"Biology / Life" Essays 1-69

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Amidation of Peptides in Humans Term Paper

… The commercial development and production of a peptide using a solution-phase process can take up to two years, due in part because after each step the peptide has to be isolated from the solution. However, the new process overcomes the… [read more]

Origin of Life on Earth Essay

… The early heterotrophs are thought of as being aerobic as "the earliest cells appear in the fossil record before any evidence of oxygen in the atmosphere" (Bailey, 2007). In short, the heterotroph theory implies an evolution that could have led to the creation of the current organisms from simple molecules during the early history of our "blue" planet.

The Autotrophic Theory

The Autotrophic Theory concerning the origin of life on Earth proposes that the autotrophs (organisms that can make their own food with the help of sunlight, water, carbon dioxide, or other elements) were the first organisms that resided on Earth. A lot of information and evidence is available that supports the Autotrophic theory. A good number of members that belong to Domain Archaea are autotrophic in nature and exist in exceptionally hostile environments similar to the environments that may have been present on the early planet. Presently, such organisms occupy hot springs and thermal vents and use energy released from inorganic chemical reactions to synthesize organic molecules from inorganic components. Due to this factor, many scientists advocate and support the idea behind autotrophic hypothesis. They believe that if the ancestors of the chemoautotrophs had similar characteristics, the first organism may have been autotrophs (Bailey, 2007).


Bailey, E.R. (2007). Concepts in Biology (12thth ed.). N.p.: McGraw Hill. Retrieved December 30, 2012, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=1E853Gfo7VkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Concepts+in+Biology'+2007+Ed.2007+Edition&hl=en&sa=X&ei=zWXgUJTdHqek4gTigoCYCw&ved=0CDgQ6AEwAA

Harrison, E. (2000). Cosmology: The Science of the Universe (2ndnd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved December 30, 2012, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=kNxeHD2cbLYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Cosmology:+The+Science+of+the+Universe&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ImbgUN38B4aWtQbXmYBI&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=The%20Panspermia%20theory%20&f=false… [read more]

Biology and Social Construction Essay

… Gender roles and the ways in which the children act according to their sex is something obviously innate. It is not in our hands to create a boy or a girl and there are certain characteristics that the children take… [read more]

Biology as a Cross-Interdisciplinary Study Term Paper

… Biology as a cross-interdisciplinary study is very broad in scope. It covers the entirety of human history as well as the study of all life on the planet Earth. As a result, it covers a very wide array of academic… [read more]

Biology/Philosophy the Humanities Essay

… In the humanities, however, these biological processes take place between the artist and his or her environment. The artist is certainly influenced by his or her surroundings, in ways both large and small. A painter, for example, can draw an infinite amount of inspiration from the sky and all of its multitude of hues and shades. A writer, perhaps, can become emotionally and politically charged by the state of social affairs and use such agency to create incendiary works that triumph or disparage such a state of affairs. Regardless of the example, the process is still the same as that of biology -- there is an interaction between people and their surroundings, which allows people to therefore create new surroundings: in this case, art.

The best example of the fact that the humanities are a manifestation of biology is in even a cursory examination of some of the most influential epochs or eras in the humanities. During the Italian and European Renaissance, for example, it was not uncommon to find artists and artisans fluent in several different branches of the humanities -- math, science, physics, astronomy, visual arts and the like. The fact that there are several artists who fit into this mold reflects the zeitgeist of the time, and the tension between man and his surroundings. A similar comparison exists between the styles that are popular in particular historical eras, which emphasize the fact that the humanities are a manifestation of biology, in much the same way that various species of birds are as well. Because there is a similarity in the processes and the most crucial factors of those processes (tension between the environment and the individual) between humanities and biology, one can infer that the humanities are a manifestation of biology.… [read more]

Biology in the Real World Article Review

… There are still many diseases that are being treated by the stem cell therapies such as the bone marrow transplant which is being used for the treatment of leukemia all over the world. Also, it is being anticipated by the medical researchers that in the coming future they will have ways through which they will be able to treat the Parkinson disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cancer, muscle damage, multiple sclerosis and the treatments of all these diseases will be done by the techniques that will based on the stem cell therapy. However, these still are many uncertainties that are there with regards to the effectiveness and the side effects of stem cells (Goldman and Windrem, 2006).

Some researchers doubt that there is a possibility that the stem cell treatment might result in some tumors and if the division of cells can't be controlled there is a possibility that those cells may become cancerous (Goldman and Windrem, 2006). The main reason why stem cells are being studied extensively is their inherent interest and their probable therapeutic usage (Wade, 2006).

The researchers who are in the favor of the embryonic stem cell research are arguing that this research should be continued as it can have many probable benefits, what they say is that many embryos should be created through the vitro fertilization and then they should be given away or used for research by the consent of the associated authorities (Wade, 2006).

The development of the iPS cells which has been carried out recently is known as a way of evading the legal controversies. It is being said that the reason why these iPS cells were created are the laws that have limited the destruction of the human embryos. However, it is still not sure if the hiPS cells that have been created are an equivalent of the hE's cells. The recent researches that have been done on the hiPS cells show that there are some hotspots of abnormal epigenomic reprogramming in these cells (Wade, 2006).


Tuch BE (2006). "Stem cells -- a clinical update." Australian Family Physician 35 (9): 719 -- 21. PMID 16969445.

Goldman S, Windrem M (2006). "Cell replacement therapy in neurological disease." Philos Trans R. Soc Lond B.…… [read more]

Biology Living and Non-Living Things Essay

… Biology

Living and Non-Living Things. Biology is the study of living things. Biologists are scientists who specialize in the study. They discovered more than a million life forms on earth, some of them living and some are not (Buckley 2003).… [read more]

Discipline of Biology Term Paper

… ¶ … discipline of biology is very broad in scope; it spans the entirety of the human race and can only be described as the study of life. It encompasses a broad spectrum of academic fields that most view as… [read more]

Philosophy of Life Humans Essay

… The strengths of VA Hospital ethical program include the diversity of the programs in ensuring that the needs of all the groups represented in the hospital like the gender, the disabled, and straight people are addressed. The other strength of its ethical program is the harmony between the ethical values maintained by the organization and the cultures of the people and the members of the organization. This has made the program a success. The weakness of this program is that it is highly embraced by the top management compared to the workers in the low level (Evans, 2012).

Ethical principles that characterize the process I use to make ethical decisions as a (coordinator) include; the principles of justice, fairness, and common good. When making critical decisions as a coordinator, I often ensure that the decision made will cater for the common good of the people the decision will affect. In addition, I would ensure that the decision would offer justice to all the parties that are concerned in the given case as human (Corning, 2003). This has worked well in making the members of my organization embrace the decisions I make as a coordinator. For example in making decisions on the shifts at work, I ensure that all workers have equal breaks from work. .

IV. Conclusion

I hold my personal philosophy life that says that, 'Human beings are the greatest beings because they are created to do good deeds to themselves and others. It is evident that the nature of human beings must uphold this philosophy at all times. I have learnt to look at the motivations that many of humans have and concluded that humans were created to fulfill this. However, humans commit some evils while seeking to make this their universal duty. This means that human nature is made to do good and will do so when the right atmosphere exists.


Corning, P. (2003). The Fate of Humankind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Evernden, L. (1998). Humankind and Environment. New York: University of Toronto Press.

Evans, E. (2012). Philosophy for Life. New York: Ebury Publishing.

Oruka, O. (1996). Philosophy, Humanity and Ecology. London: DIANE Publishing.

Raith,…… [read more]

Biology Experiments Sex Protein Research Proposal

… You would need burettes for the titration process and droppers to measure the catalysis.

Experiment Three

Observing cell respiration is a way to learn more about plants. The first step involved with this process is getting all the equipment set up properly. It is imperative to understand that even with a small amount of time barometric pressure can change, rising and falling which impacts the quantification of oxygen gas O2 uptake. Since we know that the pressure changes, it is important to calculate for corrected differences to account for pressure changes. These barometric pressure changes must be accounted for during the preparation of the pea respiration data to ensure experiment is reliable.

It is important to ensure that the respirometer tubes are airtight otherwise the experiment would not be successful. Experimenter would need 200 ml test tubes and 2 ml pipettes which would need to be inserted into 4x stoppers. If the pipettes are loose, experimenter can use silicon caulking to fix this problem. By adding foil paper to the bottom experiment container, it will reflect light which would allow the researcher to see the bubbles that might be otherwise difficult to visualize. You can purchase the seeds, or many biology laboratories already have them. You should also use lime soda, which you can put on a small cotton ball above the seeds to…… [read more]

Ethics Surrounding Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research Research Paper

… Ethics Surrounding Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research

Since their discovery in the early 1990's, Stem Cells have brought with them the promise of evolutionary and significant scientific and medical research and opportunities that possessed the possibility of radically improving treatments… [read more]

Boy's Life Questions Form Essay

… Boy's Life

Questions form This Boy's Life

Dwight is hard on Toby for several reasons, it seems. One of the primary reasons is his need to exert control over the people in his life, and both Toby and his mother make excellent targets for Dwight's anger and controlling attitude. His being tough on Toby is also a way for Dwight o make himself feel strong and powerful, which is related to his need for control but has a more visceral component. This is what he responds to when he sees Toby's fighting potential and his level of aggression -- it is something that Dwight recognizes in himself, and something he has no real outlet for except for abusing Toby and his mother.

After Rosemary marries Dwight, Toby's attitude towards her changes only slightly -- he still looks to her for protection and expects her to be able to get out of most situations, but he also seems to understand that there is a weakness on her part that allows if not forces her to get involved in these situations in the first place. It is this weakness that caused her to marry Dwight, and Toby begins to depend on his mother a bit less because of his realization.


The question of whether or not Toby will ever be able to forgive Dwight cannot really be answered with a yes or no, and far more important and interesting questions are, does Toby want to forgive Dwight, does Dwight deserve forgiveness, and what is the nature of forgiveness in this scenario? Dwight no doubt has his demons like anyone else, and there might be certain reasons that he acts in the way he does, but if he never recognizes and acknowledges the faults of his behavior than it is difficult to see how we would ever deserve forgiveness, or why Toby would forgive him. Dwight…… [read more]

Cancer Cell Biology Research Paper

… Cancer Cell Biology

The fundamental unit of life is the cell and in the body it is the smallest structure exhibiting performance capability of all the processes defining life. Specialized cells are contained in each of the body organs like… [read more]

Biotechnology's Influence on Human Life Is Growing Essay

… Biotechnology's influence on human life is growing exponentially, and has already made significant advances in the areas of agriculture with Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) (Johnson, et.al.), gene splicing therapy including DNA mapping and the practice in certain countries of trying to influence the intelligence of babies (Swedin, et.al). The ethics of biotechnology are just the beginning of the controversies in this area, with the highly productive uses of this technology to increase crop yields and increase the likelihood of defeating life-threatening diseases on the one hand yet threaten privacy and human life on the other. The intent of this paper is to compare how biotechnology can make significant contributions to human life, in addition to potentially threatening it as well.

The Promise of Biotechnology

The most promising aspects of biotechnology are first in understanding how viruses organize themselves and grow, and how they can be countered at the genetic level in humans. The immediate effect of this advance is to reduce mortality from diseases that appear uncontrollable today, including AIDS, cancer and other terminal diseases. Yet the study of viruses is not limited to just these areas of medicine. There are implications for making integrated circuits more efficient and less costly to operate based on lessons being learned from biotechnology's use in virus-based integrated circuit design (Fairley, 36-41). The addition of stem cell research to understand the implications of DNA mapping and gene-splicing to alleviate potentially harmful genetic conditions in patients also shows the potential to make significant contributions to bettering the quality of human life. There are arguments for and against the ethics of understanding how DNA mapping and gene-splicing impact humans, yet having these insights are critical for prolonging and enhancing the quality of human life.

The Threats of Biotechnology

The downside of biotechnology is in…… [read more]

Life Philosophy How Shall I Treat Myself? Term Paper

… Life Philosophy

How shall I treat myself? What is the most accurate and helpful view of my own nature?

A shall treat myself with all the respect due to any child of God, with love, compassion, and kindness. This entails… [read more]

Life Cycle of Organizations Anthony Term Paper

… When compared to new organizations, old organizations such as bureaus have advantages as well as disadvantages over them. One of the known advantages of being an old organization is that it has a unique nature and character. Therefore, people would not have any difficulty in knowing the bureau and identifying its function as an organization. Another advantage of being an old and aging organization is that the same structures, processes, and culture is conserved, thereby tasks and activities are accomplished efficiently (if the bureau indeed works efficiently).

A disadvantage of being an old and aging organization is that it ceases to keep up with the changes that occur in the external environment of the bureau. An aging and old organization may fail to keep up with the technological changes influencing organizations nowadays. New organizations, moreover, are more flexible and mobile, which makes the processes and structures within it as dynamic or ever-changing. In effect, new organizations grow because they are exposed to various organizational arrangements and structures, thereby making them more receptive to change, inducing development and more importantly, improvement.

Comparing Downs' life cycle of bureaus to the life cycle of organizations nowadays, a remarkable difference emerges. According to Downs, "As a bureau grows older, the number and proportion of administrative officials therein tends to rise," and " ... A bureau experiences a period of relative stability in total size following a period of rapid growth, the average age of its members tends to rise as the bureau grows older." Both observations and arguments contradict the life-cycle model of organizations at present. Recent studies on organizations showed that their life cycle is best summed up as follows: "As organizations mature, they tend to become larger, more formalized, and more differentiated (fragmented)" (Kreitner, 1995:508).

This life-cycle model of new organizations is developing and is growing bigger as organizations develop. Bureaus, meanwhile, tend to shrink over time because the lack or absence of development would mean the decreasing number of people needed to accomplish the tasks and activities given to the bureau. And with a shrinking number of members, bureau members resort to multi-tasking, in order to accomplish tasks without needing more members than they really need or can afford to have. Bureaus that have reached the aging stage are at a disadvantage because even though they do not wish or want to dissolve the organization, it would simply cease to exist, because it would no longer have a function considered important and significant to the people.

Despite its being more formalized and differentiated institution, new organizations have greater flexibility because their culture promotes change and differences among people. This kind of thinking promoted in new organizations allow them to become more receptive to new ideas, not to mention the introduction of new structures that might emerge out of their dynamic nature. New organizations, when they become old, adopt new ideas and accept changes, thereby making them new organizations again -- with a different characteristic or identity.

The life cycle of new… [read more]

Life Altering Events Change Term Paper

… Life Altering Events

Change, it is said, is the only constant in life. Change, as it happens, is also crucial in facilitating the growth of an individual through his or her life span. In fact, it can even be said that change is at the fulcrum of Nature's grand design of evolution. Strangely, however, if there is one thing that we humans are prone to resist -- it is change. Today, I personally welcome change as an opportunity to learn and grow. But, I must admit that I did not always welcome events that upset my well-ordered life. Indeed, I can recall two specific points of time when I deeply resented the events that altered the course of my life. The first of these took place during my adolescence when the death of my uncle left a deep void in my life. The second event occurred recently when I was forced to accept the break down of an intimate relationship.

Carl Jung once observed, "We cannot change anything until we accept it. Condemnation does not liberate, it oppresses." (Words of Wisdom) The undeniable wisdom in Jung's words is something that perhaps an adult, who is facing the disruption caused by the death of a loved one, can appreciate. I, however, was too young to even comprehend or accept that death is an inevitable part of life's cycle. Therefore, my uncle's death was a point of change and discontinuity, which resulted in a wide range of personal emotions that I had to learn to deal with. In fact, as I look back on that traumatic time, I am able to see exactly what Tennant and Pogson meant when they said, "It is, thus, the unexpected life events, those that occur 'out of time' that are the potential crises." (Smith, 1999).

My uncle's untimely demise was a personal crisis of some magnitude because he was a key figure in my young life. Besides being a person who I regarded as my mentor and idol, my uncle was the person who made it a point to take me on camping and fishing expeditions, and to all kinds of sporting activities. When I learnt of his death, therefore, I felt his loss on more than one level. Indeed, the grief was so deep, I felt like a boat set out to drift without an anchor. The result of feeling so bereft, unfortunately, led to a period of depression and withdrawal interspersed by bouts of anger at the perceived unfairness of a hand dealt by a cruel and indifferent fate. In fact, I must admit, that I spent a lot of time in asking the rather futile question of "why me?"

Fortunately, my parents were very supportive and were able to help me through a period of…… [read more]

Life After Death Bertrand Russel Term Paper

… People want to believe in life after death for several reasons: the desire to overcome the fear of death being foremost, but also an idealistic vision of the perfection of mankind fuels people's belief in an afterlife. A belief in a creator God influences the ways people view the soul and its potential fate following the death of a body. According to the author, these religious and philosophical beliefs cloud the truth. Just as the belief that the earth was the center of the universe clouded the truth about the nature of our solar system, so too does belief in life after death cloud what could be the absolute truth about the nature of the human mind.

Russel's argument is powerful and compelling, and although he argues against the existence of a soul, his thesis is not nihilistic. Rather, Russel is profoundly realistic. Certainly open to the possibility of their being a separate, continuous soul, Russel nevertheless concludes that with our current knowledge of the nature of the body and the mind, there is no proof that a continuous self…… [read more]

Lead a Successful Life Essay

… However, the general consensus seems to be that a proactive approach to life is necessary. For example, the quote "Things come to those who wait" is very popular because it gives the idea that we don't have to do anything for things to happen. However, what most people miss is that, that is only part of the quote; the full quote is "Things come to those who wait, but only those things that are left by those who hustle." Therefore, what Abraham Lincoln meant when he said this is actually completely opposite to what the meaning of the partial quote.

"The early bird gets the worm" is another popular one. What would happen if not only the bird wasn't early, but it didn't bother to leave its nest? It is very doubtful that the worm would work its way up a tree just to drop into the bird's nest. Iyanla Vanzant often says: "without a test you cannot have a testimony." How can there be a test if there is no action that would cause a challenge? Another popular saying for not doing anything proactive is that a person is "waiting for my ship to come in." Someone once had the guts to challenged that with: "It is no use to wait for your ship to come in, unless you have sent one out" Therefore, its great to wait for things, but unless a person has done something to make something else occur, the chance of it happening is pretty low.

It seems that these tidbits of knowledge, created from the past experiences of our elders, insinuate that to be successful in life, a proactive approach is necessary. Therefore, asking questions is better then waiting for the answers, or what is given to you. That experience of acting proactively also serves as a learning ground for a time when it is necessary to speak up, or use a defensive approach.

Dr Phil, of Oprah fame, is known to keep saying, "How's that workin' for ya'?," whenever a person has a problem and proceeds to tell him their outlook on life. That is the real question... If a person does not ask questions, and simply takes what is given to them, or waits to find out the answers, then common sense says that they are probably missing out on opportunities. So what kind of real success are they having in their lives? Most likely very little success. Therefore, it is a better thing to go through life asking questions then simply accepting or waiting for the answers to be handed to you. As an old Nigerian Proverb says:" "Not to know is bad, not to wish to know…… [read more]

Biological Basis of Behavior Term Paper

… Alarm systems and weapons in the home are ways to ensure survival. One could also argue that certain traditions and rituals help to ease human beings through difficult transitions in life which help again, to ensure the survival of the species. Human beings are thinking and complex organisms with emotions and thoughts which can impact survival: for example, the death of a loved one can be a devastating blow to one's survival. Funerals are rituals which manifest as a form of organized human behavior which can help this transition be easier.

One real situation which occurred in my own life was manifested by a niece of mine who was going through a great deal of stress at home. Her parents were getting a divorce and neither parent was able to spend much time with her, unfortunately. She was attending a high-caliber High School of Performing Arts in New York City and was trying to become a ballet dancer. She was under enormous pressure from her ballet teachers at school and this was making her feel scared and uncertain most of the time. There was also a very heavy diet culture that pervaded throughout the school, and diets and diet programs were being passed along to students for much of the time. Eventually, this niece of mine developed anorexia-nervosa and lost 25 lbs, being unable to eat, and eventually unable to dance. She had to go into a part time program which sought to reverse the psychological conditioning she had undergone and which also attempted to help her feel more compelled to eat and rebuild her self-esteem.


Goldsmith, T. (1994). The Biological Roots of Human Nature. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Grof, S. (2007). Consciousness Evolution and Planetary Survival. Retrieved from Stanslavgrof.com: http://www.stanislavgrof.com/pdf/consciousnessevolution.pdf

Taflinger, R. (2011). The Biological Basis of Human Behavior. Retrieved from wsu.edu:


van Wormer, K. (2011). Human Behavior and the Social…… [read more]

Nature Essay

… However, we see that even after the disaster, nature makes its way and builds again in the same cycle. The progress and the cultural changes that man is making, he is doing that by exploiting nature.

In Das Rad, we see that the rocks themselves figure out the idea of a wheel. This again shows that nature is there to serve man. Building up on the transcendalist notions, we observe form these videos that nature is by far more renewing and powerful by man. Where man figured out the use of wheel and ultimately progressed, nature shaped the rocks in a certain way that they can be used as a wheel.

The stones, children and the drawn characters basically go on to exemplify that nature itself is controlled by a higher being. In other words, the works of nature and its renewing ability is all because of God. Again, this represents the view that both Emerson and Thoreau had regarding nature. The closer man is with nature, the closer he will be with God as well.

All of God's beings and creation have a means of finding their way out of trouble and they know how to renew and grow as well. Man on the other hand is dependent on nature but he continues to exploit nature for his own comfort. In Tout Rien, it is shown that man assumes that he is powerful and goes onto abuse and play with the things that God created. Man thinks that with progress and technology, it can overcome nature's forces. However, we see that man is mistaken because again, nature can be more powerful than man.

Works cited

Emerson, Ralph Waldo. Nature. Hoboken, N.J.: BiblioBytes, n.d.. Print.

Thoreau, Henry David. Walden. Raleigh, N.C.: Alex Catalogue, n.d..…… [read more]

Ecology and Art Essay

… Ecology and Art

Art + Culture + Ecology

Daniela Escobar

Love of Nature

Pure aesthetic?

We live in a world of constant change. Everything is moving; everything is changing, and time is an important factor because these changes. Time is everything and is the only factor that will makes us learn from our past, to live our present, and make a better future. Learning from our mistakes is the first basic rule to start to create a better future. Sometimes we just forget about important things that life has given us. Nature has been one of these beautiful, mysterious and marvelous things that life had offered to us. Nature is everything that surrounds us and is natural, something that mankind is unable to create or produce. We have to go beyond nature, beyond our nature and appreciate it.

Since the Industrial Revolution, nature has become just a factor in our lives, and its huge and significant importance has being losing its value. The reasons are not clear. If we have the knowledge and awareness that nature brings benefits into our life? We have, as it were, taken nature from nature and created and artificial nature. Something that we are going to still be benefited from and still love; but is this love of nature just pure aesthetic?

Claude Monet was an Impressionist painter who spent most of his life creating beautiful works of art representing nature. Most of his paintings bring us a deep feeling of serenity and peace. This artist was known as the poet of nature, and we can observe on his work of art the context and the vision that Impressionist artists had from the natural environment.

Impressionism was a beautiful movement that was started in France between the late 1860s and the 1900s. The combination of its vivid colors and the different movements of the brushstrokes create a feeling and emotions that we can still experience and enjoy by looking at these remarkable pieces of art today. Claude Monet's works of art are focused on the dynamism of light that he was creating by the use of vivid and bright colors. Monet also gives a visual background for the vibrant natural world that Impressionist artists create. In this way, he shows the connection between nature and human beings that we can observe reflected on some of his paintings, showing his idealization of nature.

Monet spent part of his life in Normandy, France, which is one of the reasons why his inspirational source was coming from the natural environment. "I was born undisciplined. Never, even as a child, could I be made…… [read more]

Ralph Waldo Emerson Term Paper

… (Bartleby, 2012a) Natural laws are also overcome by man. The law of gravity for example has been overcome and we have now flown into space. That means each individual comes with wholeness and complete and there are probably no two individuals precisely alike as regards the relative condition or action on them of their material and spiritual minds. Therefore individuals ought to accept themselves as they are and progress. Thus the individual is capable of drawing from the universe and build his or her individuality both in their personality and thinking. This alone will bring in individuality and the life be lived in full. Individuals have a duty thus to produce original thought and savour life on those principles. Man thus always starts wrong and the dogmas of earlier thinkers crowd out their original thinking. Emerson says that those who are educated begin with original ideas but grow up "in libraries believing it their duty to accept the views which Cicero, which Locke, which Bacon have given, forgetful that Cicero, Locke, and Bacon were only young men in libraries when they wrote these books." (Bartleby, 2012c)

Thus for long do the learned try to find knowledge from the peers. They also imitate not the mannerisms or principles but the thought patterns and the thinking of the peers. This leads to imitation and this imitation does not allow the mind to think original thoughts and in that way the mind 'dies'. Imitating another thinker is thus the death of originality and original thought and experience. This will lead to the death of the mind and exploration. It will thus lead to the death of originality. Thinkers have revolutionized the world only by being original and not by imitating thought patterns. It is in this context that Emerson says that imitation is suicide. Why also add that envy is ignorance? The reason is that when man does not realise that he or she is unique, there is a possibility that he or she may therefore envy the status of another because the person does not realize that he or she is also capable of drawing from the universe just as the other whom he envies. There is the same "power which resides in him is new in nature, and none but he knows what that is, which he can do, nor does he know until he has tried." (Bartleby, 2012b) Therefore envy is foolish and only the ignorant can indulge in that.


Bartleby. (2012a) "Essays -- Nature: 1844" Ralph Waldo Emerson. (1803 -- 1882). Essays and English Traits: The Harvard Classics, 1909 -- 14." Retrieved 11 October, 2012 from www.bartleby.com/5/114.html

Bartleby. (2012b) "Essays -- Self-Reliance: 1841" Retrieved 11 October, 2012 from www.bartleby.com/5/104.html

Bartleby. (2012c) "Ralph Waldo Emerson. The American Scholar" An Oration Delivered

before the Phi Beta Kappa Society, at Cambridge, August 31, 1837. Retrieved 11 October, 2012 from www.bartleby.com/5/101/html

Emersoncentral. (2009) "Ralph Waldo Emerson: The Method of Nature" An Oration

delivered before the Society of the Adelphi, in Waterville College,… [read more]

Ethics of Society, Technology Essay

… Society and humans are always inter-related for they are formed by the humans and likewise the modifications. As a result, the society has its impacts on the people. The society would use the technology and obviously affect the environment and atmosphere. It is out of the question for a human to sit aside and say no to every new invention which is presented every day. Since he is an animal who loves luxury without the hard work so he can't really resist, humans as an entity shares the same genome and that is eternal/non changeable. But as a matter of fact, these wonderful inventions are for his ease and he would never compromise on anything which is likely to harm him in far or near future. He has that major or the central place in the society and he always works to preserve it hence he has certain concerns regarding the technological advancements. For, all of them revolve around his interest, use, like, dislike, need and luxury but one can't deny the fact that he is selfish too. He is selfish for his own self and does not think about his future generations as if he is the last one. One dark phase of these exhilarating inventions is that, the next generations would have golden spoon in the mouth when born. They would already have everything so they are not likely to think or hard work like his ancestors did. Getting anything won't be a real problem. The technology is therefore putting the full stops to the amazing functioning of the human brain. By nature we also mean "the nature" of human species.

Generally, the ethics are made owing to the fact the system should keep working in the normal pace but should get improved whenever a new thing is invented without any considerable damage but apparently this concept rules out here when it comes to the environment-technology. For the time being you can consider them working and beneficial but not in a longer run. They are somehow violated if we associate the consequences over the next 100 years.

Apparently, the human beings are the core of this planet but actually they stand nowhere. The technology which is helping him today, would damage his generation tomorrow ceasing their neuronal activity of the brains (Trouern-Trend, 2006). His misconception that he is ruler of whatever he invents would soon be cleared when the mechanical system would rule him and he would end up in nothing but totally depending upon those machinery in order to survive properly and so as with his nature and atmosphere.


Kaku, Michio. Physics of the Future: How Science Will Shape Human Destiny and Our Daily Lives by the Year 2100. New York: Doubleday, 2011. Print.

Keogh, Martin, ed. Hope Beneath Our Feet. North Atlantic Books, 2010. Print.

"What Can You Do? -- Environmental Protection Agency. EPA online,

7 July. 2011. Web. 11 July. 2011.

McKibben, Bill. Enough: Staying Human in an Engineered Age. New York: H. Holt,… [read more]

Stem Cell Research Utilizing Essay

… Stem Cell Research

Utilizing Stem Cell Research

There has historically been a significant amount of debate concerning the issue of stem cell research, which exists in both "the political arena and in…philosophical circles" (Napier 496). In fact, the very notion of this concept has the ability to polarize a vast majority of people who give a degree of preponderance to the moral and pragmatic issues concerning this topic. Those who tend to oppose stem cell research typically due to moral grounds, while those who are in favor of it usually do so because of the many scientific advantages that this sort of research might yield. However, a careful analysis of arguments from proponents of both sides reveals that stem cell research should be allowed, for the simple fact that there are some morally permissible means of conducting this research.

Stem cell research did not begin in earnest until the latter portion of the 20th century, as "the first decade following the initial harvesting of human embryonic stem cells (1998-2008)" (Duroy 831) occurred in the 1990s. The crux of the issue of morality regarding this topic revolves around the fact that in order to engender stem cells, "live human embryos must be destroyed" (Landy & Zucker 1184). The point of morality that is often debated in regards to stem cell research pertains to whether or not embryos are in themselves people. Those who believe so think it immoral to kill them for stem cell research, while those who do not think so believe it is not immoral to kill them.

Those who are looking to terminate stem cell research because they think it is ethically wrong to do so make a convincing case. These adherents believe that life actually begins with conception, and that an embryo represents the initial fledgling stages of life. People may have opinions related to this issue, but there is very little scientific data existent that can dispel or even dictate the actual rudimentary stages of life. A number of religious groups and their supporters traditionally adopt an anti-stem cell stance based on this line of reasoning. However, the very virtue of this argument is its weakness, since it is virtually indeterminable at which point life begins, it is dubious to state that it actually begins with conception.

Those who are in favor of stem cell research believe that the scientific advantages of this process -- which include its use for "various therapeutic purposes… for neurological disorder patients" (Saxena et al. 223) -- outweigh any potential harm it causes to embryos, which may or may not full represent human life. In addressing the morality of this issue, many proponents of stem cell research claim that embryos should not be considered people since they are still sexless, and cannot fell pain. A fairly…… [read more]

Cell and Its Components Biology Essay

… They are responsible for such tasks as controlling the levels of water present, and recycling materials such as proteins, fats, and carbohydrates.

Yet another type of organelle and cytoplasm is a vacuole. Vacuoles are sacs for storage, digestion and waste removal within the cell. Cytoplasm is the collective term for the organelles and cytosol within a cell. All the organelles function in part because of another important aspect of the cell, the endoplasmic reticulum. The endoplasmic reticulum in every cell is almost like the system of blood vessels in a human or animal. It is a tube shaped network that connects to the nuclear membrane, just as the nervous system in a human ultimately connects to the brain or how the blood vessels flow toward the heart. The endoplasmic reticulum stores, separates, and as can be inferred, is the transport system for the cell. It does not contain many ribosomes, microscopic protein factories that compose approximately one quarter of the cell's total mass. The ribosomes within the endoplasmic reticulum are the stationary type as opposed to the most of the other ribosomes present in the cell, which are mobile that inject protein directly into the cytoplasm.

Biologists continue to learn from the cell by studying its parts and studying the cell as a whole. This approach yields insight in many disciplines and research areas. The cell is a fundamental and unique structure that can be approached from different perspectives and still provide insight:

The cell can be approached from the bottom up, moving from molecules to motifs and modules, or from the top to the bottom, starting from the network's scale-free and hierarchical nature and moving to the organism-specific modules and molecules. In either case, it must be acknowledged that structure, topology, network usage, robustness and function are deeply interlinked, forcing us to complement the 'local' molecule-based research with integrated approaches that address the properties of the cell as a whole. (Barabasi & Oltvai, 2004,-Page 111)

Though scientists have long known about the cell, it continues to be a structure whose comprehension is significant in overall scientific development and that continues to shed light on many aspects of life great and small.


Barabasi, A-L., & Oltvai, Z.N. (2004) Network Biology: Understanding the Cell's Functional Organization. Nature Reviews -- Genetics, 5, 101 -- 114.

Hartwell, L.H., Hopfield, J.J., Leibler, S., & Murray, A.W. (1999) From molecular to modular cell biology.…… [read more]

Cell Division All Living Things Essay

… These cells spend very little or no time in the G0 phase which is why they constantly multiply. The second type of cells is the stable cells. These cells remain in the G0 phase for most of the cell cycle… [read more]

Darwin Had the Enlightenment Adequately Essay

… It is now the process that is "endless" rather than, say, the power of God. And moreover, Darwin makes it clear in his final sentence that the process is ongoing -- the human perception of time is such that one… [read more]

How to Accept Change at Work and Life Essay

… ¶ … Accept Change at Work and Life

Change is inevitable in all phases of life, whether at work or in our personal lives. Everybody acknowledges that nothing lasts forever. However, for some reason, we all behave as if certain things are supposed to last forever. This is what causes us great pain in life.

The reason pain hurts us so much is because we gain a sense of security and stability from our view of how life is. We acclimate ourselves to this view and we consider ourselves well-equipped to handle this life. When our circumstances change, we can no longer cling to this view of life so we feel a loss of control. This is what causes us pain.

The feeling that we lose control in the face of change is an illusion. It is an illusion because the view of life that it is grounded on is itself an illusion. Whatever our view of life is at any given moment, it is false. This is because the world is constantly changing from moment-to-moment. As soon as we construct a view of how things are, the world has already changed and the world is no longer the way we think it is.

In my experience, change has been the harbinger of many great things. There are so many things in my life that came as a result of change. Oftentimes, this change was not my own choice, but was forced upon me in a sense. No matter how painful the change was, though, it always resulted in the same outcome: I was alive.

When I encounter change now, especially undesirable change, I think…… [read more]

Psychic Life of Power Reaction Paper

… Psychic Life of Power is a fairly ambitious attempt by author Judith Butler to identify and contextualize the germination of power and dominion as it relates to individual people. This work is largely based upon a number of conceptions of the self and social issues of power as propagated by pioneers within the field of sociology and psychology, including Michael Foucalt, Friedrich Nietzsche, and George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. Although many of the key points within this work are founded upon principles elucidated by the aforementioned scholars, the ingenuity and the true value of Butler's book lies in its numerous points that are at variance with the perspectives presented by the aforementioned figures, who may widely be considered his colleagues in this particular field (especially Foucalt).

One of the fundamental tenets of The Psychic Life of Power is the fact that the author posits that power is not simply an internal construct that exists within individuals, but that it is rather an external force which has an external origin. The nature of that origin is widely perceived to be from society, as illustrated through its numerous conventions and norms of behavior. Interestingly enough, the author contends that such external forms of power engendered by society constitute a large degree of the very formation of an individual, an idea that has numerous ramifications of considerable significance. For instance, this belief of Butler's contends that the existence and general idea of a person actually stems from his or her subjugation to this external force which is the power produced by society.

Furthermore, within this manuscript Butler asserts that the very nature of power, and its products -- in this case that which may be considered the psychic self of an individual -- is fabricated in an artificial form. Therefore, the author believes that there is…… [read more]

Tree of Life: Worth Watching Twice Terrence Film Review

… ¶ … Tree of Life": Worth Watching Twice

Terrence Malick spent more than three years editing the six hour reel of footage he and his crew captured outside Waco, TX in 2008, and fans of the director wondered if they would ever see Malick's latest. But The Tree of Life finally debuted at Cannes this summer, marking it as only the fifth feature in the director's four-decades-long career. While not your typical film, Malick's Tree is a superb work of art that cannot be viewed only once: it must be seen again and again. This paper will provide an in-depth analysis of the film to show how the three years of work that went into piecing The Tree of Life together were not for naught -- but were, rather, part of a process of masterful filmmaking.

Malick's directing-style is unlike any other's in or outside of Hollywood: his is a technique of capturing the accident, as Fiona Shaw put it (Labrecque). He will write pages and pages of new script for an actor and then tell them to pick out a line or two or say what they like best. He will ask his cinematographer to capture things on the wing, take long looks at the ways in which nature moves, focus on ordinary details in a way that makes them appear fresh and extraordinary. Malick brings to life trees, clouds, sunshine, the whole of the natural world -- and then inspires a great sense of mystery and awe and wonder that human beings exist in it at all. His use of natural lighting enhances the beauty, elegance, and grace of every scene, already masterfully designed by long-time Malick collaborator Jack Fisk. Nothing seems phony in a Terrence Malick film -- even the highly impressionistic scenes in which Mrs. O'Brien pirouettes in mid-air or the meeting of the dead on the shores of the after-life. After looking through the lens of Malick's camera, everything seems possible, true, and real.

Of course, The Tree of Life is aided by a stupendous soundtrack. Malick makes use of everything from Mozart to modern-day Tavener. From the beginning, Malick uses music to express the over-arching theme of Tree of Life: that though we walk in the shadow of death, our souls are not doomed to die. Preisner's "Lacrimosa" accompanies the segment representing the creation of the world, literally reminding one that tears water the seeds of life. An excerpt from Smetana's "The Moldau River" adds a dimension of joy to the innocent days of youth that could not have been effected, one feels, in a better way. And Berlioz's "Agnus Dei" at the end of the film when the dead are brought back to life places a poignant and subtle emphasis on the theology at work in the depths of Tree of Life: how is this possible? The Lamb of God takes away the sins of the world.

It extends the scope of the modern summer movie (whose purpose is merely to entertain with… [read more]

Alternation of Generation Between Mosses and Ferns Essay

… Moss Fern

Understanding True Biological Diversity: A Comparison of the Life Cycles of Common Mosses and Ferns

The human life cycle, especially from the time of birth onwards, is actually relatively simple despite its seeming complexities. In the womb, the… [read more]

Pessimistic View of Eternal Life the Flawed Thesis

… ¶ … Pessimistic View of Eternal Life

The Flawed Barnes Concept of Eternal Existence

The image of Heaven that Barnes offers in the Dream is one where one eventually becomes bored with the perpetual availability of everything that one could possibly desire. In his case, Heaven consists mainly of sex, golf, and on-call cuisine, and the opportunity to meet famous individuals. Barnes concludes that such an existence would eventually become completely unsatisfying because it is primarily the difficulty of obtaining specific goals that apparently gives them their value.

According to Barnes, without the difficulties and challenges normally associated with achieving desired goals, one cannot derive any pleasure from achieving them, or even appreciate life. Actually, Barnes conclusion is false; it is largely a function of his conceiving his view of Heaven in terms of inherently shallow goals as well as his narrow-minded inability even to imagine how those goals could be met in a more satisfying way.


Ignoring for the sake of argument that the very concept of an eternal "afterlife" is fundamentally nonsensical, Barnes's conception of Heaven is inherently patently flawed. It may be true that endless golf, continual holes in one, sexual fulfillment without the prospect of rejection, and the perpetual availability of everything one desires in life could become less desirable without any challenge in achieving those goals. However, that does not necessarily lead to the conclusion that eternal life (or "afterlife") is incapable of being fulfilling.

By definition, Heaven would not provide what one desired in such abundance or without sufficient challenge to render what was once pleasurable boring. In fact, that simplified description of Heaven has been used by science fiction writers, such as in the plot of the Twilight Zone episode "A Nice Place to Visit" (1960) in which the protagonist falsely assumes that he is in Heaven until struck by the same realization characterized by Barnes that life without any sort of challenge would be torturously boring rather than pleasurable.

Assuming there were such a thing as "Heaven" and also assuming that one would desire the same in the "afterlife" as one desired in life, Heaven would not provide so much of whatever one desired in life to make it unsatisfying. Rather, the concept of Heaven would, by definition, mean that the availability of whatever one desired or enjoyed would be available in precisely the quantity (and under the circumstances) that corresponded precisely to maximum possible enjoyment.

For example, if insufficient opportunity to play golf in life and insufficient skill to make it highly rewarding were addressed in Heaven, the solution would not be perpetual golf consisting…… [read more]

Ionized Calcium, Molecular Structure, and DNA Research Proposal

… Biology Qs

Ca2+ ions have two fewer electrons, giving them a positive charge. They are most likely to form ionic bonds.

Suspension: heterogeneous, solute un-dissolved and will settle (examples: blood, cytoplasm). Colloidal: solute equally distributed but not entirely broken down (examples: insulin, gelatin). Solution: solute entirely dissolved/evenly dispersed in solvent (examples: urine, synovial fluid).

Surface tension, caused by polar attraction between the different molecules.

DNA loses its structure and therefore ability to replicate without phosphorous. It is also essential for energy storage (ATP/ADP) and bone growth and health.

One way to make such a division is based on the function of these molecules within the body; lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates are all ingested and generally used as fuel for the body, whereas nucleic acids perform a different function. Molecular structure could also be used: nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids are all chain molecules, carbohydrates are not.


The membrane is fluid in that various substances can pass through it, so it is not solid, and a mosaic because it is composed of many different heterogeneous elemnts.


The…… [read more]

Life After Death Essay

… Reincarnation

As a believer in the Baha" religion, I most definitely subscribe to the notion of reincarnation. It is folly to think that we are here of this earth only once. Rather, we are part of a universal aspect, if you will. We are parts of a greater whole and, as such, we become an intricate aspect of this life. The Baha" faith includes the concept of an ability to continue a life of perfection beyond this life. A key concept of this belief is that the outward expression of man reflects his inward nature. When we look at life in this way, we are more prone to do good because we have an overarching reason to do so. Reincarnation makes sense as a part of life because it contributes to the wholeness of life and the continuance of life as one.

We are not of this world to live wholly unto ourselves. Beyond the tangible, there are things that contribute to this life and many of them determine the afterlife. I believe that all living things exist in a physical body and possess an immaterial entity, most commonly referred to as a soul or life force. In fact, many people believe in a soul. What we must do as responsible beings is consider why we have soul. Is it merely to prove we are alive? I think not. It is meant to move us through life. Upon death, the physical body is the only thing that actually dies. The life force, or soul, takes a new physical form, which is subject to the law of karma. In other words, how one has lived his or her life will determine his or her afterlife. This belief makes the most sense out of the world and how we live. If we are to believe that this life is all that we have, we are to behave with less regard for others and the world, for that is all there is. In essence, that is a cop out.

To completely…… [read more]

Life Support Term Paper

… Life Support is the methodology in which modern technology implements machines in order to sustain life in critical situations. Modern technology has offered more and more advanced tools of life support. However, there are several key issues which prove that life support is not always one-hundred percent beneficial, and these have raised some serious ethical questions. Despite it proving inefficient for some areas of the population, life support does prove beneficial in the resuscitation of many individuals.

According to the dictionary of medical terminology offered by MedicineNet.com, the term life support refers to "A therapy or device designed to preserve someone's life when an essential bodily system is not doing so," (Medicine Net, 2008). When an individual patient's body is too weak or incapacitated for whatever reason, the various implementations of life support can keep that patient alive during a crucial moment in their situations. Various devices have been developed and perfected in order to keep the functionality of the body performing even when some physical trauma or illness has prevented the body to do so naturally. These devices include features which keep the body nourished, such as enteric feeding in which the patient relies on nourishment through tube feeding, (Medicine Net, 2008).

Basic essential bodily functions are also supported through protection of both heart and lung function. A defibrillator is implemented in many cases in order to prevent the heart from stopping or falling into an irregular pattern which would further endanger the health of the patient under life support. A pacemaker is also sometimes implemented to prevent such an occurrence, (Medicine Net, 2008). Other machines are used as key elements of life support in keeping the lungs bringing in essential oxygen, while the body is too weak or unresponsive enough to voluntarily breathe.

Life support proves beneficial to many individuals who have had a trauma which led them into a vegetative state or coma. If the individual patient is suffering from one medial condition, research shows these patients have a better chance of resuscitation, (Katz-Wise, 2006).

This gives many doctors and professionals valuable time to find new ways to fight what is inflicting the individual to a state of true incapacitation. The American Medical Situation has recently implemented a program to further inform emergency medical life support in the event of a disaster or encounter which such needs, (American Medical Association, 2007). This provides necessary tools for emergency staff in the field, where trauma proves most detrimental in the earliest periods.

Despite the positive ramifications of life support, as well as the second chance it gives to those who are in dire need of specialized care, there are many individuals and groups who have string criticisms in regards to the ethics of using life support. Strong religious beliefs set a counter argument in the idea that we as mankind are not supposed to decide when and how a person is to die, so how could it be in our power to decide to keep someone alive when all… [read more]

Ancient Cultures the Purpose of Human Life Term Paper

… Ancient Cultures the Purpose of Human Life

In ancient cultures human life was the center of interest for everything. The entire construction of civilization was based on the human as main preoccupation and the most important element in the world. Modern concerns about the environment, animals and other conflicts that place humans on an equal position with the rest of the planet were weak or nonexistent many centuries back, when the sole interest that captured the attention of common people was to understand how their own society worked.

Referring specifically to the Roman and Greek culture, we can see their ideas about human life and human nature reflected in the many messages they left behind. Art manifestations are the most eloquent note left from those cultures and speak clearly about their spiritual vision and ideas. They reveal the need to answer the eternal question that tortured philosophers all through the Classic Period, about the purpose of human life and the role humanity played in the world. In their conception, humans' goal was to reach a divine harmony and force that would elevate them to the same level with the gods.

Their manifestation of culture and social behavior spins around the importance of human life. Science, astrology, philosophy and any other kind of intellectual activity was focused on studying humans and trying to figure the way life functioned, in order to reach the key to control their existence and destiny. Art was concerned with showing the beauty of human anatomy, while poetry was focused in recreating the human soul, and philosophy in understanding its complexity.

The human was the main subject for all the forms of expression in ancient societies, from art forms like poetry and theatre, to practical activities like politics. Their humanist vision left messages about their way of living and thinking, their spirit and preoccupations, ideas and feelings. The human life itself is the very subject they reflect in all of their artistic and intellectual expression.

Roman and Greek society had almost the same vision about human life and manifested their ideas almost in parallel ways, due to the great influence that the Greek society had over the Roman world. They valued their leisure and commodities in a way that modern civilization would never understand. For them time was relaxed and positive feelings cultivated. In the ancient conception human life was created to enjoy and grow spiritually, not to constrain and suffer as it was conceived in later centuries. They worshipped leisure and inner peace in the same way that modern society worships hard work and effort.

Work was then seen in a negative light, reserved for slaves and foreigners: the lower class. Of great importance were socializing activities such as attending public baths, walking on corridors specially arranged for this purpose and cultivating their minds with theatre and poetry. For the Greek one favorite activity was taking part in political meetings, where they could participate in decisions concerning the polis they lived in. A main part of… [read more]

Artificial Cells Term Paper

… Artificial Cell

Building an artificial cell

According to National Science Foundation researchers engaged in the study of the feasibility of constructing an artificial cell, the most difficult aspect of cellular biology to replicate artificially is the cell's complex exterior membrane. Each living cell is wrapped in a double-layered membrane made of oily lipid molecules. The membrane is lined with proteins and other molecules that control how food and wastes get in and out of a cell, how cells signal to and react to their environment, and how the cells divide and grow ("Team receives grant to study artificial cell membranes,"2005, Stanford News: Press Release). Feeding, movement, respiration (breathing), growth and development, sensitivity, reproduction, and excretion are the seven essential characteristics of a living being. To create such a being artificially, the solution is to seek a chemical means to reproduce these functions, all of which involve the cell membrane in some shape or form.

The cell membrane is double-layered and is made of oily lipid or fat-like molecules. Proteins in the cell control how food and wastes get in and out of a cell, how cells signal to and react to their environment, and how they divide and grow. One solution is to use…… [read more]

Emily Dickinson Is Viewed by Many Historians Term Paper

… Emily Dickinson is viewed by many historians as the greatest female poet of American history, yet a true understanding of how she came to be both profound and articulate has been hard to come by. The voice that she uses… [read more]

Gilgamesh and Isaiah - Views on Life Term Paper

… Gilgamesh and Isaiah - Views on Life

In the Epic of Gilgamesh, written circa 1700 B.C.E. And discovered in the ruins of Nineveh in 1853, the view on life is basically centered on civilization itself, meaning that man, through "temperance, wisdom and piety... learns to rule himself and therefore his people" (Mitchell, 2004, p. 7). Gilgamesh, the main character in this epic, sees the world around him as a very mysterious place filled with much danger and personal challenges. His journey, composed of various adventures with the goal being to defeat the forces of evil in the world, leads to "a spiritual transformation, a sense of gratitude, humility and deepened trust in the intelligence of the universe" (Mitchell, 2004, pps. 51-52). Thus, life is replete with the unknown and is invariably controlled by destiny and fate.

Conversely, Isaiah views life as one of universal redemption filled with faith and hope. As one of the major prophets of Israel, Isaiah preaches the power of righteous suffering and the role of Israel as witness and mediator between God (Yahweh) and the other nations of the world. Thus, in contrast to the view held by Gilgamesh, Isaiah sees life as being under the control and dominance of God and understands that man must obey the divine plan set forth by God which will allow all humankind to live in peace and harmony. However, Isaiah would surely have agreed with the basic message contained in the Epic of Gilgamesh, namely, the man should live his life with temperance, wisdom and piety.

The Hebrews, Egyptians and Mesopotamians:

The Nature of God:

For the Hebrews, the nature of God was One all-powerful, a God that created the world and set man in it to be governed by God's laws and commandments as handed down by Moses. Similarly, the Mesopotamians were under the protection of the God of the city (En-lil), yet they also believed that the Gods could be benevolent and malevolent while personifying…… [read more]

Embryos and Fetuses in Research Term Paper

… Embryos and Fetuses in Research

The main difference between the inner cell mass of day 14 and day 22 is that the inner cell mass at day 14 has the potential not only to form any human body cell, but can also become an entirely new embryonic cell mass. This phenomenon occurs during the unaided process of twinning, when the fertilized egg splits exactly in half to form two or more identical embryos. However, on day 22, the cardiac cells of the embryonic cell mass first begin to beat, signifying the first heart beat.

A certain degree of self-sufficiency needs to be established before an embryo or fetus can be afforded the same rights and considerations as a person. During much of its development, the embryo is a collection of cells. While powerful, this cellular mass contains few if any human characteristics. No less remarkable than the cellular masses that form any other living creature, the embryo in early stages of development cannot be considered a human being. Even at day 22, when the primitive heart forms more fully, the embryo should not be afforded the rights and privileges of a human being because the heart cells are not fully formed, let alone the rest of the body. When the brain becomes more fully developed and the fetus is finally capable of surviving outside of the mother's body…… [read more]

Conway Game of Life Term Paper

… Conway Game of Life

The Game of Life (or simply Life) is, briefly, a two-dimensional cellular automata universe governed by a simple set of birth, death and survival rules. It was invented in 1970 by the Cambridge mathematician John Horton… [read more]

Mind-Based Identity: A Problem Impossible Term Paper

… The fact is, many consider the definition of faith, itself, to be the antithesis of logic -- and most certainly the antitheses of science. Yet, take a close look at all of the reasoning applied to each viewpoint, and there… [read more]

In Vitro Fertilization Term Paper

… In vitro takes away that which is human and replaces it with greed, abuse of power and the potential for devastation.

In Vitro and the Destruction of Human Life

In vitro fertilization can also be utilized to help people pre-select… [read more]

G Protein-Linked Receptors an Organism Term Paper

… Messenger molecules may be amino acids, peptides, proteins, fatty acids, lipids, nucleosides or nucleotides. Hydrophobic messengers bind to intracellular receptors that regulate or influence expression of specific genes.

A ligand binds its receptor through specific weak non-covalent bonds by suiting… [read more]

Life: Purpose Term Paper

… .. (therefore whoever) calls to mind the atrocities of the early migrations, of the invasion by the Huns or by the so-called Mongols under Genghis Khan and Tamurlane, of the sack of Jerusalem by the pious Crusaders, even indeed the… [read more]

Daoism Philosophy Essay

… Asian Philosophy: Daoism

Daoism, is the first religion of China. Religion, as is generally understood the world over, in practicing certain tenets, following rituals, belief in a particular philosophy and all that constitutes a religion. However, in its narrative as… [read more]

Embryos and Humanity Research Paper

… Stem Cell Research: Why Embryonic Stem Cell Research Is Unnecessary and Immoral

For decades, many people in the health sciences have been touting stem cell research as a promising means of finding cures for a range of debilitating diseases. While… [read more]

Biochemistry Similarity of Glycolysis Essay

… (Macmillian Higher Education, 2014, paraphrased) The caffeine molecule, due to being large and polar is not likely to undergo diffusion through the cell membrane's nonpolar lipids and instead it reported to bind to "receptors on the surface of the nerve cells in the brain." (Macmillian Higher Education, 2014, p. 1)

The nucleoside adenosine is reported to accumulate in the individual's brain when then individual undergoes stress or has ongoing mental activity. (Macmillian Higher Education, 2014, paraphrased) However, when it does binds to a specific receptor in the brain, "adenosine sets in motion a signal transduction pathway that results in reduced brain activity, which usually means drowsiness. This membrane-associated signaling by adenosine has evolved as a protective mechanism against the adverse effects of stress." (Macmillian Higher Education, 2014, p. 1)

Caffeine is reported to have an adenosine structure that is three dimensional in nature with the ability to bond the receptor of the adenosine however, since this binding fails to activate the receptor, caffeine is allowed to function "as an antagonist of adenosine signaling, with the result that the brain stays active and the person remains alert." (Macmillian Higher Education, 2014, p. 1) Caffeine additionally blocks the enzyme cAMP phosphodiesterase" which acts in "signal transduction to break down the second messenger cAMP. (Macmillian Higher Education, 2014, paraphrased)


Cell Membranes and Signaling (2014) Macmillan Higher Ed. Retrieved from: http://www.macmillanhighered.com/catalog/static/whf/hillispreview/POL_Mktg_CH05_.pdf… [read more]

Ecological Conscience Essay

… The doctrines by Aldo were quite precise and coherent though applying his ideas literally what challenges many people. We have to know what is ethically and esthetically right for the environment since it is how we develop the sense of… [read more]

Birthmark Hawthorne's "The Birthmark" Nathaniel Essay

… If there was any rosiness in her cheeks, it was difficult to see, and "when she blushed it gradually became more indistinct, an finally vanished amid the triumphant rush of blood that bathed the whole cheek." (Hawthorne) The birthmark was so small that it could be covered completely with Georgiana's two fingertips; hardly a major physical ailment or deformity. But because Aylmer's true love was science, and its promise of complete control over nature and it's errors, a small birthmark became, to Aylmer, a symbol of nature's mistakes. And because Aylmer was a scientist, he believed that his science could solve what he came to view as a major defect when in reality it was only a small inconvenience. His belief that science could solve any problem ultimately clouded his vision and judgment.

This blurring of judgment can be demonstrated by Hawthorne's constant reference to the small and insignificant birthmark in extreme terms. It is referred to as a "fatal birthmark," and a "cureless deformity," and later Aylmer describes the birthmark to his wife as having "clutched its grasp into your being." Clearly this small blemish, as a fault of nature which Aylmer believes can be repaired through science, has become to Aylmer something much larger. Aylmer created a problem where there was none so that science could solve it.

In the end Aylmer's faith that science could remove the birthmark was not misplaced, he did discover a way. However, because his love of science was greater than his love of his wife, he allowed her to risk her life; which resulted in her death. Science was so ingrained into Aylmer's being that something insignificant became something so horrible that he was willing to gamble, and lose, his wife. And yet, in the aftermath of his wife's death, Hawthorne postulates a question, "had Aylmer reached a profounder wisdom?" The kind of wisdom that, for instance, Kurt Vonnegut's hero Harrison Bergeron seems to recognize when he rejected society's reliance on science and technology to create what they saw as perfection. Both "The Birthmark" and "Harrison Bergeron" discuss man's attempt to use science to create perfection, and what is lost as a result. Aylmer's attempt to fix nature's mistake and make his wife perfect, and Vonnegut's dystopian society's attempt to impose perfect equality demonstrate that mankind can use science to perform such feats however they often come at a tremendous price.

Works Cited

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Birthmark." The Literature Network. Web 21 Sept. 2013


Vonnegut, Kurt. "Harrison Bergeron." Wordfight.org. Web. 21 Sept. 2013.

http://www.wordfight.org/bnw/bnw-unit_packet.pdf… [read more]

Nature Culture Progress Essay

… Nature Culture Progress

A & H. 1300 Nature, Culture, Progress

Nature Culture Progress and Human Being

Human beings are wild as beasts and civilized like the crown of creation is supposed to be. We humans, as philosophers have agreed and… [read more]

Human Nature Has Been a Subject Essay

… Human nature has been a subject of debate amongst the classical Chinese philosophers. Please present your understanding of this concept by focusing on one or two Chinese philosophers' perspective.

When considering good and evil, one must ask himself what is… [read more]

Philosophic Value in Nassim Taleb's Tome Book Report

… ¶ … philosophic value in Nassim Taleb's tome, Fooled by Randomness, as there is pragmatic or financial value. To the author's credit, he is able to seamlessly blend his conception of fiscal practices, events and human nature so that he neglects neither philosophy nor practicality while positing a viewpoint that, while not everyone will necessarily agree with it, will certainly provoke analysis. Essentially, what Taleb has done with this particular work is to examine the effects of randomness in financial situations and then apply conclusions that he has drawn from them to larger realms of life itself. The work focuses on probability and how human nature internalizes and responds to it -- which allows the author to produce findings or best practices for fiscal and general life matters.

The central thesis that the author's other themes revolve around is that many events and occurrences in human life are attributable to randomness, or to luck itself. Such a thesis seems highly contentious at best, but the financial writer and trader goes to great lengths to demonstrate its veracity. Such an assertion, of course, is counterintuitive to human nature -- which likes to draw effects from distinct causes and to attribute desired results to preparation, intelligence, and other virtues. Despite the author's specific examples related to trading and other pecuniary practices, the main way he buttresses his contention is by citing the fact (in the third chapter) that all too often, people utilize a narrow time frame when analyzing the odds of a desirable outcome. In this respect, Taleb appears to have a valid point. By analyzing data from a finite epoch, such as a span of say, three or four years, random events can appear exceedingly less so. However, when extending the time frame in which such events are analyzed, one realizes that there are a multitude of other outcomes which may not be as desirable -- which ultimately alludes to the fact that luck, regardless of other factors, played a demonstrable role in such a desired outcome.

Yet just as important as analyzing the outcome of events in too narrow a time space are certain intrinsic aspects of human nature itself. In the second chapter Taleb discusses the fact that it is not uncommon for people to best remember -- and refer to -- examples of winners (be they those who retired from lucrative trading, from building profitable companies or achieving success in some other field) rather than losers. This proclivity in human nature accounts for the fact that many people are willing to overlook simple statistical and mathematical odds and allow their judgment and actions to be determined by 'success stories'. A good deal of Taleb's book focuses on the fact that human nature is counterintuitive to statistical facts. People tend to act based on their emotions, their adrenaline, excitement and a host of other factors that are easily swayed by random events. In the eleventh chapter the author claims that this tendency is explicable in part due to… [read more]

True Meaning of Snow David Research Paper

… The trial is harsh, in that it is very unfair to the defendant, Kabuo, because he is of Japanese descent. During the time the novel is set, Japan had attacked Pearl Harbor, resulting in a war between the U.S.A. And Japan. Many people on the island fought in the war, hence their strong disliking for Japanese people, which Kabuo is. When a snowstorm comes, people have to prepare for the worst, such as falling trees, power shortages, and even accidental deaths, which is a parallel in the book, because the snow falling prepares Kabuo's family for the worst possible outcome, his possible death. Kabuo's trial is unjust because the jurors have strong racial feelings against Japanese, and so to show how unreasonable the trial is, Guterson adds a snowstorm to the setting, symbolizing an inhospitable, cold time.

Because of its dual nature, snowstorms also have good outcomes. Just before the verdict comes out, the snowstorm stops, and the snow starts melting. This melting cleanses the town of racial tensions, and foreshadows something good that is going to occur, in this case, the dropping of Kabuo's case. Also, the snow covering the island is "general all over" (Foster 81) San Piedro, acting as a unifier between the different races, and showing that inside, everyone is the same. It is also worth noting the role seasons play in the book, which interrelate with the weather. All the happy memories people have of the past take place in spring, which symbolizes times of enjoyment, "childhood and youth" (Foster 178). During those memories, the people are young, which spring signifies. It is also no coincidence that the harsh trial takes place in winter, which symbolizes "old age and resentment and death" (Foster 178). The people are grown up during the time of the trial, so it is appropriate for the season to be winter, representing their old age. The weather and the seasons all play vital roles in the novel.

In conclusion, Playing in the snow can be fun, but as many can attest too, also quite precarious. When we have fun playing in the snow, we rarely think about the negative consequences of our actions, such as taking a big fall while snowboarding and maybe even breaking a bone or two by doing so, or even getting caught in the midst of a dangerous snowstorm, which can wreak havoc in an entire city. Snow can be entertaining, yet dangerous at the same time, and it is this dual nature that it possesses that makes snow an important element in the book Snow Falling on Cedars, important enough for David Guterson, the author, to include it in the title of the book. Because of snow's essential part in the book, it is included in the title of the book. Snow, like many other things, can be extremely fun and exciting, but it can also be extremely hazardous and severe. Next time when we read a book, we should always check the forecast, for it… [read more]

Green Developmentalism, Its Concepts Term Paper

… They term green developmentalism as a way of re-politicizing nature since it has been resituated in social and ecological space and time.

The author deals with nature and how it can be commoditized. The author terms nature as a commodity such that natural entities and processes can be made exchangeable through markets. For nature to succeed in markets there has to be privatization and commoditization of all aspects of nature from molecules to mountains, from human tissues to the earth's atmosphere. Nature can hence be viewed on the basis of a global environmental economic structure that reduces organisms and ecosystems to their fungible components and a monetary price assigned to them which is calculated in reference to actual or hypothetical markets to the components. Through this natural resources can be prioritized and their international exchange managed. The ability to price nature has therefore mad nature possible to survive in the world market. The author has also termed nature as a commodity that can sustain itself. Therefore nature forms the centre of the article and how it is viewed on different aspects and the institutions that come into play when it comes to dealing with nature. The benefits accrued from nature and how important nature is to economic development globally.

The author also talks of three forms of power and how they interplay in terms of green developmentalism. These forms of power are discursive power of the post-neoliberal environmental economic structure, the institutional power of the World Bank and other environmental institutions and lastly the economic power of advanced capitalist states and transnational corporations. There is an intricate interplay of all these forms of power and how they are relevant in terms of green developmentalism as depicted in the article.

A question that occurs to me while reading the article is if nature can really be quantified and valuated in monetary terms. If put in monetary terms is the real value of nature maintained or does its valuation go down when it is put in terms of money. Can nature really be viewed as a commodity without tampering with its real value and when exchanged in the world market can its value be lost in the process?

The article relates to my life since through the article I have changed the way I perceive nature and therefore will be keen on how to conserve nature. Taking care of nature starts with an individual and hence everyone has the obligation to do so that is inclusive of as…… [read more]

Walden an Eden? Analysis Essay

… The revolutionaries of the 1960s would find in Thoreau's writings the clarity of vision and thought to recognize structural violence -- though they would not yet know well that term. Thoreau repeatedly observed the manner in which private property can enslave people and pit them against one another. For those who seek a personal peace, Thoreau cautioned against accepting the media's version of the news and the truth as a substitution for the solidity of private reality. "Shams and delusions are esteemed for soundest truths, while reality is fabulous…Let us settle ourselves, and work and wedge our feet downward through the mud and slush of opinion, and prejudice, and tradition, and delusion, and appearance... till we come to a hard bottom and rocks in place, which we can call reality..."Indeed, those who desire to come to the hard bottom and work with reality are often seen to choose a simplified lifestyle. Those who give themselves over to religious lives of service -- of those extraordinary individuals like Dr. Paul Farmer -- readily testify that they achieve a measure of peace that a life in…… [read more]

Growing Organic Vegetables I Just Essay

… Poking my finger into the rich, loamy soil, dropping a few seeds in the hole and covering them, lightly soaking the soil with water, and then waiting for the sprouting seeds to poke through in search of life-giving sunlight, reminds me that life, despite our personal and societal machinations, has its own internal clock.

Being reminded that life has its own speed, largely independent of human control, would not be enough on its own to justify creating an organic vegetable garden. While tending to the plants and watching them mature is a pleasant reminder of the solar cycles, harvesting and consuming the fruits of my labor has another unique reward. The tasks of planting, tending, harvesting, and consuming my organic vegetables remind me that the cycle of life is not an abstract theory entombed in some musty old biology textbook, but an expression of my life as well. This sense of being an integral part of nature is renewed every time my teeth crunch into an unbelievably delicious carrot or tomato, which I watched grow from a seed over a period of months. I can't help but ponder the web of mutually beneficial connections between ourselves and countless other forms of life, which have survived over unknown millennia. The carrot plant benefits from my need for nutrition and I'm rewarded in turn by the burst of flavor and nutrition in every bite. The purchase and consumption of store bought vegetables simply cannot provide the same experience.

Growing my own organic vegetable garden therefore reminds me that I am a part of nature, the part still controlled by the sun and integral to the cycle of life. The effect is not unlike standing on the edge of the Grand Canyon and being reminded of how insignificant human kind is in the big scheme of the universe, but not quite so cold and indifferent. Growing my own organic vegetable garden is my way of being reminded of my own,…… [read more]

Alternation of Generations Alteration Essay

… It is called parasite only due to the reason that a baby is parasite on its mother.

However, the situation is opposite in the vascular plants, as the sporophyte dominates the life cycle. Example can be any tree or flower or any other vascular plant in which the gametophyte is microscopic in size and grows like a parasite on the sporophyte tissue or plant. This gametophyte than becomes the part of the seed in the flowering plants.

The Flowering plants show the most currently evolved forms of the plant. In these plants, only the sporophyte generation is apparent, while the gametophyte generation is so much reduced that it only appears as a parasite within the tissue of the flower of the host sporophyte. It is a fact that flower is the significant feature of the reproduction and a complex reproductive organ (Reed, 1942) and as stated above, the gametophyte in the flowering plants is microscopic. It dies after the fertilization and is than absorbed by the embryo (Niklas, 1990). Due to this little presence of the gametophyte, it is considered only as a parasite of the sporophyte as the plants have been evolved ( Fried & Hademenos, 1999).


Fried, G and Hademenos, G. (1999). Schaum's Outline of Problems of Theory and Biology. Second Edition. The McGraw-Hill Companies. Retrieved July 11, 2012 http://books.google.com.sa/books?id=_XZtGXJIQA4C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Schaum%E2%80%99s+Outline+of+Problems+of+Theory+and+Biology&hl=en&sa=X&ei=IQr9T6b2IOOx0QXE0cihBw&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Schaum%E2%80%99s%20Outline%20of%20Problems%20of%20Theory%20and%20Biology&f=false

Niklas, K. (1999, May). Microscopic Mating Game. Natural History, 108, 44. Retrieved July 11, 2012, from Questia

database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035650896

Polunin, N. (1960). Introduction to Plant Geography and Some Related Sciences. London: Longmans. Retrieved July 11, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77755670

Reed, H.S. (1942). A Short History of the Plant Sciences. Waltham, MA: Chronica Botanica. Retrieved July 11,

2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=6615070… [read more]

Tumor Suppression Protein 53 Research Paper

… The paradox of p53 lies in the relationship between reducing cancer from spontaneous mutations allowing increased survival through simply not developing cancer, and the corresponding decrease in life through normal aging processes where cells in organs are not regenerated at rates that maintain the organs and tissues as static with unlimited renewal. A systematic review of literature for human patients who carry a defective p53 genetic mutation that inhibits p53 suppression show a 2.54:1 higher risk of cancer mortality, however, that same study showed that for patients who reached 85 years or older in the same population of mutated p53, the population with the mutation had a 41% longer life span (Bonafe 2004). Although the biomedical rationale for the precise activity of p53 in human life has not been elucidated for both the optimum prevention of cancer and the highest rate of cellular regeneration in tissue and organs, it is conceivable that there could be a specific balance for the interaction of this protein and increased lifespan.


1) What are the primary effects of complete suppression of p53 for cells? Why would limiting programmed cell death be a bad event in normal cell life cycle?

2) What feasible effect would there be on a person who had a conceivable hyper p53 where their immune system and over-expressed p53 destroys all malfunctioning cells with any point mutation?

3) Can you conceive of a mechanism whereby p53 is only turned on when absolutely necessary in a cell: an effective "limited" p53 such that only gross mutations trigger apoptosis? What are the positive and negative implications of this as a person ages?


Alberts, B. Johnson, A. Lewis, J. Raff, M. Roberts, K. Walter, P. (2008). "Chapter 18 Apoptosis: Programmed Cell Death Eliminates Unwanted Cells." Molecular Biology of the Cell (5th ed.). Garland Science, New York

Bonafe M., Salvioli S., Barbi C., Trapassi C., Tocco F., Storci G., Invidia L., Vannini I., Rossi M. (2004) The different apoptotic potential of the p53 codon 72 alleles increases with age and modulates in vivo ischaemia-induced cell death. Cell Death Differentiation 11-962 -- 973

Levine, A.J., Momand, J., Finlay, C.A. (1991) The p53 tumour suppressor gene, Nature, 351, 453-456

Marchenko N.D., Zaika A., Moll U.M. (2000) Death signal-induced localization of p53 protein to mitochondria. A potential role in apoptotic signaling. Journal of Biological Chem 275, 16202 -- 16212

Rodier, F. Campisi, J. Bhaumik, D. Two faces of p53: Aging and Tumor Suppression (2007) Nucleic Acids Research 35(22) 7475-7484

Pereira-Smith, O. M> Smith, J.R. Evidence for the recessive nature of cellular immortality. Science, 221, 964-966

Takaoka A, Hayakawa, S. Yanai, H. Stoiber, D. Negishi, H. Kikuchi, H; Sasaki, S. Imai, K et al. (2003). "Integration of interferon-alpha/beta signalling to p53 responses in tumour suppression and antiviral defence." Nature 424-516 -- 523

Tyner SD, Venkatachalam S, Choi J, Jones S, Ghebranious N, Igelmann H, Lu X, Soron…… [read more]

Lost Relationship With Nature Creative Writing

… ¶ … lives, she was a constant. She was enveloping. At many times, she was forceful. So today, as we mourn her, we do so in a state of shock, in a state of disbelief, in recognition that as many times as this very day had been ominously predicted, it seemed verily beyond our comprehension to image that it might actually come. But it is with a heavy heart and the fear of great loss that we acknowledge the arrival of this day, and that we eulogize our mother nature and our relationship with her. Both of been lost in the shuffle of modernity. First abandoned for industry, then obscured by urbanization and ultimately dispatched in favor of humanity's all-consuming ambition, nature belonged to all of us and none of us. In our possessiveness, we could not reconcile that. And now, we must suffer a world without her. On days such as this, a comforting word can be difficult to offer.

But, with a heavy heart, I can say that the passing of nature brings us great grief while bringing lush, verdant resiliency to the heavens above. As Eric Idle would observe on the passing of his close friend and former Beatle George Harrison in 2001, his "passing was really sad but it does make the afterlife seem much more attractive" (Idle, p. 1) We can say this now about our connection to nature as well, which has been lost in the wave of complexities that we refer to as life but which will be regained again when each of us returns to the dust from whence we came. If nature's effervescent vibrancy can no longer be felt, seen, heard and inhaled in our current state of vitality, each of us knows that its warm embrace is what awaits us on the other side of death's cold shadow. So even as we feel a sense of emptiness by her absence simply too expansive and hollow to fill, perhaps we can adorn it with the promise of a reunion in this eventuality which must claim us all.

Still, we should not be relegated only to treasuring our memories of nature with this eventuality at hand. First and foremost, nature has been a force connected to life, living, loving and learning. And in exchange, it has been an entity deserving of our vitality, our adoration and our attentiveness. So too mourn her must not be to forget her presence in our lives, even as imperfect as our relationship to her has been. This imperfection is critical to our humanity and the to the humanity that nature reflected back…… [read more]

Night That She Lived Essay

… Those outside the circle could go on living without a remembrance of the woman or the profound nature of death.

The third profound paradox regards time and its measure on life and death, as in one passage time is "narrow" while in the next line indicates that the "notice came" at great "length." This loss of a sense of time that often accompanies monumental and cathartic events. Time seems both infinite and short because all is being noticed and no one has words, "Too jostled were our souls to speak."

Even the title of the poem is a paradox that supports the idea of the transience of life. "The Last Night She Lived," as if living can be defined by the prone still and non-responsive dying woman on a bed. The only definition would be a legal and possibly emotional one, as living denotes a much more active and fruitful existence. While the act of dying is described as peaceful, excluding the "mentioned and forgot" passage where with baited breath the loved one sit around watching and waiting. Peaceful death is very much like this, as a person will pause many times until they finally seem to forget to breath that last time.

In conclusion this poem demonstrates a rather straightforward approach to the nature of life and death. The theme of the work is the transience of life, how the world can simply go on even while an important member of it is dying. The work to the reader demonstrates a poignant view into what it is like to think and feel through the death of someone close to you. The final passage regarding the universal message of the work closes with the feeling of relief associated with the loss of the demands of care of the individual as well as the relief associated with the relent of suffering experienced by those who are terminally ill and the aftermath of death. "And then an awful leisure was, / Our faith to regulate" is an expression of the way many people feel when they have lost someone they cared for, often physically and mentally at their own anguish and emotional peril. It's like saying now what will we do with ourselves, feeling both relief and guilt for the expected event unfolding. The techniques of the author to basically place a window into the mind of those experiencing the death of a loved one through the use of the paradox is essential to the theme and very effective, and the element of fiction used also help unify the theme and give the story its meaning both surface and deep, closing with…… [read more]

Isotonic Hypertonic Hypotonic and Relate Them to a Clinical Implication Application Research Paper

… ¶ … Isotonic, Hypertonic, Hypotonic and Relate Them to a Clinical Implication (application)

Hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic solutions

In biology the concentration of solutions is very important as it determines the water content of the cells. Water movement in and… [read more]

Living Organisms Term Paper

… Living organisms are all around us and all have some basic, common characteristics that. This does not make any living organism any less complex or any less unique. This essay will consider those characteristics which identify a living organism from a non-living organism and take a look at the complexity of cells in living organisms. How the atoms within a cell work, the complexity of a cell's organization compared to that of a city, the help a cell gets from enzymes, respiration vs. photosynthesis, and the formation of peptide and disaccharide molecules will all be considered.

Living organisms have a number of common characteristics that could help one determine if there were living organisms when on a star planet. First of all, organization; even the simplest living organisms have a high level of organization. Next there is homeostasis. Living organisms are able to keep a constant, stable internal environment. Then there is adaptation to consider. Living organisms are made in a way that allows them to live in their specific environment. Reproduction must also be looked at. Living organisms all have some way of reproducing either asexually or sexually. Next to consider is that all living organisms must grow and develop. Living organisms must also have some way to get energy through sunlight, inorganic chemicals, or another organism; and then be able to release it. It must also be considered that living organisms must be able to detect and respond to stimuli internally and externally. Last to consider is interactions. Living organisms are able to interact with their environment, along with each other. (Farabee, 2010a)

An atom is a chemical unit within the structure of a cell and consists of a nucleus in the center with protons, neutrons and electrons. The protons have a +1 positive charge while the neutrons have a -1 negative charge. Electrons also have a -1 negative charge. If an atom gains neutrons, its atomic weight increases. If it loses neutrons, then its atomic weight decreases. When an atom gains protons it becomes an atom of the element with the next highest atomic number and if it loses protons, then it becomes an atom of the element with the next lowest atomic number. The gain of an electron gives an atom an extra -1 charge, while the loss of an electron gives it an extra +1 charge. ("Chemical Composition of the Body," 2005)

From looking at atoms, one can tell that cells can be pretty complex. They could be compared to a city. Take the nucleus, which contains the cells genetic material, or DNA; it can be thought of as city hall, while the DNA within the nucleus is the laws and regulations of the city. The cell membrane has gates, channels and pumps that either let in or force out certain molecules in order to protect the cell's internal environment and could be thought of as the police force of the city. The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) assembles the cell's proteins…… [read more]

Theology the Theological Message Research Paper

… But at the end of all effort, he saw that everything he had achieved was only vanity and of no profit to him. He realized that he could not gain more, spend more, collect more, carouse more or sin more… [read more]

Respiratory Pathophysiology and Pharmacology Case Case Study

… Primarily because the invasive mechanism used would not be appropriate for humans, and the particular cellular mechanisms being studied were common to rat and human cells. In the case of this study the mechanisms used in the study were complete and reliable.


In a world in which air pollution is said to cause multiple adverse effects within the human organism, it is necessary for health professionals to understand the truth behind the claims. It is necessary that health professionals educate themselves with regard to scientific studies conducted in such matters, so that they can adequately educate patients and general members of the public. This study shows that there is basically no way for the lungs to stop the advance of ultrafine particles from lung tissue to liver, cardiac and nervous tissue; and some of these particles can be very damaging.


Delfino, R.J., Sioutas, C., & Malik, S. (2005). Potential role of ultrafine particles in associations between ultrafine particle mass and cardiovascular health. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(8), 934-952.

Geiser, M., Rothen-Rutishauser, B., Kapp, N., Schurch, S., Kreyling, W., Schulz, H., Semmler, M., Hof, V.I., Heyder, J., & Peter, G., 2005. Ultrafine particles cross cellular membranes by nonphagocytic mechanisms in lungs and in cultured cells. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(11), pp. 1555-1565.

Morishita, M., & Engebrecht, G. (2005). End3p-mediated endocytosis is required for spore wall formation in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. Genetics, 170(4), 1561-1565.

Sena, E.S., van der Worp, H.B., Bath, P.M.W., Howells, D.W., & Macleod, M.R., 2010. Publication bias in reports of animal stroke studies leads to major overstatement of efficacy. PLoS…… [read more]

Stem Cell Research the Legal Research Paper

… Bush (Executive Order 13505, pg. 10667).

How do other countries handle stem cell research? In a word -- varied. Some countries are pioneers in stem cell research (Singapore) and others put patients at serious risk with little to no oversight such as Mexico (Pew Forum, 2008). Countries on every continent have some type of thriving industry in stem cell research. In Africa, South Africa created a stem cell bank (Pew Forum, 2008). In Asia, Singapore is considered "Asia's stem cell center," but despite the fraud and the public backlash from Dr. Hwang Woo-suk's research, South Korea's government is very supportive of stem cell research (Pew Forum, 2008). In Europe, Germany has the most restrictions on research while the U.K. is considered to be a leader on the European front (Pew Forum, 2008).

In comparison to the U.S.'s efforts on stem cell research compared to other countries, we are in a catch-up phase. Many countries have promoted and sponsored research on stem cells while much of the 2000's was a period in which stem cell research was banned.

Final Thoughts -- An Endorsement for Stem Cell Research

I am a firm believer in the necessity of stem cell research. So much potential exists in this budding field. Regenerative medicine, palliative care, and treatment for neurological disorders are just a sample of what the science can do; however, there are some pitfalls that we have to understand and avoid. This is an industry, just like much of medicine, in which there has to be considerable oversight and legal control to prevent abuse, fraud, and a danger to the patient seeking treatment.

Stem cell research should require legal oversight similar to how human subject research is conducted in that an institutional review board (IRB) provides approval and oversight on research on human subjects, should approve/disprove any proposals regarding stem cell research. Secondly, amendments and/or changes need to be made to the review board. Failure to comply should bring potential consequences such as debarment and/or stiffer penalties depending upon the nature of the violation. Currently, the National Institutes of Health has much of these guidelines in place (NIH, 2009).

In conclusion, there is much debate and ethical considerations for stem cell research; however, the potential for what they can and the results that the public has seen in infancy is nothing short of astounding. Hopefully, the promises of this type of research leaves the drawing board and becomes the reality of our tomorrow.


Author Unknown (2009). Timeline: A Brief History of Stem Cell Research. Science Progress. Retrieved June 9, 2011 from http://www.scienceprogress.org/2009/01/timeline-a-brief-history-of-stem-cell-research/

Chapman A.R., Frankel M.S., Garfinkel M.S. (November 1999). Stem Cell Research and Applications Monitoring the Frontiers of Biomedical Research. American Association for the Advancement of Science & Institute for Civil Society. Retrieved June 9, 2011 from http://www.aaas.org/spp/sfrl/projects/stem/report.pdf

Francis, B. MEDICAL SCIENCE: Media hype over cloning and embryo stem cells. News Weekly, (22, July 2006). Retrieved June 9, 2011 from http://www.newsweekly.com.au/articles/2006jul22_m.html

The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Stem Cell Research… [read more]

Stem Cell the Recent Discovery Research Paper

… Pardal et. al (2003) presented a very simple and explicit comparison of how stem cells can be used effectively in treating cancer. Ultimately he realized that research could ultimately cure cancer" and it might be possible develop therapies are effective against metastatic disease" (p.901). Experts ultimately concluded that stem cell therapy will eventually be the most productive way of eliminating cardiac disorders. It is therefore obvious that this technology is useful and can contribute to humanity in a positive way.


When does life begin? That is essentially what needs to be answered before stem cell research originating from embryos needs to be answered. "For those who believe the human embryo from the one cell stage onwards has absolute moral value, equal to that of a newborn baby or adult, any embryo research is ethically unacceptable as it is tantamount to murder " (McLaren 2001, p. 130). Can this question even be answered scientifically? In many ways life seems to begin at this stage of embryo evident by its usefulness in regenerating cells in stem cell therapy. But that does not make it right. Just because something works does not mean it's acceptable behavior for all society to follow. Murder often works in solving temporary problems but does not excuse the greater moral or ethical questions.

The question is further distorted when one is to understand that many of the embryos that are being used for this research will eventually be destroyed or thrown out. These existing sources of potential healing substance should not be wasted either. It should come down to the individual and what the individual believes is right or wrong. Treating others as one would like to be treated serves as the best moral compass in today's society. The potential for embryo farming and the profit schemes behind these types of endeavors are eventualities in a capitalistic system so encouraging embryonic stem cell research would also encourage this behavior as well. For some, this is permissible, for others it is not.


While my opinion the embryonic stem cell research should be stopped and not encouraged the current stockpile of embryos that can be used for stem cell regenerative purposes should be used. Adult stem cell research should be fully employed in as many levels possible in order to both provide a helpful medical technological advancement and a moral and ethical way of regenerating life through empathetic understanding and sacrifice. Stealing the regenerative powers of a small life form tends to elevate the current human situation above the future prospects. Living in the moment is important but not to sacrifice the future and all of its possible solutions to other problems that can be inspired out of this particular problem. As society preys on the youngest forms of humanity it will no doubt take a serious toll on the psyche of the collective unit as a whole and manifest itself in ways not predicted or expected.

Taking a higher… [read more]

Ucar Turker A, Yucesan Article Review

… 92 M. Of IBA was the auxin and the concentration which gave the best results. But in terms of the overall percentage of shoots that rooted, then 5.71M of IAA was the best auxin and concentration.

It turns out that the regeneration efficiency, the efficiency at which the different parts of the plant were able to regenerate both shoots and roots, was higher in the stem internode part of the plant than in the petiole part of the plant, but only when using the auxin IAA in conjunction with TDZ. The authors also discovered that an auxin was absolutely necessary as one of the growth regulators; and without the auxin IAA, the other regulators did not produce any results. Next they discovered that the regeneration of the roots supplemented with IBA had more roots per shoot, but, in terms of the percentage of shoots that actually rooted, the shoots that had been grown with IAA had a higher percentage. In other words, shoots grown in IAA had a better chance of rooting, but shoots grown in IBA gave the higher number of roots per shoot.

The purpose of this study was to discover a procedure for regenerating the plant Verbena officinalis. It was to discover what part of the plant was best for use in regeneration, as well as which combinations and concentrations of growth regulators were necessary. In this the authors were successful and have created an efficient protocol for doing so. It requires the stem internodes of Verbena officinalis grown in IAA to produce shoots, and then grown in IBA in order to produce roots.

However, the authors used different procedures for experimenting on the growth of the shoots and roots. The authors used a variety of growth regulators when they tested the growth of shoots, but then used a variety of auxins when testing the growth of roots. While this may be an effective means of discovering a protocol, this leaves the reader with many questions. If IAA, used in conjunction with BA or TDZ, will aid in the development of shoots, why then did the researchers only test the auxins in the second part of the experiment; and not the auxin in conjunction with either the BA or TDZ? And while the stem internodes were better than the petioles at regeneration, not using the petioles in the root experiments leaves open many options which remain to be explored. It seems as if the authors simply looked for any protocol for regenerating Verbena officinalis and took the first one they found which worked relatively well, leaving the reader with quite a few unanswered questions.


Ucar Turker A, Yucesan, B, and Gurel E. 2010. Adventitious shoot regeneration from stem internode explants of Verbena officinalis L., a medicinal plant. Turkish Journal…… [read more]

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