"Biology / Life" Essays

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Stem Cell Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (495 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Stem cell are commonly known as the "master" cells which can develop into any type of cell -- skin, bone, blood etc. Moreover, stem cells are the building blocks of bone marrow. It is understood that the stem cell, under the influence of various growth factors, differentiates and provides all the types of blood cells needed. From studies and research taken, stem cells are then believed to have the potential to provide perfect-match tissue for transplantation and in the treatment of diseases such as Parkinson's (http://arts.usask.ca/policynut/courses/soc292-8.ppt,2006).

On August 9, 2001, President George Bush announced that NIH would fund human embryonic stem cell (HESC) research for the first time. The research will be restricted to 72 cell lines derived from surplus fertilized embryos before August 9 (Young, 2006). But this created numerous great debates over some concerned citizens. Both opponents and supporters of HESC research are unhappy with the ruling. Opponents believe that federal funding of human ESC research will open a Pandora's Box leading to baby and organ factories. Supporters believe that the restrictions will hold back crucial research that will benefit millions of people (Young, 2006).

Researchers have recently found that they can create cloned embryos.

Stem cells derived from such embryos have the same genes and are an ideal source of stem cells for transplantation. Congress, however, is considering a bill that would outlaw making of cloned embryonic stem cells (Young, 2006).

This endeavor is truly a big leap forward in the advancement of science…… [read more]

Charlotte's Web: Friendship, Death, &amp Immortality Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Charlotte's Web

Friendship, Death, and Immortality in Charlotte's Web

In the first few pages of Charlotte's Web, the reader quickly comes to understand that he is not reading an ordinary children's book. The story's initial protagonist, a human girl named Fern Arable, engages in a vocal protest of her father's plans to slaughter a baby pig because he was born… [read more]

Annie Dillard's "The Giant Water Bug Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (847 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Annie Dillard's "The Giant Water Bug"

Annie Dillard's essay on "The Giant Water Bug" begins as an example of nonfiction, meditative nature writing and ends with a murder. Dillard's text moves from a contemplative and humorous meditation on the nature of the relationship of human beings to nature to a highly dramatic scene of the cruel, Darwinian dog-eat-dog (or bug-eat-frog) biological, amoral survival that takes place regularly in the natural world. Her beginning is conversational, even folksy in tone. She sets the scene of the author strolling by the water, as she is on an expedition "mainly to scare frogs." She uses literary terms such as "inelegance" to describe the way frogs take off from their legs, but quickly moves to the whimsical in her word choice, as she anthropomorphizes frogs, imagining how one frog is "emitting a froggy "Yike!'" when surprised (Rather than using a more conventional onomatopoeic word like 'ribbet').

To convey a sense of meandering in her thoughts and her walking path while she watches the frog, Dillard uses long sentences, and often repeats words, particularly adjectives as in the following phrase: "Incredibly, this amused me, and, incredibly, it amuses me still," and "I got better and better at seeing frogs." She constantly goes from the mundane then suddenly talks about flying frogs, creating a fantastic image in the reader's mind. She also suddenly moves from a sentence full of long clauses to a sentence with short, simple words to convey the elemental nature of what she sees.

Then, she moves from the general nature of her wanderings, to a specific day, when once at the end of the island she noticed a small green frog, that looked, not like a flying creature, but a "schematic diagram of an amphibian" This injection of biological language suggests a sharp change in narrative tone, and a reminder of the scientific aspects of nature, and natural survival. It is also a reminder of Dillard's intelligence and human perspective, as well as the fact that she is not a child, even though she regards her frog with childish wonderful.

Dillard keels "on the island's winter-killed grass" setting the scene in the early spring, after the cruelty of winter -- and a foreshadowing of the cruel scene to come. The frog is not just frightened it is: "lost, dumbstruck" with "wide, dull eyes. The wet nature of the frog is evocatively described as he is said to slowly crumple and sag. The verb choice of sag is unusual, but conveys the unusual texture of the…… [read more]

Cell Junctions - Tight Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,415 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 40


At the same time as adherens junctions interrelate with cytoskeleton actin and vinculin, so desmosomal plaques interrelate in a specific way with intermediary filaments: cytokeratin halfway filaments in epithelial cells, desmin midway filaments in cardiac myocytes, and vimentin midway filaments in meninges (Yang et al. 2003). There is, consequently, specificity in the exchanges of diverse cytoskeletal elements with every kind… [read more]

Progress Jean-Jacques Rousseau Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,239 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Just like the previous one, it is also based on nature. The painting is basically based by the seaside just like the previous one looked at. It has one old man walking towards two adults and two children on a hill situated next to the sea hence his back is to the viewer. In the sea right ahead of the… [read more]

Enzymes Are Highly Selective Lab Report

Lab Report  |  8 pages (2,468 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


However, as the temperature rose above 60 degrees, the rate of reaction gradually decreased; the temperatures between 80 and 100 degrees Celsius were too hot resulting in denaturation of the protein making it non-functioning (Schneider, Corona, Rosales, Schneider, Rodriguez, & Pineda, 1990). Besides, temperatures above 80 degrees Celsius resulted in more energy which disfigured the enzyme's active site making it… [read more]

Monstrosity in Frankenstein Mary Shelly Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,252 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Given the fact that he was afforded with all the comforts in life that he could ask for while growing up, one can argue that it was not the manner in which he was brought up that shaped him, but rather his personal desires that drove him to create life out of death. Moreover, it was in Frankenstein's nature to pursue knowledge relentlessly without regard for consequences or the future.

On the other hand, the Creature can be considered to be the embodiment of Frankenstein's monstrosity and destructive nature. Unlike Frankenstein, who was afforded a formal education, the Creature does not have any formal education and must rely on himself to learn about how the world and society function. The Creature is forced to teach himself about the world by reading various books such as Paradise Lost, Plutarch's Lives, and Sorrow of Werter; by observing how others, like the DeLacey family, interact and establish relationships; and through his own experiences. Despite how hard he tries, the Creature can never be part of the natural world, nor can he ever hope to be part of society. The Creature is a monster through no fault of its own. From the moment it was made, it has been treated as such and will continue to be treated as such until it expires.

Furthermore, the Creature is a victim of its environment, and because he has not been nurtured nor taught how society functions, as Frankenstein has, he cannot be blamed for his actions. The lack of nurturing in the Creature's life is a direct consequence of Frankenstein's nature. Moreover, because the Creature is not a natural being, it is difficult to categorize what traits would be considered to be natural. One thing is for sure, Frankenstein fears that the Creature has the potential to create an entirely different, unnatural species if he were to be given a mate. Furthermore, Frankenstein fears that any other creatures he makes will be full of hatred, which he attributes as a natural trait rather than one obtained through a lack of nurturing.

Not only does the novel explore the dangers of unbridled scientific exploration and the consequences of attempting to harness power over creation, life, and death, much like God, put also presents the dangers of reproduction, cross-breeding, and evolution. This is one of the reasons that Frankenstein refuses to build the Creature a mate. Frankenstein fears that a female creature would be "ten thousand times more malignant that her mate, and delight, for its own sake, in murder and wretchedness" and fears that she would also reject the Creature and instead turn to the "superior beauty of man" (Shelley). Ironically, Frankenstein recognizes his God-like powers and refuses to make the Creature and his mate a monstrous Adam and Eve who will go forth and spread their seed across the land.

Frankenstein and his Creature are used to demonstrate the destructive powers that the unrestrained pursuit of knowledge can have. It is interesting to note how despite… [read more]

Sangster, Delillo, Nature and God Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,481 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


" (DeLillo 231) Here, it seems that nature itself has become a flat meaningless representation -- like the study of Hitler with no understanding of language and no meaningful ethical stance taken, the two-dimensional representation of nature on demand is just one of many things that seem to be offered in a parody-version of something more real. It is only… [read more]

Theology Redemption Is a Fundamental Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,252 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


The one, justice, rectifies sin. The other, love, restores the original fullness of God's creation, revealing the true power of the triune God.

There is a cyclical nature to Redemption. Redemption is also mysterious in the sense that it exists because of sin, but it exists to eliminate, purge, and purify sin. The mystery of the Redemption is also evident in the "wonderful self-communication of God to man," that reveals itself once the shackles of sin are removed and cease to interfere with the direct experience of God (Ionnes Paulus 1980, 2). By revealing love, redemption completes the cycle of necessity: of sin to mercy to revelation to love. The triune nature of God is also expressed through the cyclical nature of Redemption. Redemption helps to unify the three aspects of God. On the cross, Christ communicates with God as the Father, expressing the divine link between humanity, Christ, and God the Father. At the same time, Christ enables a connection to be made between humanity and the Holy Spirit. Redemption essentially "grants participation in the very life of God: Father, Son and Holy Spirit," (Ionnes Paulus 1980, 2).

Redemption and mercy are counterparts of one another; it is impossible to redeem without the possession and expression of mercy. Mercy must have its ultimate manifestation as spiritual redemption Ionnes Paulus points out, "mercy is an indispensible dimension of love," as if it were "love's second name," (1980, 3). Mercy is a sword cutting through the sin clouding the human experience and challenging Christ. Death and sin are intimately linked; redemption cuts this link and liberates humanity from the cycle of sin and death.

The death of Christ makes redemption possible. Christ's death represents the "radical revelation of mercy" and love (Ionnes Paulus 1980, 3). The cross is the rendering of absolute justice, even if it comes -- or because it comes -- " at the price of the death of the one who was without sin and who alone was able-by means of his own death-to inflict death upon death," (Ionnes Paulus 1980, 3). The paradoxical nature of the crucifixion becomes poignantly evident through the act of Redemption. Redemption arrives due to the presence of death and its ultimately being meted out to Christ, not as an act of punishment but as an ironic act of mercy and love. Death becomes essential to eliminate death; the death of Christ a divine mystery that provides the salve for humanity so that humanity can once again participate in the great heart of God. As Christ died and forged the connection between all three components of the triune God, the momentous event of the crucifixion paved the way for humanity's salvation.

Christ redeems out of love. The Redemption is a direct, tangible expression of both divine justice and divine love. Through Christ, God as Holy Spirit whispers the mystery of existence. Redemption heals sin, penetrates death, and reunites humanity with God. God as Father makes Christ possible, bestowing upon humanity the merciful and… [read more]

Walking Written by Author Henry Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (773 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


This is still a conflict that comes up when environmentalists and developers clash over the use of land. In the words of Margaret Brulatour, Thoreau "discusses the conflict between the need for shelter and the waste of mortgaging one's life to purchase a house" (1). In essence, when mankind gives up too much of that natural world in exchange for materialism, then he also gives up one of the greatest parts of him or herself. The nature world is akin to man's nature. Thoreau writes, "Nowadays, almost all man's improvements, so called, as the building of houses, and the cutting down of the forest, and of all large trees, simply deform the landscape, and make it more and more tame and cheap" (1). With the progress of time, there is the need to change some aspects, such as removing some wilderness to make houses but that there must be a limit to the amount of construction that occurs so that nature is not completely obliterated.

The modern environmentalist movement has its basis in the works of Thoreau, Emerson, and their colleagues (Oelschlaeger 1). Their writings inspired politicians such as Theodore Roosevelt to propose and support legislation which would protect the American landscape. It becomes evident that in "Walking," Henry David Thoreau intended to relate his feelings about the natural world and to encourage others to do whatever was in their power to protect and preserve the wildness of the wilderness.

In articles and essay like "Walking," Henry Thoreau convinces his readership of the importance of the natural world. He begs Americans to appreciate the nature that still exists and for everyone to do everything that is in their individual powers to combat the continued destruction and expansion of modernity into the wild.

Works Cited:

Bagley, S.H. "Man Thinking about Nature: The Evolution if the Poet's Form and Function in the Journal of Henry David Thoreau 1837-1852." Oberlin. 2006. Print.

Brulatour, Margaret. "Walking Study Text." American Transcendentalism Web. Virginia

Commonwealth. Feb. 2012. Web. 1999. http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/transcendentalism/authors/thoreau/walking/

Oelschlaeger, Max. "The Roots of Preservation: Emerson, Thoreau, and the Hudson River

School." Nature Transformed. National Humanities Center. Feb. 2012. Web.

Stabb, Mark. "Simply Walking." Thoreau Reader. Federation of Ontario Naturalists. Print.

Thoreau,…… [read more]

Good and Evil in Frankenstein Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (722 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The Monster is able to learn about society and human nature through the observation of the De Lacey family and the books that he reads, specifically Paradise Lost, during this time. Though the Monster is innocent, in a sense, and ignorant because he was not afforded the privilege of being taught what was right and wrong and does not have the capacity to understand and/or relate to any of the characters in the book; however, the Monster is eventually able to relate to Adam in Paradise Lost because much like him, the Monster was alone in the world while even "Satan had his companions, fellow devils, to admire and encourage him" (169).

In this respect, it can be argued that Frankenstein was the more evil of the two "monsters" in the novel. Because Frankenstein was fully aware of what he was doing, had been taught what was right and what was wrong, and was aware of social norms, expectations, and conventions he was responsible for his actions and was not influenced by any outside force to act in the manner that he did. The Monster, on the other hand, was abandoned by Frankenstein at "birth" and was left to try and understand his place in the world. While Frankenstein could have been eulogized for his contributions to science, technology, and medicine had he approached the concept of life and death in a different manner instead of trying to defy the laws of nature and religion through the reanimation of a corpse. Furthermore, his subsequent behavior and actions were illaudable because he did not take responsibility for his creation until the Monster forced him to. The Monster is a mirror of Frankenstein and any good or evil behavior that is attributed to him is a direct reflection of the influence that Frankenstein had on him.

Works Cited:

Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus. Project Gutenberg. Web. Retrieved

from http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/84.… [read more]

Stem Cells Ethics Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,746 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Nature itself destroys fertilized eggs en masse, and even if it doesn't, the harvested cells are undifferentiated cells, not yet demonstrating any characteristics normally associated with human cells. So stem cells have no more "human rights" than a hair, or scraping of skin. And as long as those donating the genetic materials or even fertilized eggs, are fully aware of the kind of research they will be donating to, and consent to the use of their genetic material or fertilized eggs, then it is no one's business what they do. As long as the materials are not collected through intimidation, coercion, or incentives like money, then it is all ethical and appropriate.

Works Cited

Allman, Toney. Stem Cells. Farmington Hills, MI: Lucent, 2006. Print.

"Definition, What are Stem Cells?" Academic Health Center. Web. 30 May 2011.

http://www.ahc.umn.edu/bioethics/prod/groups/ahc/@pub/@ahc/documents/asset / ahc_75703.PDF

Francis, Amy. Should the Government Fund Embryonic Stem Cell Research? Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press. Print.

Hyun, Insoo. "The Bioethics of Stem Cell Research and Therapy." American Society for Clinical Investigation. 2010. Web. 30 May 2011. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2798696/

Lo, Bernard. "Ethical issues in Stem Cell Research." The Endocrine Society. 2009. Web. 29 May 2011. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2726839/

Panno, Joseph. Stem Cell Research: Medical Applications and Ethical Controversy. New York, NY: Facts on File, 2005. Print.

Stem Cells and the Future of Regenerative Medicine. Washington, D.C.: National Academy, 2002. Print.… [read more]

John Keats and Melancholic Delight Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,237 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


It is here Keats illuminates the inevitable contrast of life and death, of fleeting and perpetuating. The second stanza embodies a lifetime of contemplation. To him, temporary and permanence are one and the same. When we take the last four lines of the second stanza this culmination becomes apparent. "And sometimes like a gleaner thou dost keep / Steady thy laden head across a brook; / Or by a cyder-press, with patient look, / Thou watchest the last oozings hours by hours." The juxtaposition of the laden head contemplating the permanence of the brook to the impermanence of patience and the cyder-press, exemplifies Keats individual fruition.

Feeling his life is coming to fruition Keats sees things in a state of melancholic delight. By actively combining the permanent innocence of nature with his own existence, he can then see the autumn of his life as the richest and fullest he has yet known. However, this delight is combined with melancholic notions of knowing it took a lifetime to fully ripen; now time is short to bask in his newly found appreciation. While he is surely nostalgic of the fruit life has provided, he also believes this individual progress is perpetual as long as individuals yearn for deeper understanding.

During the second stanza Keats expresses his deeper understanding of perpetual existence. He switches from the first to the second person. Almost unnoticeable until the second or third time through it is a profound intricacy. Keats passes the existential baton here. In other words, by his journey morphing into the next person's he enjoys a sort of immortality. This is where he wittingly combines fleeting with perpetuating. Things are at once lost and gained, and at once temporary and permanent. This is the true essence of autumn to Keats; thus the true essence of life.

The essence of the third stanza brings Keats to stoic resolution. He is able to enjoy the sunset of his life for the beauty it offers. Not what society should think or have him believe. In the first two lines of the last stanza, "Where are the songs of Spring? Ay, where are they? / Think not of them, thou hast thy music too," Keats sheds societal norms and implores the growth of the individual.

By not entertaining indulgences of finding something new and fresh as society does in the destructive path of progress, he seeks to encourage the evolution of the individual. For Keats this means embracing the beauty at hand, and of his moment. "While barred clouds bloom the soft-dying day, / And touch the stubble-plains with rosy hue." The soft dying day represents the beauty of life that contemplation of fruition brings. To him, the juice of ripened understanding is worth the squeeze.

True innocence is returned to Keats as symbolized by the last line of the poem; "And gathering swallows twitter in the skies." The innocence of twittering swallows is captured by Keats appreciation for them. Although this moment is fleeting it is also… [read more]

Due Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (648 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The Maturity Continuum fosters interdependence over dependence and independence due to the relationship they share. Dependence is the least desirable of the three, but at the same time it is an unavoidable stage in life. Many times person is dependent on others in order to survive, a child for example is dependent on his parents. After being dependent for a certain period, a person can achieve the more desirable state of independence. Independence is a highly desirable and very celebrated stage for many in life. It is not necessarily the most effective or productive state to be in, although it has its benefits it may not serve the intended or desired purpose of a company or group of associates . Interdependence by nature is the most effective and productive state because correlates the skills and strengths of different people in order to achieve a greater good. In one way or another, generally speaking all elements in life and nature are interdependent. They are interconnect and reliant upon each other to function in an effective and meaningful way.

The balancing of production and production capacity can increase effectiveness in the workplace because it establishes order and a sense of regularity, which can then pay significant dividends. In a business for example, if an owner chooses to ignore the production capacity which are his workers and focuses only on the customers, which are the production he or she is running a great risk. If workers are not appreciated and treated fairly, their attitudes towards the job will be negative and thus production will suffer through the loss of customers. On the other hand if they are treated well they will have a positive and engaging attitude which will most likely result in a production increase, balance is the key.

Works Cited

Covey, Stephen R. The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People: Restoring the Character Ethic. New…… [read more]

Ionizing Radiation on Meiotic Spindles Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  3 pages (957 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The estimated ovary dose that resulted in miscarriages was between 0.8-1.2 Gy, depending on the age of the woman. This is well below the level of exposure that caused in vitro depolymerization of meiotic spindles in oocytes. The miscarriages therefore probably occurred through another mechanism unrelated to radiation-induced meiotic spindle depolymerization.

Other Considerations

Several factors can influence oocyte survival after radiation exposure. These include bystander effects (Mothersill and Seymour, 1998), total time of ionizing radiation fraction delivery (Wang et al., 2003), and the age of the ovaries (Ogilvy-Stuart and Shalet, 1993). Since the oocytes were immediately fixed after irradiation and all oocytes in the dish were irradiated, the possible influence of bystander effects is irrelevant to this study. Oocyte samples were exposed to the same radiation source within minutes of each other, so there were no significant variations in radiation energy. Investigating the possible influence of oocyte age may be an interesting variable to study, since it was revealed that older ovaries were more resistant to higher radiation doses (Ogilvy-Stuart and Shalet, 1993). In this study the oocytes were obtained from a single animal and therefore age differences were not a factor.


Brinkley, B.R., Fuller, E.M., and Highfield, D.P., 1975. Cytoplasmic microtubules in normal and transformed cells in culture: analysis by tubulin antibody immunofluorescence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 72 (12), p.4981-4985.

Coss, R.A., Bamburg, J.R., and Dewey, W.C., 1981. The effects of X irradiation on microtubule assembly in vitro. Radiation Research, 85 (1), p.99-115.

Fujiwara, K. And Pollard, T.D., 1978. Simultaneous localization of myosin and tubulin in human tissue culture cells by double antibody staining. Journal of Cell Biology, 77 (1), p.182-195.

Inoue, S., 1964. Organization and function of the mitotic spindle. In R.D. Allen and N. Kamiya, eds. Primitive Motile Systems in Cell Biology. Academic Press: New York, p.549-598.

Inoue, S., Fuseler, J., Salmon, E.D., and Ellis, G.W., 1975. Functional organization of mitotic microtubules. Physical chemistry of the in vivo equilibrium system. Biophysical Journal, 15 (7), p.725-744.

Inoue, S. And Ritter, H. Jr., 1978. Mitosis in Barbulanympha. II. Dynamics of a two-stage anaphase, nuclear morphogenesis, and cytokinesis. Journal of Cell Biology, 77 (3), p.655-684.

Mothersill, C. And Seymour, C.B., 1998. Mechanisms and implications of genomic instability and other delayed effects of ionizing radiation exposure. Mutagenesis, 13 (5), p.421-426.

Noland, B.J. et al., 1974. Effects of ionizing radiation upon intracellular levels of soluble microtubule protein in cultured mammalian cells. Experimental Cell Research, 85 (2), p.234-238.

Ogilvy-Stuart, A.L. And Shalet, S.M., 1993. Effect of radiation on the human reproductive system. Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements, 101 (Suppl. 2), p.109-116.

Wang, J.Z., Li, X.A., D'Souza, W.D., and Stewart, R.D., 2003. Impact of prolonged fraction delivery times on tumor control: a note of caution of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT).…… [read more]

Japanese Literature Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (638 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Another question that the discerning reader would ask after reading this excerpt is how does the author use humans to prove that there is an impermanence associated with life?

The answer is that the author illustrates his theme of impermanence with human examples by showing how men (and women) come and go, with very little rhyme or reason to their leaving or arriving. In some instances, he utilizes death to reinforce this concept. As previously implied in the example pertaining to fire, people can be eradicated from existence at the whim of nature. Life itself is one of the most impermanent aspects of the world; the life of humans is no different and reflects this fact in many different ways. The author also buttresses his them of impermanence e by referring to the transience of the abodes in which people live. Early on in the story (prior to his reference to the fire), he discusses the fact that the houses that people live in change. Sometimes they are destroyed, sometimes they become smaller, and sometimes they get rebuilt. He also writes about the fact that even when houses have managed to attain some sort of limited permanence -- say, perhaps over the course of 100 years -- that the people that actually reside in those houses has changed. As such, one of the most tangible markers of impermanence is the houses in which people live -- and, of course, the people themselves who live in them.

The author also talks about the migration of humans in references to his theme of impermanence. He explicates the fact that the ancient capital of a city -- which had been in place for multiple centuries -- was suddenly moved. As such, there was a similar moving of the people who worked in that capital, while others were left behind. Clearly, people and their migrations between places reinforce the author's theme of…… [read more]

Sea Wolf by Jack London Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (665 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


In the end, "good" wins out over "evil," and justifies Hump's view of life, because he has morals, and is a decent man. The captain dies on the island, and so do his skewed values and morals. The ultimate justification in the novel is that Hump gains love, and learns how strong he is, and what a survivor. On the other hand, the "great and powerful captain is reduced to paralysis, but stubbornly will not give up his beliefs. His last word is "Bosh," and it shows that he is still a heartless, cruel man until the end.

Human nature in this book is the underlying current that ties it all together. Hump perseveres through the cruelty and violence around him, and emerges with a new sense of himself, and his abilities. His human nature is stronger than that of the cruel characters that surrounded him, and so he has survived, while they have perished.

Human nature is expressed though the natural references to the violence of the ocean, and how it can take their lives at any minute. It is no wonder that Wolf Larsen is a sea captain, he and the sea have a lot in common. "Then it was that the cruelty of the sea, its relentlessness and awfulness, rushed upon me. Life had become cheap and tawdry, a beastly and inarticulate thing, a soulless stirring of the ooze and slime" (London and Gannett 25).

London's use of human nature to portray the good and evil characters created lasting, living, breathing people. They seem real to the reader because they are not perfect, they are flawed, and their natures are all different. It is the same with all of us, we are all flawed, but can learn from others if we allow ourselves, just as Hump learned from Wolf Larsen.

Works Cited

London, Jack, and Lewis Gannett. The…… [read more]

Transcendentalism in Henry David Thoreau Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,765 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Thoreau admits one of the reasons he went to Walden was to experiment with business ventures, which is far removed from simply communing with nature and the natural world. He also did not spend his entire time in solitude, looking for answers to his spiritual questions, he wandered into town every day or so, and kept current on the latest gossip and news. This was not part of the communal Brook Farm philosophy, where everything the group needed could be found on the farm. Thoreau needed human contact, and the everyday occurrences like reading the newspaper or discussing politics with friends.

For two years, Thoreau's time was spent listening to the natural sounds, gazing on their wonders, and thinking about the lifestyle that allowed him such peace and pleasure, with occasional forays into town for some human comfort and conversation. The entire book is a discovery, of himself, and his spiritual side, and it is obvious why it is so colored by his spiritual beliefs. The Brook Farm Experiment was not a success, the farm closed after six years, but Walden was a success for Thoreau, even after he left the pond, it lived on in his memory, and in the memory of anyone who has read his great tribute to nature and natural thought.


Brulatour, Meg. "What is American Transcendentalism?" Virginia Commonwealth University. 2002. http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/transweb/tr-def.htm. Kesten, Seymour R. Utopian Episodes: Daily Life in Experimental Colonies Dedicated to Changing the World. 1st ed. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1993. Thoreau, Henry David. Walden and Other Writings of…… [read more]

Robert Frost's Famous Poem, Birches Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,640 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


'" (Lyden). This is a world of black branches and snow white trunks, of opposites, of defeat and joy, and if we can swing birches, we can achieve grace. The boy who was a swinger of birches learned "poise"; the adult, perhaps wounded by life's suffering, has the same poise.

This poem offers a kind of redemptive realism. This poem offers us a philosophy for living, a way to view the difficulties of life as symbolized in an ice storm, and the proud spirit of human beings, swingers of birches. In fact, perhaps nature needs our spirit, for the boy actually rode the birches down over and over again "until he took the stiffness out of them." The language of this poem is strikingly and gorgeously literal, and yet every literal setting and image is a figurative one too, an image of the spirit. At one point in the poem Frost writes:

But I was going to say when Truth broke in With all her matter-of-fact about the ice-storm should prefer to have some boy bend them He would prefer the world of imagination and revery. In the end, Birches is not just about any man, but about the imaginative man: the poet. This poem swings birches, and we swing with it. We emerge, with the stiffness taken out of us, willing to embrace life's joys and tragedies.


Cox, Sidney. A Swinger of Birches. New York University Press. (1960).

Frost, Robert. Collected Poems. New York: Holt (1930).

Garnett, Edward. "A New American Poet" The Atlantic Monthly (1915). Available online at The Atlantic Unbound. http://www.theatlantic.com/unbound/poetry/frost/garnett.htm

Lynen, John F. The Pastoral Art of Robert Frost. Yale University Press (1960).

Poirer, Richard. Robert Frost: The Work of Knowing. Oxford, (1977).

Richardson, Mark. The Ordeal of Robert Frost: The Poet and His Poetics. University of Illinois. (1997).… [read more]

Evolution of Respiratory Organ System Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (358 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The development varies in many ways. For example, fishes develop gills to filter water and captured oxygen from the flowing current and benthic fishes develop labyrinths to provide larger space when they have to live in the shortage of oxygen. Marine mammals and sea birds have similar lung type as terrestrial mammals and ordinary birds, however they have myoglobin, typical hemoglobin structure in the blood that stores oxygen in higher capacity.

In birds, air sacs present through the body cavity to provide space for oxygen during rapid gas exchange while flying. Air sacs help the function of pulmonary organ and release excessive heat.

Other adaptation performed by amphibians is the decreasing metabolism rate during the hybernation in winter. Amphibians also get oxygen through skin surface, which is why they stay alive while buried dormant in the mud during winter. The skin is kept exposed to fresh water to supply oxygen for the metabolism.

Works Cited

Campbell, Jonathan A. Respiratory System. 2001. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. University of Texas at Arlington. Web site: http://www.uta.edu/biology/restricted/3452resp.htm… [read more]

Meiosis, Transpiration, Monocots, Dicots Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (749 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


) It handles all the chemical processes of the plant.

Nucleus. It is a double membrane ring formation inside the cytoplasm. Nucleus controls all the functions inside a cell (Structure and Function of the Parts of a Plant Cell).

Chloroplast. It is a double membrane organelle that handles photosynthesis and manufacturing of starch.

Vacuole. It is a sac that contains fluids or water. Vacuole is responsible for holding nutrients and discharge of waste products.

Angiosperms, Fungi, and Algae

Angiosperms are flowering plants and the plant kingdom's largest group (Calfieri).

Angiosperms constitute stems, leaves, roots, seeds, and flowers making them more structured than fungi and algae. Because of this, angiosperms can inhabit in land and can make their own food. Angiosperms are our source of oxygen. They are also good sources of lumber, fibers, and drug substances (Calfieri).

Fungi are organisms that can be found in many places. Unlike angiosperms, fungi do not have structures like stems, roots, leaves, and flowers. Because of this, they cannot make their own food thus classifies them as parasites. The reproduction process of fungi can be in the asexual, sexual, budding, and fission methods.

Algae are group of living things that were once thought to be a member of the plant kingdom. Algae do not have the structures of a plant like stem, roots, flowers, and leaves. However, they are capable of producing their own food through chlorophyll. Algae generate oxygen that is beneficial to living things in water.



Access Excellence. 28 June 2003. http://www.accessexcellence.org/AB/GG/meiosis.html

Speer, B.R. Monocots vs. Dicots.

Ucmp.Berkeley. 29 June 2003. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/glossary/gloss8/monocotdicot.html

Flowering Plant Organization.

Personal.Psu. 29 June 2003. http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/t/r/trp2/plantseedorg.html

Thiers, G. What is Cytoplasm?

Essortment.Com. 29 June 2003. http://wiwi.essortment.com/cytoplasm_rkkg.htm

Structure and Function of the Parts of a Plant Cell.

Stalban. 29 June 2003. http://www.stalban.pta.school.za/tecsas/std7/biology/cells/cel3t1d.htm

Calfieri. Angiosperms.

Pittsford.Monroe. 30 June 2003. http://pittsford.monroe.edu/jefferson/calfieri/plants/Angiosperm.html

Calfieri. Fungi.

Pittsford.Monroe. 30 June 2003. http://pittsford.monroe.edu/jefferson/calfieri/plants/Fungi.html

Calfieri. Algae.

Pittsford.Monroe. 30 June 2003. http://pittsford.monroe.edu/jefferson/calfieri/plants/Algae.html… [read more]

Mankind and Nature Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,641 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


e) Reduce our consumption of energy to our specific requirements rather than wasting energy on egoistic useless displays, just to get a little attention, immensely hurting the natural resources in the process. f) Do our utmost to protect and conserve every form of life that is present in nature, as it is our moral obligation, being an intelligent species, to help and take care of our surroundings.

Although utilization of such processes and going out of our way to conserve energy may be a little odd and expensive, we must remember that once destroyed or depleted, no amount of money, strength or power can bring back nature and if the Earth goes barren, we can never find a suitable replacement and mankind will perish in the process. Thus answering our underlying question that even though mankind and nature may be separate, it is only because of the power of choice that mankind has, and the wisest decision man can make with the option of choice that he's blessed with, is to become one with nature, for more possible benefit than he can possibly gain from anything else.

Works Cited

David Lowenthal, (April, 2001), Environmental History,

History Today, Retrieved on 24th November, 2003, from: http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1373/4_51/73236316/p1/article.jhtml?term=

Krishna Chaitanya, (Jan, 2000), Man, Nature and Cosmos in Vedic India,

The Ecologist, Retrieved on 24th November, 2003, at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m2465/1_30/59520588/p1/article.jhtml

3) Jacob Davenport, (2003),The Social Nature of Humanity,

Writer's Guild of Wunderland, Retrieved on 24th November, 2003, at http://www.wunderland.com/WTS/Jake/TSNOH.html

4) Author not Available, (2003), Our environment and the relationship between mankind and nature, Retrieved on 24th November, 2003, at http://www.kriyayoga.com/english/on_your_wings/nature.htm… [read more]

David - A Literary Perspective Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,096 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


He once again overcomes a hardship by doing Saul's bidding to receive Michol's hand in marriage. In this circumstance, the reader is able to feel a connection to David for all the righteousness and victories he has achieved in his life so far, despite his beginnings as a poor shepherd.

Through the course of demonstrating is prowess as a warrior, and eventually his reign as king of Israel, we are lead through a series of events that bring us to the climax of David's character development. We are now comfortable with him as a character and an 'extension' of our humanity. We are proud, as he is, of his life and accomplishments so far, but every silver lining has a cloud, and soon we see the bitter and sinful side of David.

With his growth as a person, he has also gained fame, wealth and above all, power.

The author now uses David against our moral judgment. He shows through David's actions what too much fame, wealth and power can do to even the most likeable of characters, and otherwise noble and just of morals. Through his sinful relationship with Bethsabee, and the assassination of her husband, we are shown a side of David that repulses us, and we are given the moral conflict of whether we really want to be like him in all aspects, or if we should have more control of the external influences of our life, such as wealth and power.

Even though David repents a year later for his sins, and is pardoned by God, the author establishes that repenting and forgiveness are usually not enough, even for the most sincere. Once again, the reader empathizes with David for being human, and responding as humans often do to the increase in his stature and abilities. Even while we abhor his actions, we feel sorry for him in the last years of his life when he eventually flees Israel.

There is a lesson within the development and the story of David which the author imparts through 'visuals' and actions, rather than a bare recount of events. We grow to like David as someone that has all the virtues of a good person, and that we would like to see in ourselves.

Nevertheless, there is a message in this story that is portrayed through a series of events. As we see David's life getting better and he is winning the hearts of many around him, he is also creating enemies. His actions, like any action imparted by the reader, has consequences, and unjust and sinful actions, will often have harsh punishments. Just like he was rewarded for his deeds, David was also punished for his sins. This is the ultimate message behind the story of David.

David is the perfect example of someone losing their true self amongst the external factors of fame, wealth, power and greed. From humble beginnings he follows a path that makes him King of Israel, but he abuses the power and acts… [read more]

Role of Secondary (Hormone) Messengers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (781 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


According to the Biology Pages web site, these secondary messenger molecules have specific functions that are significant in the process of cell communication. The first enumerated secondary messenger, cyclic nucleotides or cAMP, are generated through the following hormones: adrenaline, glucagon, and luteinizing hormone or LH. Cyclic AMPs (cAMPs) are essential for the production of adrenaline or energy for the activities of the cell. These cell activities include transmission of nerve signals, movement of the muscles, synthesis of protein, and cell division. Glucagons, on the other hand, utilize secondary messengers in order to transmit signals pertaining to essential cellular activities such as maintaining a normal blood-sugar level and production of glucose from amino acids. Lastly, cAMP serves as the catalyst for the secretion of hormones by the pituitary gland, which promotes human growth and controls the water balance of the body.

Inositol triphosphate or IP3, binds receptors on the endoplasmic reticulum, and upon activation, conducts activities such as the manufacturing, processing, and transportation of substances from the cells to other parts of the body, and vice versa. Furthermore, IP3s also makes possible the process of protein synthesis, and the process of storing fats that are later converted into chemical energy.

Lastly, Ca++ ions are generated by the activation of hormones that trigger human motion, such as muscle movements, release of neurotransmitters in the synapse, and production of the protein Kinase. The production of proteins is essential to cell communication, specifically cell metabolism, because proteins are the primary substances that secrete hormones. Hormones, in turn, serve as catalysts that trigger the cell to perform its tasks. In effect, proteins generate energy, food substance, and biochemical reactions within the cell, and into the human body.

All three secondary messenger molecules are essential to the conduct of cell communication. Without the interdependency of one secondary messenger with the other, the process of cell communication, and, eventually, metabolism, would not become possible, which causes impairment of the body's activities and functions.


Cellular Communication." (2002). CSS Web site. Available at http://saints.css.edu/bio/schroeder/communication.html.

Metabolism." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002.

Metabolism." (2003). Biology Pages Web site. Available at http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/M/Metabolism.html.… [read more]

Oz &amp the Secret Garden Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,635 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


..essentially supportive attitude, and in her knowledge of what children need to be healthy." (Almond, p. 118) That knowledge and the children's natural capacity for love and life finally result in Mary and Colin filling their life with love, fun, and laughter. As Colin observes, "Magic is in her just as it is in Dickon." (Burnett, p. 320)

The point Burnett makes is that there is magic in everyone, waiting to be tapped. The secret lies in discovery: "I shall find out thousands and thousands of things...everything that grows...never stop making Magic." (Burnett, p. 342) Thus, The Secret Garden seeks to imagine the finest life possible and an ideal social order. To child and adult, the book is a message about "Look, this is how the world ought to be. Try to make it like that when you are grown up. We haven't managed it, we older ones; perhaps you will." (Bloom, cited Inglis, p. 18)

Do The Wizard of Oz and The Secret Garden take the adult reader on a nostalgic journey back to a time when fantasy and magic seemed possible? Or do the works summon a wake-up call to the still living child in every adult? The answer to the preceding questions essentially lies in choosing between mute acceptance of current reality or, to quote Burnett, "coming alive," (359) and opting for a renewed hope of realizing many an unfulfilled dream.

Works Cited

Almond, B. "The Therapeutic Narrative: Fictional Relationships and the Process of Psychological Change." Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1996.

Attebery, B. "The Fantasy Tradition in American Literature: From Irving to Le Guin." Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1980.

Bloom, H. "Women Writers of Children's Literature." Philadelphia: Chelsea

House, 1998.

Baum, F.L. "The Wonderful Wizard of Oz." Chicago: Henry Regnery, rpt. Of original 1900 ed., 1956.

Burnett, F.H. "The Secret Garden." New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1938.

Cole, t. R. & Gadow, S.A. "What does it mean to grow old? Reflections from the Humanities." Durham, NC:…… [read more]

Mary Oliver's Seven White Butterflies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,577 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Seven White Butterflies delicate in a hurry look how they bang the pages of their wings as they fly to the fields of mustard yellow and orange and plain gold all eternity is in the moment this is what Blake and Whitman said such wisdom in the agitated motions of the mind seven dancers floating even as worms toward paradise see how they banter and riot and rise to the trees flutter lob their white bodies into the invisible wind weightless lacy willing to deliver themselves unto the universe now each settles down on a yellow thumb on a brassy stem now all seven are rapidly sipping from the golden towers who would have thought it could be so easy?

West Wind 2

Mary Oliver

You are young. So you know everything. You leap into the boat and begin rowing. But, listen to me.

Without fanfare, without embarrassment, without any doubt, I talk directly to your soul. Listen to me.

Lift the oars from the water, let your arms rest, and your heart, and heart's little intelligence, and listen to me. There is life without love. It is not worth a bent penny, or a scuffed shoe. It is not worth the body of a dead dog nine days unburied. When you hear, a mile away and still out of sight, the churn of the water as it begins to swirl and roil, fretting around the sharp rocks -- when you hear that unmistakable pounding -- when you feel the mist on your mouth and sense ahead the embattlement, the long falls plunging and steaming -- then…… [read more]

Self-Reliance Explain at Least Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,624 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In other words, in the rationalist conception of the human mind, all human beings have the cognitive structures to learn a geometric proof. If a teacher leads an ignorant person whom is mentally competent through the rational learning process, such a person can understand the mathematical proof. All individuals thus possess the capacity to learn, the ability to learn in a similar fashion, if all individuals only look within their mind's structures and exercise these abilities to their maximum capacities.

For Emerson, however, although he does not deny the cognitive capacity of human beings to apprehend certain structures with uniformity, he is more interested in the difference of individual human minds than of their similarities. True creative expression, as opposed to the learning of pre-existing truths, mathematical and religious, is where Emerson sees the potential for the fullest flowering of the human sprit, and the creation of human genius, within every human being.

Both philosophies of rationalism and transcendentalism, thus, are democratic in their ethos. According to the rationalist, as both king and commoner both have the same mental capacity, both can and should be equal in educational terms and access to opportunities to exercise the rational capacities that make them uniquely human. For Emerson, the American, all human beings possess some emotional responsiveness that is unique, but is best accessed not under tutelage, but in solitude and communion with nature, away from society and preexisting societal and educational norms. "Great works of art have no more affecting lesson for us than this. They teach us to abide by our spontaneous impression with good-humored inflexibility then most when the whole cry of voices is on the other side." (Emerson, 1841)

Works Cited

Emerson, Waldo Ralph. "Self-Reliance." 1841. http://www.emersoncentral.com/self-reliance.htm

Tolstoy, Lev. The Death of Ivan Ilych. 1886. Translated by Louise and Aylmer Maude. Retrieved on May 8, 2004 at http://home.aol.com/Tolstoy28… [read more]

Heidegger the Question of Technology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,733 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Thus, there exists an inherent inadequacy in science to form the basis of social order. Technology does not go away when we stop driving cars, and science does not cease to dictate our lives if we decide to become abstract painters. Science therefore is not a map that can be discarded and replaced by a new paradigm. It mirrors the… [read more]

American Landscape and Social Attitudes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,041 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Firstly, nature has been transformed in that it has been "deadened" from a life giving force to dead matter, from spirit to machine. Through the new sciences of physics, astronomy, and mathematics, the study of nature became the study of how nature was materially constituted. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000323344" (Macnaghten et al.)

Secondly, nature is seen in the modern world as being secondary to the human. This is the opposite of the way that London and other '"naturalists" would have described nature. "The second transformation involved the construction of a state of nature thought of as prior to humanity, or at least prior to civilized society." (ibid)

The modern view of nature is a reflection of the way that society has changed. This view of nature is in fact a reflection of the way we see ourselves. It is also a view that is essentiality selfish and is leading to a neglect of the natural world.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000323344"


Angus, Ian. "Free Nature." Alternatives Journal Summer 1997: 18+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000498362" "American Literature." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000.

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Ekirch, Arthur A. Man and Nature in America. New York: Columbia University Press, 1963.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77844348"

Elkind, David. "The Death of Child Nature: Education in the Postmodern World." Phi Delta Kappan 78.3 (1997): 241+. Questia. 28 June 2004 http://www.questia.com/.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000522052"

Howard, June. Form and History in American Literary Naturalism. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1985.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9312906"

Huth, Hans. Nature and the American: Three Centuries of Changing Attitudes. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1957.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=54396156"

Leiss, William. The Domination of Nature. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1994.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=80437283"

Macnaghten, Phil, et al. "Towards a Sociology of Nature." Sociology 29.2 (1995): 203+. Questia. 28 June 2004 http://www.questia.com/.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000323344"

Miller, John. Egotopia: Narcissism and the New American Landscape. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 1997.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=63524969"

Minai, Asghar Talaye. Aesthetics, Mind, and Nature: A Communication Approach to the Unity of Matter and Consciousness. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1993.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=22883052"

Northumberland. "Inside and outside the ring: manhood, race, and art in American Literary Naturalism.," College Literature, January 1, 2002 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=22883052"

Murphy, Raymond. Social Action in Context. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=98916748"

Noyes, C. Reindd. Economic Man in Relation to His Natural Environment. Vol. 1. New York: Columbia University Press, 1948.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=100645013"

Russell, Sharman Apt. Kill the Cowboy: A Battle of Mythology in the New West. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1993.… [read more]

Long Tradition of East Asian Political Thought Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,618 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Explain the East Asian conception of human nature

East Asian political thought had been based on the concept that human nature is fundamentally and innately positive, naturally tending toward goodness. However, Xun-Zi expanded upon what Confucius and Mencius had written and diverged from their optimistic viewpoints. During the Warring States period, it became especially important to investigate human nature,… [read more]

Different Types of Traditional Japanese Dance Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (650 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Traditional Japanese dance reflects the core elements and values of the culture. Most dancers are female, suggesting that the creative arts stand within the gendered realm of the idealized feminine: signifying grace and the conveyance of spiritual mystique. By extension, the physical dance forms are subtle and nuanced. Keeping with the spirit of Japanese personal and collective identity, the nature of the traditional dance forms allow for a personal connection with spirituality and generally encourage contemplation. Rather than being extraverted and expressive, as with many Western forms of dance, traditional Japanese dance is introverted.

Dances like "One Wish" also exist to invoke the beauty of nature. Through overt movements representing wind, rain, water, and calm air, the dancers alter their movements accordingly. They use props, such as umbrellas, parasols, and fans, to enhance their expression of natural elements. Twirling is gentle like the movement of waves upon a lake. Unlike the "One Wish" dance, the Odori includes vocal accompaniment. The vocals remind the viewer of the presence of human beings in the natural world, whereas the absence of vocals in "One Wish" encourage a deeper meditation on nature as it exists without the interference of the human hand. In both cases, dance is used to express appreciation for nature. As such, dance becomes a unique means of preserving cultural knowledge.

Nature is sensual and even sexual, which is why many traditional Japanese dances do contain subtle erotic imagery. In the Sakura festival performance, the giant hat is used to represent the flowering of spring, as it is liberally decorated with blooms and shaped like a giant dome. Its convex shape is often placed over the female dancer's pelvis, a highly suggestive movement. The dancers do not interact with each other or with the audience, though. They keep their sensuality and eroticism restrained. The dancers remain self-contained units, but they also work harmoniously together, representing the core dimensions of Japanese society. The tension between individual expression…… [read more]

Ion Channels Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (395 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … sodium and other ion channels considered gated?

Ions moving by facilitated diffusion can traverse the plasma membrane through channels created by proteins. These embedded transmembrane proteins allow the formation of a concentration gradient between the extracellular and intracellular contents. These ion channels are said to be 'gated' if they can be opened or closed.

Ligand gated channels open or close in response to the binding of a small signaling molecule or ligand (Keramidas et al.). Some ion channels are gated by extra cellular ligands; some by intracellular ligands. In both cases, the ligand is not the substance that is transported when the channel opens. The binding of neurotransmitter acetylcholine opens sodium channels in certain synapses. Voltage gated channels are found in neurons and muscle cells. They open or close in response to changes in the charge across the plasma membrane. For example, as an impulse passes down a neuron, the reduction in the voltage opens sodium channels in the adjacent portion of the membrane. This allows the influx of sodium into the neuron and thus the continuation of the nerve impulse.

Ion channels are highly specific filters, allowing only desired ions through the cell membrane.…… [read more]

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