Study "Astronomy / Planets / Solar System" Essays 166-217

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Physics and Cosmology Term Paper

… Physics and Cosmology

Mankind's Relationship with the Universe: The Relevance of Physics and Cosmology to Modern Mankind

Prehistory witnessed the rise of countless explanations for the creation of the universe that served as mankind's framework for interpreting the universe until… [read more]

Challenger Disaster Term Paper

… Challenger Shuttle Disaster

While people remember the Challenger Shuttle Disaster as a tragic loss of life and a case of mechanical failure, such events do not happen in isolation. While O. rings failed, the events that led to their failure were organizational in nature, not mechanical. The Challenger blew up because of organizational dysfunction as well as a technological problem (Kruglanski, 1986). The organizational problems resulted in flawed decision-making.

Because of outside pressures, NASA developed the shuttle as a vehicle without clear application. Congress wanted the program to be self-supporting, and expected the shuttles to be reliable, reusable vehicles. These pressures forced NASA into a business role as well as a science research one. This resulted in conflicts, stress on the staff, and short cuts to meet business-based decision deadlines (Forrest, 1995). The lack of focus resulted in difficulty developing effective management support systems because of the conflicting program goals. Due to political expectations for the program, emphasis on meeting launch deadlines changed decisions about whether to launch or not into something that was deadline-based rather than risk based. Decision-makers were pressured to approve launches, and reasons to delay were discouraged in the group (Forrest, 1995). As one NASA official said afterwards, "People being responsible for making Flight Safety First when the launch schedule is First cannot possibly make Flight Safety First no matter what they say." (Eberhart, 1986) NASA demonstrated other specific shortcomings. Their database provided sometimes faulty information, and concerns expressed at the middle-management level did not move up to the chain to decision makers, so those at the top were not always aware of potential problems (Editorial, 2003). In addition, NASA did not allow anonymous voting on final decision to launch, subjecting each individual to peer pressure (Forrest, 1995).

For its part, Morton-Thiokol (M-T) buckled to pressure by NASA to minimize possible risks. (M-T) told NASA not to launch if the air temperature was below 53° F, but this would have caused a delay for several days, so NASA pressured the company to reconsider (Forrest, 1995). In fact M-T had known about the O-rings' potential = susceptibility to cold temperatures for several months, but out of a desire to continue doing business with NASA, caved in to their pressure to approve the launch (Forrest, 1995). This happened because All members of the Group Decision Support System (GDSS) felt the pressure to approve launch, and decisions, no matter how accurate, to delay the launch were actively discouraged (Forrest, 1995). M-T made it easier for themselves to bend to this pressure when they regrouped as a private meeting, which eliminated any outside influences against a choice to recommend launch (Forrest, 1995),

To avoid these problems in the future, NASA has to take into account the difficulties with self-regulation. NASA was faced with incompatible demands that led to flawed decision-making in 1986, and those conflicts tainted the decision-making process (Vaughan, 1990). In important group decisions such as those made by GDSS, people must be free to speak up, to play… [read more]

Occam's Razor Cuts Up Term Paper

… Occam's Razor Cuts Up

Occam's Razor is a general principle in philosophy and science which argues for simplicity. Amusingly, its history is not precisely simple. Despite what it's name might suggest, it was not invented by Occam, and appears to… [read more]

Weightlessness NASA Term Paper

… '

In other words, when applying this concept called microgravity to space travel, if one were to move in any direction while under the effects of microgravity, that individual would need to push against something and the effect of that item pushing back on the astronaut propels in the opposite direction. It is a key idea of movement while in space.

Microgravity is the type of thing that when first encountered causes issues give the following symptoms hence the name 'vomit-rocket.' But there are even more inherent problems such as the more your muscles and bones weaken.




Loss of appetite


I would love to take the trip to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's and fly of ride passenger on the Vomit Comet, a KC-135A aircraft that has turned many a stomachs.

I felt that the author's account of the time he was supposed to remove his oxygen mask in the Vomit Comet was a humorous recollection. But in the same sense, the seriousness of having reliable breathing masks to avoid experiencing hypoxia firsthand. The article pointed out that most people can stay conscious for three to five minutes, and for the first couple minutes try to figure out I'll be able to make it. It is a terrify thought that after only three minutes the author began sliding into a drunken, or groggy torpor. The author was not faking his conditions. "At about three and a half, NASA medical specialist Mike Fox calls everyone's attention to the lovely purplish-blue hue of my lips. At four minutes, I feel consciousness slipping away like a thief in the night. A NASA technician helps me put my mask back on, and sharp-edged sobriety comes flooding back. Oh well. At least I didn't tap dance or try to take my clothes off -- behaviors Fox swears he has seen in the chamber." Zorpetta (1999)

In conclusion, this report attempted to focus on Glenn Zorpette, the author of "Weightlessness NASA's Zero Gravity Trainer Aircraft." He had an exciting opportunity to fly in the Vomit Comet, a KC-135A aircraft. Weightlessness can be more accurately called microgravity. From a scientific perspective, astronauts are not weightless in space, what is actually happening is that Earth's gravitational pull is literally holding a space vehicle and all of its content in an orbit.


Satleite Today (1999). ESA SEEKS VOLUNTEERS FOR WEIGHTLESSNESS EXPERIMENT. Phillips Publishing, Inc.,.

Wright, Jerry. (n.d.). Astronaut Biographies. Retrieved April 28, 2004, at

Zorpetta, Glenn (1999). A Taste of Weightlessness. Scientific America, 281(5), 26. November 20, 1999.… [read more]

Ocean Tides Are the Periodic Term Paper

… d. Some Techniques for Fishing in Gulf of Mexico. April 17, 2003.

Solunar Phases: How should they affect your fishing?" n.d. Some Techniques for Fishing in Gulf of Mexico. April 17, 2003.

Gore, Pamela J.W. "Shorelines and Coastal Processes." June 2000. Georgia Perimeter College. April 17, 2003.

Our Restless Tides." Chapter 1: Introduction. February 1998. NOAA / NOS CO-OPS. April 17, 2003.

Our Restless Tides." Chapter 2: The Astronomical Tide Producing Forces-General Considerations. February 1998. NOAA / NOS CO-OPS. April 17, 2003.

Pidwirny, Michael J. "Ocean Tides." Fundamentals of Physical Geography. 27.06.2002. April 17, 2003.

Tides." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. CD-ROM Version, 2003

Texas Gulf Coast Fishing." Tide for Texas Gulf Coast. 2003. April 17, 2003.

Tidal period" is the time taken for one tidal cycle

Solunar periods" are those times when the Earth, Moon and Sun form particular alignments in relation to each other. In gereral there are four solunar periods each day - 2 "major" and 2 minor periods.

Tidal data for Gulf of Mexico is available at

Tidal data for the Texas Gulf Coast Region is available at

The highest tides in the world occur in the Bay of Fundy in Canada (difference of about 60 ft). Tidal power plant at the site has been planned but not yet been implemented.

Tides… [read more]

Philosophy the Cosmological Disagreement Term Paper

… So, granted this state, things would be in both a state of potentiality and actuality at the same time, which is sensibly impossible. Consequently, there would be no causation within the chain and, hence, everything would cease to exist. But things do exist. So, even an infinite chain of possible beings does not resolve the problem.

The other argument commits the misleading notion of composition by extrapolating from parts to the whole. Even if each possible being entailed a cause, it does not follow that the whole of all possible beings require a cause. The argument does not entrust the fallacy of composition. Just as every part of a puzzle is red, so must the whole be red; if every part of a structure consists of stone, so must the whole consist of stone. Likewise, if every possible being is in potentiality, so the whole of all possible beings is in potentiality, and thus, needs to be actualized (caused). So that very scenery of the parts demands that the whole be caused as well.

Conclusion believe, the cosmological argument is a convincing proof for the existence of God. However, even if one has difficulties with the understanding astrophysics or accepting a finite universe, there are good cosmological arguments that do not require one to accept just God's temporal priority, for God would still be ontologically first…… [read more]

Describing the Purpose and Meaning of Awards Creative Writing

… Awards

Fashion Designer of the Year:

This award goes to a female member of our community who has demonstrated outstanding originality, fashion sense, success and innovation in the field of fashion design. The purpose of this award is to recognize achievement in the fashion world of our local community and recognize the ability, gifts, talents and expectations that we see and hold for the winner of this award. This year's winner is one who has consistently demonstrated style, competence, showmanship, and drive, acting both as a leader in fashion design and a supporter of the industry through her commitment to the field and, most importantly, her design concepts.

Philanthropist of the Year:

The Philanthropist of the Year award is presented to an outstanding member of the community who has made philanthropy the heart and soul of her life. Giving not just in terms of dollars but also in terms of time, self, and ideas -- the recipient of this award is one in whom we recognize all the wonderful traits and characteristics that a healthy, functioning society expects and needs from its leaders, who through their grit, determination, creativity, and passion for humanity effect the balance and support that keeps us all moving towards the ideal society that we wish to build.

Made in Nigeria Product of the Year:

This award goes to recognize a local producer from our community who has touched the lives of individuals through innovative design, manufacturing, and/or production. The Made in Nigeria Product of the Year recognizes achievement in the realm of commercial business, where a local producer has crafted a product that has had a significant and substantial impact on the marketplace. By acknowledging Nigerian producers with this award, we aim to encourage further Nigerian development and innovation so that our community may flourish with ideas and home-grown products.

Film and TV Director of the Year:

The Film and TV Director of the Year award goes to a member of the film and television community who has contributed to the overall quality of the industry through her work on a particular film or television series. The purpose of this award is to highlight the achievements a single female director, whose vision, skill, and focused energy has helped to produce an entertaining and informative work that Nigerians can be proud of. It goes to recognize distinction of voice, greatness of leadership, and strength in delivery.

TV Personalities of the Year:

This award is presented to a female TV personality who has demonstrated admirable qualities in Nigerian television. The award is notable for recognizing not only the greatness and attractiveness of the woman's personality but also the desirableness of her presence. If she could be with us everywhere, hosting all of life's events, our Nigerian community would be that much richer. Alas, we have her only in segmented slots -- but to show our appreciation, this award is given, with the hope that we will be seeing much more of her in the years to come,… [read more]

Ballet Considering Production and Choreography Essay

… Dance Performance Analysis


Entre Dos Aguas choreographed by Robert North with music by Lucia and Rogers was performed at the Istanbul Ballet Competition and Festival. The dance itself is designed as a kind of jazz flamenco that is at once traditional and modern, innovative and familiar. It embraces qualities of dance that are new and old and the style and dress of the dancers conforms to expectations the audience would have when thinking of a flamenco performance -- yet the jazz infusion adds something new and spicy to the ensemble. The composition of the piece is that it consists of small parts, which blend into one another, with the movements ranging from single dancers on the stage to a mix of numerous dancers participating in a well-choreographed celebration of jazz flamenco in a rousing demonstration of style and energy. The production set is minimalist, with a bare stage serving to focus the audience's attention to the dancers themselves; the lights are effective in showcasing the dancers and their movements; the costumes are simple (the men in basic tights, the women in flowing skirts), and the music is very rhythmic and gives great energy to the performance of the dancers.


The artist's intent in creating this work appears to be to blend the jazz and flamenco music and dance styles together, which is a kind of natural fit as they are both very rhythmic and energetic modes of musical expression. Thus it can be seen as a fusion of traditional flamenco with modern jazz, the bridging of two worlds -- one old and one new. The emotion it produces when watching it is one of hypnotic response; the viewer is captivated and cannot move eyes from the dancers, who twirl and twist with such grace, prancing across the stage with energy in conjunction with the rhythm of the music. The psychological response is one of approval and approbation.


Within the canon of dance, this piece comes towards the present period, as the choreographer is a modern, living choreographer, who composed the piece in the mid 2000s. Thus, it is a very modern piece of dance, even though it has very traditional elements about it. The theater setting was formal, as it was performed at the Istanbul Ballet Competition and Festival -- so there was both a feeling of excitement and anticipation in the air, as dances were being performed as part of a celebration of dance and as part of an overall competitive theme. It is a contemporary work for a contemporary world, but the aesthetic is definitely a traditional-modern blend and helps move the audience to a time that is past -- but still close enough to…… [read more]

Ballet Modern Dance and Traditional Forms Essay

… 20th Century American Giants: George Balanchine and Martha Graham

Lesson 3.1 - Martha Graham: Artist and Icon

The work of Kodaly as in Lamentation (1930) evokes an emptiness in the American landscape -- which makes sense considering that the country had just entered into the Great Depression, with the markets crashing in 1929 and no end in sight visible throughout the 1930s. Only with the coming of the war in the 1940s did manufacturing begin to kick start -- and then only because the war machine demanded it; a tragic price to pay for business and economy to pick up once again. Martha Graham's performance in Lamentation (1930) represents the human's inability to properly or effectively lament the American disaster that occurred in 1929 and that continued through the 1930s. She sits in a tube-like costume, legs spread wide apart, stretching the fabric so as to make her look like a caricature of a human being -- a person who wants to grieve and react to the sounds of the music, but who cannot because of the limited options available to him/her.

Compared to the work of the Petipa period, Kodaly's Lamentation stands in stark contrast to the costumes and stage/set designs of the Petipa period. Koday's "empty stage" represents the emptiness at the bottom of the American heart -- a heart looking for something -- for answers, for escape, for meaning, for sustenance -- and finding nothing. In contrast, there is the work of the Petipa period, which is still holding onto that Romantic vision (performing such grand Romantic pieces as The Nutcracker by Tchaikovsky). Thus, during the Petipa period, there is more passion, more expression of soul and feeling, more belief; during the 1930s -- after one World War, and with another already approaching -- the feelings are muted, the displays of passion stifled, the sets empty, the ethos dead or dying. One wants to lament, but cannot do so effectively -- and thus the feelings remain trapped, bottled up -- and no doubt will soon explode.

Response to Peer Comments

I agree that the modern dance is effective in using gravity in choreography -- and the peer is correct in noting that "down" is a direction in which the dancer in modern dance can move -- and this is meaningful, especially in a work like Lamentation, because so much modern feeling is downward and inward rather than upward and outward. There is this sense that the Great Depression has really stifled life. The peer's comments juxtapose this with the Petipa period, which showed a much more robust time in life -- and…… [read more]

Art History and Analysis of Raphael S Painting Essay

… ¶ … Raphael's "Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints"

Raphael created his painted wood altarpiece "Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints" in 1504. The oil painting, which is mounted in a wood frame painted gold, is currently being exhibited at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. The work is a colorful representation of figures with richly saturated yellow-green, red, a silvery cream, and light blue. The main figures include Madonna, Jesus, and infant John, who are central figures in Christianity. Saints and angels, both male and female, flank the central figures of Madonna, Jesus, and John. Also central to Raphael's composition are Madonna's throne with its steps and a circular canopy with landscape behind the figures. In this composition, Raphael uses line color and shape to create harmony and denote hierarchy, particularly by designing a pyramid between god, Madonna and the saints.

A cross composition aptly forms the major linear composition of Raphael's altarpiece. The central axis has been decorated with inlaid polychrome marble as a key point used to connect and draw attention to the elements in this symmetrical composition. The main figure, Madonna, falls within both the vertical and horizontal axis. Madonna is therefore situated in the middle, as is the baby Jesus. In addition to the more obvious cruciform composition, Raphael includes several diagonal lines for balance, particularly with the diagonal bodies of the angels in the top portion or half-moon shape section of the altarpiece. Also, the diagonal lines extend the length of the composition. From the left, the golden halo from a female saint passes to the halo from male saint, straight down to his shoulder and the red mantle. The same diagonal lines apply to the right figures. Raphael also uses a lot of invisible implied lines to connect each main figures. For instance, the first implied line extends from Madonna to John. The second implied line draws the eye from Jesus to John because their eyes are connected with one another. Above the main figures, God's eyes gaze down from a distant vantage point, also denoting an implied visual line between the Heavens and the Earth. Here, Raphael clearly creates a pyramid composition in which God is the apex and the earthly world is the base.

Color plays a key role in Raphael's composition, which seems to glow. Raphael uses cool blues and browns in the background to contrast with the vibrancy of the main figures. The gold, red and green are warm and bright and add a sense of pop to the painting, as if the main figures jump out from the background. Madonna's mantle is particularly shiny with its decorative gold and red background and her halo. It gives viewer a sense of her holiness and divinity. The same principle is used on the top half-moon section, as God's mantel is rose red and dark purple. God's robes contrast with the angels to his side, which wear green and yellow-gold. Interestingly, Raphael also paints Jesus's robes in colors that… [read more]

Different Types of Dance and Dance History Essay

… Transitioning from pre-modern to modern and postmodern art forms reveals the shift from direct, literal storytelling towards increasing forms of abstraction. This week we encountered several modern ballet pieces that show how choreographers combine classical elements of dance, such as traditional ballet forms, with a modern sensibility. Engaging the viewer as an active participant means trusting the viewer with the ability to interpret and project; the viewer no longer passively consumes the art but engages with the visual and sonic forms as a critical observer. Fokine's "The Dying Swan" epitomizes the quintessentially modern relationship between choreographer, dancer, and audience. With this dance, Fokine created a medium through which dancer Anna Pavlova could express the symbolism of the swan's death, which in turn evokes an emotional response in the viewer. Although it tells a direct story about the final moments in the life of an elegant bird, "The Dying Swan" also serves as a springboard for contemplating the titular subject and also the formal structure of the dance.

The most direct images in "The Dying Swan" include the lithe, bird-like forms Pavlova creates with her body, and particularly her sustained use of pointe. Using pointe to such a degree creates dynamic suspense, poignant particularly as the audience is aware that the subject of the dance is death. Pavlova also mirrors the elegance and grace of a swan, through her costume and her elongated bodily forms that contract in the final moments of the brief dance piece. The dancer's body becomes one with the swan; she uses her arms like wings and floats as if upon the water. Unlike narrative dances, "The Dying Swan" focuses on a single event, a single moment. As the subject is a non-human creature, the audience is free to project emotions related to life and death in ways that would not be possible through a more traditional narrative structure.

Question: What are some of the specific ways choreographers communicate complex emotions without being literal?

Assignment Two

The confluence of visual and performance art in…… [read more]

Romantic Era Dance Giselle the Ballet Essay

… Giselle is a highly engaging, entertaining and imaginative ballet. For someone unused to watching ballets, I found this one to by quite fascinating. From the elaborate stage set pieces to the wonderful acting of the characters, including Albrecht, Hilarion and Giselle, the ballet was very easy to watch and enjoy. The costumes were well crafted and the dance sequences were always impressive. Even the way in which the characters interacted showed true acting skill on their part; thus, it was fun to watch the dancers both act and dance to convey the narrative.

The music was also appealing in this ballet as it romantically brought out themes of joy, drama, tension, and love. The editing of the filmed ballet was also quite good, as there were shots that would cut from one scene of action to a character's face to let the audience know how we were supposed to be interpreting the action. For instance, Hilarion's suspicion of Albrecht is perfectly illustrated as the camera cuts from Albrecht's disguising of himself as a peasant to Hilarion's suspicious expression -- indicating that the audience must keep an eye on these two characters in order to understand what is about to happen. Or the camera work as it follows the flower that Giselle plucks, puts down before it is picked up by Albrecht -- all while giving glimpses of their faces, expressing emotions of sadness and confusion.

I agreed with the response of my peer, that the ballet represented well the Romantic era. Everything was done with such adherence not only to the style of the era but also to the spirit of the era. The musical sounds, as my peer pointed out, gave real feeling to each scene, whether tragic or light-hearted. And Giselle was so beautiful and so perfect for the role, capable of really touching the audience. My peer said it best: "Ultimately, all the emotions showed in the ballet are very real and I believe that emotional connection is a key component for any Romantic work/play"…… [read more]

Girl With Apple and Olympia Paintings Analysis Essay

… Glackens William: Bibliography and his works of art.

Glackens is a well-known artist in the art world and his works of art have been appreciated both in America and across the continents. He was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1870 and later on in 1892 studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of fine arts where he was influenced by the likes of Robert Henri towards embracing painting as opposed to illustrations which he had already started to incline towards. In 1895, Glackens travelled to France, Paris city where he shared a studio with Henri and sharpened his artistry further before returning to the U.S.A. and settling in New York City. Here, he worked as an art reporter for several newspapers and magazines, a career that saw him sent to Cuba to cover the Spanish-American war for McClure's magazine as an artist-reporter in 1898. One of the highlights of his career was in 1912 when he was selected to travel to Paris on behalf of Dr. Albert Barnes, who was a former schoolmate, and bought 20 pieces of art some which were done by influential people like Picasso, Van Gogh, Renoir among others. From the collection, which formed the core of the Barnes Foundation, Renoir is one artist who greatly influenced Glackens onwards in his style of art work. He later on did several exhibitions of his work including active participation in organizing for the event and display of his works in the Armory Show in 1913.Glackens William died in 1938 (Ira G., 1957).

One thing that was greatly appreciated in Glackens and his work was his ability to master and record details in his mind of what he has seen and transferring it on canvas later on,…… [read more]

William Glackens Girl With Apple Essay

… ¶ … Girl With Apple

William Glackens' Girl with Apple seems to be deliberately designed to shock the reader with its upfront depiction of nudity. A blonde girl lies on a sofa near a bowl of apples while holding one apple in one hand. She is entirely naked except for a white handkerchief draped across her pubic area and this merely calls attention to this part of her anatomy, rather than conceals it in any meaningful way.

The girl confronts the viewer, looking at him or her seductively. The viewer is clearly put into the position of a voyeur; there is no way to avoid looking at the girl in the center of the painting, particularly since it is of medium size and the girl is the most visually interesting object in the painting. Although the girl has no clothes on she wears a necklace and her hair is elaborately arranged. Apples are traditionally associated with forbidden fruit and the fall of humanity. The girl sits to the side of the couch and her clothes lay next to her -- a hat, a coat, and other items of clothing she has apparently shed, including a shoe. The cool blueness of the clothing in contrast to the red makes the clothes blend in with the background. Blue represents civilization and decorum, in contrast to the red of the apple and the paleness of the girl.

The presence of clothes beside her serves to draw attention to her nakedness and the fact that she has only recently disrobed. The texture of the brushwork of Girl with Apple is hazy and impressionistic and uses the light to accentuate the girl's white body in a very stark fashion. Her frankness might be appropriate for a bedroom but not the drawing room. The fact that her clothes are nearby suggests that she just casually removed them, without shame.

The painting has a flat, one-dimensional quality which further emphasizes the whiteness of the woman's body in the blue room. The gold of the sofa and the brightness of the apples are also a striking contrast to the central figure's pale skin. The light in the painting is clearly focused on the woman, making…… [read more]

Multi Culturalism in Europe Research Paper

… Multiculturalism at the Louisiana Museum of Modern Art

Brief Background of Louisiana Museum of Modern Art

Located on the shores of Oresund in Humlebeck about 35 kilometers to the north of Copenhagen in Denmark, the Louisiana Museum of Modern Art… [read more]

True Renaissance Man Essay

… ¶ … history of art somewhere between the start of recorded history and the end of the 19th century. There is a ton of source material and art that could be used from that range but the one that clearly… [read more]

Japanese Influence on European Art Research Paper

… ¶ … Objectified East on Western Art:

France and Japan

The postmodern perspective suggests that all art is subjective and even when we attempt to look objectively at the world we see ourselves, not the thing as it actually is.… [read more]

Album Essay Bill Evans Explorations Essay

… Bill Evans' album, Explorations, was released originally in the year 1961 by Riverside Records, with Evans in the jazz pianist's role. The album represents the trio's second project. It took nearly one year to complete its recording, after Evans' famous "Portrait in Jazz," which won him immense critical acclaim. Evans' conceptualization of the trio had all members' equal contribution to each song. It worked beautifully, with the nimble bass of LaFaro and the drumming of Motian providing a rhythmic, relaxed background to the graceful chords played by Evans. In this album, they worked magic, by giving a fresh breath to standards like "Beautiful Love" and "How Deep is the Ocean," giving rise to an illusion that the songs were composed just so they would be played by an artist like Bill Evans (Rickert, 2003).

Its first song, "Israel" has a rather choppy feel, but grooves. Before LaFaro begins, listeners are already lured by the trio's angular arrangement. The artists sure know tunes are to be played. LaFaro gives a grooving flavor through occasional short syncopation, knowing well when the rhythmic fort is to be held down. In this song, his solo can be considered outstanding, with Motian and Evans laying back and giving him considerable freedom. However, one cannot overlook Evans' solo, which is equally beautiful. He plays with fluency and style; listeners seldom get to hear in solos, and not a million miles per minute. Instead of trading fours, Paul Motian definitely gets considerably more time -- half of the form, perhaps. I was lost in its beauty and couldn't count.

The second song is "Haunted Heart" which begins with Bill's characteristic masturbatory intros. The sweet ballad left me undecided on whether keeping it short was a good idea, or some more choruses would work better. Anyway, I believe it works fine as it is. The rhythm section proved perfect for all three, who played in perfect harmony.

The song "Beautiful Love" was put successively twice on record since it is just that good. Though the tune is great and listeners get considerable splendid interplay between LaFaro and Evans, I do not wish to take up much time praising it.

"Elsa" is somewhat similar to "Haunted Heart"; however, the former lasts slightly longer, but felt less fulfilling to me. Moutin has…… [read more]

Umberto Boccioni and Futurism Essay

… Umberto Boccioni

The City Rises

There are many things in life that are often hard to communicate to others. Ideas, concepts, they have a tendency to float on the border of interpretation and confusion. Art has a way to remove… [read more]

How Street Art Can Be Impactful Essay

… Street Art by Agoch and Mandragora

The street art by Jorit Agoch and Leticia Mandragora on Bedford and 10th in Brooklyn, NY, convey two distinct images: Agoch's is of a Native American child's face. Above and to the right of… [read more]

Comparing Desks and Chairs at the Art Institute of Chicago Essay

… ¶ … Art Deco style cabinets in Gallery 162 by Eugene Schoen and Paul Frankl and also explain why each piece is a representative example of this style.

The cabinets by Eugene Schoen and Paul Frankl both have an Art Deco style to them: each has a richness of color and an ornamental geometric motif that gives the cabinet its overall design character. Each contains harmony and uniformity and the only major difference between the two is the execution and motif utilized to make the cabinets original and unique. The Schoen cabinet consists of mahogany, rosewood and maple with four drawers at the top in two rows, which sit atop the two cabinet doors below. The geometric pattern is outlined by a red pencil-line which serves to bring some character to the cabinet by way of a refreshing Art Deco style of craftsmanship. The cabinet rests on four small legs which continue the rectangle motif illustrated on the cabinet's veneer through the red lines and darker rectangle panels of wood on the sides, which wrap partway around the front of the cabinet. The handles of the drawers and cabinet doors are white and perfectly off-set the dark colored wood. On the whole, the cabinet resembles the Art Deco architecture of the 1920s urban skyline with the upper tier of drawers ascending in a quiet pyramidal shape.

The cabinet by Frankl is actually designed to resemble a skyline full of skyscrapers. The two cabinet doors sit at the bottom or base of the cabinet and atop this base are four different in size columns of shelf space, with each column consisting of a variety of sizes and widths of shelves. From left to right, the first column is small and thin, the second is larger and contains to shelves, the third is the largest with five shelves, and the fourth is second largest but with one shelf. The wood panels are dark, a combination of gray-blue-black. The panels and shelves are outlined by a silvery-white pencil line, similar to the…… [read more]

Why Do We Look at the Grotesque Images in Modern Art Research Proposal

… ¶ … Grotesque

If one goes back to Plato and examines what the Greek philosopher had to say about beauty and truth, one discovers the foundation of the transcendental spirit in the West. The Greek philosophers -- Socrates, Plato, Aristotle… [read more]

Personal Reflection of a Painting Essay

… Edvard Munch's painting "Girls on the Pier" captures the essence of the artist's emotional style and impressions. The painting's vivid colors draw the eye first to the large green tree, and then to the three girls who are rendered with their backs to the viewer. The artist therefore includes the girls in the painting almost as if they are part of the landscape. The viewer also does not see their faces, as the three girls gaze into the water below. Instead, the viewer is invited to daydream as they are, such as to cultivate guilt or regret about the past or muse on hopes and fears for the future. The primary emotional message in "Girls on the Pier" is wistfulness: the tendency for an idle human mind to drift away from the present towards either the past or to the future.

The lighting in the painting is suggestive of either dawn or twilight and probably the latter, given the way the girls are dressed. Moreover, the orb in the sky could be the sun or the moon. Time of day is somewhat ambiguous, imparting a sense of timelessness to the painting. Daydreaming leads to a loss of time, or a distortion of time. Daydreaming causes people to become detached from the present moment and the mind wanders to the past and future. Therefore, this painting encourages daydreaming. The long, loose brushstrokes and the twilight color scheme complement the theme of daydreaming in the painting. Although a painting is primarily felt on a visual level, there are visceral sensations that accompany Munch's scene, such as the crisp air of the evening, the possible smells of fish or other sea life from below the pier, and the overall tranquility of the village. Sonically, the scene is nearly silent as the girls do not speak and there are no vehicles or other people in the painting to disturb the tranquility.

Because of the composition and content of the painting, there is also a sense of being alone even when with others. The girls are also not interacting with one another. They stand on the pier together, as they are probably close friends, but they are lost in their own individual thoughts. The viewer can think about how important it is to find a balance between introspection on the one hand, and being social on the other hand. The family members and close friends who allow us to be "alone" even when together in public are those who can most bring out our true desires and fears. Reflections in the water underscore the importance of self-reflection and introspection to life in the modern world. Similarly, the pier gradually blurs off into the distance, becoming an indistinct road leading to an unknown place. Psychologically, the composition causes speculation about the past and future.

Therefore, "Girls on the Pier" encapsulates modern life in that we are drawn to solitary activities and self-reliance, while also needing to remain part of a community. The community depicted in Munch's… [read more]

Analyzing Geometric Art Trends Essay

… ¶ … Uppercase] Terracota Krater[Italics]

Exhibited at The Metropolitan Museum of Art Attributed to the Hirschfeld Workshop

Period: Geometric

The tenuous nature of terracotta, which is prone to crack, is why in later times this substance is reinforced with more durable ones (Ortman, 1933, p. 639). However, the vase was not made to be used on a daily basis. In fact, it was used as a burial marker to honor friends or family, which explains why someone would take the time to decorate this vase with such ornate designs.

The designs themselves are referred to as geometric because many of the patterns that are illustrated are geometrically designed. For example, there are framed rings of geometric patterns on the vase's very top and bottom sections. In an interview posted on YouTube, a museum representative explained that although geometric designs appeared before the 8th century BCE, during the 8th century many works, such as the terracotta krater, began to include more human illustrations (Hahn, 2011). An individual lying on a table surrounded by others who are grieving is portrayed on this object.

The intricate details portrayed on this vase help to reinforce its function as a funeral marker. There are several aspects of this piece of art that enable one to assume that the deceased was a person of importance. First of all, his funeral (which provides the center piece of the vase and features the deceased lying on his side to maximize the amount of space he takes up on this relic) is attended by numerous people. There are seven mourners on each side of him; the number seven was known to have religious significance in ancient times (Humanity, 2011). Whereas one can assume that these individuals are family members and friends of the deceased, it is noteworthy that the images on this object are in two layers. The uppermost layer contains the aforementioned scene, while the bottom layer includes various military symbols. The most prominent of these…… [read more]

Artwork by Tiffany Godwin and Herter Brothers Essay

… American Art: Galleries 175-179

European Decorative Arts: Galleries 247-248


Herter Brothers' cabinet (1878) in Gallery 175 and E.W. Godwin's sideboard (1876) in Gallery 247 greatly differ in appearance but each can be considered an example of the Aesthetic Movement. Explain why.

There is something almost minimalist about Godwin's sideboard when compared to Herter Brother's cabinet. Both are of the Aesthetic Movement, but each are very different: Godwin's sideboard balances empty space with solid structure, which is a determined move away from the Gothic style that had been predominant in Europe at this time. It is a very modern piece that could even be mistaken for a modern work constructed today because of its void-solid interaction that has a kind of Cubist flair to it (even before Cubism was a movement). The Herter Brothers' cabinet on the other hand is very different in that it celebrates ornament over use of space: its veneer shows flower inlays and Japanese crests and is meant to stand out and be viewed, whereas the sideboard is meant to show economy and convey a feeling of stark brevity.

Both may be considered examples of the Aesthetic movement because each represents a style of that movement -- the Godwin piece represents a push away from the prevailing Gothic mood towards a more mellow and casual, yet refined and tastefully elegant and structured piece of furniture. The Herter Brothers' piece resembles the Aesthetic movement's appeal to conscious activity, depicting the interactions of twining flowers and the bold colorings of gold on dark wood. Both show an aesthetic charm that would have been appealing to different clients, no doubt, but both are still part of the same movement which produced a variety of diverse works such as these two pieces of elegant furniture. The straight lines of the Godwin sideboard predate the modern abstract movement of the painters who used simple lines to convey profound ideas of space, while the Herter Brothers' piece uses curved lines to convey a…… [read more]

Art and Subversion Critiquing the World Journal

… Delegitimizing the Modern World Through Artistic Subversion:

Behind the "Glam" Scam

Andy Warhol's Ladies and Gentleman (1975) and Dana Schutz's Fight in an Elevator 2 (2015) draw attention to elements in society seething just below the surface of what should… [read more]

Seasonal Christmas Window Displays Term Paper

… ¶ … Bergdorf Goodman's Holiday Window

The overall theme of Bergdorf Goodman's holiday window is "Brilliant Holiday." Rather than a particular time or place, the window instead features a jewel-like color scheme that is linked by its deep color tones and glittery images. There is a fortune teller's wheel with a giant hand in brilliant, glittering crystals; King Neptune at the bottom of the ocean with a treasure chest; and a medieval knight set against a spectacular red background. I was surprised how well the overall concept worked. Despite the spanning of many different eras and aesthetics, there was clearly a cohesive color design concept at work which united the many disparate images. I also liked the fact that it was not a conventional holiday display. The fortune teller's wheel proclaims "Your Lucky Day" versus a conventional holiday message and Neptune is a pagan god of the sea. There were also images of models in brightly-colored wigs sitting around the remains of a party. The images were both ecumenical yet eye-catching.

The only possible criticism of the display might be that it lacked a sense of motion. The main draw of the window for the gazer is the sparkling nature of the embedded crystals. This is particularly noteworthy at night but during the day some other type of visual attraction might have been useful, given the hustling and bustling nature of the average New York City street. There was also little narrative link between the windows. On the other hand, it is important to remember the brand image of the Bergdorf Goodman department store. Bergdorf Goodman symbolizes elegance and opulence and anything that was too kitschy or ordinary would not be appropriate.

A number of passers-by stopped and stared. "Are those Swarovski crystals?" one person said. Another asked "I wonder how much that cost to make?" Yet another said "I guess that is their holiday window." While not traditionally Christmassy it did suggest the wealth and aesthetic of the store very…… [read more]

Death Masks Throughout History and Culture Research Paper

… Death and the Afterlife in Art From Different Eras and Civilizations

Art has a number of functions when it comes to dealing with death and the afterlife. In some cases it may be used to memorialize the deceased, to capture… [read more]

Comparison of the Two Toms at Monte Alban Essay

… Replica of Tomb 104 and the Sipan Tomb: A Comparison/Contrast Essay

The Replica of Tomb 104 at Monte Alban represents the Zapotec civilization of 7th century AD Mexico City. The painting by Agustin Villagra uses bright yellows, blues, and reds plus earthy colors for its dry fresco (Replica of Tomb 104, Monte Alban). The stucco ground supports the fresco painting and depicts the Period III of the Mexico world (Kubler 167). The tomb is full of images that overwhelm the human representations, symbolizing the grandeur and greatness of the spiritual beings over the human. The Sipan Tomb, on the other hand, depicts what Tomb 1 at Moche site in Sipan, Peru, looked like. It represents the Moche culture, which existed on the north coastal region of Peru for roughly 800 years. Their people made adobe pyramids, melalurgy, and pottery, which is found in the Tomb representation. This paper will compare the two tombs -- the one of the Mexican culture and the one of the Peruvian culture and show how each represents some aspect of that culture.

The Replica of Tomb 104 for example reveals a very spiritual people: The headdress of the figure in bust above the entryway reflects this grandeur as it illustrates the ornamental nature, size and importance of the spiritual realm's place in the Zapotec civilization. They are similar to hieroglyphs in that the details are flat and there appears to be a narrative structure to the scene, with the representational spiritual figure at the head of the tomb and the supplicant to the right navigating his way through a spiritual realm inhabited by numerous figures whose glyphs give the impression of being attendants upon the scene.

The pottery and funeral urn within the tomb indicate the presence of the spiritual beings represented on the walls are within the realm of the afterlife and dictate the direction of the soul's progress in the afterlife. As in other cultures, there is a great deal of supplication and preparing that must go into the voyage, which explains the numerous items found within the tomb, as they reflect things that the individual might need along the journey.

The headdress too symbolizes the preparatory nature of this journey, as the journeyman puts on the appropriate attire for meeting the souls and spirits of the next world. There…… [read more]

Greensburg S Review of Soutine Essay

… Chaim Soutine

Greenburg's Review

Chaim Soutine was a Russian born painter who was also Jewish. Some of his contributions to art significantly involve his positioning in the evolutions of different movements. Greenburg makes the claim that Soutine was slow to be accepted into the American periphery of attention (Greenburg, 1951). Furthermore, Greenburg is highly critical of Soutine. He first builds him up as suspecting him of being one of the best painters of the Expressionists since van Gogh. Yet, once he finally views on of Soutine's collections in person, he states that he is largely disappointed. His primary consideration of Soutine seems to be primarily based on his emotion response to his works.

Although Greenburg seems to admire the painter's ability on aspects such as the use of color and other factors such as ability and brush strokes, he is also dismissive of the artist at the same time. He believes that Soutine's work does not develop on the regular trajectory and finds many of the paintings better than other. His opinion is that Soutine's progress as an artist resembles more of a circular development as opposed to more of a spiral trajectory that can be found in other artists. He criticizes his reliance on color as the primary driver of expression at the expense of a dark and light balance that can manifest volume and hue. Greenburg writes that "but too often he will think simultaneously in terms of both of pure color and modeling values, and their conflict will disrupt the picture" (Greenburg, 1951). Thus Greenburg rejects value of the forms that Soutine was attempting to develop in his works.


Soutine's worldview and philosophical undoubtedly shaped his work. He was…… [read more]

Analysis of Sonya Tayeh Contemporary Choreography Research Paper

… Jazz/Contemporary Choreographer Sonya Tayeh

Tayeh Sonya is a Brooklyn born dancer. She is the youngest of three female siblings. Tayeh's parents divorced when she was still a toddler. Tayeh's Lebanese mother decided to move with her and her siblings to… [read more]

How to Critically Analyze Articles for Journals Article Critique

… ¶ … Girls Just Wanna Have Phones" contains the argument that rather than our electronic devices acting as instruments to make life easier for us, we have actually become slaves to them. This is especially true for women who are expected to stay "on top" of information (especially social media) in their professions. The article attempts to show that is important to be able to balance time between using these devices and detaching oneself from them so as to avoid being a tech slave.

The audience is most likely women, judging from the title, but after reading the article the information is applicable to anyone who uses electronic devices. The writer is working from the rhetorical tradition, using a catchy title to lure the reader and then surprising the reader with the underlying analysis that while we all may love our phones, constant usage and dependence upon them is not the healthiest way to live.

The style, form and structure of this article is based on the informative and persuasive essay models, because it is ultimately doing both -- informing the reader about the ways that too much phone usage can be bad and how and why one should limit this usage. It is an effective strategy often used by essayists and it works well here as the writer provides the facts and conveys the points persuasively. Catchy turns of phrases are the most effective points here -- especially the title.

Some expressions could be altered for the sake of clarity. For instance, in the first sentence we find: "We are reaching a mid-point where our opinions about Internet ... " "Mid-point" does not seem like the right term here. Perhaps the writer is thinking of "crisis point," or "breaking point" or something like that.

Another thing that could be improved is the general direction of the essay: it could be trimmed and more focused. As it is, it ranges from personal experience to women and technology to societal demands to too much tech being bad for sleep, etc. The most important points relating to the thesis…… [read more]

Formal Analysis of a Mayan Temple Censer Essay

… ¶ … pre-Colombian item, housed in its own stand at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, is rendered in terracotta earthenware. It is like the Mayan "Seated King" piece and is a censer item, used as temple adornments. Mayan censers were "receptacles that allowed the living to communicate with and offer nourishment to the dead," (Kurnick 26). The reddish hue in this example imparts an ironically grounded feel to the otherwise lofty piece. The primary image is that of a human male, depicted as being seated cross-legged on a raised platform. The man holds out an offering held in both hands, and he wears an elaborate headdress. The position of the figure on a raised platform and with a grand headdress likely suggests the person being depicted is a figure of great importance or religious significance, possibly even a god. However, the fact that an offering is being given shows that most likely this is not a god, but a priest or even layperson who is holding out an offering for the gods. The piece is highly complex, with many ornate decorative elements that warrant closer attention.

The base of the figure is a raised platform in a squeezed elliptical cylindrical shape like an oval. At the very bottom is a curved or scalloped decorative line going around the base. From there, the artist has included other decorative elements on the platform. All the platform decorations are abstract, drawing deeper attention and focus to the primary human figure sitting atop the dais. A mixture of curvilinear and linear elements makes for a complex base, while also adding layers of depth and texture. The eye is drawn upwards to the figure by the waveform lines and uneven edges. Although the terracotta earthenware bears a reddish hue throughout, it is not monochrome. Rather, shading of the terracotta enables textures and dimensions like low relief. Seated atop a platform makes a strong statement about Mayan cosmology and belief, as the king is shown to be "above" the common people symbolically. Being raised off the ground also suggests the king is in contact with the heavens and the gods, more so than connected to the mundane earthly world.

The midsection of the piece is comprised of the torso and legs of the seated figure. The feet are flattened and soles face backwards. As a sculpture in the round, the viewer is free to walk around the piece and notice that the artist has rendered all sides and angles of the figure; it is truly three dimensional in nature. The details in the piece are extraordinary to behold, as even the toenails have been painted a lighter shade to make the feet appear realistic and lifelike, even though they are flattened in appearance. The knees are in line with the feet. Between the man's legs rests the base of an altar, the top of which is held in both his hands. At the base of the altar is a large disk, possibly representative of the sun,… [read more]

Private Industry Funding ISS Case Study

… ¶ … International Space Station

Statement of the Issue

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States (U.S.) has for quite some time now been trying to match its ambitions with its budgets. The space station is considered by many as an engineering feat or marvel; however it did not come inexpensively. The U.S. government has spent nearly a hundred billion dollars in the space program, and is still providing funding to the tune of three billion dollars a year for the station's upkeep. Space policy makers warn that, in the absence of any substantial boost to the budget, NASA will not have sufficient funding to keep the space station running and simultaneously embark on expensive deep-space probe missions. The United States and its allies, therefore need to make a tough choice: whether to continue supporting the space station, or to pursue the only other alternative, of bringing it down (Achenbach, 2013)?

Alternate points-of-view for the problem

After more than twenty years of planning, designing, and production of the International Space Station (ISS) and barely 3 years into the station's operational phase, the station is facing a public relation crisis. The ISS program, led by NASA, is the largest ever global technology project in the history of the world, one in which Canada, Europe, Japan, Russia, and the U.S. expect to invest more than a hundred billion dollars by the end of ten years. Moreover, NASA's International Space Station operations, research, and transportation costs are approximated at roughly three billion dollars annually for the coming period up to 2020. This figure does not include potential research expenses that would be incurred by NASA's other space station partners. Up to now, this expenditure has fully met at least one of the main goals of the Space Station, and that is to bring together a coalition of internal partners, including Russia, in the pursuit of a joint scientific endeavours. The 2nd overall goal for the ISS is to get these station partners to regard the station as a platform or a springboard for future space exploration; this goal, however, is yet to realized. The partners have not agreed yet on a common destination - the moon, Mars, or an asteroid. On the positive side, after more than twenty years of working together, all partners agree that the ISS consortium is a model example of ways to move forward cooperatively (Svitak, 2012).

More difficult to accomplish is the ISS's third goal of industrial and scientific research. This aspect is regarded by budget-strained governments of the U.S., Japan, and the European partner countries as not having materialized. Over the last ten years, as the building of the International Space Station got underway, budgetary limitation led NASA to abandon the physical and life sciences portfolios that were most likely to produce results from the immeasurable research opportunities on the space station. Since the year 2003, NASA's spending on physical and life sciences research decreased by about five hundred million dollars to about… [read more]

Measurement Is One of the Most Crucial Term Paper

… Measurement is one of the most crucial aspects of science. I personally feel that measurement plays a fundamental role in almost all aspects of human life; however, we have not been able to recognize its importance as much as we should. Measurement basically falls into the categories of temperature, weight, length, volume, area and so on. Well, we humans tend to look at these things as stoic forms of measurement; what we do not realize, however, is that their importance is revealed clearly in the things we do on a daily basis.

When one is unwell and needs to take medication, for instance, they need to take the same in the proper quantity so that they are able to realize benefit from it. This, in all aspects, has to do with measurement. The situation is no different when one is cooking in the kitchen -- they have to determine the amount of heat that would produce the best results given the specific meal that you are preparing, and this has everything to do with measurement. When purchasing clothes, measurement is of the essence given that you have to pay attention to your size to ensure that you achieve the best fit.

I, for instance, love sports, particularly because it takes my mind off things and allows me to relax while at the same time keeping fit. Judging from my experience, I would say that sports has everything to do with measurement. One must, for instance, have a clear understanding of distance and depth to be able to make a 20-yard touchdown pass. Moreover, when deciding whether to do a header or a drop kick to get the ball at the back of the net, one has to pay attention to the height of the defender vis-a-vis their own height, which involves measurement in its simplest form.

As a student, my academic success depends partly on my ability to maintain punctuality in group discussions, presentations, and even lectures. To do so effectively, I have to make estimations -- for instance, if I am required to be in class at 8 am, at what time am I supposed to leave home? I need to pay attention to the physical distance from home to school, and my ability to walk fast, both of which incorporate an aspect of measurement.

Personally, therefore, I feel that measurement is the aspect of physics that is most relevant to our everyday living. We make use of measurement concepts in almost everything we do; we just do not realize it.

Journal Two: The Moon

From my own perspective, I would say that the moon is one of the most unrecognized physical features -- humans, including myself, do not take time to appreciate the fundamental role played by the moon in the natural…… [read more]

Literature for Hawking Annotated Bibliography

… Steven Hawking's Annotated Bibliography

Ferguson, Kitty. Steven Hawking: An Unfettered Mind. New York: Palgrave MacMillan. Date. Print.

This source is quite likely the most authoritarian one on physicist Steven Hawking, who dedicated himself to the study of cosmology rather early on in his life. The author is a longtime collaborator with Hawking who, after spending the majority of her life preoccupied with art and music, took up the study of physics in middle age. One of the best aspects of this book is it actually combines two different manuscripts in one. In 1991 Ferguson authored a biographical work of Hawking detailing his life up until that point. An Unfettered Mind contains most of that material while also providing a substantial number of new pages devoted to his personal life and his more recent biographical material. Therefore, the reader gets a fairly comprehensive overview of the major events in Hawking's life and his contributions to both science and popular culture. The author provides details of the scientist from his earliest days attending school in England to the dissolution of two of his marriages. She is able to blend both personal anecdotes and accountings of Hawking's life with his numerous professional accomplishments which include evidence for the Big Bang Theory and some theories about the universe such as TOE and M-theory. However, the fact that the author obviously admires and has worked with her subject for so long reduces her ability to write about him in non-partisan terms. She clearly expresses her high esteem of him (even in his personal life), and glorifies his achievements without necessarily educating readers about their context or the state of cosmology of the time. Viewed from this perspective, the book is decidedly one-sided. Still, its comprehensive nature and many personal details make it insightful.

Hawking, Steven.…… [read more]

Challenger Disaster Essay

… Managerial Decision Making

The Challenger Space Shuttle Disaster

The day of the Challenger Space Shuttle disaster, there were many things at play -- and a number of them occurred before the actual day of the incident. These were decisions that were made by NASA and by the engineers at Morton-Thiokol, and they definitely affected what took place on the day the disaster occurred. The morning of the launch the weather was unusually cold, which affected the o-rings in the shuttle (Pinkus, 1997). The weather was discussed throughout the creation of the shuttle, and also the morning the shuttle was launched. There were more than 15 engineers who expressed their concerns regarding whether the o-rings in the shuttle would fail during launch because of the colder temperatures, but NASA wanted to go ahead with the launch after considering how long it might have to be postponed otherwise (Pinkus, 1997). There was no backup in play if the o-rings failed, and the shuttle would be destroyed. Although NASA was originally agreeable to waiting to launch, after they reconsidered they decided they did not want to wait until the weather was warmer (Pinkus, 1997).

The temperature was so cold that there was ice all over the launch pad, and that raised additional concerns. Ice had the potential to damage the shuttle during liftoff (Pinkus, 1997). Despite its ability to make it into space, the shuttle was actually quite delicate. Simple issues like ice or cold temperatures could damage the shuttle. There was a great deal of miscommunication that actually occurred between Morton-Thiokol and NASA, along with issues that were not addressed but that most likely should have been. One of those was that NASA was not informed that the actual manufacturer of the shuttle did not want it launched if there were icy conditions (Pinkus, 1997). Another issue was that Morton-Thiokol eventually reversed its decision under pressure from NASA and said that the launch should proceed (Pinkus, 1997).

The way the issue was framed may have had more to do with the problems that occurred than anything else.…… [read more]

Lunatics and Social Injustice Central Essay

… On another occasion a foreman confronts Jakob and observes that the miners had started to disappear when he arrived. When Jakob speaks back to the foreman he is beaten for his insolence (263).

Robinson repeatedly refers to the black or darkness that the miners live. This darkness is both literal and metaphorical. "The foreman left, light receding with him until it was black again, the pure dense black that was their own" (258). The miner's work "…under the lash of the foreman" (259) and are forced to mine "The most precious element. On Earth our masters rule by it. All their civilization is based on it…so they condemn us to a life of pulling it out of the moon for them" (259).

The abuse of the miners is further established when Oliver, another of the workers in Pen Twelve, rigs a timepiece with a set of pulleys and a detonation cord and confirms his suspicions that the work shifts are getting longer and at the same time the foreman increase their oversight. When Solly disappears they are again beaten. However, when Oliver shares his fears about the missing miners with Jakob his response is another "Free at last" (267).

In many ways this story is a reflection of the abuses that occurred in the United States before the Civil War in 1860, during the period of slavery, and the injustices that occurred in Germany before and during the Second World War when one class of people subjects another class of people their will due to arbitrary traits or circumstances, what Robinson called "bad luck."

Solly's lament about the futility of their lives expresses the matter quite eloquently, "I've give my whole life to the blue…And what is it but a Goddamned rock" (273). Stark and oppressive conditions demanded that they take action so the miners of Pen Twelve orchestrated their escape and plotted their revenge, blowing up a community from below. However, the futility and impotence their actions and lives is truly revealed when they finally make their way to the surface of the moon only to see the Earth and the stars, the prize so to speak, and not have the capacity to fully escape from under the thumb of their oppressors. Robinson's theme of injustice is driven home when the reader finally understands that the miners of Pen Twelve who cannot escape their lot in life will never truly "be free at last until" until they pass on to another world.

Works Cited

Robinson, Kim Stanley. The Lunatics. Jonathan…… [read more]

Creation Myth: How the Sun Term Paper

… Now everyone could see how beautiful he was. But when his veins were no longer coursing with the adrenaline of victory, he suddenly realized his beak was growing hot. "Ouch!" he cried, and dropped the ball. The ball fell faster and faster down, and became entangled in skein of stars which had wispy bits of light connecting their brightness.

All of the humans on earth looked up at the sky. Suddenly, everything around them was bright. For the first time, they could see themselves. They could see that the trees were heavy with apples and that there was game to hunt in the forests. They could find branches to make arrows with, and make knifes from stones so they could have meat to eat. They could draw and paint on cave walls and talk to one another, looking their fellow humans in the eye. They could live longer, now that they could run away from animals of prey.

So that is how the light in the sky we call the sun came to be. And the raven was very pleased because now everyone could see how beautiful he was, with his black plumage. However, he soon realized that there were some problems with having a bright light in the sky. People could now see him and throw stones at him, when he tried to steal their food. So the raven could have some peace and quiet, he plucked off one of his long, black feathers from his tail. Every now and then for several hours he would cover the sun with the feather, if he wanted to hunt something undisturbed. And that is how we also have night, as well as day.

Meanwhile, the brothers continued to play their game of catch, this time with only a scrap of a fire. The ball of light is only visible at night, and only sometimes, when one of the brothers holds up the ball as he hangs his head out of the cave. We call this smaller ball the moon, which is only visible when the raven is covering the sun with his great feather and seems to change shape, depending on how the brother is holding it in his hand.… [read more]

Features of the Milky Way Galaxy Research Paper

… ¶ … features of the Milky Way Galaxy is Open Clusters or Galactic Clusters. There are about 1000 stars in the clusters and together there are approximately 20,000 clusters in the Milky Way. The largest concentration of the clusters is located in the main body or the plane of the galaxy. This phenomenon received the name Open Clusters because of the way that they appear. The stars that they contain are spread out very wide and there is no discernable pattern in the arrangement of the stars. Additionally, the distance between the stars is very large and there is "less than one star in a cubic parsec of space" (the Milky Way Galaxy 2012). The exciting aspect of these stars is that they contain mainly young stars and hot stars. In this regard many of the stars are very much like our sun. The brightness and the hue of the stars also make them easy to observe. These features mean that the visual presentation of these stars is stunning as well as exciting to observe.

The Globular Cluster was discovered by Messier in 1764. Messier 12 (M12, NGC 6218) as the object is known is marginally larger and more luminous that its close neighbor M10. It is very diffuse, particularly in the center where it is visibly less dense than M10. The spectral type of the cluster was identified as F7 and the color index as 0.0. The "mean magnitude of the 25 brightest stars is 13.97" (Messier 12, 2005) There is however a horizontal band of stars whose magnitude exceeds the mean and they are rated at 13.97.


Dark energy is one of the key concepts employed to explain the expansion of the universe. The major challenge of dark energy is that this concept is difficult to explain. It is essentially a mystery (Dark energy dark matter 2012). The understanding of the expansion of the universe change dramatically based on observations from the Hubble telescope, prior to Hubble it was believed that the universe's expansion could be stopped and thus the possibility of re-collapse eliminated. This was based on the theory that gravity would slow the expansion. There was no empirical evidence to support this view but the proposition found suitable theoretical support. However Hubble images showed that the universe has been expanding at a faster rate than previously expected.

There are multiple explanations of for this phenomenon; dark energy is one of the explanations. Dark energy is considered to be a property of space itself. Empty space contains something so as space expands this dark energy increases. Other theorists suggest that dark energy is a new kind of dynamic energy fluid. Consequently, while there is a lot of theorizing about dark energy it remains enigmatic.

The most likely fate for the Universe is an accelerating Universe. The changing nature of the Universe continues to elicit a lot of theorizing. An accelerating Universe however is highly consistent with the following, firstly Hubble telescope data. The existing data suggest… [read more]

Norma Though I Shall Try Creative Writing

… The closer I got the closer the luminousness from your halo seemed to radiate outwards, and at times I felt weak, and at times that walk over to you felt like it was going to take forever, but I knew I had to do it.

When I got over to where you were standing, you turned and looked at me with those eyes and that face, and I felt as if I were in the presence of an angelic being. Your bone structure seemed otherworldly; your dark eyes shone right at me like two eclipses that were going to tear into my soul and I'd never be the same again. I swallowed and handed the cashier my card, "get her whatever she wants" I said, trying to sound as calm as possible. You smiled at me and I knew. I knew from the bottom of my heart that this was it and that you had to be mine and I had to be yours. You graciously offered to with me outside, and I frantically packed up my belongings to join you out there. We talked for hours.

I want you to know the indelible impression you've made on my life and how lucky I am to have someone as ethereal as you in it. I still tremble when you walk into a room. I still feel indescribable warmth at your touch. I still feel the biggest smile spread cross my face when you call and I hear the lilt and chime of your voice on the phone. You are gorgeous, you are sexy, you are indescribably beautiful and I am so lucky to have to share my life with. Each day I wake up and I want to be a better man,…… [read more]

Evaluating Vertical Integration Term Paper

… Vertical Integration at Shultz Steel

Schultz Steel operates a forging facility in Aerospace industries. Its tasks include: offering a wide range of impression forgings including large and remarkably complex forgings; open die forgings; seamless rolled rings; and regular supply of products in all alloys that include titanium, various kinds of steel, aluminum, alloy, nickel, and cobalt. The company primarily serves the aerospace (commercial and defense airframes, engines, helicopters, and missiles) and commercial land-based gas turbine markets. Shultz Steel's aerospace products include bulkheads, disks, engine mounts, flap and slat tracks, landing gear structures, nacelles, shafts, and windshield frames. It also makes extruded cases, nozzles, and stationary shells for missiles. Shultz Steel's gas turbine engine products include disks, rings, and shafts ( The company prides itself on being the "most modern vertically integrated forging facility in the Aerospace industries" (Schultz Steel:

Vertical integration at Schultz Steel.

Vertical integration refers to the process by which several, or all, steps in the production and/or distribution of the product are controlled by…… [read more]

Is Any One Part Group or Organization Responsible for the Challenger Disaster? Term Paper

… Challenger Disaster

Is any one part, group or organization responsible for the disaster?

On January 28, 1986 the space shuttle Challenger exploded minutes after it took off from the launch pad at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. At the heart of this disaster, were a number of challenges surrounding: NASA and the different subcontractors they were working with. (Space Shuttle Challenger Case Study n.d.) to fully understand the overall scope of these issues requires examining: the communication, leadership / stress associated with the project and the influence of the media. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights, as to the role of these organizations in contributing to the disaster.


At all the levels inside NASA and at the different subcontractors they were working with, there were significant breaks downs in communication. This took place both inside the organizations themselves and the way that they were interacting with NASA. What happened was top level managers and supervisors, were often overlooking the concerns of engineers. This is because, many of these issues were not considered to be a significant threat and there was no sense of urgency, to communicate any kind of information (to the highest levels). (Space Shuttle Challenger Case Study n.d.) Over the course of time, this became problematic as a number of different design flaws were contributing to the overall risks surrounding a shuttle launch. These elements played a role in the disaster, as NASA personnel were not aware of: the dangers in the O. rings from the cold weather that was experienced prior to the launch. (Space Shuttle Challenger Case Study n.d.)

Leadership / Stress Associated with the Project

One possible reason for the breakdown in communication is because NASA was: seeing their mission and capabilities increase. As the White House, was using the Shuttle Program to: launch military space satellites into orbit. This increased the responsibilities and pressures that managers were facing. As they were encouraged to overlook: various concerns from engineers and focus on meeting the objectives of the program. (Space Shuttle Challenger Case Study n.d.) Over the course of time, this…… [read more]

Challenger and Columbia Shuttle Disasters Case Study

… U.S. Space Shuttle Disaster Analysis

1967, 1986, 2003 three seemingly desultory years in the continuity of post-World War II America however, upon further inspection these dates entail considerable significance as they mark three tragedies suffered by not only the National Aeronautics and Space Administration but the nation as a whole. 1961 saw three astronauts burned alive in Apollo I as it sat on the Cape Canaveral launch site. 19 years later the space shuttle Challenger was incinerated as it climbed towards the heavens. Finally, in 2003 the space shuttle Columbia, returning from its mission was destroyed upon earth reentry. These events can be viewed in largely in two contexts: engineering technicalities and design and their impact on the space flight, and management and organizational dynamics and their role in the disasters. Apollo I's mission represents the former, a series of engineering gaffes which ultimately led to the deaths of Grissom, White, and Chaffee. (NASA. N.D.). Of greater interest are the two shuttle disasters which reveal the complexities of large organizations and the obturations which prevent sound judgment and quality decision making. Reviewing the evidence it seems clear that the Challenger and Columbia disasters could have been prevented if those in the NASA organization had heeded the multitude of warnings regarding engineering and structural issues prior to launch.

In the Rogers report which catalogued and provided the final analysis and opinion as to the cause of the Challenger disaster; "the culprits were the synthetic rubber O-rings that were designed to keep the rocket's superhot gases from escaping from the joints between the booster's four main segments" (Case Study. N.D.). The result was gas leakage and flames which spread to the "shuttle's external fuel tank'…causing the explosion that destroyed the Challenger (Case Study. N.D.).

The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) "identified the physical cause of the accident, a 1.67 pound slab of insulating foam fell of the external fuel tank, hit the left wing, and caused a breach in the tiles designed to protect the aluminum wing from the heat of reentry" (Case Study. N.D.) Two seemingly minor engineering technicalities had caused the same result, the destruction of both shuttles and the loss of 14 astronauts lives. Both investigatory bodies however, while pinpointing the cause of the disasters also spoke to systemic failures of NASA in the years, months, and days leading up to the tragedies.

Systemic organizational flaws are not uncommon for larger organizations, and in the case of NASA these issues were at the root of the failed shuttle flights. The Rogers report identified NASA as a disconnected entity with significant responsibilities and areas of…… [read more]

Narrative Description -- Tangible Object of Value Essay

… Narrative Description -- Tangible Object of Value

My father and I have always been very close. Since I reached the age of responsibility, I have always felt very acutely that my father was with me in spirit at any important event in my life, such as formal interviews and special occasions where he cannot actually accompany me. That is partly because he has allowed me to wear his watch that has also always been his (only) prize possession. He grew up following NASA's space race to the moon during the 1960s and always admired everything associated with it; it was one of the reasons he studied engineering. The only expensive material object that my father ever purchased for himself is his Omega Speedmaster Professional chronograph watch, the exact same model worn by all NASA astronauts throughout the space race. When I have the opportunity to wear my father's watch, I feel connected to him and to his interests and life history, I am reminded of some of the reasons that I respect and admire him, and I also understand how many different types of beauty there are besides what we usually think of in connection with "art."

Ever since I was a child I remember being fascinated by my father's watch. It looks much "busier" than ordinary watches, especially to a child. Back then there were hardly any other watches of its type. Unlike traditional watches, my father's Speedmaster has two additional buttons or "pushers," one above and one below the winder or "crown." The watch dial has three small "sub-dials" at the 3:00, 6:00, and 9:00 o'clock positions: one is a continuous "small second hand"; another is an elapsed minutes recorder; the third is an elapsed hour recorder. The two time-recording sub-dials keep track of the time measured by the large "chronograph sweep hand" that looks like the second hand on traditional watches. A chronograph is a watch that doubles as a stop-watch and the large sweep hand is not a second hand but a stopwatch that remains at the 12:00 o'clock position except when it is activated by the first (top) pusher next to the crown. The same pusher stops (and restarts) the chronograph sweep hand and the second (bottom) pusher returns it to the 12:00 o'clock position. When I have the opportunity to wear his watch, it reminds of my childhood and of our relationship every time I look at it or receive a compliment about it.

My father's watch also reminds me of how grounded and humble a person my father is. When he originally purchased the watch in his twenties, it was a relatively expensive watch, but it cost him less than a tenth of the price of the same watch today. Back then, it was recognized mainly for its association with NASA and it has always been known as the "moon watch" because Omega advertising continually emphasized the fact that the Speedmaster Professional was specifically tested by NASA and…… [read more]

Adventures in Celestial Navigation by Philip Gerard Research Proposal

… ¶ … Adventures in Celestial Navigation" by Philip Gerard

Philip Gerard's essay, "Adventures in Celestial Navigation," is a work of creative non-fiction that leads the reader into a deeper understanding of the meaning of the term, "navigation." At once an account of actual voyages, and how those voyages are accomplished by means of skillful navigation, it is also a series of musings on the sublime navigation we all pursue in one form or another. On the simplest level, the essay is a first-person account of the author's attempts to learn traditional celestial navigation. He explains how navigation is both a science and an art. Navigators plot their positions by assuming their current position and comparing it to the actual measured locations of the celestial bodies. With a lot of help from complex mathematics, these celestial positions are reduced to an absolute -- or near absolute -- location, assuming, that is, that the navigator has not made any errors in calculation. In the words of the author, "In proving yourself wrong, you prove something else: exactly where you are."

Life is a great experiment, a journey of exploration. Like Gerard's sextants, tables, and charts, there are specific signposts to follow. There are also specific methods to be employed. Yet, in our own minds, nothing is ever quite sure. We have an idea of where want to go, but all we ever really know is that we are somewhere, and that it is that somewhere that is real and absolute.

The author's use of language conveys the sense of life as an act of navigation. He makes heavy use of technical jargon, and informs the reader of the various formulae employed in calculating a craft's position at sea. Many of the descriptions are confusing, as they are meant to be. Gerard's long discourse on the skills of Royal Navy captains, and the importance of the captains to the average sailor, whether or not that captain was actually liked as a man, reveal the both the significance, and the inscrutability of…… [read more]

Origin of the Universe Thesis

… ¶ … Universe

Big Bang Theory

The Universe "exploded" into being from nothingness 10-15 billion years ago. There existed only a very small, incredibly dense mass that contained all the material in the universe. About 13.7 billion years ago, in a horrendous explosion and fireball, it "burst" and the material began to expand outward into empty space, and is still expanding outward today. This matter cooled over time. Millions of years later, as the matter separated, galaxies and stars were born.

As far as scientists and astronomers can tell, the Universe is still expanding today and the heavenly bodies are thus moving farther away and farther apart. Observations from the Hubble space telescope seem to corroborate the totality of the Universe's move outward and that is considered proof of the Big Bang Theory.

Physical laws as we know them did not exist prior to the big bang. There were enormous amounts of energy, in the form of what we now call photons which became quarks, and then the quarks formed neutrons and protons. In a process called nucleosynthesis, hydrogen, helium and lithium nuclei formed (Shestople).

Though widely accepted currently as the accurate theory of the formation of the universe, there are many who disagree for various reasons. Arguments such as where this intense mass came from that exploded if the big bang was the beginning of the universe, do confound scientists whether they admit it or not. How did it explode is another question? The explanation is that the same physical laws didn't apply and we don't understand what they might have been. There are many other issues with this theory that are continually being resolved by "adjustments" to the theory, according to experts.

Creation Theory

There exist many creation beliefs -- some religious. With many of these, the god or gods create the universe or some part of it out of existing material. However, the Christian, Jewish and Islam belief is that their Creator made the universe out of nothingness. In the first verse of the Christian Bible, God creates the entire universe and everything in it in seven days. The Jewish belief is very similar in that everything was created from nothing. Most fundamental Christians believe that, by seven days, the Bible indicates seven 24-hour days. Other views differ and suggest that the terminology in the Bible is symbolic of longer periods of time. In the fundamental belief, God's creation included the more complex forms of life such as man, fish, plant, and animal.

The Big Bang theory is the scientific theory of creation if one can look at it in that way. "Everything from nothingness" applies except that this theory does not propose the existence of a superior being or the creation of complex life organisms as part of it.

Creation due to natural causes is another creation theory. Some believe that the laws of physics applied to naturally formed material…… [read more]

Describing a Place Essay

… Houston Space Center

You can watch the space video footage. You can look at the moon through a telescope, but the closest you will ever get to the moon is visiting the Houston Space Center. The history of the NASA space exploration began in Houston and the center offers a collection of artifacts to sift through. The whole idea surrounding this place is to send you to the moon (Houston Space Center).

History of NASA Space Center

In 1961 the NASA board approved the site and construction began in 1962. The Johnson Space Center stands today as the epicenter of all United States space flight and exploratory activity, and has been ever since the Gemini program of the early sixties. Located in Houston Texas, the space center is the home of mission control, and directs all space shuttle and International Space Station activities. It is also home to the astronaut training corps, which includes programs to prepare astronauts for space travel and life aboard the station (Thackston).

Most Popular Attraction in Houston

This is the…… [read more]

Galaxies Can Grow Fat Black Holes Term Paper

… ¶ … Galaxies Can Grow Fat Black Holes," Shobita Satyapal, one of the lead researchers at George Mason University in Farfax, Virginia, relates that NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, launched from Cape Canaveral on August 25, 2003 and primarily designed to detect infrared energy from cosmic sources with extremely short wavelengths, has recently found "plump black holes where least expected," being skinny or thin galaxies which in the past were not suspected of containing black holes, areas in space with gravitational fields so powerful that not even light can escape from them once it has entered what is known as an event horizon, similar to the edge of a physical hole. For many years, research scientists and astronomers believed that every galaxy "except the slender, bulgeless spirals, harbor supermassive black holes at their cores; however, due to recent observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope, this theory has been thrown into question.

According to Satyapal, part of the reason for the existence of black holes in relatively thin and bulgeless galaxies is due to what is called dark matter, "a mysterious, invisible substance" which is now known to account for much of the overall mass found throughout the universe. As she puts it, "The fact that galaxies without bulges have black holes means that the bulges cannot be the determining factor;" thus, "It's possible that the dark matter that fills the halos around galaxies plays an important role in the early development of supermassive black holes." Since these new findings on the possibility of thin galaxies containing supermassive black holes is so important to the scientific pursuit to understand how our universe operates, Satyapal's study is to be published in the acclaimed Astrophysical Journal in April of 2008.

As compared to these thin galaxies, our own Milky Way galaxy fits into the preconceived notion of containing a massive black hole at…… [read more]

Earth's Rotation Affect Plant Growth? Term Paper

… However, the fields found in nature at the scale of a backyard garden, are simply not strong enough to make a difference in rates of plant growth. ("Does the Earth's magnetic field daily changes affect plant germination and growth?" 2005) Plants may change the direction of their growth to face the apparent orbit sun, if this is required for the particular plant species' growth. If placed in an area that is lacking in adequate sunlight, they may fail to grow, or if they are planted in a season that is too cold and does not generate enough sunlight, but the rotation itself is only one reason for the cause of the plant's failure to thrive.

Work Cited

"Does the Earth's magnetic field daily changes affect plant germination and growth?" (2005) Ask a Space Scientist. NASA. Retrieved 16 Oct 2005 at

'What Causes the Seasons?" (2005) Windows to the Universe. Retrieved 16 Oct 2005 at

'Will the equinoxes and solstices switch places in 13,000 years because of the precession of the Earth's rotation axis?" (2005) Ask a Space Scientist. NASA. Retrieved 16 Oct 2005 at 2005… [read more]

Philosophy the Aroma of Rich Term Paper

… Likewise, my out-breath is unique and transformative, its molecules hovering in the air far away by the time I write this, perhaps sucked in by that plant.

I ask the earth about pain and she replies with laughter and a smile. "Like is full of pain," she says with mirth. Her humor astounds me. "Look at my creatures," she reminds me. "Which of them is not funny?"

I wonder. I think of zebras. Of porcupines. Of duck-billed platypuses. Of saguaro cacti, octopi. I think of termites laughing cruelly at the human dwellings from which they feast. Nature has her own sense of humor: odd at times and twisted, but crazily funny nonetheless. Her lessons remind me to pay more attention and listen for the punch line. When we miss it, we feel sorrow and despair. When we hear it, our sadness becomes so pure and powerful that it almost instantly becomes transformed into joy.… [read more]

Reporting Methods and Columbia Term Paper

… However, it appears that many instances of foam breaking off and striking the shuttle were not regarded as a key safety issue, and not sent in an "official" capacity, as noted earlier. Specifically, an e-mail from David M. Lechner to Mr. Dangherty notes that "the input (from Dangherty) is beneficial," and that Dangherty's "points have generated extremely valuable discussion in our group." What is not clear, however, is why Dangherty's issues seem to have gotten little serious consideration after this point.

The failure of Dangherty's comments to initiate a serious look into the potential for foam tile damage, suggests that procedures for reporting safety issues should be seriously overhauled. In particular, all safety-related issues that reach management such as David M. Lechner should be subject to a serious and official review. It simply appears that Dangherty's comments were ignored, likely because the loss of foam tiles was common and had not caused real problems on earlier flights. As such, there should be an official protocol for investigating and reporting all safety issues that could be related to a specific flight, regardless of the success of earlier flights.

In conclusion, and investigation of NASA e-mails from before the loss of the shuttle Columbia suggests that improvement in reporting methods may help to prevent further losses. Importantly, reporting methods should be made more formalized, and all safely issues should be addressed with equal…… [read more]

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