Study "Biology / Life" Essays 56-109

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True Meaning of Snow David Research Paper

… The trial is harsh, in that it is very unfair to the defendant, Kabuo, because he is of Japanese descent. During the time the novel is set, Japan had attacked Pearl Harbor, resulting in a war between the U.S.A. And Japan. Many people on the island fought in the war, hence their strong disliking for Japanese people, which Kabuo is. When a snowstorm comes, people have to prepare for the worst, such as falling trees, power shortages, and even accidental deaths, which is a parallel in the book, because the snow falling prepares Kabuo's family for the worst possible outcome, his possible death. Kabuo's trial is unjust because the jurors have strong racial feelings against Japanese, and so to show how unreasonable the trial is, Guterson adds a snowstorm to the setting, symbolizing an inhospitable, cold time.

Because of its dual nature, snowstorms also have good outcomes. Just before the verdict comes out, the snowstorm stops, and the snow starts melting. This melting cleanses the town of racial tensions, and foreshadows something good that is going to occur, in this case, the dropping of Kabuo's case. Also, the snow covering the island is "general all over" (Foster 81) San Piedro, acting as a unifier between the different races, and showing that inside, everyone is the same. It is also worth noting the role seasons play in the book, which interrelate with the weather. All the happy memories people have of the past take place in spring, which symbolizes times of enjoyment, "childhood and youth" (Foster 178). During those memories, the people are young, which spring signifies. It is also no coincidence that the harsh trial takes place in winter, which symbolizes "old age and resentment and death" (Foster 178). The people are grown up during the time of the trial, so it is appropriate for the season to be winter, representing their old age. The weather and the seasons all play vital roles in the novel.

In conclusion, Playing in the snow can be fun, but as many can attest too, also quite precarious. When we have fun playing in the snow, we rarely think about the negative consequences of our actions, such as taking a big fall while snowboarding and maybe even breaking a bone or two by doing so, or even getting caught in the midst of a dangerous snowstorm, which can wreak havoc in an entire city. Snow can be entertaining, yet dangerous at the same time, and it is this dual nature that it possesses that makes snow an important element in the book Snow Falling on Cedars, important enough for David Guterson, the author, to include it in the title of the book. Because of snow's essential part in the book, it is included in the title of the book. Snow, like many other things, can be extremely fun and exciting, but it can also be extremely hazardous and severe. Next time when we read a book, we should always check the forecast, for it… [read more]

Green Developmentalism, Its Concepts Term Paper

… They term green developmentalism as a way of re-politicizing nature since it has been resituated in social and ecological space and time.

The author deals with nature and how it can be commoditized. The author terms nature as a commodity such that natural entities and processes can be made exchangeable through markets. For nature to succeed in markets there has to be privatization and commoditization of all aspects of nature from molecules to mountains, from human tissues to the earth's atmosphere. Nature can hence be viewed on the basis of a global environmental economic structure that reduces organisms and ecosystems to their fungible components and a monetary price assigned to them which is calculated in reference to actual or hypothetical markets to the components. Through this natural resources can be prioritized and their international exchange managed. The ability to price nature has therefore mad nature possible to survive in the world market. The author has also termed nature as a commodity that can sustain itself. Therefore nature forms the centre of the article and how it is viewed on different aspects and the institutions that come into play when it comes to dealing with nature. The benefits accrued from nature and how important nature is to economic development globally.

The author also talks of three forms of power and how they interplay in terms of green developmentalism. These forms of power are discursive power of the post-neoliberal environmental economic structure, the institutional power of the World Bank and other environmental institutions and lastly the economic power of advanced capitalist states and transnational corporations. There is an intricate interplay of all these forms of power and how they are relevant in terms of green developmentalism as depicted in the article.

A question that occurs to me while reading the article is if nature can really be quantified and valuated in monetary terms. If put in monetary terms is the real value of nature maintained or does its valuation go down when it is put in terms of money. Can nature really be viewed as a commodity without tampering with its real value and when exchanged in the world market can its value be lost in the process?

The article relates to my life since through the article I have changed the way I perceive nature and therefore will be keen on how to conserve nature. Taking care of nature starts with an individual and hence everyone has the obligation to do so that is inclusive of as…… [read more]

Walden an Eden? Analysis Essay

… The revolutionaries of the 1960s would find in Thoreau's writings the clarity of vision and thought to recognize structural violence -- though they would not yet know well that term. Thoreau repeatedly observed the manner in which private property can enslave people and pit them against one another. For those who seek a personal peace, Thoreau cautioned against accepting the media's version of the news and the truth as a substitution for the solidity of private reality. "Shams and delusions are esteemed for soundest truths, while reality is fabulous…Let us settle ourselves, and work and wedge our feet downward through the mud and slush of opinion, and prejudice, and tradition, and delusion, and appearance... till we come to a hard bottom and rocks in place, which we can call reality..."Indeed, those who desire to come to the hard bottom and work with reality are often seen to choose a simplified lifestyle. Those who give themselves over to religious lives of service -- of those extraordinary individuals like Dr. Paul Farmer -- readily testify that they achieve a measure of peace that a life in…… [read more]

Growing Organic Vegetables I Just Essay

… Poking my finger into the rich, loamy soil, dropping a few seeds in the hole and covering them, lightly soaking the soil with water, and then waiting for the sprouting seeds to poke through in search of life-giving sunlight, reminds me that life, despite our personal and societal machinations, has its own internal clock.

Being reminded that life has its own speed, largely independent of human control, would not be enough on its own to justify creating an organic vegetable garden. While tending to the plants and watching them mature is a pleasant reminder of the solar cycles, harvesting and consuming the fruits of my labor has another unique reward. The tasks of planting, tending, harvesting, and consuming my organic vegetables remind me that the cycle of life is not an abstract theory entombed in some musty old biology textbook, but an expression of my life as well. This sense of being an integral part of nature is renewed every time my teeth crunch into an unbelievably delicious carrot or tomato, which I watched grow from a seed over a period of months. I can't help but ponder the web of mutually beneficial connections between ourselves and countless other forms of life, which have survived over unknown millennia. The carrot plant benefits from my need for nutrition and I'm rewarded in turn by the burst of flavor and nutrition in every bite. The purchase and consumption of store bought vegetables simply cannot provide the same experience.

Growing my own organic vegetable garden therefore reminds me that I am a part of nature, the part still controlled by the sun and integral to the cycle of life. The effect is not unlike standing on the edge of the Grand Canyon and being reminded of how insignificant human kind is in the big scheme of the universe, but not quite so cold and indifferent. Growing my own organic vegetable garden is my way of being reminded of my own,…… [read more]

Alternation of Generations Alteration Essay

… It is called parasite only due to the reason that a baby is parasite on its mother.

However, the situation is opposite in the vascular plants, as the sporophyte dominates the life cycle. Example can be any tree or flower or any other vascular plant in which the gametophyte is microscopic in size and grows like a parasite on the sporophyte tissue or plant. This gametophyte than becomes the part of the seed in the flowering plants.

The Flowering plants show the most currently evolved forms of the plant. In these plants, only the sporophyte generation is apparent, while the gametophyte generation is so much reduced that it only appears as a parasite within the tissue of the flower of the host sporophyte. It is a fact that flower is the significant feature of the reproduction and a complex reproductive organ (Reed, 1942) and as stated above, the gametophyte in the flowering plants is microscopic. It dies after the fertilization and is than absorbed by the embryo (Niklas, 1990). Due to this little presence of the gametophyte, it is considered only as a parasite of the sporophyte as the plants have been evolved ( Fried & Hademenos, 1999).


Fried, G and Hademenos, G. (1999). Schaum's Outline of Problems of Theory and Biology. Second Edition. The McGraw-Hill Companies. Retrieved July 11, 2012

Niklas, K. (1999, May). Microscopic Mating Game. Natural History, 108, 44. Retrieved July 11, 2012, from Questia


Polunin, N. (1960). Introduction to Plant Geography and Some Related Sciences. London: Longmans. Retrieved July 11, 2012, from Questia database:

Reed, H.S. (1942). A Short History of the Plant Sciences. Waltham, MA: Chronica Botanica. Retrieved July 11,

2012, from Questia database:… [read more]

Tumor Suppression Protein 53 Research Paper

… The paradox of p53 lies in the relationship between reducing cancer from spontaneous mutations allowing increased survival through simply not developing cancer, and the corresponding decrease in life through normal aging processes where cells in organs are not regenerated at rates that maintain the organs and tissues as static with unlimited renewal. A systematic review of literature for human patients who carry a defective p53 genetic mutation that inhibits p53 suppression show a 2.54:1 higher risk of cancer mortality, however, that same study showed that for patients who reached 85 years or older in the same population of mutated p53, the population with the mutation had a 41% longer life span (Bonafe 2004). Although the biomedical rationale for the precise activity of p53 in human life has not been elucidated for both the optimum prevention of cancer and the highest rate of cellular regeneration in tissue and organs, it is conceivable that there could be a specific balance for the interaction of this protein and increased lifespan.


1) What are the primary effects of complete suppression of p53 for cells? Why would limiting programmed cell death be a bad event in normal cell life cycle?

2) What feasible effect would there be on a person who had a conceivable hyper p53 where their immune system and over-expressed p53 destroys all malfunctioning cells with any point mutation?

3) Can you conceive of a mechanism whereby p53 is only turned on when absolutely necessary in a cell: an effective "limited" p53 such that only gross mutations trigger apoptosis? What are the positive and negative implications of this as a person ages?


Alberts, B. Johnson, A. Lewis, J. Raff, M. Roberts, K. Walter, P. (2008). "Chapter 18 Apoptosis: Programmed Cell Death Eliminates Unwanted Cells." Molecular Biology of the Cell (5th ed.). Garland Science, New York

Bonafe M., Salvioli S., Barbi C., Trapassi C., Tocco F., Storci G., Invidia L., Vannini I., Rossi M. (2004) The different apoptotic potential of the p53 codon 72 alleles increases with age and modulates in vivo ischaemia-induced cell death. Cell Death Differentiation 11-962 -- 973

Levine, A.J., Momand, J., Finlay, C.A. (1991) The p53 tumour suppressor gene, Nature, 351, 453-456

Marchenko N.D., Zaika A., Moll U.M. (2000) Death signal-induced localization of p53 protein to mitochondria. A potential role in apoptotic signaling. Journal of Biological Chem 275, 16202 -- 16212

Rodier, F. Campisi, J. Bhaumik, D. Two faces of p53: Aging and Tumor Suppression (2007) Nucleic Acids Research 35(22) 7475-7484

Pereira-Smith, O. M> Smith, J.R. Evidence for the recessive nature of cellular immortality. Science, 221, 964-966

Takaoka A, Hayakawa, S. Yanai, H. Stoiber, D. Negishi, H. Kikuchi, H; Sasaki, S. Imai, K et al. (2003). "Integration of interferon-alpha/beta signalling to p53 responses in tumour suppression and antiviral defence." Nature 424-516 -- 523

Tyner SD, Venkatachalam S, Choi J, Jones S, Ghebranious N, Igelmann H, Lu X, Soron…… [read more]

Lost Relationship With Nature Creative Writing

… ¶ … lives, she was a constant. She was enveloping. At many times, she was forceful. So today, as we mourn her, we do so in a state of shock, in a state of disbelief, in recognition that as many times as this very day had been ominously predicted, it seemed verily beyond our comprehension to image that it might actually come. But it is with a heavy heart and the fear of great loss that we acknowledge the arrival of this day, and that we eulogize our mother nature and our relationship with her. Both of been lost in the shuffle of modernity. First abandoned for industry, then obscured by urbanization and ultimately dispatched in favor of humanity's all-consuming ambition, nature belonged to all of us and none of us. In our possessiveness, we could not reconcile that. And now, we must suffer a world without her. On days such as this, a comforting word can be difficult to offer.

But, with a heavy heart, I can say that the passing of nature brings us great grief while bringing lush, verdant resiliency to the heavens above. As Eric Idle would observe on the passing of his close friend and former Beatle George Harrison in 2001, his "passing was really sad but it does make the afterlife seem much more attractive" (Idle, p. 1) We can say this now about our connection to nature as well, which has been lost in the wave of complexities that we refer to as life but which will be regained again when each of us returns to the dust from whence we came. If nature's effervescent vibrancy can no longer be felt, seen, heard and inhaled in our current state of vitality, each of us knows that its warm embrace is what awaits us on the other side of death's cold shadow. So even as we feel a sense of emptiness by her absence simply too expansive and hollow to fill, perhaps we can adorn it with the promise of a reunion in this eventuality which must claim us all.

Still, we should not be relegated only to treasuring our memories of nature with this eventuality at hand. First and foremost, nature has been a force connected to life, living, loving and learning. And in exchange, it has been an entity deserving of our vitality, our adoration and our attentiveness. So too mourn her must not be to forget her presence in our lives, even as imperfect as our relationship to her has been. This imperfection is critical to our humanity and the to the humanity that nature reflected back…… [read more]

Night That She Lived Essay

… Those outside the circle could go on living without a remembrance of the woman or the profound nature of death.

The third profound paradox regards time and its measure on life and death, as in one passage time is "narrow" while in the next line indicates that the "notice came" at great "length." This loss of a sense of time that often accompanies monumental and cathartic events. Time seems both infinite and short because all is being noticed and no one has words, "Too jostled were our souls to speak."

Even the title of the poem is a paradox that supports the idea of the transience of life. "The Last Night She Lived," as if living can be defined by the prone still and non-responsive dying woman on a bed. The only definition would be a legal and possibly emotional one, as living denotes a much more active and fruitful existence. While the act of dying is described as peaceful, excluding the "mentioned and forgot" passage where with baited breath the loved one sit around watching and waiting. Peaceful death is very much like this, as a person will pause many times until they finally seem to forget to breath that last time.

In conclusion this poem demonstrates a rather straightforward approach to the nature of life and death. The theme of the work is the transience of life, how the world can simply go on even while an important member of it is dying. The work to the reader demonstrates a poignant view into what it is like to think and feel through the death of someone close to you. The final passage regarding the universal message of the work closes with the feeling of relief associated with the loss of the demands of care of the individual as well as the relief associated with the relent of suffering experienced by those who are terminally ill and the aftermath of death. "And then an awful leisure was, / Our faith to regulate" is an expression of the way many people feel when they have lost someone they cared for, often physically and mentally at their own anguish and emotional peril. It's like saying now what will we do with ourselves, feeling both relief and guilt for the expected event unfolding. The techniques of the author to basically place a window into the mind of those experiencing the death of a loved one through the use of the paradox is essential to the theme and very effective, and the element of fiction used also help unify the theme and give the story its meaning both surface and deep, closing with…… [read more]

Isotonic Hypertonic Hypotonic and Relate Them to a Clinical Implication Application Research Paper

… ¶ … Isotonic, Hypertonic, Hypotonic and Relate Them to a Clinical Implication (application)

Hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic solutions

In biology the concentration of solutions is very important as it determines the water content of the cells. Water movement in and… [read more]

Living Organisms Term Paper

… Living organisms are all around us and all have some basic, common characteristics that. This does not make any living organism any less complex or any less unique. This essay will consider those characteristics which identify a living organism from a non-living organism and take a look at the complexity of cells in living organisms. How the atoms within a cell work, the complexity of a cell's organization compared to that of a city, the help a cell gets from enzymes, respiration vs. photosynthesis, and the formation of peptide and disaccharide molecules will all be considered.

Living organisms have a number of common characteristics that could help one determine if there were living organisms when on a star planet. First of all, organization; even the simplest living organisms have a high level of organization. Next there is homeostasis. Living organisms are able to keep a constant, stable internal environment. Then there is adaptation to consider. Living organisms are made in a way that allows them to live in their specific environment. Reproduction must also be looked at. Living organisms all have some way of reproducing either asexually or sexually. Next to consider is that all living organisms must grow and develop. Living organisms must also have some way to get energy through sunlight, inorganic chemicals, or another organism; and then be able to release it. It must also be considered that living organisms must be able to detect and respond to stimuli internally and externally. Last to consider is interactions. Living organisms are able to interact with their environment, along with each other. (Farabee, 2010a)

An atom is a chemical unit within the structure of a cell and consists of a nucleus in the center with protons, neutrons and electrons. The protons have a +1 positive charge while the neutrons have a -1 negative charge. Electrons also have a -1 negative charge. If an atom gains neutrons, its atomic weight increases. If it loses neutrons, then its atomic weight decreases. When an atom gains protons it becomes an atom of the element with the next highest atomic number and if it loses protons, then it becomes an atom of the element with the next lowest atomic number. The gain of an electron gives an atom an extra -1 charge, while the loss of an electron gives it an extra +1 charge. ("Chemical Composition of the Body," 2005)

From looking at atoms, one can tell that cells can be pretty complex. They could be compared to a city. Take the nucleus, which contains the cells genetic material, or DNA; it can be thought of as city hall, while the DNA within the nucleus is the laws and regulations of the city. The cell membrane has gates, channels and pumps that either let in or force out certain molecules in order to protect the cell's internal environment and could be thought of as the police force of the city. The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) assembles the cell's proteins…… [read more]

Theology the Theological Message Research Paper

… But at the end of all effort, he saw that everything he had achieved was only vanity and of no profit to him. He realized that he could not gain more, spend more, collect more, carouse more or sin more… [read more]

Respiratory Pathophysiology and Pharmacology Case Case Study

… Primarily because the invasive mechanism used would not be appropriate for humans, and the particular cellular mechanisms being studied were common to rat and human cells. In the case of this study the mechanisms used in the study were complete and reliable.


In a world in which air pollution is said to cause multiple adverse effects within the human organism, it is necessary for health professionals to understand the truth behind the claims. It is necessary that health professionals educate themselves with regard to scientific studies conducted in such matters, so that they can adequately educate patients and general members of the public. This study shows that there is basically no way for the lungs to stop the advance of ultrafine particles from lung tissue to liver, cardiac and nervous tissue; and some of these particles can be very damaging.


Delfino, R.J., Sioutas, C., & Malik, S. (2005). Potential role of ultrafine particles in associations between ultrafine particle mass and cardiovascular health. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(8), 934-952.

Geiser, M., Rothen-Rutishauser, B., Kapp, N., Schurch, S., Kreyling, W., Schulz, H., Semmler, M., Hof, V.I., Heyder, J., & Peter, G., 2005. Ultrafine particles cross cellular membranes by nonphagocytic mechanisms in lungs and in cultured cells. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(11), pp. 1555-1565.

Morishita, M., & Engebrecht, G. (2005). End3p-mediated endocytosis is required for spore wall formation in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. Genetics, 170(4), 1561-1565.

Sena, E.S., van der Worp, H.B., Bath, P.M.W., Howells, D.W., & Macleod, M.R., 2010. Publication bias in reports of animal stroke studies leads to major overstatement of efficacy. PLoS…… [read more]

Stem Cell Research the Legal Research Paper

… Bush (Executive Order 13505, pg. 10667).

How do other countries handle stem cell research? In a word -- varied. Some countries are pioneers in stem cell research (Singapore) and others put patients at serious risk with little to no oversight such as Mexico (Pew Forum, 2008). Countries on every continent have some type of thriving industry in stem cell research. In Africa, South Africa created a stem cell bank (Pew Forum, 2008). In Asia, Singapore is considered "Asia's stem cell center," but despite the fraud and the public backlash from Dr. Hwang Woo-suk's research, South Korea's government is very supportive of stem cell research (Pew Forum, 2008). In Europe, Germany has the most restrictions on research while the U.K. is considered to be a leader on the European front (Pew Forum, 2008).

In comparison to the U.S.'s efforts on stem cell research compared to other countries, we are in a catch-up phase. Many countries have promoted and sponsored research on stem cells while much of the 2000's was a period in which stem cell research was banned.

Final Thoughts -- An Endorsement for Stem Cell Research

I am a firm believer in the necessity of stem cell research. So much potential exists in this budding field. Regenerative medicine, palliative care, and treatment for neurological disorders are just a sample of what the science can do; however, there are some pitfalls that we have to understand and avoid. This is an industry, just like much of medicine, in which there has to be considerable oversight and legal control to prevent abuse, fraud, and a danger to the patient seeking treatment.

Stem cell research should require legal oversight similar to how human subject research is conducted in that an institutional review board (IRB) provides approval and oversight on research on human subjects, should approve/disprove any proposals regarding stem cell research. Secondly, amendments and/or changes need to be made to the review board. Failure to comply should bring potential consequences such as debarment and/or stiffer penalties depending upon the nature of the violation. Currently, the National Institutes of Health has much of these guidelines in place (NIH, 2009).

In conclusion, there is much debate and ethical considerations for stem cell research; however, the potential for what they can and the results that the public has seen in infancy is nothing short of astounding. Hopefully, the promises of this type of research leaves the drawing board and becomes the reality of our tomorrow.


Author Unknown (2009). Timeline: A Brief History of Stem Cell Research. Science Progress. Retrieved June 9, 2011 from

Chapman A.R., Frankel M.S., Garfinkel M.S. (November 1999). Stem Cell Research and Applications Monitoring the Frontiers of Biomedical Research. American Association for the Advancement of Science & Institute for Civil Society. Retrieved June 9, 2011 from

Francis, B. MEDICAL SCIENCE: Media hype over cloning and embryo stem cells. News Weekly, (22, July 2006). Retrieved June 9, 2011 from

The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Stem Cell Research… [read more]

Stem Cell the Recent Discovery Research Paper

… Pardal et. al (2003) presented a very simple and explicit comparison of how stem cells can be used effectively in treating cancer. Ultimately he realized that research could ultimately cure cancer" and it might be possible develop therapies are effective against metastatic disease" (p.901). Experts ultimately concluded that stem cell therapy will eventually be the most productive way of eliminating cardiac disorders. It is therefore obvious that this technology is useful and can contribute to humanity in a positive way.


When does life begin? That is essentially what needs to be answered before stem cell research originating from embryos needs to be answered. "For those who believe the human embryo from the one cell stage onwards has absolute moral value, equal to that of a newborn baby or adult, any embryo research is ethically unacceptable as it is tantamount to murder " (McLaren 2001, p. 130). Can this question even be answered scientifically? In many ways life seems to begin at this stage of embryo evident by its usefulness in regenerating cells in stem cell therapy. But that does not make it right. Just because something works does not mean it's acceptable behavior for all society to follow. Murder often works in solving temporary problems but does not excuse the greater moral or ethical questions.

The question is further distorted when one is to understand that many of the embryos that are being used for this research will eventually be destroyed or thrown out. These existing sources of potential healing substance should not be wasted either. It should come down to the individual and what the individual believes is right or wrong. Treating others as one would like to be treated serves as the best moral compass in today's society. The potential for embryo farming and the profit schemes behind these types of endeavors are eventualities in a capitalistic system so encouraging embryonic stem cell research would also encourage this behavior as well. For some, this is permissible, for others it is not.


While my opinion the embryonic stem cell research should be stopped and not encouraged the current stockpile of embryos that can be used for stem cell regenerative purposes should be used. Adult stem cell research should be fully employed in as many levels possible in order to both provide a helpful medical technological advancement and a moral and ethical way of regenerating life through empathetic understanding and sacrifice. Stealing the regenerative powers of a small life form tends to elevate the current human situation above the future prospects. Living in the moment is important but not to sacrifice the future and all of its possible solutions to other problems that can be inspired out of this particular problem. As society preys on the youngest forms of humanity it will no doubt take a serious toll on the psyche of the collective unit as a whole and manifest itself in ways not predicted or expected.

Taking a higher… [read more]

Ucar Turker A, Yucesan Article Review

… 92 M. Of IBA was the auxin and the concentration which gave the best results. But in terms of the overall percentage of shoots that rooted, then 5.71M of IAA was the best auxin and concentration.

It turns out that the regeneration efficiency, the efficiency at which the different parts of the plant were able to regenerate both shoots and roots, was higher in the stem internode part of the plant than in the petiole part of the plant, but only when using the auxin IAA in conjunction with TDZ. The authors also discovered that an auxin was absolutely necessary as one of the growth regulators; and without the auxin IAA, the other regulators did not produce any results. Next they discovered that the regeneration of the roots supplemented with IBA had more roots per shoot, but, in terms of the percentage of shoots that actually rooted, the shoots that had been grown with IAA had a higher percentage. In other words, shoots grown in IAA had a better chance of rooting, but shoots grown in IBA gave the higher number of roots per shoot.

The purpose of this study was to discover a procedure for regenerating the plant Verbena officinalis. It was to discover what part of the plant was best for use in regeneration, as well as which combinations and concentrations of growth regulators were necessary. In this the authors were successful and have created an efficient protocol for doing so. It requires the stem internodes of Verbena officinalis grown in IAA to produce shoots, and then grown in IBA in order to produce roots.

However, the authors used different procedures for experimenting on the growth of the shoots and roots. The authors used a variety of growth regulators when they tested the growth of shoots, but then used a variety of auxins when testing the growth of roots. While this may be an effective means of discovering a protocol, this leaves the reader with many questions. If IAA, used in conjunction with BA or TDZ, will aid in the development of shoots, why then did the researchers only test the auxins in the second part of the experiment; and not the auxin in conjunction with either the BA or TDZ? And while the stem internodes were better than the petioles at regeneration, not using the petioles in the root experiments leaves open many options which remain to be explored. It seems as if the authors simply looked for any protocol for regenerating Verbena officinalis and took the first one they found which worked relatively well, leaving the reader with quite a few unanswered questions.


Ucar Turker A, Yucesan, B, and Gurel E. 2010. Adventitious shoot regeneration from stem internode explants of Verbena officinalis L., a medicinal plant. Turkish Journal…… [read more]

City of Hope Team Develops Smart Bomb Term Paper

… ¶ … City of Hope team develops "smart bomb" to neutralize HIV"

Research Biologists at the City of Hope reportedly have struck proverbial 'gold' in the pursuit of a means to prevent the proliferation of HIV to other cells… [read more]

Stem Cell Debate Term Paper

… Stem Cell Debate

One of the most vehement scientific controversies of the last few decades has surrounded stem cells -- their harvesting, and use in research. Stem cells are found in most multi-cellular organs and are characterized by their ability… [read more]

Gulliver's Travels Gulliver's Mental/Emotional State Essay

… Gulliver's Travels

Gulliver's mental/emotional state as he adjusts to life in Houyhnhnmland

Swift describes the voyage of Gulliver to Houyhnhnms country in the fourth book. Yahoos which are emotional monkey like beings and rational horses inhabit this land. Gulliver presents the Houynhms in an entirely positive attitude as he considers them judicious and rational. Gulliver's identity crisis is as a result of the process of cultural adjustment which becomes problematic in the event that he cannot get out of this culture. Because of the treacherous and emotional nature of the Yahoo, they are hated by Gulliver just like the Houyhnhnms. Gulliver is more drawn to an identity with the Houyhnhnm, he enjoys their company and their rational talk is also appealing to him. Gulliver is seduced into the Houyhnhms philosophy of being either a Yahoo or a Houyhnhnm which is a challenge to his mental state in defining his identity but he is in fact a third character i.e. A human. However he soon realizes he is more like the Yahoo under his clothes. Gulliver at first insists on distinguishing himself or "my own species," from the Yahoos but his certitude soon erodes. In his mind the two species start to merge the more he observes the Yahoo and sooner he elides them quietly despite his attempt to separate them.

Self-hatred of Gulliver is developed under these conditions. His sense of self-identity haunts him with what he calls the Ugly Monster referring to the Yahoo. An important feature of the Houyhnhms language is that it helps people understand one another and receive information of the facts and these testify the Houyhnhnms virtuous aspect which is contrasted to the human corruption. This changes his point-of-view and understanding and he gradually changes his identity to that of a misanthrope. His misanthropy is indeed intense that he vows never to return to human kind but to practice every virtue for the rest of his life in Houyhnhnms. An unbalanced thinking of Gulliver makes him refuse to engage in human society participation which is a fundamental sin in the Swift's book. His self deception which he had fashioned in Lilliput cannot…… [read more]

Literature and the Environment Ecocriticism Essay

… O, Pioneers and the Natural World

Willa Cather (1873 -- 1947) is perhaps best known for her earthy novels focusing on life in the Great Plains. Cather spent her formative years in Nebraska where she broke the mold of the… [read more]

Somatic Cell Division and Human Skeletal Comparison Essay

… Somatic Cell Division: An Overview

The classification of 'somatic cells' comprises all of the cells within the human body, with the exception of reproductive cells. The cell division cycle consists of two distinct periods: The first, known as interphase is when the cell is not dividing and is simply performing its essential life functions, including synthesizing the DNA that plays such a crucial role in the active reproductive phase. During the mitotic, or dividing phase, the cell nucleus divides and eventually creates two new daughter cells (Cell division, 2010, Ivy Rose UK).

Mitosis evolves over the course of several distinct phases. During prophase, the chromatin in the cell nucleus begins to condense and the nucleolus disappears. "Centrioles begin moving to opposite ends of the cell and fibers extend from the centromeres. Some fibers cross the cell to form the mitotic spindle" (Cell cycle, 1997, Bio project). When the cell enters protometophase, the nuclear membrane of the cell dissolves and "proteins attach to the centromeres creating the kinetochores. Microtubules attach at the kinetochores and the chromosomes begin moving," as the cell enters metaphase, when "spindle fibers align the chromosomes along the middle of the cell nucleus" (Cell cycle, 1997, Bio project).

During anaphase, the paired chromosomes within the cell separate at the kinetochores and move to opposite sides of the cell. "Motion results from a combination of kinetochore movement along the spindle microtubules and through the physical interaction of polar microtubules," and this stage followed by telophase, where new membranes form around the two newly developed nuclei (Cell cycle, 1997, Bio project). The chromosomes and spindle fibers are no longer visible and cytokinesis begins. During cytokinesis two new cells are finally formed as "a fiber ring composed of a protein called actin around the center of the cell contracts, pinching the cell into two daughter cells, each with one nucleus. In plant cells, the rigid wall requires that a cell plate be synthesized between the two daughter cells" (Cell cycle, 1997, Bio project).

Comparing and contrasting the male and…… [read more]

Baron D'holbach Essay

… Baron Holbach

According to Baron Holbach, a person's life is " a line that nature commands him to describe upon the surface of the earth, without his ever being able to swerve from it, even for an instant." From his point-of-view, human life is under the sign of hard determinism. Human freedom is only an ideal concept. The truth is that all our actions are determined by something which lies beyond and outside our will.

First and foremost it must be mentioned that the author mentions nothing about god. Unlike other philosophers who have tried to demonstrate the lack of human freedom through the existence of God who is omniscient and omnipotent, therefore determining all the actions of the being that he himself created, Holbach speaks about nature as the determining entity, while making a very interesting point about what will is.

In Holbach's opinion will is something to be strictly associated with the brain. Man has the impression that he acts according to his wishes only or at least he can distinguish the times when he does something that the wants from the ones in which a certain action is imposed to him. The philosopher will argue that there is no will without an object and it is this particular object which determines will.

Another argument that Holbach brings into discussion refers to the influence of the surrounding environment upon the individual. There are a lot of coordinates which man simply can not control, nor decide upon, such as our parents, our place of birth, our early education. This, together with the values of the society that we live in and the personal experiences we have underwent action as forming agents. They form our preferences, our values and attitudes. These are the coordinates which orientate our will in all the cases, regardless of the circumstances. From this point-of-view, we are products of our environment, even if we believe that our capacity to discern makes us free.

A possible counter argument that can be brought to Holbach's theme is represented by the capacity of man to resist his impulses and desires. It has been argued that animals are unable to keep from satisfying their instincts. People on the other hand are and this is what proves that they are endowed with reason and freedom.

While this is true, it is just as true that whenever a person chooses not to satisfy an inner request, it is because there is a reason good enough for him to do it. This good enough reason does not appear independently of who the person is, his manner of thinking, his desires and his ideals. Since all these elements have been created under external influences. Therefore, since they are not under the control of the individual and the individual only, it can be considered that the individual is not free, but influenced.

Everything we do, Holbach argues, is to preserve ourselves and to be happy. No matter which of these two supreme ideals we choose… [read more]

Frost vs. Thoreau Emerson Essay

… ¶ … recurs through a few works: three key poems of Robert Frost and through a brief comparison with Henry David Thoreau's "Walden," and touching upon the themes echoed through the works and life of Ralph Waldo Emerson. The theme is premised on the notion of Transcendentalism. Transcendentalism can be described as innate spirituality. This religion comes from within, from a person's experiences, his or her encounters and his or her abilities. Transcendentalism essentially transcends organized religion whose edicts come from on high or from without. Many of the philosopher-thinker-litterateurs of a certain time were transcendentalists, who were often at odds with the divinity schools of Ivy League universities.

The experiences that drive a person's transcendental spirituality comes from that individual's being in touch with nature. Being in touch with nature is something we've all forgotten bemoans the Thoreau's protagonist in "Walden." He takes up residence in Walden, trying to get away from it all. He realizes that he does not need a lot of money. He can grow what he needs. He communes with nature and lives off it. He builds his own home. The produce of the land allows him food, shelter and clothing. Thoreau cautions the need that people feel to get out of nature and live in metropolises, where they live a life of artificiality. Rather than chasing the dreams of the here and now, Walden's resident cautions that one should not only embrace the traditional, but also the classical.

In simplicity, there is bliss. Thoreau is in touch with nature; he is also in touch with himself. He learns self-reliance and is intolerant among whom he feels eschew the bounties of nature. Though Thoreau's protagonist proclaims the virtues of solitude and the advantages of living alone, he is willing to accept others into his life and share of what he has achieved. He even helps a runaway salve escape to Canada and freedom. Thoreau's transcendentalism is about freedom and individualism. He proclaims that there is a certain sense of achievement in "marching to the beat of a different drummer."

Though no particular work of Emerson will be discussed in this essay, it suffices here to indicate that this same transcendentalism was echoed in most of Emerson's work. The following quote from Emerson's "Nature," however, mirrors the theme of "Walden." To wit: I am not alone while I read and write, though nobody is with me. But if a man would be alone, let him look at the stars. The rays that come from those heavenly worlds will separate between him and what he touches."

Robert Frost, in three poems bemoans the role of nature in out lives and the lack of interactions that he believes are crucial for happiness. In "Birches," Frost notices that the boughs of birch trees are permanently bent. It would seem as if the entire forest of boughs has been bent paving a sort of a road. The poet would like to believe and in his heart, that the bending of… [read more]

Admission Letter Research Proposal

… Admissions - Statement

Dear Sir or Madam:

Kindly consider the following statement in support of my candidacy for the University of South Florida for Cell Biology, Microbiology and Molecular Biology PhD program. My long-term professional goal is to teach medicine at the King Abdul Aziz University Medical School in Saudi Arabia. Toward that end, I have been fortunate enough to receive a full scholarship from King Abdul Aziz University that includes tuition and living expenses in the pursuit of my doctorate degree in the United States.

Currently, I hold a master degree in Biotechnology from the Florida Institute of Technology in Melbourne, Florida.

In pursuit of my master degree, I worked as a research assistant on a project designed to better understand cell growth regulation in bacteria entitled, Characterization of nucleoprotein complex involved in initiation of DNA replication in bacteria, under the direction and supervision of Dr. J. Grimwade and Dr. a. Leonard. My specific responsibilities in that project included producing mutant versions of ori-C, the unique replication origin of the E. coli chromosome in the study of the molecular biology of the DNA-Protein complexes responsible for initiating new rounds of DNA synthesis in E.coli.

My prior experience at several Medical Technology Laboratory facilities in Saudi Arabia also including work in genetic and molecular research and inspired my interest in acquiring a deeper understanding of cell and molecular biology.

In that regard, it my most sincere hope to share my knowledge with future medical students as I continue performing researches to explore and understand bacterial cells, particularly as they relate to human health and disease. More specifically, I hope to have the opportunity and privilege to…… [read more]

Buddhist Reincarnation Essay

… Buddhist Notions of Reincarnation

What happened when we die? Is our soul immortal, and if so, where does it go? Several prominent religions posit different ideas regarding what happens to the individual soul after the death of the body. In Buddhism, the common belief is that it is reborn within the context of a different body.

Yet the nature of this rebirth greatly depends on the nature of the life lived by the individual prior to death. As seen in the movie Little Buddha, after the death of a prominent person, they will be reincarnated into a human or better state than what they had encountered in their previous life. However, the same goes for the other extreme. If an individual life a bad life, they stand the chance of being reincarnated into a lesser or more primitive form. This is not an ever-ending process, despite the image it might be. An individual soul goes through various number of reincarnation until he or she reaches a certain level of maturity and enlightenment.

Thus, reincarnation becomes a learning environment which aims to teach every individual different aspects of enlightenment necessary to attain Nirvana, or spiritual freedom. One must learn certain lessons, and these lessons cannot be given on a concise schedule. Rather, the individual learns them at appropriate times which coincide with the number and nature of reincarnations. Each new life stands to teach the individual a new lesson, or reinforce a lesson which did not last in the previous life. Along with this idea, each individual must learn particular lessons in order to move to a higher level of life within the context of his or her next reincarnation. And so, life as we know it in terms of its physical limitations, actually proves to be a classroom in which particular lessons are learned and explored. Graduation then,…… [read more]

Walden True Transcendentalism: Thoreau Term Paper

… Walden

True Transcendentalism: Thoreau's Walden

Although the philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson is often considered the father of the American Transcendentalist movement, Henry David Thoreau put into practice what Emerson urged others to do only in words. Thoreau left the comforts of society and went to live in the woods. He did so to live closer to nature, and to live a more natural life. He wished to be self-reliant. By living apart from other human beings and fending for himself, Thoreau felt that he discovered what it truly meant to be human, and to be an American enjoying the democratic pleasures provided by the natural world.

On his farm, Thoreau resolved to till the soil and relieve himself of the petty cares and false, fast pace of modern life. In the woods, he hoped to find transcendence: "When we are unhurried and wise, we perceive that only great and worthy things have any permanent and absolute existence, that petty fears and petty pleasures are but the shadow of the reality. This is always exhilarating and sublime (Thoreau, Chapter 2, Paragraph 21, ( slowing cultivating his own food, building his own home, and living almost like a primitive man, Thoreau hoped to slow his life down, and connect to the essential aspects of what it meant to be a human animal, alive in nature. Through active living, not merely contemplating life in his study, he believed he would find wisdom. But true transcendental wisdom was not the wisdom of books, rather it was getting back to basics, in a Romantic and pastoral sense: "Children, who play life, discern its true law and relations more clearly than men, who fail to live it worthily, but who think that they are wiser by experience, that is, by failure" (Thoreau, Chapter 2, Paragraph 21, ( are more truthful because they are less bound to the rules of society, according to Thoreau. Rather than trying to lose one's childhood sense of freedom and become civilized, it is actually more important to unlearn what civilization dictates.

In Chapter 5, tellingly entitled "Solitude," Thoreau writes that he feels best "when the whole body is one sense," as he walks in nature "and imbibes delight through every pore. I…… [read more]

Landscape Neoclassical Painting Term Paper

… Landscape Neoclassical Painting

One unifying characteristic of the works of the English and American Romantic poets Shelley, Keats, and Whitman is that all of these writers used images of nature to further their artistic self-expression. In "Ode to the West Wind," Shelley does not merely observe the wind; he sees his own wildness and passion for life within the activity of the wind: "Shook from the tangled boughs of heaven and ocean, / Angels of rain and lightning..." Nature is not merely beautiful or something to be observed, it is a force of energy and inspiration, and is just as emotionally stormy as the poet's interior landscape. Keats' "Seep and Poetry" shows a more gentle view of nature: "What is more gentle than a wind in summer?" But it likewise looks at the natural, unadorned world, away from civilization and institutions as the ultimate expression of the poet's Self, rather than historical circumstances or abstract ideas, as was typical of the Neoclassical style. Finally, the American Whitman adopted the English Romanticism of Shelley and Keats to an American context, making poetry and the poetry of nature…… [read more]

Stem Cell Research Embryonic Stem Term Paper

… Stem Cell Research

Embryonic stem-cell research is not practically 'embryonic' and most of the ethical refutations in respect of embryonic stem cell research could be settled by more research. Restricting federal funding would not halt the embryonic stem cell research,… [read more]

Human Progress Is the Ultimate Target Term Paper

… Human progress is the ultimate target of the development of technology and science. It represents the most important reason for continuous research aimed at improving human existence. That is why, there are numerous attempts to try to combat and exterminate… [read more]

Optimism Whether I See the Glass Half-Full Term Paper

… ¶ … Optimism [...] whether I see the glass half-full or half empty. I am an optimist and I live my life trying to see the good in people and in situations. I am an optimist because I am positive and I believe when you see things positively, you help manifest good things in your life and the lives of those around you.

First, I am a very positive person. I have friends who are quite negative and when bad things happen to them they seem to think they had it coming, or it was only to be expected. I do not feel that way at all. Of course, bad things have happened to me in my life, but I have found they have turned out for the best. Take my son for example. I never planned to be a single mom, believe me. However, my son is now the light of my life and I would do anything for him. I love him more than I ever thought possible, and bless the day he was born. Having a child as a single mom could have been a very negative experience, but I have made it a positive experience because I am a positive person.

I am lighthearted and caring, and I think this helps me remain optimistic in life. I come from a caring and close family, and I think this has helped me be more of an optimist. I am lighthearted, but practical, and I care about others. I think compassion is very important in being an optimist. You cannot see the best in a situation unless you can understand yourself and others, and compassion for others helps you develop a feeling and a caring about others and their needs. I know many people who simply do not care about other people. Their own needs are all that matters to them, and other people's feelings and desires do not interest them at all. I cannot be like that, and I do not want to be. I do not put others' needs and wants above my own, but I do try to be understanding and caring of others. I think that caring about others also comes back to you and enriches your life in many untold and unknown ways.

I…… [read more]

Cells Require a Layer Term Paper

… Active transport involves specialized structures in the cell membrane moving specific types of molecules in to and out of the cell when the pressure from osmosis or diffusion is trying to move them in the opposite direction. (Andreas)

The cell wall has a simpler function; to provide rigidity to the otherwise soft cell and protection from the outside world, much like an insect's exoskeleton. Cell walls can also act as storage for carbohydrates in plants, and a barrier against toxins in fungi. (Buck) Pathogenic bacteria use their cell walls as protection against attack by the immune system. Many antibiotics exploit this by attacking the cell wall, eliminating the bacterium's protection. The combination of a cell wall and a cell membrane can make such cells quite robust relative to cells that only have a membrane.

Andreas, Lpp. "Cell Biology." WikiBooks. February, 2005.

Buck, Jim. "Cell Wall." Wikipedia. July, 2005.

Wolf, Jfd. "Cell Membrane." Wikipedia. July, 2005.… [read more]

Stress Management Term Paper

… Based primarily on Walter Cannon's pioneering work, the "flight-or-fight" theory shows that when a human experiences a shock or threat, hormones are released to help the human survive by inducing, for instance, a burst of speed or a stronger fight back (Mind Tools, 1995-2005).

Thus, while the degree and nature of the response to stress may vary across individuals, the underlying cause is the release of excessive hormones. These hormones, in fact, explain why stress leads to an increased heart rate, blood pressure, blood sugar, and focused concentration on the perceived threat or problem (Mind Tools, 1995-2005). Besides these stress reactions, Perrewe and Vickory have categorized stress effects into five areas. These are subjective (anxiety, fatigue); behavioral (alcoholism, restlessness); cognitive (forgetfulness, inability to make decisions); physiological (high blood pressure, breathing problems); and organizational (job dissatisfaction, absenteeism). In addition, extreme stress can lead to a condition called burnout, which is characterized by emotional exhaustion and negative life attitudes that include boredom, discontent, cynicism, inadequacy, and failure (Crampton, 1995). It is evident from the stress effects just described that stress can adversely affect an individual's physiological and psychological ability to function effectively in life.

Therefore, it is critical that individuals learn to identify the cause of their stress and how to manage it so that its effect is neutralized. This can be achieved by developing three sets of skills: (1) Action-oriented skills, or the ability to confront problems by either changing the environment or situation; (2) Emotionally-oriented skills, which involves changing one's perception of and reaction to a problem; and (3) Acceptance-oriented skills, which involves simply surviving the stress in situations that cannot be changed (Mind Tools, 1995-2005). In addition, there are several stress management techniques to help reduce or neutralize daily stress. These include maintaining a stress diary, deep breathing, progressive muscle relaxation (Mind Tools, 1995-2005), physical fitness, proper nutrition, humor, time management, relaxation and recreation time, developing a social support network, and counseling (Crampton, 1995).

There are very few situations in life that are totally devoid of stress. This implies that it is vital for individuals to identify and handle their stress in order to live a long, productive, and happy life. Indeed, as this paper has described, a failure to do so could lead to severe health problems and a great deal of mental anguish.


Crampton, S.M., Hodge, J.W., Mishra, J.M., & Price, S. (1995). Stress and Stress

Management. SAM Advanced Management Journal. Vol. 60:3, p. 10+.

Mind Tools. (1995-2005). Stress Management Techniques. Mind Tools Web site. Retrieved May 7, 2005:… [read more]

Biological Advancements and the Precambrian Period Term Paper

… Precambrian

The period of geologic time prior to the Cambrian explosion of diversity has been difficult for biologists to decipher. Largely, this has been because fossil evidence from the time is relatively scant, and not as revealing as would be desired. This is a particular problem for the Precambrian because the vast majority of the period was dominated by mere bacterial life; bacterial fossils are microscopic, and tell us little about the cell's inner machinery. Still, recent biologic finds and new lines of reasoning are helping scientists to draw conclusions about the Precambrian that were previously unthinkable, or at least, unwarranted.

The traditional angle of attack towards a clearer picture of the Precambrian is through the fossil record. Although electron microscopes can today provide us with far greater detail than could have been dreamed of fifty years ago, fossils still fall short of providing a comprehensive representation of what organisms dominated the world during the Precambrian, and more importantly, which organisms contributed significantly to evolutionary history. The oldest known fossils found to date are from approximately 3.5 gya. Obviously, these fossils indicate prokaryotic life. However, specifically what occurred during the first billion years of the Precambrian is almost unknowable from pure fossil interpretations.

Additional evidence indicating the nature of the life found in the Precambrian has been derived from radioactive carbon dating. The unique process of photosynthesis has left its signature proportions of Carbon 12 and Carbon 13 within ancient rocks and suggests the presence of organic life. "Carbonate rocks dated to an age of 3.5 gya have a higher proportion of 12C than expected from inorganic sources, which suggests the parent carbonates were the product…… [read more]

Anne of Green Gables and Tom Sawyer Term Paper

… Anne of Green Gables, Tom Sawyer

Nature plays an integral role in the coming-of-age of the title characters in Mark Twain's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Lucy Maud Montgomery's Anne of Green Gables. For Tom and Anne, nature represents… [read more]

Foundationally Promising Research Discoveries of the Twentieth Term Paper

… ¶ … foundationally promising research discoveries of the twentieth century is Stem Cell Biology. Only announced as a possible scientific breakthrough in late 1998, significant research has begun on stem cells, yet even the announcement of the potential benefits by… [read more]

Nick Adams Stories by Ernest Term Paper

… Hemingway's alter-ego has come a long way when "Big Two-Hearted Hearted River" was completed. Nick, contrary to his naive personality in "Indian," has evolved to become somewhat similar to Henry Thoreau, isolating himself from the urban landscape of human society into the 'primitive' and natural environment of the forest. Where once he was an individual trying to fathom the importance of life (and death) in the world, Nick in "Two-Hearted River" achieves understanding and wisdom through nature. As he traveled into the town of Seney, Hemingway symbolically illustrates to his readers Nick's journey as the character's gradual retreat from human society, with his back facing civilization and forward ahead, is Nature awaiting him (209-210).

A there was something mysterious and homelike. Nick was happy... He had not been unhappy all day" (215). The author's illustration of Nick's candid feelings and thoughts while communing with Nature tells the readers how Nick is for nature, just as all humans are for nature, too. Nick being happy despite the lack of material comfort in the forest shows how modern people like him can live and survive with nature, simply because humans are one with Nature, even came from it.

Perhaps the only reminder Nick has of his 'previous life' as a modern man is the presence of canned food on his trip; eating beans and spaghetti and drinking coffee in the forest seemed paradoxical yet funny, given the kind of environment Nick was in during the time (215-6). Furthermore, his thoughts about his friend Hopkins reflect further how he is finally turning his back to modern society. Hopkins, representing the successful individual of the 20th century, disappeared in Nick's life when he "never saw him [Hopkins] again" (217).

Indeed, it is reflected in Nick's attitude and behavior in his journey that he is gradually getting accustomed to living life with nature. An important insight that "Two-Hearted River" tell us readers is not only happiness in finding one's true self, but also the achievement of contentment or satisfaction in life (228). This insight is vital since modern society is depicted as a dynamic institution that is constantly inventing and re-inventing things that, instead of making humans contented, will only further humanity's ambitions, needs, and wants in life.

When Nick thought that "[h]e did not care about getting many trout," this statement illustrates the insight discussed above. This statement may be symbolically referring to Nick's realization that he does not need so much in his life, just as he became contented with his life in the woods after surviving and becoming happy in it for a day. Though not explicitly addressed in the story, it is evident that the loss of time and care about trivialities, the simplicity of living and surviving in the woods, and ultimately, being happy and contented for what he has made Nick prefer the 'isolation' of the woods rather than the companionship of modern society.

In sum, Nick's retreat from the modern society is not an explicit suggestion by Hemingway… [read more]

Landscape Studies Pioneer, John Brinckerhoff Term Paper

… People have built along the centuries shelters, houses to live in, churches, cathedrals to pray in, buildings to work in. All this for the sake of people. Not for the sake of the buildings themselves.

We can find in nature everything we need to create all this. McDonough is persuaded

That the most natural way to build our system is to take from nature everything it has to offer thinking about the transforming it will undergo so that it will eventually return to where it came from, without causing any damage.

I see this as another step in becoming wise. We have to keep learning about what nature puts in our hand. Transforming, recycling, metabolism.

McDonough starts from the purpose of the creation being as for the sake of people. Coming from the Far East he was stroke by an America where people were treated as consumers and not as people with their own lives.

Another interesting idea I found in McDonough's article was about how he put into practice the idea of building for people so that the people will not feel trapped inside the walls of the offices, or of a mall or even, of their home. There are ways, possibilities, as he describes, he used in his work when having designed and helped building a Kindergarten or a store, that are so simple and yet so efficient. Using the example of the Bedouine tent in order to capture the light and to create a breathable atmosphere is one of them.

Along the ages, people made a lot of mistakes; some of them were huge and put in danger their very existence. Nature and human have to interact. Nature's beauty or sake has no meaning without the human presence. More and more people are becoming more aware of the importance of working with the nature and in the nature of things and not against it.


1. John Brinckerhoff Jackson Obituary, available on the

2. Thoreau, Henry David, Walden Contents - next Section of Chapter One available on the

3. McDonough, William, Design, Ecology, Ethics and the Making of Things, available on the

4. Luke, W. Timothy, Generating Green Governmentality: A Cultural Critique of Environmental Studies as a Power/Knowledge Formation, available on the

5. Cronon, William, Trouble with wilderness; or getting back to the wrong nature. In Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human place in Nature., available on

6. White, Richard, Are you an Environmentalist or Do you work for a Living?

Wilderness Act 1

Wilderness Act. Public Law 88-577, 88th Congress, S.4, September 3, 1964

Genesis 1:28

Cronon, William, The troubles with Wilderness, p. 73

Cronon, William, The Trouble with Wilderness, p. 73

Cronon, William, The Trouble with Wilderness, p. 72 cronon, William, The troubles with Wilderness, p. 90

Thoreau, Henry David, Walden, Chapter 1-A, Economy

Luke, W. Timothy, Generating green Governmentality: A Culture of Environmental Studies as a power/Knowledge Formation… [read more]

Nature vs. Nurture Theory Term Paper

… This would seem that all children would grow up making the same type of choices and having the same morals and values but this is not the case (Pinker, 2003). There are many instances in which the siblings of the same family grow up having completely different values and morals and actions in their lives. The serial killers of the world often have siblings who lead quiet and productive lives as their siblings embark on killing sprees.

To date, several studies have indicated that there are brain receptors and other biological factors involved in the human blueprint.

The nature-versus-nurture debate over anxiety is not a new one. The fact that such changes take place at the receptor level does not necessarily indicate that nature has won out over nurture (Behavior, 2002)."

In order to investigate the relationships between interactions and moral-reasoning development, Walker, Henning, and Krettenauer (2000) recorded a series of conversations between teens (boys and girls ages thirteen to sixteen) and a parent, as well as between teens and a friend. The conversations contained both hypothetical moral dilemmas (to allow for comparison between participants) and actual moral dilemmas. The latter were situations reported by the participants, involving themselves (to allow for comparison across contexts). In addition, each participant's stage of moral-reasoning development was rated annually, using a standard process (Colby & Kohlberg, 1987), so that an investigation of moral growth could extend over a four-year period. The results of the study revealed different types of interactions with peers and parents that could be used as predictors of growth in moral reasoning. Three main areas of insight relevant to summer camp are: types of moral-dilemma discussions, types of interactions, and relationships of interactions to moral-reasoning growth (Powell, 2001). "

Stephen Jay Gould also works to prove that nature through the evolutionary process is a strong factor in the development of human beings. According to Gould, Darwin has been misconstrued and misunderstood (Gould, 2002).

Gould believes that science and religion can and should co-exist peacefully. The belief that nature is evolutionary and gradual fits with Gould's belief about science and religion.


The debate about nature vs. nurture has raged on for many years. The more society learns about science the more it learns that nature has a significant impact on the shaping and development of a person. This is important because it will change the way law enforcement agencies, educators and others plan for the future. Rehabilitation, preparation for students and other things will be looked at from a different angle once it becomes accepted that nature and genetics through an evolutionary process provide the cornerstone for development of the shaping of people.


Moral Dilemma Discussions.

Camping Magazine; January 1, 2001; Powell, Gwynn M.

Anxious Behavior May Be Determined Early in Life.(Brief Article)

Psychiatric Times; November 1, 2002

Steven Pinker. The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature

Publisher: Penguin USA (Paper); Reprint edition (August…… [read more]

Homeostasis Term Paper

… Substances such as water generally move from areas of higher concentration to lower concentration to maintain the homeostatic state. This is evidenced by the maintenance of blood calcium levels. The body excretes hormones to regulate blood calcium levels. Temperature regulation is also a form of homeostasis; the body responds to excessive cold for example by shivering, which sets off a chain reaction of processes whose purpose is regulation.

Similarly, plants utilize various mechanisms such as the stomata to regulate water levels and ensure homeostasis.

When homeostatic conditions are disrupted, and the organisms is not able to offset the disruption through diffusion or release of hormones to re-set an equilibrium state, the consequences are often devastating, and can include death of the organism. There are many diseases that result when the human body for example, is unable to maintain a homeostatic state. Likewise, a plant will wilt in response to excessive water loss, and will eventually die should the homeostatic state not be restored.


Brody, Debra J.; Dye, Bruce A.; Hirsch, Rosemarie. "The Relationship between Blood

Lead Levels and Periodontal Bone Loss in the United States." Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 110, 2002.

Columbia. "Sociology." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition." 2000.

Lerner, Michael. "Genetic Homeostasis." Wiley: New York, 1954.

MSNucleus. "Life Cycle, Diversity in a Balance." {Online}. Available:

Osmosis." {Online}. Available:

Spowers, Rory. "Living Planet." Geographical, Vol. 72, August 2000.

Buckley, James Jr. 2003. "Homeostasis: Feedback Mechanisms." Oswego City School

District Regents Exam Prep Center. {Online} Available:

Freeman, Pauline. "Homeostasis." {Online}. Available:

N.A. 2000. "Plant Water Regulation: Water Regulation in Plants." Biology Online.


Sirinet. "Homeostasis and Transport." Biology I, Chapter 5. {Online} Available:… [read more]

Desiccation Tolerance in Prokaryotes Organisms Term Paper

… Trehalose after desiccation appears to lower the phase transition temperature of the dry lipids and maintains them in the liquid-crystal state. Highly pigmented sheaths are present in a number of desiccation tolerant cyanobacteria. The scytonemin, yellow-brown lipid-soluble pigment is the… [read more]

Leading a Natural Life Term Paper

… It is good to be gentlemanly toward others and to live in harmony with others, even moving gracefully in sync with other fellow humans in situations that would otherwise be contentious without this mind-set.

A nation that is harmonious is one that follows The Way. The Way, of course, is the way of nature.

Working hard for one's needs is part of The Way.

A good ruler sets a good example by following The Way himself. This is the best way to get others to follow the leader.

A nation ruled by a good leader will have peace internally, because a good leader will follow The Way. A good leader is also benevolent, and brings this quality out in others.

Again, Confucianism, according to this essay, focuses on what is natural as being of the utmost important to human beings. The Way, the natural path that followers of Confucianism adhere to, is simply the path of doing what is right according to nature. There is a strong focus on natural law here, as if nature had pre-ordained the ways in which humans are to best get along with each other. Part of this is to be "gentlemanly" with each other, to give each other proper respect as human beings. According to this essay, it is also important for a nation to have a good, benevolent ruler who follows The Way, as this sort of ruler will act as an example for the people. The people, presented with a good example, will naturally follow what the leader does. This will lead to a peaceful nation. Conflict and hatred occur when people deviate from The Way. An individual can follow The Way without a leader if he is diligent and studies all of the appropriate ancient texts and devotes much time to learning The Way. This sort of individual can bring peace into his or her own life without a benevolent leader, but it is beneficial for everyone around if there is a leader following The Way.

There surely is a right way and a wrong way to act toward one another and in our daily activities. However, it is unclear if this way to act is a fundamental natural law or something that has evolved as the ideal way to act over the millennia of trial and error in human relations. At any rate, there is certainly a Way that we follow. However, not everyone follows it, especially in this day and age when so many people seem to be self-centered and looking out for their own wants and needs without giving any consideration to acting as "gentlemen" toward each other. Also, finding a benevolent leader in this day and age is a rare thing, as many, if not most, leaders are out on their own power trip and not really taking anyone into consideration besides themselves. If people were to be taught a common code of conduct at school as well as within their families and if they were to… [read more]

John Locke and Two Treatises Term Paper

… However, in response to this criticism, Locke could argue that the State of Nature after mankind was introduced to money, which is one of distrust and fear, is a reaction to the State of War created by the inevitable inequality brought about by money itself. Therefore, as an extrinsic factor, money necessitated an adaptation of sorts in order for mankind to defend its peaceful natural state, which is one of equality and freedom. Locke may recognize, though, that the differences between the State of Nature and the State of War have been minimized after the introduction of money, but they still maintain their distinction and polarity. Furthermore, after the introduction of a monetary system, and thus the possibility of unequal distribution of Property, mankind is still ultimately guided by reason, and thus by the Law of Nature.

In conclusion, it is evident through the examination of the arguments set forth by Locke that Natural Law prevails, and there is a definite disparity between the State of Nature and the State of War. In response to objections to his claims, Locke asserts mankind's compulsion to exist in peace and cooperation, and how this is the motivating factor for social organization. He states "we are naturally induced to seek communion and fellowship with others: this was the cause of men's uniting themselves at first in politic societies" (Book II, Ch.II, Sec. 15), and that "the world never was, nor ever will be, without numbers of men in that state."(Book II, Ch. II, Sec. 14). Furthermore, a government established through the consent of the people is not one of protection from a natural state of conflict, but one of preservation of the state of natural peace.


Locke, John. "Two Treatises of Government," ed. Peter Laslett (New York: Cambridge University…… [read more]

Human Soul and the Existence Term Paper

… Discussion

While most human beings believe in life after death on some level, true faith in the concept dramatically changes the way in which believers should approach and live their lives. Life before death becomes a two-fold endeavor: full and moral use of the body while our soul resides in it and preparation of the soul for life after death.

While the body can die and the soul cannot, before death, the body is the vessel for the soul and as a result, must be protected with commensurate care as the soul and mind are. This not only implies the necessity of caring for the body's basic functional purposes, keeping it healthy and strong, but also ensuring that the body is an appropriate vessel for the soul. Because it holds the soul during life before death, damage to the body can also damage the soul. Even when a body is paralyzed, the mind and soul live on, but they can still be affected by the pain and suffering of the body. The only life we as human beings tangibly know is life inside the physical body and when that physical container is affected, our mind and souls are affected. As a result, the body must be treated as importantly as what it holds.

However, while the body is an essential part of our composition, it ends with our physical death. Our soul, on the other hand, lives on and not only does belief in life after death necessitate development of our souls, but development of our souls into something better than they are. Just as we train our bodies to maintain and improve the quality of our physical lives, avoiding illness and deterioration, we must prepare our souls to improve the quality of our spiritual life. This preparation is even more pressing since our spiritual life does not end when the physical life ends, but continues on indefinitely through life after death.

Moreover, one of the most compelling reasons to believe in life after death is the continuation of the pattern of nature. Life after death compensates for the wrongs of life before death, but the laws of justice and fairness apply in both realms. Additionally, life after death should be considered a continuation of the physical life, not a fresh start. As a result, our actions before death have consequences in life after death. This only brings a greater emphasis on the importance of developing our souls for the better according to the rules, laws and teachings of God.

Finally, the existence of life after death moves us to develop our spiritual selves because life itself is on loan from God. Life cannot be destroyed by decomposition of its parts or its total annihilation, but it is given by God through His justice and love and can be taken away from Him as well. Consequently, our lives before the physical death are not our own and life after death is a conditional circumstance. Again, the rules of justice and… [read more]

Arthur Schopenhauer and Free Will Term Paper

… Thus, a man who is heterosexual (determined by his intelligible character) can manifest his empirical character by asking a woman out. However, unlike intelligible character, the empirical character changes according to time and the situation. For example, a man will remain heterosexual after marriage since his intelligible character is unchanged. However, in keeping with changes in his empirical character, a married man would most likely stop asking other women out for dates.

Finally, Schopenhauer believes in an acquired character, an individual's comprehension and acceptance of his or her intelligible character as it has been manifested as empirical character over the person's lifetime. Thus, unlike intelligible character, the acquired character is also in a constant state of change and becoming.

4....pick one where you feel you have learned something new

Though I do not subscribe to Schopenhauer's pessimistic and overly deterministic view of life, I find several of his ideas on the continuity of life provocative. Unlike his many Western counterparts, Schopenhauer believes in an immortal nature of life, one that is bigger than the life of any single individual. Schopenhauer is among the first Western philosophers who studied Eastern philosophy, as evidenced in his formulations on the continuity and connectedness of all life. As a result, his writings are surprisingly modern and have strong resonance hundreds of years later.

I am particularly struck by this passage: "Birth and death both really belong to life, and that they take part in that constant mutation of matter which is consistent with the permanence of the species, notwithstanding the transitoriness of the individual." Western philosophy places a premium on an individual's life and contribution to society. As a result, many in the West prioritize material wealth and gain. There is also a great fear or foreboding regarding death, a sense of all good things coming to an end.

While I do not necessarily agree with Schopenhauer that one should not fear "ceasing to live," the idea of a connectedness with a greater cycle of life itself is a form of immortality. Though he says the individual is transitory, Schopenhauer also says that each individual is an integral part of something bigger and permanent.

Also, Schopenhauer has good tips for people who obsess about regrets in the past or a fear of what is coming next. He writes that "the present is the sole form of life in sure possession." It is thus useless to dwell on the past or fear the future, when one can act in the present. This thought provides me with an impetus to act in the present, hopefully in ways that contribute in positive ways towards the connectedness of all…… [read more]

Miracles Exist Term Paper

… It is almost incomprehensible, and truly inspiring, to witness the scientific leaps made in physics in the last century. We can now split photons. We have a strange theory called quantum mechanics, which has given us superconductors and may soon give us quantum computers. We have gazed into the very machinery of the cell and found ways to understand and manipulate its genetics. With stem cell therapy and cloning we may find that science brings us many "miracles" -- many unforeseen cures, and much suffering alleviated. However, there is no doubt that the amazing fact of human consciousness and intelligence can at the very least be correlated with brain size, and that we can trace a path of evolution from the great apes to chimpanzees to ourselves. Our brains are four times the size of a chimpanzee's. As cell biologist Christian de Duve, a Nobel Prize winner, has stated, our descendants many eons from now may have brains two or three times as big as our own, and for them, relativity theory may be like a child's game, and perhaps they will literally hear the music of the spheres.

What of miraculous healings? There are many legendary stories of ill or dying people traveling to Lourdes and being spontaneously healed. There are stories of spontaneous remissions in illness, and of prayer resulting in healing. All these stories may be true. They are indeed cause for celebration. But once again, they can be explained with an understanding of the complexity of the immune system, and its ability to respond to information -- from our own mind, and perhaps even from other minds. We may not have figured out all the loops and connections, but we do know that the immune system and the nervous system share the same receptors and chemicals. We do know that with certain drugs we can "reboot" the immune system and cure previously fatal autoimmune illnesses. We do know that meditation and prayer and faith help quiet the stress response and heal the body. Someday we may understand exactly how mind can reach out to body, and how the love and prayer of others can help heal us.

And that brings us to the final miracle -- that of love. It is the most natural thing in the world to love. Without love, life is meaningless. And with love, life is a…… [read more]

Different Types of Traditional Japanese Dance Essay

… Traditional Japanese dance reflects the core elements and values of the culture. Most dancers are female, suggesting that the creative arts stand within the gendered realm of the idealized feminine: signifying grace and the conveyance of spiritual mystique. By extension, the physical dance forms are subtle and nuanced. Keeping with the spirit of Japanese personal and collective identity, the nature of the traditional dance forms allow for a personal connection with spirituality and generally encourage contemplation. Rather than being extraverted and expressive, as with many Western forms of dance, traditional Japanese dance is introverted.

Dances like "One Wish" also exist to invoke the beauty of nature. Through overt movements representing wind, rain, water, and calm air, the dancers alter their movements accordingly. They use props, such as umbrellas, parasols, and fans, to enhance their expression of natural elements. Twirling is gentle like the movement of waves upon a lake. Unlike the "One Wish" dance, the Odori includes vocal accompaniment. The vocals remind the viewer of the presence of human beings in the natural world, whereas the absence of vocals in "One Wish" encourage a deeper meditation on nature as it exists without the interference of the human hand. In both cases, dance is used to express appreciation for nature. As such, dance becomes a unique means of preserving cultural knowledge.

Nature is sensual and even sexual, which is why many traditional Japanese dances do contain subtle erotic imagery. In the Sakura festival performance, the giant hat is used to represent the flowering of spring, as it is liberally decorated with blooms and shaped like a giant dome. Its convex shape is often placed over the female dancer's pelvis, a highly suggestive movement. The dancers do not interact with each other or with the audience, though. They keep their sensuality and eroticism restrained. The dancers remain self-contained units, but they also work harmoniously together, representing the core dimensions of Japanese society. The tension between individual expression…… [read more]

Long Tradition of East Asian Political Thought Research Paper

… Asian

Explain the East Asian conception of human nature

East Asian political thought had been based on the concept that human nature is fundamentally and innately positive, naturally tending toward goodness. However, Xun-Zi expanded upon what Confucius and Mencius had… [read more]

Japanese Literature Discussion Chapter

… Another question that the discerning reader would ask after reading this excerpt is how does the author use humans to prove that there is an impermanence associated with life?

The answer is that the author illustrates his theme of impermanence with human examples by showing how men (and women) come and go, with very little rhyme or reason to their leaving or arriving. In some instances, he utilizes death to reinforce this concept. As previously implied in the example pertaining to fire, people can be eradicated from existence at the whim of nature. Life itself is one of the most impermanent aspects of the world; the life of humans is no different and reflects this fact in many different ways. The author also buttresses his them of impermanence e by referring to the transience of the abodes in which people live. Early on in the story (prior to his reference to the fire), he discusses the fact that the houses that people live in change. Sometimes they are destroyed, sometimes they become smaller, and sometimes they get rebuilt. He also writes about the fact that even when houses have managed to attain some sort of limited permanence -- say, perhaps over the course of 100 years -- that the people that actually reside in those houses has changed. As such, one of the most tangible markers of impermanence is the houses in which people live -- and, of course, the people themselves who live in them.

The author also talks about the migration of humans in references to his theme of impermanence. He explicates the fact that the ancient capital of a city -- which had been in place for multiple centuries -- was suddenly moved. As such, there was a similar moving of the people who worked in that capital, while others were left behind. Clearly, people and their migrations between places reinforce the author's theme of…… [read more]

Progress Jean-Jacques Rousseau Essay

… Just like the previous one, it is also based on nature. The painting is basically based by the seaside just like the previous one looked at. It has one old man walking towards two adults and two children on a… [read more]

Enzymes Are Highly Selective Lab Report

… However, as the temperature rose above 60 degrees, the rate of reaction gradually decreased; the temperatures between 80 and 100 degrees Celsius were too hot resulting in denaturation of the protein making it non-functioning (Schneider, Corona, Rosales, Schneider, Rodriguez, &… [read more]

Cell Junctions - Tight Essay

… At the same time as adherens junctions interrelate with cytoskeleton actin and vinculin, so desmosomal plaques interrelate in a specific way with intermediary filaments: cytokeratin halfway filaments in epithelial cells, desmin midway filaments in cardiac myocytes, and vimentin midway filaments… [read more]

Tuck Everlasting Essay

… "It's a wheel Winnie, Winnie. Everything's a wheel, turning and turning, never stopping. The frog's part of it" (Babbitt). This quotation demonstrates that the author utilizes frogs and the toad to further reinforce the notion that they, like all God's creatures, are part of the cycle of life.

The music box and the music it plays are highly important in the tale of Tuck Everlasting because they symbolize the spirit and nature of Mrs. Tuck. As the matriarch of the Tuck family, Mrs. Tuck is a protector and has a motherly, maternal instinct as well. She is, after all, the one who vanquishes the Tuck family's foe, the man in the yellow suit. To that end, it is highly significant that the repeated references to elfin music and to the music box are ultimately references to her power and ameliorating nature as a matriarch. One of the first references to music (that more than likely came from Mrs. Tuck's music box, comes in the form as the assuring sounds that Winnie's grandmother hears when she runs the man with the yellow suit off her property. The most obvious reference to the author's penchant for using the music box to symbolize Mrs. Tuck is when she produces that box, and its soothing music, to calm Winnie after she is abducted by the Tuck family. This music is emblematic of Mrs. Tuck's calming, protective nature.

Ultimately, these frequent references to the music box, the toads, and the wheel of life denote good writing in the sense that they allow the author to show the reader important motifs instead of merely telling them. Good writing is demonstrative; less than good writing relies on telling. By providing such a powerful motif like the wheel which symbolizes life's cycle, younger readers are able to understand what is a difficult concept. The inclusion of the toads merely reinforces this point, while the soothing effects of Mrs. Tuck's music box underscore her importance as a protector of the Tuck family.

Works Cited

Babbitt, Natalie. Tuck Everlasting. New York: Square Fish. 1975.…… [read more]

Hypothetical Process Essay

… Hypothetical Process

Biological Processes

The expression "find it-lose it-or move it" has particular significance in the field of science known as developmental biology. This discipline is essentially the analysis of a process in which single cells divide into many cells to eventually engender a complicated being that is comprised of many cells through the expression of genes. The phrase "find it-lose it-or move it" refers to the three primary methods of testing and confirming hypotheses for developmental biology, which include the use of correlative evidence, the use of loss of function evidence, as well as the use of gain of function evidence. Each of these three methods provides an increasing level of efficacy in the confirmation of hypotheses related to developmental biology. However, they also represent an increasing level of difficulty required to use each of these methods.

In that respect, it is important to mention that correlative evidence is the least trustworthy of the types of accepted evidence for the confirmation of hypotheses in developmental biology, although it is also the least difficult methodology to actuate. Essentially, this method allows researchers to analyses the expression of differential genes to see if it is found within a tissue or some other substance. For example, if one were to raise an antibody to a certain type of protein and then perform immunocytochemistry, for instance, utilizing the aforementioned antibody on a specific embryo, if such a protein were not able to localize within a cell that had germ plasm then it could be confirmed (by the methodology of correlative evidence, that such a protein existent within such a cell that has germ plasm disallows the fragmentation of chromosomes.

The loss of function evidence is significantly more reliable than the employment of…… [read more]

Monstrosity in Frankenstein Mary Shelly Term Paper

… Given the fact that he was afforded with all the comforts in life that he could ask for while growing up, one can argue that it was not the manner in which he was brought up that shaped him, but rather his personal desires that drove him to create life out of death. Moreover, it was in Frankenstein's nature to pursue knowledge relentlessly without regard for consequences or the future.

On the other hand, the Creature can be considered to be the embodiment of Frankenstein's monstrosity and destructive nature. Unlike Frankenstein, who was afforded a formal education, the Creature does not have any formal education and must rely on himself to learn about how the world and society function. The Creature is forced to teach himself about the world by reading various books such as Paradise Lost, Plutarch's Lives, and Sorrow of Werter; by observing how others, like the DeLacey family, interact and establish relationships; and through his own experiences. Despite how hard he tries, the Creature can never be part of the natural world, nor can he ever hope to be part of society. The Creature is a monster through no fault of its own. From the moment it was made, it has been treated as such and will continue to be treated as such until it expires.

Furthermore, the Creature is a victim of its environment, and because he has not been nurtured nor taught how society functions, as Frankenstein has, he cannot be blamed for his actions. The lack of nurturing in the Creature's life is a direct consequence of Frankenstein's nature. Moreover, because the Creature is not a natural being, it is difficult to categorize what traits would be considered to be natural. One thing is for sure, Frankenstein fears that the Creature has the potential to create an entirely different, unnatural species if he were to be given a mate. Furthermore, Frankenstein fears that any other creatures he makes will be full of hatred, which he attributes as a natural trait rather than one obtained through a lack of nurturing.

Not only does the novel explore the dangers of unbridled scientific exploration and the consequences of attempting to harness power over creation, life, and death, much like God, put also presents the dangers of reproduction, cross-breeding, and evolution. This is one of the reasons that Frankenstein refuses to build the Creature a mate. Frankenstein fears that a female creature would be "ten thousand times more malignant that her mate, and delight, for its own sake, in murder and wretchedness" and fears that she would also reject the Creature and instead turn to the "superior beauty of man" (Shelley). Ironically, Frankenstein recognizes his God-like powers and refuses to make the Creature and his mate a monstrous Adam and Eve who will go forth and spread their seed across the land.

Frankenstein and his Creature are used to demonstrate the destructive powers that the unrestrained pursuit of knowledge can have. It is interesting to note how despite… [read more]

Enzyme Activity: Concentration, Inhibitors, and Temperature Lab Report

… Enzyme Lab Report

This study details basic analysis of the factors that commonly impact the effectiveness of enzymes. The factors lab include oxidization, inhibitors, and substrate specificity. The final portion of this study evaluates the effects of denaturization due to the enzyme's exposure to heat. Included in this study is a comprehensive chart (chart 1) that shows the effectiveness of enzyme activity at various temperatures and over time in minutes.

Enzymes are proteins that are vital to any and all chemical reactions. In the human body, nearly all cellular processes depend on enzymes to function properly (Smith, 1997). Enzymes are specialized proteins, however, and require certain triggers in order to function. These triggers, known as oxidase, trigger the enzyme to bond with other proteins and complete the necessary functions. For instance, most enzymes require a certain amino acid in order to properly bond and react. Additionally, enzymes have a particular specification for the substrate necessary for optimal reaction. Most substrate requirements deal with pH level, but temperature can also be an issue, depending on the enzyme (Silverman, 1995).

The purpose of this study is to determine what factors are required for certain enzymes to react with solutions. Factors such as oxidase, inhibitors, substrates, and temperature will be studied and conclusions drawn based on the enzyme's reaction to these changes.


Experiment 1: Experiment one was conducted to observe the chemical reaction that occurs when a catechol oxidase and a catechol are combined. The theory was that the separation of electrons would result in a visual color change as evidence that the oxidase was correct for the particular enzyme. If the enzyme oxidase was not correct, then there will be no color change because enzymes require a specific oxidase to work. In this case, a reaction took place resulting in the division of electrons from the catechol. The visual result was a color change from colorless to brown. This confirms that the correct oxidase was used for the experiment.

Experiment 2: Experiment two was conducted to observe the effects of an inhibitor on the catechol oxidase activity on a solution. The theory was the if the solution was a competitive inhibitor, there would be a visual change in the solution different than the first experiment. If the solution was a non-competitive inhibitor, there would be no change because the oxidase is completely inhibited from reacting with the catechol. Here, phenythiourea was added as a non-competitive inhibitor. The reason it was non-competitive was because there was no visual change in the solution even when the added solution concentration was doubled. Thus, there was no actual chemical reaction and the catechol was prevented from reacting.

Experiment 3: Experiment three was conducted to measure the effect of temperature on chemical reactions of enzymes. The theory is that heat increases the reaction time allowing the enzyme to react more efficiently that in colder temperatures. During this experiment, four test tubes with 2 ml of starch and 5 ml of water were combined and set to… [read more]

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