Study "Astronomy / Planets / Solar System" Essays 56-110

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Mars Mystery by Graham Hancock Term Paper

… The following observations mentioned above were not merely established as speculations. These evidence are products of numerous space exploration sponsored and funded by the government in an effort to know more about Mars and other heavenly bodies which might pose potentials to cultivating human life. Of course, the space explorations are not primarily focused on the human cultivations aspect of a heavenly body; information is also needed for any danger that might happen to Earth (and human civilization) because of the spontaneous and often accidental explosions and collision activities of these heavenly bodies. According to Hancock, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration launched two probes in 1996. Called the Pathfinder, these probes aims to explore the planet in many ways possible, and this includes the obtaining specific and precise information about the biological, atmospheric, and geological foundations and composition of the planet. Hancock states that these studies are mainly de to a program that plans to "terraform" Mars, changing or conforming it to the Earth planet, which can be beneficial since there is the possibility that it can cultivate life on it. Prior to these two probes in 1996, similar space mission programs were sponsored by the U.S.S.R. In the 1960s, and these missions were followed by the U.S. afterwards, through its Mariner space program (Portree Microsoft Encarta 2002).

These space probes and explorations about Mars brought about numerous information and even pictures of the planet's surface. However, it is difficult to obtain quality shots of the planet's surface because of its distance from the Earth, and accuracy and precision was sacrificed when information brought by these probes came into existence and knowledge of scientists and astronomers. One speculation that resulted from these studies and explorations is that aside from the possibility that Mars is capable of cultivating human life, there has been evidence supporting some scientists' claim that there existed a form of civilization in Mars. One evidence that somehow supports this claim are the pictures taken by the Viking showing the Cyadonia region of Mars, which illustrates and shows the features of a humanoid face (on the planet's surface). Some scientists even speculated further that some parts of the images shows the presence of 'pyramids' that are similar to Egypt's famous pyramid tombs. However, as the images became more clearer and precise due to increased technological advances, the images that were once thought of as 'humanoid faces' and 'pyramids' are just hills along the terranous plains of Mars (Schaefer Microsoft Encarta 2002). Thus, any speculations that there is an existing civilization in Mars are still unfounded until now.

The following facts… [read more]

Universe the Dictionary Term Paper

… ¶ … Universe

The dictionary defines it as the total of all known or believed objects and phenomena existing throughout space. It is also called cosmos. Planets, stars, meteors are among these.

Some scientists believe that the universe will reach a point called a Big Crunch (Universe Today, 2009). It means that the universe will contract until it stops existing. When it reaches that point, it will be followed by what these scientists believe a Big Bang. When this happens, a new Universe will replace this one we know at present. This the basis of the science called cosmology (Universe Today).

Many other scientists also believe that the universe is really flat (Universe Today, 2009). This belief was published in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. There are scientists who disagree, however. And this theory or belief is not new. Discoverers and explorers in olden times had the same assumption about the shape of the earth. This is reported in history books until the more popular assumption that the world is round replaced it. Explorers who proved that the earth was round did so by traveling from one point and then reaching it by going in a circle (Universe Today).

There are many things about the universe that the human mind can never know in a lifetime. Scientists through generations make their own conjectures and discoveries about what objects ad phenomena float or exist in the universe. They pass on their theories to succeeding generations to increase human knowledge and understanding of this unlimited space called the universe. As of now, our knowledge is that there are nine planets, one big star called the sun and many moons revolving around the planets. No one knows for sure just how many planets or even solar systems are out and up there. Human beings like ourselves are only specks in this vastness we can never fully understand.

II. Atmospheric Effects

The heat of the sun has major effects on the surface of the earth (PV Education, n.d.). The first is reduced power of solar radiation as…… [read more]

Geologic History of Mars Article Review

… Geologic History Of Mars

Consequent to the formation of the Solar System the planet Mars developed, accumulating and differentiating into crust, covering, and core. Michael H. Carr and James W. Head lll's article "Geologic history of Mars" goes at offering insight regarding this planet and the events which gave it the look it has today.

The document provides a history on Mars from the pre-Noachian period up to the present day. The information concerning the recent era is more complex, taking into consideration that space programs have included the planet in the last few decades.

The text written by Carr and Head III primarily analyses surface processes experienced by the planet Mars from its formation and until the present. By doing this, it is expected to provide readers with a thorough account on the geological evolution that the planet went through.

In attempting to create a geological history of Mars, the writers also turn to explaining other processes that have made their presence felt on the planet, such as the development of climate and of Mars's atmosphere.

Even though the two writers have made good use of a series of verified sources when writing this article, they are also aware that the data present in it can very well be open to discussion, as it is extremely difficult and even impossible for one to claim that he can come up with incontestable information providing evidence that Mars has gone through a series of specific events about three gigayears ago. Nevertheless, in spite of the debatable aspect of this article, its authors do not hesitate to provide the world with their findings.

According to the article, the largest percentage of Mars's crust developed approximately four gigayears ago because of natural events, such as large floods. Consequent to that period, the planet's surface was transformed because of less influential factors, with volcanism being among the most important of them. Obviously, such a claim cannot be verified, as most evidence dating from that time is surely lost.

Mars's geologic record is most likely to contain information from the Hesperian and Amazonian periods for the most part, and little to no information from the Noachian and pre-Noachian episodes. At certain points in the article, the writers tend to come up with presumptions that can only be imagined, as there is no evidence to…… [read more]

Space Manned vs. Unmanned Term Paper

… A second disadvantage in regard to man on flights to space is the fact that men do not have the same longevity as unmanned situations may offer. Because man is mortal, he may not make it alive to a far off location. The Hubble craft for instance is still going strong after decades of use and it never once asked for a lunch or dinner break. A third disadvantage is the fact that man may make more mistakes than a programmed process or robot. Man may make a decision that at the time seems like the right thing to do but it may in fact be ac completely illogical judgment based on panicking.

Pros unmanned

Robotic flight has a clear advantage over manned in the sense of how long a flight could potentially take. Man cannot last nearly as long and men have human functional needs that robotic programs do not have. A second advantage is the fact that robotic programs will do routine tasks over and never get bored with that repetitive cycle. Space travel is for all intense of purpose a boring process. The ship takes off and there is really not too much to do as the ship flies to its location. Machines will not get bored. The cost of adding robotics as compared to humans is greatly less as well. NASA and space programs do not have to add as many fail safes that are costly into programs that will go unmanned. "Additionally, NASA has launched a number of significant scientific probes such as the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft that have explored the Moon, the planets, and other areas of our solar system. NASA has sent several spacecraft to investigate Mars including the Viking and Mars Pathfinder spacecraft. The Hubble Space Telescope and other space science spacecraft have enabled scientists to make a number of significant astronomical discoveries about our universe." (NASA)

Cons unmanned

The disadvantages of unmanned space travel are similar to that of manned. The problems associated with unmanned travel into space occur mainly in the sense of troubleshooting. What happens if something goes wrong on a flight and there are no humans to intervene? The robotic process can not deviate from any existing preprogrammed process so if anything goes wrong the entire mission may have to be aborted. A second disadvantage would be similar if the communications process is eliminated or damaged in some way. If there is no way of communicating with the unmanned ship then the mission is as good as lost. A third disadvantage is based on the exploration of the end of the mission. When there are no humans directing the show on sight, long distance communications may or may not be able to navigate the robotic process into place as needed. For example, consider the simple expectation of taking a picture of something that is slightly lower and to the left of the camera. Humans make this adjustment very easily but robotic processes may not.


The space… [read more]

Scientific Revolution the Enlightenment Industrial Research Proposal

… ¶ … Scientific Revolution, Industrial Revolution, and American Revolution demonstrate the power of the human mind as ingenuity. Mankind refuses to be restrained, whether it be within the frame of a small universe, to the old-fashioned way of doing things, or to oppression of any kind. The human spirit is meant to evolve and the human mind was created to think and grow. These revolutions with discoveries of the boundless universe to the steam engine demonstrate what life and history are all about. With new ideas come social and religious change and, while this change might seem frightening at first, it always proves to be one that answers a need and provides hope for the future.

The Scientific Revolution describes the period of time in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries when scientific ideas began to separate itself from ancient thought and look at laws of the universe in new ways. Perhaps the most significant discoveries during this time was the fact that the earth was just one planet orbiting the sun and the sun was one of many stars. Nicolaus Copernicus was the first to challenge the Ptolemaic system of the universe with the notion that the earth rotated around the sun. His ideas did not solve many problems with the Ptolemaic system but it allow for thinking in a new direction. (Craig 665) Tycho Brahe took this idea a bit further, suggesting earth and the other planets in the solar system revolved around the sun. His notations were the "most accurate tables that had been drawn up for centuries" (666). In 1609, Galileo Galilei was the first man to turn a telescope to the heavens. His discovery of Venus and sunspots would be the bane of his existence as both of these discoveries supported the idea of a "moving Earth" (Goldsmith 32), which disputed the Church and Aristotelian teachings.

In 1633, Galileo published Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief Systems of the World, which expounded on his notions of a moving earth. This book was significant for science but a "disaster" (35) for Galileo. The pope "hated" (36) it and Galileo was sent to trial for heresy. He was treated like a "criminal" (White 55) and placed under house arrest. His books were banned but not forgotten. Isaac Newton was next great scientific mind to contribute to the Scientific Revolution. He posed the existence of gravity and, in 1687, his findings, "not only accounted for motion but definitely united heaven and earth in a single scheme and created a convincing picture of an orderly nature" (Noble 724). This notion left room for God and as he aged, he realized the "limits of the capacity of human…… [read more]

Federal Legislator Thesis

… United States Senator Bill Nelson


United States Senator Bill Nelson (Democratic Party) was born in 1942 in Miami, Florida and served as a captain in the U.S. Army from 1965 to 1971 during some of the hottest years of the Vietnam conflict. He was elected to the U.S. Senate in 2000 after serving six years in the Florida cabinet. As of November, 2009, Nelson also serves on the Senate Commerce, Armed Services, Budget, Finance, Intelligence and Aging committees and is also recognized as an expert on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). According to his official website, Senator Nelson "has taken on the cause of privacy by supporting measures to protect consumers from identity theft and working on legislation to stop unsolicited e-mails that plague individuals and businesses;" he has also "worked tirelessly for the families of Florida's men and women serving overseas by addressing their concerns about basic equipment needs" and has opposed all efforts to "reduce the military's aircraft carrier fleet as our nation continues to fight the global threat of terrorism" ("U.S. Senator Bill Nelson," Internet).

Some of Senator Nelson's career highlights includes winning federal assistance for cleanup activities after Florida's devastating hurricane season of 2004, arranged a substantial settlement between the Negro League Baseball players and Major League Baseball "to ensure aging former players received compensation for their years of service; created strict criminal penalties "for spammers who send junk e-mail schemes that involve fraud, identity theft, obscenity, child pornography and the sexual exploitation of children" and help to amend the Fair Credit Reporting Act of 2003 to "increase consumer privacy protections by requiring businesses to dispose properly of any client information derived from credit reports" ("U.S. Senator Bill Nelson," Internet).

Since Senator Nelson is considered by many of his senatorial peers as an expert on NASA, one of his most important missions is to guarantee that America's space program remains vital and funded. On October 22, 2009, Senator Nelson met with President Barack Obama who assured him that the space program will…… [read more]

Aristotelian View Thesis

… Aristotelian View of the Universe

From a Aristotelian Model to Heliocentrism

As long as mankind has existed, we have questioned the world around us. It is from this great curiosity that great discoveries are made and great truths are told. However, sometimes truths can change with new developments in advancing technologies. This was the case for our model of the universe. The Aristotelian view of the universe reigned supreme for thousands of years, until new developments in the telescope and the brave scientific inquiry of two men, Nicolaus Copernicus and Galileo Galilei presented a new heliocentric version of the construction of the universe.

The Aristotelian view of the universe was much different than how we know it in the modern context today. In fact the primary principles of our modern view of the universe were completely reversed in this ancient model of our solar system and beyond. First posited by Aristotle in the days of the ancient Greeks, the model presented the Earth as the center of the universe. The Earth was then surrounded by the moon, the sun, and all the planets, with the stars further out. In this model, the universe was composed of fifty-five concentric spheres that all fit one inside the other, each getting bigger and bigger as you moved further away from the Earth. The moon, planets, sun, and stars were all connected to these spheres, each of them rotating at different spheres. In between the spheres containing planets or stars were buffering spheres that helped separate each celestial body. The moon was closest to the Earth, and then can Mercury and Venus. The sun was next, and separated the rest of the planets: Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. The furthest realm was the fixed stars that contained the constellations and did not rotate. The very outermost sphere was that of what Aristotle called the "Prime Mover," which rotated at a steady angular speed. This movement was what caused the other spheres to begin their rotation. According to this view, however, the Earth never rotated. Rather, each planet on its own individual sphere moved because of its connection to the "Primary Mover" and that explained the movement of the celestial bodies across the Earth's sky.

This model of the universe was prevalent for thousands of years. It gained even more fervor in the Middle Ages, as Medieval Europe saw a revitalized interest in Greek philosophy, especially in the works and teachings of Aristotle. Additionally, this model of the universe worked nicely within the strict Christian philosophies of the day, which adamantly posited the idea that Earth was God's greatest creation, and therefore it must have been the center of the universe. Aristotle's "Prime Mover" was quickly replaced with the Christian God, and the last sphere of the universe became symbolic…… [read more]

Titan Chemistry Science Daily Website Article Review Research Proposal

… Titan


Science Daily website article review: Titan's atmosphere

According to the 2009 Science Daily website article "Chemistry of Titan's hazy atmosphere unraveled," Saturn's moon Titan has long been regarded as unique by scientists because it is the only object in the solar system "besides Venus and Earth with a solid surface and thick atmosphere" despite its remote location in the outreaches of our solar system (Chemistry, 2009, Science Daily). Until recently, the reasons for the appearance of Titan's atmosphere were elusive. Now, scientists have been able to simulate the conditions of the molecular collisions that take place in Titan's atmosphere through the use of new technology and calculations.

University of Hawaii researchers have discovered that "an ethynyl radical is produced in Titan's atmosphere by the photodissociation of acetylene by ultraviolet light. Photodissociation is a process in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons" (Chemistry, 2009, Science Daily). This stimulates the creation of triacetylene, which serves as a building block to form more complex and longer polyynes and produces "potential precursors for the aerosol-based layers of haze surrounding Titan" (Chemistry, 2009, Science Daily).

Triacetylene and diacetylene are molecules "consisting of six and four carbon atoms, respectively, and two hydrogen atoms. The atoms in each molecule are connected by alternating single and triple bonds" (About that, 2009, Scientific Blogging). Ethynyl is a highly reactive substance. It is made of two carbon atoms connected by a triple bond and one hydrogen atom connected by a single bond. A single electron on the exterior carbon atom gives ethynyl the impetus to "attack" other molecules (About that, 2009, Scientific Blogging). Thus triacetylene is formed in a chemical process whereby the radical present in the ethynyl molecule and a diacetylene molecule collide. Diacetylene must come into contact with…… [read more]

Human Race's Exploration of the Moon Thesis


Although the moon, Earth's only natural satellite, has been the focus of much study and inquiry for hundreds of years, it was not until the dawn of the age of technology circa the early 1950's that humans began to seriously consider sending rockets, probes and man himself to this lonely and mysterious outpost some 230,000 miles from planet Earth. Of course, the United States and the Soviet Union (i.e., today's Russia) are the nations best-known for their activities related to exploring the moon, but beginning around the mid-1990's, other nations like China, Japan, India and France set out to explore this body in space via a number of probes and satellites, some of which were highly successful and have added substantially to our knowledge concerning the moon and its environment.

Under the auspices of its own National Space Administration, the nation of China successfully launched an unmanned lunar orbiter known as Chang'e 1 in 2007 and plans on sending other orbiters sometime in 2009. The main purpose behind these and future lunar probes is to tap into the moon's immense reserves of naturally-occurring metals like iron and what is known as helium-3 for use in nuclear fusion power plants. Certainly, due to its burgeoning economy, the nation of China sees the moon as a great source of energy and materials for future use in a number of technologically-related endeavors (Heiken, 156).

Much like China, the nation of Japan has demonstrated much interest in exploring the moon which began in the mid-1980's with the LUNAR -- a and SELENE lunar projects. This was followed in 1990 by the launching of a satellite known as MUSES-a/HITEN, aimed at "establishing the technologies including satellite trajectory control which would be required for future lunar and planetary exploration projects" ("Japan's Lunar Exploration," Internet) by Japan. In 1994, Japan's Space Activities Commission created a "long-term vision with the moon as a main target for national space development" in conjunction with the National Space Development Agency and the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science. These and other ambitious lunar projects have succeeded greatly and have provided much data and knowledge related to areas of the moon which are still under intense investigation by the U.S. And Russia ("Japan's Lunar Exploration," Internet).

Similarly, the nation of India sent its first exploratory mission to the moon in September of 2008 known as Chandrayaan-1, aimed at studying the lunar surface for possible naturally-occurring elements which are rare on the Earth. The entity responsible for this successful mission, the Indian Space Research Organization (IRSO), is quite impressive and plans on making some huge strides in the exploration of not only the moon but also other solar bodies (O'Neill, Internet). Established in 1972, this organization was created in order to "develop space-based technologies aimed at enriching" India's ever-growing economy and has plans to launch similar missions sometime after 2010 (O'Neill, Internet).

Obviously, the two nations with the longest and most successful missions to the moon are the… [read more]

Apollo 11 Neil Armstrong Term Paper

… Buzz Aldrin - Apollo 11 Landmark Mission

Each person is a witness to history in the making as the events of the world unfold each day. Some of the events will stand as remarkable over the course of a person's… [read more]

California Science Center Term Paper

… ¶ … museum that was visited for purposes of this report was the California Science Center. Five earth science exhibits were reviewed and related to a corresponding California educational standard in earth science. The first exhibit to be observed was entitled "Stars and Telescopes." The educational standard it relates to is item 2(d) from the earth sciences unit for grades 9-12 that states, "students know that stars differ in their life cycles and that visual, radio, and x-ray telescopes may be used to collect data that reveal those differences."

The way this particular exhibit relates to the standard is that it focuses on teaching students about how scientists use the telescope to learn about different aspects of the universe, such as the creation of galaxies and the life cycles of different types of stars. Different types of telescopes are explained about through the exhibit such as the Chandra x-ray observatory, the Hubble optical telescope in space, and the first orbiting x-ray telescope named Uhuru. The way the exhibit conveys the standard to visitors from grades 9-12 is by displaying models of the different types of telescopes available and by showing how telescopes collect information such as images from the visible spectrum, infrared, and x-ray data.

The second exhibit to be observed was entitled "Mission to the Planets," one of its highlights being in particular the SAGE I satellite. Observation of this satellite is related to the educational standard 4© from the earth sciences unit for grades 9-12. It states that, "students know the different atmospheric gases that absorb the Earth's thermal radiation and the mechanism and significance of the greenhouse effect."

The way this exhibit relates to the standard is that it teaches about these atmospheric gases by revealing how this satellite was responsible for measuring the concentration of ozone and aerosol particles in the Earth's atmosphere. It performed this measurement by collecting data on the amount of radiation entering the atmosphere from the sun. This satellite was responsible for helping scientists find out how much change the Earth's climate and atmosphere had undergone over the years. The exhibit's way of conveying the standard to visitors from grades…… [read more]

Global Warming Term Paper

… The researchers tried to mimic a high level of exposure that humans might experience, and "found no statistically significant increases in any tumor type, including brain, liver, lung or kidney, compared to the control group" (Cell pp).

The common theory… [read more]

Humans Traveling to Mars Term Paper

… Humans on Mars

Humans upon Mars -- Resist the Pull of the Red Planet!

That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind," said Neil Armstrong on that fateful day of July 20, 1969, when for the first time humankind strode upon the moon. (Stephen, 2004) it was hard to believe after the first, sputtering attempts to bring a United States program into being in the wake of the horror of the Russian Sputnik launch that an American now stood upon the moon. It seemed as if anything were possible in the eyes of the nation staring at 'one of their own' upon the cratered surface. But now, however, it is difficult for many Americans to believe that sending human beings into space via the national or even an international space program is such an important effort today. This is partly in the light of a reconfigured geopolitical balance between Russia and America, and partly due to the increased costs and perceived risks of the space program. And perhaps such doubting American may be right. For although it may become technically possible for humans to stride and boldly go where none have gone before, namely to Mars, the fourth planet of out solar system and the one that most closely resembles our own earthly sphere's climate and gravitational force, this paper will argue that human travel to Mars should not be the primary goal of the American space program. ("Mars," Columbia Encyclopedia, 2001)

First of all, travel to Mars would be expensive, perhaps prohibitively so. The peer-reviewed journal of politics and economics the New Statesman soberly calculates that "a trip to Mars would take as long as three years, travelling a good 100 million miles. A crew would have to consist of at least six -- doctors to cope with medical emergencies, a geologist and a biologist, as well as at least two trained astronauts." To provide a point of contrast, "the launch cost of a space shuttle mission is around $20m per-ton and just getting 1,000 tons of Mars equipment into space would cost $20bn, more than Nasa's annual budget. The Apollo spacecrafts that carried astronauts to the moon weighed just 45 tons at departure, and carried enough material to support three people over ten days in a journey of around 750,000 miles. The probes that have just landed on Mars each weigh a single ton and cost a total of $820m to despatch. Using the same cost scale, a single Mars mission at today's prices would set the country back at least $600bn." (Stephen, 2004)

Also, according to National Geographic Magazine in 2001, there are still considerable technical glitches to be worked out, given "the only means of extended space travel is by chemically propelled rockets, similar to those used today. Using such rockets, it would take about six months to fly to Mars, and the amount of fuel needed just to get there would be so large that the fuel would make up a… [read more]

Earth's Moon Term Paper

… The regolith varies from 3 to 5 meters (10 to 16 feet) in the maria to 10 to 20 meters (33 to 66 feet) in the highlands.

Over time, comets and meteorites continually bombard the Moon. Many of these objects are water-rich. Energy from sunlight splits much of this water into its constituent elements hydrogen and oxygen, both of which usually fly off into space immediately. However, it has been hypothesized that significant traces of water remain on the Moon, either on the surface, or embedded within the crust. The results of the Clementine mission suggested that small, frozen pockets of water ice may be embedded unmelted in the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar crust. Although the pockets are thought to be small, the overall amount of water was suggested to be significant -- 1 km3.

Compared to Earth, the Moon has a very weak magnetic field (Tarbuck, Lutgens, & Tasa, 2002). While some of the Moon's magnetism is thought to be intrinsic (such as a strip of the lunar crust called the Rima Sirsalis), collision with other celestial bodies might have imparted some of the Moon's magnetic properties. A long-standing question in planetary science is whether an airless solar system body, such as the Moon, can obtain magnetism from impact processes such as comets and asteroids. Magnetic measurements can also supply information about the size and electrical conductivity of the lunar core -- evidence that will help scientists better understand the Moon's origins.


Korotev, R.L. (2004). Planetary science. A unique chunk of the Moon. Science, 305(5684), 622-623.

Palme, H. (2004). Planetary science. The…… [read more]

Gaia Hypothesis and Daisy Term Paper

… While the black and white daisies do cooperate, the level of cooperation involved is implicit; there is no "committee" of organisms that decide how hard to work for the good of all. Each organism, by doing what it does best… [read more]

Star-Gazing: The Story Term Paper

… The earth is reborn symbolically in the form of these organisms everyday, in the variegated folds and crevices of rock and loam -- even the smell of rot gives life to something, even the charred remains smells like a star, like carbon, life's elemental energy that is regenerated on a daily basis.

Insects chirp monotonous, the night's true music, though many human composers have written symphonies dedicated to night. Repetition is life's true music, and these insects spawn will live on long after humanity is dead, even after humans have mutated into another two-legged species. All will eventually grow silent -- silent as the stars and the sun's reflected light on the moon seems.

This thought tastes bitter -- bitter as the humidity on the air, on the tongue of the open mouth -- the earth will die as it was born, absorbed into fire or the void, and no stories will be remembered, even the concept of narrative, story, the senses will vanish.

This moment, this perspective of life, star, and earth will not remain, and die as well.… [read more]

Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment Term Paper

… Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment

Scientific Revolution is considered as the process by which "new ideas and methods of science challenged modes of thought associated with medieval times and Scholasticism" (Kagan, 1995:514). This social change brought within new ideologies such as the application of rational and scientific thought in the pursuit for intellectual development.

The social change that is the Scientific Revolution differed from 16th century notions of science and intellectual development. Prior to this social and intellectual movement, there is a general agreement that the Earth was the center of the universe, which was derived from Ptolemy's work on the solar system (also called the Ptolemaic system). The Ptolemaic system's earth-centric view of the universe is parallel with the Christian belief that the earth is the center of the universe that God created.

However, in the middle of 16th century, new scientific thought had pervaded Western society, and through Nicolaus Copernicus, humankind became informed of the fact that contrary to Ptolemy and Christianity's claims of an earth-centric universe, he (Copernicus) declared that the sun was actually the center of the universe, with the earth as one of the planets revolving around it. Although he lived a life of condemnation for opposing the Church, Copernicus opened the doors for new scientific discoveries and thought to prevail during the Scientific Revolution. Another important individual who had made significant contributions to the Scientific Revolution is Isaac Newton, whose subsistence to empiricism allowed him to establish the laws governing the force of gravity, another discovery that illustrates how empirical thinking leads to the acquisition of new knowledge and intellectual development.

The Enlightenment period, which flourished during the 17th…… [read more]

Space Program Term Paper

… It cannot, however, be denied that nearly all of these achievements could have been accomplished at a fraction of the cost that was spent on "manned" flights into space if the policy objectives had been to scientific benefits only.

Supporters… [read more]

Creationism: Is There Any Credible Term Paper

… These estimates indicate that the Earth and our Solar System was formed about 4.5 billion years ago. These figures conflict greatly with the contention of the creationists who believe that the universe was created just 6,000 to 10,000 years ago.

The other key creationist beliefs about the creation of life and Noah's flood are also in conflict with scientific knowledge. The scientists estimate that the first life form started on the earth at least 3.5 billion years ago and gradually developed into more complex forms through the process of "evolution." According to the theory of evolution the modern man evolved from its sub-human ancestor (named Australopithecine) about 150,000 years ago. (Ibid. "Evidence about Biological..") The creationists, of course, believe that the first man and woman were Adam and Eve who were expelled from the paradise by God 6,000 years ago. The scientific evidence against the occurrence of Noah's flood just a few thousand years ago when, according to the creationists, the entire earth's surface was covered with water for an entire year, is even more compelling. Geological records, inter-tidal and terrestrial deposits indicate that at no recorded time in the past has the entire planet been under water. Scientists have also calculated that the volume of water required for a universal flood of the magnitude such as the Noah's flood, has never existed on and in the Earth, since the formation of its solid crust formed about 4 billion years ago. Most of the creationists' arguments in support of their beliefs are either based on religious "evidence" or on the observation that the Big Bang and evolutionary theories are mere theories that have not been seen by anyone or proved by observation. The scientists counter this argument by stating that all scientific knowledge is not based on direct observation and experimentation. For instance, physicists cannot directly observe subatomic particles, but they still make accurate inferences about the weight, speed, and other properties of the particles. Furthermore, all scientific theories are subject to the possibility of rejection or modification in the light of new knowledge, but according to the current state of scientific knowledge, which is backed up by compelling evidence based on observation, experimentation and inference, the Big Bang and Evolutionary theories are established "facts" rather than mere conjectures.

As we saw in this essay, there is no credible evidence that support the creationists' beliefs about the origins of the universe or life forms. In fact, their beliefs about the age of the earth and divine intervention in creating life forms are in direct conflict with compelling scientific evidence. The creationists, in my opinion, are pursuing a futile goal by attempting to "prove" purely religious beliefs through logical explanations. Literal interpretations of theological writings cannot possibly compete with the knowledge achieved by science through detailed observation and experimentation. There is no "competition" between religion and science -- both are separate fields and should remain so.

Works Cited

Science and Creationism: A view from the National Academy of Sciences. Second Edition,… [read more]

Earth and Space Term Paper

… Space is so large; we do not know where it ends, or how large it really is. Space is infinite, but Earth is quite finite, and therefore, our planet does not make any real difference in the vastness of the universe that surround us. We might seem huge and important when seen from the moon, or from a space shuttle orbit, but from a far-away star, we are only another star among millions on the horizon. Space is so big it is incomprehensible, and because of that, the Earth does not matter at all in the real scheme of things. More importantly, space does not need Earth for oxygen, or gravity, or anything at all. The universe is so vast that one star or one planet cannot really affect the whole, any more than one grain of sand on Earth can affect the entire planet. One grain of sand is infinitesimal, and so are we in the universe. What is most interesting about our position in space is how we are so perfectly aligned for our life and well being, and yet we are really nothing more than a grain of sand in the ultimate scheme of things.

In conclusion, Earth and space have many commonalities, but in the end, it is the differences between them that keep Earth functioning in space. Earth has an atmosphere, a climate, and human life that are all dependent on the vast outer space that surrounds us. We have a perfect place in space, and we may be the only speck in the universe that has found its perfect niche. Space, however, is not dependent on our being here, or even on the planet existing. Space does not need us as much as we need space - it is that simple, and that perplexing. Earth and space have an interesting relationship, and if it changes in any way, it could mean the end of life as we know it on Earth, but space would continue…… [read more]

Plate-Tectonic the Earth Term Paper

… Plate tectonics, as defined in the article, is the continuous motion of parts of the earth's surface that causes its changes. Compared to Venus, our sister planet, the earth changes its components faster. In fact, Magellan's space probe orbiting radar found that plate tectonics do not occur in Venus. Venus doesn't show signs of equivalent processes the earth's surface experiences.


The pre-studied formations and changes that take place in the earth's surface can make us aware of taking care of our environment. The natural activities of the earth's surface may be the effect of the things that we do to our environment and on how we deal with our mother earth.


S. Ross Taylor and Scott M. McLennan. The Evolution of Continental Crust.

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, January 1996 Volume 274 Number 1 Pages 76-81.… [read more]

Space Debris and Junk: Causes Term Paper

… However, this policy is still limiting to the efforts of solving the space debris problem, since most of the massive junk in space were contributed by government programs. This policy is only applicable to commercial companies, and does not put… [read more]

NASA and Integrated Financial Management Term Paper

… However, the landing on the moon and the decline of the Cold War, among other factors, initiated changes in NASA's direction. Budget cuts caused officials to become more concerned about the survival of the space agency. NASA was forced to… [read more]

Nausea the Depleted Life "Things Essay

… As a result, he questioned his very existence, his very purpose for living. What happened to Fitzgerald is the same thing that happens to Antoine, he became completely dispossessed of the person he once was.

The Nausea is, therefore, a process of losing one's convictions, aspirations, and desires. It leads one to question his/her very existence. Like Antoine does, "My existence was beginning to cause me some concern. Was I a mere figment of the imagination?" It's a hollowing out of the soul.

So, like all diseases, is there a cure? Is there something one can do to overcome 'the Nausea?"

Well, Antoine eventually finds solace in the idea of free will, the notion that one can create meaning, assign meaning, value, worth, etc. even if there is none.

However, to give something meaning is a tenuous and fragile action. For one thing the meaning is arbitrary and, for another, the onus for keeping the meaning intact relies solely on the individual's fortitude to keep it there, especially if that something that has been given meaning has been ascribed with an abstract idea or concept, i.e. Antoine is a great person and a good friend. In order for this to be valid, Antoine has to believe it and, ideally, get other people to believe it as well. He has to have unwavering commitment to that meaning.

As for Fitzgerald, he created a new slant on life. He became resigned to the notion that his former self, his better self, was gone forever. His new persona, his new attitude toward life was that of a codger. Fitzgerald wrote, "I do not any longer like the postman, nor the grocer, nor the editor, nor the cousin's husband, and he in turn will come to dislike me, so that life will never be very pleasant again, and the sign Cave Canem is hung permanently just above my door. I will try to be a correct animal though, and if you throw me a bone with enough meat on it I may even lick your hand."

Personally, I find Antoine's cognition regarding free will a little too optimistic. Human volition is an illusion as evidence by the fact that life is, in and of itself, meaningless. We control so very little. Six billion years from now the sun will explode destroying the earth and the entire solar system. We can do nothing except wait for night.… [read more]

Lithium and I Am a Glowing Soft Term Paper

… ¶ … Lithium and I am a glowing soft, silver-white metal (alkali), nicknamed Li and living under atomic address 3. My group, my period, and my block is 1,2,s. When cut open (and I am soft enough to be cut with your classroom scissors), I appear metallic, but contact with moist air soon makes me tarnish. I am commonly obtained from brines and clays; commercially, I am isolated from lithium chloride and potassium chloride. My children were christened helium and beryllium. Of all my family, I am proud to say, I am the lightest metal and the least dense (approximately 0.534g/cm; my standard atomic weight is 6.941(2)g.mol-1) -- but, I warn you, do not mess with me! I am flammable and apt to tear you apart. In fact, I have the highest specific heat capacity of the solid members of my family!

On the other hand, I am good for your nerves too, and help you in a variety of manner: not only to calm those of you who are mentally ill (specifically, depression and bipolar disorder or mania), but I am also used in glass and ceramics, aircraft, and certain types (lithium, of course) batteries. Actually, I also appear in nuclear physics -- thermonuclear weapons, in fact -- but that may not be pleasing to everyone.

My best friend is magnesium. We are soul mates with close chemical resemblances and similar salt makeup. Something else that you need to know about my character: I am composed of two isotopes 6Li and a large mass of 7LI (and my electron configuration is 2:1). Because my characters have low nuclear binding energy, I am less common in the solar system than most of my family, but let that not concern you! It is possible that a small amount of my characteristics are produced in young brown and certain orange stars (not in older stars), and generated by wind, and from the early solar system.

Since I am dangerous, my Creator was very careful in how He dispersed me through the universe, since He, obviously, didn't want to burn you folks up (although you…… [read more]

Space Telescopes Term Paper

… Space Telescopes

Ever since its launch in 1990, the Hubble telescope has been orbiting the Earth at 600 kilometers above, bringing valuable information and photos from space. Its history goes back to 1977, when the Congress approved the project funds. However, operations didn't take off until 1981, when the Space Telescope Science Institute was founded, designed especially for the production and research of the Hubble Space Telescope.

In 1990, on April, 25th, the telescope was deployed into orbit. Several problems appeared during the first years of use. An aberration in one of the mirrors was soon discovered and needed to be changed later in 1993. A new computer was installed in 1999 and the telescope was placed in "safe mode" after "the failure of a fourth gyroscope." However, it continued to produce generously relevant data on the Universe and its components.

One can never underestimate the importance and the extent of Hubble's accomplishments. Some facts and figures are relevant in this case. We should mention, for example, the fact that Hubble sends everyday 10 to 15 gigabytes of data to Earth. In total, up to the year 2000, Hubble has taken 330,000 separate observations, traveled close to 1,500 billion miles, created an archive of 7.3 terabytes and has observed close to 25,000 astronomical targets.

The initial cost of the telescope was $2 billion. However, one may wonder what the costs of keeping it running every day are. According to Ed Weiler, NASA's chief Hubble scientist, "each American is paying less than $1 a year in taxes for the telescope - less than 2 cents a week." This calculation is a result of the $230 million needed to operate and maintain the Hubble.

2. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) may be considered Hubble's successor in space, in case the latter is bound for retirement. The JWST is scheduled to be launched in 2011 and contains some last hour technologies. These include the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Space Support Module (SSM).

The Science module integrates some extremely performing instruments, such as the near infrared camera, the near infrared spectrograph and the detectors. Given the fact that its primary mission, initially, will be to study early galaxies that are better seen in infrared, as well as the birth and formation of stars and the origins of our planetary system, the telescope's detectors are of extremely high quality.

Further more, the telescope itself uses a new type of mirror, aimed at being able to perceive characteristics of galaxies billions of light years away. The primary mirror will be 6.5 meters in diameter. Compared to Hubble's 2.4 meters main mirror, the differences are obvious. The problem, however, is the fact that one needs to be able to build a 6.5 meter mirror that will also be light enough to be carried on board of the launching shuttle and, on the other hand, it needs to be strong enough.

The technology that JWST will be using is… [read more]

Aristotle's Astronomy Besides Giving Term Paper

… ¶ … Aristotle's Astronomy besides giving a brief overview of Aristotle's life and accomplishments.

Life and Accomplishments

Aristotle (384-322 BCE) is one of the three most famous ancient philosophers whose work have left an indelible mark on the Western Civilization.… [read more]

Space Data While Technological Advances Case Study

… Space Data

While technological advances have helped and assisted mankind in nearly all of his endeavors, the burdens associated with its applications cannot be ignored or misinterpreted. This problem is glaring in the case of Astronomy and its ability to use technology to gather enormous amounts of data. This stockpile of nearly 60 petabytes (PB) of data available to these scientists have revealed that humanity cannot keep up with the pace of acquiring data.

The purpose of this essay is to discuss the issues with data collection and performance degradation in the subject of astronomy. The essay will first examine how data is collected and how this process has led us to this problem. The next section discussed in this essay will address the emerging technologies that are becoming available that might alleviate the situation. Finally the writing will address the costs associated with fixing this problem and the general outlook of the practicality of the solutions that are being applied to the case.

Data Gathering Techniques

Berriman & Groom's (2011) argument suggested that the availability of large amounts of data have " transformed research in astronomy and the STScI now reports that more paper are published with archived data sets than with newly acquired data, (p.1). Astronomy as a practice is being threatened due to extreme degradation in acquiring real time information and applying it in a useful and practical manner.

Technology is truly a Pandora's box. In this case, technology has allowed for the gathering of so much information and data, covering an immense span of time and distance, there is no way that the current structure of astronomical study can fully come to grips with what they are gathering. The scenario is changing too fast for humans to keep up. The changing nature of the cosmos is not waiting for human kind to keep up and nature appears to keep producing and evolving whether we can model these changes or not. As a result the science itself appears to becoming somewhat obsolete if this tsunami of data is somehow incorporated in a useful manner that helps bring reason and understanding to the situation.

Emerging Technologies

Wall (2010) wrote that "the challenge will be for astronomers to sift through and follow up on the instrument's observations. Researchers are just now figuring out how they might be able to tackle such a job. Universities and colleges need to train future astronomers more fully in computer science and data management, in the short-term, astronomers should team up with computer scientists." Graphic processing units (GPUs) seem to have some of the answers to help reduced the…… [read more]

Astronomy the Moon Research Paper

… ELEVEN: Venus orbits the Sun (inside Earth's orbit) so because it never goes outside the earth's orbit it can never be more than 47 degrees above the horizon at sunset (law of physics). Venus is an inferior planet because its orbit is between earth's orbit and the sun.

TWELEVE: The Seasons on earth are caused by the tilt of the earth on its axis and by the fact that as the earth orbits the sun different hemispheres receive less direct rays from the sun; for example, when it is summer in Australia it is winter in North America, and vice -- versa.

THIRTEEN: Kepler's 3 laws of planetary motion: a) planets move around the Sun in ellipses and the Sun is at one focus; b) the line connecting the Sun to a planet sweeps equal areas in equal times; and c) the square of the orbital period of a planet is "proportional to the cube (3rd power) of the mean distance from the Sun" (Stern, 2007).

FOURTEEN: Three of Galileo's most important discoveries with the telescope: a) he discovered that the moon was mountainous and pock-marked; b) he found that Jupiter has moons; and c) the earth orbits around the sun and hence the earth is not the center of the universe. Aristotle's theories in conflict with Galileo: he believed that all bodies move naturally and are not the result of one body pulling another; he believed the cosmos was made up of a central earth surrounded by stars, the moon and the sun rotating in circles around earth.

FIFTEEN: mass is a measure of how much matter is contained in any given object; how strongly gravity pulls on that same object is its weight. Speed is the magnitude of velocity and velocity has a certain direction and a certain magnitude.

SIXTEEN: By moving the object twice as far away the gravitational pull on that object will be one quarter of what it was previously. The velocity would be changed by minus 25%.

Works Cited

Cornell University. (2008). Kirchhoff's Laws. Retrieved November 17, 2012, from

Stern, David P. (2007). Kepler's Three Laws of Planetary Motion:…… [read more]

Astronomy Keck Telescope Book Report

… Astronomy- Keck Telescope

Overview of the telescope

A telescope according to the Webster's dictionary is referred to as "an optical instrument used in viewing distant objects and heavenly bodies."

The telescope has over the years gone through a series of modification up from the tiny manual device to a now fully automated and digital telescope. However, in all this transitional development these two properties: the light collecting power which allows one to detect fainter and distant objects and the angular resolution which allows one to view the smaller and fainter images better have mainly been important. The optical accuracy has thus been maintained throughout these developments.

The keck telescope

From W.M.Keck observatory, both keck I telescope and its twin, keck II were funded; the project being under the management of California institute of technology and the University of California. Science observation with the keck I telescope began in 1993 where as with keck II, it was in 1996; it is then that National Aeronautics and space administration partnered with the observatory. Keck II (twin keck) telescope is considered to be the biggest optical and infrared telescope in the world. Each of the telescopes is about eight stories high, weighs around 300 tons and its primary mirror has a diameter of 10 meters each with 36 hexagonal segments. These large size primary mirrors give the keck telescope a lead in astronomy as it offers the best clarity and potential sensitivity. (W.M.Keck Observatory, 2012).

Their performance however just like other telescopes is limited by atmospheric turbulence which ends up distorting images. This has been recently overcome by astronomers incorporating a fundamental technique known as the adaptive optics which compared to what was formerly possible in terms of clarity of the images has to a great extent improved. The deployment of 'the laser guide star adaptive optics system'…… [read more]

Optical Revolutions How the Telescope Essay

… Optical Revolutions

How the Telescope was a More Significant Invention to the Microscope

Advances in optical technology made it possible for early modern scientists to explore both the vastness of the universe and the minute complexities of the microbial world. However, while the invention of the microscope has transformed medicine and, ultimately, the lives of virtually every living person on Earth, these advances took decades to play out and were initially considered trivial. In contrast, the telescope may have had a less profound impact on everyday life, but, through its influence on a seminal figure, sparked an explosive revolution in early modern European thought, challenged the intellectual hegemony of the Church, and, ultimately, shifted our sense of the universe and our place in it.

The first modern working telescopes were built in 1608 and were almost immediately adopted as astronomical instruments by Galileo Galilei. As Bernard Cohen notes, "it is impossible to exaggerate the effects of the telescopic discoveries on Galileo's life, so profound were they" (57). Armed with a tool that let him to observe celestial objects more finely than the naked eye allows, Galileo soon realized that the planets he saw through the lens was very different from the celestial spheres of classical and medieval astronomical thought:

There were only two possibilities open: One was to refuse to look through the telescope or to refuse to accept what one saw when one did; the other was to reject the physics of Plato and Aristotle and the old geocentric astronomy of Ptolemy (78).

Galileo chose the latter option and thus became a divisive figure within the European scientific community, both in life and, as a symbol of intellectual dissent, after his death in prison. Other scientists, looking through the telescope to see for themselves, did likewise, and the Copernican Revolution began to gather momentum.

In Galileo's Italy, scientific revolt was indistinguishable from religious dissent. In the wake of the Protestant Reformation and its attendant wars, the Catholic Church was currently engaged in the ambitious Counter-Reformation in order to answer the challenges posed by Martin Luther a century before (Fermi and Bernardini 65). Within that milieu, both intellectual conformity and adherence to established orthodoxies were both considered essential. The Ptolemaic system was part of that orthodoxy; therefore, challenging that system was seen as both a challenge to religious orthodoxy and thus potentially seditious. As Konnert (72) notes, "religious unity was seen as an essential precondition for peace and stability; conversely, religious dissent was seen as a certain recipe for civil disorder and civil war."

While relatively unwelcome in Catholic Italy, Galileo's observations were truly revolutionary elsewhere in Europe, where they fed into the radical transformation of ideas about the nature of the universe and humanity's place in it. By around 1620, the geocentric system was in serious danger (Cohen 81). The old system had enshrined the Earth at the center of a relatively…… [read more]

Aeronautics Degree Program as Enrolled Thesis

… ¶ … Aeronautics degree program as enrolled in by the student who wrote this report. There were several topics looked at for this project including increased visual intraocular pressure and other impairments during human spacefl9ight, the effects on space travel… [read more]

Article Was Kepler's Supernova Unusually Powerful Essay

… Kepler's Supernova

Keplers Supernova

Before plunging into the points of discussions regarding Keplar's Supernova, it is essential to known about Supernova. Supernova is an advanced form of nova i.e. white dwarf star which could be explained as more energetic than a nova. The radiations emitted by a supernova are far rich in energy and comprises almost as much energy as estimated by the sun throughout its entire life. Although no supernova has been observed since 1650 and it appears once in every 50 years. Now moving towards Keplar's supernova that was befallen in the constellation Ophiuchus. This being a point of discussion was so obvious in front of the naked eye and was at the extreme of its brightness at night sky. Johannes Keplar was actually the one who kept on observing this supernova on Oct 17, 1604 (Chandra, pg. 3).

It was named after Keplar because of his vast research study on it and stated in his book entitled De Stella nova in pede Serpentarii ("On the new star in Ophiuchus's foot," Prague 1606). Thus, it has been considered as one 'prototypical' point of subject that is it has been in study in astronomical world since its inception was discovered. Keplar started a systemic study of this supernova based on the work criteria of Tycho's work. Tycho Brahe's work has been remarked as he determined the detailed motion of planets. In particular, Brahe assembled widespread data on the planet Mars, which would later prove crucial to Kepler in his formulation of the laws of planetary motion because it would be adequately precise to validate that the trajectory of Mars was not a circle but an ellipse (Chandra, pg. 4).

Spans of time after this discovery the wreckage of this supernova was known as ' Keplar's supernova leftovers' which were further studied by NASA's Chandra X observations to actually comprehend the formation of this Supernova. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls Chandra's science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass. Studies revealed that other than being powerful Keplar's supernova was far distant than stated before at the time of its visibility to the human naked eye. It was figured out that Keplar's supernova is a type of 'la supernova' i.e. those supernova which are formed because of two white dwarfs evolving together then they shatter as a result of thermonuclear explosions but unlike typical 'la supernova' they are asymmetrical with an x-ray emissions inside (Chandra, pg. 5). These results were published in the September 1, 2012 edition of the Astrophysical Journal. The authors of this study are Daniel Patnaude from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, MA; Carles Badenes from University of Pittsburgh in Pittsburgh, PA; Sangwook Park from…… [read more]

C. S. Lewis Out of the Silent Planet Term Paper

… ¶ … Silent Planet Report was looking for a good book to read, and someone recommended the Space Trilogy by C.S. Lewis. I knew he had written the Chronicles of Narnia and other good books, so I started with the first one, Out of the Silent Planet. The others are Perelandra and That Hideous Strength. Out of the Silent Planet was a very unusual book, and when I was asked to do a report on a book, I immediately chose this one. The book is memorable because it has characters that are believable and could actually live in the little English town described. The main character, Elwin Ransom, has a former friend, Professor Weston, who has built a rocket ship. Weston drugs Ransom and puts him on a rocket ship, which, when he awakes he realizes is heading into outer space. He escapes from Weston and his helper, Devine, as soon as they land on Malacandra, which is the Red Planet, and has some fantastic adventures there. I think the real reason this book is memorable is because the character thinks, as I would, that landing on another planet is scary and would put me into a world where nothing was the same as on earth.

C.S. Lewis' descriptions of the planet and the environment he walks around in are vivid and imaginative. He describes everything as if he were actually looking at it with new eyes. The unusual colors and inhabitants are described, as well as the landscape, very well. He gets mixed up with some of the inhabitants of the planet during the course of the book, and barely escapes with his life in order to return to earth.

The plot is that after arriving on Malacandra, Ransom escapes from Weston and Devine, runs off into the fantastic countryside, encounters a "hross" named Hyoi and lives in his village, learning the language of the "hrossa." He also learns that there is much gold on the planet and that is one of the reasons why Weston and Devine have gone there. Ransom helps the hrossa hunt a hnakra and is told that he needs to meet with Oyarsa, the "eldil" in charge of the whole planet. He refuses, but after killing the hnakra his friend Hyoi is killed by Weston and Devine and he goes to meet Oyarsa. On the way he meets the dreaded sorn, but the sorn is friendly and takes him to Oyarsa. Oyarsa tells him that Earth is the "silent planet" and wants to know more about it. Ransom is embarrassed that he does not know more than he does about the earth and the humans, who seem very foolish when he describes them to Oyarsa. Meanwhile Oyarsa has captured Weston and Devine and brings them in. Oyarsa tells Ransom he can stay on Malacandra, but Ransom misses the earth and wants to go home. The three are again put on the space ship and sent back to earth (a very difficult journey). When he… [read more]

Kepler's Mathematization of Gravity and Planetary Motion Term Paper

… Johannes Kepler was a key figure in the 17th century revolution of astronomy. His greatest accomplishment was the explanation of the laws of planetary motion which codified the rotation and planetary motion that was carefully researched and articulated by Brahe… [read more]

Hubble Space Telescope Term Paper

… After much discussion among the scientists and engineers, NASA "discovered a major flaw in the giant mirror, (for it) was too flat on one edge by 1/50th of the width of a single human hair" (Stathopoulos, Internet). In technical terms,… [read more]

Mars Story Term Paper

… Manned Mission to Mars

It was Meretzky's turn in the exercise pod again. For reasons that IRIS, the ship's diagnostic computer, could not figure out, Meretzky had been losing bone density faster than any of his colleagues. For weeks now,… [read more]

Aviation Project - Spacex Term Paper

… But meanwhile as the SpaceX Dragon is currently berthed / docked on the ISS, off-loading science materials and other supplies for the ISS, down on Planet Earth SpaceX is testing yet another revolutionary technology -- a rocket that is reusable and can take off and land vertically. On March 7, the "Grasshopper" reusable rocket roared off the launch pad and soared to 262.8 feet, and then it hovered for about half a minute and slowly inched back down to the launch pad for a perfect landing on its permanent steel and aluminum legs. Why is a reusable rocket that can land back on the spot it took off from an important innovation? Charles Black writes in SEN that enabling rockets to return to their launch pads avoids "…the need…to retrieve rocket parts from the ocean" and lowers costs (Black, 2013). All the tests for the "Grasshopper"; technically, this reusable rocket is called a "vertical takeoff vertical landing" (VTVL) rocket, Black explains. The SpaceX press release after the most recent VTVL launch explained that the Grasshopper will enable "…a launched rocket to land intact, rather than burning up upon reentry to the Earth's atmosphere" (Black, p. 2).

The Dragon's details

The Dragon can carry over 2,300 pounds of "pressurized and unpressurized cargo" to the ISS, and can bring over 3,000 pounds back to earth (Ra, 2013). The payload going up to the ISS is extremely important because valuable science investigations are ongoing on the ISS. The Dragon has three main elements: a) the nosecone protects the vessel and the docking adaptor during its flight to the ISS; b) the spacecraft itself, which will house a crew (with a "habitable cabin") and the cargo including the "service section (avionics, the RCS system, parachutes and other support materials); and the "Trunk," which carries "unpressurized" cargo and which supports the solar arrays that provide electricity for the craft (Ra, p. 2).

The Dragon has 18 thrusters for maneuvering, and it uses nitrogen tetroxide / monomethylhydrazine as propellants, Ra explains. Once in space, the Dragon has two large solar arrays to provide electricity and for re-entry into the earth's atmosphere the Dragon has "…the most powerful heat shield in the world," made with PICA-X, which is a variant of NASA's original heat shield (Ra, p. 2). And the crew has an "escape system" which the Space Shuttle program did not offer.

In conclusion, the SpaceX engineers ran into some problems during the design and development of the Falcon 9 and the Dragon, but they were ironed out and this space transportation system SpaceX has created is cheaper and more effective than previous NASA-built systems. It bodes well for the future of America's space program that a private commercial company could build systems that work well and cost less.

Works Cited

Black, Charles. (2013). SpaceX tests its vertical takeoff and vertical landing rocket. SEN.

Retrieved March 18, 2013, from

Money, Stewart. (2012). Why SpaceX is setting the pace in the commercial space race. NBC

News.… [read more]

Gemini Project NASA's Gemini Program Research Paper

… Kennedy Space Center. Retrieved from:

Gemini Mission I (2000) John F. Kennedy Space Center. Retrieved from:

Gemini Mission II (2000) John F. Kennedy Space Center. Retrieved from:

Gemini Mission III (2000) John F. Kennedy Space Center. Retrieved from:

Gemini Mission IV (2000) John F. Kennedy Space Center. Retrieved from:

Gemini Mission V (2000) John F. Kennedy Space Center. Retrieved from:

Gemini Mission VI (2000) John F. Kennedy Space Center. Retrieved from:

Gemini Mission VII (2000) John F. Kennedy Space Center. Retrieved from:

Gemini Mission VIII (2000) John F. Kennedy Space Center. Retrieved from:

Gemini Mission XII (2000) John F. Kennedy Space Center. Retrieved from:

Appendix A

(Source: John F. Kennedy Space Center, 2000)

Gemini III, Molly Brown - March 23, 1965 - Virgil I. Grissom, John W. Young

4 hours, 52 minutes 31 seconds - First manned Gemini flight, three orbits.

Gemini IV - June 03-07, 1965 - James A. McDivitt, Edward H. White II - 4 days 1 hour 56 minutes 12 seconds - Included first extravehicular activity (EVA) by an American; White's "space walk" was a 22 minute EVA exercise.

Gemini V - August 21-29, 1965 - L. Gordon Cooper, Jr., Charles Conrad, Jr.

7 days 22 hours 55 minutes 14 seconds - First use of fuel cells for electrical power; evaluated guidance and navigation system for future rendezvous missions. Completed 120 orbits.

Gemini VII -… [read more]

Copernican Revolution Has a Pivotal Term Paper

… These two fields have never found going in harmony (Brooke ppn 8-12).

Thomas Kuhn

In 1962 Thomas Kuhn, in his book, the structure of scientific revolutions, projected a radical model of scientific progress throughout ages. He mainly addressed the question of presence of science as a source of finding the truth about nature. He tried to explain that there is also another possibility of scientific development, which can be the drive to solve the puzzles put forward by nature when every time one untangled piece leads to more bewildered labyrinth. Progress of science takes place after refuting once convincingly held proposition and replacing it another brand new idea which is open to be challenged anytime in future. According to Kuhn's model new knowledge swap places with incompatible knowledge (Kuhn pp 215).

Arthur Koestler

Arthur Koestler in his book 'Sleepwalkers', takes us back in the times of Greeks and Egyptians when knowledge, philosophy, science and religion all were in their infancy. He also explains how shifting nature of planets provoked human interest in the motion of planets. So it is mainly the urge of human mind to feed on something call it the process of a falling apple or a shooting star.

The substantial part of Arthur's book put Johannes Kepler in focus. Kepler was exactly the first one in the field scientific knowledge who came up with physical rules and formulas and with the help of which he tried to forecast the precise location of each planet in the sky. His cosmology was perfect from others that it laid on firm grounds of experimentation and correct mathematical equations. The author applauded Kepler in many ways. According to him, Kepler was modest about his knowledge, and was quick to admit his mistakes, a trait which others cosmologists of his time and before were lacking. The knowledge of science is full of mistakes, and one solved puzzle points toward another meticulous direction. In this case, it is important to keep on fixing flaws in first attempt to reach successfully to the real answer (Cesarani, pp 142).

Why some People accept changes late

Change occur all the time, but it can at times be intricate to accept. Since most individuals feel easier with familiar people, spaces, thoughts and situations than we do with new ones, likewise change can appear foreign. However change itself is a procedure, so is the steady progress towards accepting it. It has been found out by researchers that if we want someone to acknowledge change, we must first recognize why they may refuse to accept. By anticipating their probable response to the plan or proposal, we can formulate smart decisions regarding how to instigate the change. There are four elements to understand: emotions are unavoidable, change equals loss, approval requires scheduling and certain aspects increase resistance. The initial response to change is often negative. People seem to automatically scan a new situation for anything that is not to their benefit. Then they complain about it. This negative focus often… [read more]

Spaceship Two Term Paper

… Spaceship 2 and the Push for Low Earth Orbit Vehicle Development

The Spaceship 2 project is the first privately funded space exploration project to achieve the goal of entering sub-orbital space. From a development perspective, this project was designed to encourage private interests to become involved in space exploration. More specifically, the project represents an attempt to explore all possible options relative to the future of space flight, both privately and publicly funded. Aiming to make spaceflight more accessible, Spaceship 2 carries a crew of two and up to six passengers. The spacecraft will be carried into space by a separate vehicle, dubbed "White Knight," which is in development stages currently (Virgin Galactic, 2011).

The Spaceship 2 project also represents a privately funded foray into the development of commercialized space flight, which is something that is just now on the horizon as a viable option. The project is a collaboration between many different people and funding sources, including Virgin's Richard Branson and Microsoft's Paul Allen (Virgin Galactic, 2011). Eventually an entire fleet of spaceships will be created that are centered on these original ideas and innovations. The project is a dry run so to speak of the future spaceflight programs in which certain design and implementation flaws are worked out and the project can be streamlined into a future commercial venture. As far as a timeline, the project was projected to produce results in 2008, when the aircraft was slated for rollout. However, the project was delayed and the first flight of Spaceship 2 did not occur until 2010. In early 2011, the program moved forward wit its initial flight of the spaceship in a specific configuration.

Looking at the program itself, from a critical perspective, it has followed many of the same lines as the X Prize creators have drawn out relative to commercial spaceflight vehicles (Virgin Galactic, 2011). This is to say that the X Prize has been much of the central motivation for the initial project, which includes the ship's predecessor, Spaceship 1. Since the Space Shuttle Program is no longer and now that NASA has really no other short or medium term direction relative to space flight, travel, and exploration by humans, the Spaceship 2 project is alone in scope and scale, and offers humans the ability to fly into space in the near future. Therefore, looking at the investors and the market involved with this project, there can really be no specific timeline for development, since there is no competition to the project.

However, as people begin to expect that spaceflight will be within reach for the general public over the next generation, the development of the Spaceship 1 program will be an important step toward the commercialization of space flight and sub-orbital experiences. Looking at the way NASA developed its spaceflight program, the Spaceship 2 project is leaps and bounds ahead. This is to say that design, implementation, and testing is far quicker within the private sector for this industry than it has historically… [read more]

Aeronautics National Space Craft Program Proposal Establishment Research Paper

… Aeronautics

National Space Craft Program Proposal

Establishment of a Special committee on Special development

Apollo 1 (as-204)

Apollo 7 (as 205)

Apollo 9 (as 504)

Apollo 10 (as 505)

Apollo 11 (as 506)

Apollo 12 (as 507)

Apollo 13 (as… [read more]

Is Space Exploration Necessary? Research Paper

… ¶ … Against Deep-Space Exploration

In April 2010, U.S. President Barack Obama announced his intention to support continued space exploration as a fundamentally valuable human endeavor. More specifically, President Obama reiterated his belief that the nation should commit itself to… [read more]

Columbus Discovering the Americas Essay

… Scientific Discoveries That Changed the World

Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton radically altered thoughts regarding the earth's place in the universe. Astronomy underwent a significant change in much the same way as the natural world did when Columbus discovered the Americas. In the same sense as Columbus' discovery, Galileo and Newton did not simply challenge traditional ideas about the world, they offered considerable proof. Columbus discovered new land and Galileo and Newton discovered new aspects of the universe that forced the world to realize that there is more to it than they once believed. These men were "on their own" for all intents and purposes; the world did not readily embrace ideas that challenged conventional thought. They had the character to persevere and the world benefited as a result. Just as the world had to face the fact that the Earth was not flat, the world had to face the fact that the Earth was not the center of the universe.

Galileo's discoveries forced society to realize certain things about the universe. The universe was thought to be smaller than it is and from the days of Aristotle, people believed the Earth was the center of all things. Galileo discovered the supernova, which supported a new notion that things were happening and changes were occurring in "distant parts of the universe" (Pasachoff 40). While this notion makes perfect sense to us today, in his day and time, Galileo was going against all traditional thinking. He was speaking out against the greatest minds the world had known up until that point. He was a lone voice fighting for the "paradoxes of science against the tyranny of common sense" (316 Boorstin). To those that could not see what he saw, he was nothing more than a madman. Entertaining such thoughts would mean thinking about the Earth and the universe in a completely different way and that was difficult to do.

However, Galileo saw many things and made many astonishing revelations about the universe that made traditional thinking seem less plausible. When he discovered sunspots, he stumbled upon more trouble for himself in the form of debate. Galileo butted heads with Chrisoph Scheiner, a supporter of Aristotelian physics firmly believed the "Sun itself was perfect and unmarked, which meant that the spots had to be caused by something between the Sun and Earth" (Goldsmith 29). Galileo disagreed, arguing that the spots were on the Sun and he proudly published his theory. This move was dangerous because Galileo was challenging more than Aristotle; he was defying the Church. Galileo did not stop there and went on to proclaim that the Earth was a moving object in the universe. His book, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief Systems of the World, openly discussed his theory about the Earth. While we can look at this book today as one of the most significant books published in the scientific world, it was nothing but "disaster" (35) for Galileo. The pope hated the book and the ideas it supported… [read more]

Philosophy on Life Research Proposal

… Personal Beliefs -- Philosophy of Life

Origin and Nature of the Universe

To the best of our current ability to make meaningful assumptions about the origin and nature of the universe, it seems that the universe started out approximately 10… [read more]

Structure of the Universe Essay

… Structure of the Universe

From the beginning of time mankind had been fascinated with the Universe and the wonders of the sky. The first reports of astronomers existing had been in the early ages in Egypt, as people believed that the sun and the moon had been of great importance. With time, people evolved, astronomy also evolved along and astronomers had continuously become better by analyzing earth and the surrounding planets.

The early Egyptians had been very limited when regarding their astronomy knowledge. Egypt had been considered to be the center of the Universe, while the stars were enormous lamps. One of the reasons which stopped Egyptian astronomers from further examining the world of astronomy was that they believed that everything had been controlled by gods.

At about 600 B.C., after some time of constant improvements in the country, the Greeks became interested in astronomy. The Greeks invented the world astronomy after bringing together the words law and star with the intention of providing a somewhat complete documentation on the subject. Despite of the fact that the Greeks had indeed made a huge step for astronomy, some of the information supplied by them had been erroneous.

Among the hundreds of great astronomers in the history of mankind, Aristotle is famous for having studied astronomy next to the fact that he had been one of the greatest philosophers ever to live. However, he wrongfully considered that the Universe had been composed of four essential elements: earth, water, fire and air. Furthermore, he believed that the heavenly object, such as the sun and the moon, had been perfect by having a fifth essential element in their composition, named ether.

In the more civilized world people began to pay more attention to astronomy and the results were beginning to show, as Nicholas Copernicus, the Polish astronomer, put a stop to the belief that the Earth had been the center of the Universe. He did that by presenting the world's first heliocentric model, in which all the planets revolved around the sun, then believed to be the center of the Universe.

The world had been advancing when regarding astronomy, with people from all countries being attracted to the topic. Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei had been determined to build a device that would assist him in watching heavenly objects more carefully. By working intensely, he managed to build the world's first telescope and to be able to look at the moon and at the sun. After inspect both the sun and the moon he discovered sun spots and craters, thus proving Aristotle's theory of the heavenly objects as being flawless as wrong. Galileo's discovery had not been appreciated by the rest of the world, as the people of the 16th century had been reluctant from accepting any breakthrough that would influence the previous theories. After Galileo mad his discovery public, he had been punished…… [read more]

Rhetorical Analysis of the Ideologies of Gore's an Inconvenient Truth Term Paper

… ¶ … Inconvenient Truth

Former Vice President Al Gore, who, in his documentary film on global warming, by director Davis Guggenheim, an Inconvenient Truth (2006), introduces himself, "I am Al Gore, I used to be the next president of the… [read more]

Compare and Contrast Atmospheres on Mars and Venus to the Earths Term Paper

… ¶ … atmospheres on Mars and Venus and compare and contrast them with the Earth's weather. Mars and Venus are Earth's closest neighbors, and it could be assumed their weather is similar to Earth's weather, but nothing could be further… [read more]

Astroarchaeology There Is Little Doubt Term Paper

… But even Hawkins admits that most scientists are sure the pre-Columbians knew more than was written down even by the early historians. "Toward the end of the Conquest they (the Mayan) even gave deliberately wrong information to protect their knowledge" (Hawkins 1983 68).

In fact, the pre-Mayans had mirrors, dull though they now seem to be. Did they make a sort of telescope with mirrors to better view the stars? Hawkins doesn't want to speculate, especially since no object that might have been used as an eyepiece has been found. However, Hawkins notes that:

When someone points out that the glyph for Venus in the Tajin panels is sectored like the moon, and that Venus through a telescope shows phases like the moon, I am equally baffled. Present-day eyesight cannot detect the crescent shape of Venus morning star -- it is far too small. We have no reason to expect pre-Columbian eyesight to be any better than ours. Perhaps, and this is only a speculation, they reasoned that if Venus was really a globe like the moon it ought to show phases like the moon (Hawkins 1983 68).

That sort of thinking gives rise to the sort of speculation Stearns attributes to Arguelles.

But speculations require proof, and in this case there is none. There are, however, several additional and suggestive monuments that may provide sufficient suggestion for the 'intuitives' to construct such predictions, based on Mayan astrology, as the 2012 doomsday scenario. One of these is Chichen Itza in Yucatan. There, the grand staircase runs "toward the most northerly point on the horizon reached by this planet" (Hawkins 1983 69). Although the observatory is badly ruined, it is possible to see the halls of windows as a sort of viewing tube; priests looking from one window sightline to another would see the northernmost setting of Venus through one, the southernmost through the other.

Another great Mayan city, Uxmal, also offers a sort of Venusian vista that could be made into more than it actually was, or less. There, a ruin known as the governor's palace hosts another Venus lineup, this one also involving an eight-year cycle. The sightlines involve a phallic stone, "a two-headed jaguar altar, and on the far horizon, rising above the jungle treetops, the line touches the ancient, so far unexcavated, temple mound of Nohpat"(Hawkins 1983 69). Hawkins does not pretend to know what, specifically, all this means. He does contend that "enough clues are left to show the imprint of the cosmos on those civilizations. Astronomical numbers whirled in their minds, and their lives were dominated by the sun, moon, Mars and Venus-Quetzalcoatl" (Hawkins 1983 69)


It was noted earlier that the Mayan destroyed much of their knowledge rather than give it to the Conquistadores. Arguelles, however, is Mexican. Just as, I am told, most people who live in the area in Ireland can tell you exactly where their great hero of 1000 years ago, Brian Boru, is buried, perhaps native Mexicans have somehow… [read more]

Gaia Theory: A Critical Analysis Term Paper

… Many of the specific mechanisms detailed by Lovelock have, indeed, been confirmed by chemists and biologists. On one hand, that might be taken as confirmation of Gaia theories. Alternatively, critics would argue that these phenomena simply represent the sum total of all the adaptations evolved by biological life forms successful enough to have survived long enough to be catalogued by Homo sapiens.

Ninety-nine percent of all biological life forms ever to have existed on Earth eventually became extinct, and the remaining one percent are simply, by definition, the best adapted to life on their home planet. They evolved in order to thrive under terrestrial conditions, and they may very well also have some effect on the Earth, reciprocally. However, unless the Earth is competing for reproductive success the way all forms of biological life forms do, sometimes co-evolving with others forms, it is difficult to maintain that this supports the living Earth idea.

Ultimately, as pointed out by the late Stephen J. Gould (and others) it may just boil down to the semantics of metaphorical expression, rather than issues capable of scientific proof or disproof.


American Association for the Advancement of Science. Science (Feb 3/98)

Gaia Hypothesis to Get Some Respect? Accessed August 20, 2004, at

Enteractive. Earth Explorer (Feb 1/95) Gaia: Theory of a Living Earth. Accessed August 20, 2004, at

Gould, S.J. (1991) Bully for Brontosaurus: Reflections in Natural History

New York: W.W. Norton & Co.

Lovelock, J. (1991) GAIA: The Practical Science of Planetary Medicine,

New York: Oxford University Press

Smolin, L. (1997) The Life of the Cosmos. New York: Oxford University Press.… [read more]

Global Positioning Satellites the History Term Paper

… com).

Ephemeris data contains information on the satellite status; its remaining life expectancy, fitness and performance. The ephemeris data is vitally required for the effective management of the global positioning satellites system and thus, is continually communicated by every satellite.… [read more]

Earth Extinction Similar to Mars Term Paper

… Some scientists are looking at the fact that Mars might have been destroyed similar to how Earth was once hit by an asteroid. They are exploring the fact that Mars may have some living bacteria that Earth might be able to use. There may similarities in Earth and Mars. This might be useful. However, if the people in Earth do not begin to take care of Earth, then it will be destroyed too (Warmflash 1). More studies of the Earth may show how the Earth was hit with a meteor and possible what scientists can help to save the earth (This Week 1). In the book, "The Case of Mars" it discusses how Mars might actually have living microbes. Many scientists do believe the Earth and Mars both were destroyed similarly. Finding out if there are bacteria or other substances that Earth could use might be beneficial for saving Earth from being destroyed. Jennifer Vegas, and ABC News Specialist, states that Mars is the most similar planet to the Earth. "It has accessible oxygen and water" (Vegas 3). If the earth does get low on oxygen and face extinction, then people from Earth might have to travel to Mars. One of the largest problems facing Earth is oxygen. People have been warned about not cutting down the forests, but the problem continues. If needed scientists want to know more about Mars, in case something happens.

In 1996, a team from the Johnson Space Center analyzed a Mars meteorite and found possible evidence for microorganisms. Since that discovery, scientists have learned microbes are extremely hearty here on Earth. They thrive in superheated water, freezing glaciers and nuclear reactors" (Vegas 3).

If Earth is destroyed by an asteroid or meteor, then perhaps some people might find life again in Mars seems far likely but then who knows what might happen in 2050 or even 3000. The possibilities that Earth could be destroyed seem possible when you consider than Earth was destroyed once.

Works Cited

Asteroid or Comet Triggered Largest Mass Extinction in Earth's History, Foreshadowing Fate of Dinosaurs" Press Release Feb 22, 2001

Davis, Sumner W. Dr. "A Model of Thermonuclear Extinction on Planet Mars" Nuclear Age Peace Foundation 2002

Matthews, Robert. "Meteor Clue to End of Middle East Civilizations Found" The Telegraph London Nov 11, 2001 News Release

Meteorite Frequency and Cambrian Explosion?" San Francisco Examiner Natural Science Highlights March 15, 200

Moomaw, Bruce. "Mars Invades Earth" Terradaily June 4, 2001

Viegas, Jennifer "Humans: 21st Century Martians" ABC News

Warmflash, David M. "Why Microbes Matter" Terradaily Sep 4, 2001

Weiss, Peter H. "Dead Mars, Dying Earth" The Crossing Press 1999



Will Earth Suffer the Same Fate as…… [read more]

Big Bang Theory Term Paper

… Big Bang Theory is a theory that attempts to explain the origins of the universe. "Discoveries in astronomy and physics have shown beyond a reasonable doubt that our universe did in fact have a beginning. Prior to that moment there was nothing; during and after that moment there was something: our universe" (All About Science). However, scientists have not been able to establish, beyond that same reasonable doubt, how the universe came into being. One theory is the Big Bang Theory. Currently the Big Bang Theory is the preferred theory about the origins of the universe, but it remains only a theory.

History of the Theory

The Big Bang Theory has been around for just under a century, though it was not fully developed when it originated. George Lemaitre first proposed the idea that the universe began much smaller than it currently is. This idea was reinforced by Edwin Hubble's observations that the universe is currently expanding. Finally, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson's discovery of cosmic radiation seems to support the notion of a Big Bang (National Geographic).

George Lemaitre

George Lemaitre was a Belgian scientist and Catholic Priest. In 1927, he published a paper that suggested that the universe was expanding. While prior scholars had discussed the theory that systems might be expanding, Lemaitre was the first one to really suggest that the universe in which we live is expanding (Soter and Tyson). The idea of an expanding universe is a central component of the Big Bang Theory.

Edwin Hubble

While Lemaitre was able to suggest that the universe was expanding, he could not prove his suggestion. However, Edwin Hubble, an astronomer who had already made a groundbreaking discovery when he proved the existence of galaxies other than the Milky Way, was able to provide that proof. In 1929, Hubble "determined that the farther a galaxy is from Earth, the faster it appears to move away. This notion of an "expanding" universe formed the basis of the Big Bang theory, which states that the universe began with an intense burst of energy at a single moment in time -- and has been expanding ever since" (Space Telescope Science Institute).

Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson

Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson discovered further support for the Big Bang Theory in a different area. While prior researchers had suggested that the universe's continuing expansion helped provide support for a Big Bang, Penzias and Wilson provided a different type of evidence. "The glow of cosmic microwave background radiation, which is found throughout the universe, is thought to be a tangible remnant of leftover light from the big bang. The radiation is akin to that used to transmit TV signals via antennas. But it is the oldest radiation known and may hold many secrets about the universe's earliest moments" (National Geographic).

The Beginning

One of the most difficult concepts of the Big Bang Theory is the idea that the universe was once nothing. According to the Big Bang Theory, somewhere between 10 billion and… [read more]

Gemini Throughout History Research Paper

… This made it possible for the Gemini to effectively dock and perform the necessary requirements for traveling to the moon.

Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than comments from Hacker (1977) who said, "Gemini neared its… [read more]

Information Technology Management Case Study

… Obviously, regular meetings at various levels could have identified this major problem at some point long before the failure of the Orbiter by crashing into its destination planet. Regular meetings are especially important involving joint projects with various components of the project being completed by entirely different units. The same principle holds true even in situations involving only two members of the same team performing work that is interdependent to any degree.

3. Why is it important to celebrate the small but important successes?

That probably depends substantially on the person (or people) involved. Generally, working in a team environment produces various forms of interpersonal stress that cannot be allowed to interfere with the team's mission. However, that does not necessarily mean that those stressful incidents or patterns or interpersonal relationships cannot undermine team unity and efficiency in the future. In that respect, celebrating small successes allows members of the team to interact without overriding concerns about project schedules. The opportunity of sharing positive experiences allows individuals and teams to decompress psychologically and to contribute in a positive way toward interpersonal relations within the team. Ideally, team members could use small but important successes to express mutual appreciation and maybe to establish mechanisms to promote optimal communication in the future.

Reference (1999). "Metric mishap caused loss of NASA orbiter." (September 30, 1999)

Accessed online:… [read more]

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