Study "Biology / Life" Essays 111-165

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Sangster, Delillo, Nature and God Essay

… " (DeLillo 231) Here, it seems that nature itself has become a flat meaningless representation -- like the study of Hitler with no understanding of language and no meaningful ethical stance taken, the two-dimensional representation of nature on demand is… [read more]

Theology Redemption Is a Fundamental Essay

… The one, justice, rectifies sin. The other, love, restores the original fullness of God's creation, revealing the true power of the triune God.

There is a cyclical nature to Redemption. Redemption is also mysterious in the sense that it exists because of sin, but it exists to eliminate, purge, and purify sin. The mystery of the Redemption is also evident in the "wonderful self-communication of God to man," that reveals itself once the shackles of sin are removed and cease to interfere with the direct experience of God (Ionnes Paulus 1980, 2). By revealing love, redemption completes the cycle of necessity: of sin to mercy to revelation to love. The triune nature of God is also expressed through the cyclical nature of Redemption. Redemption helps to unify the three aspects of God. On the cross, Christ communicates with God as the Father, expressing the divine link between humanity, Christ, and God the Father. At the same time, Christ enables a connection to be made between humanity and the Holy Spirit. Redemption essentially "grants participation in the very life of God: Father, Son and Holy Spirit," (Ionnes Paulus 1980, 2).

Redemption and mercy are counterparts of one another; it is impossible to redeem without the possession and expression of mercy. Mercy must have its ultimate manifestation as spiritual redemption Ionnes Paulus points out, "mercy is an indispensible dimension of love," as if it were "love's second name," (1980, 3). Mercy is a sword cutting through the sin clouding the human experience and challenging Christ. Death and sin are intimately linked; redemption cuts this link and liberates humanity from the cycle of sin and death.

The death of Christ makes redemption possible. Christ's death represents the "radical revelation of mercy" and love (Ionnes Paulus 1980, 3). The cross is the rendering of absolute justice, even if it comes -- or because it comes -- " at the price of the death of the one who was without sin and who alone was able-by means of his own death-to inflict death upon death," (Ionnes Paulus 1980, 3). The paradoxical nature of the crucifixion becomes poignantly evident through the act of Redemption. Redemption arrives due to the presence of death and its ultimately being meted out to Christ, not as an act of punishment but as an ironic act of mercy and love. Death becomes essential to eliminate death; the death of Christ a divine mystery that provides the salve for humanity so that humanity can once again participate in the great heart of God. As Christ died and forged the connection between all three components of the triune God, the momentous event of the crucifixion paved the way for humanity's salvation.

Christ redeems out of love. The Redemption is a direct, tangible expression of both divine justice and divine love. Through Christ, God as Holy Spirit whispers the mystery of existence. Redemption heals sin, penetrates death, and reunites humanity with God. God as Father makes Christ possible, bestowing upon humanity the merciful and… [read more]

Walking Written by Author Henry Essay

… This is still a conflict that comes up when environmentalists and developers clash over the use of land. In the words of Margaret Brulatour, Thoreau "discusses the conflict between the need for shelter and the waste of mortgaging one's life to purchase a house" (1). In essence, when mankind gives up too much of that natural world in exchange for materialism, then he also gives up one of the greatest parts of him or herself. The nature world is akin to man's nature. Thoreau writes, "Nowadays, almost all man's improvements, so called, as the building of houses, and the cutting down of the forest, and of all large trees, simply deform the landscape, and make it more and more tame and cheap" (1). With the progress of time, there is the need to change some aspects, such as removing some wilderness to make houses but that there must be a limit to the amount of construction that occurs so that nature is not completely obliterated.

The modern environmentalist movement has its basis in the works of Thoreau, Emerson, and their colleagues (Oelschlaeger 1). Their writings inspired politicians such as Theodore Roosevelt to propose and support legislation which would protect the American landscape. It becomes evident that in "Walking," Henry David Thoreau intended to relate his feelings about the natural world and to encourage others to do whatever was in their power to protect and preserve the wildness of the wilderness.

In articles and essay like "Walking," Henry Thoreau convinces his readership of the importance of the natural world. He begs Americans to appreciate the nature that still exists and for everyone to do everything that is in their individual powers to combat the continued destruction and expansion of modernity into the wild.

Works Cited:

Bagley, S.H. "Man Thinking about Nature: The Evolution if the Poet's Form and Function in the Journal of Henry David Thoreau 1837-1852." Oberlin. 2006. Print.

Brulatour, Margaret. "Walking Study Text." American Transcendentalism Web. Virginia

Commonwealth. Feb. 2012. Web. 1999.

Oelschlaeger, Max. "The Roots of Preservation: Emerson, Thoreau, and the Hudson River

School." Nature Transformed. National Humanities Center. Feb. 2012. Web.

Stabb, Mark. "Simply Walking." Thoreau Reader. Federation of Ontario Naturalists. Print.

Thoreau,…… [read more]

Imagery and Symbolism in the Chrysanthemums by John Steinbeck Term Paper

… Imagery & Symbolism in the Chrysanthemums by John Steinbeck

Mother Nature in Steinbeck and Hemingway

There has been a fairly exhaustive amount of academic and literary criticism directed towards the character of Elisa Allen in John Steinbeck's short story "The… [read more]

Good and Evil in Frankenstein Essay

… The Monster is able to learn about society and human nature through the observation of the De Lacey family and the books that he reads, specifically Paradise Lost, during this time. Though the Monster is innocent, in a sense, and ignorant because he was not afforded the privilege of being taught what was right and wrong and does not have the capacity to understand and/or relate to any of the characters in the book; however, the Monster is eventually able to relate to Adam in Paradise Lost because much like him, the Monster was alone in the world while even "Satan had his companions, fellow devils, to admire and encourage him" (169).

In this respect, it can be argued that Frankenstein was the more evil of the two "monsters" in the novel. Because Frankenstein was fully aware of what he was doing, had been taught what was right and what was wrong, and was aware of social norms, expectations, and conventions he was responsible for his actions and was not influenced by any outside force to act in the manner that he did. The Monster, on the other hand, was abandoned by Frankenstein at "birth" and was left to try and understand his place in the world. While Frankenstein could have been eulogized for his contributions to science, technology, and medicine had he approached the concept of life and death in a different manner instead of trying to defy the laws of nature and religion through the reanimation of a corpse. Furthermore, his subsequent behavior and actions were illaudable because he did not take responsibility for his creation until the Monster forced him to. The Monster is a mirror of Frankenstein and any good or evil behavior that is attributed to him is a direct reflection of the influence that Frankenstein had on him.

Works Cited:

Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus. Project Gutenberg. Web. Retrieved

from… [read more]

New Earth, Chapter 6: Breaking Free Book Report

… ¶ … New Earth: Chapter Six, "Breaking Free"

In A New Earth, chapter seven, "Breaking Free," author Echkart Tolle begins by noting that the beginning of freedom from the pain-body lies first of all in the realization that you have a pain-body (Tolle 99). He notes that it is essential for one to attempt to eliminate the link between our presence and our bodies, as our bodies truly hold no representation of who we are. In understanding that every human being is an emanates an energy field that corresponds to his or her inner state, and in understanding that most people can sense this, one has the capacity to better eliminate a life with a consistent focus on the pain-body and all the problems that a reliance on this body tends to bring.

Tolle notes that many acts of violence are committed by two otherwise normal people temporarily turning into maniacs, their actions of which defined by the statement "this is totally out of character" (Tolle 100). Tolle notes that this is the exact association with the pain-body that many people tend to have. They allow themselves to be caught up in the physicality of the moment and eliminate the need or even the identification of their inner spiritual self and the fact that it exists above all else.

It is in living a life with association to the pain-body that people can drift into a state of unconscious living. Instead, one must attempt to break away from this and find their own presence in their minds and spirits, rather than in the chaos of the world and its never-ending problems. It is in removing the focus on the pain-body and finding a peace in ourselves that we are able to live in a more natural state…… [read more]

Cell Plasma (Cell) Membrane Research Paper

… ¶ … Cell

Plasma (Cell) Membrane: The cell membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell. It has a double wall that separates the inside and the outside of the cell, and it provides structure and shape for the cell.

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: The rough endoplasmic reticulum is an organelle within the cell that is responsible for protein production from amino acids, and also the "coding" process of protein folding to specify the destination of the proteins. It is called "rough" because its surface is covered with ribosomes.

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is tubular in shape and can be found throughout the cytoplasm. It is called "smooth" because, unlike the rough ER, it is not covered in ribosomes. The smooth ER is responsible for creating and sometimes metabolizing lipids within the cell. It also detoxifies and converts organic material to useful and safe water-soluble products.

Ribosomes: Ribosomes are organelles composed of proteins and nucleic acids. They can be found floating in the cytoplasm and also attached to rough ER. They are responsible for translating the information transported from the nucleus by the mRNA and using it to create polypeptides from the amino acids gathered by the tRNA.

Golgi apparatus: The Golgi apparatus is a group of flat discs found near the endoplasmic reticulum. They are responsible for sorting the proteins created by the ribosomes on the rough ER, packaging them in vesicles, and delivering them to their proper destination. This structure was named after its discoverer, Camillo Golgi.

Mitochondria: The mitochondria are found through the cell, and are responsible for using oxygen to convert the food within the cell to usable energy through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondria are structured similarly to a cell, with a double-walled membrane providing shape and strength.

Lysosomes: Lysosomes are spherical organelles bound by a membrane and containing powerful hydrolytic enzymes. These enzymes carry out a waste management function within the cell, digesting degrading and expired material within the cell and breaking it down into simple compounds, which can then be reused by the cell.

Centrioles: Centrioles are organelles that are only found in animal cells. They are composed of microtubules positioned in a star-like pattern, and they always come in pairs arranged at right angles. Centrioles function as organizing forces during the division of a cell. They are responsible for arranging the microtubules into the spindle pattern necessary for alignment of chromosomes during division.

Vesicles: Vesicles are the transport and storage…… [read more]

Traditional Literary Analysis Essay

… Traditional Lit Analysis

Seasons Change: The Tragedy of Love

Were it a dramatic work, T. Coraghessan Boyle's short story, "The Love Of My Life," would certainly classify as a tragedy. The gripping tale of a pair of teenage lovers on the cusp of adulthood abruptly losing all of the promise of their future to imprisonment due to the murder of their unwanted child has several elements aligned with those which conventional Greek tragedies are based upon. Surprisingly, the author is decidedly removed from any emotional involvement in this particular story, and takes great pains to portray the events, sometimes narrated by the female protagonist China Berkowitz, sometimes narrated by her lover Jeremy, in a non-partisan, neutral tone. Still, Boyle uses a plethora of literary devices to supplement the dialogue and narration which moves the bulk of the story. The author employs elements of foreshadowing, symbolism and imagery to navigate this tragic tale, all of which have the effect of substantially adding to the drama with which the plot is based upon.

One of the common motifs prevalent throughout the duration of "The Love Of My Life" is Boyle's use of nature to typify and even amplify the emotions which the two principle characters feel. The author uses the conventional symbolism associated with natural settings such as Spring and Winter to emphasize the emotional highs and lows, respectively, which the characters endure during these times of year. At the onset of the story, when Jeremy and China are deliciously enraptured with one another, Boyle employs a fair amount of imagery associated with Spring to indicate that the love which bonds the pair is fertile and growing, which can most readily be demonstrated in the following quotation. "It was an early spring that year, the world gone green overnight, the thermometer twice hitting the low eighties in the first week of March…The whole school…smelled of fresh-mowed grass and the unfolding blossoms of the fruit trees…(p. 2)." The relation of this quotation to a vernal atmosphere is fairly transparent, as on the literal level of interpretation it employs imagery of warm temperatures and green grass. Yet on the figurative level of literary interpretation, this quotation takes on an additional level of emphasis. Spring is the time when nature and natural things grow. In the story, it is the time when the two characters vacation at a lake in the Catskills and Jeremy impregnates China. So while the author is literally describing a verdant atmosphere, the author is also figuratively foreshadowing the growth and fostering of life within China, as well.

Nature is also used by Boyle to foreshadow the termination of the bliss enjoyed by the teenage lovers which the ensuing pregnancy will spawn within their lives. While on their vacation in the Catskills, the author makes note of the fact that the five-day venture is supposed to be filled with sunny, spring-like days. However, around the time that Jeremy and China have unprotected sex which leads to…… [read more]

Stem Cells Ethics Research Paper

… Nature itself destroys fertilized eggs en masse, and even if it doesn't, the harvested cells are undifferentiated cells, not yet demonstrating any characteristics normally associated with human cells. So stem cells have no more "human rights" than a hair, or scraping of skin. And as long as those donating the genetic materials or even fertilized eggs, are fully aware of the kind of research they will be donating to, and consent to the use of their genetic material or fertilized eggs, then it is no one's business what they do. As long as the materials are not collected through intimidation, coercion, or incentives like money, then it is all ethical and appropriate.

Works Cited

Allman, Toney. Stem Cells. Farmington Hills, MI: Lucent, 2006. Print.

"Definition, What are Stem Cells?" Academic Health Center. Web. 30 May 2011. / ahc_75703.PDF

Francis, Amy. Should the Government Fund Embryonic Stem Cell Research? Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press. Print.

Hyun, Insoo. "The Bioethics of Stem Cell Research and Therapy." American Society for Clinical Investigation. 2010. Web. 30 May 2011.

Lo, Bernard. "Ethical issues in Stem Cell Research." The Endocrine Society. 2009. Web. 29 May 2011.

Panno, Joseph. Stem Cell Research: Medical Applications and Ethical Controversy. New York, NY: Facts on File, 2005. Print.

Stem Cells and the Future of Regenerative Medicine. Washington, D.C.: National Academy, 2002. Print.… [read more]

Ecological Identity Learning and Sustainability Assessment

… Ecological Identity

One of the most interesting exercises, for me, in modern living is to occasionally not take public or private transportation, but to actually spend time slowly walking through both urban and rural landscapes. In our contemporary world, the phrase, "stop and smell the roses," takes on new meaning, because of our continual desire to hurry from place to place, hastening the outcome of whatever it is we are pining for, and forgetting about the small chances in seasons, in the parts of the day, or even within the particular areas we inhabit. This metaphor seems to me to be rather indicative of the way we have become enamored with pace. We seem to have lost the rhythm of nature, of the cycles of life, trying to perpetuate work to the nth degree and squeeze in even more work time. In fact, in the 21st century, Australia has undergone a drastic change in the number of work hours, weekend work, and evening work, than ever before. The Australia Institute published a study in 2004 that found the average Australian worked 1855 hours per annum, surpassing even Japan. This means that in the developed world, Australians work more and enjoy life less than any other population -- a clear change from the 1970s and 1980s in which the average work week was between 28 and 36 hours (Sedgman, J. 2004).

It is not only in our inability to find a balance between action and rest, but our inability to actually seem to enjoy things that life has to offer; spring blossoms, the scent of freshly mown grass, variable scents and blossoms from particular seasonal plants, and even the ability to carefully choose fresh produce by its smell, or to differentiate between the tastes of greenhouse or imported crops and those grown fresh and local. When, for instance, was the last time most of us spent the time actually watching the sun rise and set -- and noticed the number of different colors that are abundant when we simply look at the sky? When was the last time we actually spent time savoring the freshness of the air? Can one even imagine, sleeping on sheets that had been dried in the air and sun?

In addition…… [read more]

John Keats and Melancholic Delight Research Paper

… It is here Keats illuminates the inevitable contrast of life and death, of fleeting and perpetuating. The second stanza embodies a lifetime of contemplation. To him, temporary and permanence are one and the same. When we take the last four lines of the second stanza this culmination becomes apparent. "And sometimes like a gleaner thou dost keep / Steady thy laden head across a brook; / Or by a cyder-press, with patient look, / Thou watchest the last oozings hours by hours." The juxtaposition of the laden head contemplating the permanence of the brook to the impermanence of patience and the cyder-press, exemplifies Keats individual fruition.

Feeling his life is coming to fruition Keats sees things in a state of melancholic delight. By actively combining the permanent innocence of nature with his own existence, he can then see the autumn of his life as the richest and fullest he has yet known. However, this delight is combined with melancholic notions of knowing it took a lifetime to fully ripen; now time is short to bask in his newly found appreciation. While he is surely nostalgic of the fruit life has provided, he also believes this individual progress is perpetual as long as individuals yearn for deeper understanding.

During the second stanza Keats expresses his deeper understanding of perpetual existence. He switches from the first to the second person. Almost unnoticeable until the second or third time through it is a profound intricacy. Keats passes the existential baton here. In other words, by his journey morphing into the next person's he enjoys a sort of immortality. This is where he wittingly combines fleeting with perpetuating. Things are at once lost and gained, and at once temporary and permanent. This is the true essence of autumn to Keats; thus the true essence of life.

The essence of the third stanza brings Keats to stoic resolution. He is able to enjoy the sunset of his life for the beauty it offers. Not what society should think or have him believe. In the first two lines of the last stanza, "Where are the songs of Spring? Ay, where are they? / Think not of them, thou hast thy music too," Keats sheds societal norms and implores the growth of the individual.

By not entertaining indulgences of finding something new and fresh as society does in the destructive path of progress, he seeks to encourage the evolution of the individual. For Keats this means embracing the beauty at hand, and of his moment. "While barred clouds bloom the soft-dying day, / And touch the stubble-plains with rosy hue." The soft dying day represents the beauty of life that contemplation of fruition brings. To him, the juice of ripened understanding is worth the squeeze.

True innocence is returned to Keats as symbolized by the last line of the poem; "And gathering swallows twitter in the skies." The innocence of twittering swallows is captured by Keats appreciation for them. Although this moment is fleeting it is also… [read more]

Stem Cell Research Term Paper

… Stem Cell Research

This work discusses the history and technology surrounding stem cell research. It then goes on to discuss some of the many ethical and moral considerations surrounding it. The ethical debate that has ensued as a result of… [read more]

Due Reaction Paper

… The Maturity Continuum fosters interdependence over dependence and independence due to the relationship they share. Dependence is the least desirable of the three, but at the same time it is an unavoidable stage in life. Many times person is dependent on others in order to survive, a child for example is dependent on his parents. After being dependent for a certain period, a person can achieve the more desirable state of independence. Independence is a highly desirable and very celebrated stage for many in life. It is not necessarily the most effective or productive state to be in, although it has its benefits it may not serve the intended or desired purpose of a company or group of associates . Interdependence by nature is the most effective and productive state because correlates the skills and strengths of different people in order to achieve a greater good. In one way or another, generally speaking all elements in life and nature are interdependent. They are interconnect and reliant upon each other to function in an effective and meaningful way.

The balancing of production and production capacity can increase effectiveness in the workplace because it establishes order and a sense of regularity, which can then pay significant dividends. In a business for example, if an owner chooses to ignore the production capacity which are his workers and focuses only on the customers, which are the production he or she is running a great risk. If workers are not appreciated and treated fairly, their attitudes towards the job will be negative and thus production will suffer through the loss of customers. On the other hand if they are treated well they will have a positive and engaging attitude which will most likely result in a production increase, balance is the key.

Works Cited

Covey, Stephen R. The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People: Restoring the Character Ethic. New…… [read more]

Tempest Is a Play That Is Chiefly Essay

… Tempest is a play that is chiefly constructed by Shakespeare's enigmatic character -- Prospero, the rightful Duke of Milan who has his position usurped by his brother Antonio. Antonio puts Prospero and his daughter Miranda on a ship to go… [read more]

Ionizing Radiation on Meiotic Spindles Discussion Chapter

… The estimated ovary dose that resulted in miscarriages was between 0.8-1.2 Gy, depending on the age of the woman. This is well below the level of exposure that caused in vitro depolymerization of meiotic spindles in oocytes. The miscarriages therefore probably occurred through another mechanism unrelated to radiation-induced meiotic spindle depolymerization.

Other Considerations

Several factors can influence oocyte survival after radiation exposure. These include bystander effects (Mothersill and Seymour, 1998), total time of ionizing radiation fraction delivery (Wang et al., 2003), and the age of the ovaries (Ogilvy-Stuart and Shalet, 1993). Since the oocytes were immediately fixed after irradiation and all oocytes in the dish were irradiated, the possible influence of bystander effects is irrelevant to this study. Oocyte samples were exposed to the same radiation source within minutes of each other, so there were no significant variations in radiation energy. Investigating the possible influence of oocyte age may be an interesting variable to study, since it was revealed that older ovaries were more resistant to higher radiation doses (Ogilvy-Stuart and Shalet, 1993). In this study the oocytes were obtained from a single animal and therefore age differences were not a factor.


Brinkley, B.R., Fuller, E.M., and Highfield, D.P., 1975. Cytoplasmic microtubules in normal and transformed cells in culture: analysis by tubulin antibody immunofluorescence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 72 (12), p.4981-4985.

Coss, R.A., Bamburg, J.R., and Dewey, W.C., 1981. The effects of X irradiation on microtubule assembly in vitro. Radiation Research, 85 (1), p.99-115.

Fujiwara, K. And Pollard, T.D., 1978. Simultaneous localization of myosin and tubulin in human tissue culture cells by double antibody staining. Journal of Cell Biology, 77 (1), p.182-195.

Inoue, S., 1964. Organization and function of the mitotic spindle. In R.D. Allen and N. Kamiya, eds. Primitive Motile Systems in Cell Biology. Academic Press: New York, p.549-598.

Inoue, S., Fuseler, J., Salmon, E.D., and Ellis, G.W., 1975. Functional organization of mitotic microtubules. Physical chemistry of the in vivo equilibrium system. Biophysical Journal, 15 (7), p.725-744.

Inoue, S. And Ritter, H. Jr., 1978. Mitosis in Barbulanympha. II. Dynamics of a two-stage anaphase, nuclear morphogenesis, and cytokinesis. Journal of Cell Biology, 77 (3), p.655-684.

Mothersill, C. And Seymour, C.B., 1998. Mechanisms and implications of genomic instability and other delayed effects of ionizing radiation exposure. Mutagenesis, 13 (5), p.421-426.

Noland, B.J. et al., 1974. Effects of ionizing radiation upon intracellular levels of soluble microtubule protein in cultured mammalian cells. Experimental Cell Research, 85 (2), p.234-238.

Ogilvy-Stuart, A.L. And Shalet, S.M., 1993. Effect of radiation on the human reproductive system. Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements, 101 (Suppl. 2), p.109-116.

Wang, J.Z., Li, X.A., D'Souza, W.D., and Stewart, R.D., 2003. Impact of prolonged fraction delivery times on tumor control: a note of caution of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT).…… [read more]

Seven Spiritual Laws of Success by Deepak Chopra Book Review

… ¶ … Spiritual Laws of Success" by Deepak Chopra M.D.: A Synopsis

There are several aspects to a successful life, and different people have different views of success. In his book, "The Seven Spiritual Laws of Success," Dr. Deepak Chopra… [read more]

Garden Superstition Gardening and Death Research Paper

… Garden Superstition

Gardening and Death

I had always noticed that my neighbor, a middle-aged widow, spent a great deal of time working in her garden. Given her age and preoccupation, she seemed a good source for a discussion on this subject. When I approached her, she was most excited to share her knowledge and beliefs. A woman of British descent in her mid-60s, she indicated that there were a number of superstitions which the British people relate to gardening and nature.

One that she shared which was particularly compelling tells that plants are extremely sensitive to the emotional harmony of an environment. According to her beliefs, plants have strange perceptive connections to human life and death. She explained that this symbiosis with a reason for the dedication which she showed to her own garden. The role of the garden tender is central to the life of the plant and vice versa. This, she said, is the reason for an old superstition which she believes to be based in British folklore. This denotes that when a loved one has passed on, you must pass this news on to your favorite plant in the way that you would another person.

I was able to find support for this superstition in my own research. Here, I found that "in some parts of England it is still customary when someone dies, to whisper the news of this death to their favourite plants or, according to superstition, the plants will wither and die too." (Somerville, 1) This comports closely with the superstition offered by my neighbor, with the only exception being that she specified the death of one from the household rather than the more general death described in the research article here cited.

I found this to be a compelling belief, so I asked my neighbor if she really believed this was true. She said that she wasn't sure what to think. Certainly, she said, she can remember that she failed to do this when her husband…… [read more]

Danger of Knowledge in Shelley's Frankenstein "Learn Essay

… Danger of Knowledge in Shelley's Frankenstein

"Learn from me, if not by my precepts, at least by my example, how dangerous is the acquirement of knowledge, and how happier the man is who believes his native town to be the world, than he who aspires to become greater than his nature will allow" (Shelley 38).

Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein reveals Shelley's concern for mankind as he pursues knowledge. Through Victor's experiences, Shelley outlines how knowledge leads to corruption and destruction. Victor's thirst for creating life was a goal he accomplished but things did not turn out as he planned and, as a result, the rest of his life is marked by one destructive event after another. Knowledge is dangerous and seeking to become something greater than human is destructive, as we learn through Victor's experience.

The theme of knowledge is linked with corruption in the novel from our first impressions with Victor. He reaches Robert a bedraggled man, whose only advice is to do away with any notions of acquiring knowledge. Shelley positions Robert in a situation where he needs to hear Victor's words because he, too, is consumed with knowledge and accomplishing great things. He tells Margaret, "I cannot describe to you my sensations on the near prospect of my undertaking . . . I have often attributed my attachment to, my passionate enthusiasm for, the dangerous mysteries of the ocean to that production of the most imaginative or modern poets" (Shelley 7). Robert expresses his "love for the marvelous, a belief in the marvelous, intertwined with all my projects" (7). He is no different from Victor who wrote, "I had worked hard for nearly two years, for the sole purpose of infusing life into an inanimate body. For this I had deprived myself of rest and health, I had desired it with an ardour that far exceeded moderation" (42). If anyone could relate to Victor, it is Robert, who faces the danger of the "floating sheets of ice" (8) with determination. He does not see the risk involved nor does he consider unintended consequences, which almost always crop up. He wants what he wants and nothing will stop him. We see this determination when he writes, "But success shall crown my endeavors . . What can stop the determined heart and resolved will of man?" (8). Here we see how men can cross the line from desiring knowledge to becoming obsessive.

Knowledge in itself is not a bad thing. In fact, most will agree knowledge is a good thing. However, when the pursuit of knowledge becomes a blinding passion, it is dangerous and Robert and Victor both possess this kind of desire. They do not care what it takes for them to reach their goals as long as they reach them. Victor's eagerness to learn begins quite innocently. He interest in science is normal but his curiosity moves him beyond normal. He wants to know more that what can be known and then he wants to do more… [read more]

Dismissal of Objectivity and Truly Open-Minded Thought Term Paper

… ¶ … dismissal of objectivity and truly open-minded thought processes may pose the end of humanity. According to C.S. Lewis, they do. By posing as God and conquering nature, as opposed to working alongside nature, humans will consume ourselves. No, not by means of cannibalism, but more the objective to subjective shift that C.S. Lewis sees as apparent within this concluding chapter of the Abolition of Man.

"Conditioners" herein pose the mental constraints that determine this objective / subjective split. They also consume and corrode our mental processes, focus them solely on the I, extort all sense of reason, and then self implode. Humanity annihilates itself. In a downward spiral, this butterfly effect employed within this objective / subjective split creates obstacles and problems rather than curing or resolving them. Yes, this shift from progressive to oppressive forcefully exists here.


"Man's final conquest has proved to be the abolition of Man" (III, 77).

"Conditioners" herein stand as the antagonists to Objectivity. Furthermore, the conditioners provide the archenemy to impartial, fair-minded, objective thought. Upon these conditioners renouncing any acknowledgement or suggestion toward objectivity, like rats in a cage, so do men play similar subjects. Moreover, where you see one rat, there are a thousand more nearby hiding. As time progresses, in this objective state, men will begin to closely parallel this quality, entirely relinquishing all authority while ceasing to be accountable as men entirely.

Having abandoned objective values, men leave themselves prey to the dictates of other, more powerful, men, thereby ceasing to be Man at all. They are no longer made in God's image, but in the image of whomever rules them at that moment. One needn't be religious to see the tragic nature of this turn of events.

"If you will not obey the Tao, or else commit suicide, obedience to impulse (and therefore in the long run, to mere 'nature') is the only course left open."

The Tao represents the significance of and belief in objectivity, symbolizing objective value. The Tao also represents Natural Law. Without this set of beliefs would only end in fatalism and nihilism, then a numb apathy, resulting in utter stoicism. In Lewis' favor here, whoever commands supreme material influence, which becomes ultimate control and power, will establish his authority and inflict while exploiting a new and altered sense of morality onto others present. That is, in the moment,…… [read more]

Native American Solutions for Global Warming Capstone Project

… Native American Solutions to Global Warming

The world faces a crisis of unprecedented proportions, one which threatens not only our future economic, social, and political well-being, but the very life force of the planet itself. Beyond the now well-known threat… [read more]

Tao There Was a Difference Between Gaius Essay

… Tao

There was a difference between Gaius and Titius (Alex King and Martin Ketley) and the Conditioners. Gaius and Titius believed that our statements were based on what we were feeling at the time and not based on fact. If… [read more]

Romanticism and Realism of the 19th Century World Essay

… Romanticism and Realism of the 19th Century World

The categories which it has become customary to use in distinguishing and classifying "movements" in literature or philosophy and in describing the nature of the significant transitions which have taken place in taste and in opinion, are far too rough, crude, undiscriminating -- and none of them so hopelessly as the category "Romantic."

-Arthur O. Lovejoy, "On the Discriminations of Romanticisms" (1924)

(as cited from Kreis, 2000)

The Romantic period has little meaning in the way people think is romantic and was more of an artistic, ideological, and philosophic movement in relation to the way the artist viewed them and the world in which they lived in. The period officially ran from 1801-1900 but several earlier works are often associated with the Romantic period.

One of the distinctions of the period is the artist's views on nature and its reflection with a deity or Higher Power such as God. They placed emphasis on the details and the power of nature vs. The old sentiments of live being related as a mechanism. The artist desired to show nature as a system of symbols (a Guide, 2009).

This paper will examine the Romanticism of the 19th Century in regards to the background of the era and the artist's view of nature.

Literature Review

The Romantic Period was a time when the artists, poets, musicians, and others embraced nature as symbolic and full of meaning. They began to associate nature with the presence of a Higher Power or God. It was a time when people in the artistic realm starting looking at the inner world and first person expression. Though politically and socially involved, the Romantics were withdrawn from the public (a Guide, 2009). They were opposed to the injustice of the leading class and showed a spirit of revolution.

The paintings of the Romantic Period were done in watercolor and began to incorporate great detail in the landscape that has been classified as being as beautiful as the scene that was being painted (History of, 2010). The artist began to view the natural beauty that surrounded them and expressed it in their art.

The music of the Romantic Period remains one of the most influential and known musical periods in the history of music. Composers of the era include Beethoven, Brahms, Mendelssohn, Schumann, Schubert, and others and composed music for the people instead of just for the elite or royal society (Music History, 2010).

The period was known as a time of passion and emotion as the artist began to express their feeling through their works of art. For many nature was where that went to find solace and the imagination is free to roam. The website, in the article, "Romanticism," signifies the Romantic Period by writing, "It started as an artistic and intellectual movement that emphasized a revulsion against established values (social order and religion). Romanticism exalted individualism, subjectivism, irrationalism, imagination, emotions and nature - emotion over reason and senses over intellect."… [read more]

Fleeting Nature of Time Research Paper

… Fleeting Nature of Time

From the point-of-view of humanity, time is unforgiving and everything in the surrounding environment is subjected to time. Aging and death are just two of the concepts frequently associated with time. The modern ages have brought… [read more]

Biomimicry and Package Sustainability Book Review

… Biomimicry & Package Sustainability


The rising awareness about environmental concerns and the disastrous consequences of indiscriminate use and abuse of natural resources has forced researchers to focus on new and sustainable forms of industrial practices. Biomimicry is the new buzzword. The article by Tim McGee & Dayna Baumeister entitled 'Biomimicry' elucidates how humans can look to mother nature for sustainable design advice. With numerous examples of adaptive packaging solutions that exist in nature, the authors indicate how mimicking nature could be the best and sustainable design solution for many of our design challenges in diverse fields such as robotics, material sciences, fiber optics, green building and last but not least- packaging. Nature builds materials that are far better and with absolutely no waste and pollution. The authors cite various examples of species that have adapted the best sustainable designing methods. For instance, ticks can ingest as much as 624 times their body weight and blow up to four times their size. Our own urinary bladder has an incredible expand and collapse design that allows great flexibility. Similarly, the fibrous matrix design found in watermelons (92% of water) allows them to retain water even when cut. If such a matrix design could be replicated it would offer a safe way to transport highly inflammable liquids and dangerous chemicals. A spider, for instance, makes material that is much stronger than steel while at the same time as flexible as nylon. So as the authors suggest nature already has the solutions to all of our problems and all that we have to do is to observe and simply mimic.

The Sustainable Packaging Coalition is about the practical application of…… [read more]

Extremophiles it Is Easy to Assume Thesis

… Extremophiles

It is easy to assume that all life on earth require a delicate and forgiving environmental balance. Oxygen, water, and moderate temperatures are key to the survival of most organisms. However, this is not the case for extremophiles, which can live in even the harshest of natural environments. Residing in the hottest, coldest, and deepest parts of the earth, extremophiles continue to baffle modern scientists.

Extremophiles are small organisms that live in the extremist of conditions on planet earth. Some extremophiles surround geothermic hotspots, such as areas around hit springs and volcanoes. They live where no other organisms can. Others live in the coldest of conditions, such as inside icebergs. Still others, live in areas almost completely devoid of sunlight; with more living in deep ocean conditions, which would normally crush other organisms (Wassenaar 2009). Often, these organisms live in much different biological conditions than most carbon life forms do. They thrive in areas where pH balances might be lethal to other species. Acidophiles live in areas which very low pH levels, while Aklaphiles reside in areas with very high PH levels, over 9 (Rainey 2006). Additionally, research states that "The ability of microorganisms to thrive in highly saline environments has also been known for a long time," (Rainey 2006:2). Although they are most commonly associated with bacteria, these ingenious creatures are complex. There are huge variations within the different types of existing extremophiles, with specimens coming from both Bacteria and Achaeans (Wassenaar 2009). Adaptations which allow the various extremeophiles to survive under the varying extreme conditions. They are bacteria, and so are highly resilient, but each individual species has also adapted the perfect set of fine tuned skills needed to survive in its specific location. Recent research has seen the finding of entirely…… [read more]

Our Town by Thornton Wilder Thesis

… ¶ … hymn? Community and spirituality are two of the major themes explored in the Hymn "Blessed Be The Tie." The focus is on that which binds the community together -- their love and understanding of Christ. Because they have this commonality, they are better able to empathize with each other as a family as opposed to just a society. There is also a promise of a better life to come, and the promise of salvation through attention to good works and piety.

B) How do these compare to those developed in the play? In "Out Town," Wilder explores the importance of conviviality and companionship. This is something that happens as humans mature into adults, and the friendships and commonalities are, according to the resident's of Grover's Corner, constantly take time out of their days to establish a connection with each other. These connections -- the ties that bind -- form the gamut of types, but all result in a synergy between people.

C) How is human existence described by the play? Wilder explores the stability of culture and tradition in "Our Town," but as individuals, life is transient -- and all dependent upon chronology -- the ticking of the clock. For instance, the Stage Manager often loses track of time, misjudges it, and is unaware of its passing -- showing that not only individuals, but the timekeeper himself, is victim to the continual passing of the second hand, and is powerless to mitigate it.

D) To what extend does the hymn's depiction of life mirror that of the play? How? The major point of "Blessed be the Tie" is community, but as the verses continue, one sees the passage of time as well -- "and hope to meet again, from sorrow, toil and pain…." The portrait of existence is not one of Eden, but one in which there are woes, burdens, and as the passage of life continues, a constant need for reaffirmation.

E) Several Characters in the play offer their evaluation of life. Which comes closest to echoing that of the hymn? Why? Emily Webb, who becomes Mrs. George Gibbs, is probably the most appropriate character regarding the Hymn's concept. After she dies in childbirth, she joins a group of dead souls who wish to return to the process of living -- her realization, however, just like the Hymn, that life is precious because it is so fleeting, echoes the entire theme of the play.

F) Is the Hymn optimistic or pessimistic in tone? Why? The Hymn, like most poetry, is interpretive from the viewer's perspective. In this case, it is pessimistic in tone in that it portrays the negatives of life and is clearly not Pollyanish.…… [read more]

Natures Healing Powers Term Paper

… This often results in the disparity that exists in the forms of practice and theory available.


The psychological and emotional elements of the healing powers of nature are a very common aspect of life in various cultures of the world. It is often invoked in the form of spiritual ceremonies and communal rituals. The acts that are included in the process includes dancing, drumming, singing, chanting. All these activities and expressions serve to strengthen a person's bond with the community while at the same time aiding in the realization and connection o0f the individual to the higher spiritual powers. All the rituals and ceremonies that are involved in the process serve brain oriented purposes. They serve the purpose of directly communicating with one's soul and unconscious level.

The concept of the healing powers of nature is very diverse and has several different elements as observed among the indigenous communities across the world. One thing that is of coincidence is the common nature of their efforts to help the body in attaining peace of mind by way of manipulating the relationship of a person's mind and body with the spirits. They all serve a basic purpose of bringing the body back to its original wholeness buys means fine tuning the body to be in perfect harmony with the universe. This form of healing is however put in jeopardy with the advent of modern ways of treatment that heavily depends on science and technology. Some legislation also bans these forms of healing as inappropriate from the cure of diseases.

The process of spiritual journeying are quite diverse.However, they serve a common goal of stimulating one's connectedness, spiritual experience and communion. The elements of Spiritual Art, Dance and Music aids in communicating directly to the soul.


Durkheim, E. (1912) The Elementary Forms Of The Religious Life.

Gateley.E in God's Womb: A Spiritual Memoir

Gennep, A. (1960) The Rites of Passage. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Grimes, R (1994) The Beginnings of Ritual Studies. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina

Nerburn, K.The Wolf at Twilight: An Indian Elder's Journey through a Land of Ghosts and Shadows

Malinowski, B. (1948) Magic, Science and Religion. Boston: Beacon Press.

Peterson, N (2004), Taylor, J Bell, Martin (2002) Myth of the "walkabout": Movement in the Aboriginal domainRappaport, A. (1999) Ritual and Religion in the Making of Humanity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Trungpa, C. Smile at Fear: Awakening the True Heart of Bravery

Wakefield. (1997) Returning: A Spiritual Journey… [read more]

Tormented the Minds of Both Philosophers Essay

… ¶ … tormented the minds of both philosophers and scientists throughout time, that is, the existence of god. some parties have argued that god exists, others that he does not while there are voices who declare that it is only… [read more]

My First Summer in the Sierra Dharma Bums Comparison Research Proposal

… ¶ … Summer in the Sierra, Dharma Bums Comparison

My First Summer in the Sierra - the Dharma bums Comparison

Nature provides people with important information regarding themselves and their purpose in the world, and, consequent to witnessing the wonders… [read more]

Thoreau and Emerson Idea of Transcendentalism Essay

… Transcendentalism and the American Scholar: Considering Emerson's Influence

When Ralph Waldo Emerson delivered the Phi Beta Kappa speech "The American Scholar" to Harvard in 1837, an earthquake ran throughout the American intellectual community. In it, he called on American thinkers to grow out of their adolescence and mature into their full stature as adults, to be included among the serious academic influences constituting the world's philosophical and literary elite. That admonition was important to hear for the nation which was still in its youth intellectually, and uncertain of the direction its intellectual life would take. However, the speech was also important because Emerson not only called scholars to reach their potential, he outlined in the speech a set of ideas to use in order to achieve this. The framework which Emerson suggested, found in this speech and in his essays, has come to be known in the history of ideas as Transcendentalism. Characterized by a spiritual (if not necessarily religious) respect for nature, a quality of mind that is both rational and practical in almost equal parts, and an appreciation of individualized experience coupled with reliance upon the self, Transcendentalism neatly captured the spirit of the times and fired the imaginations of American thinkers. While the power of the movement it inspired eventually waned slightly as America grew into its adulthood, with the very intellectual activity that Emerson urged eventually moving on to the development of new ideas, Emerson's Transcendentalism was primarily responsible for awakening American philosophical and literary thought, and it achieved this merely by reminding the American scholar of what the American people already had become and asking the scholar to develop his own potential in a way that was worthy of the young nation.

In this brief paper, Transcendentalism, as developed philosophically in the work of Emerson and as exemplified in practice by one of his most important disciple, Henry David Thoreau, will be discussed in order to show how it highlights major ideas that have been important in the history of the American literary and historical experience, and particularly how those ideas impacted upon the development of American thought in its early stages.

Emerson writes in the American scholar that the first and most important influence on the mind of a man is nature. In coming to understand nature we come to understand ourselves, he says, and our place in the world. In the essay "Nature" he goes a step farther, arguing that "Only so far as the masters of the world have called in nature to their aid, can they reach the heights of magnificence" (Essays, 384). Stating this, Emerson was no doubt reminding the scholarly community that America was a nation built upon a relationship to the wilderness. From its very earliest stages, America had been built by people who lived close to the land. The early settlers had conquered the wilderness to squeeze out a survival existence and the nation grew into a youthful industrial power by exploiting abundant natural resources. Even more… [read more]

William Wordsworth, Nature Poet Essay

… Wordsworth

William Wordsworth

William Wordsworth as a nature poet

William Wordsworth is often referred to as a nature poet. However this sometimes leads to the erroneous impression that Wordsworth was simply a lover of nature and natural landscapes. While he certainly admired the beauty of nature, as a Romantic poet he saw nature in terms of spiritual renewal and transcendent insight into to reality that went beyond this world. The central thesis that will be explored in this paper is the view that nature in the Wordsworthian context becomes a conduit for transcendence as well as philosophical meditation on mundane reality.

Nature in Wordsworths' poems is something that acts as a reminder of knowledge and perceptions of a greater reality that has been forgotten or ignored by modern civilization. This view of nature is linked to the Romantic view of life and reality. In this view nature was seen as,

organic, rather than, as in the scientific or rationalist view, as a system of "mechanical" laws, for Romanticism displaced the rationalist view of the universe as a machine (e.g., the deistic image of a clock) with the analogue of an "organic" image, a living tree or mankind itself."

( Introduction to Romanticism)

In general the Romantics were opposed to the tenets and the ethos of modern scientific and industrial civilization. This can be seen in the way that they interrogated and condemned the rise of scientific and industrial society. (Introduction to Romanticism) Conversely, the hallmark of romanticism is their emphasis on the role and value of the imagination. In essence they were opposed to the conventional views and perceptions of their time and to what they saw as the growing movement towards an overly rational and mechanical view of reality.

Nature therefore played an extremely important role in this broad artistic movement in that it represented the antithesis of the rational scientific worldview. Nature was seen by the Romantics as a symbol of freedom from the mechanical and rational mentality of industrialization.

Wordsworth in particular is known for his use of natural symbols as an expression of his desire for a more creative and spiritual reality. This is evident in one of his most famous poems, Lines composed a few miles above Tintern Abbey. In this poem Wordsworth contrasts the beauty of nature with the mundane and stark reality of modern civilization. He also laments the fact that the absence of an understanding and closeness to nature in the lives of modern men and women has led to a crisis of spiritual and existential meaning. The following lines from Tintern Abbey capture this antithesis between nature and the modern rational world

These beauteous forms,

Through a long absence, have not been to me

As is a landscape to a blind man's eye:

But oft, in lonely rooms, and 'mid the din

Of towns and cities, I have owed to them

In hours of weariness, sensations sweet,

Felt in the blood, and felt along the heart;

And passing even into my… [read more]

Death of a Salesman Flashbacks in Arthur Essay

… Death of a Salesman

Flashbacks in Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman

Why flashbacks are important in Death of a Salesman

Why Miller wanted to call Salesman 'in his head'

How flashbacks advance the plot

Flashbacks: from Willy's point-of-view and audience's point-of-view

Ben: Easy promise of wealth in diamond mines

Biff: Early promise lost, devastation to Willy's self-esteem

How to characterize Salesman

Why play is naturalistic (flashbacks) not realistic

Why it is not a tragedy

Flashbacks in Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman

Arthur Miller originally wanted to call what eventually became Death of a Salesman "In His Head." Although he chose another title, the interior nature of Miller's conception of the dramatic action is evident in the final version of the work. Using flashbacks throughout the play, Miller deploys a novelistic device to help the viewer understand why Willy Loman decides to kill himself and why it is so important to Willy that his family gets his life insurance money. Willy finds it difficult to communicate with his sons and his wife, so without the use of flashbacks, Willy would be a cipher to the viewer.

The flashbacks are clearly told from Willy's point-of-view, although they also show the limits of his point-of-view. Consider Ben, Willy's brother, who intrudes into the action to talk about the money he made in diamond mines. Willy's fantasy of making a large amount of money becomes clear: Ben 'struck it rich,' so Willy believes he is owed a living in the same fashion as well. Willy believes in the American dream that even a 'low-man' like himself can make his fortune, provided he finds the right scheme.

Unlike Bernard, who is encouraged to work hard and becomes a lawyer, Willy's sons Happy and Biff are not taught to pull themselves up by their own bootstraps. Instead, they are encouraged to avoid hard work, and to cheat and try to find ways 'around' the system to succeed. Biff, until he is crushed upon learning of his father's infidelity, tries to plead his way out a failing math grade -- Happy blames his boss for his failure to advance in his current position, not his own lack of initiative. The viewer can see how Ben planted the idea of easy success in Willy's mind, but can also see the foolish, unrealistic, and self-destructive nature of Willy's false version of the American dream. The sons' early hubris and success at being 'popular' in high school, particularly Biff's on-stage embodiment of the ideal high school football star in a flashback, do not translate into lasting success. The viewer witnesses the present-day Biff's sense of unhappiness and purposelessness.

The flashbacks also reveal critical aspects of the past, like Biff's encounter with Willy in a motel room. The flashback is more meaningful to Biff than to Willy. Willy relates the flashback as it flashes through his mind, but the viewer can also see by Biff's later reactions that he decided to forego college because…… [read more]

Iago: Superior Craftsman William Shakespeare's Play, Othello Essay

… Iago: Superior Craftsman

William Shakespeare's play, Othello, should be named Iago, after the character that drives the plot and steals the show. Iago is one of Shakespeare's most compelling creations because he is evil. One aspect of his character that makes him unique is his knowledge of his nature. He is proud to be evil. Another aspect of his character that sets him apart is his opinion toward the nature of life and living a good life. In short, he does not place much importance in the effort to live a good life. Iago succeeds because he has an inflated sense of pride, exhibits no concern for life, and is incredibly smart.

One characteristic that that makes Iago unique is his pride. He is fully aware of his evil nature and demonstrates nothing but pride about it. At the onset of the pay, Shakespeare allows Iago to admit to his wicked nature by confessing:

Others there are

Who, trimmed in form and visages of duty,

Keep yet their hearts attending on themselves,

And, throwing but shows of services on their lords,

Do well thrive by them, and when they have lined their coats,

Do themselves homage (I.i.46-51).

Iago is angry and jealous that he was not promoted to lieutenant. When he tells Roderigo that others might show services to their lord, he indicates that he has no intentions of doing so. Instead, he plans to do something in order to exact revenge he feels toward the man. He is proud that he does not think like the "rest of the crowd" and is so confident that he expresses his feelings to Roderigo without any fear or misgiving.

Another characteristic that makes Iago different from most is his attitude toward life and living a good life. He does not believe there are any benefits to living a good life as states, "To be direct and honest is not safe. / I should be wise, for honesty is a fool / And looses that it works for. (III.iii. 376-9). From this we can assume that Iago has no respect for life, sees no reason to attempt living a decent life, and will not attempt to live a good life since there are no benefits in that particular lifestyle for him. This is important because these attitudes give Iago permission to feel the way he does. In addition, they allow him to become more evil with everything he considers an offense. This attitude also allows Iago to befriend Othello only to hurt him with no guilty conscious. He allows Othello to think that he is only concerned for his well-being and he does this without thinking twice about what he is…… [read more]

Disorganized People Organization Essay

… Disorganized People

Organization is essential for an effective and successful life. In order to accomplish goals, both short-term and long-term, it is important that we have our life in order. But what does it actually mean and how do we get to be orderly? To fully understand how an orderly life should look, we must first see how a disorganized person normally behaves and how his life looks.

Disorganization can be classified as situational and chronic. While situational is harmless and temporary, chronic disorganization can cause some serious concerns. A disorganized person who classifies himself as such or who is seen by others as such falls into the latter category because his disorganized behavior is more permanent in nature. Situational disorganization occurs when a person is in a new chaotic situation where his old routine and system are not as effective anymore. This can happen when a person is moving, has too many unexpected guests over, is getting a new job etc. These situations are temporary and hence the resulting chaos is also temporary. Hwoever chrocnic disorganization is a seriuous problem and people who suffer from this can actually fail to accomplish their golas, experience inferior quality of life and are simply unable to function up to their full potential.

National study group on chronic disorganization defines it in these words:

"Chronic disorganization is having a past history of disorganization in which self-help efforts to change have failed, an undermining of current quality of life due to disorganization, and the expectation of future disorganization." Even though disorganized person may sometimes take this lightly and most often others will too, the truth is that disorganization may stem from variety of disorders and may require attention. If a person feels capable of organizing himself and his life, he doesn't have any reason…… [read more]

Nature in Shelley's Frankenstein Mary Shelley's Novel Thesis

… ¶ … Nature in Shelley's Frankenstein

Mary Shelley's novel, Frankenstein, is a classic illustration for the argument of nature prevailing over nurturing when we examine the life of the monster, a being that is born inherently good driven to behave… [read more]

Karl Marx One of the Philosophical Concepts Term Paper

… Karl Marx

One of the philosophical concepts which managed to mark the world and its history through its deep political, social and economic implications is represented by Karl Marx's principle of alienation. A very harsh interpretation of the social and… [read more]

Control of Nature Mcphee Term Paper

… Control of Nature, McPhee

McPhee, John. The Control of Nature. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1990.

Humanity calls nature 'Mother Nature.' But more often than not, in the human battle for survival and technological improvement, humans have striven to control nature with a militaristic intensity. We are at war for our own survival as a species with nature, even while it is our 'mother.' This is John McPhee's central, driving thesis in his 1990 work the Control of Nature.

Although McPhee's analysis could apply to any modern or even ancient society, he specifically focuses on then-topical case studies of how nature threatens and thwarts human control. One of the most poignant examples, in light of recent events, is the Army Corps of Engineers' struggle to craft the Mississippi River to flow against its original bends. Human beings have come to depend upon these man-made configurations in the river. Although the drainage system comes at great financial cost, Louisiana can flood if the river is not controlled.

The book was written pre-Katrina, but it is a powerful reminder of how the city is threatened by flooding by its very nature, even in the absence of hurricanes. The city exists as an artifice, going, like so many human structures, against nature's…… [read more]

Walden and Other Writings by Henry David Term Paper

… ¶ … Walden and Other Writings" by Henry David Thoreau and "Man's Search for Meaning" by Viktor E. Frankl. Specifically it will discuss the two author's very different approaches to searching for wisdom. Frankl was relocated to a concentration camp during World War II, while Thoreau chose to remove himself from society and live alone for two years. These two very different experiences led to both men developing their own wisdom and philosophies that worked in their circumstances.

Thoreau's quest for wisdom at Walden Pond in Massachusetts is legendary, and so is some of the wisdom he discovered there. For example, he writes, "The mass of men lead lives of quiet desperation. What is called resignation is confirmed desperation" (Thoreau 7). This is a very famous quote, and it shows that even then, life was too harried and stressful for many people, including Thoreau, which is why he chose to spend two years apart from his family at the pond. He approached his quest by removing himself from daily life, and spending it instead with nature and the natural world, which he came to appreciate and support even more after the time he spent there. He went to the woods to seek wisdom and spiritual growth. He writes, "I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived" (Thoreau 81). Thoreau approaches his quest by isolating himself and by living with the natural world, while Frankl has to interact with the extremely hostile and demeaning world of a concentration camp. He approaches his search by seeking a reason for living in this hellish environment, while Thoreau seeks spiritual growth and knowledge. In other words, Thoreau had a choice, and Frankl had none, so Frankl has to find a reason for being, while Thoreau has to find reason.

Both of these men are searching for themselves and for meaning in life, but one chooses his position, while the other is forced into it…… [read more]

America Past Present and Future Term Paper

… America, Past, Present & Future (Emerson)

The strength of Emerson's work has always been in its absolute honesty and dedication to communicating in words, the actions we need to take in life in order to be truly alive. While his… [read more]

Great Gatsby the Slow Unraveling Term Paper

… ¶ … Great Gatsby

The Slow Unraveling of Gatsby's Character Exhumes his Failed Attempt to Capture the Superficial Glory of the American Dream

Jay Gatsby was known for his luxurious opulence in an era where money was everything. In the Roaring Twenties, where many fortunes where made through illicit means, the American Dream was distorted to encompass the superficial nature of America's elite upper class. Through several relationships with other characters, the reader is tuned in to Gatsby's extreme desire to attain the life he had created for himself in his dreams. Through his relations to other people around him, especially Daisy, Gatsby proves to be the creator of his own image. Until he actually emerges in the novel, it is his reputation which precedes him. However, his true motivations are revealed, the reader sees right through his facade to his true consciousness. After this is revealed to the reader, his life is destroyed by the very means and people which he desired. F. Scott Fitzgerald in his masterpiece the Great Gatsby shows the downward spiral of the American Dream within the context of greed and desire.

Gatsby grew up in an environment much different than the lavish East Coast lifestyle which is represented in the beginning of the novel. The initial hype of his reputation which the reader is introduced to is a far cry from his rural beginnings in North Dakota. There he lived in desolate poverty, and as he grew up he began to dream of another existence. He dreamt of a life of luxury, far away from the horrors of poverty. He eventually achieved his outlandish dream, however through questionable means. His first attempt in college was a disaster due to his embarrassment of having to work on campus in order to pay for his tuition. The embarrassment and feeling of inferiority in his self comparison of his fellow privileged classmates quickly led him to leave St. Olaf's. Later, through slipping into the thriving underground world of organized crime in the era of prohibition, Gatsby made sure he lived out his lavish childhood dreams.

Gatsby's obsession with Daisy Buchanan was a major influence in his motivation to acquire great wealth. He originally met Daisy in Louisville, far out of the Eastern context where he later found wealth. The two fell in love, and planned to marry on his return from the First World War. After he left, she broke her promise and married another, a rich Easterner who brought her into the life of an eastern socialite. When Gatsby returned to find Daisy already married to a man with money, he became obsessed with winning her back through the only way apparent, becoming rich himself. Daisy had always had money. He had lied to her in Louisville about his worth, and after returning from the war he became obsessed with getting her back,

He talked a lot about the past and I gathered that he wanted to recover something, some idea of…… [read more]

Realistic Elements Term Paper

… Realistic Elements

When evaluating the development of realism in American literature, it is important to take note of the vast contribution that corridos have made to the genre. Realism, as a literary movement, was adapted in the 19th century from the French movement of literary realism. The idea was to depict every day, seemingly banal situations that could easily happen in real life, rather than an overly romanticized or stylized presentation of a story or an event.

In the United States, Stephen Crane was one of the foremost representatives of the realist movement in literature. His story "The Open Boat," a tale of four men trapped on a dinghy after being shipwrecked at sea, encompasses many of the qualities that uphold modern definitions of realism in literature. The story's unadorned prose combines detailed description of occurrences with meditations on nature's effects on the individual:

The boat was headed for the beach. The correspondent wondered if none ever ascended the tall wind-tower, and if then they never looked seaward. This tower was a giant, standing with its back to the plight of the ants. It represented in a degree, to the correspondent, the serenity of nature amid the struggles of the individual -- nature in the wind, and nature in the vision of men. She did not seem cruel to him, nor beneficent, nor treacherous, nor wise. But she was indifferent, flatly indifferent. It is, perhaps, plausible that a man in this situation, impressed with the unconcern of the universe, should see the innumerable flaws of his life and have them taste wickedly in his mind and wish for another chance. A distinction between right and wrong seems absurdly clear to him, then, in this new ignorance of the grave-edge, and he understands that if he were given another opportunity he would mend his conduct and his words, and be better and brighter during an introduction, or at a tea. (Crane 738)

Mexican corridos have also made a vast contribution to the development of realism in American letters. Like the writing of such authors as Crane, corridos tend to be written in a plain, unadorned style. Frequently concerned with rural themes, they may also explore themes of nature, but they also take into…… [read more]

Notes From Underground by Dostoevsky Term Paper

… ¶ … Underground

Dostoevsky, lived in a time when science and new ideas were coveted all over the world, but when his homeland Russia oppressed it with zeal. Bureaucracy and administration censored new findings and ideas with a vengeance so… [read more]

Annie Dillard's "The Giant Water Bug Term Paper

… Annie Dillard's "The Giant Water Bug"

Annie Dillard's essay on "The Giant Water Bug" begins as an example of nonfiction, meditative nature writing and ends with a murder. Dillard's text moves from a contemplative and humorous meditation on the nature of the relationship of human beings to nature to a highly dramatic scene of the cruel, Darwinian dog-eat-dog (or bug-eat-frog) biological, amoral survival that takes place regularly in the natural world. Her beginning is conversational, even folksy in tone. She sets the scene of the author strolling by the water, as she is on an expedition "mainly to scare frogs." She uses literary terms such as "inelegance" to describe the way frogs take off from their legs, but quickly moves to the whimsical in her word choice, as she anthropomorphizes frogs, imagining how one frog is "emitting a froggy "Yike!'" when surprised (Rather than using a more conventional onomatopoeic word like 'ribbet').

To convey a sense of meandering in her thoughts and her walking path while she watches the frog, Dillard uses long sentences, and often repeats words, particularly adjectives as in the following phrase: "Incredibly, this amused me, and, incredibly, it amuses me still," and "I got better and better at seeing frogs." She constantly goes from the mundane then suddenly talks about flying frogs, creating a fantastic image in the reader's mind. She also suddenly moves from a sentence full of long clauses to a sentence with short, simple words to convey the elemental nature of what she sees.

Then, she moves from the general nature of her wanderings, to a specific day, when once at the end of the island she noticed a small green frog, that looked, not like a flying creature, but a "schematic diagram of an amphibian" This injection of biological language suggests a sharp change in narrative tone, and a reminder of the scientific aspects of nature, and natural survival. It is also a reminder of Dillard's intelligence and human perspective, as well as the fact that she is not a child, even though she regards her frog with childish wonderful.

Dillard keels "on the island's winter-killed grass" setting the scene in the early spring, after the cruelty of winter -- and a foreshadowing of the cruel scene to come. The frog is not just frightened it is: "lost, dumbstruck" with "wide, dull eyes. The wet nature of the frog is evocatively described as he is said to slowly crumple and sag. The verb choice of sag is unusual, but conveys the unusual texture of the…… [read more]

Worn Path the Storm Term Paper

… ¶ … Worn path" and "The Storm"

Two descriptive short stories, the Storm, by Kate Chopin and a Worn Path are both having a feminine figure at a central place on the their stage. In both stories setting and tone… [read more]

Explore and Identify the Meaningful Patterns Within Dine Cosmology Term Paper

… Dine cosmology reflects a sophisticated pantheism that represents the universe as an integrated spiritual whole. Elements of the physical world are manifested microcosms of abstract concepts. The Dine abstract level is similar to Plato's world of Forms. All that ever existed in the physical universe and all that ever could exist is comprised of the same basic elements that make up the cosmos. All is one. The primordial elements are the "seeds" of all creation ("The Nature of Life in the Navajo World"). Four basic elements are united by the fifth: which is sound. Earth, Air, Water, and Fire each resonate a unique sound, and that sound is the spirit that binds those elements. The physical world not only reflects the divine: it is divine. Thus, all Navajo creations are emblems of spirit manifested. The basket and the hooghan are the most important Dine constructions, the ones most representative of Dine cosmology. Baskets, hooghan, and the universe share a common source. They illustrate the homology of Dine cosmology. For instance, the butt-end of a basket weave becomes a "doorway," connecting the basket to the hooghan. Likewise, both basket and hooghan are constructed in sunwise fashion, with respect to the four cardinal directions. The basket's twelve coils symbolize the twelve layers of knowledge including the abstract.

In a world in which all things share a common ancestral source, all human constructions must reflect divine realities. The hooghan is among the most sacred of Dine creations and is imbued with life. In fact, the hooghan has anthropomorphic qualities. Designated as a sacred space like the human body itself, the hooghan also has its own anatomy. Hooghans are gendered, too. Their gender corresponds with human gendered social roles as well as with geometric renditions of male and female forms. For example, the male hooghan has a pointed top, whereas the female's is rounded. Within the hooghans, separate stations are established for male and female people as well as for people of different social ranks or functions. The male hooghan is the place for prayer and social meetings, the realm in which song and ceremonial gatherings take place. The female hooghan is the realm of the individual family, a place of peace and of childrearing.

Like the body, each section has a special purpose and all are necessary. The microcosm of the hooghan therefore reflects the entirety of the Navajo world, which also possesses senses, sense organs, and body parts. The world is "linked by metaphoric structures including complementarity, permeated by vibration in the form of sound or movement" and "possessed of the same seven senses and anatomical components," ("The Nature of Life in the Navajo World").

Without the strict binaries that characterize the cosmologies of other cultures, the Dine propose a more integrated vision of the universe. The breath of life permeates everything, and life is cyclical and eternal. Death means only a transition from one phase of life or one form of life to another. Upon death, the same basic elements of… [read more]

Thoreau Rhetorical Analysis Term Paper

… Thoreau Rhetorical Analysis

Henry David Thoreau's essay entitled Walking is a short essay about a walk and the importance walking plays in the human psyche. The essay itself is told as a spiritual meandering as Thoreau takes a walk through the woods surrounding his house. The essay's central argument is in favor of experiencing nature and preserving the environment. Thoreau's belief that, due to the evolution of society, society was becoming more and more disconnected with nature. In order to preserve this important bond, people had to make an effort to maintain their understanding of nature. This could not happen by walking in malls or through urban streets. Instead it must happen by making an effort to leave civilization, find a woods, and spend, according to Thoreau, three to four hours walking through the woods.

The subject of the text of Walking is Thoreau himself, as it is written in the first person narrative and is presented as a stream of conscious narrative of Thoreau's thoughts as he goes for a walk. As he walks he tells the reader his thoughts on the subject of walking and, most importantly, the role that walking plays in his life. According to Thoreau, the subject of the text is nature and the preservation of it.

I wish to speak a word for Nature," he says. "For absolute freedom and wildness." Thus, Thoreau's argument is essentially for the preservation of nature. Thoreau then makes this argument by using the act of walking to explain his reasoning for preserving nature. Essentially, what Thoreau argues is that one cannot understand the importance of preserving nature unless they understand the art of walking, or the important role that walking plays in human life. "I have met with but one or two persons in the course of my life who understood the art of Walking, that is, of taking walks," Thoreau says, "who had a genius, so to speak, for sauntering."

Thoreau compares the importance of taking a walk in the woods to the historic act of a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. The reason people made a pilgrimage was to stay connected to their religion. Likewise, the reason people must…… [read more]

Young Goodman Brown the Short Story Term Paper

… Young Goodman Brown

The short story "Young Goodman Brown" by Nathaniel Hawthorne consists of a multitude of themes and symbolism that demonstrate the main theme of loss of faith, or the weakness of humanity to commit immorality. Primarily illustrated in the story was the usage of nature as an important setting that witnessed the loss of faith of Goodman, the protagonist of the story.

Nature as a symbol in the short story is used as a reflection of Goodman's moral state in the story. Nature was used as a replica and mirror of the self, the state of the individual that is best illustrated through the state of nature. While life's beauty is reflected in the image of a bountiful and orderly nature, the loss of meaning in life is mirrored in the image of the wilderness. The wilderness is the state of nature that remained uncultivated and unexplored -- the wilderness in the life context, in effect, is the 'other self,' the self where the individual's innermost thoughts, feelings, and desires are found. Being in a state of wilderness is experiencing a loss of one's sense of direction, stumbling upon and discovering his/her 'other self' -- more meaningful, deeper, yet is the core of his/her true self.

This was the context by which Goodman found himself -- initially, he was in a state of calm and determination, as he sought to find the evil in the forest. However, as he became confused and lost in the wilderness, he lost his way, which was the symbolic determination of his loss of faith. In fact, his loss of faith was further demonstrated by the actual loss of his wife, Faith. It was this lost sense of direction in the forest and the corresponding loss of his wife Faith…… [read more]

C.S. Lewis' a Grief Observed Term Paper

… ¶ … C.S. Lewis' A Grief Observed

Lewis was one of the most famous theologians and authors of children's books of his day. Yet even he had to confront the demands of ordinary, human grief like the death of a loved one, demands that made him question not the existence of God, which he felt deeply and profoundly on an elemental level, but the goodness of God and God's creation. Even this devout Christian believer admitted that, much like health or home or other forms of security, when "when you are happy, so happy that you have no sense of needing Him, so happy that you are tempted to feel His claims upon you as an interruption, if you remember yourself and turn to Him with gratitude and praise, you will be -- or so it feels -- welcomed with open arms," with very little effort. (Lewis, p.5)

This sensation of unforced love for God and God's creation mirrors what it is like, perhaps around the holiday season, where going to observances seem like a chore, an annoying but not unpleasant "interruption" to daily life. But daily life is more full of the types of visceral joys, like laughing with friends, or in Lewis' case, spending time with his beloved wife, than apprehending the full nature of the divine.

In other words, because of the earthly, individualistic human nature, the happy and personal pleasures of the world will often seem greater than the pleasures provided by the indefinite idea of God, even in the heart of someone who appreciates God's love on a daily basis. A believer may give thanks to God, but often as an afterthought, rather than with the same kind of unforced, truth faith that one gives love to another human being.

But unlike the life of the spirit, a human life is finite. Although love of God may not bring the same kinds of immediate pleasures of human intimacy or love, when one experiences death, or another kind of profound loss, then there is a need for God once again -- and a need to question God as well. "But go to Him when your need is desperate, when all other help is vain, and what do you find? A door slammed in your face, and a sound of bolting and double bolting on the inside." (Lewis, p.5) Over the course of Lewis' meditation, of course, Lewis does find the goodness God again, but he admits that knowing that a truly good God exists can prove difficult, when he wants to find proof of God's existence in what is good and joyous in the…… [read more]

Warren Wiersbe Term Paper

… Warren Wiersbe is perhaps one of the most influential and well recognized theological writers of our time. His "Be" series has sold millions of copies around the world and he has taken his inspirational message everywhere he goes. In one… [read more]

Tragedy of Hamlet William Shakespeare's Most Famous Term Paper

… ¶ … Tragedy of Hamlet

William Shakespeare's most famous play, Hamlet, has a relatively simple plot on the surface: the son is asked to revenge the murder of his father. Still, as critical opinion observed many times, the play has many psychological and metaphysical implications: it is, in fact a meditation on the nature of man, as well as a meditation on life in general. To reveal these implications, Shakespeare has chosen a character that would best suit his purpose: the prince of Denmark shows all the signs of the melancholic disposition: he is a philosopher and a man with strong moral principles, that make him revolt against the double crime that forms the core of the play: the murder of his father, the king of Denmark, by his own brother Claudius, and the latter's marriage to Gertrude, Hamlet's mother and the wife of the dead king.

Hamlet's attitude in front of this "foul play," his deferral in taking action and the final resolution of the conflict are the facts that most reveal the philosophical and psychological themes of the play.

At both the psychological and philosophical levels of the play, the Shakespearian text reveals a very important theme- that of the contrast between appearance and reality. The structure of the play and its main events unfold this contrast: the double crime is called a "foul play" by Hamlet upon his hearing from Horatio about the apparition of the ghost of his father. This term intimates that the events as apparent in the play have a hidden meaning. Also, play becomes again important in what was called the "play within play" scene, where it is Hamlet's turn to play and stage a tragedy for Claudius with the aid of some actors, in which he inserts a few lines that speak of his father's murder. Thus, the "play" or the act of playing at reality becomes a central theme of Hamlet.

Thus, first of all, Hamlet's own nature is most characterized by his repulsion towards appearances, and the feigned grief that his uncle and his mother show at the death of the king. As critic W. Thomas MacCary observed, Hamlet best suits Hegel's description of the "beautiful soul," the romantic hero who condemns the world and withdraws from it, not realizing that he himself is a product of it and carries its form impressed on him." (MacCary, 95)

One of Hamlet's own statements about himself upholds the commentary above:

But I have within me that which passes show,

These but the trappings and the suits of woe." (Ham. I. ii. 85-86)

The death of Hamlet's father is termed as something "common" by the…… [read more]

Charlotte's Web: Friendship, Death, and Immortality Term Paper

… Charlotte's Web

Friendship, Death, and Immortality in Charlotte's Web

In the first few pages of Charlotte's Web, the reader quickly comes to understand that he is not reading an ordinary children's book. The story's initial protagonist, a human girl named… [read more]

Local Hero the Main Character Term Paper

… Local Hero

The main character of the story is "Mac" MacIntyre, an executive employed at Knox Oil and Gas. He lives in Houston, Texas, surrounding himself with all the luxuries his job can afford. His apartment for example is lavishly decorated, including the most modern of technology. His needs and wants include continuing his lavish lifestyle, and remaining basically isolated from human contact. He conducts all his business affairs by means of communications technology; the telephone or telex machine; or at the very least with some physical isolating device such as glass or a large desk between himself and the other person. It is therefore with some trepidation that MacIntyre receives the news that he has been selected for an assignment in Scotland. Here he is to acquire the village of Ferness for a refinery his company is planning there. His protest, "I'm more of a Telex man," is indicative of his need for continued isolation.

The inciting incident is Mac's assignment for departure to Scotland. He is taken out of a life that he has cultivated for his own comfort. As such, the Scotland assignment removes the main character from his "comfort zone" as it were. Further adding to his discomfort is the fact that Mac is not really Scottish, but Hungarian. His Scottish-sounding name was given to him by his immigrant family, who mistook it for American. The initial tension is then incited by two main factors: Mac's preference for connecting with people on a very distant level; and Mac's heritage, which is not truly Scottish, so it is unlikely that he will be able to communicate with the Scottish on their level right away.

3) the second-act tension begins upon Mac's arrival in Ferness. The differences between the Scottish small town and his own big-city American culture becomes immediately apparent when he arrives at the hotel.

He is informed that the door to the hotel is "never locked." Another element is the closeness of nature. Mac feels as out of place and uncomfortable in proximity to nature as he does in proximity to people. He is used to a life regulated by technology; telephones, the Telex and his wristwatch. Indeed, the villagers observe him constantly looking at his wristwatch. The tension is gradually resolved: once Mac becomes so deeply involved with gathering seashells that he leaves his watch on a rock and it is washed away. The resolution is complete when Mac is so moved by a wild Scottish party that he requests a native to change lives with him. He has completely accepted the native lifestyle.

4) the third-act tension relates directly to Mac's new feelings regarding Ferness. He has begun to care about the townspeople and the beauty of their land. He is therefore reluctant for his purpose there to be successful. The irony is however that the townspeople are eager to sell, feigning disinterest only to raise the offer. Mac's evolution and growth become evident in his changing feelings regarding the Scottish environment as… [read more]

Stem Cell Term Paper

… Stem cell are commonly known as the "master" cells which can develop into any type of cell -- skin, bone, blood etc. Moreover, stem cells are the building blocks of bone marrow. It is understood that the stem cell, under the influence of various growth factors, differentiates and provides all the types of blood cells needed. From studies and research taken, stem cells are then believed to have the potential to provide perfect-match tissue for transplantation and in the treatment of diseases such as Parkinson's (,2006).

On August 9, 2001, President George Bush announced that NIH would fund human embryonic stem cell (HESC) research for the first time. The research will be restricted to 72 cell lines derived from surplus fertilized embryos before August 9 (Young, 2006). But this created numerous great debates over some concerned citizens. Both opponents and supporters of HESC research are unhappy with the ruling. Opponents believe that federal funding of human ESC research will open a Pandora's Box leading to baby and organ factories. Supporters believe that the restrictions will hold back crucial research that will benefit millions of people (Young, 2006).

Researchers have recently found that they can create cloned embryos.

Stem cells derived from such embryos have the same genes and are an ideal source of stem cells for transplantation. Congress, however, is considering a bill that would outlaw making of cloned embryonic stem cells (Young, 2006).

This endeavor is truly a big leap forward in the advancement of science…… [read more]

Zen and Haiku Term Paper

… Zen and Haiku: The Influence of Zen on Haiku

Zen tradition focuses on the commonality and simplicity of life, suggesting that enlightenment is available to those that are open to it. Like Zen philosophy, haiku focuses on that which is… [read more]

Paleolithic Culture Term Paper

… ¶ … Wilderness - Max Oelschlaeger

In The Idea of Wilderness, Oelschlaeger asks, (350), "Do we dare think that we are nature watching nature?," a question that makes the modern-day reader realize a paradox. Humans are now part of nature.… [read more]

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