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Amidation of Peptides in Humans

The commercial development and production of a peptide using a solution-phase process can take up to two years, due in part because after each step the peptide has to be isolated from the solution. However, the new process overcomes the drawbacks of both systems by enabling scalable peptide production over a period of weeks, according to Ralf van Dijck, the…

Pages: 20  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Biology as a Cross-Interdisciplinary Study

Biology as a cross-interdisciplinary study is very broad in scope. It covers the entirety of human history as well as the study of all life on the planet Earth. As a result, it covers a very wide array of academic fields that each as many of its own independent disciplines. In understanding the study of biology, one must look at…

Pages: 5  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 17


Origin of Life on Earth

The early heterotrophs are thought of as being aerobic as "the earliest cells appear in the fossil record before any evidence of oxygen in the atmosphere" (Bailey, 2007). In short, the heterotroph theory implies an evolution that could have led to the creation of the current organisms from simple molecules during the early history of our "blue" planet. The Autotrophic Theory The Autotrophic Theory concerning the origin of life on Earth proposes that the autotrophs (organisms that can make their own food with the help of sunlight, water, carbon dioxide, or other elements) were the first organisms that resided on Earth. A lot of information and evidence is available that supports the Autotrophic theory. A good number of members that belong to Domain Archaea are autotrophic in nature and exist in exceptionally hostile environments similar to the environments that may have been present on the early planet. Presently, such organisms occupy hot springs and thermal vents and use energy released from inorganic chemical reactions to synthesize organic molecules from inorganic components. Due to this factor, many scientists advocate and support the idea behind autotrophic hypothesis. They believe that if the ancestors of the chemoautotrophs had similar characteristics, the first organism may have been autotrophs (Bailey, 2007). References Bailey, E.R. (2007). Concepts in Biology (12thth ed.). N.p.: McGraw Hill. Retrieved December 30, 2012, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=1E853Gfo7VkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Concepts+in+Biology'+2007+Ed.2007+Edition&hl=en&sa=X&ei=zWXgUJTdHqek4gTigoCYCw&ved=0CDgQ6AEwAA Harrison, E. (2000). Cosmology: The Science of the Universe (2ndnd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved December 30, 2012, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=kNxeHD2cbLYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Cosmology:+The+Science+of+the+Universe&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ImbgUN38B4aWtQbXmYBI&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=The%20Panspermia%20theory%20&f=false…

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Biology and Social Construction Involved

Gender roles and the ways in which the children act according to their sex is something obviously innate. It is not in our hands to create a boy or a girl and there are certain characteristics that the children take up by biology. A girl will have more feminine approach towards things and a boy will usually be more masculine…

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Biology Living and Non-Living Things. Biology Is

Biology Living and Non-Living Things. Biology is the study of living things. Biologists are scientists who specialize in the study. They discovered more than a million life forms on earth, some of them living and some are not (Buckley 2003). They distinguish living things from non-living according to certain characteristics. These are nutrition, respiration, excretion, reproduction, growth, sensation, movement, transport,…

Pages: 7  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Discipline of Biology Is Very Broad in

¶ … discipline of biology is very broad in scope; it spans the entirety of the human race and can only be described as the study of life. It encompasses a broad spectrum of academic fields that most view as independent disciplines in and of themselves. In the following discussion, we will look at what resources are available for the…

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Biology in the Real World

There are still many diseases that are being treated by the stem cell therapies such as the bone marrow transplant which is being used for the treatment of leukemia all over the world. Also, it is being anticipated by the medical researchers that in the coming future they will have ways through which they will be able to treat the Parkinson disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cancer, muscle damage, multiple sclerosis and the treatments of all these diseases will be done by the techniques that will based on the stem cell therapy. However, these still are many uncertainties that are there with regards to the effectiveness and the side effects of stem cells (Goldman and Windrem, 2006). Some researchers doubt that there is a possibility that the stem cell treatment might result in some tumors and if the division of cells can't be controlled there is a possibility that those cells may become cancerous (Goldman and Windrem, 2006). The main reason why stem cells are being studied extensively is their inherent interest and their probable therapeutic usage (Wade, 2006). The researchers who are in the favor of the embryonic stem cell research are arguing that this research should be continued as it can have many probable benefits, what they say is that many embryos should be created through the vitro fertilization and then they should be given away or used for research by the consent of the associated authorities (Wade, 2006). The development of the iPS cells which has been carried out recently is known as a way of evading the legal controversies. It is being said that the reason why these iPS cells were created are the laws that have limited the destruction of the human embryos. However, it is still not sure if the hiPS cells that have been created are an equivalent of the hE's cells. The recent researches that have been done on the hiPS cells show that there are some hotspots of abnormal epigenomic reprogramming in these cells (Wade, 2006). References Tuch BE (2006). "Stem cells -- a clinical update." Australian Family Physician 35 (9): 719 -- 21. PMID 16969445. Goldman S, Windrem M (2006). "Cell replacement therapy in neurological disease." Philos Trans R. Soc Lond B.……

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Biology/Philosophy the Humanities One Can

In the humanities, however, these biological processes take place between the artist and his or her environment. The artist is certainly influenced by his or her surroundings, in ways both large and small. A painter, for example, can draw an infinite amount of inspiration from the sky and all of its multitude of hues and shades. A writer, perhaps, can become emotionally and politically charged by the state of social affairs and use such agency to create incendiary works that triumph or disparage such a state of affairs. Regardless of the example, the process is still the same as that of biology -- there is an interaction between people and their surroundings, which allows people to therefore create new surroundings: in this case, art. The best example of the fact that the humanities are a manifestation of biology is in even a cursory examination of some of the most influential epochs or eras in the humanities. During the Italian and European Renaissance, for example, it was not uncommon to find artists and artisans fluent in several different branches of the humanities -- math, science, physics, astronomy, visual arts and the like. The fact that there are several artists who fit into this mold reflects the zeitgeist of the time, and the tension between man and his surroundings. A similar comparison exists between the styles that are popular in particular historical eras, which emphasize the fact that the humanities are a manifestation of biology, in much the same way that various species of birds are as well. Because there is a similarity in the processes and the most crucial factors of those processes (tension between the environment and the individual) between humanities and biology, one can infer that the humanities are a manifestation of biology.…

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Cancer Cell Biology

Cancer Cell Biology The fundamental unit of life is the cell and in the body it is the smallest structure exhibiting performance capability of all the processes defining life. Specialized cells are contained in each of the body organs like the lungs, colon, breast and brain which are able to perform the particular function in the body such as digestion,…

Pages: 25  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Ethics Surrounding Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research

Ethics Surrounding Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research Since their discovery in the early 1990's, Stem Cells have brought with them the promise of evolutionary and significant scientific and medical research and opportunities that possessed the possibility of radically improving treatments for a host of diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, various cancers and other diseases that currently render patients and scientists…

Pages: 14  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 20


Boy's Life Questions Form This Boy's Life

Boy's Life Questions form This Boy's Life Dwight is hard on Toby for several reasons, it seems. One of the primary reasons is his need to exert control over the people in his life, and both Toby and his mother make excellent targets for Dwight's anger and controlling attitude. His being tough on Toby is also a way for Dwight o make himself feel strong and powerful, which is related to his need for control but has a more visceral component. This is what he responds to when he sees Toby's fighting potential and his level of aggression -- it is something that Dwight recognizes in himself, and something he has no real outlet for except for abusing Toby and his mother. After Rosemary marries Dwight, Toby's attitude towards her changes only slightly -- he still looks to her for protection and expects her to be able to get out of most situations, but he also seems to understand that there is a weakness on her part that allows if not forces her to get involved in these situations in the first place. It is this weakness that caused her to marry Dwight, and Toby begins to depend on his mother a bit less because of his realization. 3) The question of whether or not Toby will ever be able to forgive Dwight cannot really be answered with a yes or no, and far more important and interesting questions are, does Toby want to forgive Dwight, does Dwight deserve forgiveness, and what is the nature of forgiveness in this scenario? Dwight no doubt has his demons like anyone else, and there might be certain reasons that he acts in the way he does, but if he never recognizes and acknowledges the faults of his behavior than it is difficult to see how we would ever deserve forgiveness, or why Toby would forgive him. Dwight……

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Biotechnology's Influence on Human Life Is Growing

Biotechnology's influence on human life is growing exponentially, and has already made significant advances in the areas of agriculture with Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) (Johnson, et.al.), gene splicing therapy including DNA mapping and the practice in certain countries of trying to influence the intelligence of babies (Swedin, et.al). The ethics of biotechnology are just the beginning of the controversies in this area, with the highly productive uses of this technology to increase crop yields and increase the likelihood of defeating life-threatening diseases on the one hand yet threaten privacy and human life on the other. The intent of this paper is to compare how biotechnology can make significant contributions to human life, in addition to potentially threatening it as well. The Promise of Biotechnology The most promising aspects of biotechnology are first in understanding how viruses organize themselves and grow, and how they can be countered at the genetic level in humans. The immediate effect of this advance is to reduce mortality from diseases that appear uncontrollable today, including AIDS, cancer and other terminal diseases. Yet the study of viruses is not limited to just these areas of medicine. There are implications for making integrated circuits more efficient and less costly to operate based on lessons being learned from biotechnology's use in virus-based integrated circuit design (Fairley, 36-41). The addition of stem cell research to understand the implications of DNA mapping and gene-splicing to alleviate potentially harmful genetic conditions in patients also shows the potential to make significant contributions to bettering the quality of human life. There are arguments for and against the ethics of understanding how DNA mapping and gene-splicing impact humans, yet having these insights are critical for prolonging and enhancing the quality of human life. The Threats of Biotechnology The downside of biotechnology is in……

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Life Philosophy How Shall I Treat Myself?

Life Philosophy How shall I treat myself? What is the most accurate and helpful view of my own nature? A shall treat myself with all the respect due to any child of God, with love, compassion, and kindness. This entails a three-pronged approach. First I shall pay my body the attention it deserves by living a healthy lifestyle and eating…

Pages: 5  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 5


Life Altering Events Change, it Is Said,

Life Altering Events Change, it is said, is the only constant in life. Change, as it happens, is also crucial in facilitating the growth of an individual through his or her life span. In fact, it can even be said that change is at the fulcrum of Nature's grand design of evolution. Strangely, however, if there is one thing that we humans are prone to resist -- it is change. Today, I personally welcome change as an opportunity to learn and grow. But, I must admit that I did not always welcome events that upset my well-ordered life. Indeed, I can recall two specific points of time when I deeply resented the events that altered the course of my life. The first of these took place during my adolescence when the death of my uncle left a deep void in my life. The second event occurred recently when I was forced to accept the break down of an intimate relationship. Carl Jung once observed, "We cannot change anything until we accept it. Condemnation does not liberate, it oppresses." (Words of Wisdom) The undeniable wisdom in Jung's words is something that perhaps an adult, who is facing the disruption caused by the death of a loved one, can appreciate. I, however, was too young to even comprehend or accept that death is an inevitable part of life's cycle. Therefore, my uncle's death was a point of change and discontinuity, which resulted in a wide range of personal emotions that I had to learn to deal with. In fact, as I look back on that traumatic time, I am able to see exactly what Tennant and Pogson meant when they said, "It is, thus, the unexpected life events, those that occur 'out of time' that are the potential crises." (Smith, 1999). My uncle's untimely demise was a personal crisis of some magnitude because he was a key figure in my young life. Besides being a person who I regarded as my mentor and idol, my uncle was the person who made it a point to take me on camping and fishing expeditions, and to all kinds of sporting activities. When I learnt of his death, therefore, I felt his loss on more than one level. Indeed, the grief was so deep, I felt like a boat set out to drift without an anchor. The result of feeling so bereft, unfortunately, led to…

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Life Cycle of Organizations Anthony

When compared to new organizations, old organizations such as bureaus have advantages as well as disadvantages over them. One of the known advantages of being an old organization is that it has a unique nature and character. Therefore, people would not have any difficulty in knowing the bureau and identifying its function as an organization. Another advantage of being an old and aging organization is that the same structures, processes, and culture is conserved, thereby tasks and activities are accomplished efficiently (if the bureau indeed works efficiently). A disadvantage of being an old and aging organization is that it ceases to keep up with the changes that occur in the external environment of the bureau. An aging and old organization may fail to keep up with the technological changes influencing organizations nowadays. New organizations, moreover, are more flexible and mobile, which makes the processes and structures within it as dynamic or ever-changing. In effect, new organizations grow because they are exposed to various organizational arrangements and structures, thereby making them more receptive to change, inducing development and more importantly, improvement. Comparing Downs' life cycle of bureaus to the life cycle of organizations nowadays, a remarkable difference emerges. According to Downs, "As a bureau grows older, the number and proportion of administrative officials therein tends to rise," and " ... A bureau experiences a period of relative stability in total size following a period of rapid growth, the average age of its members tends to rise as the bureau grows older." Both observations and arguments contradict the life-cycle model of organizations at present. Recent studies on organizations showed that their life cycle is best summed up as follows: "As organizations mature, they tend to become larger, more formalized, and more differentiated (fragmented)" (Kreitner, 1995:508). This life-cycle model of new organizations is developing and is growing bigger as organizations develop. Bureaus, meanwhile, tend to shrink over time because the lack or absence of development would mean the decreasing number of people needed to accomplish the tasks and activities given to the bureau. And with a shrinking number of members, bureau members resort to multi-tasking, in order to accomplish tasks without needing more members than they really need or can afford to have. Bureaus that have reached the aging stage are at a disadvantage because even though they do not wish or want to dissolve the organization, it would simply cease to exist,…

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Philosophy of Life Humans Have

The strengths of VA Hospital ethical program include the diversity of the programs in ensuring that the needs of all the groups represented in the hospital like the gender, the disabled, and straight people are addressed. The other strength of its ethical program is the harmony between the ethical values maintained by the organization and the cultures of the people and the members of the organization. This has made the program a success. The weakness of this program is that it is highly embraced by the top management compared to the workers in the low level (Evans, 2012). Ethical principles that characterize the process I use to make ethical decisions as a (coordinator) include; the principles of justice, fairness, and common good. When making critical decisions as a coordinator, I often ensure that the decision made will cater for the common good of the people the decision will affect. In addition, I would ensure that the decision would offer justice to all the parties that are concerned in the given case as human (Corning, 2003). This has worked well in making the members of my organization embrace the decisions I make as a coordinator. For example in making decisions on the shifts at work, I ensure that all workers have equal breaks from work. . IV. Conclusion I hold my personal philosophy life that says that, 'Human beings are the greatest beings because they are created to do good deeds to themselves and others. It is evident that the nature of human beings must uphold this philosophy at all times. I have learnt to look at the motivations that many of humans have and concluded that humans were created to fulfill this. However, humans commit some evils while seeking to make this their universal duty. This means that human nature is made to do good and will do so when the right atmosphere exists. References Corning, P. (2003). The Fate of Humankind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Evernden, L. (1998). Humankind and Environment. New York: University of Toronto Press. Evans, E. (2012). Philosophy for Life. New York: Ebury Publishing. Oruka, O. (1996). Philosophy, Humanity and Ecology. London: DIANE Publishing. Raith,……

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Biology Experiments Sex Protein Is

You would need burettes for the titration process and droppers to measure the catalysis. Experiment Three Observing cell respiration is a way to learn more about plants. The first step involved with this process is getting all the equipment set up properly. It is imperative to understand that even with a small amount of time barometric pressure can change, rising and falling which impacts the quantification of oxygen gas O2 uptake. Since we know that the pressure changes, it is important to calculate for corrected differences to account for pressure changes. These barometric pressure changes must be accounted for during the preparation of the pea respiration data to ensure experiment is reliable. It is important to ensure that the respirometer tubes are airtight otherwise the experiment would not be successful. Experimenter would need 200 ml test tubes and 2 ml pipettes which would need to be inserted into 4x stoppers. If the pipettes are loose, experimenter can use silicon caulking to fix this problem. By adding foil paper to the bottom experiment container, it will reflect light which would allow the researcher to see the bubbles that might be otherwise difficult to visualize. You can purchase the seeds, or many biology laboratories already have them. You should also use lime soda, which you can put on a small cotton ball above the seeds to……

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Lead a Successful Life There

However, the general consensus seems to be that a proactive approach to life is necessary. For example, the quote "Things come to those who wait" is very popular because it gives the idea that we don't have to do anything for things to happen. However, what most people miss is that, that is only part of the quote; the full quote is "Things come to those who wait, but only those things that are left by those who hustle." Therefore, what Abraham Lincoln meant when he said this is actually completely opposite to what the meaning of the partial quote. "The early bird gets the worm" is another popular one. What would happen if not only the bird wasn't early, but it didn't bother to leave its nest? It is very doubtful that the worm would work its way up a tree just to drop into the bird's nest. Iyanla Vanzant often says: "without a test you cannot have a testimony." How can there be a test if there is no action that would cause a challenge? Another popular saying for not doing anything proactive is that a person is "waiting for my ship to come in." Someone once had the guts to challenged that with: "It is no use to wait for your ship to come in, unless you have sent one out" Therefore, its great to wait for things, but unless a person has done something to make something else occur, the chance of it happening is pretty low. It seems that these tidbits of knowledge, created from the past experiences of our elders, insinuate that to be successful in life, a proactive approach is necessary. Therefore, asking questions is better then waiting for the answers, or what is given to you. That experience of acting proactively also serves as a learning ground for a time when it is necessary to speak up, or use a defensive approach. Dr Phil, of Oprah fame, is known to keep saying, "How's that workin' for ya'?," whenever a person has a problem and proceeds to tell him their outlook on life. That is the real question... If a person does not ask questions, and simply takes what is given to them, or waits to find out the answers, then common sense says that they are probably missing out on opportunities. So what kind of real success are they having in their…

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Life After Death Bertrand Russel

People want to believe in life after death for several reasons: the desire to overcome the fear of death being foremost, but also an idealistic vision of the perfection of mankind fuels people's belief in an afterlife. A belief in a creator God influences the ways people view the soul and its potential fate following the death of a body. According to the author, these religious and philosophical beliefs cloud the truth. Just as the belief that the earth was the center of the universe clouded the truth about the nature of our solar system, so too does belief in life after death cloud what could be the absolute truth about the nature of the human mind. Russel's argument is powerful and compelling, and although he argues against the existence of a soul, his thesis is not nihilistic. Rather, Russel is profoundly realistic. Certainly open to the possibility of their being a separate, continuous soul, Russel nevertheless concludes that with our current knowledge of the nature of the body and the mind, there is no proof that a continuous self……

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Alternation of Generation Between Mosses and Ferns

Moss Fern Understanding True Biological Diversity: A Comparison of the Life Cycles of Common Mosses and Ferns The human life cycle, especially from the time of birth onwards, is actually relatively simple despite its seeming complexities. In the womb, the human life cycle is actually more complex, with the fetus going through many radically different physical shapes and developmental stages;…

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Pessimistic View of Eternal Life the Flawed

¶ … Pessimistic View of Eternal Life The Flawed Barnes Concept of Eternal Existence The image of Heaven that Barnes offers in the Dream is one where one eventually becomes bored with the perpetual availability of everything that one could possibly desire. In his case, Heaven consists mainly of sex, golf, and on-call cuisine, and the opportunity to meet famous individuals. Barnes concludes that such an existence would eventually become completely unsatisfying because it is primarily the difficulty of obtaining specific goals that apparently gives them their value. According to Barnes, without the difficulties and challenges normally associated with achieving desired goals, one cannot derive any pleasure from achieving them, or even appreciate life. Actually, Barnes conclusion is false; it is largely a function of his conceiving his view of Heaven in terms of inherently shallow goals as well as his narrow-minded inability even to imagine how those goals could be met in a more satisfying way. Refutation Ignoring for the sake of argument that the very concept of an eternal "afterlife" is fundamentally nonsensical, Barnes's conception of Heaven is inherently patently flawed. It may be true that endless golf, continual holes in one, sexual fulfillment without the prospect of rejection, and the perpetual availability of everything one desires in life could become less desirable without any challenge in achieving those goals. However, that does not necessarily lead to the conclusion that eternal life (or "afterlife") is incapable of being fulfilling. By definition, Heaven would not provide what one desired in such abundance or without sufficient challenge to render what was once pleasurable boring. In fact, that simplified description of Heaven has been used by science fiction writers, such as in the plot of the Twilight Zone episode "A Nice Place to Visit" (1960) in which the protagonist falsely assumes that he is in Heaven until struck by the same realization characterized by Barnes that life without any sort of challenge would be torturously boring rather than pleasurable. Assuming there were such a thing as "Heaven" and also assuming that one would desire the same in the "afterlife" as one desired in life, Heaven would not provide so much of whatever one desired in life to make it unsatisfying. Rather, the concept of Heaven would, by definition, mean that the availability of whatever one desired or enjoyed would be available in precisely the quantity (and under the circumstances) that corresponded…

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Ionized Calcium, Molecular Structure, & DNA

Biology Qs Ca2+ ions have two fewer electrons, giving them a positive charge. They are most likely to form ionic bonds. Suspension: heterogeneous, solute un-dissolved and will settle (examples: blood, cytoplasm). Colloidal: solute equally distributed but not entirely broken down (examples: insulin, gelatin). Solution: solute entirely dissolved/evenly dispersed in solvent (examples: urine, synovial fluid). Surface tension, caused by polar attraction between the different molecules. DNA loses its structure and therefore ability to replicate without phosphorous. It is also essential for energy storage (ATP/ADP) and bone growth and health. One way to make such a division is based on the function of these molecules within the body; lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates are all ingested and generally used as fuel for the body, whereas nucleic acids perform a different function. Molecular structure could also be used: nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids are all chain molecules, carbohydrates are not. 6) The membrane is fluid in that various substances can pass through it, so it is not solid, and a mosaic because it is composed of many different heterogeneous elemnts. 7) The……

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Life After Death

Reincarnation As a believer in the Baha" religion, I most definitely subscribe to the notion of reincarnation. It is folly to think that we are here of this earth only once. Rather, we are part of a universal aspect, if you will. We are parts of a greater whole and, as such, we become an intricate aspect of this life. The Baha" faith includes the concept of an ability to continue a life of perfection beyond this life. A key concept of this belief is that the outward expression of man reflects his inward nature. When we look at life in this way, we are more prone to do good because we have an overarching reason to do so. Reincarnation makes sense as a part of life because it contributes to the wholeness of life and the continuance of life as one. We are not of this world to live wholly unto ourselves. Beyond the tangible, there are things that contribute to this life and many of them determine the afterlife. I believe that all living things exist in a physical body and possess an immaterial entity, most commonly referred to as a soul or life force. In fact, many people believe in a soul. What we must do as responsible beings is consider why we have soul. Is it merely to prove we are alive? I think not. It is meant to move us through life. Upon death, the physical body is the only thing that actually dies. The life force, or soul, takes a new physical form, which is subject to the law of karma. In other words, how one has lived his or her life will determine his or her afterlife. This belief makes the most sense out of the world and how we live. If we are to believe that this life is all that we have, we are to behave with less regard for others and the world, for that is all there is. In essence, that is a cop out. To completely……

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Life Support

Life Support is the methodology in which modern technology implements machines in order to sustain life in critical situations. Modern technology has offered more and more advanced tools of life support. However, there are several key issues which prove that life support is not always one-hundred percent beneficial, and these have raised some serious ethical questions. Despite it proving inefficient for some areas of the population, life support does prove beneficial in the resuscitation of many individuals. According to the dictionary of medical terminology offered by MedicineNet.com, the term life support refers to "A therapy or device designed to preserve someone's life when an essential bodily system is not doing so," (Medicine Net, 2008). When an individual patient's body is too weak or incapacitated for whatever reason, the various implementations of life support can keep that patient alive during a crucial moment in their situations. Various devices have been developed and perfected in order to keep the functionality of the body performing even when some physical trauma or illness has prevented the body to do so naturally. These devices include features which keep the body nourished, such as enteric feeding in which the patient relies on nourishment through tube feeding, (Medicine Net, 2008). Basic essential bodily functions are also supported through protection of both heart and lung function. A defibrillator is implemented in many cases in order to prevent the heart from stopping or falling into an irregular pattern which would further endanger the health of the patient under life support. A pacemaker is also sometimes implemented to prevent such an occurrence, (Medicine Net, 2008). Other machines are used as key elements of life support in keeping the lungs bringing in essential oxygen, while the body is too weak or unresponsive enough to voluntarily breathe. Life support proves beneficial to many individuals who have had a trauma which led them into a vegetative state or coma. If the individual patient is suffering from one medial condition, research shows these patients have a better chance of resuscitation, (Katz-Wise, 2006). This gives many doctors and professionals valuable time to find new ways to fight what is inflicting the individual to a state of true incapacitation. The American Medical Situation has recently implemented a program to further inform emergency medical life support in the event of a disaster or encounter which such needs, (American Medical Association, 2007). This provides necessary tools for emergency…

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Ancient Cultures the Purpose of Human Life

Ancient Cultures the Purpose of Human Life In ancient cultures human life was the center of interest for everything. The entire construction of civilization was based on the human as main preoccupation and the most important element in the world. Modern concerns about the environment, animals and other conflicts that place humans on an equal position with the rest of the planet were weak or nonexistent many centuries back, when the sole interest that captured the attention of common people was to understand how their own society worked. Referring specifically to the Roman and Greek culture, we can see their ideas about human life and human nature reflected in the many messages they left behind. Art manifestations are the most eloquent note left from those cultures and speak clearly about their spiritual vision and ideas. They reveal the need to answer the eternal question that tortured philosophers all through the Classic Period, about the purpose of human life and the role humanity played in the world. In their conception, humans' goal was to reach a divine harmony and force that would elevate them to the same level with the gods. Their manifestation of culture and social behavior spins around the importance of human life. Science, astrology, philosophy and any other kind of intellectual activity was focused on studying humans and trying to figure the way life functioned, in order to reach the key to control their existence and destiny. Art was concerned with showing the beauty of human anatomy, while poetry was focused in recreating the human soul, and philosophy in understanding its complexity. The human was the main subject for all the forms of expression in ancient societies, from art forms like poetry and theatre, to practical activities like politics. Their humanist vision left messages about their way of living and thinking, their spirit and preoccupations, ideas and feelings. The human life itself is the very subject they reflect in all of their artistic and intellectual expression. Roman and Greek society had almost the same vision about human life and manifested their ideas almost in parallel ways, due to the great influence that the Greek society had over the Roman world. They valued their leisure and commodities in a way that modern civilization would never understand. For them time was relaxed and positive feelings cultivated. In the ancient conception human life was created to enjoy and grow spiritually, not…

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Artificial Cells

Artificial Cell Building an artificial cell According to National Science Foundation researchers engaged in the study of the feasibility of constructing an artificial cell, the most difficult aspect of cellular biology to replicate artificially is the cell's complex exterior membrane. Each living cell is wrapped in a double-layered membrane made of oily lipid molecules. The membrane is lined with proteins and other molecules that control how food and wastes get in and out of a cell, how cells signal to and react to their environment, and how the cells divide and grow ("Team receives grant to study artificial cell membranes,"2005, Stanford News: Press Release). Feeding, movement, respiration (breathing), growth and development, sensitivity, reproduction, and excretion are the seven essential characteristics of a living being. To create such a being artificially, the solution is to seek a chemical means to reproduce these functions, all of which involve the cell membrane in some shape or form. The cell membrane is double-layered and is made of oily lipid or fat-like molecules. Proteins in the cell control how food and wastes get in and out of a cell, how cells signal to and react to their environment, and how they divide and grow. One solution is to use……

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Emily Dickinson Is Viewed by Many Historians

Emily Dickinson is viewed by many historians as the greatest female poet of American history, yet a true understanding of how she came to be both profound and articulate has been hard to come by. The voice that she uses within her poem seems to contrast dramatically from her real life persona. Dickinson was born in Amherst Massachusetts, and never…

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Tree of Life: Worth Watching Twice Terrence

¶ … Tree of Life": Worth Watching Twice Terrence Malick spent more than three years editing the six hour reel of footage he and his crew captured outside Waco, TX in 2008, and fans of the director wondered if they would ever see Malick's latest. But The Tree of Life finally debuted at Cannes this summer, marking it as only the fifth feature in the director's four-decades-long career. While not your typical film, Malick's Tree is a superb work of art that cannot be viewed only once: it must be seen again and again. This paper will provide an in-depth analysis of the film to show how the three years of work that went into piecing The Tree of Life together were not for naught -- but were, rather, part of a process of masterful filmmaking. Malick's directing-style is unlike any other's in or outside of Hollywood: his is a technique of capturing the accident, as Fiona Shaw put it (Labrecque). He will write pages and pages of new script for an actor and then tell them to pick out a line or two or say what they like best. He will ask his cinematographer to capture things on the wing, take long looks at the ways in which nature moves, focus on ordinary details in a way that makes them appear fresh and extraordinary. Malick brings to life trees, clouds, sunshine, the whole of the natural world -- and then inspires a great sense of mystery and awe and wonder that human beings exist in it at all. His use of natural lighting enhances the beauty, elegance, and grace of every scene, already masterfully designed by long-time Malick collaborator Jack Fisk. Nothing seems phony in a Terrence Malick film -- even the highly impressionistic scenes in which Mrs. O'Brien pirouettes in mid-air or the meeting of the dead on the shores of the after-life. After looking through the lens of Malick's camera, everything seems possible, true, and real. Of course, The Tree of Life is aided by a stupendous soundtrack. Malick makes use of everything from Mozart to modern-day Tavener. From the beginning, Malick uses music to express the over-arching theme of Tree of Life: that though we walk in the shadow of death, our souls are not doomed to die. Preisner's "Lacrimosa" accompanies the segment representing the creation of the world, literally reminding one that tears water the…

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Psychic Life of Power

Psychic Life of Power is a fairly ambitious attempt by author Judith Butler to identify and contextualize the germination of power and dominion as it relates to individual people. This work is largely based upon a number of conceptions of the self and social issues of power as propagated by pioneers within the field of sociology and psychology, including Michael Foucalt, Friedrich Nietzsche, and George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. Although many of the key points within this work are founded upon principles elucidated by the aforementioned scholars, the ingenuity and the true value of Butler's book lies in its numerous points that are at variance with the perspectives presented by the aforementioned figures, who may widely be considered his colleagues in this particular field (especially Foucalt). One of the fundamental tenets of The Psychic Life of Power is the fact that the author posits that power is not simply an internal construct that exists within individuals, but that it is rather an external force which has an external origin. The nature of that origin is widely perceived to be from society, as illustrated through its numerous conventions and norms of behavior. Interestingly enough, the author contends that such external forms of power engendered by society constitute a large degree of the very formation of an individual, an idea that has numerous ramifications of considerable significance. For instance, this belief of Butler's contends that the existence and general idea of a person actually stems from his or her subjugation to this external force which is the power produced by society. Furthermore, within this manuscript Butler asserts that the very nature of power, and its products -- in this case that which may be considered the psychic self of an individual -- is fabricated in an artificial form. Therefore, the author believes that there is……

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How to Accept Change at Work and Life

¶ … Accept Change at Work and Life Change is inevitable in all phases of life, whether at work or in our personal lives. Everybody acknowledges that nothing lasts forever. However, for some reason, we all behave as if certain things are supposed to last forever. This is what causes us great pain in life. The reason pain hurts us so much is because we gain a sense of security and stability from our view of how life is. We acclimate ourselves to this view and we consider ourselves well-equipped to handle this life. When our circumstances change, we can no longer cling to this view of life so we feel a loss of control. This is what causes us pain. The feeling that we lose control in the face of change is an illusion. It is an illusion because the view of life that it is grounded on is itself an illusion. Whatever our view of life is at any given moment, it is false. This is because the world is constantly changing from moment-to-moment. As soon as we construct a view of how things are, the world has already changed and the world is no longer the way we think it is. In my experience, change has been the harbinger of many great things. There are so many things in my life that came as a result of change. Oftentimes, this change was not my own choice, but was forced upon me in a sense. No matter how painful the change was, though, it always resulted in the same outcome: I was alive. When I encounter change now, especially undesirable change, I think……

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In Vitro Fertilization: A Question

In vitro takes away that which is human and replaces it with greed, abuse of power and the potential for devastation. In Vitro and the Destruction of Human Life In vitro fertilization can also be utilized to help people pre-select their child's gender . This means that life can be destroyed before it has even begun. This is a perfect…

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Conway Game of Life

Conway Game of Life The Game of Life (or simply Life) is, briefly, a two-dimensional cellular automata universe governed by a simple set of birth, death and survival rules. It was invented in 1970 by the Cambridge mathematician John Horton Conway. It was publicized by his friend Martin Gardner in his column in the October 1970 edition of "Scientific American."…

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Mind-Based Identity: A Problem Impossible

The fact is, many consider the definition of faith, itself, to be the antithesis of logic -- and most certainly the antitheses of science. Yet, take a close look at all of the reasoning applied to each viewpoint, and there it is, lurking underneath. Indeed, without exception, every one of the self-identity theories involve faith in one form or another,…

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Embryos and Fetuses in Research the Main

Embryos and Fetuses in Research The main difference between the inner cell mass of day 14 and day 22 is that the inner cell mass at day 14 has the potential not only to form any human body cell, but can also become an entirely new embryonic cell mass. This phenomenon occurs during the unaided process of twinning, when the fertilized egg splits exactly in half to form two or more identical embryos. However, on day 22, the cardiac cells of the embryonic cell mass first begin to beat, signifying the first heart beat. A certain degree of self-sufficiency needs to be established before an embryo or fetus can be afforded the same rights and considerations as a person. During much of its development, the embryo is a collection of cells. While powerful, this cellular mass contains few if any human characteristics. No less remarkable than the cellular masses that form any other living creature, the embryo in early stages of development cannot be considered a human being. Even at day 22, when the primitive heart forms more fully, the embryo should not be afforded the rights and privileges of a human being because the heart cells are not fully formed, let alone the rest of the body. When the brain becomes more fully developed and the fetus is finally capable of surviving outside of the mother's body……

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Gilgamesh and Isaiah - Views on Life

Gilgamesh and Isaiah - Views on Life In the Epic of Gilgamesh, written circa 1700 B.C.E. And discovered in the ruins of Nineveh in 1853, the view on life is basically centered on civilization itself, meaning that man, through "temperance, wisdom and piety... learns to rule himself and therefore his people" (Mitchell, 2004, p. 7). Gilgamesh, the main character in this epic, sees the world around him as a very mysterious place filled with much danger and personal challenges. His journey, composed of various adventures with the goal being to defeat the forces of evil in the world, leads to "a spiritual transformation, a sense of gratitude, humility and deepened trust in the intelligence of the universe" (Mitchell, 2004, pps. 51-52). Thus, life is replete with the unknown and is invariably controlled by destiny and fate. Conversely, Isaiah views life as one of universal redemption filled with faith and hope. As one of the major prophets of Israel, Isaiah preaches the power of righteous suffering and the role of Israel as witness and mediator between God (Yahweh) and the other nations of the world. Thus, in contrast to the view held by Gilgamesh, Isaiah sees life as being under the control and dominance of God and understands that man must obey the divine plan set forth by God which will allow all humankind to live in peace and harmony. However, Isaiah would surely have agreed with the basic message contained in the Epic of Gilgamesh, namely, the man should live his life with temperance, wisdom and piety. The Hebrews, Egyptians and Mesopotamians: The Nature of God: For the Hebrews, the nature of God was One all-powerful, a God that created the world and set man in it to be governed by God's laws and commandments as handed down by Moses. Similarly, the Mesopotamians were under the protection of the God of the city (En-lil), yet they also believed that the Gods could be benevolent and malevolent while personifying……

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Stem Cell Research Utilizing Stem Cell Research

Stem Cell Research Utilizing Stem Cell Research There has historically been a significant amount of debate concerning the issue of stem cell research, which exists in both "the political arena and in…philosophical circles" (Napier 496). In fact, the very notion of this concept has the ability to polarize a vast majority of people who give a degree of preponderance to the moral and pragmatic issues concerning this topic. Those who tend to oppose stem cell research typically due to moral grounds, while those who are in favor of it usually do so because of the many scientific advantages that this sort of research might yield. However, a careful analysis of arguments from proponents of both sides reveals that stem cell research should be allowed, for the simple fact that there are some morally permissible means of conducting this research. Stem cell research did not begin in earnest until the latter portion of the 20th century, as "the first decade following the initial harvesting of human embryonic stem cells (1998-2008)" (Duroy 831) occurred in the 1990s. The crux of the issue of morality regarding this topic revolves around the fact that in order to engender stem cells, "live human embryos must be destroyed" (Landy & Zucker 1184). The point of morality that is often debated in regards to stem cell research pertains to whether or not embryos are in themselves people. Those who believe so think it immoral to kill them for stem cell research, while those who do not think so believe it is not immoral to kill them. Those who are looking to terminate stem cell research because they think it is ethically wrong to do so make a convincing case. These adherents believe that life actually begins with conception, and that an embryo represents the initial fledgling stages of life. People may have opinions related to this issue, but there is very little scientific data existent that can dispel or even dictate the actual rudimentary stages of life. A number of religious groups and their supporters traditionally adopt an anti-stem cell stance based on this line of reasoning. However, the very virtue of this argument is its weakness, since it is virtually indeterminable at which point life begins, it is dubious to state that it actually begins with conception. Those who are in favor of stem cell research believe that the scientific advantages of this process -- which…

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Ralph Waldo Emerson Was More

(Bartleby, 2012a) Natural laws are also overcome by man. The law of gravity for example has been overcome and we have now flown into space. That means each individual comes with wholeness and complete and there are probably no two individuals precisely alike as regards the relative condition or action on them of their material and spiritual minds. Therefore individuals ought to accept themselves as they are and progress. Thus the individual is capable of drawing from the universe and build his or her individuality both in their personality and thinking. This alone will bring in individuality and the life be lived in full. Individuals have a duty thus to produce original thought and savour life on those principles. Man thus always starts wrong and the dogmas of earlier thinkers crowd out their original thinking. Emerson says that those who are educated begin with original ideas but grow up "in libraries believing it their duty to accept the views which Cicero, which Locke, which Bacon have given, forgetful that Cicero, Locke, and Bacon were only young men in libraries when they wrote these books." (Bartleby, 2012c) Thus for long do the learned try to find knowledge from the peers. They also imitate not the mannerisms or principles but the thought patterns and the thinking of the peers. This leads to imitation and this imitation does not allow the mind to think original thoughts and in that way the mind 'dies'. Imitating another thinker is thus the death of originality and original thought and experience. This will lead to the death of the mind and exploration. It will thus lead to the death of originality. Thinkers have revolutionized the world only by being original and not by imitating thought patterns. It is in this context that Emerson says that imitation is suicide. Why also add that envy is ignorance? The reason is that when man does not realise that he or she is unique, there is a possibility that he or she may therefore envy the status of another because the person does not realize that he or she is also capable of drawing from the universe just as the other whom he envies. There is the same "power which resides in him is new in nature, and none but he knows what that is, which he can do, nor does he know until he has tried." (Bartleby, 2012b) Therefore envy…

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Ecology and Art

Ecology and Art Art + Culture + Ecology Daniela Escobar Love of Nature Pure aesthetic? We live in a world of constant change. Everything is moving; everything is changing, and time is an important factor because these changes. Time is everything and is the only factor that will makes us learn from our past, to live our present, and make a better future. Learning from our mistakes is the first basic rule to start to create a better future. Sometimes we just forget about important things that life has given us. Nature has been one of these beautiful, mysterious and marvelous things that life had offered to us. Nature is everything that surrounds us and is natural, something that mankind is unable to create or produce. We have to go beyond nature, beyond our nature and appreciate it. Since the Industrial Revolution, nature has become just a factor in our lives, and its huge and significant importance has being losing its value. The reasons are not clear. If we have the knowledge and awareness that nature brings benefits into our life? We have, as it were, taken nature from nature and created and artificial nature. Something that we are going to still be benefited from and still love; but is this love of nature just pure aesthetic? Claude Monet was an Impressionist painter who spent most of his life creating beautiful works of art representing nature. Most of his paintings bring us a deep feeling of serenity and peace. This artist was known as the poet of nature, and we can observe on his work of art the context and the vision that Impressionist artists had from the natural environment. Impressionism was a beautiful movement that was started in France between the late 1860s and the 1900s. The combination of its vivid colors and the different movements of the brushstrokes create a feeling and emotions that we can still experience and enjoy by looking at these remarkable pieces of art today. Claude Monet's works of art are focused on the dynamism of light that he was creating by the use of vivid and bright colors. Monet also gives a visual background for the vibrant natural world that Impressionist artists create. In this way, he shows the connection between nature and human beings that we can observe reflected on some of his paintings, showing his idealization of nature. Monet spent part…

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Nature it Is Quite True

However, we see that even after the disaster, nature makes its way and builds again in the same cycle. The progress and the cultural changes that man is making, he is doing that by exploiting nature. In Das Rad, we see that the rocks themselves figure out the idea of a wheel. This again shows that nature is there to serve man. Building up on the transcendalist notions, we observe form these videos that nature is by far more renewing and powerful by man. Where man figured out the use of wheel and ultimately progressed, nature shaped the rocks in a certain way that they can be used as a wheel. The stones, children and the drawn characters basically go on to exemplify that nature itself is controlled by a higher being. In other words, the works of nature and its renewing ability is all because of God. Again, this represents the view that both Emerson and Thoreau had regarding nature. The closer man is with nature, the closer he will be with God as well. All of God's beings and creation have a means of finding their way out of trouble and they know how to renew and grow as well. Man on the other hand is dependent on nature but he continues to exploit nature for his own comfort. In Tout Rien, it is shown that man assumes that he is powerful and goes onto abuse and play with the things that God created. Man thinks that with progress and technology, it can overcome nature's forces. However, we see that man is mistaken because again, nature can be more powerful than man. Works cited Emerson, Ralph Waldo. Nature. Hoboken, N.J.: BiblioBytes, n.d.. Print. Thoreau, Henry David. Walden. Raleigh, N.C.: Alex Catalogue, n.d..……

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Ethics of Society, Technology, and

Society and humans are always inter-related for they are formed by the humans and likewise the modifications. As a result, the society has its impacts on the people. The society would use the technology and obviously affect the environment and atmosphere. It is out of the question for a human to sit aside and say no to every new invention which is presented every day. Since he is an animal who loves luxury without the hard work so he can't really resist, humans as an entity shares the same genome and that is eternal/non changeable. But as a matter of fact, these wonderful inventions are for his ease and he would never compromise on anything which is likely to harm him in far or near future. He has that major or the central place in the society and he always works to preserve it hence he has certain concerns regarding the technological advancements. For, all of them revolve around his interest, use, like, dislike, need and luxury but one can't deny the fact that he is selfish too. He is selfish for his own self and does not think about his future generations as if he is the last one. One dark phase of these exhilarating inventions is that, the next generations would have golden spoon in the mouth when born. They would already have everything so they are not likely to think or hard work like his ancestors did. Getting anything won't be a real problem. The technology is therefore putting the full stops to the amazing functioning of the human brain. By nature we also mean "the nature" of human species. Generally, the ethics are made owing to the fact the system should keep working in the normal pace but should get improved whenever a new thing is invented without any considerable damage but apparently this concept rules out here when it comes to the environment-technology. For the time being you can consider them working and beneficial but not in a longer run. They are somehow violated if we associate the consequences over the next 100 years. Apparently, the human beings are the core of this planet but actually they stand nowhere. The technology which is helping him today, would damage his generation tomorrow ceasing their neuronal activity of the brains (Trouern-Trend, 2006). His misconception that he is ruler of whatever he invents would soon be cleared when…

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