"Biology / Life" Essays

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Respiratory Pathophysiology and Pharmacology Case Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (589 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Primarily because the invasive mechanism used would not be appropriate for humans, and the particular cellular mechanisms being studied were common to rat and human cells. In the case of this study the mechanisms used in the study were complete and reliable.


In a world in which air pollution is said to cause multiple adverse effects within the human organism, it is necessary for health professionals to understand the truth behind the claims. It is necessary that health professionals educate themselves with regard to scientific studies conducted in such matters, so that they can adequately educate patients and general members of the public. This study shows that there is basically no way for the lungs to stop the advance of ultrafine particles from lung tissue to liver, cardiac and nervous tissue; and some of these particles can be very damaging.


Delfino, R.J., Sioutas, C., & Malik, S. (2005). Potential role of ultrafine particles in associations between ultrafine particle mass and cardiovascular health. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(8), 934-952.

Geiser, M., Rothen-Rutishauser, B., Kapp, N., Schurch, S., Kreyling, W., Schulz, H., Semmler, M., Hof, V.I., Heyder, J., & Peter, G., 2005. Ultrafine particles cross cellular membranes by nonphagocytic mechanisms in lungs and in cultured cells. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(11), pp. 1555-1565.

Morishita, M., & Engebrecht, G. (2005). End3p-mediated endocytosis is required for spore wall formation in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. Genetics, 170(4), 1561-1565.

Sena, E.S., van der Worp, H.B., Bath, P.M.W., Howells, D.W., & Macleod, M.R., 2010. Publication bias in reports of animal stroke studies leads to major overstatement of efficacy. PLoS…… [read more]

Stem Cell Research the Legal Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,193 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Bush (Executive Order 13505, pg. 10667).

How do other countries handle stem cell research? In a word -- varied. Some countries are pioneers in stem cell research (Singapore) and others put patients at serious risk with little to no oversight such as Mexico (Pew Forum, 2008). Countries on every continent have some type of thriving industry in stem cell research. In Africa, South Africa created a stem cell bank (Pew Forum, 2008). In Asia, Singapore is considered "Asia's stem cell center," but despite the fraud and the public backlash from Dr. Hwang Woo-suk's research, South Korea's government is very supportive of stem cell research (Pew Forum, 2008). In Europe, Germany has the most restrictions on research while the U.K. is considered to be a leader on the European front (Pew Forum, 2008).

In comparison to the U.S.'s efforts on stem cell research compared to other countries, we are in a catch-up phase. Many countries have promoted and sponsored research on stem cells while much of the 2000's was a period in which stem cell research was banned.

Final Thoughts -- An Endorsement for Stem Cell Research

I am a firm believer in the necessity of stem cell research. So much potential exists in this budding field. Regenerative medicine, palliative care, and treatment for neurological disorders are just a sample of what the science can do; however, there are some pitfalls that we have to understand and avoid. This is an industry, just like much of medicine, in which there has to be considerable oversight and legal control to prevent abuse, fraud, and a danger to the patient seeking treatment.

Stem cell research should require legal oversight similar to how human subject research is conducted in that an institutional review board (IRB) provides approval and oversight on research on human subjects, should approve/disprove any proposals regarding stem cell research. Secondly, amendments and/or changes need to be made to the review board. Failure to comply should bring potential consequences such as debarment and/or stiffer penalties depending upon the nature of the violation. Currently, the National Institutes of Health has much of these guidelines in place (NIH, 2009).

In conclusion, there is much debate and ethical considerations for stem cell research; however, the potential for what they can and the results that the public has seen in infancy is nothing short of astounding. Hopefully, the promises of this type of research leaves the drawing board and becomes the reality of our tomorrow.


Author Unknown (2009). Timeline: A Brief History of Stem Cell Research. Science Progress. Retrieved June 9, 2011 from http://www.scienceprogress.org/2009/01/timeline-a-brief-history-of-stem-cell-research/

Chapman A.R., Frankel M.S., Garfinkel M.S. (November 1999). Stem Cell Research and Applications Monitoring the Frontiers of Biomedical Research. American Association for the Advancement of Science & Institute for Civil Society. Retrieved June 9, 2011 from http://www.aaas.org/spp/sfrl/projects/stem/report.pdf

Francis, B. MEDICAL SCIENCE: Media hype over cloning and embryo stem cells. News Weekly, (22, July 2006). Retrieved June 9, 2011 from http://www.newsweekly.com.au/articles/2006jul22_m.html

The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Stem Cell Research… [read more]

Stem Cell the Recent Discovery Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,369 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Pardal et. al (2003) presented a very simple and explicit comparison of how stem cells can be used effectively in treating cancer. Ultimately he realized that research could ultimately cure cancer" and it might be possible develop therapies are effective against metastatic disease" (p.901). Experts ultimately concluded that stem cell therapy will eventually be the most productive way of eliminating cardiac disorders. It is therefore obvious that this technology is useful and can contribute to humanity in a positive way.


When does life begin? That is essentially what needs to be answered before stem cell research originating from embryos needs to be answered. "For those who believe the human embryo from the one cell stage onwards has absolute moral value, equal to that of a newborn baby or adult, any embryo research is ethically unacceptable as it is tantamount to murder " (McLaren 2001, p. 130). Can this question even be answered scientifically? In many ways life seems to begin at this stage of embryo evident by its usefulness in regenerating cells in stem cell therapy. But that does not make it right. Just because something works does not mean it's acceptable behavior for all society to follow. Murder often works in solving temporary problems but does not excuse the greater moral or ethical questions.

The question is further distorted when one is to understand that many of the embryos that are being used for this research will eventually be destroyed or thrown out. These existing sources of potential healing substance should not be wasted either. It should come down to the individual and what the individual believes is right or wrong. Treating others as one would like to be treated serves as the best moral compass in today's society. The potential for embryo farming and the profit schemes behind these types of endeavors are eventualities in a capitalistic system so encouraging embryonic stem cell research would also encourage this behavior as well. For some, this is permissible, for others it is not.


While my opinion the embryonic stem cell research should be stopped and not encouraged the current stockpile of embryos that can be used for stem cell regenerative purposes should be used. Adult stem cell research should be fully employed in as many levels possible in order to both provide a helpful medical technological advancement and a moral and ethical way of regenerating life through empathetic understanding and sacrifice. Stealing the regenerative powers of a small life form tends to elevate the current human situation above the future prospects. Living in the moment is important but not to sacrifice the future and all of its possible solutions to other problems that can be inspired out of this particular problem. As society preys on the youngest forms of humanity it will no doubt take a serious toll on the psyche of the collective unit as a whole and manifest itself in ways not predicted or expected.

Taking a higher… [read more]

Ucar Turker A, Yucesan Article Review

Article Review  |  3 pages (939 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


92 M. Of IBA was the auxin and the concentration which gave the best results. But in terms of the overall percentage of shoots that rooted, then 5.71M of IAA was the best auxin and concentration.

It turns out that the regeneration efficiency, the efficiency at which the different parts of the plant were able to regenerate both shoots and roots, was higher in the stem internode part of the plant than in the petiole part of the plant, but only when using the auxin IAA in conjunction with TDZ. The authors also discovered that an auxin was absolutely necessary as one of the growth regulators; and without the auxin IAA, the other regulators did not produce any results. Next they discovered that the regeneration of the roots supplemented with IBA had more roots per shoot, but, in terms of the percentage of shoots that actually rooted, the shoots that had been grown with IAA had a higher percentage. In other words, shoots grown in IAA had a better chance of rooting, but shoots grown in IBA gave the higher number of roots per shoot.

The purpose of this study was to discover a procedure for regenerating the plant Verbena officinalis. It was to discover what part of the plant was best for use in regeneration, as well as which combinations and concentrations of growth regulators were necessary. In this the authors were successful and have created an efficient protocol for doing so. It requires the stem internodes of Verbena officinalis grown in IAA to produce shoots, and then grown in IBA in order to produce roots.

However, the authors used different procedures for experimenting on the growth of the shoots and roots. The authors used a variety of growth regulators when they tested the growth of shoots, but then used a variety of auxins when testing the growth of roots. While this may be an effective means of discovering a protocol, this leaves the reader with many questions. If IAA, used in conjunction with BA or TDZ, will aid in the development of shoots, why then did the researchers only test the auxins in the second part of the experiment; and not the auxin in conjunction with either the BA or TDZ? And while the stem internodes were better than the petioles at regeneration, not using the petioles in the root experiments leaves open many options which remain to be explored. It seems as if the authors simply looked for any protocol for regenerating Verbena officinalis and took the first one they found which worked relatively well, leaving the reader with quite a few unanswered questions.


Ucar Turker A, Yucesan, B, and Gurel E. 2010. Adventitious shoot regeneration from stem internode explants of Verbena officinalis L., a medicinal plant. Turkish Journal…… [read more]

Human Soul and the Existence Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,332 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



While most human beings believe in life after death on some level, true faith in the concept dramatically changes the way in which believers should approach and live their lives. Life before death becomes a two-fold endeavor: full and moral use of the body while our soul resides in it and preparation of the soul for life after death.

While the body can die and the soul cannot, before death, the body is the vessel for the soul and as a result, must be protected with commensurate care as the soul and mind are. This not only implies the necessity of caring for the body's basic functional purposes, keeping it healthy and strong, but also ensuring that the body is an appropriate vessel for the soul. Because it holds the soul during life before death, damage to the body can also damage the soul. Even when a body is paralyzed, the mind and soul live on, but they can still be affected by the pain and suffering of the body. The only life we as human beings tangibly know is life inside the physical body and when that physical container is affected, our mind and souls are affected. As a result, the body must be treated as importantly as what it holds.

However, while the body is an essential part of our composition, it ends with our physical death. Our soul, on the other hand, lives on and not only does belief in life after death necessitate development of our souls, but development of our souls into something better than they are. Just as we train our bodies to maintain and improve the quality of our physical lives, avoiding illness and deterioration, we must prepare our souls to improve the quality of our spiritual life. This preparation is even more pressing since our spiritual life does not end when the physical life ends, but continues on indefinitely through life after death.

Moreover, one of the most compelling reasons to believe in life after death is the continuation of the pattern of nature. Life after death compensates for the wrongs of life before death, but the laws of justice and fairness apply in both realms. Additionally, life after death should be considered a continuation of the physical life, not a fresh start. As a result, our actions before death have consequences in life after death. This only brings a greater emphasis on the importance of developing our souls for the better according to the rules, laws and teachings of God.

Finally, the existence of life after death moves us to develop our spiritual selves because life itself is on loan from God. Life cannot be destroyed by decomposition of its parts or its total annihilation, but it is given by God through His justice and love and can be taken away from Him as well. Consequently, our lives before the physical death are not our own and life after death is a conditional circumstance. Again, the rules of justice and… [read more]

Miracles Exist Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (830 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


It is almost incomprehensible, and truly inspiring, to witness the scientific leaps made in physics in the last century. We can now split photons. We have a strange theory called quantum mechanics, which has given us superconductors and may soon give us quantum computers. We have gazed into the very machinery of the cell and found ways to understand and manipulate its genetics. With stem cell therapy and cloning we may find that science brings us many "miracles" -- many unforeseen cures, and much suffering alleviated. However, there is no doubt that the amazing fact of human consciousness and intelligence can at the very least be correlated with brain size, and that we can trace a path of evolution from the great apes to chimpanzees to ourselves. Our brains are four times the size of a chimpanzee's. As cell biologist Christian de Duve, a Nobel Prize winner, has stated, our descendants many eons from now may have brains two or three times as big as our own, and for them, relativity theory may be like a child's game, and perhaps they will literally hear the music of the spheres.

What of miraculous healings? There are many legendary stories of ill or dying people traveling to Lourdes and being spontaneously healed. There are stories of spontaneous remissions in illness, and of prayer resulting in healing. All these stories may be true. They are indeed cause for celebration. But once again, they can be explained with an understanding of the complexity of the immune system, and its ability to respond to information -- from our own mind, and perhaps even from other minds. We may not have figured out all the loops and connections, but we do know that the immune system and the nervous system share the same receptors and chemicals. We do know that with certain drugs we can "reboot" the immune system and cure previously fatal autoimmune illnesses. We do know that meditation and prayer and faith help quiet the stress response and heal the body. Someday we may understand exactly how mind can reach out to body, and how the love and prayer of others can help heal us.

And that brings us to the final miracle -- that of love. It is the most natural thing in the world to love. Without love, life is meaningless. And with love, life is a…… [read more]

Arthur Schopenhauer and Free Will Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (928 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Thus, a man who is heterosexual (determined by his intelligible character) can manifest his empirical character by asking a woman out. However, unlike intelligible character, the empirical character changes according to time and the situation. For example, a man will remain heterosexual after marriage since his intelligible character is unchanged. However, in keeping with changes in his empirical character, a married man would most likely stop asking other women out for dates.

Finally, Schopenhauer believes in an acquired character, an individual's comprehension and acceptance of his or her intelligible character as it has been manifested as empirical character over the person's lifetime. Thus, unlike intelligible character, the acquired character is also in a constant state of change and becoming.

4....pick one where you feel you have learned something new

Though I do not subscribe to Schopenhauer's pessimistic and overly deterministic view of life, I find several of his ideas on the continuity of life provocative. Unlike his many Western counterparts, Schopenhauer believes in an immortal nature of life, one that is bigger than the life of any single individual. Schopenhauer is among the first Western philosophers who studied Eastern philosophy, as evidenced in his formulations on the continuity and connectedness of all life. As a result, his writings are surprisingly modern and have strong resonance hundreds of years later.

I am particularly struck by this passage: "Birth and death both really belong to life, and that they take part in that constant mutation of matter which is consistent with the permanence of the species, notwithstanding the transitoriness of the individual." Western philosophy places a premium on an individual's life and contribution to society. As a result, many in the West prioritize material wealth and gain. There is also a great fear or foreboding regarding death, a sense of all good things coming to an end.

While I do not necessarily agree with Schopenhauer that one should not fear "ceasing to live," the idea of a connectedness with a greater cycle of life itself is a form of immortality. Though he says the individual is transitory, Schopenhauer also says that each individual is an integral part of something bigger and permanent.

Also, Schopenhauer has good tips for people who obsess about regrets in the past or a fear of what is coming next. He writes that "the present is the sole form of life in sure possession." It is thus useless to dwell on the past or fear the future, when one can act in the present. This thought provides me with an impetus to act in the present, hopefully in ways that contribute in positive ways towards the connectedness of all…… [read more]

John Locke and Two Treatises Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,609 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


However, in response to this criticism, Locke could argue that the State of Nature after mankind was introduced to money, which is one of distrust and fear, is a reaction to the State of War created by the inevitable inequality brought about by money itself. Therefore, as an extrinsic factor, money necessitated an adaptation of sorts in order for mankind to defend its peaceful natural state, which is one of equality and freedom. Locke may recognize, though, that the differences between the State of Nature and the State of War have been minimized after the introduction of money, but they still maintain their distinction and polarity. Furthermore, after the introduction of a monetary system, and thus the possibility of unequal distribution of Property, mankind is still ultimately guided by reason, and thus by the Law of Nature.

In conclusion, it is evident through the examination of the arguments set forth by Locke that Natural Law prevails, and there is a definite disparity between the State of Nature and the State of War. In response to objections to his claims, Locke asserts mankind's compulsion to exist in peace and cooperation, and how this is the motivating factor for social organization. He states "we are naturally induced to seek communion and fellowship with others: this was the cause of men's uniting themselves at first in politic societies" (Book II, Ch.II, Sec. 15), and that "the world never was, nor ever will be, without numbers of men in that state."(Book II, Ch. II, Sec. 14). Furthermore, a government established through the consent of the people is not one of protection from a natural state of conflict, but one of preservation of the state of natural peace.


Locke, John. "Two Treatises of Government," ed. Peter Laslett (New York: Cambridge University…… [read more]

Leading a Natural Life Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,346 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It is good to be gentlemanly toward others and to live in harmony with others, even moving gracefully in sync with other fellow humans in situations that would otherwise be contentious without this mind-set.

A nation that is harmonious is one that follows The Way. The Way, of course, is the way of nature.

Working hard for one's needs is part of The Way.

A good ruler sets a good example by following The Way himself. This is the best way to get others to follow the leader.

A nation ruled by a good leader will have peace internally, because a good leader will follow The Way. A good leader is also benevolent, and brings this quality out in others.

Again, Confucianism, according to this essay, focuses on what is natural as being of the utmost important to human beings. The Way, the natural path that followers of Confucianism adhere to, is simply the path of doing what is right according to nature. There is a strong focus on natural law here, as if nature had pre-ordained the ways in which humans are to best get along with each other. Part of this is to be "gentlemanly" with each other, to give each other proper respect as human beings. According to this essay, it is also important for a nation to have a good, benevolent ruler who follows The Way, as this sort of ruler will act as an example for the people. The people, presented with a good example, will naturally follow what the leader does. This will lead to a peaceful nation. Conflict and hatred occur when people deviate from The Way. An individual can follow The Way without a leader if he is diligent and studies all of the appropriate ancient texts and devotes much time to learning The Way. This sort of individual can bring peace into his or her own life without a benevolent leader, but it is beneficial for everyone around if there is a leader following The Way.

There surely is a right way and a wrong way to act toward one another and in our daily activities. However, it is unclear if this way to act is a fundamental natural law or something that has evolved as the ideal way to act over the millennia of trial and error in human relations. At any rate, there is certainly a Way that we follow. However, not everyone follows it, especially in this day and age when so many people seem to be self-centered and looking out for their own wants and needs without giving any consideration to acting as "gentlemen" toward each other. Also, finding a benevolent leader in this day and age is a rare thing, as many, if not most, leaders are out on their own power trip and not really taking anyone into consideration besides themselves. If people were to be taught a common code of conduct at school as well as within their families and if they were to… [read more]

Desiccation Tolerance in Prokaryotes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,768 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It is situated in the extra cellular polysaccharide sheath with a molecular mass of 544 Da and a structure based on indolic and phenolic subunits and is an optically inactive dimeric pigment. [Role of Lipids and fatty acids in stress tolerance]

Scytonemin has been projected to serve as an ultraviolet sunscreen and has an absorption maximum at 386nm. Scytonemin remains… [read more]

Nature vs. Nurture Theory Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,996 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This would seem that all children would grow up making the same type of choices and having the same morals and values but this is not the case (Pinker, 2003). There are many instances in which the siblings of the same family grow up having completely different values and morals and actions in their lives. The serial killers of the world often have siblings who lead quiet and productive lives as their siblings embark on killing sprees.

To date, several studies have indicated that there are brain receptors and other biological factors involved in the human blueprint.

The nature-versus-nurture debate over anxiety is not a new one. The fact that such changes take place at the receptor level does not necessarily indicate that nature has won out over nurture (Behavior, 2002)."

In order to investigate the relationships between interactions and moral-reasoning development, Walker, Henning, and Krettenauer (2000) recorded a series of conversations between teens (boys and girls ages thirteen to sixteen) and a parent, as well as between teens and a friend. The conversations contained both hypothetical moral dilemmas (to allow for comparison between participants) and actual moral dilemmas. The latter were situations reported by the participants, involving themselves (to allow for comparison across contexts). In addition, each participant's stage of moral-reasoning development was rated annually, using a standard process (Colby & Kohlberg, 1987), so that an investigation of moral growth could extend over a four-year period. The results of the study revealed different types of interactions with peers and parents that could be used as predictors of growth in moral reasoning. Three main areas of insight relevant to summer camp are: types of moral-dilemma discussions, types of interactions, and relationships of interactions to moral-reasoning growth (Powell, 2001). "

Stephen Jay Gould also works to prove that nature through the evolutionary process is a strong factor in the development of human beings. According to Gould, Darwin has been misconstrued and misunderstood (Gould, 2002).

Gould believes that science and religion can and should co-exist peacefully. The belief that nature is evolutionary and gradual fits with Gould's belief about science and religion.


The debate about nature vs. nurture has raged on for many years. The more society learns about science the more it learns that nature has a significant impact on the shaping and development of a person. This is important because it will change the way law enforcement agencies, educators and others plan for the future. Rehabilitation, preparation for students and other things will be looked at from a different angle once it becomes accepted that nature and genetics through an evolutionary process provide the cornerstone for development of the shaping of people.


Moral Dilemma Discussions.

Camping Magazine; January 1, 2001; Powell, Gwynn M.

Anxious Behavior May Be Determined Early in Life.(Brief Article)

Psychiatric Times; November 1, 2002

Steven Pinker. The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature

Publisher: Penguin USA (Paper); Reprint edition (August…… [read more]

Homeostasis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,621 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Substances such as water generally move from areas of higher concentration to lower concentration to maintain the homeostatic state. This is evidenced by the maintenance of blood calcium levels. The body excretes hormones to regulate blood calcium levels. Temperature regulation is also a form of homeostasis; the body responds to excessive cold for example by shivering, which sets off a chain reaction of processes whose purpose is regulation.

Similarly, plants utilize various mechanisms such as the stomata to regulate water levels and ensure homeostasis.

When homeostatic conditions are disrupted, and the organisms is not able to offset the disruption through diffusion or release of hormones to re-set an equilibrium state, the consequences are often devastating, and can include death of the organism. There are many diseases that result when the human body for example, is unable to maintain a homeostatic state. Likewise, a plant will wilt in response to excessive water loss, and will eventually die should the homeostatic state not be restored.


Brody, Debra J.; Dye, Bruce A.; Hirsch, Rosemarie. "The Relationship between Blood

Lead Levels and Periodontal Bone Loss in the United States." Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 110, 2002.

Columbia. "Sociology." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition." 2000.

Lerner, Michael. "Genetic Homeostasis." Wiley: New York, 1954.

MSNucleus. "Life Cycle, Diversity in a Balance." {Online}. Available:


Osmosis." {Online}. Available: http://www.purchon.com/biology/osmosis.htm

Spowers, Rory. "Living Planet." Geographical, Vol. 72, August 2000.

Buckley, James Jr. 2003. "Homeostasis: Feedback Mechanisms." Oswego City School

District Regents Exam Prep Center. {Online} Available: http://regentsprep.org/Regents/biology/units/homeostasis/feedback.cfm

Freeman, Pauline. "Homeostasis." {Online}. Available:


N.A. 2000. "Plant Water Regulation: Water Regulation in Plants." Biology Online.

Available: http://www.biology-online.org/5/2_plant_water_regulation.htm

Sirinet. "Homeostasis and Transport." Biology I, Chapter 5. {Online} Available:

http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/homeostasis.html… [read more]

Landscape Studies Pioneer, John Brinckerhoff Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,016 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


People have built along the centuries shelters, houses to live in, churches, cathedrals to pray in, buildings to work in. All this for the sake of people. Not for the sake of the buildings themselves.

We can find in nature everything we need to create all this. McDonough is persuaded

That the most natural way to build our system is to take from nature everything it has to offer thinking about the transforming it will undergo so that it will eventually return to where it came from, without causing any damage.

I see this as another step in becoming wise. We have to keep learning about what nature puts in our hand. Transforming, recycling, metabolism.

McDonough starts from the purpose of the creation being as for the sake of people. Coming from the Far East he was stroke by an America where people were treated as consumers and not as people with their own lives.

Another interesting idea I found in McDonough's article was about how he put into practice the idea of building for people so that the people will not feel trapped inside the walls of the offices, or of a mall or even, of their home. There are ways, possibilities, as he describes, he used in his work when having designed and helped building a Kindergarten or a store, that are so simple and yet so efficient. Using the example of the Bedouine tent in order to capture the light and to create a breathable atmosphere is one of them.

Along the ages, people made a lot of mistakes; some of them were huge and put in danger their very existence. Nature and human have to interact. Nature's beauty or sake has no meaning without the human presence. More and more people are becoming more aware of the importance of working with the nature and in the nature of things and not against it.


1. John Brinckerhoff Jackson Obituary, available on the www.brinckerhoff.org/JBJsite/

2. Thoreau, Henry David, Walden Contents - next Section of Chapter One available on the www.eserver.org/thoreau/walden1a.html

3. McDonough, William, Design, Ecology, Ethics and the Making of Things, available on the www.mcdonough.com/Sermon.pdf

4. Luke, W. Timothy, Generating Green Governmentality: A Cultural Critique of Environmental Studies as a Power/Knowledge Formation, available on the www.cddc.vt.edu/tim/tims/Tim514a.PDF

5. Cronon, William, Trouble with wilderness; or getting back to the wrong nature. In Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human place in Nature., available on http://www.personal.psu.edu/users/s/d/sds214/Cronon.pdf

6. White, Richard, Are you an Environmentalist or Do you work for a Living?

Wilderness Act 1

Wilderness Act. Public Law 88-577, 88th Congress, S.4, September 3, 1964

Genesis 1:28

Cronon, William, The troubles with Wilderness, p. 73

Cronon, William, The Trouble with Wilderness, p. 73

Cronon, William, The Trouble with Wilderness, p. 72 cronon, William, The troubles with Wilderness, p. 90

Thoreau, Henry David, Walden, Chapter 1-A, Economy

Luke, W. Timothy, Generating green Governmentality: A Culture of Environmental Studies as a power/Knowledge Formation… [read more]

Nick Adams Stories by Ernest Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,219 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Hemingway's alter-ego has come a long way when "Big Two-Hearted Hearted River" was completed. Nick, contrary to his naive personality in "Indian," has evolved to become somewhat similar to Henry Thoreau, isolating himself from the urban landscape of human society into the 'primitive' and natural environment of the forest. Where once he was an individual trying to fathom the importance of life (and death) in the world, Nick in "Two-Hearted River" achieves understanding and wisdom through nature. As he traveled into the town of Seney, Hemingway symbolically illustrates to his readers Nick's journey as the character's gradual retreat from human society, with his back facing civilization and forward ahead, is Nature awaiting him (209-210).

A there was something mysterious and homelike. Nick was happy... He had not been unhappy all day" (215). The author's illustration of Nick's candid feelings and thoughts while communing with Nature tells the readers how Nick is for nature, just as all humans are for nature, too. Nick being happy despite the lack of material comfort in the forest shows how modern people like him can live and survive with nature, simply because humans are one with Nature, even came from it.

Perhaps the only reminder Nick has of his 'previous life' as a modern man is the presence of canned food on his trip; eating beans and spaghetti and drinking coffee in the forest seemed paradoxical yet funny, given the kind of environment Nick was in during the time (215-6). Furthermore, his thoughts about his friend Hopkins reflect further how he is finally turning his back to modern society. Hopkins, representing the successful individual of the 20th century, disappeared in Nick's life when he "never saw him [Hopkins] again" (217).

Indeed, it is reflected in Nick's attitude and behavior in his journey that he is gradually getting accustomed to living life with nature. An important insight that "Two-Hearted River" tell us readers is not only happiness in finding one's true self, but also the achievement of contentment or satisfaction in life (228). This insight is vital since modern society is depicted as a dynamic institution that is constantly inventing and re-inventing things that, instead of making humans contented, will only further humanity's ambitions, needs, and wants in life.

When Nick thought that "[h]e did not care about getting many trout," this statement illustrates the insight discussed above. This statement may be symbolically referring to Nick's realization that he does not need so much in his life, just as he became contented with his life in the woods after surviving and becoming happy in it for a day. Though not explicitly addressed in the story, it is evident that the loss of time and care about trivialities, the simplicity of living and surviving in the woods, and ultimately, being happy and contented for what he has made Nick prefer the 'isolation' of the woods rather than the companionship of modern society.

In sum, Nick's retreat from the modern society is not an explicit suggestion by Hemingway… [read more]

Ecological Conscience Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,473 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The doctrines by Aldo were quite precise and coherent though applying his ideas literally what challenges many people. We have to know what is ethically and esthetically right for the environment since it is how we develop the sense of ecological conscience (Sage, 2005).

When we ask ourselves what is required for one to become ecologically conscious and environmentally literate… [read more]

Biochemistry Similarity of Glycolysis Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (519 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


(Macmillian Higher Education, 2014, paraphrased) The caffeine molecule, due to being large and polar is not likely to undergo diffusion through the cell membrane's nonpolar lipids and instead it reported to bind to "receptors on the surface of the nerve cells in the brain." (Macmillian Higher Education, 2014, p. 1)

The nucleoside adenosine is reported to accumulate in the individual's brain when then individual undergoes stress or has ongoing mental activity. (Macmillian Higher Education, 2014, paraphrased) However, when it does binds to a specific receptor in the brain, "adenosine sets in motion a signal transduction pathway that results in reduced brain activity, which usually means drowsiness. This membrane-associated signaling by adenosine has evolved as a protective mechanism against the adverse effects of stress." (Macmillian Higher Education, 2014, p. 1)

Caffeine is reported to have an adenosine structure that is three dimensional in nature with the ability to bond the receptor of the adenosine however, since this binding fails to activate the receptor, caffeine is allowed to function "as an antagonist of adenosine signaling, with the result that the brain stays active and the person remains alert." (Macmillian Higher Education, 2014, p. 1) Caffeine additionally blocks the enzyme cAMP phosphodiesterase" which acts in "signal transduction to break down the second messenger cAMP. (Macmillian Higher Education, 2014, paraphrased)


Cell Membranes and Signaling (2014) Macmillan Higher Ed. Retrieved from: http://www.macmillanhighered.com/catalog/static/whf/hillispreview/POL_Mktg_CH05_.pdf… [read more]

Daoism Philosophy Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,169 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Asian Philosophy: Daoism

Daoism, is the first religion of China. Religion, as is generally understood the world over, in practicing certain tenets, following rituals, belief in a particular philosophy and all that constitutes a religion. However, in its narrative as in practice, Daoism is a vastly different tradition of the Chinese people. It is a way of life, or better… [read more]

Embryos and Humanity Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,552 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Stem Cell Research: Why Embryonic Stem Cell Research Is Unnecessary and Immoral

For decades, many people in the health sciences have been touting stem cell research as a promising means of finding cures for a range of debilitating diseases. While these promises seem to have been overstated, it does appear that stem cell research has great potential for aiding in… [read more]

Biomimicry and Package Sustainability Book Review

Book Review  |  2 pages (555 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Biomimicry & Package Sustainability


The rising awareness about environmental concerns and the disastrous consequences of indiscriminate use and abuse of natural resources has forced researchers to focus on new and sustainable forms of industrial practices. Biomimicry is the new buzzword. The article by Tim McGee & Dayna Baumeister entitled 'Biomimicry' elucidates how humans can look to mother nature for sustainable design advice. With numerous examples of adaptive packaging solutions that exist in nature, the authors indicate how mimicking nature could be the best and sustainable design solution for many of our design challenges in diverse fields such as robotics, material sciences, fiber optics, green building and last but not least- packaging. Nature builds materials that are far better and with absolutely no waste and pollution. The authors cite various examples of species that have adapted the best sustainable designing methods. For instance, ticks can ingest as much as 624 times their body weight and blow up to four times their size. Our own urinary bladder has an incredible expand and collapse design that allows great flexibility. Similarly, the fibrous matrix design found in watermelons (92% of water) allows them to retain water even when cut. If such a matrix design could be replicated it would offer a safe way to transport highly inflammable liquids and dangerous chemicals. A spider, for instance, makes material that is much stronger than steel while at the same time as flexible as nylon. So as the authors suggest nature already has the solutions to all of our problems and all that we have to do is to observe and simply mimic.

The Sustainable Packaging Coalition is about the practical application of…… [read more]

Fleeting Nature of Time Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,758 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Fleeting Nature of Time

From the point-of-view of humanity, time is unforgiving and everything in the surrounding environment is subjected to time. Aging and death are just two of the concepts frequently associated with time. The modern ages have brought along a series of factors influencing the passing of time, making people obsessed with spending their time in the best… [read more]

Romanticism and Realism of the 19th Century World Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,311 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Romanticism and Realism of the 19th Century World

The categories which it has become customary to use in distinguishing and classifying "movements" in literature or philosophy and in describing the nature of the significant transitions which have taken place in taste and in opinion, are far too rough, crude, undiscriminating -- and none of them so hopelessly as the category "Romantic."

-Arthur O. Lovejoy, "On the Discriminations of Romanticisms" (1924)

(as cited from Kreis, 2000)

The Romantic period has little meaning in the way people think is romantic and was more of an artistic, ideological, and philosophic movement in relation to the way the artist viewed them and the world in which they lived in. The period officially ran from 1801-1900 but several earlier works are often associated with the Romantic period.

One of the distinctions of the period is the artist's views on nature and its reflection with a deity or Higher Power such as God. They placed emphasis on the details and the power of nature vs. The old sentiments of live being related as a mechanism. The artist desired to show nature as a system of symbols (a Guide, 2009).

This paper will examine the Romanticism of the 19th Century in regards to the background of the era and the artist's view of nature.

Literature Review

The Romantic Period was a time when the artists, poets, musicians, and others embraced nature as symbolic and full of meaning. They began to associate nature with the presence of a Higher Power or God. It was a time when people in the artistic realm starting looking at the inner world and first person expression. Though politically and socially involved, the Romantics were withdrawn from the public (a Guide, 2009). They were opposed to the injustice of the leading class and showed a spirit of revolution.

The paintings of the Romantic Period were done in watercolor and began to incorporate great detail in the landscape that has been classified as being as beautiful as the scene that was being painted (History of, 2010). The artist began to view the natural beauty that surrounded them and expressed it in their art.

The music of the Romantic Period remains one of the most influential and known musical periods in the history of music. Composers of the era include Beethoven, Brahms, Mendelssohn, Schumann, Schubert, and others and composed music for the people instead of just for the elite or royal society (Music History, 2010).

The period was known as a time of passion and emotion as the artist began to express their feeling through their works of art. For many nature was where that went to find solace and the imagination is free to roam. The website Huntfor.com, in the article, "Romanticism," signifies the Romantic Period by writing, "It started as an artistic and intellectual movement that emphasized a revulsion against established values (social order and religion). Romanticism exalted individualism, subjectivism, irrationalism, imagination, emotions and nature - emotion over reason and senses over intellect."… [read more]

Tao There Was a Difference Between Gaius Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,434 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



There was a difference between Gaius and Titius (Alex King and Martin Ketley) and the Conditioners. Gaius and Titius believed that our statements were based on what we were feeling at the time and not based on fact. If a person said an object was beautiful, they felt that he was not expressing how he actually felt about the… [read more]

Native American Solutions for Global Warming Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  15 pages (3,989 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Native American Solutions to Global Warming

The world faces a crisis of unprecedented proportions, one which threatens not only our future economic, social, and political well-being, but the very life force of the planet itself. Beyond the now well-known threat of global warming, we face a mass extinction the likes of which have not been seen for hundreds of thousands… [read more]

Dismissal of Objectivity and Truly Open-Minded Thought Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (792 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … dismissal of objectivity and truly open-minded thought processes may pose the end of humanity. According to C.S. Lewis, they do. By posing as God and conquering nature, as opposed to working alongside nature, humans will consume ourselves. No, not by means of cannibalism, but more the objective to subjective shift that C.S. Lewis sees as apparent within this concluding chapter of the Abolition of Man.

"Conditioners" herein pose the mental constraints that determine this objective / subjective split. They also consume and corrode our mental processes, focus them solely on the I, extort all sense of reason, and then self implode. Humanity annihilates itself. In a downward spiral, this butterfly effect employed within this objective / subjective split creates obstacles and problems rather than curing or resolving them. Yes, this shift from progressive to oppressive forcefully exists here.


"Man's final conquest has proved to be the abolition of Man" (III, 77).

"Conditioners" herein stand as the antagonists to Objectivity. Furthermore, the conditioners provide the archenemy to impartial, fair-minded, objective thought. Upon these conditioners renouncing any acknowledgement or suggestion toward objectivity, like rats in a cage, so do men play similar subjects. Moreover, where you see one rat, there are a thousand more nearby hiding. As time progresses, in this objective state, men will begin to closely parallel this quality, entirely relinquishing all authority while ceasing to be accountable as men entirely.

Having abandoned objective values, men leave themselves prey to the dictates of other, more powerful, men, thereby ceasing to be Man at all. They are no longer made in God's image, but in the image of whomever rules them at that moment. One needn't be religious to see the tragic nature of this turn of events.

"If you will not obey the Tao, or else commit suicide, obedience to impulse (and therefore in the long run, to mere 'nature') is the only course left open."

The Tao represents the significance of and belief in objectivity, symbolizing objective value. The Tao also represents Natural Law. Without this set of beliefs would only end in fatalism and nihilism, then a numb apathy, resulting in utter stoicism. In Lewis' favor here, whoever commands supreme material influence, which becomes ultimate control and power, will establish his authority and inflict while exploiting a new and altered sense of morality onto others present. That is, in the moment,…… [read more]

Danger of Knowledge in Shelley's Frankenstein "Learn Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,187 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Danger of Knowledge in Shelley's Frankenstein

"Learn from me, if not by my precepts, at least by my example, how dangerous is the acquirement of knowledge, and how happier the man is who believes his native town to be the world, than he who aspires to become greater than his nature will allow" (Shelley 38).

Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein reveals Shelley's concern for mankind as he pursues knowledge. Through Victor's experiences, Shelley outlines how knowledge leads to corruption and destruction. Victor's thirst for creating life was a goal he accomplished but things did not turn out as he planned and, as a result, the rest of his life is marked by one destructive event after another. Knowledge is dangerous and seeking to become something greater than human is destructive, as we learn through Victor's experience.

The theme of knowledge is linked with corruption in the novel from our first impressions with Victor. He reaches Robert a bedraggled man, whose only advice is to do away with any notions of acquiring knowledge. Shelley positions Robert in a situation where he needs to hear Victor's words because he, too, is consumed with knowledge and accomplishing great things. He tells Margaret, "I cannot describe to you my sensations on the near prospect of my undertaking . . . I have often attributed my attachment to, my passionate enthusiasm for, the dangerous mysteries of the ocean to that production of the most imaginative or modern poets" (Shelley 7). Robert expresses his "love for the marvelous, a belief in the marvelous, intertwined with all my projects" (7). He is no different from Victor who wrote, "I had worked hard for nearly two years, for the sole purpose of infusing life into an inanimate body. For this I had deprived myself of rest and health, I had desired it with an ardour that far exceeded moderation" (42). If anyone could relate to Victor, it is Robert, who faces the danger of the "floating sheets of ice" (8) with determination. He does not see the risk involved nor does he consider unintended consequences, which almost always crop up. He wants what he wants and nothing will stop him. We see this determination when he writes, "But success shall crown my endeavors . . What can stop the determined heart and resolved will of man?" (8). Here we see how men can cross the line from desiring knowledge to becoming obsessive.

Knowledge in itself is not a bad thing. In fact, most will agree knowledge is a good thing. However, when the pursuit of knowledge becomes a blinding passion, it is dangerous and Robert and Victor both possess this kind of desire. They do not care what it takes for them to reach their goals as long as they reach them. Victor's eagerness to learn begins quite innocently. He interest in science is normal but his curiosity moves him beyond normal. He wants to know more that what can be known and then he wants to do more… [read more]

Stem Cell Research Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,047 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Stem Cell Research

This work discusses the history and technology surrounding stem cell research. It then goes on to discuss some of the many ethical and moral considerations surrounding it. The ethical debate that has ensued as a result of stem cell research is in fact a paradox that allows some life to be destroyed for the potential of saving… [read more]

Tempest Is a Play That Is Chiefly Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,494 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Tempest is a play that is chiefly constructed by Shakespeare's enigmatic character -- Prospero, the rightful Duke of Milan who has his position usurped by his brother Antonio. Antonio puts Prospero and his daughter Miranda on a ship to go out to sea. The plan is that they will die, but the boat ends up landing on a desert island.… [read more]

Seven Spiritual Laws of Success by Deepak Chopra Book Review

Book Review  |  4 pages (1,664 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Spiritual Laws of Success" by Deepak Chopra M.D.: A Synopsis

There are several aspects to a successful life, and different people have different views of success. In his book, "The Seven Spiritual Laws of Success," Dr. Deepak Chopra M.D. shares what his ideas are regarding how to attract a fulfilling life, love and success. From his point-of-view, material… [read more]

Garden Superstition Gardening and Death Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (666 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Garden Superstition

Gardening and Death

I had always noticed that my neighbor, a middle-aged widow, spent a great deal of time working in her garden. Given her age and preoccupation, she seemed a good source for a discussion on this subject. When I approached her, she was most excited to share her knowledge and beliefs. A woman of British descent in her mid-60s, she indicated that there were a number of superstitions which the British people relate to gardening and nature.

One that she shared which was particularly compelling tells that plants are extremely sensitive to the emotional harmony of an environment. According to her beliefs, plants have strange perceptive connections to human life and death. She explained that this symbiosis with a reason for the dedication which she showed to her own garden. The role of the garden tender is central to the life of the plant and vice versa. This, she said, is the reason for an old superstition which she believes to be based in British folklore. This denotes that when a loved one has passed on, you must pass this news on to your favorite plant in the way that you would another person.

I was able to find support for this superstition in my own research. Here, I found that "in some parts of England it is still customary when someone dies, to whisper the news of this death to their favourite plants or, according to superstition, the plants will wither and die too." (Somerville, 1) This comports closely with the superstition offered by my neighbor, with the only exception being that she specified the death of one from the household rather than the more general death described in the research article here cited.

I found this to be a compelling belief, so I asked my neighbor if she really believed this was true. She said that she wasn't sure what to think. Certainly, she said, she can remember that she failed to do this when her husband…… [read more]

Extremophiles it Is Easy to Assume Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (590 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3



It is easy to assume that all life on earth require a delicate and forgiving environmental balance. Oxygen, water, and moderate temperatures are key to the survival of most organisms. However, this is not the case for extremophiles, which can live in even the harshest of natural environments. Residing in the hottest, coldest, and deepest parts of the earth, extremophiles continue to baffle modern scientists.

Extremophiles are small organisms that live in the extremist of conditions on planet earth. Some extremophiles surround geothermic hotspots, such as areas around hit springs and volcanoes. They live where no other organisms can. Others live in the coldest of conditions, such as inside icebergs. Still others, live in areas almost completely devoid of sunlight; with more living in deep ocean conditions, which would normally crush other organisms (Wassenaar 2009). Often, these organisms live in much different biological conditions than most carbon life forms do. They thrive in areas where pH balances might be lethal to other species. Acidophiles live in areas which very low pH levels, while Aklaphiles reside in areas with very high PH levels, over 9 (Rainey 2006). Additionally, research states that "The ability of microorganisms to thrive in highly saline environments has also been known for a long time," (Rainey 2006:2). Although they are most commonly associated with bacteria, these ingenious creatures are complex. There are huge variations within the different types of existing extremophiles, with specimens coming from both Bacteria and Achaeans (Wassenaar 2009). Adaptations which allow the various extremeophiles to survive under the varying extreme conditions. They are bacteria, and so are highly resilient, but each individual species has also adapted the perfect set of fine tuned skills needed to survive in its specific location. Recent research has seen the finding of entirely…… [read more]

Our Town by Thornton Wilder Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (899 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … hymn? Community and spirituality are two of the major themes explored in the Hymn "Blessed Be The Tie." The focus is on that which binds the community together -- their love and understanding of Christ. Because they have this commonality, they are better able to empathize with each other as a family as opposed to just a society. There is also a promise of a better life to come, and the promise of salvation through attention to good works and piety.

B) How do these compare to those developed in the play? In "Out Town," Wilder explores the importance of conviviality and companionship. This is something that happens as humans mature into adults, and the friendships and commonalities are, according to the resident's of Grover's Corner, constantly take time out of their days to establish a connection with each other. These connections -- the ties that bind -- form the gamut of types, but all result in a synergy between people.

C) How is human existence described by the play? Wilder explores the stability of culture and tradition in "Our Town," but as individuals, life is transient -- and all dependent upon chronology -- the ticking of the clock. For instance, the Stage Manager often loses track of time, misjudges it, and is unaware of its passing -- showing that not only individuals, but the timekeeper himself, is victim to the continual passing of the second hand, and is powerless to mitigate it.

D) To what extend does the hymn's depiction of life mirror that of the play? How? The major point of "Blessed be the Tie" is community, but as the verses continue, one sees the passage of time as well -- "and hope to meet again, from sorrow, toil and pain…." The portrait of existence is not one of Eden, but one in which there are woes, burdens, and as the passage of life continues, a constant need for reaffirmation.

E) Several Characters in the play offer their evaluation of life. Which comes closest to echoing that of the hymn? Why? Emily Webb, who becomes Mrs. George Gibbs, is probably the most appropriate character regarding the Hymn's concept. After she dies in childbirth, she joins a group of dead souls who wish to return to the process of living -- her realization, however, just like the Hymn, that life is precious because it is so fleeting, echoes the entire theme of the play.

F) Is the Hymn optimistic or pessimistic in tone? Why? The Hymn, like most poetry, is interpretive from the viewer's perspective. In this case, it is pessimistic in tone in that it portrays the negatives of life and is clearly not Pollyanish.…… [read more]

Natures Healing Powers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,933 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


This often results in the disparity that exists in the forms of practice and theory available.


The psychological and emotional elements of the healing powers of nature are a very common aspect of life in various cultures of the world. It is often invoked in the form of spiritual ceremonies and communal rituals. The acts that are included in the process includes dancing, drumming, singing, chanting. All these activities and expressions serve to strengthen a person's bond with the community while at the same time aiding in the realization and connection o0f the individual to the higher spiritual powers. All the rituals and ceremonies that are involved in the process serve brain oriented purposes. They serve the purpose of directly communicating with one's soul and unconscious level.

The concept of the healing powers of nature is very diverse and has several different elements as observed among the indigenous communities across the world. One thing that is of coincidence is the common nature of their efforts to help the body in attaining peace of mind by way of manipulating the relationship of a person's mind and body with the spirits. They all serve a basic purpose of bringing the body back to its original wholeness buys means fine tuning the body to be in perfect harmony with the universe. This form of healing is however put in jeopardy with the advent of modern ways of treatment that heavily depends on science and technology. Some legislation also bans these forms of healing as inappropriate from the cure of diseases.

The process of spiritual journeying are quite diverse.However, they serve a common goal of stimulating one's connectedness, spiritual experience and communion. The elements of Spiritual Art, Dance and Music aids in communicating directly to the soul.


Durkheim, E. (1912) The Elementary Forms Of The Religious Life.

Gateley.E in God's Womb: A Spiritual Memoir

Gennep, A. (1960) The Rites of Passage. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Grimes, R (1994) The Beginnings of Ritual Studies. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina

Nerburn, K.The Wolf at Twilight: An Indian Elder's Journey through a Land of Ghosts and Shadows

Malinowski, B. (1948) Magic, Science and Religion. Boston: Beacon Press.

Peterson, N (2004), Taylor, J Bell, Martin (2002) Myth of the "walkabout": Movement in the Aboriginal domainRappaport, A. (1999) Ritual and Religion in the Making of Humanity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Trungpa, C. Smile at Fear: Awakening the True Heart of Bravery

Wakefield. (1997) Returning: A Spiritual Journey… [read more]

Tormented the Minds of Both Philosophers Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,561 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … tormented the minds of both philosophers and scientists throughout time, that is, the existence of god. some parties have argued that god exists, others that he does not while there are voices who declare that it is only possible for god to exist (which means that it is just as possible for him not to exist). All the… [read more]

My First Summer in the Sierra Dharma Bums Comparison Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,533 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Summer in the Sierra, Dharma Bums Comparison

My First Summer in the Sierra - the Dharma bums Comparison

Nature provides people with important information regarding themselves and their purpose in the world, and, consequent to witnessing the wonders of nature, a great number of writers have felt compelled to write about their experiences with the intention of having… [read more]

Thoreau and Emerson Idea of Transcendentalism Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,352 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Transcendentalism and the American Scholar: Considering Emerson's Influence

When Ralph Waldo Emerson delivered the Phi Beta Kappa speech "The American Scholar" to Harvard in 1837, an earthquake ran throughout the American intellectual community. In it, he called on American thinkers to grow out of their adolescence and mature into their full stature as adults, to be included among the serious academic influences constituting the world's philosophical and literary elite. That admonition was important to hear for the nation which was still in its youth intellectually, and uncertain of the direction its intellectual life would take. However, the speech was also important because Emerson not only called scholars to reach their potential, he outlined in the speech a set of ideas to use in order to achieve this. The framework which Emerson suggested, found in this speech and in his essays, has come to be known in the history of ideas as Transcendentalism. Characterized by a spiritual (if not necessarily religious) respect for nature, a quality of mind that is both rational and practical in almost equal parts, and an appreciation of individualized experience coupled with reliance upon the self, Transcendentalism neatly captured the spirit of the times and fired the imaginations of American thinkers. While the power of the movement it inspired eventually waned slightly as America grew into its adulthood, with the very intellectual activity that Emerson urged eventually moving on to the development of new ideas, Emerson's Transcendentalism was primarily responsible for awakening American philosophical and literary thought, and it achieved this merely by reminding the American scholar of what the American people already had become and asking the scholar to develop his own potential in a way that was worthy of the young nation.

In this brief paper, Transcendentalism, as developed philosophically in the work of Emerson and as exemplified in practice by one of his most important disciple, Henry David Thoreau, will be discussed in order to show how it highlights major ideas that have been important in the history of the American literary and historical experience, and particularly how those ideas impacted upon the development of American thought in its early stages.

Emerson writes in the American scholar that the first and most important influence on the mind of a man is nature. In coming to understand nature we come to understand ourselves, he says, and our place in the world. In the essay "Nature" he goes a step farther, arguing that "Only so far as the masters of the world have called in nature to their aid, can they reach the heights of magnificence" (Essays, 384). Stating this, Emerson was no doubt reminding the scholarly community that America was a nation built upon a relationship to the wilderness. From its very earliest stages, America had been built by people who lived close to the land. The early settlers had conquered the wilderness to squeeze out a survival existence and the nation grew into a youthful industrial power by exploiting abundant natural resources. Even more… [read more]

William Wordsworth, Nature Poet Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,105 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3



William Wordsworth

William Wordsworth as a nature poet

William Wordsworth is often referred to as a nature poet. However this sometimes leads to the erroneous impression that Wordsworth was simply a lover of nature and natural landscapes. While he certainly admired the beauty of nature, as a Romantic poet he saw nature in terms of spiritual renewal and transcendent insight into to reality that went beyond this world. The central thesis that will be explored in this paper is the view that nature in the Wordsworthian context becomes a conduit for transcendence as well as philosophical meditation on mundane reality.

Nature in Wordsworths' poems is something that acts as a reminder of knowledge and perceptions of a greater reality that has been forgotten or ignored by modern civilization. This view of nature is linked to the Romantic view of life and reality. In this view nature was seen as,

organic, rather than, as in the scientific or rationalist view, as a system of "mechanical" laws, for Romanticism displaced the rationalist view of the universe as a machine (e.g., the deistic image of a clock) with the analogue of an "organic" image, a living tree or mankind itself."

( Introduction to Romanticism)

In general the Romantics were opposed to the tenets and the ethos of modern scientific and industrial civilization. This can be seen in the way that they interrogated and condemned the rise of scientific and industrial society. (Introduction to Romanticism) Conversely, the hallmark of romanticism is their emphasis on the role and value of the imagination. In essence they were opposed to the conventional views and perceptions of their time and to what they saw as the growing movement towards an overly rational and mechanical view of reality.

Nature therefore played an extremely important role in this broad artistic movement in that it represented the antithesis of the rational scientific worldview. Nature was seen by the Romantics as a symbol of freedom from the mechanical and rational mentality of industrialization.

Wordsworth in particular is known for his use of natural symbols as an expression of his desire for a more creative and spiritual reality. This is evident in one of his most famous poems, Lines composed a few miles above Tintern Abbey. In this poem Wordsworth contrasts the beauty of nature with the mundane and stark reality of modern civilization. He also laments the fact that the absence of an understanding and closeness to nature in the lives of modern men and women has led to a crisis of spiritual and existential meaning. The following lines from Tintern Abbey capture this antithesis between nature and the modern rational world

These beauteous forms,

Through a long absence, have not been to me

As is a landscape to a blind man's eye:

But oft, in lonely rooms, and 'mid the din

Of towns and cities, I have owed to them

In hours of weariness, sensations sweet,

Felt in the blood, and felt along the heart;

And passing even into my… [read more]

Death of a Salesman Flashbacks in Arthur Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (990 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Death of a Salesman

Flashbacks in Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman

Why flashbacks are important in Death of a Salesman

Why Miller wanted to call Salesman 'in his head'

How flashbacks advance the plot

Flashbacks: from Willy's point-of-view and audience's point-of-view

Ben: Easy promise of wealth in diamond mines

Biff: Early promise lost, devastation to Willy's self-esteem

How to characterize Salesman

Why play is naturalistic (flashbacks) not realistic

Why it is not a tragedy

Flashbacks in Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman

Arthur Miller originally wanted to call what eventually became Death of a Salesman "In His Head." Although he chose another title, the interior nature of Miller's conception of the dramatic action is evident in the final version of the work. Using flashbacks throughout the play, Miller deploys a novelistic device to help the viewer understand why Willy Loman decides to kill himself and why it is so important to Willy that his family gets his life insurance money. Willy finds it difficult to communicate with his sons and his wife, so without the use of flashbacks, Willy would be a cipher to the viewer.

The flashbacks are clearly told from Willy's point-of-view, although they also show the limits of his point-of-view. Consider Ben, Willy's brother, who intrudes into the action to talk about the money he made in diamond mines. Willy's fantasy of making a large amount of money becomes clear: Ben 'struck it rich,' so Willy believes he is owed a living in the same fashion as well. Willy believes in the American dream that even a 'low-man' like himself can make his fortune, provided he finds the right scheme.

Unlike Bernard, who is encouraged to work hard and becomes a lawyer, Willy's sons Happy and Biff are not taught to pull themselves up by their own bootstraps. Instead, they are encouraged to avoid hard work, and to cheat and try to find ways 'around' the system to succeed. Biff, until he is crushed upon learning of his father's infidelity, tries to plead his way out a failing math grade -- Happy blames his boss for his failure to advance in his current position, not his own lack of initiative. The viewer can see how Ben planted the idea of easy success in Willy's mind, but can also see the foolish, unrealistic, and self-destructive nature of Willy's false version of the American dream. The sons' early hubris and success at being 'popular' in high school, particularly Biff's on-stage embodiment of the ideal high school football star in a flashback, do not translate into lasting success. The viewer witnesses the present-day Biff's sense of unhappiness and purposelessness.

The flashbacks also reveal critical aspects of the past, like Biff's encounter with Willy in a motel room. The flashback is more meaningful to Biff than to Willy. Willy relates the flashback as it flashes through his mind, but the viewer can also see by Biff's later reactions that he decided to forego college because…… [read more]

Iago: Superior Craftsman William Shakespeare's Play, Othello Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (896 words)
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Iago: Superior Craftsman

William Shakespeare's play, Othello, should be named Iago, after the character that drives the plot and steals the show. Iago is one of Shakespeare's most compelling creations because he is evil. One aspect of his character that makes him unique is his knowledge of his nature. He is proud to be evil. Another aspect of his character that sets him apart is his opinion toward the nature of life and living a good life. In short, he does not place much importance in the effort to live a good life. Iago succeeds because he has an inflated sense of pride, exhibits no concern for life, and is incredibly smart.

One characteristic that that makes Iago unique is his pride. He is fully aware of his evil nature and demonstrates nothing but pride about it. At the onset of the pay, Shakespeare allows Iago to admit to his wicked nature by confessing:

Others there are

Who, trimmed in form and visages of duty,

Keep yet their hearts attending on themselves,

And, throwing but shows of services on their lords,

Do well thrive by them, and when they have lined their coats,

Do themselves homage (I.i.46-51).

Iago is angry and jealous that he was not promoted to lieutenant. When he tells Roderigo that others might show services to their lord, he indicates that he has no intentions of doing so. Instead, he plans to do something in order to exact revenge he feels toward the man. He is proud that he does not think like the "rest of the crowd" and is so confident that he expresses his feelings to Roderigo without any fear or misgiving.

Another characteristic that makes Iago different from most is his attitude toward life and living a good life. He does not believe there are any benefits to living a good life as states, "To be direct and honest is not safe. / I should be wise, for honesty is a fool / And looses that it works for. (III.iii. 376-9). From this we can assume that Iago has no respect for life, sees no reason to attempt living a decent life, and will not attempt to live a good life since there are no benefits in that particular lifestyle for him. This is important because these attitudes give Iago permission to feel the way he does. In addition, they allow him to become more evil with everything he considers an offense. This attitude also allows Iago to befriend Othello only to hurt him with no guilty conscious. He allows Othello to think that he is only concerned for his well-being and he does this without thinking twice about what he is…… [read more]

Disorganized People Organization Essay

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Disorganized People

Organization is essential for an effective and successful life. In order to accomplish goals, both short-term and long-term, it is important that we have our life in order. But what does it actually mean and how do we get to be orderly? To fully understand how an orderly life should look, we must first see how a disorganized person normally behaves and how his life looks.

Disorganization can be classified as situational and chronic. While situational is harmless and temporary, chronic disorganization can cause some serious concerns. A disorganized person who classifies himself as such or who is seen by others as such falls into the latter category because his disorganized behavior is more permanent in nature. Situational disorganization occurs when a person is in a new chaotic situation where his old routine and system are not as effective anymore. This can happen when a person is moving, has too many unexpected guests over, is getting a new job etc. These situations are temporary and hence the resulting chaos is also temporary. Hwoever chrocnic disorganization is a seriuous problem and people who suffer from this can actually fail to accomplish their golas, experience inferior quality of life and are simply unable to function up to their full potential.

National study group on chronic disorganization defines it in these words:

"Chronic disorganization is having a past history of disorganization in which self-help efforts to change have failed, an undermining of current quality of life due to disorganization, and the expectation of future disorganization." Even though disorganized person may sometimes take this lightly and most often others will too, the truth is that disorganization may stem from variety of disorders and may require attention. If a person feels capable of organizing himself and his life, he doesn't have any reason…… [read more]

Nature in Shelley's Frankenstein Mary Shelley's Novel Thesis

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¶ … Nature in Shelley's Frankenstein

Mary Shelley's novel, Frankenstein, is a classic illustration for the argument of nature prevailing over nurturing when we examine the life of the monster, a being that is born inherently good driven to behave badly when he suffers endless rejection. The monster attempts to do right and upon every chance he has, he reaches… [read more]

Karl Marx One of the Philosophical Concepts Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,146 words)
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Karl Marx

One of the philosophical concepts which managed to mark the world and its history through its deep political, social and economic implications is represented by Karl Marx's principle of alienation. A very harsh interpretation of the social and economic reality which he lived in, this theory was the basis for new political ideologies which, unfortunately, latter in time… [read more]

Control of Nature Mcphee Term Paper

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Control of Nature, McPhee

McPhee, John. The Control of Nature. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1990.

Humanity calls nature 'Mother Nature.' But more often than not, in the human battle for survival and technological improvement, humans have striven to control nature with a militaristic intensity. We are at war for our own survival as a species with nature, even while it is our 'mother.' This is John McPhee's central, driving thesis in his 1990 work the Control of Nature.

Although McPhee's analysis could apply to any modern or even ancient society, he specifically focuses on then-topical case studies of how nature threatens and thwarts human control. One of the most poignant examples, in light of recent events, is the Army Corps of Engineers' struggle to craft the Mississippi River to flow against its original bends. Human beings have come to depend upon these man-made configurations in the river. Although the drainage system comes at great financial cost, Louisiana can flood if the river is not controlled.

The book was written pre-Katrina, but it is a powerful reminder of how the city is threatened by flooding by its very nature, even in the absence of hurricanes. The city exists as an artifice, going, like so many human structures, against nature's…… [read more]

Walden and Other Writings by Henry David Term Paper

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¶ … Walden and Other Writings" by Henry David Thoreau and "Man's Search for Meaning" by Viktor E. Frankl. Specifically it will discuss the two author's very different approaches to searching for wisdom. Frankl was relocated to a concentration camp during World War II, while Thoreau chose to remove himself from society and live alone for two years. These two very different experiences led to both men developing their own wisdom and philosophies that worked in their circumstances.

Thoreau's quest for wisdom at Walden Pond in Massachusetts is legendary, and so is some of the wisdom he discovered there. For example, he writes, "The mass of men lead lives of quiet desperation. What is called resignation is confirmed desperation" (Thoreau 7). This is a very famous quote, and it shows that even then, life was too harried and stressful for many people, including Thoreau, which is why he chose to spend two years apart from his family at the pond. He approached his quest by removing himself from daily life, and spending it instead with nature and the natural world, which he came to appreciate and support even more after the time he spent there. He went to the woods to seek wisdom and spiritual growth. He writes, "I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived" (Thoreau 81). Thoreau approaches his quest by isolating himself and by living with the natural world, while Frankl has to interact with the extremely hostile and demeaning world of a concentration camp. He approaches his search by seeking a reason for living in this hellish environment, while Thoreau seeks spiritual growth and knowledge. In other words, Thoreau had a choice, and Frankl had none, so Frankl has to find a reason for being, while Thoreau has to find reason.

Both of these men are searching for themselves and for meaning in life, but one chooses his position, while the other is forced into it…… [read more]

America Past Present and Future Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,957 words)
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America, Past, Present & Future (Emerson)

The strength of Emerson's work has always been in its absolute honesty and dedication to communicating in words, the actions we need to take in life in order to be truly alive. While his ideas have not always been universally embraced, Emerson's philosophy sits at the very core of what we would define as… [read more]

Great Gatsby the Slow Unraveling Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (993 words)
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¶ … Great Gatsby

The Slow Unraveling of Gatsby's Character Exhumes his Failed Attempt to Capture the Superficial Glory of the American Dream

Jay Gatsby was known for his luxurious opulence in an era where money was everything. In the Roaring Twenties, where many fortunes where made through illicit means, the American Dream was distorted to encompass the superficial nature of America's elite upper class. Through several relationships with other characters, the reader is tuned in to Gatsby's extreme desire to attain the life he had created for himself in his dreams. Through his relations to other people around him, especially Daisy, Gatsby proves to be the creator of his own image. Until he actually emerges in the novel, it is his reputation which precedes him. However, his true motivations are revealed, the reader sees right through his facade to his true consciousness. After this is revealed to the reader, his life is destroyed by the very means and people which he desired. F. Scott Fitzgerald in his masterpiece the Great Gatsby shows the downward spiral of the American Dream within the context of greed and desire.

Gatsby grew up in an environment much different than the lavish East Coast lifestyle which is represented in the beginning of the novel. The initial hype of his reputation which the reader is introduced to is a far cry from his rural beginnings in North Dakota. There he lived in desolate poverty, and as he grew up he began to dream of another existence. He dreamt of a life of luxury, far away from the horrors of poverty. He eventually achieved his outlandish dream, however through questionable means. His first attempt in college was a disaster due to his embarrassment of having to work on campus in order to pay for his tuition. The embarrassment and feeling of inferiority in his self comparison of his fellow privileged classmates quickly led him to leave St. Olaf's. Later, through slipping into the thriving underground world of organized crime in the era of prohibition, Gatsby made sure he lived out his lavish childhood dreams.

Gatsby's obsession with Daisy Buchanan was a major influence in his motivation to acquire great wealth. He originally met Daisy in Louisville, far out of the Eastern context where he later found wealth. The two fell in love, and planned to marry on his return from the First World War. After he left, she broke her promise and married another, a rich Easterner who brought her into the life of an eastern socialite. When Gatsby returned to find Daisy already married to a man with money, he became obsessed with winning her back through the only way apparent, becoming rich himself. Daisy had always had money. He had lied to her in Louisville about his worth, and after returning from the war he became obsessed with getting her back,

He talked a lot about the past and I gathered that he wanted to recover something, some idea of…… [read more]

Realistic Elements Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (744 words)
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Realistic Elements

When evaluating the development of realism in American literature, it is important to take note of the vast contribution that corridos have made to the genre. Realism, as a literary movement, was adapted in the 19th century from the French movement of literary realism. The idea was to depict every day, seemingly banal situations that could easily happen in real life, rather than an overly romanticized or stylized presentation of a story or an event.

In the United States, Stephen Crane was one of the foremost representatives of the realist movement in literature. His story "The Open Boat," a tale of four men trapped on a dinghy after being shipwrecked at sea, encompasses many of the qualities that uphold modern definitions of realism in literature. The story's unadorned prose combines detailed description of occurrences with meditations on nature's effects on the individual:

The boat was headed for the beach. The correspondent wondered if none ever ascended the tall wind-tower, and if then they never looked seaward. This tower was a giant, standing with its back to the plight of the ants. It represented in a degree, to the correspondent, the serenity of nature amid the struggles of the individual -- nature in the wind, and nature in the vision of men. She did not seem cruel to him, nor beneficent, nor treacherous, nor wise. But she was indifferent, flatly indifferent. It is, perhaps, plausible that a man in this situation, impressed with the unconcern of the universe, should see the innumerable flaws of his life and have them taste wickedly in his mind and wish for another chance. A distinction between right and wrong seems absurdly clear to him, then, in this new ignorance of the grave-edge, and he understands that if he were given another opportunity he would mend his conduct and his words, and be better and brighter during an introduction, or at a tea. (Crane 738)

Mexican corridos have also made a vast contribution to the development of realism in American letters. Like the writing of such authors as Crane, corridos tend to be written in a plain, unadorned style. Frequently concerned with rural themes, they may also explore themes of nature, but they also take into…… [read more]

Notes From Underground by Dostoevsky Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,804 words)
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¶ … Underground

Dostoevsky, lived in a time when science and new ideas were coveted all over the world, but when his homeland Russia oppressed it with zeal. Bureaucracy and administration censored new findings and ideas with a vengeance so great even great literary minds such as Dostoevsky would spend some time in exile in Siberia as a result of… [read more]

Worn Path the Storm Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,475 words)
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¶ … Worn path" and "The Storm"

Two descriptive short stories, the Storm, by Kate Chopin and a Worn Path are both having a feminine figure at a central place on the their stage. In both stories setting and tone are capital for the development of the action. Nature also plays a major role and it is a character in… [read more]

Explore and Identify the Meaningful Patterns Within Dine Cosmology Term Paper

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Dine cosmology reflects a sophisticated pantheism that represents the universe as an integrated spiritual whole. Elements of the physical world are manifested microcosms of abstract concepts. The Dine abstract level is similar to Plato's world of Forms. All that ever existed in the physical universe and all that ever could exist is comprised of the same basic elements that make up the cosmos. All is one. The primordial elements are the "seeds" of all creation ("The Nature of Life in the Navajo World"). Four basic elements are united by the fifth: which is sound. Earth, Air, Water, and Fire each resonate a unique sound, and that sound is the spirit that binds those elements. The physical world not only reflects the divine: it is divine. Thus, all Navajo creations are emblems of spirit manifested. The basket and the hooghan are the most important Dine constructions, the ones most representative of Dine cosmology. Baskets, hooghan, and the universe share a common source. They illustrate the homology of Dine cosmology. For instance, the butt-end of a basket weave becomes a "doorway," connecting the basket to the hooghan. Likewise, both basket and hooghan are constructed in sunwise fashion, with respect to the four cardinal directions. The basket's twelve coils symbolize the twelve layers of knowledge including the abstract.

In a world in which all things share a common ancestral source, all human constructions must reflect divine realities. The hooghan is among the most sacred of Dine creations and is imbued with life. In fact, the hooghan has anthropomorphic qualities. Designated as a sacred space like the human body itself, the hooghan also has its own anatomy. Hooghans are gendered, too. Their gender corresponds with human gendered social roles as well as with geometric renditions of male and female forms. For example, the male hooghan has a pointed top, whereas the female's is rounded. Within the hooghans, separate stations are established for male and female people as well as for people of different social ranks or functions. The male hooghan is the place for prayer and social meetings, the realm in which song and ceremonial gatherings take place. The female hooghan is the realm of the individual family, a place of peace and of childrearing.

Like the body, each section has a special purpose and all are necessary. The microcosm of the hooghan therefore reflects the entirety of the Navajo world, which also possesses senses, sense organs, and body parts. The world is "linked by metaphoric structures including complementarity, permeated by vibration in the form of sound or movement" and "possessed of the same seven senses and anatomical components," ("The Nature of Life in the Navajo World").

Without the strict binaries that characterize the cosmologies of other cultures, the Dine propose a more integrated vision of the universe. The breath of life permeates everything, and life is cyclical and eternal. Death means only a transition from one phase of life or one form of life to another. Upon death, the same basic elements of… [read more]

Thoreau Rhetorical Analysis Term Paper

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Thoreau Rhetorical Analysis

Henry David Thoreau's essay entitled Walking is a short essay about a walk and the importance walking plays in the human psyche. The essay itself is told as a spiritual meandering as Thoreau takes a walk through the woods surrounding his house. The essay's central argument is in favor of experiencing nature and preserving the environment. Thoreau's belief that, due to the evolution of society, society was becoming more and more disconnected with nature. In order to preserve this important bond, people had to make an effort to maintain their understanding of nature. This could not happen by walking in malls or through urban streets. Instead it must happen by making an effort to leave civilization, find a woods, and spend, according to Thoreau, three to four hours walking through the woods.

The subject of the text of Walking is Thoreau himself, as it is written in the first person narrative and is presented as a stream of conscious narrative of Thoreau's thoughts as he goes for a walk. As he walks he tells the reader his thoughts on the subject of walking and, most importantly, the role that walking plays in his life. According to Thoreau, the subject of the text is nature and the preservation of it.

I wish to speak a word for Nature," he says. "For absolute freedom and wildness." Thus, Thoreau's argument is essentially for the preservation of nature. Thoreau then makes this argument by using the act of walking to explain his reasoning for preserving nature. Essentially, what Thoreau argues is that one cannot understand the importance of preserving nature unless they understand the art of walking, or the important role that walking plays in human life. "I have met with but one or two persons in the course of my life who understood the art of Walking, that is, of taking walks," Thoreau says, "who had a genius, so to speak, for sauntering."

Thoreau compares the importance of taking a walk in the woods to the historic act of a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. The reason people made a pilgrimage was to stay connected to their religion. Likewise, the reason people must…… [read more]

Young Goodman Brown the Short Story Term Paper

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Young Goodman Brown

The short story "Young Goodman Brown" by Nathaniel Hawthorne consists of a multitude of themes and symbolism that demonstrate the main theme of loss of faith, or the weakness of humanity to commit immorality. Primarily illustrated in the story was the usage of nature as an important setting that witnessed the loss of faith of Goodman, the protagonist of the story.

Nature as a symbol in the short story is used as a reflection of Goodman's moral state in the story. Nature was used as a replica and mirror of the self, the state of the individual that is best illustrated through the state of nature. While life's beauty is reflected in the image of a bountiful and orderly nature, the loss of meaning in life is mirrored in the image of the wilderness. The wilderness is the state of nature that remained uncultivated and unexplored -- the wilderness in the life context, in effect, is the 'other self,' the self where the individual's innermost thoughts, feelings, and desires are found. Being in a state of wilderness is experiencing a loss of one's sense of direction, stumbling upon and discovering his/her 'other self' -- more meaningful, deeper, yet is the core of his/her true self.

This was the context by which Goodman found himself -- initially, he was in a state of calm and determination, as he sought to find the evil in the forest. However, as he became confused and lost in the wilderness, he lost his way, which was the symbolic determination of his loss of faith. In fact, his loss of faith was further demonstrated by the actual loss of his wife, Faith. It was this lost sense of direction in the forest and the corresponding loss of his wife Faith…… [read more]

C.S. Lewis' a Grief Observed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (876 words)
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¶ … C.S. Lewis' A Grief Observed

Lewis was one of the most famous theologians and authors of children's books of his day. Yet even he had to confront the demands of ordinary, human grief like the death of a loved one, demands that made him question not the existence of God, which he felt deeply and profoundly on an elemental level, but the goodness of God and God's creation. Even this devout Christian believer admitted that, much like health or home or other forms of security, when "when you are happy, so happy that you have no sense of needing Him, so happy that you are tempted to feel His claims upon you as an interruption, if you remember yourself and turn to Him with gratitude and praise, you will be -- or so it feels -- welcomed with open arms," with very little effort. (Lewis, p.5)

This sensation of unforced love for God and God's creation mirrors what it is like, perhaps around the holiday season, where going to observances seem like a chore, an annoying but not unpleasant "interruption" to daily life. But daily life is more full of the types of visceral joys, like laughing with friends, or in Lewis' case, spending time with his beloved wife, than apprehending the full nature of the divine.

In other words, because of the earthly, individualistic human nature, the happy and personal pleasures of the world will often seem greater than the pleasures provided by the indefinite idea of God, even in the heart of someone who appreciates God's love on a daily basis. A believer may give thanks to God, but often as an afterthought, rather than with the same kind of unforced, truth faith that one gives love to another human being.

But unlike the life of the spirit, a human life is finite. Although love of God may not bring the same kinds of immediate pleasures of human intimacy or love, when one experiences death, or another kind of profound loss, then there is a need for God once again -- and a need to question God as well. "But go to Him when your need is desperate, when all other help is vain, and what do you find? A door slammed in your face, and a sound of bolting and double bolting on the inside." (Lewis, p.5) Over the course of Lewis' meditation, of course, Lewis does find the goodness God again, but he admits that knowing that a truly good God exists can prove difficult, when he wants to find proof of God's existence in what is good and joyous in the…… [read more]

Warren Wiersbe Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,102 words)
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Warren Wiersbe is perhaps one of the most influential and well recognized theological writers of our time. His "Be" series has sold millions of copies around the world and he has taken his inspirational message everywhere he goes. In one of the first of his "Be" series, "Be Satisfied," Warren Wiersbe tackles a subject that few preachers are willing to… [read more]

Tragedy of Hamlet William Shakespeare's Most Famous Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (885 words)
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¶ … Tragedy of Hamlet

William Shakespeare's most famous play, Hamlet, has a relatively simple plot on the surface: the son is asked to revenge the murder of his father. Still, as critical opinion observed many times, the play has many psychological and metaphysical implications: it is, in fact a meditation on the nature of man, as well as a meditation on life in general. To reveal these implications, Shakespeare has chosen a character that would best suit his purpose: the prince of Denmark shows all the signs of the melancholic disposition: he is a philosopher and a man with strong moral principles, that make him revolt against the double crime that forms the core of the play: the murder of his father, the king of Denmark, by his own brother Claudius, and the latter's marriage to Gertrude, Hamlet's mother and the wife of the dead king.

Hamlet's attitude in front of this "foul play," his deferral in taking action and the final resolution of the conflict are the facts that most reveal the philosophical and psychological themes of the play.

At both the psychological and philosophical levels of the play, the Shakespearian text reveals a very important theme- that of the contrast between appearance and reality. The structure of the play and its main events unfold this contrast: the double crime is called a "foul play" by Hamlet upon his hearing from Horatio about the apparition of the ghost of his father. This term intimates that the events as apparent in the play have a hidden meaning. Also, play becomes again important in what was called the "play within play" scene, where it is Hamlet's turn to play and stage a tragedy for Claudius with the aid of some actors, in which he inserts a few lines that speak of his father's murder. Thus, the "play" or the act of playing at reality becomes a central theme of Hamlet.

Thus, first of all, Hamlet's own nature is most characterized by his repulsion towards appearances, and the feigned grief that his uncle and his mother show at the death of the king. As critic W. Thomas MacCary observed, Hamlet best suits Hegel's description of the "beautiful soul," the romantic hero who condemns the world and withdraws from it, not realizing that he himself is a product of it and carries its form impressed on him." (MacCary, 95)

One of Hamlet's own statements about himself upholds the commentary above:

But I have within me that which passes show,

These but the trappings and the suits of woe." (Ham. I. ii. 85-86)

The death of Hamlet's father is termed as something "common" by the…… [read more]

Traditional Literary Analysis Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (991 words)
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Traditional Lit Analysis

Seasons Change: The Tragedy of Love

Were it a dramatic work, T. Coraghessan Boyle's short story, "The Love Of My Life," would certainly classify as a tragedy. The gripping tale of a pair of teenage lovers on the cusp of adulthood abruptly losing all of the promise of their future to imprisonment due to the murder of their unwanted child has several elements aligned with those which conventional Greek tragedies are based upon. Surprisingly, the author is decidedly removed from any emotional involvement in this particular story, and takes great pains to portray the events, sometimes narrated by the female protagonist China Berkowitz, sometimes narrated by her lover Jeremy, in a non-partisan, neutral tone. Still, Boyle uses a plethora of literary devices to supplement the dialogue and narration which moves the bulk of the story. The author employs elements of foreshadowing, symbolism and imagery to navigate this tragic tale, all of which have the effect of substantially adding to the drama with which the plot is based upon.

One of the common motifs prevalent throughout the duration of "The Love Of My Life" is Boyle's use of nature to typify and even amplify the emotions which the two principle characters feel. The author uses the conventional symbolism associated with natural settings such as Spring and Winter to emphasize the emotional highs and lows, respectively, which the characters endure during these times of year. At the onset of the story, when Jeremy and China are deliciously enraptured with one another, Boyle employs a fair amount of imagery associated with Spring to indicate that the love which bonds the pair is fertile and growing, which can most readily be demonstrated in the following quotation. "It was an early spring that year, the world gone green overnight, the thermometer twice hitting the low eighties in the first week of March…The whole school…smelled of fresh-mowed grass and the unfolding blossoms of the fruit trees…(p. 2)." The relation of this quotation to a vernal atmosphere is fairly transparent, as on the literal level of interpretation it employs imagery of warm temperatures and green grass. Yet on the figurative level of literary interpretation, this quotation takes on an additional level of emphasis. Spring is the time when nature and natural things grow. In the story, it is the time when the two characters vacation at a lake in the Catskills and Jeremy impregnates China. So while the author is literally describing a verdant atmosphere, the author is also figuratively foreshadowing the growth and fostering of life within China, as well.

Nature is also used by Boyle to foreshadow the termination of the bliss enjoyed by the teenage lovers which the ensuing pregnancy will spawn within their lives. While on their vacation in the Catskills, the author makes note of the fact that the five-day venture is supposed to be filled with sunny, spring-like days. However, around the time that Jeremy and China have unprotected sex which leads to…… [read more]

Ecological Identity Learning and Sustainability Assessment

Assessment  |  2 pages (751 words)
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Ecological Identity

One of the most interesting exercises, for me, in modern living is to occasionally not take public or private transportation, but to actually spend time slowly walking through both urban and rural landscapes. In our contemporary world, the phrase, "stop and smell the roses," takes on new meaning, because of our continual desire to hurry from place to place, hastening the outcome of whatever it is we are pining for, and forgetting about the small chances in seasons, in the parts of the day, or even within the particular areas we inhabit. This metaphor seems to me to be rather indicative of the way we have become enamored with pace. We seem to have lost the rhythm of nature, of the cycles of life, trying to perpetuate work to the nth degree and squeeze in even more work time. In fact, in the 21st century, Australia has undergone a drastic change in the number of work hours, weekend work, and evening work, than ever before. The Australia Institute published a study in 2004 that found the average Australian worked 1855 hours per annum, surpassing even Japan. This means that in the developed world, Australians work more and enjoy life less than any other population -- a clear change from the 1970s and 1980s in which the average work week was between 28 and 36 hours (Sedgman, J. 2004).

It is not only in our inability to find a balance between action and rest, but our inability to actually seem to enjoy things that life has to offer; spring blossoms, the scent of freshly mown grass, variable scents and blossoms from particular seasonal plants, and even the ability to carefully choose fresh produce by its smell, or to differentiate between the tastes of greenhouse or imported crops and those grown fresh and local. When, for instance, was the last time most of us spent the time actually watching the sun rise and set -- and noticed the number of different colors that are abundant when we simply look at the sky? When was the last time we actually spent time savoring the freshness of the air? Can one even imagine, sleeping on sheets that had been dried in the air and sun?

In addition…… [read more]

Cell Plasma (Cell) Membrane Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (823 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Cell

Plasma (Cell) Membrane: The cell membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell. It has a double wall that separates the inside and the outside of the cell, and it provides structure and shape for the cell.

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: The rough endoplasmic reticulum is an organelle within the cell that is responsible for protein production from amino acids, and also the "coding" process of protein folding to specify the destination of the proteins. It is called "rough" because its surface is covered with ribosomes.

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is tubular in shape and can be found throughout the cytoplasm. It is called "smooth" because, unlike the rough ER, it is not covered in ribosomes. The smooth ER is responsible for creating and sometimes metabolizing lipids within the cell. It also detoxifies and converts organic material to useful and safe water-soluble products.

Ribosomes: Ribosomes are organelles composed of proteins and nucleic acids. They can be found floating in the cytoplasm and also attached to rough ER. They are responsible for translating the information transported from the nucleus by the mRNA and using it to create polypeptides from the amino acids gathered by the tRNA.

Golgi apparatus: The Golgi apparatus is a group of flat discs found near the endoplasmic reticulum. They are responsible for sorting the proteins created by the ribosomes on the rough ER, packaging them in vesicles, and delivering them to their proper destination. This structure was named after its discoverer, Camillo Golgi.

Mitochondria: The mitochondria are found through the cell, and are responsible for using oxygen to convert the food within the cell to usable energy through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondria are structured similarly to a cell, with a double-walled membrane providing shape and strength.

Lysosomes: Lysosomes are spherical organelles bound by a membrane and containing powerful hydrolytic enzymes. These enzymes carry out a waste management function within the cell, digesting degrading and expired material within the cell and breaking it down into simple compounds, which can then be reused by the cell.

Centrioles: Centrioles are organelles that are only found in animal cells. They are composed of microtubules positioned in a star-like pattern, and they always come in pairs arranged at right angles. Centrioles function as organizing forces during the division of a cell. They are responsible for arranging the microtubules into the spindle pattern necessary for alignment of chromosomes during division.

Vesicles: Vesicles are the transport and storage…… [read more]

New Earth, Chapter 6: Breaking Free Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (594 words)
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¶ … New Earth: Chapter Six, "Breaking Free"

In A New Earth, chapter seven, "Breaking Free," author Echkart Tolle begins by noting that the beginning of freedom from the pain-body lies first of all in the realization that you have a pain-body (Tolle 99). He notes that it is essential for one to attempt to eliminate the link between our presence and our bodies, as our bodies truly hold no representation of who we are. In understanding that every human being is an emanates an energy field that corresponds to his or her inner state, and in understanding that most people can sense this, one has the capacity to better eliminate a life with a consistent focus on the pain-body and all the problems that a reliance on this body tends to bring.

Tolle notes that many acts of violence are committed by two otherwise normal people temporarily turning into maniacs, their actions of which defined by the statement "this is totally out of character" (Tolle 100). Tolle notes that this is the exact association with the pain-body that many people tend to have. They allow themselves to be caught up in the physicality of the moment and eliminate the need or even the identification of their inner spiritual self and the fact that it exists above all else.

It is in living a life with association to the pain-body that people can drift into a state of unconscious living. Instead, one must attempt to break away from this and find their own presence in their minds and spirits, rather than in the chaos of the world and its never-ending problems. It is in removing the focus on the pain-body and finding a peace in ourselves that we are able to live in a more natural state…… [read more]

Imagery and Symbolism in the Chrysanthemums by John Steinbeck Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Imagery & Symbolism in the Chrysanthemums by John Steinbeck

Mother Nature in Steinbeck and Hemingway

There has been a fairly exhaustive amount of academic and literary criticism directed towards the character of Elisa Allen in John Steinbeck's short story "The Chrysanthemums" (Hunt). Interestingly enough, virtually all of the analysis given towards her characterization reflects her sexual repression and status as… [read more]

Shakespeare's Measure Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,432 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Measure for Measure" we see substitution in the characters, in the role the characters take on, in the key events, in the language and in the themes. Substitution occurs throughout the entire play, which only adds to the overall meaning of the play, the nature of substitution in that it is a part of human life, especially in… [read more]

Door in the Wall Essay

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He is a hero in that he fought his whole life to enjoy life and not yield to how dull it really was. He had the courage not to give in to his desire and to fight on instead. The tragedy is that while he had this character, he encountered the door at too young of an age. Even at five, "he had the clearest conviction that either it was unwise or it was wrong of him...to yield to this attraction." But a natural curiosity tragically won out on this first occasion and so the promise of paradise haunted him forever.

Lionel Wallace is a hero in that he found the strength to persevere with life and strive for success, even with the memories of an enchanting place making his world seem dull. Each time he was offered an easy escape, he found the means to fight it. The tragedy is that in the end our hero is overcome by his memories and can no longer escape his own desires.


"The Door in the Wall" by H.G. Wells. First published in 1906.


The story is told through a third person narrator, who describes Lionel Wallace's story as it was told to him by Wallace. He offers us Wallace's own words as well as the words of others and his own description of Wallace as he was telling the tale. He also offers his own thoughts on the matter.


The plot of the story revolves around the character, Lionel Wallace and his encounter with the door in the wall. The exposition is his first encounter with the door as a child of five or six where he enters the door and finds an enchanted place, the beauty of which will haunt him for the rest of his life. The rising action continues as he describes his encounters with the door throughout his growing years, for these encounters he does not enter the door, though this is not because of a choice not to do so, but rather by circumstance. This also continues into his adulthood where he begins to wish that he could go in the door but never does. Finally, we see him as an old man, with the door appearing more frequently and him feeling more regret for not entering it. The climax of the story is where the narrator tells us Wallace's body was found in a deep excavation pit near East Kensington. The reader is aware that this is because he entered a door, the question remains whether his death means he has gone to that enchanted place or whether his longing for the door has killed him.


The protagonist in the story is Lionel Wallace, the antagonist is the door itself, and specifically what this door represents. The conflict is Wallace's struggle with his childhood experience within the door and his decision to fight the longing and remain in the real world.


The overall theme of the story… [read more]

Henry Thoreau and Ralph Emerson Term Paper

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" Emerson's idea of conformity was that it is like poison. He concludes this rather long speech by saying that "Nothing can bring you peace but yourself. Nothing can bring you peace but the triumph of principles."

Thoreau's Civil Disobedience also agrees with Emerson's ideas regarding conformity and the need to prioritize your life and morals in spite of the law. He goes into more political detail with it, though, with his opposition of the Mexican-American War and slavery. He uses the idea of self-reliance to say that the government rarely proves to be of any use to anyone and that people should do what they think is right over anything else. His essay correlates most with Emerson's essay "Self-Reliance." The shared principles are that only the individual is responsible for the individual and that by conforming to others is to not do yourself justice. Thoreau, as stated before, takes it further by criticizing the establishments our country was built upon.

In Walden, Thoreau uses principles of Emerson's commencement speech in the sections "Where I Lived and What I Lived For." Thoreau explains his meager house that he built by his own hands and how he became a student of nature by slowing down and letting life happen instead of "live with such hurry and waste of life." (60) He desires to live his life "as deliberately as Nature" and "make a day of it." (63) He intends to find himself among Nature and find his lifeblood among the waters he fishes in. In essence, he has done what Emerson has asked -- he as become one with Nature and let Nature become his teacher.

While Emerson clearly began his works before Thoreau, Thoreau was heavily influenced by his writings and his lifestyle. Emerson stated principles about Nature being important, Literature being a guide and Self-Reliance being our judge and Thoreau carried these ideas out and wrote about them.

Thoreau, Henry. Walden; or Life in the Woods. New York: Dover Publications Inc., 1995

Ralph Waldo…… [read more]

Matrix Neo-Is Offered the Choice Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,098 words)
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Again we see that things have meaning in the mind. What one person sees as reality is not understood by another because it is said, it is understood when another mind interprets it.

I believe that the idea of humans progressing is just another idea that has been accepted. It is accepted because people want to believe it. But for an individual, human progress serves no immediate purpose.

The fact is that reality is determined by every individual, and reality is what is in the minds of a person. Many philosophers agree with this point, however many also believe that a person's reality reflects the environment and its purpose is to shed light on the real nature of things.

If reality is really in the mind, then the real nature of things does not matter. The environment's purpose is just to create a human response to it. It is in this response that the truth lies. Whether the environment is real or imagined, our reaction to it as real. Just as with a movie or a book. The characters and the story are not real, but as a person watches or reads they extract meaning from it. That reaction is still real, even though the events in the movie are not.

Taking the blue pill and entering the real world actually takes away the stimulation of the environment for Neo. He no longer has the society, the food and many other experiences. While his world is in fact now real, in his mind it has less meaning because it offers less stimulation. What he once saw as reality now becomes more like a movie to him. He can still access it and can still live a life in the invented world. But he can no longer interact as fully because he now knows it is not real. This is just as an event in real life will always have greater impact than an event in a movie, because we know it is real. No matter what the programs for his mind can offer him, as long as he knows they are invented, he is stimulated less.

His life in the real world becomes far less fulfilling. It offers less to his mind. Essentially, his reality is weaker.

If he had of taken the blue pill he would have woken up the next morning forgetting everything about the matrix and believing that his invented world was real. Believing this he would have continued living his life. This invented world was invented to keep his mind contained, to keep it satisfied. He would have still experienced negatives but he would at least have a full range of experience. He would eat, he would work and he would interact with people and society.

As long as Neo-believes this world is real, it offers him all that he needs. It does not matter that the world is not real, as long as he does not know this, his reaction to it is.

Reality is… [read more]

Enzyme Activity: Concentration, Inhibitors, &amp Temperature Lab Report

Lab Report  |  4 pages (1,236 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Enzyme Lab Report

This study details basic analysis of the factors that commonly impact the effectiveness of enzymes. The factors lab include oxidization, inhibitors, and substrate specificity. The final portion of this study evaluates the effects of denaturization due to the enzyme's exposure to heat. Included in this study is a comprehensive chart (chart 1) that shows the effectiveness of enzyme activity at various temperatures and over time in minutes.

Enzymes are proteins that are vital to any and all chemical reactions. In the human body, nearly all cellular processes depend on enzymes to function properly (Smith, 1997). Enzymes are specialized proteins, however, and require certain triggers in order to function. These triggers, known as oxidase, trigger the enzyme to bond with other proteins and complete the necessary functions. For instance, most enzymes require a certain amino acid in order to properly bond and react. Additionally, enzymes have a particular specification for the substrate necessary for optimal reaction. Most substrate requirements deal with pH level, but temperature can also be an issue, depending on the enzyme (Silverman, 1995).

The purpose of this study is to determine what factors are required for certain enzymes to react with solutions. Factors such as oxidase, inhibitors, substrates, and temperature will be studied and conclusions drawn based on the enzyme's reaction to these changes.


Experiment 1: Experiment one was conducted to observe the chemical reaction that occurs when a catechol oxidase and a catechol are combined. The theory was that the separation of electrons would result in a visual color change as evidence that the oxidase was correct for the particular enzyme. If the enzyme oxidase was not correct, then there will be no color change because enzymes require a specific oxidase to work. In this case, a reaction took place resulting in the division of electrons from the catechol. The visual result was a color change from colorless to brown. This confirms that the correct oxidase was used for the experiment.

Experiment 2: Experiment two was conducted to observe the effects of an inhibitor on the catechol oxidase activity on a solution. The theory was the if the solution was a competitive inhibitor, there would be a visual change in the solution different than the first experiment. If the solution was a non-competitive inhibitor, there would be no change because the oxidase is completely inhibited from reacting with the catechol. Here, phenythiourea was added as a non-competitive inhibitor. The reason it was non-competitive was because there was no visual change in the solution even when the added solution concentration was doubled. Thus, there was no actual chemical reaction and the catechol was prevented from reacting.

Experiment 3: Experiment three was conducted to measure the effect of temperature on chemical reactions of enzymes. The theory is that heat increases the reaction time allowing the enzyme to react more efficiently that in colder temperatures. During this experiment, four test tubes with 2 ml of starch and 5 ml of water were combined and set to… [read more]

Hypothetical Process Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (579 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Hypothetical Process

Biological Processes

The expression "find it-lose it-or move it" has particular significance in the field of science known as developmental biology. This discipline is essentially the analysis of a process in which single cells divide into many cells to eventually engender a complicated being that is comprised of many cells through the expression of genes. The phrase "find it-lose it-or move it" refers to the three primary methods of testing and confirming hypotheses for developmental biology, which include the use of correlative evidence, the use of loss of function evidence, as well as the use of gain of function evidence. Each of these three methods provides an increasing level of efficacy in the confirmation of hypotheses related to developmental biology. However, they also represent an increasing level of difficulty required to use each of these methods.

In that respect, it is important to mention that correlative evidence is the least trustworthy of the types of accepted evidence for the confirmation of hypotheses in developmental biology, although it is also the least difficult methodology to actuate. Essentially, this method allows researchers to analyses the expression of differential genes to see if it is found within a tissue or some other substance. For example, if one were to raise an antibody to a certain type of protein and then perform immunocytochemistry, for instance, utilizing the aforementioned antibody on a specific embryo, if such a protein were not able to localize within a cell that had germ plasm then it could be confirmed (by the methodology of correlative evidence, that such a protein existent within such a cell that has germ plasm disallows the fragmentation of chromosomes.

The loss of function evidence is significantly more reliable than the employment of…… [read more]

Nature Closer to the Ancient Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,602 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


It is because a body, in itself or inherently, possesses a certain mass, that it exerts a certain force in impact .... But now the energies belonging to material bodies ... explain the extension and mass .... So far from its being true that matter does what it does because first of all, independently of what it does, it is what it is, we are now taught that matter is what it is because it does what it does: or to be more precise, its being what it is the same thing as its doing what it does." (p. 148)

Interestingly, it is perhaps the insistence of the Renaissance view that nature was mechanical that led to the extensive study of matter and, thereby, the discovery that life is an evolutionary process. In fact, Collingwood endorses this hypothesis when he says, "The cycle of cosmological thought in the modern world, from Descartes and Newton to Whitehead, recapitulates the cycle running from Thales to Aristotle. But this recapitulation is not a mere repetition ...." (p. 170)

Thus, in the final analysis, the modern view of nature owes as much to the Greeks as it does to the Renaissance period. Indeed, it is interesting to note that in making this observation, the same analogy that modern science uses is in operation: "As Greek natural science was based on the analogy between the macrocosm nature and the microcosm man ... As Renaissance natural science was based on the analogy between nature as God's handiwork and the machines that are the handiwork of man ... The modern view of nature ... is based…… [read more]

Personal Identity Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,292 words)
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Memory Theory of Personal Identity

Locke's theory of personal identity entails the memory theory. According to Locke, the basic idea behind personality theory is that no two similar things can co-exist in the same spatial environment. In terms of personality then, each person has a spatio-temporal history, embedded in memory, that is unique within the environment that is occupied together with others.

Locke's view is closely intertwined with his views on religion. God is a being that exists unchanged and simultaneously in both spatial and temporal environments. Thus the memory theory of personal identity is not applicable to him, as he is infinite and unchanging. Finite beings on the other hand change and are changed by their environment. They are the sum of their unique experiences as they move through space and time to their end. As such then each finite being exists as distinct from other finite beings - hence the uniqueness of each. Each such being then occupies a space that is unique while coexisting with others of its sort.

Locke describes the identity of an individual human being as being rooted not in their rationality, nor by the presumed soul within each. Instead, this identity is to be defined as a living animal within a specific species, which has a number of particular defining characteristics.

Locke thus defines a human being in terms of function rather than underlying nature. The identity of a conscious person then is independent of the substance or substances composing the person at any time. Moral reasoning is somewhat simplified by this view, as morality is independent of personal identity. Thus moral accountability becomes a question not of personal identity, but another issue altogether.

The memory theory thus simplifies questions of morality, as memory is supposed to compose the personal identity, which should have no problem relying on its past to adhere to morals in the present and the future.

Bundle Theory

Hume, in contrast to Locke, saw personal identity as part of a greater whole, where all aspects of humanity are integrated with the personality itself. Personal identity, according to Hume is then a succession of perceptions, which changes and grows as the human being moves through life. Thus it is not a static set of characteristics, whereas Locke's theory presupposes a basic, unchanging set of attributes regardless of surface change and growth.

Hume refers to these changes as a succession of perceptions that change as human beings grow and develop. Thus, as physical growth occurs, so does perception. The personal identity is thus closely related to this succession of perceptions. According to this then the personality of the person as a child is not the same as that of the same person at twenty years of age or indeed in old age. In this way then the personal identity is variable, which contrasts with Locke's view of identity as static. According to Hume, the variables inherent in identity should also be seen in their relation to the whole in order to… [read more]

Tuck Everlasting Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (691 words)
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"It's a wheel Winnie, Winnie. Everything's a wheel, turning and turning, never stopping. The frog's part of it" (Babbitt). This quotation demonstrates that the author utilizes frogs and the toad to further reinforce the notion that they, like all God's creatures, are part of the cycle of life.

The music box and the music it plays are highly important in the tale of Tuck Everlasting because they symbolize the spirit and nature of Mrs. Tuck. As the matriarch of the Tuck family, Mrs. Tuck is a protector and has a motherly, maternal instinct as well. She is, after all, the one who vanquishes the Tuck family's foe, the man in the yellow suit. To that end, it is highly significant that the repeated references to elfin music and to the music box are ultimately references to her power and ameliorating nature as a matriarch. One of the first references to music (that more than likely came from Mrs. Tuck's music box, comes in the form as the assuring sounds that Winnie's grandmother hears when she runs the man with the yellow suit off her property. The most obvious reference to the author's penchant for using the music box to symbolize Mrs. Tuck is when she produces that box, and its soothing music, to calm Winnie after she is abducted by the Tuck family. This music is emblematic of Mrs. Tuck's calming, protective nature.

Ultimately, these frequent references to the music box, the toads, and the wheel of life denote good writing in the sense that they allow the author to show the reader important motifs instead of merely telling them. Good writing is demonstrative; less than good writing relies on telling. By providing such a powerful motif like the wheel which symbolizes life's cycle, younger readers are able to understand what is a difficult concept. The inclusion of the toads merely reinforces this point, while the soothing effects of Mrs. Tuck's music box underscore her importance as a protector of the Tuck family.

Works Cited

Babbitt, Natalie. Tuck Everlasting. New York: Square Fish. 1975.…… [read more]

Idealism Refers to the People Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,325 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


We have come to set greater store by material things, but we value them not because of their sensual characteristics but because they serve us to enhance life and to dominate the world completely. We do not aim at an increase in sensual pleasures but at a situation in which any man and all men together can develop their full… [read more]

Rappaccini's Daughter -- Science Term Paper

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At this meeting of student and mentor, we learn that Rappaccini "has as much science as any member of the faculty" at the university; however, Baglioni relates that he has "certain grave objections to (Rappaccini's) professional character" which shows that the professor knows a few things about Rappaccini's botanical experiments. Baglioni then tells Giovanni that Rappaccini's patients "are interesting to him only as subjects for some new experiment," one subject being Beatrice. Baglioni also tells Giovanni that Rappaccini is said to "have produced new varieties of poison, more horribly deleterious than Nature. . . " Thus, Rappaccini is truly a "mad scientist" who uses science as a means to control and manipulate Beatrice.

When Giovanni returns to his apartment, he looks out the window and sees Beatrice in the mysterious garden. Her attention is riveted to the strange "purple gems" and soon begins to inhale "their various perfumes as if she were one of those beings of old classic fable that lived upon sweet odors." Beatrice then "threw open her arms. . . And drew its branches into an intimate embrace" and says to herself, "Give me thy breath, sister." At this point, a small lizard appears among the flowers and several drops of moisture fall on its head which instantly causes it to "lay motionless in the sunshine," meaning that the purple flowers have killed it. Thus, Beatrice is akin to a monster created by mad science that kills everything it touches. Mythologically, she is much like Medusa, the snake-haired woman whose gaze can turn a


person to stone. Her basic humanity itself has also been affected by science, for she is no longer a member of the human race but a strange creature created by botanical sorcery.

A little later, Giovanni encounters Baglioni on the street; soon after, he sees Dr. Rappaccini and Baglioni states ". . . this man of science is making a study of you. . . I will stake my life upon it, you are the subject of one of Rappaccini's experiments!" This statement places Giovanni in a very precarious situation, for Baglioni is absolutely right -- Giovanni will indeed end up as one of the doctor's strange experiments as a victim of Beatrice's poisonous nature. With this, Giovanni is now inseparable from science, for it has determined his fate and destiny.

Toward the conclusion of the story, Baglioni gives Giovanni a vial that is meant to be used as an antidote to the poisons Beatrice has consumed. And when she puts the antidote to her lips, Beatrice "shuddered very nervously and pressed her hand upon her heart." Just before Beatrice dies, she refers to Rappaccini's "fatal science" and tells Giovanni that her father has "united us in this fearful sympathy." Beatrice then looks at her father and asks him why he inflicted "this miserable doom upon thy child?" The answer is quite simple -- Rappaccini has used his daughter as the "guinea pig" for his experiments. In addition, Giovanni and Beatrice are… [read more]

Jordan Crystal as Bernard Shaw Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,070 words)
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There is disease, hunger, poverty, inequality. There are good people who are continually treated poorly, and horrible people who always seem to get the best of things. Each one of us can only do so much. On our own, we cannot solve life's smaller inequities, let alone the larger ones. However, we can be a resource and add our strength, skills and fortitude to the resources of others.

A few years ago, a movie came out called "Pay It Forward." It is based on the book of the same name, as well as an organization. Trevor, the 12-year-old hero of "Pay It Forward," thinks of quite an idea that many people call idealistic or utopian. He describes it to his mother and teacher this way: "You see, I do something real good for three people. And then when they ask how they can pay it back, I say they have to Pay It Forward. To three more people. Each. So nine people get helped. Then those people have to do twenty-seven." He turned on the calculator, punched in a few numbers. "Then it sort of spreads out, see. To eighty-one. Then two hundred forty-three. Then seven hundred twenty-nine. Then two thousand, one hundred eighty-seven. See how big it gets?" It is a simple concept with a huge reward -- the multiplicity of caring for others.

Nowhere in this essay am I saying that a person should be selfless and self-sacrificing. Nowhere do I say that we have to try to be perfect. Neither of these are realities. The ironic thing is that as we do things for others, as we try to be the best we can be, we become more pleased with life, more self-satisfied and content. By doing for others, we are actually doing for ourselves.

It is human to think of this world in negative terms. Obviously, we are not without problems: drugs, eating disorders, stereotypes and violence. But what can be done about this without action? Can the world as we know it even begin to improve if we only watch it passively, complaining all the while?

We do not have to promise to do big things. We can make a promise to give someone a smile each day. Or, to help someone in a small way every day. Or, make someone feel better about themselves and the world around them.

As Bernard Shaw states above about purpose: How do we want to go through life? Do we want to recognize ourselves as the mighty one? Do we want to leave this world exhausted because we strove to make it better? Or, do we want to leave with no mark made. To be just one of the many who came and went. Lived and died? I surely am not here to be a selfish, sniveling piece of little clod of ailments and grievances complaining that the world will not devote itself to making me happy. What a horrible way to live.… [read more]

Forest People Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Forest People" by Colin Turnbull

The Anthropological Experience in mid-20th century: Personal narrative and ethnographic discussion in "The Forest People" by Colin Turnbull

In the book, "The Forest People," author Colin Turnbull presents his own narrative and ethnographic account of the BaMbuti, 'people of the forest,' located in Congo, Africa, specifically in Ituri Forest. What the author attempts… [read more]

Papyri Awakening Osiris: The Egyptian Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,588 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


When one compares it to more technical translations, such as those of Budge, there are some obvious differences which in the former translation served to obscure the actual mystical meanings of the text. Taking the book of "Becoming the Heron" as an example, one can see drastic linguistic differences with much the same sentiment. Budge gives merely the most obvious,… [read more]

King Lear by Shakespeare Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,070 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Furthermore human nature is accurately demonstrated by Burgundy not wanting to accept Cordelia without her inheritance. The King of France however is exemplary of the ability to love another human being as truly as Cordelia was able to love her father.

In Tate's play one is also left with a feeling that the characters fall somewhat short of being fully developed. King Lear's journey through madness for example is demonstrated by means of the other characters in his life. The fact that Goneril and Regan abuse his kindness is for him a particularly heavy burden to bear. Added to this is Cordelia's death in the end. All these elements then serve as a unit to transport the audience to the end of the play. This is not so in Tate's play. While he includes basically all of the tragic events, he omits enough of them to destroy the unity in the play. Some events are terribly traumatic, such as Cordelia's rejection and the King's suffering. The restoration at the end however appears to negate all the suffering, whereas Shakespeare's ending validates it. Shakespeare's ending is therefore somewhat more satisfying to the audience.

In Tate's play however the restoration to the throne does not appear as striking. While it appealed particularly to the audiences of the time, Shakespeare's version in the end proved itself against the test of time. Indeed, current audiences are beginning to rediscover the depth of the characters and the plot of his work, and to appreciate these more fully.

It is interesting how time-dependent a particular work of art could be. Audiences tend to gravitate towards what most speaks to their particular concerns during a particular time. This is certainly true of Tate's play. He catered to the tastes of his audience, while keeping the basic elements of the King Lear story intact. This was however not enough to last for more than a century. Shakespeare's version is much more timeless, in that it speaks of the tragedy of human living.

Tragedy thus is much more striking than comedy. King Lear is basically a tragic story. All the events in Shakespeare's play form a unit to strengthen and validate the tragedy, while Tate's story negates it. This I believe is the main reason why Tate's story was not strong enough to endure as long as Shakespeare's version has. Furthermore, the suffering in Shakespeare's work makes it easier for audiences to relate to the events and characters, since life itself entails more suffering than happy endings. Therefore, while Tate's play appealed to the tastes of a specific audience, Shakespeare's has a much wider following.


Casey, Francis. King Lear by William Shakespeare. Johannesburg: Macmillan, 1986.

Grothe, Joel. "William Shakespeare's King Lear in the 1770's." 2004. http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~cpercy/courses/457GrotheJoel.htm

Kermode, Frank (ed.). King Lear: A Casebook. Houndmills: Macmillan, 1992.

Ryan, Michael. Literary theory: a practical introduction: readings of William Shakespeare, King Lear, Henry James, "The Aspern papers," Elizabeth Bishop, The complete poems 1927-1979, Toni Morrison, The bluest eye. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell… [read more]

Conflict Is Resolved With Brian Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (590 words)
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10) The mood depends on the theme or sub-theme the author describes. In order to tell Brian's experience in the wilderness, the writer uses a casual storytelling style to create an adventure mood. In some occasions, of course, we tend to be distorted by dramatic events that occur, like the plane crashing or the tornado destroying Brian's shelter. On the other hand, for the sub-theme, the mood needs to express and describe Brian's anger towards what is happening in his family.

11) The main theme and central idea of this book is the way individuals learn to survive in untamed and improper environments. On the other hand, this is only the surface idea. We need to expand on this and discover, for example, that an intrinsic theme of the book refers to courage. Certainly, the author finds one of the situations in which courage manifests itself, but this can generically refer to all situations where human kind, with courage, fought to overcome difficult situations. In fact, it is all about the challenges individuals face in life and the way the find the means to overcome them. The idea of surviving in untamed land is only one of the paradigms used to portray this issue.

As a secondary theme, we need to mention the divorce of Brian's parents and his mother's secret.

12) " ... As when he learned the most important rule of survival, which was that feeling sorry for yourself didn't work."

The main rule of survival is that you have to fight with all problems that may appear. This is applied in "The Hatchet" when referring to nature, but also in real life,…… [read more]

Microscopy Atomic Force Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,602 words)
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Atomic force microscope operates at very close range and without a lens. There are several different types of atomic force microscope, and they all operate by measuring a local property, whether height, optical absorption, or magnetism, using a probe placed very close to the sample. This probe makes it possible to measure qualities over a small area, and an image… [read more]

Zen and Haiku Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,298 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Zen and Haiku: The Influence of Zen on Haiku

Zen tradition focuses on the commonality and simplicity of life, suggesting that enlightenment is available to those that are open to it. Like Zen philosophy, haiku focuses on that which is simple and easily recognized by man. Haiku is a form of meditation or reflection strongly influenced by Zen tradition that… [read more]

Paleolithic Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,320 words)
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¶ … Wilderness - Max Oelschlaeger

In The Idea of Wilderness, Oelschlaeger asks, (350), "Do we dare think that we are nature watching nature?," a question that makes the modern-day reader realize a paradox. Humans are now part of nature. Meanwhile, they stand apart from nature, observing nature and developing their culture apart from, but in relation to, nature. How… [read more]

Local Hero the Main Character Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,377 words)
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Local Hero

The main character of the story is "Mac" MacIntyre, an executive employed at Knox Oil and Gas. He lives in Houston, Texas, surrounding himself with all the luxuries his job can afford. His apartment for example is lavishly decorated, including the most modern of technology. His needs and wants include continuing his lavish lifestyle, and remaining basically isolated from human contact. He conducts all his business affairs by means of communications technology; the telephone or telex machine; or at the very least with some physical isolating device such as glass or a large desk between himself and the other person. It is therefore with some trepidation that MacIntyre receives the news that he has been selected for an assignment in Scotland. Here he is to acquire the village of Ferness for a refinery his company is planning there. His protest, "I'm more of a Telex man," is indicative of his need for continued isolation.

The inciting incident is Mac's assignment for departure to Scotland. He is taken out of a life that he has cultivated for his own comfort. As such, the Scotland assignment removes the main character from his "comfort zone" as it were. Further adding to his discomfort is the fact that Mac is not really Scottish, but Hungarian. His Scottish-sounding name was given to him by his immigrant family, who mistook it for American. The initial tension is then incited by two main factors: Mac's preference for connecting with people on a very distant level; and Mac's heritage, which is not truly Scottish, so it is unlikely that he will be able to communicate with the Scottish on their level right away.

3) the second-act tension begins upon Mac's arrival in Ferness. The differences between the Scottish small town and his own big-city American culture becomes immediately apparent when he arrives at the hotel.

He is informed that the door to the hotel is "never locked." Another element is the closeness of nature. Mac feels as out of place and uncomfortable in proximity to nature as he does in proximity to people. He is used to a life regulated by technology; telephones, the Telex and his wristwatch. Indeed, the villagers observe him constantly looking at his wristwatch. The tension is gradually resolved: once Mac becomes so deeply involved with gathering seashells that he leaves his watch on a rock and it is washed away. The resolution is complete when Mac is so moved by a wild Scottish party that he requests a native to change lives with him. He has completely accepted the native lifestyle.

4) the third-act tension relates directly to Mac's new feelings regarding Ferness. He has begun to care about the townspeople and the beauty of their land. He is therefore reluctant for his purpose there to be successful. The irony is however that the townspeople are eager to sell, feigning disinterest only to raise the offer. Mac's evolution and growth become evident in his changing feelings regarding the Scottish environment as… [read more]

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