Study "Astronomy / Planets / Solar System" Essays 111-165

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Twin Stars Twins - Typically Term Paper

… The beginning of the Big Bang can be measured to as far back as 13.7 billion years ago.

9. cosmic microwave background -- The light radiation that has been left over after photons decoupled from matter a mere 300,000 years after the Big Bang.

10. data-intensive simulations -- Series of high performance analysis, simulation, and modeling technologies that address data-driven complexities of various science-related researches; cosmological research being one of them.

11. Population III stars -- Also known as "metal-free stars" or "hyperstars," believed to be a population of highly hot and massive stars with no surface metals, save for those formed in the Big Bang. The stars were said to have formed during in the early universe.

12. "twin" stars -- Binary star system that consists of two stars orbiting a common center of mass. The twins usually comprise of the brighter, primary star and the secondary star.

13. mass equivalent to about 10 suns -- The sun's mass is about 330,000 times Earth, at about 2 x 1030 kilograms. Ten suns would total up to a mass of 2 x 1031 kilograms.

14. black holes -- A region of space where no object can escape, light included.

15. Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory -- LIGO is a facility dedicated to the detection and harnessing of cosmic gravitational waves.

16. gamma-ray bursts -- Gamma ray flashes usually with immense energetic explosions observed at distant galaxies -- the most luminous electromagnetic events in the universe.

17. Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope -- A space observatory used to…… [read more]

Does God Exist? Journal

… ¶ … God Exist?

The debate as to whether God exists or not has gone on for centuries. Those convinced that there is no God turn to human misery, violence against innocents, natural disasters and other horrific events and argue that if there was a God, He wouldn't allow such cruel events to happen. Those who argue that there is definitely a God, say that He created the earth and the universe but He doesn't seek to control every event every moment and even though He was the Creator of all things in the Cosmos; in other words, He can't be blamed for events that happen on Earth.

If God Exists, then why…. What did ministers and other spiritual leaders say about God, or example, following the terrorists attaches on the United States on September 11, 2001? An article in the journal America quotes Mother Angelica (the Catholic nun who founded the Eternal Word Television Network, EWTN) said that there must be a distinction between "God's desirous will and permissive will" (Waznak, 2001, p. 1). Mother Angelica turned to the words of philosopher / theologian Thomas Aquinas, who stated: "God… neither wills evil to be done, or wills it not to be done, but wills to permit evil to be done, and that is a good" (Waznak, p. 1).

On September 16, 2001, Pope John Paul II told the people, "I pray that the Virgin Mary might help them [the Americans] not to fall into temptation of hatred and violence, but rather to commit themselves to justice and peace" (Waznak, p. 2).

But do those quotations prove that God exists? No. They are likely fairly typical of how the clergy responds to difficult questions. Aside from the fact that those remarks don't prove anything, they all assert that God is inexistence, but humans fail when it come to fully explaining extreme happenings that hurt people.

Meanwhile, Donald R. Morse claims God does exist and his reasoning is five-fold: a) the Earth's size is "just as it has to be… the only known planet that has an atmosphere containing the right mixture of gases to sustain plant, animal and human life" [hence, how did Earth get this way without a Creator?]; b) the universe began with the big bang, the "singular…… [read more]

Economics of Producing Return Fuel FR Research Paper

… ¶ … Economics of a Fuel-Producing Mars

Human beings have long since been fascinated with the stars. Myths tell of their origin. Legends tell of their destinies. So it's no surprise that we are on the very edge of a breakthrough in the exploration of the Final Frontier as Gene Roddenberry's Captan Picard of Star Trek called it. Space is a dangerous place, so before any excursion to another planet, let alone another star system, we must have adequate safety measures to get our explorers there and, more importantly, get them home.

Americans landed on feet-first on the moon in 1969 -- or didn't, depending on your perspective -- and with that achievement, Mars became the next target for American space superiority. But a trip to Mars requires significantly more time, more money, and carries with it more risk. The first obstacle is first and foremost the 220 million kilometers between Earth and Mars. Conventional rocket technology only allows for a small launch window every two years and even then, a round-trip between the planets would require almost a two-year commitment including travel, time spent on the ground, and waiting for the right alignment for a return trip. Aside from the exposure of Astronauts to high-levels of cosmic radiation, extended weightlessness would wreak havoc on bone density, and the psychological effects would be completely unknown. Astronauts and flight command alike would need to carefully ration food, water, and fuel to allow for a return journey. Damage to the stores of any of the stores above would prove lethal.

Thus, conventional rockets have yet to put a human on Martian soil. A more efficient delivery vehicle could get us there faster, but if a remote refueling station were built in orbit or upon the Martian surface then ships traveling to the red planet could burn longer and harder knowing they could swap energy cells, refill tanks, recharge batteries or whatever power source they were using. Ships would be lighter, further increasing their efficiency. Greater accessibility would boost trips to the surface exponentially, building upon new developments in rocket technology. Science fiction could very well become science fact. but, as every house needs a foundation, any fuel producing base on Mars would need infrastructure.

Given Mars' differing geological structure, a mining operation will be limited by the minerals and resources found on the planet. While laser analysis has estimated where the richest deposits are, it will ultimately require physical exploration of the soil. Explorative core sample would need to be taken and processed before a large-scale operation could begin. Most of the initial work would need to be performed by remote vehicles and robots again, to minimize the risk to humans. Processing and production equipment could be designed and built on Earth, then shipped via rocket to unpack itself after landing on Mars. After a small stockpile of fuel was processed and stored, a manned mission to the Martian surface could build more permanent facilities for larger operations and more frequent trips,… [read more]

Is NASA Still Needed? Research Paper

… ¶ … National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has provided the United States with some of the most captivating moments in our nation's history. It has inspired generations of bright minds to think beyond the confines of the planet we… [read more]

Logistics of Building a Lunar Research Paper

… A number of other potential disadvantages, the researcher asserts, relate to technical requirements MacCallum notes that have not yet been resolved, including oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange and the precise materials to permit the right amount of sunlight in, yet also block out excessive, harmful sunrays (Lunar Gardening).

The exact type of plants to be grown in lunar greenhouses are not yet confirmed, however, scientists predicts green plants, rather than plants like tomatoes will intitally be grown (Greenhouses for Mars). Figure 4 portrays a picture of peas grown onboard the International Space Station, one of the plants projected to one day be grown in lunar greenhouses.

Figure 4: Photo of Peas Grown Onboard the International Space Station (Greenhouses for Mars).

Another plant currently being considered for lunar greenhouses, the arabidopsis, a member of brassicaceae family, includes significant crops such as cabbage, radish and rape, however, does not possess any agronomic significance. Routinely utilized in genetics and molecular biology, Arabidopsis offers essential advantages for basic research. "It possesses a rapid life cycle (about 8 weeks from germination to mature seed) and one of smallest genome (125 Mb) amongst plant species" (Arabidopsis Seeds). Plants such as the arabidopsis, genetically optimized for research on the moon's surface, may be among the first earthly life forms astronauts colonize the moon. Scientists predict that plants such as the arabidopsis, which adapt to survival in hostile environments, may contribute to feeding future human colonists, as they simultaneously condition their life-giving atmosphere. During future lunar explorations, the arabidopsis plants and similar ones may also piggyback in microhabitats.

In the foreground of Figure 5, researchers positioned two trays of germinating Arabidopsis seeds among the rocks at the Haughton-Mars Project site in far-northern Canada, a polar region geographically similar to Shackleton Crater at the south pole of the moon (Greenhouses for Mars). -Mars Project, please visit:

Figure 5: Germinating Arabidopsis Seeds at Canadian Polar Region (Greenhouses for Mars).

In "Tulips on The Moon," along with presenting the concept that tulips will one day be among plants grown in lunar greenhouses, Bernard Foing (2005), Chief Scientist at the European Space Agency, also Project Scientist for SMART-1, a spacecraft orbiting the Moon and mapping the lunar surface topography and mineralogy during 2005, purports that when humans return to the moon, they will likely transport plants with them. Prior to this time, however, as NASA continues to support research for lunar greenhouses, the researcher asserts, the potential for a spacecraft to approach the lunar pole, spit out a pod and extend a number of tubular arms to bury itself in the soil, and begin to grow plants in preparation for man's return to the moon (Sorenson) may become a real vision.


Arabidopsis Seeds. (2006). 17 Apr. 2009 .

Foing, Bernard. "Tulips On The Moon." Space Daily, Distributed by United Press



Retrieved 13 Apr. 2009 . Greenhouses for Mars. (2004, February 25).

. Hemert, Grant Van . (2009, January 1). Plant Engineering Live. Water/wastewater:

achieving the three levels of redundancy. 13… [read more]

Jocelyn Bell Burnell Term Paper

… Jocelyn Bell Burnell was born in Belfast on July 15, 1943. Her interest in astronomy sparked early in that it was her father who constructed the Armagh Observatory near her home. She attended Mount School in York, Great Britain and then took her studies to the University of Glasgow in Scotland. In 1965, she graduated with a Bachelor of Science and went on the Cambridge University to study under Antony Hewish. Her first two years were spent aiding in the construction of a radio telescope that would find and record radio signals. In addition to this, Bell Burnell studied newly discovered quasars, which are galaxy-size clusters of stars or star formations that appear to as single stars because they are so far away from Earth. Bell Burnell was to study the pulses of these stars. During this study, and with the new telescope, Bell Burnell observed curious activity regarding these pulses. They were not typical to the pulses she had been observing. Her observation is described as "curious variations in signals which had been recorded at about midnight the night before" (Branca). These pulses were coming from a direction opposite our sun and appeared odd because "strong changes in signals from quasars occur as a result of the solar wind and thus are usually weak during the night" (Branca). When Bell Burnell told Hewish about the problem, he thought the new telescope might be at fault. After several tests, everyone had to realize something they had never considered before, which was the fact that "stars could emit radio signals" (Branca). Branca notes that Bell Burnell studies the activity precisely for about a month and established "the signals continued and remained fixed with respect to the stars -- which meant they were coming from somewhere other than the earth or the sun" (Branca). From August to November, she recorded very strong signals that occurred regularly.

The regularity of the pulses is what astounded and confused the research team under Hewish. Branca notes that they felt "obliged, at least initially, to consider the possibility that the source of the signals was a beacon from some extraterrestrial civilization" (Branca). Until further research was done, the team referred to the pulsars as LGM1, which stands for Little Green Men 1. With more time and study, Bell Burnell discovered more pulses in other parts of the sky. By January the following year, the research team felt confident that they had discovered something new in the heavens. In February, the team announced this discovery to the world and Ruskin says the announcement was "sensational" (Ruskin). The name pulsar…… [read more]

Scientists Who Study the Evolution Term Paper

… Scientists who study the evolution of our planet sometimes look to other planets for data that is not available on Earth. That is because the Earth is a dynamic environment where climactic changes, erosion, and the shifting of huge tectonic plates deep within the planet's crust have eliminated any evidence of certain aspects of planetary processes. Mars is no longer climactically active and therefore may offer clues as to its early evolution and development, as well as that of the Earth.

By analyzing soil and rock samples collected by the Mars rovers launched from Earth to explore that planet, scientists compare those analyses with elements of certain geological and chemical processes known to have occurred on Earth. However, sometimes, initial assumptions about those processes lead to confusing situations that make more difficult to learn about the geology of one planet by studying another planet.

For one example, on Earth, volcanic eruptions releases vast amounts of carbon dioxide, which is subsequently dissolved into the waters of the oceans, where it forms limestone (or calcium carbonate) buried in underwater sedimentary rock. For years, scientists hoping to understand how Mars could have supported an environment that included water have focused on the same carbon cycle that characterizes oceanic environments on Earth. Independent evidence has suggested that Mars did indeed contain water at one time in the past, but scientists have not been able to explain the absence of sedimentary calcium carbonate on the Martian surface because that is a universal feature of water environments on this planet.

That paradox seems to have been solved by the finding of a mineral known as jarosite on Mars, contained in samples collected by the rover Opportunity. Since jarosite is known to form only in strongly acidic water, planetary scientists at Harvard University and MIT realized that…… [read more]

Challenger Space Shuttle Disaster Term Paper

… Challenger Space Shuttle Disaster

It was on the twenty eight of January, 1986 that the American space shuttle, Challenger, exploded in the air, killing the seven astronauts, five men and two women who were on board the shuttle. The shuttle… [read more]

Moon Landing Conspiracy Theory Term Paper

… Moon Landing Conspiracy Theory

The aim of this paper is to present elements that might point towards a possible conspiracy theory related to the Apollo mission to land a human being on the moon and return safely on Earth. Among the topics that will be discussed we shall include background information, evidence of conspiracy and possible reasons that lead to the existence of this conspiracy theory. In the end, the conclusion will make reference to the issues related to the persons involved - politicians and the suspect disappearance conditions of the staff and astronauts.

Human beings were always led by instincts of exploring the surrounding areas and space was a particular attraction in human history. The Moon, as the largest visible cosmic entity, has filled legends and history of mankind history and reaching it, landing on the Moon, exploring it or inhabiting it had been a human obsession for plenty of years.

The Apollo mission that occurred in 1969 had managed, according to NASA officials, to land two men on the Moon, Earth's natural satellite, and recover them safely back on Earth. However, there are different opinions about the authenticity of the moon exploration process.

Astronauts: The space crew consisted of three persons: Commander Neil Alden Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin Eugene 'Buzz' Aldrin. The Apollo 11 mission was the fifth human space flight and the third human moon voyage. However, the most defining aspect of this mission is that this was the first crew to manage to put foot on the moon earth and interact physically with the moon atmosphere.

Landing a man on the moon represented a national goal for the American people, as it was put in a public speech by President Kennedy at a meeting in 1961. The full relative citation of Kennedy's speech would be discussed later on. Nevertheless, according to recent evidence, there is an opinion that the entire mission was a bluff, due to the fact that America needed the accomplishment of the national ideal and in order to distract the attention of public opinion from other current matters - wars (the War in Vietnam was not developing well from the beginning, while the Cold War provided even more reasons to worry), social aspects, important budget spending etc..

Agency: The main agency behind the Apollo mission was the NASA. It was responsible for achieving all mission - related tasks, starting with the fund raising, spacecraft construction, crew selection and instruction, publicity. The specialists discuss the fact that NASA could lie behind this national hoax, so as to meet the immediate objectives for which the agency was intended - attract the attention of the entire mankind and transmit the idea of American superiority over other nations, and other competitors, notably the Soviet Union.

It was a well-known fact that America and the Soviet Union were involved in a cold war and a superpower struggles - meaning that a deep and intense competition was held between the two states,… [read more]

Circumference and Radius of Earth Term Paper

… ¶ … Circumference & Radius of Earth

In order to evaluate radius and circumference of Earth it was chosen to measure the shadow of sun from gnomon on September, 17th. The length of the shadow was approximately 39.8 cm

We can find the angle ? using simple trigonometric formula for arcos.

A arcos (30.3/50)

Since we know that sun angle for Sep. 17th in New Mexico site is equal to 57.19 (degrees) we can evaluate the radius of Earth.

R= (L*360)/(?*2?), where L=518 kilometers (distance between Denver, CO and site in New Mexico)

R= (518*360)/(4.49*3.14159*2)

R=6610,075 kilometers

References give the following data for Radius of Earth

R=6356,755 kilometers (polar radius)

R=6378,140 kilometers (equatorial radius)

So we can evaluate our result, since both locations are closer to equator then to North Pole we should take equatorial radius for estimation:

error is equal to ?=|6378,140-6610,075|/6378,140

Circumference of earth using my measurements is equal to L= 2?R which is L=2*3.14159*6610,075 kilometers or L=41532.291 kilometers

Why did you have to do this at local solar noon, that is, when the Sun is due…… [read more]

Amateur Radio Term Paper

… Amateur radio has long been a part of the American broadcasting landscape. Current advents in technology have changed in some ways, the manner in which people communicate through amateur radio. The purpose of this discussion is to examine Amateur radio… [read more]

Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Term Paper

… Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

Cosmic Microwave

Most of the cosmic rays comprise of the nuclei of atoms which have really been hastened to increasingly high speeds and hence emit energies by ignition of stars or potent strong magnetic fields available in the space. Most of the cosmic rays emit energies to the magnitude of millions or even billions of electron volts, but some are considered to be really more vigorous. Such awfully energetic particles become even rare at the highest level of energies and other than for the 3 ultra powerful energy particles, none of the cosmic rays have appeared to be with energy exceeding 30,000,000 to 40,000,000 trillion of electron volts. This is partly because of the rate events that can fasten the particles to such enormous energies, and partly due to such particles gradually leaving some energy since they are in collision with the omnipresent cosmic microwave background radiation. 2.

Penzias and Wilson could win the Nobel Prize in 1978 for Physics as a result of their unexpected findings relating to the 'excessive noise' that is presently regarded as the cosmic microwave background radiation. 7. The engineers of Bell Labs, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in the year 1965 quite unexpectedly found a weak, smooth signal being emitted from throughout the sky. Presently, it has been recorded by NASA's COBE satellite. There are over billions of such photons for each atom present in the universe; however the energy being radiated by them is about 10 million times less than that of a 100-watt light bulb. Almost one percent of the noise coming out from TV while tuning between stations is because of the interactions with that of the cosmic background radiation. The concept of big bang as an evidence is around us. 6.

The cosmic microwave background radiation is the most ancient fossil that has been found ever, and it bears much evidence with regard to the Universe's origin. The cosmic microwave background -- CMB is considered as shower of photons spreading out all directions. Such photons are the exhilaration of the Big Bang, and the ancient photons that has ever been visualized. Their long process of evolution has lasted over 99.99% of the Universe's age and initiated when the Universe was about 1000 times smaller in comparison that of present day. The CMB was released by the Universe's hot plasma much prior to the origin of the stars, planets or even the galaxies. The CMB-taken to be the red-shifted relic of the really powerful Big Bang is really an isotropic field of that of the electromagnetic radiation. The background radiation's temperature could be affected by any physical influence which upsets the density or the frequency relating to the electromagnetic radiation. There are three concerned tendencies: Gravity encourages gravitational shifts which could be red and/or blue; changes in density generate heating or compression as well as cooling or that of rarefaction; Velocities are capable of varying the temperature of photons by encouraging Doppler shift at the time of… [read more]

Stars That One Might Observe Term Paper

… Stars that one might observe with the naked eye have a life of their own. Many of the visible stars such as the sun are as old as the universe itself and their formation and lifespan gives clues to the processes of creation and destruction that have fueled the creation of the universe. Stars have a definite structure, defining characteristics, a life cycle, and a place in the universe.

Everyone knows that stars emit light and are, therefore, visible to the naked eye and to astronomers who use technology to observe the photons. A casual observer might even think the stars "twinkle," but this effect is a result of Earth's air movements that change the straight path of the stars' rays. Stars are considered light-emitting or luminous bodies. Their luminosity is "the rate at which a star emits energy" and is measured in watts compared relatively with the luminosity of the sun (Green, 2005, p. 2). Another facet of visibility of stars is their color spectrum. There are six bands that make up the electromagnetic spectrum and stars are capable of emitting all six, but not all of them do. The six bands are radio waves, infrared rays, visible light, ultraviolet rays, X rays, and gamma rays (Green, 2005, p. 3). A star's color is affected by the energy produced by it and measuring the emission lines in the star's electromagnetic spectrum is one way for scientists to determine the temperature and energy of a star.

Stars have many variants such as age, size, mass, and luminosity, but one thing they have in common is that "about 75% of all stars are members of a binary system, a pair of closely spaced stars that orbit each other" (Green, 2005, p. 1). Stars are also grouped together in galaxies such as the Milky Way which hosts more than 100 billion stars. "Three-dimensional computer models of star formation predict that the spinning clouds of dust may break up into two or three blobs; if true, this would explain why the majority of the stars in the Milky Way are paired or in groups of multiple stars" (, p.1). Clearly, the structure and formation of individual stars mimics the structure of other important elements of the universe.

What exactly is a star? "A star is a huge, shining ball in space that produces a tremendous amount of light and other forms of energy. The sun is a star, and it supplies Earth with light and heat energy...The sun and most other stars are made of gas and hot, gaslike substance known as plasma (Green, 2005, p. 1). The characteristics that define stars fall into five categories that are all related and interdependent. These categories are brightness, color, surface temperature, size, and mass. "These characteristics are related to one another in a complex way. Color depends on surface temperature, and brightness depends on surface temperature and size. Mass affects the rate at which a star of a given size produces energy and so affects… [read more]

Genesis and Cosmology in Chapter Term Paper

… Also, this creationism tale is scientifically wrong, for it does not take into account the various laws related to physics, nor does it even mention exactly how long it took God to create the earth, the sun, the moon and the stars.

Generally, most modern cosmologists assume that the laws that govern the workings of the world as found on Earth apply throughout the universe, whether within another galaxy, a star system or a planetary system outside of the Milky Way galaxy. Cosmologists also construct cosmological models, being simplified mathematical descriptions of the structure and past history of the universe that incorporates its principle features. Also, these models involve specific properties, such as density and temperature, whose values can only be found by observation.

The main problem with the account of the creation of the universe as found in the Book of Genesis has much to do with time itself. As previously mentioned, this tale in Genesis does not say how long it took God to create the universe. Logically, one can assume that it took billions and billions of years for the universe to achieve its present condition. This is closely related to the "Big Bang" theory, meaning that the universe was created in an instant via an immense explosion or expansion which can still be detected through cosmic microwave background noise. Also, there is hard scientific evidence that the universe is not static but is indeed expanding which supports the idea of the "Big Bang" theory. Exactly how long the universe has been expanding is unknown; also, a number of cosmologists and astronomers are certain that the universe may never stop expanding.

Although the "Big Bang" theory cannot be precisely proven, cosmologists are quite convinced that something of this nature must have occurred to create the universe in which we live today. But according to Genesis, God obviously "thought" the universe into being which raises a very important question-if nothing existed before the creation of the universe, where did God obtain the material to create it in the first place? Without a doubt, the creationism tale in Genesis is completely unscientific and is much closer to being a myth designed by man to satisfy his yearnings to understand the unknown.

In conclusion, the creationism tale in the Book of Genesis completely lacks any and all scientific credibility, for it is told in a very broad manner without any specifics. But most importantly, this tale of creation does not hold up when it is examined from a scientific standpoint, and was obviously designed by ancient human beings who could not explain the universe except in very simple and easy to understand terms.… [read more]

Cosmology the Formation and Evolution Term Paper

… " (Wikipedia: Black Holes) In support of the black hole theory, there is evidence that the oldest clusters of stars were formed by the action of black holes.

Globular clusters contain the oldest known stars in the Universe - M15 is 13-billion years old; G1 is at least 10-billion years. The presence of black holes at their centre supports the idea that black holes came first, says astrophysicist Martin Ward of the University of Leicester, UK. (New class of black holes)

The theory of black holes creating galaxies and stars has in recent times become one of the most popular explanations of the formation of Galaxies and stars. In essence this theory states that Galaxies started as a result of a huge black hole; it is believed that the rotation of gases at very high speeds around the black hole created the formation of Quasars. Quasars are 'galaxies powered by supermassive black holes that scientists think are activity swallowing large amounts of matter, the equivalent of 10 to 20 stars every year. However, because most are so far away, astronomers know little about them, except that they seem prevalent in the early universe." (Britt R.) This is turn resulted in the stars being pushed outward beyond the reach of the black hole.


Britt R. Astronomers Capture Images of Quasar from When the Universe was Young. January 9, 2003. Accessed:

Chaikin. 5 Great Cosmic Mysteries: The Origin of Galaxies. Space Com. January 22, 2002. Accessed: April 30, 2004.

New class of black holes. Nature. September 19, 2002. Accessed: May 1, 2004.

The Galaxies. Accessed: 2 April, 2004.

Wikipedia: Black holes. Accessed: May 1, 2004.… [read more]

Galileo Galilei Was an Italian Term Paper

… Previously, it had been believed that the surface of the Moon was smooth. Galileo also made other incredible astronomical discovering relating to the moons of Jupiter, Saturn, the phases of Venus, and the sunspots of the Sun.

Galileo's studies of outer space using his telescopes and mathematical reasoning furthered the building proof of Copernicus' theory that ours is a heliocentric (Sun-centered) Universe. Unfortunately for Galileo, the very powerful Catholic Church believed in a geocentric (Earth-centered) Universe, and they found his works to be heretical. He was put on trial in 1616. The Inquisition did not sentence him to death for his studies, but instead ordered him to discontinue his revolutionary work. Galileo did not listen. In 1632, he published a book containing his findings and proofs of many things, including those of which the Church did not approve. In 1633, he was found guilty of heresy, and sentenced to life imprisonment under house arrest, and he died in January of 1642.


Burr, Elizabeth and Van Helden, Albert. The Galileo Project. Rice University. August 1996.…… [read more]

Nation-Altering Event of the 1960S Term Paper

… " The tragedies that have occurred as a result of space flight, from the Challenger explosion in 1993 to the recent Columbia shuttle disaster pull the nation closer together while pointing out the grave danger astronauts still face. Space flight has changed America and Americans, and the 1960s were the very height of change and advance, making this event one of the most pivotal in the history of the decade.


Byrnes, Mark E. Politics and Space: Image Making by NASA. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1994.

Flatow, Ira, "Analysis: Anniversary of First Plans for Going to the Moon." Talk of the Nation Science Friday (NPR). 25 May 2001.

Levins, Harry. "In 1969, the U.S. Won the Cold War Race to the Moon." St. Louis Post-Dispatch. 18 July 1999, pp A4.

Public Affairs. "V-2 Rocket." White Sands Missile Range. 2002. 22 March 2003.

Wachhorst, Wyn. The Dream of Spaceflight. New York: Basic Books, 2000.

Mark E. Byrnes, Politics and Space: Image Making by NASA (Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1994) 1.

Public Affairs. "V-2 Rocket." White Sands Missile Range. 2002.

Ira Flatow, "Analysis: Anniversary of First Plans for Going to the Moon." Talk…… [read more]

Moon Many People Wish Term Paper

… The moon's varied surface provides ample opportunity for every situation. The mountains provide heights from which to garner the best views of earth. Craters provide cover from space debris, especially windy days and other adverse weather conditions. For the purpose of our escape, gravity will be simulated in our makeshift living quarters and gravitational jet packs will provide transportation along the moon's surface while keeping us tethered to the ground. No computers will accompany us on our trip; no electronics will require maintenance, power sources or attention. Exercise will come from the natural motions of getting around in space, and not from artificial machines that are designed to simulate the practice of exercising.

How important would it be to socialize with other human beings? To have access to popular forms of entertainment, to be able to apply one's mind or hands to a worthy endeavor? At first, not at all. At first, the escape would entail the very idea of abandoning these very things. Over time, however, research has shown that these are fundamental human needs. There are, then, two possible solutions. The moon could serve as a temporary respite, an escape to which one could enter and leave at will. The second option would be to build the necessary infrastructure to satisfy those human needs on the moon, a type of manned space shelter.

Option two, however, would violate the very essence of escaping to the moon. With more and more people discovering and traveling to the shelter, it would soon mirror earth in aspects of relationships, distribution and support systems, transportation bottlenecks and arguments over resources. Soon we will need to find a new refuge, such as mars, if we are to truly escape the things of man in privacy and seclusion. We will be forced to reach farther and farther for the outer stretches of the universe for some semblance of peace. And, like here on earth, it will become harder and harder to find.

The Artemis Society is already in the process of establishing a "private venture to establish a permanent, self-supporting community on the Moon."3 The Artemis project is more elaborate than our pithy fantasy of escapism. They are developing elaborate schemes for interplanetary travel, complete with program plans, spacecraft designs, shelter constructs, the development of commerce, and ways to extract oxygen from the moon's lunar soil. Perhaps true escape is only temporary. Perhaps, we will never be truly alone.


Bonoli, Fabrizio. "The Discovery of the Face of the MOON." Astronomy Department, Bologna University. Web Site:

Even, Thomas G. "Characteristics of the Moon.

The Artemis Project." Artemis Society International.… [read more]

Columbia STS-107 Crew Introduction/Space Shuttle Term Paper

… ..I feel blessed to be here representing our country and carrying out the research of scientists around the world. This email was sent January 31, 2003, just one day before the horrible tragedy.

Israel's first astronaut, Ilan Ramon was at the age of 48 a father of four and a living legend and honor to his people. Ramon served as a Colonel in Israel's Air Force and was also a fighter pilot. As the son of holocaust survivors, Ramon was persistent, dedicated and courageous by nature. Ramon holds a B.S. In Electronics and Computer Engineering from University of Tel Aviv in 1987. On his foray into space Ramon commented, "I know my flight is very symbolic for the people of Israel, especially the survivors, the Holocaust survivors," said Ramon. "Because I was born in Israel, many people will see this as a dream that is come true."

Not one person new that this would be the last foray into space for the ill-fated shuttle and her crew. The shuttle disintegrated on its return to earth, taking the lives of the seven brave men and women. These brave astronauts did not die in vain but leave a legacy for others who shall follow in their path to space.


Boyle, Alan. "Space Shuttle Questions and Answers." Retrieved on March 1, 2003 from website

Crew Profiles." Retrieved on March 2, 2002 from website

Israel's First Astronaut Launches into Space from Kennedy Space Center." Retrieved on February 26th, 2003 from website

Laurel Clark Email." Retrieved on February 28th, 2003 from website

Young, Kelly. "Smoking gun eludes investigators one month after disaster." Retreived on March 1st, 2003 from…… [read more]

Discussion of Multicultural Art Term Paper

… ¶ … Perception of the Art of Minorities

How does the modern art presented in "Magicien de la Terre" exhibition and the Quai Branly Museum depict the change in perception of the art of minorities (African-American art, etc. ... )… [read more]

Collection of Artists Sketches Research Paper

… Miles Teves (Teves Design Studios, 2008)

Education & Career History

Selected Works

Iron Man

Crystal Skulls

Mermaid Underwater

Miles Teves is arguably one of the creative geniuses of our time. He was born in 1963 in Salinas, California, and is… [read more]

Ancient Art Works and the Artists Research Paper

… ¶ … Artwork and Artist

The Line in Michelangelo's sculpture Pieta (1498-1500)

Pieta is a sculpture that was carved by Michelangelo in 1498 when he was commissioned by a cardinal called Jean De Billheres to create a sculpture that would go to the side of the Old St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. Michelangelo embarked on using the Carrara marble to curve out the "Pieta" that became more famous that he actually anticipated in the first place. The sculptor indicated alter that the piece of marble was the most perfect one that he had ever used in his sculpting career. He later embarked on polishing it and refining it thoroughly, far much more than any other previous sculptures he had ever created. The result was an outstanding sculpture depicting Virgin Mary carrying the dead body of Jesus Christ before he was taken to the tomb. The sculpture received significant praise and appreciation when it was launched to the public. This praise and fame would go on over the next six decades that Michelangelo lived and even to the current day. There was however the outstanding criticism that the face of Virgin Mary looks too young to be the mother of a thirty-year-old Jesus, to which he responded that women who keep themselves pure, like Mary did, retain their young looks more than those who are not chaste (Italian, 2015). One outstanding aspect of the sculpture is the use of the curved lives to create the depth and three dimensions particularly in the dress that clothes Virgin Mary. The lines are so refined and appear to be continuously running into each other throughout the dress. Currently, this magnificent piece of art is displayed in New St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.

The Shape in -Bronze Oba head, Benin mid-19th century

The Oba head that was usually made of bronze was a common thing in Benin, the now Nigeria and was done whenever a king died. The Oba head was a Bronze sculpture tat only portrayed the head of the individual that was being immortalized through the sculpture. One of the first responsibilities of the son who succeeded his father was to ensure there was a bronze head of the deceased king (Oba) made and erected on the alter. There were skilled craftsmen who were charged with the making of this Oba head out of bronze and usually this art was taught to the succeeding generation. The initial Bronze Oba Head were seen to have thin walls but the later Oba heads are seen to have thicker walls presumably due to availability of abundance of bronze with time. The Oba head is an art form that was predominant in the 19th Century when Benin residents used this to immortalize their dead kings as a tradition and as a sign of respect. Since these pieces of art were several, as many as the dead kings, they are found scattered across several museums in Nigeria and even some made their way abroad in various art… [read more]

How Andy Warhol and Dana Schutz Are Similar Chapter

… Delegitimizing the Modern World Through Artistic Subversion

What do Andy Warhol's Ladies and Gentleman (1975) and Dana Schutz's Fight in an Elevator 2 (2015) have in common? A lot more than their 40 years of separation might incline one to think. Actually, they are both stemming from the tradition of abstractionism in the modern art era used by such artists as Kandinsky and Picasso to show the fragmentation of society and the world around them as it crept more and more into a state of perpetual world war.

Warhol's painting comes during the height of the Vietnam Era when the U.S. was at war without itself, in a spiritual and social sense, as it struggled with the rightness of continuing to wage a war in Asia for a reason that no one could explain. Schutz's painting comes at a time when the U.S. is on the brink of going head-to-head with Russia and China after years of fighting proxy wars via economic sanctions and terrorist support groups.

Both paintings depict a subject -- but they do it in negative terms, indicating a certain detachment or frustration with their current reality: Warhol depicts in one person a double split person -- a split personality, in this sense (one half woman, one half man) that is split a second time because the image is actually like a film negative reproduction, with the contrasts flipped and the hues inverted. Thus, Warhol's image suggests that everything is upside down in 1975: women dress like men, men dress like women (drag queens), war is peace (Orwellian doctrine) and nothing is what it seems as everything is projecting something other than what it actually is. Nature is divorced from itself and separations are all around us.

This same sentiment is echoed in Schutz's painting, which depicts people fighting in an elevator. In…… [read more]

Culture Comparison Between Denmark and United States Research Paper

… Cultural Comparison- Happiness

Declaration of Independence grants the right to happiness to every American citizen, an emotion every citizen seeks fervently. Ironically, though, happiness has become a marketable commodity being sold through everything from inexpensive books in self-help guaranteeing buyers… [read more]

Moon and Apollo Missions Research Paper

… ¶ … Apollo space missions. Inquiries, for example, like who began the Space Race and why, what was fulfilled on these expeditions and what were the identities of the acclaimed individuals on these missions will be responded to. The American… [read more]

Fly Me to the Moon: How Far Is That? Term Paper

… 2 degrees. Cleverly, he made these measurements by using the shadow of a stick. Alexander could tell that Eratosthenes was exceptionally proud of this multi-year accomplishment, and he suitably expressed his admiration for the elder's work. Eratosthenes continued. The distance from Alexandria to Syene was 5,000 stades (1 stade = 500 feet) to the south. The difference in the angle of sunlight at the midday point on June 21 would give the numbers needed to figure out the circumference of the earth. The key to this calculation, the elder explained, was recognition that the idea of verticality of the sticks used to gauge the angle of sunlight cannot be perfect since the earth is spherical. This means, Eratosthenes explained, that the two sticks -- one in Alexandria and one in Syene -- were not parallel. However, the rays of the sun that reached the two locations were parallel. And further, the rays of the sun falling in Syene were parallel to the stick -- Eratosthenes reminded Alexander to recall that the sun did not create a shadow on June 21 in Syene. According to his measurements, Eratosthenes asserted that the angle between the sunlight and the stick at midday in midsummer in Alexandria was 7.2 degrees, or 1/50 of a complete circle. Eratosthenes pointed out to Alexander that, from this, it should be obvious that the angle would maintain from the center of the earth to the surface of the earth, so the distance around the earth could be derived to be equal to 250,000 stades (or 23,300 miles). [Note that contemporary estimates are 25,000 miles, but that interpretations of the… [read more]

Space Shuttle Disaster Term Paper

… The cold weather during the launch time seriously contributed to the O-ring failures and ultimately the destruction of the shuttle. It is inexcusable that these rings were never tested at low temperatures, and the ideas wasn't even considered until the night before the launch. If ever haste made waste, it was certainly in this case.

The confusion and debate about the pre-launch activities in relation to the threat of cold weather further reveals the lack of ethical guidance on many involved with the mission. Ethically, engineers are responsible for providing the best and most accurate scientific information that can be used to make larger decisions. The responsibility of the engineers is not total but their ability to influence the experience needs to be taken into consideration.

The engineers can be mostly excused from the failures of this mission, as the political ramifications of the success of the Challenger were too great for their protests to be accepted in the long run. NASA and governmental work must be understood to be political in nature primarily. This ethical environment puts engineers in a difficult situation because their objectives differ from those who are actually managing the project and can exert leadership in a more powerful manner.

The ethical issues dealing with this case are best understood when realizing that the engineers assigned to the development of this mission are working under a different set of ethical principles than the military, economic and political interest that play a much more dominant role in the event.


Berkes, H. (2006). Challenger: Reporting a Disaster's Cold, Hard Facts. NPR,28 Jan…… [read more]

Comparison: Six-Day Creation Theory vs. Big Bang Essay

… Both sides observe that the whole concept of evolution would, in the absence of a naturalistic bias, lose its credibility (Landgraf, 2011).

Opposition to Macroevolution: both accounts reject the theory of common ancestry, denying that all kinds of life resulted from totally different natural processes, and were not aided by any supernatural actions (Landgraf, 2011; Taylor, 2008). To this end, both accounts blatantly reject the idea that all forms of life are connected to a common ancestry like a tree is connected to a common root and trunk; and collectively affirm that living things have different ancestries and display high degree of diversity like a forest with thousands of tree species (Landgraf, 2011). Both accounts, however, support the concept of microevolution, and use it to explain the minor changes between the different forms of life (Landgraf, 2011; Taylor, 2008).

The Historicity of the Genesis Account: both old earth and young earth creationists are evangelical, and believe that the human race descended from Adam and Eve (Taylor, 2008).

However, the two accounts differ on two major issues; the age of the earth, and the time of Adam an Eve's creation (Landgraf, 2011).

Time of Adam and Eve's Creation: the young earth account holds that Adam and Eve were created no later than 10,000 years ago; the old earth account, on the other hand, places its creation somewhere between 30,000 and 70,000 years ago (Landgraf, 2011).

The Age of the Earth: the old earth view aligns with mainstream science; in this regard placing the creation event at approximately 13.7 billion years ago (Landgraf, 2011). The young earth account holds that the creation of the universe took place between 6,000 and 10,000 years ago. These timing differences between the two accounts can largely be attributed to the different meanings they attach to the term 'yom', which can literally be taken to mean 'day'. Old earth creationists support their view on two major grounds; i) in 2 Peter 3:8 and Psalm 90:4, 'yom' is used to refer to a long period of time; Peter actually expresses that the term stands for 1000 years; ii) On the sixth day, God tells Adam to assign names to all other creatures; this, at face value, cannot be accomplished in a mere 24 hours (Landgraf, 2011). The new earth creationists support their perspective, most significantly, on grounds that Jesus appears to support a young earth view when He says that God created man at the beginning of creation in Mark 10:6 (Dean, 2003). The old earth account puts Adam's creation at approximately 2 billion years after the universe came into existence, while the young earth account puts it at six days (Dean, 2003).


The origin of man, the universe, and man's place in the universe have been subjects of debate since time immemorial. The subject has become intriguing as much as it is complex, and is today approached from two perspectives; the old earth perspective and the young earth perspective. Both accounts support the idea that the… [read more]

Judgment in Managerial Decision Making: Challenger Disaster Essay

… This, at first sight, appears quite unrealistic. One would argue that a reputable institution such as NASA ought to have more coordinated systems, and more centralized decision-making systems. The subsequent subsections reveal some of the factors that made NASA's systems vulnerable.

The constraints associated with launch were retired, thus compromising the shuttle's safety. However, the system was quite shallow and provided no imperative that constraints gain the authorization of all levels of management (SHU, n.d.). This made it relatively easy for the officers at levels II and IV of the decision making structure to disregard the safety concerns raised by their Thiokol counterparts, and get away with it.

Some sort of managerial propensity is evident at NASA, whereby members make attempts to resolve issues, even the most serious of them internally, rather than pushing them to the higher levels of management (SHU, n.d.). Experts argue that most members do this in pursuit of promotions and other benefits. Nevertheless, this somehow goes against the Marshall spirit which requires its members to work "towards successful flight missions, interfacing and communicating with the other parts of the system that work to the same end" (SHU, n.d.).


It is evident, from the Challenger Flight disaster, that groupthink does little to aid the development of a group, and that it, in fact, causes more destruction and losses than would have accrued had the truth been told.


Bazerman, M.H. & Don, A.M. (2008). Judgment in Managerial Decision-Making (7th ed.). New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Mind Tools. (1996). Avoiding Groupthink: Avoiding Fatal Flaws in Group Decision-Making. Mind Tools. Retrieved 31 March 2014 from

SHU (n.d.). The Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster: A Study in Organizational Ethics. Seton Hall University. Retrieved 31 March 2014 from… [read more]

Debating NASA's Budget and Importance Term Paper

… 7 billion for the 2012 fiscal year, the cost of funding NASA represents a scant 0.5% of total federal expenditures (Rogers). To put the often overwhelming numbers contained within governmental accounting into perspective, consider that "the United States spends more than $20 billion per year on air conditioning for troops in Afghanistan and Iraq & #8230; more than the entire operating budget of NASA" (National Public Radio). Having already discontinued the fleet of space shuttles, once considered among the most recognizable symbols of America's intrepid spirit, NASA has been forced to confront its own institutional mismanagement in a self-administered process of budgetary evaluation. Rather than simply sacrifice NASA on the altar of false fiscal responsibility, our elected leaders should recognize that an organization capable of calculating precise escape velocities and rotational vectors can surely harness that intellectual ability to balance their budget.

Among the more potentially productive ideas to emerge from the intellectual vacuum of the recent presidential debates was the notion that NASA may eventually experiment with outsourcing. By allowing privately held contractors to competitively bid for the right to bring NASA's theoretical models to fruition, many experts believe that the final costs of many space missions could be significantly reduced. Companies like SpaceX and Virgin Galactic have already began the modern version of the "space race," with both firms hoping to corner the market on commercial space exploration, so the opportunity for NASA to collaborate with private enterprise should not be dismissed out of hand. By allowing the entrepreneurial process to play out in the free market, NASA and the federal government could conceivably attain their shared goal of reducing costs without suffering a noticeable reduction in operational capability. If decades of empirical evidence demonstrate, as many have argued, that NASA is far more capable of devising worthwhile ideas than it is at observing fiscal austerity, there appears to be little downside in allowing private companies to compete and drive costs downward. Due to the regrettable fact that planned budget cuts for 2013 "will affect missions in their prime, like the Cassini Mission to Saturn, and missions in their infancy, like a planned explorer to Jupiter's oceanic moon Europa, both of which involve strong European connections" (Vertesi), it stands to reason that international firms could also be involved in the bidding process. If the grand scale to which NASA scientists aspire to cannot be matched by the agency's accountants, the federal government must consider its role in fostering a cooperative relationship between companies capable of reaching outer space, and researchers who hold the expertise and knowledge needed to navigate humanity's final frontier.

Works Cited

Calmes, Jackie. "$100 Billion Increase in Deficit Is Forecast." New York Times 01 Feb 2010, A9. Print. .

Foust, Jeff. "Gingrich: NASA sits around and thinks space." Space Politics. 13, 2011. Web. 4 Dec. 2012. .

NPR Staff. "Among The Costs Of War: Billions A Year In A.C. ." National Public Radio. Jun 25, 2011. Web. 4 Dec. 2012. .

Rogers,… [read more]

Helium Is a Very Unusual Term Paper

… , 2006, p. 1). Anderson and colleagues believe helium was created during the Big Bang and was incorporated into the Earth during "…its initial accretion and in the subsequent long-term acquisition of 'late veneer' material" (Anderson, 1). Presently helium is not being added to the inventory of Earth's elements "at a significant rate" albeit a "small amount" of helium is constantly being added to the Earth's surface by "…interplanetary dust [particles and by cosmic rays" (Anderson, 2).

The authors explain that Earth is "…constantly degassing," which transports helium from the crust of the Earth to the mantle and from there "…into the oceans and atmosphere" (Anderson, 2).

Helium is important to the functioning of gas-cooled nuclear power plants, according to Robert Krebs (Krebs, 2006). Helium is also used in the world's largest "particle accelerators" to cool the "superconducting magnets," Krebs explains. Helium is also used by scuba divers and deep-sea divers because, mixed with oxygen, it is "less soluble in divers' blood than is nitrogen" and does not contribute to "the bends" that some divers get when surfacing too fast (Krebs). Of course helium is also uses in weather balloons, blimps, in arc welding and as a coolant for "superconducting electrical systems that, when cooled, offer little resistance to the electrons passing through a conductor" (Krebs).

In conclusion, helium is a rare element but it has many important uses. Most people know that birthday balloons are filled with helium, and that the blimps that hover over sporting events are kept aloft by helium. But it is not likely those same people realize how plentiful helium is in the universe, how it was discovered, or what its scientific uses are.

Works Cited

Anderson, Don L., Foulger, G.R., and Meibom, Anders. "Helium Fundamentals: Helium

Fundamental Models. Mantle Plumes. Retrieved October 4, 2012, from

Hasan, Heather. Helium: Understanding the Elements of the Periodic Table. New York: The

Rosen Publishing Group, 2006.

Krebs, Robert E. The History And Use of Our Earth's Chemical…… [read more]

Physiological Issues in Human Spaceflight Term Paper

… Moreover, the affects of both long duration and long distance space explorations remains, by and large, unknown at present. At any rate, our experience in both low-Earth orbit and on brief lunar expeditions allows us to make reasonable assumptions about the primary stressors which human explorers will encounter as space missions grow longer. There are a number of physiological issues that must be considered when examining this problem including: radiation, absence of natural time parameters, altered circadian rhythms, decreased exposure to sunlight, adaptation to micro gravity, sensory/perceptual depravation of varied natural sources, sleep disturbance, and space adaptation sickness.

It is reasonable to assume that research into these issues may have cross-benefits in other medical fields. Studies of bone loss prevention in spaceflight provide researchers with new insight into similar conditions such as osteoporosis and bone cancers. Cardiovascular research in space medicine can shed light on comparable deterioration pathologies in Earth-bound patients. No medical research occurs in isolation.

The physiological impact of human spaceflight is significant and varied. While some issues such as radiation exposure and immunological depression represent serious concerns during the course of a mission, others, such as the cardiovascular effects and orthostatic intolerance only manifest themselves upon return to Earth. A successful space mission means not just ensuring crew health for the duration of their journey, but minimizing the impact of spaceflight-induced conditions after returning to Earth. Counteracting both in-flight and post-flight physiological issues is vital to developing an aggressive, sustainable program of human space exploration beyond Earth.

Works Cited

Bonin, Grant. "Physiological Issues in Human Spaceflight: Review and Proposed Countermeasures." Carleton University, Ottawa, ON. 6 December 2005. Web. 9 September 2012. <>

Wickman, Leslie A. "Human Performance Considerations for a Mars Mission." Center for Research in Science, Azuza Pacific University. (2006). Web. 9 September 2012. [read more]

Earth Science Essay

… The last day of the six day creation was the day when man began to walk the earth i.e. The day God created people and land animals. Coming back to how much one day actually was, God is clearly trying to mention to us through his book that he made the earth in just six ordinary days and has used the words evening and day together to make us understand. (Kooten, 2005)


Though the two views of the origin of the Earth seem miles apart, there may be a few similarities between the two theories. The first and foremost matter in which both theories agree is that there was definitely a beginning of this Earth, contrary to the belief that it was also present. Moreover, the Big Bang Theory's main claim is that the Earth and universe expanded with time, rather than being created as it is in one go. The Six Day Creation too claims that at one point of time, the Heavens literally stretched out. (Drees, 2001)

However, although these claims at the surface agree, the Big Bang Theory begins the timeline of the Earth back to more than 15 billion years ago, where the Six Day says it was roughly 6000 years ago. Along with this major difference, while the Big Bang states that the Sun was first created and then the Earth came about, Six Day says that it was actually the creation of the Earth that came before the creation of the Sun. Moreover, the Six Day theory claims that the stars and moons and other constellations were made around the same time as the Sun and the Earth, Big Bang goes against this theory and says that these bodies came about a very long time after.

I support the Six Day Creation for several reasons. First of all, the Big Bang theory in itself does not tell us much to believe it completely because it is based on a few laws of Physics however, these laws do not explain the major components of this model. The theory explains through mathematical equations only what happened after the bang and the expansion started off. It does not explain why the expansion primarily started off. With the Six Day Creation, the conclusion is not based on science that at times, tries to prove things that are not entirely true by applying equations that just coincidentally fit in. The Genesis however, clearly states that there was a higher entity, meaning God, who created the Heavens and the Earth. Moreover, the fact that Jesus too had shown his support towards the previous scriptures such as the Genesis is proof on its own. Having blind faith in a scripture and in God being a super being who is able to do all things is much more convincing to hear than a theory such as the Big Bang that is likely to be considered as a mistake a few years later, as is the fate of many scientific deductions.

References:… [read more]

Space Show Museum of Natural History Essay

… space show museum of natural history.


The Space Show at the Museum of Natural History in New York is truly an entertaining, enlightening show that provides visitors and viewers a unique experience. The Space Show is one of the primary attractions at the Rose Center for Earth and Space's Hayden Planetarium. The show takes place within a huge hemispheric dome, which is approximately 67 feet in width, and which utilizes a variety of media including sound effects, visual reproductions, as well as sensory vibrations to simulate a number of scientific occurrences that have and will continue to take place in outer space. The scientific processes involved in many of the films that audiences have and will be able to see are extremely authentic, and consist of research conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as well as astrophysicists from a variety of international locations, including at the Museum of Natural History.

One of the most intriguing aspects about the films that are on display at the Space Center is the fully immersive experience they allow audiences to have. The scientific processes depicted are actual simulations of events that took place or that will take place, and allow audiences to gain an authentic, three-dimensional experience of these occurrences. A great example of this proclivity of the Space Center is found in the short film entitled Journey to the Stars, which is narrated by actress Whoopi Goldberg. The film provides a fairly comprehensive look at the birth of many of the novae that currently exist within the known universe. Even more interesting is the fact that this film is able to depict the actual occurrences that lead to the deaths of stars -- and explains why it is that stars that have previously gone extinct are still visible from earth. is a dynamic, interactive web site that allows the surrounding internet community linked by the world wide web…… [read more]

Anselmian God Walking on Mars Essay

… Anselmian God

Walking on Mars was, beyond a shadow of a doubt, the most astonishing experience of my life. There are few -- very few -- experiences so powerful, where the emotions are felt so deeply, that the experience is impossible to describe. I will attempt to do so anyway, because it is something that I can only wish everybody would have the opportunity to experience. Then again, if everybody got to walk on Mars, it would be no more special an experience that walking down a city street.

But Mars is not like a city street precisely because of how unique the experience is. Everything about the experience is special. You are first informed that you have been selected to do this, immediately knowing that your name - among all the men who have ever lived -- will be one of the most remembered. I did not have much time to think about things like that. It was a job, of course, and I was going there as a scientist before all other reasons. It took six years of preparation before we were ready to launch. I'd been in space before, but when we broke out of Earth's orbit, the fact that I would be gone for over a year really hit the pit of my stomach. The earth became a speck of light, and I don't think I could ever really describe that feeling of intense loneliness that set in around that time. My work kept me busy, but as I got farther away, communication became more difficult. When Mars came into view, however, I cried. I didn't really plan on that. I didn't really know what else to do. It was the most beautiful thing I had ever seen, red, barren, dusty.

Landing was exactly as it had been in training. I had practiced in the deserts of Nevada, and on simulators. It was smooth and easy. I had to gather data for about ten hours, and run systems checks, before I was to go explore the neighborhood. They had me land in a place called Meridiani Planum, which was one of the parts of Mars that was once covered by water. I was supposed to land within a few hundred meters of the Mars rover Opportunity. My first mission out of the landing pod, however, was just going to be for basic observation, and I spent a three…… [read more]

Mer-B or the Opportunity Essay

… d.). The Mars Exploration Rovers are also equipped with a microscopic imager that is used to obtain "close-up, high-resolution images of rocks and soil" and a rock abrasion tool that is used for "removing dusty and weathered rock surfaces and exposing fresh material for examination by instruments onboard" (Summary, n.d.).

The rovers were designed to move around Mars and perform on-site geological investigations; the rovers have the same capabilities to collect data on Mars as a scientist would. The rovers are considered to be the mechanical equivalent of geologist "walking the surface of Mars" (Summary, n.d.). The manner in which the rovers are assembled help to provide geologists with a realistic view of the planet. The cameras on the rovers are mounted on masts that are 1.5 meters, or 5 feet, high and "provide 360-degree, stereoscopic, humanlike views of the terrain;" moreover, "the robotic arm is capable of movement in much the same way as a human arm with an elbow and wrist, and can place instruments directly up against rock and soil targets of interest" (Summary, n.d.). Contained within the robotic "fist" of the rover's arm is a microscopic camera that mirrors a geologist's handheld magnifying lens (Summary, n.d.).

In the latest Opportunity update which analyzed data sent from the rover during the sols cycles 2757-2763, or approximately data sent between October 26 and November 1, 2011, it was revealed that the seasonal plan for the Opportunity is to have the rover "winter over on the north end of Cape York on the rim of Endeavour crater" (Update: Spirit and Opportunity, n.d.). This latest sols cycle had the Opportunity on the lookout for light-toned materials that would help to provide further insight into Mars' history.

While the Spirit has stopped responding to communications sent by the MER mission team since March 22, 2010, the Opportunity continues to provide valuable information and insight to geologists on Earth. Through the data and images that are relayed back to Earth, the Opportunity has enabled scientists to have a better understanding of the geological composition of Mars as well as study the presence of water on the planet. Both the Spirit and the Opportunity have "discovered evidence of liquid water" (Chang, 2011). Furthermore, these scientific investigations have allowed scientists to postulate the possibility of the existence of life on Mars. Because of the Mars Exploration Rover missions, new doors have been opened into the exploration of other planets in our galaxy; due to the success of the Mars Exploration Rover missions, it is possible for similar technologies to be used to explore other planets in the far reaches of the universe. The Spirit and the Opportunity have made it possible for scientists to explore other avenues; NASA is currently in the process of launching a larger rover, the Curiosity, which will continue to build upon the discoveries that were made by the MER -- A and the MER-B (Chang, 2011).


Chang, K. (2 September 2011). Mars Rover Discovery Elates NASA. The New… [read more]

Faith of Universal Structure Is a Religion Research Paper

… Faith of Universal Structure is a religion which takes its inspiration from the recurring structure found throughout nature, and orients the desires and thoughts of its adherents towards the attainment and movement towards what might be called the ideal Structure. Recognizing that all religions evolve over time to incorporate new empirical evidence about the world around us (for instance, the pope explicitly acknowledging that the earth revolves around the sun), The Faith of Universal Structure instead takes empirical evidence as its starting point, using the scientific constants and laws as a means of constructing a system of belief which offers spiritual transcendence and an ultimate "heavenly" goal without discounting the achievements and previous spiritual investigations of humanity.

The Faith of Universal Structure takes as its starting point the recognition that all things are a product of their environment, from a rock to a plant to human personality to the orientation of stars within the Milky Way galaxy. Through the interaction of subatomic particles and the fundamental forces, all things are connected and influence each other. From this, one may observe that in the midst of these interconnected particles, a structure has emerged on every level, once again scaling from the most miniscule up to the filamental structure of the universe, organized by the gravitational interactions between galaxies as they move through the great void of space. In the midst of this universal void, however, there are galaxies so far removed from any others that they retain a near "perfect" shape, so distant that they remain unchanged by the gravitational influence of other galaxies.

Thus, The Faith of Universal Structure views these galaxies as approaching what one might call the ideal structure, that is, the emergent structure inherent in the Universe making itself known free from the influence of external forces. From this stems the most central of The Faith of Universal Structure's main tenets; namely, that there exists a galaxy somewhere in the universe in which all things are maintained in perfect harmony, free from outside influence, and that it is the responsibility of all believers in The Faith of Universal structure to seek it out, even if that search is ultimately never concluded in any believer's lifetime. (In fact, the Faith relies on the impossibility of concluding this Search; should anyone ever make it to the perfect galaxy, it would be rendered imperfect, as the outside influence of the arriving party would alter its structure. However, this does not render the Search meaningless, because it is through the Search that the Structure is exalted and embodied, and the adherent finds meaning for his or her own life). This represents the single constituent "myth" of the Faith, as it does not include what one might call an "origin story" except the story of humanity's increasing understanding of the Universe and the laws which govern it.

This tenet further leads to the Faith's understanding of all previous forms of human meaning-making, from language to organized religion to any structured attempt at… [read more]

Strike in Space Essay

… ¶ … space case such an interesting and compelling example of organizational behavior is that the odd conditions of weightlessness, and all that anti-gravity entails, place tremendous strains on the team that would not be typically experienced in the workplace environment. For example, during Skylab 1 the astronauts' working conditions led to irritability among the team. The group managed to accomplish its goals but "the first crew never had a chance to settle in and experience life in space in a routine way," (p. 4). They had "rigid timetables" imposed on them from NASA management outside of the space capsule (p. 2). Therefore, NASA ran the Skylab experiments as a combination of a chain network and a wheel network. As a chain network, NASA ensured that teamwork was essentially sabotaged. The command line was hierarchical, as the members of the Skylab did not even know their conversations were being monitored. Their schedules were pre-ordained. As a wheel network, NASA remained solidly in the center and prohibited communication between its respective spokes. This is why the Skylab 3 members developed disjointed communication on board; they had never learned to work together as a team.

The Skylab 2 crew boasted "a number of close personal connections" that facilitated rapport (p. 4). Skylab 2 was therefore a type of circle network even within the hierarchical organizational structure of NASA. Like the first Skylab, the second crew dealt with intense stressors such as rigid working schedules and conditions. "The astronauts were selected by and large for their extraordinary military discipline and obedience and not for their capacity for creative, independent judgment," (p. 5). This underscores the type of hierarchical organizational structure that NASA relied upon. On the ground, NASA managers controlled the schedules of individuals who responded with "extraordinary military discipline and obedience." There was little room for independent thought, critical thinking, or collaborative decision-making. Likewise, NASA emphasized quantitative measures over the qualitative input of the astronauts. On the Skylab 1 and 2, the astronauts themselves operated as a circle…… [read more]

Apollo Research Paper

… Apollo 1

Who, What, When, Why, and How?

This work in writing intends to examine Apollo 1 in terms of who, what, when, where, why and how and to note this outcomes of this NASA mission and make recommendations in… [read more]

Gemini Space Program Research Paper

… The Von Braun team had quickly traveled to the Redstone Arsenal located in Huntsville, Alabama to work on the Explorer satellite and were working on a moon rocket booster -- the Saturn which was to produce 1.5 million pounds of thrust which was more than a sufficient amount to boost the new spacecraft into orbit. It is reported that the storability of the fuels also were a positive factor for NASA as the vehicle could be fuel without being unloaded and refueled traveling through extended holds with cryogenic fuels such as liquid oxygen. (NASA, 2000, paraphrased) The following figure shows the final Gemini design.

Figure 3

Final Gemini Design

Source: Adcock (2010)

The following figure shows the Gemini Ejection Seat.

Figure 4

Gemini Ejection Seat

Source: Adcock (2010)

The Space Rendezvous Apparatus and Method Patent was issued in July, 1966 and reports that it is an invention that "relates to an apparatus and method for effecting a space rendezvous and more particularly relates to an in-transit or linear rendezvous mode of space transport employing trajectory operations conducted by two or more individually launched space units adapted to rendezvous in-transit for assembly into a single spacecraft." (United State Patent Office, 1966)

It is reported by the U.S. Patent Office that when a rocket booster is involved in connection with this type of operation "the booster has been designed to effect a docking in rendezvous with a payload before the rocket began its planned, out-or-orbit flight. The limitations inherent in designing an apparatus for use in connection with 'orbital rendezvous' operations severely restrict features of reliability, safety, vulnerability, availability and versatility, which factors are of paramount concern to the efficient achievement of any particular space mission." (United State Patent Office, 1966) What was provided by this invention was an apparatus and method in which space rendezvous and docking are not any longer restricted to satellite orbits but were after this invention able to be performed at any altitude "and in parabolic or hyperbolic orbits wherein the rendezvousing objects proceed at or near local escape velocity." (United State Patent Office, 1966) This type of apparatus is stated to comprise "a rocket booster having a thrush unit forming a uniquely arranged docking face on the fore-end thereof adapted to receive and be coupled to a manned or unmanned payload unit pursuant to in-transit space rendezvous." (United State Patent Office, 1966) Also enabled by this invention was the ability of two objects to be able to rendezvous and dock in 'high energy orbit'…" (United State Patent Office, 1966)

Summary & Recommendations

This work has examined the Gemini space program and information gained in this specific study includes information concerning the design and construction of a rocket booster system for the Gemini program that had not been previously utilized by NASA which allowed for rendezvous whether the spacecraft was in an parabolic or hyperbolic orbits and as well the thrust of the unit enabled the rendezvous and docking of two craft in a high energy orbit.… [read more]

Advances in Telescopes in Recent Years Reaction Paper

… ¶ … advances in telescopes in recent years and how they have helped unveil cosmic mysteries such as the shape of dwarf galaxies and the missing satellite problem. It shows how previous beliefs based on the cold dark matter (CDM) model might not be true. Dwarf galaxies, originally thought to have a central group of stars enclosed by auras of dark matter have shown instances of supernovas, according to supercomputer simulations. Astronomers have managed to get closer to the origin of dwarf galaxies using the Hubble Space Telescope. However astronomers intend to probe deeper into the cosmos by developing stronger tools such as James Webb Space telescope (expected to be launched in 2014) and the Thirty Meter Telescope (after 2018). Galaxies are expected to have chunks of dark matter circling their course around them. Scientists are making an effort to discover these by means of extensive sky surveys using devices such as the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope.

"Dwarf galaxies are the building blocks for galaxies like the Milky Way," Governato notes. "Getting the bricks right is important."

The speaker emphasizes the necessity of understanding the origin of dwarf galaxies. The conclusions drawn from Cold Dark Matter (CDM) model in explaining their structure had been challenged by the studies that he conducted as a part the University of Washington. Since the formation of most noteworthy galaxies in our universe can be attributed to a hierarchical approach, analyzing the smaller galaxies is all the more significant. According to the CDM model, the magnitude of galaxies in the past was supposedly much smaller than they are now. Findings from telescopic campaigns have allowed researchers to peek into what the universe might have looked in the past. Hubble Space Telescope images have brought forth an illustration of galaxies as they were around 700 million years after the Big Bang. These proceedings support the goals which the speaker intended on achieving (analysing the smaller building blocks of galactic formations)

This article conveys the basic information about how galaxies were formed. Technological innovations have caused our understanding to change over the years. The original idea of the development of galaxies involved dark matter moving around in the universe, which drew in other matter to form elliptical shapes. This was improved by the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) Model aided by supercomputer simulations. Dwarf galaxies (considered as building blocks for larger ones) were thought to have clusters of stars in the centre enclosed in dark matter. This idea changed over time as studies revealed the presence of astral supernovas in each of them. The Hubble Space Telescope estimated galaxies in their infancy to have around 1% of the mass of our milky way which confirms their dwarf status. However they were found to have been cultivating stars in them for millions of years. The outer space is full of mysteries and upcoming technologies such as in James Webb Space Telescope and the Thirty Meter Telescope is expected to improve our understanding of the universe even more.

The… [read more]

Right Stuff the Mercury Seven Astronauts Essay

… Right Stuff

The Mercury Seven astronauts are familiar to most. These astronauts were chosen among many to participate in the NASA's Mercury Project and are who Tom Wolfe's book titled the Right Stuff is based on. There are probably several causal arguments which can be found in this book. In order to focus on one such argument for the purpose of this paper, the term causal argument must first be defined. A simple definition of a causal argument is that one event causes another event to happen.

An example of this would be if a woman wears high heels and walks in them all day, the soles of her feet will hurt. So, walking in high heels all day would be the cause of the woman's hurting feet. In Wolfe's book the Right Stuff, the fact that the seven astronauts met the strict criteria that NASA was looking for is why they were chosen to be the first men in the United States travel into outer space. The superior qualities possessed by the initial seven astronauts are what caused their trips to space to be successful and is also the cause of NASA being the successful program that it is today. NASA would not have been able to accomplish all that is has to date had it settle on men who were mediocre to make the first flights into space.

The Mercury Project was created by NASA to send men to into outer space to find out if humans could function on a different planet other than earth. Wolfe describes in his book how military pilots during the 1950's were generally considered fearless. According to him, they were top notch and had no fear of dying. They performed their duties each time knowing that they always faced the possibility of death, yet their performances were always outstanding. Not everyone chosen to be a military pilot had these qualities. The author states that at the beginning of each class of new recruits, they were told upfront that the majority of them would not make it (25).

In the beginning, NASA's guidelines for choosing the Mercury Seven were strict, but not extremely strict. They were basically looking for anyone that was a military test pilot. When President Dwight D. Eisenhower saw the initial criteria, he was not in favor of it because he knew that the response would be overwhelming. As a result of this, he suggested a more stringent set of guidelines. He did this because the Mercury Project was special, extremely important and would become a major part of history. Therefore, he suggested NASA tighten up the criteria so that only a few elite would qualify. The new criteria set forth required that the chosen seven possess the following: candidates could be no taller than five feet eleven inches, they must possess a college degree (or its equivalent), they could…… [read more]

Beyond UFO's the Search for Extraterrestrial Life Thesis

… UFOs and the Process of Scientific Inquiry

The chapter by Bennett (2008) is superficially about the search for -- or perhaps more accurately, the evidentiary support for -- the existence of extra-terrestrial life as demonstrated by Unidentified Flying Objects (UFO). However, the discussion reveals a greater interest even in the nature of scientific debate, the premise of providing one theory by disproving another and the inherency of natural law in the process of investigating scientific inquiry. My personal response would be a sense of engagement based on the understanding the Bennett intends to pursue an objective discussion on the possibility of life on other planets-based fully within the confines of defensible science.


Bennett offers the reader a discussion the history of this inquiry that touches on some compelling resolutions as that relating to stellar parallax. Indeed, one of the core problems in creating an empirically supported model of the universe would be man's incapacity to physically measure the distances between such astral…… [read more]

Beyond UFO's the Search for Extraterrestrial Life Thesis

… Physics

Beyond UFOs, the Search for Extraterrestrial Life

Very briefly, what is your immediate reaction to this Reading Assignment?

My immediate reaction to this reading assignment was that even though we have come a long way in the what we do know there is still a whole lot more out there for us to figure out. As technology advances it is very likely that we will discover things that we never even thought would be possible. We will get answers to questions that have been burning to be answered since the beginning of time. What we discover in the future may indeed change our entire lives as we know it. There is know way to tell what is out there just waiting to be discovered.

How does the author describe the Earth's cosmic address?

The author describes Earth's cosmic address as where Earth is physically located in relation to all the other things in the cosmic universe. Earth is a planet that is the third planet out from the star that this known as…… [read more]

Three Major Scientific Theories Explaining the Origins of the Universe Research Proposal

… Origins

Discussion of three major scientific theories explaining the origins of the universe


Three major scientific theories on the origins of the universe

The question of the origins of the universe has concerned humanity for centuries.… [read more]

Theory of Personality Research Proposal

… ¶ … Personality Theory

Carl Sagan wrote in the introduction of Stephen Hawking's (1988) book, "A Brief History," he said, "We go about our daily lives understanding almost nothing of the world. We give little thought to the machinery that generates the sunlight that makes life possible, to the gravity that glues us to an Earth that would otherwise send us spinning off into space, or to the atoms of which we are made and on whose stability we fundamentally depend. Except for children (who don't know enough not to ask the important questions), few of us spend much time wondering why nature is the way it is; where the cosmos came from, or whether it was always here; if time will one day flow backward and effects precede causes; or whether there are ultimate limits to what humans can know."

According to the standard theory, our universe sprang into existence as "singularity" around 13.7 billion years ago -- singularities are zones which defy our current understanding of physics and are believed to exist at the core of black holes, which are areas of intense gravitational pressure; and the pressure is imagined to be really powerful that finite matter is in fact compressed into infinite density and that these zones of infinite density are called singularities; and our universe is thought to have begun as an infinitesimally small, infinitely hot, infinitely dense, something - a singularity (Barrow, 1994).

After the initial appearance of the singularities -- it seems that it inflated, expanded and cooled, going from very, very small and very, very hot, to the size and temperature of our current universe. There were three British astrophysicists, namely, Steven Hawking, George Ellis, and Roger Penrose turned their attention to the Theory of Relativity and its implications regarding our notions of time and in 1968 and 1970, they published papers that they extended Einstein's Theory of General Relativity to include measurements of time and space -- according to their calculations, time and space had a finite beginning that corresponded to the origin of matter and energy;" and the singularity didn't appear in space; rather, space began inside of the singularity but prior to the singularity, nothing existed, not space, time, matter, or energy - nothing (Hawking & Ellis, 1968). So where and in what did the singularity appear if not in space? We don't know. We don't know where it came from, why it's here, or even where it is. But the truth was that the singularities are origin of human existence -- we came from the dreams of the fallen star that was exiled from the heavens above. When the star did not function well in its job in shining brightly in the sky, it was banished and sent to a space where it exist but cannot shine no more. The singularities continues to expand and cool to this day and we are inside of it: incredible creatures living on a unique planet, circling a beautiful star clustered together with… [read more]

Cold War and the Conquest of Space Thesis

… ¶ … Cold War and the Conquest of Space

On July 20, 1969, the United States accomplished the impossible. It was on this day that Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins set world history. On this day, this crew… [read more]

Life on Mars Term Paper

… Life on Mars

The 16 August issue of the Science magazine published an article by a group of scientists led by David Mckay on the discovery of evidence of primitive bacterial life on Mars. This article is based on the… [read more]

New York Times Related to Physics Term Paper

… ¶ … New York Times related to physics.

A Collision Course for Physics (editorial) NYT. May 17, 2007.

This article deals with the construction in Europe of a huge new particle accelerator. This event has created intense interest among… [read more]

Marketing Aerospace Industry Term Paper

… Marketing - Aerospace Industry

An Analysis of Commercial Space Travel Marketing in the Aerospace Industry Today

I've heard], 'If God wanted us to fly into space, he would have given us more money.' Hopefully, the technology demonstrated here today will… [read more]

Do Studies Show That Mars Could Have Once Had an Ocean's? Term Paper

… ¶ … oceans on Mars. The writer uses discussions about past studies that indicate there has been water on Mars. There were three sources used to complete this paper.

As the world continues to populate and natural resources begin to look thin scientists have devoted double time to figuring out where future generations are going to live. The leading contender thus far is the planet Mars, both due to its proximity to earth and the belief that it is a planet capable of sustaining human life. One of the most important elements of human life is the need for water. Without water humans cannot survive, therefore any possible location for future migration by the human species must include the existence of water.

Mars has been examined closely and through the studies that have been conducted it does appear that water once existed in the form of oceans on the planet.


The strongest piece of evidence that at one time, oceans existed on Mars has been the proof of past flooding by way of water carved channels into the planet's northern plains.

In addition to the probable flooding that occurred, scientists have also recently discovered evidence of past oceans existing.

Using instruments specifically designed to measure mineralogy on Mars experts have been able to determine that some of the mineral deposits in existence came from water and salt (Mars, 2006).

Clays that have been found on the planet are indicative of water eroded riverbeds as well.

While the belief that Mars has had oceans dates back to the 1800's when Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaperelli peered through a telescope in 1887 and saw a pattern of linear markings on the Martian surface, it…… [read more]

Lunar Effects on Behavior Term Paper

… Lunar Effects on Behavior

The influence of the moon on the earth has fascinated mankind throughout history. Prior to the present scientific age the moon was considered to have strange and occult powers that could influence human behavior and events in a multitude of different ways. For example, the effects of the moon have been said to influence human sanity and mental stability and also to have various negative effects on human nature. "The full moon has been linked to crime, suicide, mental illness, disasters, accidents...and werewolves." (Carroll R.T.

2005) the idea of the moon as the cause of the changes in the human condition, such as the change from a human into a wolf or " werewolf" has been the subject of many imaginative stories and works of fiction. Other more positive aspects that have been linked to the influence of the moon in human myth, is that it has a direct and discernable affect on birthrates and fertility.

However, scientific research cannot substantiate any of these claims and there is in fact almost no evidence that the moon has any real or actual affect on human life and nature in any way. The few lunar influences that do affect the earth, for instance the fact that the moon has a minimal affect on the temperature of the earth's environment, have "... been found have little or nothing to do with human behavior..." (Carroll R.T.


In scientific terms there is simply no evidence for the claims that the moon can influence human behavior and events.

A nothing significant has been replicated sufficiently to warrant claiming a probable causal relationship." (Carroll R.T.


The most conclusive proof that the moon does not have a significant effect on human life comes from solid scientific investigation. Scientific research counters allegations that the phases of the moon influence crime rates and the frequency of homicides and states that these assertions are pure conjecture. Researchers such as Ivan W. Kelly of the College of Education at the University of Saskatchewan, and others, have undertaken extensive studies that have "... failed to show a reliable and significant correlation... between the full moon, or any other phase of the moon..." And various aspects such as homicide rate, birth rates, and various other factors that are related to the moon in social myth and legend. (Carroll R.T.


Kelly states that, "My own opinion is that the case for full moon effects has not been made..." (Roach, John, 2004)

The question therefore arises as to why certain behaviors have been ascribed to the phases and changes of the moon. The answer to this question in fact reveals the falsity of many lunar myths. One answer is that these myths have their origins in ancient folklore and legends that have been continued in various forms to the present time. For example, the myth about the way that the moon can influence human birth rates can be traced back to the ancient Assyrian and Babylonian beliefs which state… [read more]

NASA Value Chain Analysis Term Paper

… With regard to public relations and fundraising outsourcing, there are challenges and difficulties here as well. For instance, NASA's responsibility is to its shareholders -- the tax paying citizens of the America. To that regard, is it safe to outsource… [read more]

Quasars and Distant Galaxies Term Paper

… 6 billions years old, plus or minus 200 million years.

Their findings also bring out a leading model of cosmic evolution, called inflation, which states that the universe, when young, went through a brief but strong growth spurt, which produced magnified subatomic fluctuations into astronomical-sized wrinkles (Cowen 2004). These wrinkles, in turn, started the clusters of galaxies and voids in the cosmos today. This process of cosmic evolution predicts with precision how matter in the universe clumped with a variety of length scales. It combines with data from a NASA satellite, which studied the Big Bang's glow, to show that the theory survives the most rigorous test to date, as the Big Bang standard model has remained the still-uncontested theory on the evolution of the universe.#


1. Cowen, R. (1991). Radio Waves May Trace Distant Clustering-Galaxies and Quasars. Science News. Science Service, Inc.

2. -- . (2004). Universal Truth: Distant Quasars Reveal Content, Age of Universe. Science News. Science Service, Inc.

3. -- . (2003). In the Beginning, Dark Matter Builds Galaxies, Feeds Quasars. Science News. Science Service, Inc.

4. -- . (2003). Mature Before Their Time: in the Youthful Universe, Some Galaxies Were Already Old. Science News. Science Service, Inc.

5. Henbest, N. (1984). Galaxies and Quasars. UNESCO Courier. UNESCO.

6. Peterson, I. (1990). Seeding the Universe. Science News. Science Service, Inc.



I. Galaxies and Quasars

II. The Modern Infrared Camera and Its Findings

III. In the Beginning: the Dark Matter?

Conclusion… [read more]

Stephen William Hawking Term Paper

… ¶ … Stephen William Hawking. The writer explores his childhood to help determine how he became the adult that he became. The writer then examines his adult life and works and his contributions to the world as well as some… [read more]

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