earth, at about 2 x 1030 kilograms. Ten suns would total up to a mass of 2 x 1031 kilograms.

14. black holes -- A region of space where no object can escape, light included.

15. Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory -- LIGO is a facility dedicated to the detection and harnessing of cosmic gravitational waves.

16. gamma-ray bursts -- Gamma ray flashes usually with immense energetic explosions observed at distant galaxies -- the most luminous electromagnetic events in the universe.

17. Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope -- A space observatory used to…… [read more]


Columbia STS-107 Crew Introduction/Space Shuttle Term Paper

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..I feel blessed to be here representing our country and carrying out the research of scientists around the world. This email was sent January 31, 2003, just one day before the horrible tragedy.

Israel's first astronaut, Ilan Ramon was at the age of 48 a father of four and a living legend and honor to his people. Ramon served as a Colonel in Israel's Air Force and was also a fighter pilot. As the son of holocaust survivors, Ramon was persistent, dedicated and courageous by nature. Ramon holds a B.S. In Electronics and Computer Engineering from University of Tel Aviv in 1987. On his foray into space Ramon commented, "I know my flight is very symbolic for the people of Israel, especially the survivors, the Holocaust survivors," said Ramon. "Because I was born in Israel, many people will see this as a dream that is come true."

Not one person new that this would be the last foray into space for the ill-fated shuttle and her crew. The shuttle disintegrated on its return to earth, taking the lives of the seven brave men and women. These brave astronauts did not die in vain but leave a legacy for others who shall follow in their path to space.

Bibliography

Boyle, Alan. "Space Shuttle Questions and Answers." Retrieved on March 1, 2003 from website http://www.msnbc.com/news/867926.asp?0cv=TA01

Crew Profiles." Retrieved on March 2, 2002 from website http://www.nasa.gov/columbia/crew/index.html

Israel's First Astronaut Launches into Space from Kennedy Space Center." Retrieved on February 26th, 2003 from website http://www.israelnewsagency.com/israelastronautilanramon.html

Laurel Clark Email." Retrieved on February 28th, 2003 from website http://www.dalebroux.com/assemblage/20030203LaurelClark.asp

Young, Kelly. "Smoking gun eludes investigators one month after disaster." Retreived on March 1st, 2003 from…… [read more]


Nation-Altering Event of the 1960S Term Paper

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" The tragedies that have occurred as a result of space flight, from the Challenger explosion in 1993 to the recent Columbia shuttle disaster pull the nation closer together while pointing out the grave danger astronauts still face. Space flight has changed America and Americans, and the 1960s were the very height of change and advance, making this event one of the most pivotal in the history of the decade.

References

Byrnes, Mark E. Politics and Space: Image Making by NASA. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1994.

Flatow, Ira, "Analysis: Anniversary of First Plans for Going to the Moon." Talk of the Nation Science Friday (NPR). 25 May 2001.

Levins, Harry. "In 1969, the U.S. Won the Cold War Race to the Moon." St. Louis Post-Dispatch. 18 July 1999, pp A4.

Public Affairs. "V-2 Rocket." White Sands Missile Range. 2002. 22 March 2003. http://www.wsmr.army.mil/paopage/Pages/V-2.htm

Wachhorst, Wyn. The Dream of Spaceflight. New York: Basic Books, 2000.

Mark E. Byrnes, Politics and Space: Image Making by NASA (Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1994) 1.

Public Affairs. "V-2 Rocket." White Sands Missile Range. 2002. http://www.wsmr.army.mil/paopage/Pages/V-2.htm

Ira Flatow, "Analysis: Anniversary of First Plans for Going to the Moon." Talk…… [read more]


Moon Many People Wish Term Paper

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The moon's varied surface provides ample opportunity for every situation. The mountains provide heights from which to garner the best views of earth. Craters provide cover from space debris, especially windy days and other adverse weather conditions. For the purpose of our escape, gravity will be simulated in our makeshift living quarters and gravitational jet packs will provide transportation along the moon's surface while keeping us tethered to the ground. No computers will accompany us on our trip; no electronics will require maintenance, power sources or attention. Exercise will come from the natural motions of getting around in space, and not from artificial machines that are designed to simulate the practice of exercising.

How important would it be to socialize with other human beings? To have access to popular forms of entertainment, to be able to apply one's mind or hands to a worthy endeavor? At first, not at all. At first, the escape would entail the very idea of abandoning these very things. Over time, however, research has shown that these are fundamental human needs. There are, then, two possible solutions. The moon could serve as a temporary respite, an escape to which one could enter and leave at will. The second option would be to build the necessary infrastructure to satisfy those human needs on the moon, a type of manned space shelter.

Option two, however, would violate the very essence of escaping to the moon. With more and more people discovering and traveling to the shelter, it would soon mirror earth in aspects of relationships, distribution and support systems, transportation bottlenecks and arguments over resources. Soon we will need to find a new refuge, such as mars, if we are to truly escape the things of man in privacy and seclusion. We will be forced to reach farther and farther for the outer stretches of the universe for some semblance of peace. And, like here on earth, it will become harder and harder to find.

The Artemis Society is already in the process of establishing a "private venture to establish a permanent, self-supporting community on the Moon."3 The Artemis project is more elaborate than our pithy fantasy of escapism. They are developing elaborate schemes for interplanetary travel, complete with program plans, spacecraft designs, shelter constructs, the development of commerce, and ways to extract oxygen from the moon's lunar soil. Perhaps true escape is only temporary. Perhaps, we will never be truly alone.

SOURCES

Bonoli, Fabrizio. "The Discovery of the Face of the MOON." Astronomy Department, Bologna University. Web Site: http://www.pd.astro.it/othersites/stelle/laluna/english/carat.htm

Even, Thomas G. "Characteristics of the Moon. http://faculty.erau.edu/ericksol/projects/moon/CharaMoon.htm

The Artemis Project." Artemis Society International. http://www.asi.org/index2.html… [read more]


Cosmology the Formation and Evolution Term Paper

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" (Wikipedia: Black Holes) In support of the black hole theory, there is evidence that the oldest clusters of stars were formed by the action of black holes.

Globular clusters contain the oldest known stars in the Universe - M15 is 13-billion years old; G1 is at least 10-billion years. The presence of black holes at their centre supports the idea that black holes came first, says astrophysicist Martin Ward of the University of Leicester, UK. (New class of black holes)

The theory of black holes creating galaxies and stars has in recent times become one of the most popular explanations of the formation of Galaxies and stars. In essence this theory states that Galaxies started as a result of a huge black hole; it is believed that the rotation of gases at very high speeds around the black hole created the formation of Quasars. Quasars are 'galaxies powered by supermassive black holes that scientists think are activity swallowing large amounts of matter, the equivalent of 10 to 20 stars every year. However, because most are so far away, astronomers know little about them, except that they seem prevalent in the early universe." (Britt R.) This is turn resulted in the stars being pushed outward beyond the reach of the black hole.

Bibliography

Britt R. Astronomers Capture Images of Quasar from When the Universe was Young. Space.com. January 9, 2003. Accessed:

http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/distant_quasar_030109.html

Chaikin. 5 Great Cosmic Mysteries: The Origin of Galaxies. Space Com. January 22, 2002. Accessed: April 30, 2004. www.space.com/scienceastronomy/astronomy/cosmic_galaxies_020122-1.html

New class of black holes. Nature. September 19, 2002. Accessed: May 1, 2004. http://www.nature.com/nsu/020916/020916-9.html

The Galaxies. Accessed: 2 April, 2004. http://sankofa.loc.edu/savur/web/THEGALAXIES.html

Wikipedia: Black holes. Accessed: May 1, 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_holes… [read more]


Galileo Galilei Was an Italian Term Paper

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Previously, it had been believed that the surface of the Moon was smooth. Galileo also made other incredible astronomical discovering relating to the moons of Jupiter, Saturn, the phases of Venus, and the sunspots of the Sun.

Galileo's studies of outer space using his telescopes and mathematical reasoning furthered the building proof of Copernicus' theory that ours is a heliocentric (Sun-centered) Universe. Unfortunately for Galileo, the very powerful Catholic Church believed in a geocentric (Earth-centered) Universe, and they found his works to be heretical. He was put on trial in 1616. The Inquisition did not sentence him to death for his studies, but instead ordered him to discontinue his revolutionary work. Galileo did not listen. In 1632, he published a book containing his findings and proofs of many things, including those of which the Church did not approve. In 1633, he was found guilty of heresy, and sentenced to life imprisonment under house arrest, and he died in January of 1642.

Bibliography

Burr, Elizabeth and Van Helden, Albert. The Galileo Project. Rice University. August 1996.…… [read more]


Apollo Research Paper

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Apollo 1

Who, What, When, Why, and How?

This work in writing intends to examine Apollo 1 in terms of who, what, when, where, why and how and to note this outcomes of this NASA mission and make recommendations in retrospect to this event in American space history.

Who, What, Where, and When

Apollo 1 (204) was conducting a launch… [read more]


Advances in Telescopes in Recent Years Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  4 pages (1,271 words)
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¶ … advances in telescopes in recent years and how they have helped unveil cosmic mysteries such as the shape of dwarf galaxies and the missing satellite problem. It shows how previous beliefs based on the cold dark matter (CDM) model might not be true. Dwarf galaxies, originally thought to have a central group of stars enclosed by auras of dark matter have shown instances of supernovas, according to supercomputer simulations. Astronomers have managed to get closer to the origin of dwarf galaxies using the Hubble Space Telescope. However astronomers intend to probe deeper into the cosmos by developing stronger tools such as James Webb Space telescope (expected to be launched in 2014) and the Thirty Meter Telescope (after 2018). Galaxies are expected to have chunks of dark matter circling their course around them. Scientists are making an effort to discover these by means of extensive sky surveys using devices such as the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope.

"Dwarf galaxies are the building blocks for galaxies like the Milky Way," Governato notes. "Getting the bricks right is important."

The speaker emphasizes the necessity of understanding the origin of dwarf galaxies. The conclusions drawn from Cold Dark Matter (CDM) model in explaining their structure had been challenged by the studies that he conducted as a part the University of Washington. Since the formation of most noteworthy galaxies in our universe can be attributed to a hierarchical approach, analyzing the smaller galaxies is all the more significant. According to the CDM model, the magnitude of galaxies in the past was supposedly much smaller than they are now. Findings from telescopic campaigns have allowed researchers to peek into what the universe might have looked in the past. Hubble Space Telescope images have brought forth an illustration of galaxies as they were around 700 million years after the Big Bang. These proceedings support the goals which the speaker intended on achieving (analysing the smaller building blocks of galactic formations)

This article conveys the basic information about how galaxies were formed. Technological innovations have caused our understanding to change over the years. The original idea of the development of galaxies involved dark matter moving around in the universe, which drew in other matter to form elliptical shapes. This was improved by the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) Model aided by supercomputer simulations. Dwarf galaxies (considered as building blocks for larger ones) were thought to have clusters of stars in the centre enclosed in dark matter. This idea changed over time as studies revealed the presence of astral supernovas in each of them. The Hubble Space Telescope estimated galaxies in their infancy to have around 1% of the mass of our milky way which confirms their dwarf status. However they were found to have been cultivating stars in them for millions of years. The outer space is full of mysteries and upcoming technologies such as in James Webb Space Telescope and the Thirty Meter Telescope is expected to improve our understanding of the universe even more.

The… [read more]


Strike in Space Essay

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¶ … space case such an interesting and compelling example of organizational behavior is that the odd conditions of weightlessness, and all that anti-gravity entails, place tremendous strains on the team that would not be typically experienced in the workplace environment. For example, during Skylab 1 the astronauts' working conditions led to irritability among the team. The group managed to accomplish its goals but "the first crew never had a chance to settle in and experience life in space in a routine way," (p. 4). They had "rigid timetables" imposed on them from NASA management outside of the space capsule (p. 2). Therefore, NASA ran the Skylab experiments as a combination of a chain network and a wheel network. As a chain network, NASA ensured that teamwork was essentially sabotaged. The command line was hierarchical, as the members of the Skylab did not even know their conversations were being monitored. Their schedules were pre-ordained. As a wheel network, NASA remained solidly in the center and prohibited communication between its respective spokes. This is why the Skylab 3 members developed disjointed communication on board; they had never learned to work together as a team.

The Skylab 2 crew boasted "a number of close personal connections" that facilitated rapport (p. 4). Skylab 2 was therefore a type of circle network even within the hierarchical organizational structure of NASA. Like the first Skylab, the second crew dealt with intense stressors such as rigid working schedules and conditions. "The astronauts were selected by and large for their extraordinary military discipline and obedience and not for their capacity for creative, independent judgment," (p. 5). This underscores the type of hierarchical organizational structure that NASA relied upon. On the ground, NASA managers controlled the schedules of individuals who responded with "extraordinary military discipline and obedience." There was little room for independent thought, critical thinking, or collaborative decision-making. Likewise, NASA emphasized quantitative measures over the qualitative input of the astronauts. On the Skylab 1 and 2, the astronauts themselves operated as a circle…… [read more]


Right Stuff the Mercury Seven Astronauts Essay

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Right Stuff

The Mercury Seven astronauts are familiar to most. These astronauts were chosen among many to participate in the NASA's Mercury Project and are who Tom Wolfe's book titled the Right Stuff is based on. There are probably several causal arguments which can be found in this book. In order to focus on one such argument for the purpose of this paper, the term causal argument must first be defined. A simple definition of a causal argument is that one event causes another event to happen.

An example of this would be if a woman wears high heels and walks in them all day, the soles of her feet will hurt. So, walking in high heels all day would be the cause of the woman's hurting feet. In Wolfe's book the Right Stuff, the fact that the seven astronauts met the strict criteria that NASA was looking for is why they were chosen to be the first men in the United States travel into outer space. The superior qualities possessed by the initial seven astronauts are what caused their trips to space to be successful and is also the cause of NASA being the successful program that it is today. NASA would not have been able to accomplish all that is has to date had it settle on men who were mediocre to make the first flights into space.

The Mercury Project was created by NASA to send men to into outer space to find out if humans could function on a different planet other than earth. Wolfe describes in his book how military pilots during the 1950's were generally considered fearless. According to him, they were top notch and had no fear of dying. They performed their duties each time knowing that they always faced the possibility of death, yet their performances were always outstanding. Not everyone chosen to be a military pilot had these qualities. The author states that at the beginning of each class of new recruits, they were told upfront that the majority of them would not make it (25).

In the beginning, NASA's guidelines for choosing the Mercury Seven were strict, but not extremely strict. They were basically looking for anyone that was a military test pilot. When President Dwight D. Eisenhower saw the initial criteria, he was not in favor of it because he knew that the response would be overwhelming. As a result of this, he suggested a more stringent set of guidelines. He did this because the Mercury Project was special, extremely important and would become a major part of history. Therefore, he suggested NASA tighten up the criteria so that only a few elite would qualify. The new criteria set forth required that the chosen seven possess the following: candidates could be no taller than five feet eleven inches, they must possess a college degree (or its equivalent), they could…… [read more]


Beyond UFO's the Search for Extraterrestrial Life Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (326 words)
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UFOs and the Process of Scientific Inquiry

The chapter by Bennett (2008) is superficially about the search for -- or perhaps more accurately, the evidentiary support for -- the existence of extra-terrestrial life as demonstrated by Unidentified Flying Objects (UFO). However, the discussion reveals a greater interest even in the nature of scientific debate, the premise of providing one theory by disproving another and the inherency of natural law in the process of investigating scientific inquiry. My personal response would be a sense of engagement based on the understanding the Bennett intends to pursue an objective discussion on the possibility of life on other planets-based fully within the confines of defensible science.

2.

Bennett offers the reader a discussion the history of this inquiry that touches on some compelling resolutions as that relating to stellar parallax. Indeed, one of the core problems in creating an empirically supported model of the universe would be man's incapacity to physically measure the distances between such astral…… [read more]


Beyond UFO's the Search for Extraterrestrial Life Thesis

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Physics

Beyond UFOs, the Search for Extraterrestrial Life

Very briefly, what is your immediate reaction to this Reading Assignment?

My immediate reaction to this reading assignment was that even though we have come a long way in the what we do know there is still a whole lot more out there for us to figure out. As technology advances it is very likely that we will discover things that we never even thought would be possible. We will get answers to questions that have been burning to be answered since the beginning of time. What we discover in the future may indeed change our entire lives as we know it. There is know way to tell what is out there just waiting to be discovered.

How does the author describe the Earth's cosmic address?

The author describes Earth's cosmic address as where Earth is physically located in relation to all the other things in the cosmic universe. Earth is a planet that is the third planet out from the star that this known as…… [read more]


Three Major Scientific Theories Explaining the Origins of the Universe Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,862 words)
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Origins

Discussion of three major scientific theories explaining the origins of the universe

ORIGINS of the UNIVERSE

Three major scientific theories on the origins of the universe

The question of the origins of the universe has concerned humanity for centuries. Understanding the origins of the universe also implies an understanding of creation and leads to insight into humanities place in… [read more]


Theory of Personality Research Proposal

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¶ … Personality Theory

Carl Sagan wrote in the introduction of Stephen Hawking's (1988) book, "A Brief History," he said, "We go about our daily lives understanding almost nothing of the world. We give little thought to the machinery that generates the sunlight that makes life possible, to the gravity that glues us to an Earth that would otherwise send us spinning off into space, or to the atoms of which we are made and on whose stability we fundamentally depend. Except for children (who don't know enough not to ask the important questions), few of us spend much time wondering why nature is the way it is; where the cosmos came from, or whether it was always here; if time will one day flow backward and effects precede causes; or whether there are ultimate limits to what humans can know."

According to the standard theory, our universe sprang into existence as "singularity" around 13.7 billion years ago -- singularities are zones which defy our current understanding of physics and are believed to exist at the core of black holes, which are areas of intense gravitational pressure; and the pressure is imagined to be really powerful that finite matter is in fact compressed into infinite density and that these zones of infinite density are called singularities; and our universe is thought to have begun as an infinitesimally small, infinitely hot, infinitely dense, something - a singularity (Barrow, 1994).

After the initial appearance of the singularities -- it seems that it inflated, expanded and cooled, going from very, very small and very, very hot, to the size and temperature of our current universe. There were three British astrophysicists, namely, Steven Hawking, George Ellis, and Roger Penrose turned their attention to the Theory of Relativity and its implications regarding our notions of time and in 1968 and 1970, they published papers that they extended Einstein's Theory of General Relativity to include measurements of time and space -- according to their calculations, time and space had a finite beginning that corresponded to the origin of matter and energy;" and the singularity didn't appear in space; rather, space began inside of the singularity but prior to the singularity, nothing existed, not space, time, matter, or energy - nothing (Hawking & Ellis, 1968). So where and in what did the singularity appear if not in space? We don't know. We don't know where it came from, why it's here, or even where it is. But the truth was that the singularities are origin of human existence -- we came from the dreams of the fallen star that was exiled from the heavens above. When the star did not function well in its job in shining brightly in the sky, it was banished and sent to a space where it exist but cannot shine no more. The singularities continues to expand and cool to this day and we are inside of it: incredible creatures living on a unique planet, circling a beautiful star clustered together with… [read more]


Cold War and the Conquest of Space Thesis

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¶ … Cold War and the Conquest of Space

On July 20, 1969, the United States accomplished the impossible. It was on this day that Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins set world history. On this day, this crew landed on the moon, finally proving once and for all that America led the world in technology and achievements. In… [read more]


Life on Mars Term Paper

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Life on Mars

The 16 August issue of the Science magazine published an article by a group of scientists led by David Mckay on the discovery of evidence of primitive bacterial life on Mars. This article is based on the examination of a meteorite found in Antarctica and supposed to be from the planet Mars. The reasons to publish such… [read more]


New York Times Related to Physics Term Paper

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¶ … New York Times related to physics.

A Collision Course for Physics (editorial) NYT. May 17, 2007. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/17/opinion/17thu4.html?n=Top/News/Science/Topics/Physics

This article deals with the construction in Europe of a huge new particle accelerator. This event has created intense interest among physicists for a number or reasons, not least of which is that it may determine the future status of physics… [read more]


Do Studies Show That Mars Could Have Once Had an Ocean's? Term Paper

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¶ … oceans on Mars. The writer uses discussions about past studies that indicate there has been water on Mars. There were three sources used to complete this paper.

As the world continues to populate and natural resources begin to look thin scientists have devoted double time to figuring out where future generations are going to live. The leading contender thus far is the planet Mars, both due to its proximity to earth and the belief that it is a planet capable of sustaining human life. One of the most important elements of human life is the need for water. Without water humans cannot survive, therefore any possible location for future migration by the human species must include the existence of water.

Mars has been examined closely and through the studies that have been conducted it does appear that water once existed in the form of oceans on the planet.

Evidence

The strongest piece of evidence that at one time, oceans existed on Mars has been the proof of past flooding by way of water carved channels into the planet's northern plains.

In addition to the probable flooding that occurred, scientists have also recently discovered evidence of past oceans existing.

Using instruments specifically designed to measure mineralogy on Mars experts have been able to determine that some of the mineral deposits in existence came from water and salt (Mars, 2006).

Clays that have been found on the planet are indicative of water eroded riverbeds as well.

While the belief that Mars has had oceans dates back to the 1800's when Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaperelli peered through a telescope in 1887 and saw a pattern of linear markings on the Martian surface, it…… [read more]


Faith of Universal Structure Is a Religion Research Paper

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Faith of Universal Structure is a religion which takes its inspiration from the recurring structure found throughout nature, and orients the desires and thoughts of its adherents towards the attainment and movement towards what might be called the ideal Structure. Recognizing that all religions evolve over time to incorporate new empirical evidence about the world around us (for instance, the pope explicitly acknowledging that the earth revolves around the sun), The Faith of Universal Structure instead takes empirical evidence as its starting point, using the scientific constants and laws as a means of constructing a system of belief which offers spiritual transcendence and an ultimate "heavenly" goal without discounting the achievements and previous spiritual investigations of humanity.

The Faith of Universal Structure takes as its starting point the recognition that all things are a product of their environment, from a rock to a plant to human personality to the orientation of stars within the Milky Way galaxy. Through the interaction of subatomic particles and the fundamental forces, all things are connected and influence each other. From this, one may observe that in the midst of these interconnected particles, a structure has emerged on every level, once again scaling from the most miniscule up to the filamental structure of the universe, organized by the gravitational interactions between galaxies as they move through the great void of space. In the midst of this universal void, however, there are galaxies so far removed from any others that they retain a near "perfect" shape, so distant that they remain unchanged by the gravitational influence of other galaxies.

Thus, The Faith of Universal Structure views these galaxies as approaching what one might call the ideal structure, that is, the emergent structure inherent in the Universe making itself known free from the influence of external forces. From this stems the most central of The Faith of Universal Structure's main tenets; namely, that there exists a galaxy somewhere in the universe in which all things are maintained in perfect harmony, free from outside influence, and that it is the responsibility of all believers in The Faith of Universal structure to seek it out, even if that search is ultimately never concluded in any believer's lifetime. (In fact, the Faith relies on the impossibility of concluding this Search; should anyone ever make it to the perfect galaxy, it would be rendered imperfect, as the outside influence of the arriving party would alter its structure. However, this does not render the Search meaningless, because it is through the Search that the Structure is exalted and embodied, and the adherent finds meaning for his or her own life). This represents the single constituent "myth" of the Faith, as it does not include what one might call an "origin story" except the story of humanity's increasing understanding of the Universe and the laws which govern it.

This tenet further leads to the Faith's understanding of all previous forms of human meaning-making, from language to organized religion to any structured attempt at… [read more]


Anselmian God Walking on Mars Essay

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Anselmian God

Walking on Mars was, beyond a shadow of a doubt, the most astonishing experience of my life. There are few -- very few -- experiences so powerful, where the emotions are felt so deeply, that the experience is impossible to describe. I will attempt to do so anyway, because it is something that I can only wish everybody would have the opportunity to experience. Then again, if everybody got to walk on Mars, it would be no more special an experience that walking down a city street.

But Mars is not like a city street precisely because of how unique the experience is. Everything about the experience is special. You are first informed that you have been selected to do this, immediately knowing that your name - among all the men who have ever lived -- will be one of the most remembered. I did not have much time to think about things like that. It was a job, of course, and I was going there as a scientist before all other reasons. It took six years of preparation before we were ready to launch. I'd been in space before, but when we broke out of Earth's orbit, the fact that I would be gone for over a year really hit the pit of my stomach. The earth became a speck of light, and I don't think I could ever really describe that feeling of intense loneliness that set in around that time. My work kept me busy, but as I got farther away, communication became more difficult. When Mars came into view, however, I cried. I didn't really plan on that. I didn't really know what else to do. It was the most beautiful thing I had ever seen, red, barren, dusty.

Landing was exactly as it had been in training. I had practiced in the deserts of Nevada, and on simulators. It was smooth and easy. I had to gather data for about ten hours, and run systems checks, before I was to go explore the neighborhood. They had me land in a place called Meridiani Planum, which was one of the parts of Mars that was once covered by water. I was supposed to land within a few hundred meters of the Mars rover Opportunity. My first mission out of the landing pod, however, was just going to be for basic observation, and I spent a three…… [read more]


Occam's Razor Cuts Up Term Paper

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Occam's Razor Cuts Up

Occam's Razor is a general principle in philosophy and science which argues for simplicity. Amusingly, its history is not precisely simple. Despite what it's name might suggest, it was not invented by Occam, and appears to have been changed and adapted through time into numerous variations. This basic principle can be stated in a number of… [read more]


Challenger Disaster Term Paper

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Challenger Shuttle Disaster

While people remember the Challenger Shuttle Disaster as a tragic loss of life and a case of mechanical failure, such events do not happen in isolation. While O. rings failed, the events that led to their failure were organizational in nature, not mechanical. The Challenger blew up because of organizational dysfunction as well as a technological problem (Kruglanski, 1986). The organizational problems resulted in flawed decision-making.

Because of outside pressures, NASA developed the shuttle as a vehicle without clear application. Congress wanted the program to be self-supporting, and expected the shuttles to be reliable, reusable vehicles. These pressures forced NASA into a business role as well as a science research one. This resulted in conflicts, stress on the staff, and short cuts to meet business-based decision deadlines (Forrest, 1995). The lack of focus resulted in difficulty developing effective management support systems because of the conflicting program goals. Due to political expectations for the program, emphasis on meeting launch deadlines changed decisions about whether to launch or not into something that was deadline-based rather than risk based. Decision-makers were pressured to approve launches, and reasons to delay were discouraged in the group (Forrest, 1995). As one NASA official said afterwards, "People being responsible for making Flight Safety First when the launch schedule is First cannot possibly make Flight Safety First no matter what they say." (Eberhart, 1986) NASA demonstrated other specific shortcomings. Their database provided sometimes faulty information, and concerns expressed at the middle-management level did not move up to the chain to decision makers, so those at the top were not always aware of potential problems (Editorial, 2003). In addition, NASA did not allow anonymous voting on final decision to launch, subjecting each individual to peer pressure (Forrest, 1995).

For its part, Morton-Thiokol (M-T) buckled to pressure by NASA to minimize possible risks. (M-T) told NASA not to launch if the air temperature was below 53° F, but this would have caused a delay for several days, so NASA pressured the company to reconsider (Forrest, 1995). In fact M-T had known about the O-rings' potential = susceptibility to cold temperatures for several months, but out of a desire to continue doing business with NASA, caved in to their pressure to approve the launch (Forrest, 1995). This happened because All members of the Group Decision Support System (GDSS) felt the pressure to approve launch, and decisions, no matter how accurate, to delay the launch were actively discouraged (Forrest, 1995). M-T made it easier for themselves to bend to this pressure when they regrouped as a private meeting, which eliminated any outside influences against a choice to recommend launch (Forrest, 1995),

To avoid these problems in the future, NASA has to take into account the difficulties with self-regulation. NASA was faced with incompatible demands that led to flawed decision-making in 1986, and those conflicts tainted the decision-making process (Vaughan, 1990). In important group decisions such as those made by GDSS, people must be free to speak up, to play… [read more]


Space Show Museum of Natural History Setilive.org Essay

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space show museum of natural history. setilive.org

Space

The Space Show at the Museum of Natural History in New York is truly an entertaining, enlightening show that provides visitors and viewers a unique experience. The Space Show is one of the primary attractions at the Rose Center for Earth and Space's Hayden Planetarium. The show takes place within a huge hemispheric dome, which is approximately 67 feet in width, and which utilizes a variety of media including sound effects, visual reproductions, as well as sensory vibrations to simulate a number of scientific occurrences that have and will continue to take place in outer space. The scientific processes involved in many of the films that audiences have and will be able to see are extremely authentic, and consist of research conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as well as astrophysicists from a variety of international locations, including at the Museum of Natural History.

One of the most intriguing aspects about the films that are on display at the Space Center is the fully immersive experience they allow audiences to have. The scientific processes depicted are actual simulations of events that took place or that will take place, and allow audiences to gain an authentic, three-dimensional experience of these occurrences. A great example of this proclivity of the Space Center is found in the short film entitled Journey to the Stars, which is narrated by actress Whoopi Goldberg. The film provides a fairly comprehensive look at the birth of many of the novae that currently exist within the known universe. Even more interesting is the fact that this film is able to depict the actual occurrences that lead to the deaths of stars -- and explains why it is that stars that have previously gone extinct are still visible from earth.

Setilive.org is a dynamic, interactive web site that allows the surrounding internet community linked by the world wide web…… [read more]


Physics and Cosmology Term Paper

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Physics and Cosmology

Mankind's Relationship with the Universe: The Relevance of Physics and Cosmology to Modern Mankind

Prehistory witnessed the rise of countless explanations for the creation of the universe that served as mankind's framework for interpreting the universe until the rise of an Earth-centered replaced these. This perspective was then solidly in place for several hundred years during which… [read more]


Stephen William Hawking Term Paper

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¶ … Stephen William Hawking. The writer explores his childhood to help determine how he became the adult that he became. The writer then examines his adult life and works and his contributions to the world as well as some of his more well-known theories and ideas. There were five sources used to complete this paper.

In the world of… [read more]


Quasars and Distant Galaxies Term Paper

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6 billions years old, plus or minus 200 million years.

Their findings also bring out a leading model of cosmic evolution, called inflation, which states that the universe, when young, went through a brief but strong growth spurt, which produced magnified subatomic fluctuations into astronomical-sized wrinkles (Cowen 2004). These wrinkles, in turn, started the clusters of galaxies and voids in the cosmos today. This process of cosmic evolution predicts with precision how matter in the universe clumped with a variety of length scales. It combines with data from a NASA satellite, which studied the Big Bang's glow, to show that the theory survives the most rigorous test to date, as the Big Bang standard model has remained the still-uncontested theory on the evolution of the universe.#

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Cowen, R. (1991). Radio Waves May Trace Distant Clustering-Galaxies and Quasars. Science News. Science Service, Inc. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1200/is_n25_v139/ai_109

2. -- . (2004). Universal Truth: Distant Quasars Reveal Content, Age of Universe. Science News. Science Service, Inc. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1200/is_5_166/ai_n62125

3. -- . (2003). In the Beginning, Dark Matter Builds Galaxies, Feeds Quasars. Science News. Science Service, Inc. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1200/is_4_163/ai_972356

4. -- . (2003). Mature Before Their Time: in the Youthful Universe, Some Galaxies Were Already Old. Science News. Science Service, Inc. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1200/is_9_163/ai_986956

5. Henbest, N. (1984). Galaxies and Quasars. UNESCO Courier. UNESCO. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1310/is_1984_Sept/ai_34

6. Peterson, I. (1990). Seeding the Universe. Science News. Science Service, Inc. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1200/is_n12_137/ai_8

OUTLINE

Introduction

I. Galaxies and Quasars

II. The Modern Infrared Camera and Its Findings

III. In the Beginning: the Dark Matter?

Conclusion… [read more]


NASA Value Chain Analysis Term Paper

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With regard to public relations and fundraising outsourcing, there are challenges and difficulties here as well. For instance, NASA's responsibility is to its shareholders -- the tax paying citizens of the America. To that regard, is it safe to outsource public relations work, as the outsource group would be responsible for selling the agency to 250,000,000 million shareholders? One misstep… [read more]


Lunar Effects on Behavior Term Paper

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Lunar Effects on Behavior

The influence of the moon on the earth has fascinated mankind throughout history. Prior to the present scientific age the moon was considered to have strange and occult powers that could influence human behavior and events in a multitude of different ways. For example, the effects of the moon have been said to influence human sanity and mental stability and also to have various negative effects on human nature. "The full moon has been linked to crime, suicide, mental illness, disasters, accidents...and werewolves." (Carroll R.T.

2005) the idea of the moon as the cause of the changes in the human condition, such as the change from a human into a wolf or " werewolf" has been the subject of many imaginative stories and works of fiction. Other more positive aspects that have been linked to the influence of the moon in human myth, is that it has a direct and discernable affect on birthrates and fertility.

However, scientific research cannot substantiate any of these claims and there is in fact almost no evidence that the moon has any real or actual affect on human life and nature in any way. The few lunar influences that do affect the earth, for instance the fact that the moon has a minimal affect on the temperature of the earth's environment, have "... been found have little or nothing to do with human behavior..." (Carroll R.T.

2005)

In scientific terms there is simply no evidence for the claims that the moon can influence human behavior and events.

A nothing significant has been replicated sufficiently to warrant claiming a probable causal relationship." (Carroll R.T.

2005)

The most conclusive proof that the moon does not have a significant effect on human life comes from solid scientific investigation. Scientific research counters allegations that the phases of the moon influence crime rates and the frequency of homicides and states that these assertions are pure conjecture. Researchers such as Ivan W. Kelly of the College of Education at the University of Saskatchewan, and others, have undertaken extensive studies that have "... failed to show a reliable and significant correlation... between the full moon, or any other phase of the moon..." And various aspects such as homicide rate, birth rates, and various other factors that are related to the moon in social myth and legend. (Carroll R.T.

2005)

Kelly states that, "My own opinion is that the case for full moon effects has not been made..." (Roach, John, 2004)

The question therefore arises as to why certain behaviors have been ascribed to the phases and changes of the moon. The answer to this question in fact reveals the falsity of many lunar myths. One answer is that these myths have their origins in ancient folklore and legends that have been continued in various forms to the present time. For example, the myth about the way that the moon can influence human birth rates can be traced back to the ancient Assyrian and Babylonian beliefs which state… [read more]


Marketing Aerospace Industry Term Paper

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Marketing - Aerospace Industry

An Analysis of Commercial Space Travel Marketing in the Aerospace Industry Today

I've heard], 'If God wanted us to fly into space, he would have given us more money.' Hopefully, the technology demonstrated here today will lead to designs that are cheaper and easier. - Test Pilot Mike Melvill following his historic flight into space aboard… [read more]


Debating NASA's Budget and Importance Term Paper

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7 billion for the 2012 fiscal year, the cost of funding NASA represents a scant 0.5% of total federal expenditures (Rogers). To put the often overwhelming numbers contained within governmental accounting into perspective, consider that "the United States spends more than $20 billion per year on air conditioning for troops in Afghanistan and Iraq & #8230; more than the entire operating budget of NASA" (National Public Radio). Having already discontinued the fleet of space shuttles, once considered among the most recognizable symbols of America's intrepid spirit, NASA has been forced to confront its own institutional mismanagement in a self-administered process of budgetary evaluation. Rather than simply sacrifice NASA on the altar of false fiscal responsibility, our elected leaders should recognize that an organization capable of calculating precise escape velocities and rotational vectors can surely harness that intellectual ability to balance their budget.

Among the more potentially productive ideas to emerge from the intellectual vacuum of the recent presidential debates was the notion that NASA may eventually experiment with outsourcing. By allowing privately held contractors to competitively bid for the right to bring NASA's theoretical models to fruition, many experts believe that the final costs of many space missions could be significantly reduced. Companies like SpaceX and Virgin Galactic have already began the modern version of the "space race," with both firms hoping to corner the market on commercial space exploration, so the opportunity for NASA to collaborate with private enterprise should not be dismissed out of hand. By allowing the entrepreneurial process to play out in the free market, NASA and the federal government could conceivably attain their shared goal of reducing costs without suffering a noticeable reduction in operational capability. If decades of empirical evidence demonstrate, as many have argued, that NASA is far more capable of devising worthwhile ideas than it is at observing fiscal austerity, there appears to be little downside in allowing private companies to compete and drive costs downward. Due to the regrettable fact that planned budget cuts for 2013 "will affect missions in their prime, like the Cassini Mission to Saturn, and missions in their infancy, like a planned explorer to Jupiter's oceanic moon Europa, both of which involve strong European connections" (Vertesi), it stands to reason that international firms could also be involved in the bidding process. If the grand scale to which NASA scientists aspire to cannot be matched by the agency's accountants, the federal government must consider its role in fostering a cooperative relationship between companies capable of reaching outer space, and researchers who hold the expertise and knowledge needed to navigate humanity's final frontier.

Works Cited

Calmes, Jackie. "$100 Billion Increase in Deficit Is Forecast." New York Times 01 Feb 2010, A9. Print. .

Foust, Jeff. "Gingrich: NASA sits around and thinks space." Space Politics. 13, 2011. Web. 4 Dec. 2012. .

NPR Staff. "Among The Costs Of War: Billions A Year In A.C. ." National Public Radio. Jun 25, 2011. Web. 4 Dec. 2012. .

Rogers,… [read more]


Helium Is a Very Unusual Term Paper

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, 2006, p. 1). Anderson and colleagues believe helium was created during the Big Bang and was incorporated into the Earth during "…its initial accretion and in the subsequent long-term acquisition of 'late veneer' material" (Anderson, 1). Presently helium is not being added to the inventory of Earth's elements "at a significant rate" albeit a "small amount" of helium is constantly being added to the Earth's surface by "…interplanetary dust [particles and by cosmic rays" (Anderson, 2).

The authors explain that Earth is "…constantly degassing," which transports helium from the crust of the Earth to the mantle and from there "…into the oceans and atmosphere" (Anderson, 2).

Helium is important to the functioning of gas-cooled nuclear power plants, according to Robert Krebs (Krebs, 2006). Helium is also used in the world's largest "particle accelerators" to cool the "superconducting magnets," Krebs explains. Helium is also used by scuba divers and deep-sea divers because, mixed with oxygen, it is "less soluble in divers' blood than is nitrogen" and does not contribute to "the bends" that some divers get when surfacing too fast (Krebs). Of course helium is also uses in weather balloons, blimps, in arc welding and as a coolant for "superconducting electrical systems that, when cooled, offer little resistance to the electrons passing through a conductor" (Krebs).

In conclusion, helium is a rare element but it has many important uses. Most people know that birthday balloons are filled with helium, and that the blimps that hover over sporting events are kept aloft by helium. But it is not likely those same people realize how plentiful helium is in the universe, how it was discovered, or what its scientific uses are.

Works Cited

Anderson, Don L., Foulger, G.R., and Meibom, Anders. "Helium Fundamentals: Helium

Fundamental Models. Mantle Plumes. Retrieved October 4, 2012, from http://www.mantleplumes.org/heliumfundamentals.html.

Hasan, Heather. Helium: Understanding the Elements of the Periodic Table. New York: The

Rosen Publishing Group, 2006.

Krebs, Robert E. The History And Use of Our Earth's Chemical…… [read more]


Physiological Issues in Human Spaceflight Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (642 words)
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Moreover, the affects of both long duration and long distance space explorations remains, by and large, unknown at present. At any rate, our experience in both low-Earth orbit and on brief lunar expeditions allows us to make reasonable assumptions about the primary stressors which human explorers will encounter as space missions grow longer. There are a number of physiological issues that must be considered when examining this problem including: radiation, absence of natural time parameters, altered circadian rhythms, decreased exposure to sunlight, adaptation to micro gravity, sensory/perceptual depravation of varied natural sources, sleep disturbance, and space adaptation sickness.

It is reasonable to assume that research into these issues may have cross-benefits in other medical fields. Studies of bone loss prevention in spaceflight provide researchers with new insight into similar conditions such as osteoporosis and bone cancers. Cardiovascular research in space medicine can shed light on comparable deterioration pathologies in Earth-bound patients. No medical research occurs in isolation.

The physiological impact of human spaceflight is significant and varied. While some issues such as radiation exposure and immunological depression represent serious concerns during the course of a mission, others, such as the cardiovascular effects and orthostatic intolerance only manifest themselves upon return to Earth. A successful space mission means not just ensuring crew health for the duration of their journey, but minimizing the impact of spaceflight-induced conditions after returning to Earth. Counteracting both in-flight and post-flight physiological issues is vital to developing an aggressive, sustainable program of human space exploration beyond Earth.

Works Cited

Bonin, Grant. "Physiological Issues in Human Spaceflight: Review and Proposed Countermeasures." Carleton University, Ottawa, ON. 6 December 2005. Web. 9 September 2012. < http://www.4frontierscorp.com/dev/assets/00%20-%20MAAE%204906%20-%20Biomechanics%20Final%20Project.pdf>

Wickman, Leslie A. "Human Performance Considerations for a Mars Mission." Center for Research in Science, Azuza Pacific University. (2006). Web. 9 September 2012. [read more]


Earth Science Essay

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The last day of the six day creation was the day when man began to walk the earth i.e. The day God created people and land animals. Coming back to how much one day actually was, God is clearly trying to mention to us through his book that he made the earth in just six ordinary days and has used the words evening and day together to make us understand. (Kooten, 2005)

Comparison:

Though the two views of the origin of the Earth seem miles apart, there may be a few similarities between the two theories. The first and foremost matter in which both theories agree is that there was definitely a beginning of this Earth, contrary to the belief that it was also present. Moreover, the Big Bang Theory's main claim is that the Earth and universe expanded with time, rather than being created as it is in one go. The Six Day Creation too claims that at one point of time, the Heavens literally stretched out. (Drees, 2001)

However, although these claims at the surface agree, the Big Bang Theory begins the timeline of the Earth back to more than 15 billion years ago, where the Six Day says it was roughly 6000 years ago. Along with this major difference, while the Big Bang states that the Sun was first created and then the Earth came about, Six Day says that it was actually the creation of the Earth that came before the creation of the Sun. Moreover, the Six Day theory claims that the stars and moons and other constellations were made around the same time as the Sun and the Earth, Big Bang goes against this theory and says that these bodies came about a very long time after.

I support the Six Day Creation for several reasons. First of all, the Big Bang theory in itself does not tell us much to believe it completely because it is based on a few laws of Physics however, these laws do not explain the major components of this model. The theory explains through mathematical equations only what happened after the bang and the expansion started off. It does not explain why the expansion primarily started off. With the Six Day Creation, the conclusion is not based on science that at times, tries to prove things that are not entirely true by applying equations that just coincidentally fit in. The Genesis however, clearly states that there was a higher entity, meaning God, who created the Heavens and the Earth. Moreover, the fact that Jesus too had shown his support towards the previous scriptures such as the Genesis is proof on its own. Having blind faith in a scripture and in God being a super being who is able to do all things is much more convincing to hear than a theory such as the Big Bang that is likely to be considered as a mistake a few years later, as is the fate of many scientific deductions.

References:… [read more]


Mer-B or the Opportunity Essay

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SAMPLE TEXT:

d.). The Mars Exploration Rovers are also equipped with a microscopic imager that is used to obtain "close-up, high-resolution images of rocks and soil" and a rock abrasion tool that is used for "removing dusty and weathered rock surfaces and exposing fresh material for examination by instruments onboard" (Summary, n.d.).

The rovers were designed to move around Mars and perform on-site geological investigations; the rovers have the same capabilities to collect data on Mars as a scientist would. The rovers are considered to be the mechanical equivalent of geologist "walking the surface of Mars" (Summary, n.d.). The manner in which the rovers are assembled help to provide geologists with a realistic view of the planet. The cameras on the rovers are mounted on masts that are 1.5 meters, or 5 feet, high and "provide 360-degree, stereoscopic, humanlike views of the terrain;" moreover, "the robotic arm is capable of movement in much the same way as a human arm with an elbow and wrist, and can place instruments directly up against rock and soil targets of interest" (Summary, n.d.). Contained within the robotic "fist" of the rover's arm is a microscopic camera that mirrors a geologist's handheld magnifying lens (Summary, n.d.).

In the latest Opportunity update which analyzed data sent from the rover during the sols cycles 2757-2763, or approximately data sent between October 26 and November 1, 2011, it was revealed that the seasonal plan for the Opportunity is to have the rover "winter over on the north end of Cape York on the rim of Endeavour crater" (Update: Spirit and Opportunity, n.d.). This latest sols cycle had the Opportunity on the lookout for light-toned materials that would help to provide further insight into Mars' history.

While the Spirit has stopped responding to communications sent by the MER mission team since March 22, 2010, the Opportunity continues to provide valuable information and insight to geologists on Earth. Through the data and images that are relayed back to Earth, the Opportunity has enabled scientists to have a better understanding of the geological composition of Mars as well as study the presence of water on the planet. Both the Spirit and the Opportunity have "discovered evidence of liquid water" (Chang, 2011). Furthermore, these scientific investigations have allowed scientists to postulate the possibility of the existence of life on Mars. Because of the Mars Exploration Rover missions, new doors have been opened into the exploration of other planets in our galaxy; due to the success of the Mars Exploration Rover missions, it is possible for similar technologies to be used to explore other planets in the far reaches of the universe. The Spirit and the Opportunity have made it possible for scientists to explore other avenues; NASA is currently in the process of launching a larger rover, the Curiosity, which will continue to build upon the discoveries that were made by the MER -- A and the MER-B (Chang, 2011).

References:

Chang, K. (2 September 2011). Mars Rover Discovery Elates NASA. The New… [read more]


Gemini Space Program Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,171 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

The Von Braun team had quickly traveled to the Redstone Arsenal located in Huntsville, Alabama to work on the Explorer satellite and were working on a moon rocket booster -- the Saturn which was to produce 1.5 million pounds of thrust which was more than a sufficient amount to boost the new spacecraft into orbit. It is reported that the storability of the fuels also were a positive factor for NASA as the vehicle could be fuel without being unloaded and refueled traveling through extended holds with cryogenic fuels such as liquid oxygen. (NASA, 2000, paraphrased) The following figure shows the final Gemini design.

Figure 3

Final Gemini Design

Source: Adcock (2010)

The following figure shows the Gemini Ejection Seat.

Figure 4

Gemini Ejection Seat

Source: Adcock (2010)

The Space Rendezvous Apparatus and Method Patent was issued in July, 1966 and reports that it is an invention that "relates to an apparatus and method for effecting a space rendezvous and more particularly relates to an in-transit or linear rendezvous mode of space transport employing trajectory operations conducted by two or more individually launched space units adapted to rendezvous in-transit for assembly into a single spacecraft." (United State Patent Office, 1966)

It is reported by the U.S. Patent Office that when a rocket booster is involved in connection with this type of operation "the booster has been designed to effect a docking in rendezvous with a payload before the rocket began its planned, out-or-orbit flight. The limitations inherent in designing an apparatus for use in connection with 'orbital rendezvous' operations severely restrict features of reliability, safety, vulnerability, availability and versatility, which factors are of paramount concern to the efficient achievement of any particular space mission." (United State Patent Office, 1966) What was provided by this invention was an apparatus and method in which space rendezvous and docking are not any longer restricted to satellite orbits but were after this invention able to be performed at any altitude "and in parabolic or hyperbolic orbits wherein the rendezvousing objects proceed at or near local escape velocity." (United State Patent Office, 1966) This type of apparatus is stated to comprise "a rocket booster having a thrush unit forming a uniquely arranged docking face on the fore-end thereof adapted to receive and be coupled to a manned or unmanned payload unit pursuant to in-transit space rendezvous." (United State Patent Office, 1966) Also enabled by this invention was the ability of two objects to be able to rendezvous and dock in 'high energy orbit'…" (United State Patent Office, 1966)

Summary & Recommendations

This work has examined the Gemini space program and information gained in this specific study includes information concerning the design and construction of a rocket booster system for the Gemini program that had not been previously utilized by NASA which allowed for rendezvous whether the spacecraft was in an parabolic or hyperbolic orbits and as well the thrust of the unit enabled the rendezvous and docking of two craft in a high energy orbit.… [read more]


Philosophy the Cosmological Disagreement Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,735 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

So, granted this state, things would be in both a state of potentiality and actuality at the same time, which is sensibly impossible. Consequently, there would be no causation within the chain and, hence, everything would cease to exist. But things do exist. So, even an infinite chain of possible beings does not resolve the problem.

The other argument commits the misleading notion of composition by extrapolating from parts to the whole. Even if each possible being entailed a cause, it does not follow that the whole of all possible beings require a cause. The argument does not entrust the fallacy of composition. Just as every part of a puzzle is red, so must the whole be red; if every part of a structure consists of stone, so must the whole consist of stone. Likewise, if every possible being is in potentiality, so the whole of all possible beings is in potentiality, and thus, needs to be actualized (caused). So that very scenery of the parts demands that the whole be caused as well.

Conclusion believe, the cosmological argument is a convincing proof for the existence of God. However, even if one has difficulties with the understanding astrophysics or accepting a finite universe, there are good cosmological arguments that do not require one to accept just God's temporal priority, for God would still be ontologically first…… [read more]


Ocean Tides Are the Periodic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,762 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

d. Some Techniques for Fishing in Gulf of Mexico. April 17, 2003. http://www.floridasaltwater.com/how_to/Moon_Phases.htm

Solunar Phases: How should they affect your fishing?" n.d. Some Techniques for Fishing in Gulf of Mexico. April 17, 2003. http://www.floridasaltwater.com/how_to/Solunar_Phases.htm

Gore, Pamela J.W. "Shorelines and Coastal Processes." June 2000. Georgia Perimeter College. April 17, 2003. http://gpc.edu/~pgore/geology/geo101/coastal.htm

Our Restless Tides." Chapter 1: Introduction. February 1998. NOAA / NOS CO-OPS. April 17, 2003. http://www.co-ops.nos.noaa.gov/restles1.html

Our Restless Tides." Chapter 2: The Astronomical Tide Producing Forces-General Considerations. February 1998. NOAA / NOS CO-OPS. April 17, 2003. http://www.co-ops.nos.noaa.gov/restles2.html

Pidwirny, Michael J. "Ocean Tides." Fundamentals of Physical Geography. 27.06.2002. April 17, 2003. http://www.geog.ouc.bc.ca/physgeog/contents/8r.html

Tides." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. CD-ROM Version, 2003

Texas Gulf Coast Fishing." Tide for Texas Gulf Coast. 2003. April 17, 2003. http://www.texasgulfcoastfishing.com/tidesand.htm

Tidal period" is the time taken for one tidal cycle

Solunar periods" are those times when the Earth, Moon and Sun form particular alignments in relation to each other. In gereral there are four solunar periods each day - 2 "major" and 2 minor periods.

Tidal data for Gulf of Mexico is available at http://www.texasgulfcoastfishing.com/tidesand.htm

Tidal data for the Texas Gulf Coast Region is available at http://www.floridasaltwater.com/how_to/Moon_Phases.htm

The highest tides in the world occur in the Bay of Fundy in Canada (difference of about 60 ft). Tidal power plant at the site has been planned but not yet been implemented.

Tides… [read more]

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