Study "Business / Corporations / E-commerce" Essays 56-110

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International Political Economy Research Paper

… International Political Economy

The issue of multinational corporate ethics in the area of sustainable development has forced the hand of many CEO's to act in what is perhaps against the better wishes of their shareholders, but perhaps not of the… [read more]

Liar's Poker Organizational Behavior Term Paper

… Liar's Poker

The Salomon Brothers and Michael Lewis' Liar's Poker: An Inside Look at Organizational Structure and Culture

The recent economic downturn that the world experienced -- and is still experiencing, in many parts of the world and indeed globally,… [read more]

Information Technology (IT) Issues in E-Business Research Paper

… role of information assurance on improving trust and efficiency in e-Business.

IT issues in E -Business

The field of Information technology has affected the way business is conducted across the whole world. There are however certain issue that affect this… [read more]

E-Business Term Paper

… The Networking component of the infrastructure was to be designed so as to deliver the best networking capabilities that were appropriately installed in the server. The key objectives in the mind of the designers of this component were aimed at interdepartmental linking, real-time protection from virus, an automated back-up system and an internal emailing platform. The internal email was to be delivered using an ISDN line and a high speed LAN modem that would enable a fast and easy sending of drawings, receipts, digital photos and emails to and from the customers and suppliers.

The website was designed to be designed by a company called Catseye Internet Solutions and was to be appropriately launched and Search Engine Optimized in order to increase the popularity of the company on the internet. The popular search engine sites have become very popular and easy to use to an extent that they can complete the sales process by themselves ( Laudon and Traver, 2007,p170).

The website was meant to then pass the customers to the nearest dealers so that they could complete the sales process


In summary, the key challenges for the Combilift were to make necessary investments in the purchase and maintenance of the IT infrastructure that would necessitate growth of their business. The currently ongoing implementation of the e-business has already resulted in significant contribution to the company. All these are aimed at positioning Combilift for continuous growth of their business.


Beynon-Davies P. (2004). E-Business. Palgrave, Basingstoke. ISBN 1-4039-1348-X

Enterprise Ireland. Combolift Ltd.: SME eBusiness Case Studies

Timmers, P (2000), Electronic Commerce - strategies & models for business-to-business trading, pp.31, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.,

Gerstner, L (2002), Who says Elephants can't dance pg 172

Laudon K.C & Traver C.G (2007) E-Commerce: Business, Technology, Society, Third Ed. [read more]

Economics Sole Proprietorship Partnership Corporation Term Paper

… 3. Corporations must also maintain elaborate corporate records.

2. What are the advantages of becoming a franchisee? The main advantage of owning a franchise is that there is already a business model in place. Franchisees don't have to start from scratch. They are taught how to train employees and the product that they sell is already established.

3. Why do people start cooperatives? Cooperatives are started to distribute the profits from the sell of goods amongst a community of individuals who are members of the co-op.

4. Assuming you want to open one of the following new businesses, what form of business ownership would you choose for each business? DVD Rental -- sole proprietorship, party planning business -- partnership, Furniture manufacturing company -- corporation and Online car insurance service -- Corporation.


Choosing a Form of Business."

Market House Books Dictionary of British History. Market House Books Ltd.… [read more]

Self-Employment the Lack of Stability Term Paper

… The new EU Privacy policy, dealing with the European Union Data Protection Directive, came out last year and its purpose was to protect data about individuals that is entered into website, stored on the Internet, or disseminated over corporate intranets (Rogers, 1998). " There is a real need for improvement in privacy policies, but the level of protection [required by the Directive] is above and beyond what the U.S. would require," (Rogers, 1998).

Self-employment as a whole is increasing. I believe this is because people are realizing the benefits involved. The largest one being that when you start your own business, you are the boss... your own boss. Also, the satisfaction of earning your own money and being successful because of your hard work is so rewarding. But not all small businesses are success stories. Many new small businesses, whether in a store, a home, or on the Internet fail with in the first year or two. To prevent this a lot of hard work and planning is involved in the first stages of creating a business. I think that the statistics given above from all of the sources indicate that self-employment is the way of our future. And home-based businesses and electronic commerce will be the ways that people will prefer to do business.

Structural mobility, changes in the number and kinds of jobs available in a society, has shifted control to the worker. As technology allows many of the jobs of old, in factories, assembly lines, etc., to become automated, workers today must become educated; obtain knowledge, to become good producers. Individuals now have power, as they own the means of production, and the means of consumption has become the way to make money. Those that own the means of consumption will become top dogs.

Works Cited

Following their homing instincts (1998, June). Nation's Business, 86(6).

Gauthier, James & Roy, Richard (1997, Aug.). Diverging trends in self-employment in Canada. Human Resources Development Canada.

The Growth of self-employment (1997). The Worklife Report, 10(4).

Hoffman, Ellen (1999, Sept. 6). Staying insured when you're on your own. Business Week, 3645.

Leonhardt, David (1999, July 26). Lemonade stands on electric avenue. Print Media Edition: Industrial/Technology Edition, 3639.

Rogers, Amy (1998). EU privacy… [read more]

Internal Revenue Role Term Paper

… Role of IRS

The Role of the IRS in for-Profit and Non-Profit Businesses

A famous quote from Benjamin Franklin states that "nothing is certain in this world but death and taxes." The fact that, at least in the United States,… [read more]

Improving Corporate Governance in Small- to Medium-Sized Research Proposal

… ¶ … Improving Corporate Governance in Small- to Medium-Sized Enterprises

When some people hear the term, "corporate governance," they likely associate it with major publicly traded domestic corporations and multinationals. The need for good corporate governance, though, also applies to… [read more]

Management Compensation in Relation to Corporate Failures Thesis

… Management Compensation in Relation to Corporate Failures

Corporate governance refers to the way in which directors and auditors manage their responsibilities towards shareholders. Common corporate governance measures consist of: appointing non-executive directors, create constraints for management power and ownership concentration,… [read more]

Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and Impacts Term Paper

… Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and Impacts on Post and Pre-Using Case Examples as References

Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

During the past few decades, the number of white-collar business fraud cases seemed to increase dramatically. Due to an immense interest and… [read more]

Offshore Financial Centers Term Paper

… Offshore Financial Centers

Info: Definition

Offshore Financial Centers or OFCs are areas that choose reduced taxes or lenient financial controlling administration as a shield in case of overseas investors. (the future for offshore financial centers (OFCs))

IMF defines OFC as… [read more]

Worldcom: The Ethics of Whistle-Blowing Term Paper

… There was intense pressure that came not just from external investors and analysts, but also from within WorldCom from the CEO himself, whose financial well-being was precariously dependent on WorldCom's stock price. CEO Ebbers pledged his vast holdings of WorldCom… [read more]

Shareholder and Stakeholder Values Term Paper

… Shareholder and Stakeholder Values

It makes sense for our modern world to have a foundation of a market-based economy because there are inherent conditions in the competitive market system that efficiently helps to meet the needs of consumers. These are… [read more]

Managing All Stakeholders Term Paper

… "The absorption of one company by another," Black's adds, "[with] the former losing its legal identity, and latter retaining its own name and identity and acquiring assets, liabilities, franchises, and powers of former, and absorbed company ceasing to exist as… [read more]

Superior Customer Value Term Paper

… -What are the implications of this research to the discipline?

This research study will help the readers to know about the strategies, which could be implemented by the organization .The paper ahs analyzed the success factors of the SAP organization and the strategies which are implemented by the organizational authorities of SAP software.

-Do your findings support or reject your hypothesis?

The information and findings have been collected by various websites and these websites are an authentic source of information. The findings and information do support the hypothesis and these information declares that delivery of superior customer services is an essential factor to gain success and prosperity.


As retrieved from Macro environmental Factors: The Natural Environment vbcid=1932 On May 15,2004

As retrieved from SAP -- 30 Years in the Business of Helping Businesses Grow

12 Million Users. 69,700 Installations. 1,500 Partners. / On May 15,2004

As retrieved from Unit II -- Go/No Go: The Process of Community Development Finance Learning Objective On May 15,2004

As retrieved from New SAP products aim for easy solutions By Matt Hines CNET May 7, 2004, 10:08 AM PT On May 15,2004 [read more]

Business Structures Corporation Essay

… It is also very important to properly share profits with others, partners must decide how they must value each other's skills and time and to achieve something like this requires extreme amount of coordination and patience which is something not all partners might be willing towards.

Because decisions are shared many disagreements could occur, partnerships are usually set for the longer term and if any dramatic change occurs in the business environment then it could lead towards a traumatic split up between the partners and this is something which McDonalds can not afford at all. Partnerships usually have many limitations which are due to the mutual agreements of their contracts, this could greatly affect the firm as it might hinder its prospects of becoming an even larger organization.

It is also seen that partnerships have a limited life, it might even end because the death or withdrawal of a single partner, therefore in a sense it is also regarded as a very volatile structure of business. Therefore McDonalds could not risk to fully adopt the partnership model since the sudden absence of a single partner might hurt the overall business of the firm greatly.

Now, since we have focused on the models of sole proprietorship and partnerships and have seen how they are not appropriate for McDonalds, let's focus on the corporation structure and see why it is the best model for our chosen firm.

Corporation business structure

A corporation business structure is created by law and is defined as a separate entity from the owners of the business i.e. The shareholders and stockholders. Here are some of its advantages. It has a lifespan which is completely independent from its shareholders or stockholders (owners), for a firm like McDonalds it is extremely important that it does not rely on a single person too much for its finances or different operations. It is also observed that the fringe benefits costs are usually tax-deductible.

In corporations the personal assets are generally protected from business liability, this comes as a great advantage for the main owners of the business when the firm goes into severe losses. Another key advantage of corporate structure is that ownership is made transferable through sale of stock, here it is seen that in many cases when an owner is unable to carry on his duties or just want to quit then the stocks could determine the next potential owner which may have more power or other great ideas that might influence the business for good. These owners are also seen to have more capital therefore they could end up doing more benefit for the firm. It is also very easy to increase the operating capital and this can be done through sale of stock.

The corporate structure also allows the flexibility of change in ownership without affecting the firm's daily management. This could greatly benefit a firm like McDonalds which has a huge employee and revenue base and all of this must not be disturbed because of the… [read more]

E-Commerce and Business Technology Essay

… Several of these disruptive innovations, including more efficient and strong Wi-Fi networks, greater agility and speed of mobile phone and tablet PC processors, and most significantly, the disruptive shift in content, are all working together to fundamentally reshape how the world uses the Internet (Laudon, Traver, 2011).

The greatest of these disruptive innovations has emerged as the Apple iPad. According to market research firms including International Data Corporation (IDC), Gartner and others, the sales of tablet PCs are close to eclipsing PC sales today and will most likely completely eclipse them by 2015 (Currier, 2011). The arguments that the iPad and related tablets will eventually replace traditional laptops are pervasive throughout the industry press today, mentioning the pervasive availability of Wi-Fi and the need for entirely new classes of devices to keep up with knowledge workers' increasingly mobile work styles (Currier, 2011). Apple has the majority of developers building applications for their mobility devices compared to any other competitor, including Google (Currier, 2011).

The stage is set for a highly disruptive series of innovations for tablet PCs, where the predictions of their overtaking PCs seems inevitable. Despite all of these forecasts however, there are specific key tasks that table PCs will not be able to replace in the short-term. The role of the PC as knowledge center, where it is used for generating content and advanced analysis, will not be replaced in the near future by tablets. As a tablet PC, specifically the iPad, is designed to support content consumption, PCs will always be needed for their power, portability and the ability to use them to create and modify advanced content from documents to numerical analysis.

The bottom line is that PCs are not going away anytime soon. Tablet PCs will mean that more content gets consumed; it will not however signal a shift in content creation. The majority of people I personally know when iPads spend more time taking pictures and reading and videos, not typing or analyzing data. That distinction will continue for the long-term and PCs will always be a core part of computing as a result.


Bakker, E., Harland, C., Knight, L., & Zheng, J. (2008). Putting e-commerce adoption in a supply chain context. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 28(4), 313-330.

Balakrishnan, A., & Geunes, J. (2004). Collaboration and coordination in supply chain management and E-commerce. Production and Operations Management, 13(1), 1-2.

Currier, G. (2011). Emerging technology adoption trends. CIO Insight, (119), 18-23.

Golicic, S.L., Davis, D.F., McCarthy, T.M., & Mentzer, J.T. (2002). The impact of e-commerce on supply chain relationships. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 32(9), 851-871.

Johnson, M.E., & Whang, S. (2002). E-business and supply chain management: An overview and framework. Production and Operations Management, 11(4), 413-423.

Laudon, K. & Traver, C. (2011). E-commerce: Business, Technology,… [read more]

Business Limited Liability Corporation Essay

… Corporation vs. S Corporation, n.d.).

A partnership begins by design when two people agree to manage a for-profit business with one another. There are no papers that need to be filed with the state in order to operate as a… [read more]

E-Commerce When Conducting Business Term Paper

… E-Commerce

When conducting business as an e-commerce, with your main lines of sales and marketing being over the Internet and through email, there are many unique concerns that must be addressed prior to the business in launched. When the business plans to conduct business both domestically and internationally, these issues become even more complex. For instance, besides issues of how to set up your business, there are issues as to what law governs a transaction, the effectiveness of electronic contracts and the enforcement of warranty disclaimers.

One of the first steps a start-up e-commerce business must take is to decide what type of business entity they want to be. One choice is the partnership, which is a form of business entity where partners (or the members of the business) share with each other both the business' profits and losses. The benefit of this type of entity is that the partnership structure eliminates the use of the dividend tax, which is a tax on the profits realized by the business owners. Instead, the partners are only taxed once, as individual taxpayers and thus the partnership itself is not taxable. However, in a general partnership, the individual partners are in charge of managing the business and thus can be held personally liable for their (and thus the partnerships) debts.… [read more]

E-Commerce on Business Strategy Term Paper

… The 21st century began with a dot-com bust as opposed to the dot-com boom of the late 1990s. It is estimated that 520 e-commerce businesses either stopped operating or declared bankruptcy in the years between 1999 and 2001. These closures… [read more]

Apple Corporation and Ethics Essay

… But instead of taking stock of its available resources to at least reduce the already exposed and publicized abusive management practices in its supply chain, Apple chose to minimize the cost of its business practices, which even pressure suppliers to… [read more]

Establishing a Corporation Corporate Writing

… Establishing a Corporation

It is important to note from the onset that each and every state has its own unique requirements and set of rules when it comes to the establishment of a corporation. In this text, I will be… [read more]

Online Venture Business Plan Four Business Plan

… Ethical Issues

There are no ethical risks involved as such because the entire process is more or less transparent and reliable.

Potential Risks

The potential risks involved in this online venture are as follows:

The cost of joining the venture… [read more]

New Invention Business Environment Legal Essay

… This is one of the most popular forms of business for companies that a larger or that have substantial amount of capital invested in their companies. However, these are generally more complicated to run because of the added requirements necessary to organize the company as a corporation as well as the additional tax requirements in many cases.

One unique business form that bridges some of the advantages of a corporation with the flexibilities found in sole proprietorships is known as a limited liability company. A limited liability company, or LLC, is similar to a partnership but has the legal protections of personal assets that a corporation offers without the burdensome formalities, paperwork and fees; however the exact rules for forming an LLC vary by state (The Wall Street Journal, N.d.). The LLC form was introduced as a way to spur more small business investments and start-ups because it reduces the personal liability that an individual might have and therefore works to reduce the risk that would be found in starting a small business.

The LLC is an ideal way for small businesses to organize themselves. There are also similar arrangements for partnerships and corporations as well. Depending on elections made by the LLC and the number of members, the IRS will treat an LLC as either a corporation, partnership, or as part of the LLC's owner's tax return (a "disregarded entity") (IRS, 2012). However, the exact rules can vary by state as well as what type of industry that the company is operating in. Therefore it is recommended that the individual who wishes to pursue his invention seek local consultation before deciding upon the LLC form of the sole proprietorship.

Many people feel that filling a new business as an LLC is either too complex or too expensive but generally it is not either. Furthermore the advantages definitely outweigh the disadvantages. The advantages of filing a LLC include (BizFilings, N.d.):

Protected Assets

Pass-through Taxation

Heightened Credibility

Limited Compliance Requirements

Flexible Management Structure

Few Restrictions

Therefore it is recommended that the individual who wishes to organize a small business to pursue his invention do so by forming a sole proprietorship and it also strongly recommended that they consider filing as a LLC as well.


BizFilings. (N.d.). Benefits of Create an LLC. Retrieved from BizFilings:

IRS. (2012, December 31). Limited Liability Company (LLC). Retrieved from IRS:

The Wall Street Journal. (N.d.). How to Form an LLC. Retrieved from The Wall Street Journal: [read more]

Legal Business Form Implemented Essay

… I will use board of directors in my business because they will come and set up targets that will ensure that my business grows rapidly and effectively. My business will not have many positions since it's a sole proprietor business but it will consist of a management team that will ensure that the operation of the business focuses on its growth and making more profits.

Source of Funding & Financial Requirements for Treme Restaurant

Finally, in sole proprietorship source of funding comes from the business owner's savings, government loans or family and friends fundraising. Personally, my business will get funding from my personal savings and from the Lotto that I just won recently of $70,000. The financial requirements for Treme include money for sustaining it, paying the employees, buying more advanced materials, cost of acquiring what the customers need in the current market, the cost of acquiring a building for the business and marketing it (Vermeulen, 2003).


Fullen, S.L. (2005). Opening a Restaurant or Other Food Business Starter Kit: How to Prepare a Restaurant Business Plan & Feasibility Study. Atlanta: Atlantic Publishing


Siddiqui, S.A. (2006). Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis. Chicago: New Age International.

Spadaccini, M. (2007). Business Structures: Forming a Corporation, LLC, Partnership, or Sole… [read more]

Competitive Advantage and International Business Essay

… A good example of the clusers is the movie industry in Hollywood, the automotive industry in Detroit and biotechnology in Boston. This means that the company needs to find the right geographical area to invest in order to benefit. There… [read more]

Mcdonald's Corporation Business Analysis SWOT

… Thus, in 2007 McDonald's changed to coffee supplies that have certification from Rainforest Alliance as a way of supporting environment principles. McDonald's has also gotten Repak membership, and it is presently a leading company in waste management. The company has vehicles that patrol and collect litter in areas it operates.

The company also operates its business in an ethical manner. The company believes that sound ethical practices create good business. Accordingly, the company carries out its business in fairness, honesty and integrity, and upholds high standards. This has allowed the company to attract and keep competent employees.

McDonald's tries to assist the local community by getting involved in corporate social responsibility. To this end, the company has a strong principle of giving back to the community; this goal has always set McDonald's apart from its prime competitors. The company has kept that principle to date and it has several charities that the company contributes to including the Ronald McDonald's children home (McDonald website, 2012).


Market analysis in important in improving and ensuring the success of a company, in this market analysis, we have used SWOT analysis to analysis the performance of McDonald's. Accordingly, we have established that McDonald's has continued to succeed because of its strong financial base, good and high quality products and its expansive distribution channels, good location, and good customer orientation are some of the strong points of the company. However, McDonald's faces challenges in ensuring that all its outlets offer similar high quality services. Government policies in various countries continue to pose as a threat in McDonalds's globalization efforts. Nevertheless, McDonald's has continued to do well in its business and it is a good company in which to invest in, because its future remains bright.


Anthony C. (1998): SWOT Analysis; An explanation of the S.W.O.T. Analysis process; New

York; Macmillan Press

Grant, R.M. (2005): Contemporary Strategy Analysis; Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford (U.K.)

Hoover's (2012). McDonald's.… [read more]

International Business the Nokia Corporations Term Paper

… International Business

The Nokia Corporations is one of the largest and most successful enterprises globally, and an undisputable leader of the mobile telephone industry sector. The Finnish company was established in 1865 and has, since then, created its success by… [read more]

Business Plan for Organic Fertilizer Business Plan

… Business Plan for Organic Fertilizer

Business Plan for an Organic Fertilizer Company

A company in this day and age should be environmentally aware and take steps to protect the planet. One of the best ways to do this is to… [read more]

Sustainable Business Development Research Paper

… Sustainable Business Development

In the last years, the business world has developed in a manner that triggered a shift in the business philosophy of many companies. The shift was reflected in a nuanced approach on the main objective of any… [read more]

Computer Information System Business Proposal

… ¶ … global economy or internationalization has changed the use of information systems by businesses.

There are many ways the global economy and internationalization has changed the use of information systems. The most significant continues to be in the development… [read more]

Brick and Mortar to Ecommerce Business Plan Business Plan

… Ecommerce Business Plan

Mary's Gourmet Baskets online store will offer the same gourmet gift and picnic baskets as her brick-and-mortar business where success has hinged on serving upscale consumers who are will to pay more for trendy, high quality merchandise and first-rate customer service. Likewise, Mary will charge the same prices for her online goods as she does in her stores. She expects to generate at least one million dollars in annual sales as this is the average revenue from operating a mail order business for gift baskets (Fullbright). Profits for mail order and brick-and-mortar stores are typically 22% of sales (Fullbright, but Mary anticipates even higher margins because of the reduced overhead that comes from online operations.

Although the ubiquity of the Web facilitates word-wide reach, Mary will initially focus on the U.S. market due to high overseas shipping costs as well as cultural and legal differences in local international markets. She will charge customers for shipping and expects the high price points of overseas shipping will deter these customers. The two wealthiest groups of consumers 'Affluent' and 'High Worth' who Mary will target on her Web site have grown in number by an almost quarter across the U.S. since the year 2000 and now total more than 44.9 million consumers (Innovation in gourmet and specialty food and drinks: Market evolution and NPD in super-premium and healthy products, 2006), providing Mary's business with ample market opportunity. Online buying is particularly attractive to these wealthy consumers who seek the convenience of shopping when and where they want.

Mary understands that her market is highly competitive and that there are literally hundreds of gourmet gift basket sellers online (Cox). Still, Mary believes that she can differentiate her business by offering only the highest quality products and outstanding customer service. For instance, she will allow her customers to assemble their own custom baskets and will offer gift cards appropriate for specific holidays or occasions. Further, unlike many competitive sites, she will facilitate the customer's ability to track the status of their order and will… [read more]

Building an Ecommerce Business Term Paper

… Building an E-Commerce Business

It is important that all vehicle owners get wheels that are liked by them, at the lowest possible and within the fastest possible period. It is not enough that wheels function well as probably most wheels… [read more]

International Business: Nike Corporation Term Paper

… VIII. Competitors:

Nike Corporations Top Competitors are LaCrosse Footwear, Inc., Brown Shoe Company, Inc. And Candie's, Inc.

IX. Future Outlook:

Nike Corporation has reported a record in future sales for the company for the first quarter of 2005.


It is vital that Nike Corporation continue to make progress in reference to working conditions in the third-world country manufacturing plants as well as adjusting the labor costs to a range that is "fair" for the individuals employed by the Corporation. Nike shoes are traditional and are still the number one athletic shoe which, barring any disastrous public relations or business decisions on the part of Nike Corporation will likely be number one in the industry for some time to come.


Nike Reports First Quarter Earnings Per Share up 23%; Worldwide futures orders increase 9.9% (2005) Jan Press Release for Immediate Release [Online] available at:: //

Catherine Colbert (2005) Nike Inc. Hoovers [Online] available at: -- /free-co-factsheet.xhtml

Kasky V. Nike: Just the Facts (2004) Reclaim Democracy Website [Online]

available at: _nike_justfacts.html

2004 Nike Corporation Annual Report (2004) available [Online] at:

2005 First Quarter Earning: Nike Reports First Quarter Earnings Per share up 23% Worldwide Future Orders Increase 9.9% http://www. / reports/ar_04/NIKE_2 004_Annual_Report.pdf

Kasky v. Nike: Just the Facts (2004) Reclaim Democracy available [Online] at:

Reports by the Fair Labor Association (2004) available [Online] at: item=flareports

Nike Corporation Website [Online] available at:

2004 Nike Corporation Annual Report (2004) available [Online] at:

2005 First Quarter Earning: Nike Reports First Quarter Earnings Per share up 23% Worldwide Future Orders Increase 9.9%… [read more]

International Business Machines Corporation Term Paper

… It is their responsibility to instill IBM's pride, motivation and clear perception and to inculcate a strong sense of responsibility in the entire workforce. IBM offers group life insurance (1934), survivor benefits (1935) and paid vacations (1936) to its employees and officers.

Moreover, the Executive Compensation and Management Resources Committee is also governed by the board of directors and cannot decide on any matter independently without the consent of the board. (Report on Executive Compensation)

Part III: Financial Status of International Business Machines Corporation

According to the IBM Archives, the top management at the International Business Machines Corporation held stockholder's meetings in the year 2002 in the states of Louisville, Kentucky on Tuesday, April 30. In these meetings, the board of directors approved a total of seven- percent augmentation "of regular quarterly cash dividends" (IBM News). According to the JPMorgan Fleming American Investment Trust plc, the following percentage holdings of IBM rate as one of the largest holdings among giants like Pfizer, Microsoft, Citigroup, General Electric, AIG and Verizon.

On 28 February 2003, it had 2.10% of the total holdings

On 31 Jan 2003, it had 2% of the total holdings

On 31 December 2002, it enjoyed 1.9% of the total holdings

On 31 Oct 2002, it had 1.9% of the total holdings

On 31 August 2002, it had 1.80% of the total holdings

On 31 July 2002, IBM had 1.70% of the total holdings

Thus the holdings of IBM kept decreasing until March 31, 2002 when the reports showed its holdings to be 2% of the total holdings in the United States industry. Hence from the above figures, it is evident that though there was marked reduction in the company's holdings, the year 2003 is expected to reap more benefits for the corporation. However, the holdings of IBM as recorded on 31 October 2001 were 2.30%, much higher than to date. Moreover, the revenue data from the 2002-year-end from continuing operations reveals the following valuable information pertaining to the financial status of IBM:

81.2 billion Net income

$5.3 billion Total assets

$96.5 billion Number of employees

315,889 Stockholders of record" (IBM News)


Hence from the above discussion, it is evident that IBM along with other names like Microsoft and Pfizer is basically responsible for the entire process of automation in all kinds of offices and at all levels as is suggested by Jupitermedia Corporation. Analyzing the financial status as well as the contribution of its founders, executives and officers and considering the corporate history of IBM, it is evident that this corporation still has a long way to go and has a bright future.

Works Cited

International Business Machines Corporation (IBM). Issued by IBM in 1969-1973. Retrieved from IBM Archives (Business Magazine) and Scripophily. com Old Stock Certificate Superstore- The Gift of History.

Black E. "IBM and the holocaust: The Strategic Alliance between Nazi Germany and America's most powerful corporation." Crown Publishers, February 12, 2001, ISBN: 0609607995.

Hirsh M. Dark Questions for IBM., Newsweek, 02-19-2001, pp. 38.

IBM… [read more]

United Airlines Term Paper

… ¶ … information technology help a company in competing with its rivals. It focuses on United Airlines and discusses its performance in the field of competition. The paper also discusses Porter's model of five forces according to the situation of… [read more]

Featuring an Analysis Research Paper

… In addition, a large proportion of the firm's products come from coffee, and other beverages. This suggests that with the rising prices of coffee bean, the company takes advantage and increases the consumer products. In so doing, the competitors have… [read more]

Online Business Expansion Plan: Hot Research Paper

… If customers cannot be properly reached, or if the message that gets to them is not clear or appropriate for the target audience, the company may find that it is not getting orders and bringing in new customers (Allison &… [read more]

E-Commerce How Do Business-Oriented Networks Questionnaire

… Experience management team is likely to avoid errors that could otherwise cripple the operations of the business organization much further (Doughty, 2001).

3. In Chapter 10 read the Opening Case on pages 514-515 and answer the following questions:

a) What sort of micropayment system should it use in order to run this business profitably?

Closed-loop systems/account-based systems or product. Under such a system, consumers of online products are expected to open an account with the online-based company that facilitates exchange of products and services between the consumer and the business organization. Some effective plans allow the consumer to make purchases to a given total before cumulative deduction is done. On the other hand, other effective plans operate on the prepaid basis. Such options are viable to such a business (Bidgoli, 2002).

b) What types of business and legal issues would it encounter in this business?

The business may not make economic sense in the end as some consumers may decide to share or redistribute the products acquired to others. This may be done freely or at a lower cost. For example, a single consumer may access a whole book or part of the book and redistribute it to others in the iTunes or e-books (Bidgoli, 2002). It is like that infringement of patent rights and the number of infringement lawsuits are may rise.

c) Besides the book and music business, describe some other online business where micropayments are or would be critical to success.

Micropayments are equally critical for the success of businesses dealing with the sale of online games and software. The penetration of ICT and more so internet-enabled devices has seen the demand of software skyrocketing. The challenging that has faced developers of software application is on how to sell their products to consumers located at diverse location across the globe. However, with the advent of online micropayment systems such as PayPal, which allow transactions of less than $12 to take place, the challenges are being eradicated.


Bidgoli, H. (2002). Electronic Commerce: Principles and Practice. New York: Academic Press.

Doughty, K. (2001). Business Continuity Planning: Protecting Your Organization's Life. Sydney: Auerbach Publishers.

Wang, K., & George, K.L. (2006). Knowledge Enterprise: Intelligent… [read more]

Business-Level and Corporate-Level Strategies: Nestle Research Paper

… In order to maintain its market share and customer base, Nestle has to consider all these competitive environmental forces while designing and implementing its strategies. On the whole, Nestle is more competitive in its differentiation strategy while Unilever has achieved cost leadership in most of its product categories.

Performance in the Slow-Cycle and Fast Cycle Markets

Nestle and Unilever are equally competitive firms in the foods, beverages, and personal care products manufacturing industry. They possess strong financial position, brand loyalty, and large customer base which can help them survive and compete in all types of market conditions. The cost leadership strategy of Unilever can give it a competitive advantage in both slow cycle and fast cycle markets (Paley, 2006). On the other hand, the differentiation strategy of Nestle cannot give useful results in the slow cycle market situation. Reason being, consumers tend to expend less amount on their favorite products when there are tight market conditions or slow competitive efforts by the key industry participants (Kotler, Brown, Burton, Deans, & Armstrong, 2010).

Unilever can take advantage from its highly efficient manufacturing capabilities in order to maintain its low cost leadership whereas Nestle can survive if it succeeds in persuading its potential consumers to prefer its products which are unique, innovative, and of the best quality. The fast paced environment can pose some additional threats to both these manufacturers by requiring them to react faster and more cautiously to the rapidly changing consumer demands, industry patterns, supply and demand conditions, and strategic investments by other industry participants (Gitman & McDaniel, 2009).


Blythe, J., & Megicks, P. (2010). Marketing Planning: Strategy, Environment and Context, 3rd Edition. U.K: Prentice Hall

Ellwood, I. (2002). The essential brand book: over 100 techniques to increase brand value. 2nd Edition. London: Kogan Page

Gitman, L.J. & McDaniel, C.D. (2009). The Future of Business: the Essentials, 4th Edition. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning

Hill, C.W., & Jones, G.R. (2012). Strategic Management Theory, 10th Edition. Mason, OH: South-Western, Cengage Learning

Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D., & Hoskisson, R.E. (2013). Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization - Concepts, 10th Edition. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning

Kotler, P., Brown, L., Burton, S., Deans, K., & Armstrong, G. (2010). Marketing, 8th Edition. U.S.: Prentice-Hall

Nestle, (2012). About Us. Retrieved on May 26th, 2013, from

Nestle, (2012). Creating Shared Value. Retrieved on May 26th, 2013, from

Nestle, (2012). Compliance. Retrieved on May 26th, 2013, from

Paley, N.… [read more]

Multinational Corporation Expansion Wal-Mart Essay

… The flexible monetary system will make the new Wal-Mart store to be opened in Australia to do well, because the value of money will be determined by the market forces. In this case, there will be few incidences where individuals… [read more]

Business and Society Social Performance KG Term Paper

… Business and Society: Social Performance

Primary stakeholders refer to a group or people that engage in economic transactions, with a business firm as it carries out its daily business activities of providing the society with goods or services. These primary… [read more]

Business Plan for an Imaginary Software Company Business Plan

… ¶ … business plan for an imaginary software company, Techno soft which aims to enter South Asian market as a part of its international business expansion strategy. The paper is divided into different sections. The first section presents an ample… [read more]

Environmental Issues, Business Ethics Research Paper

… In addition, Lebanon lacks analogous regulatory elements that uphold ethics programs. Companies in the region focus on their initiatives that contribute towards the long-term sustainability of the company.

Corporate integrity and ethics can also fall on this focus, but they… [read more]

Business America Is a Nation Term Paper

… In relation to American business culture, the hierarchical chain of command surpasses individual relationships (Ball, Et al. 132- 146).

Furthermore, individual competence, professionalism, and responsibility for personal performance are significant in American business culture. For this reason, subordinate seek help from managers incase of complex cases. These are concepts that also contribute to extremely work ethic often faced in America. As opposed to some Asian countries, America is reluctant in supporting the development of personal relationships within business culture. In America, the general goal of business is to preserve a quality deal, thus, developing company relationships are of significant value. Americans are very clear in making distinctions between the workmates and friends in their daily life. In America, business meetings remain formal and minimum time is for nurturing social relationships (Law 145- 9).

Greetings / handshake

It is customary in America that meetings starts and ends with a concise and firm handshake. In addition, business people should maintain direct eye contact during the greetings or handshake in order to portray an aspect of sincerity, interest and confidence. In addition, the exchange of business cards is a normal affair in America and this does not require any rules or rituals in the course of the exchange. Business cards in American business environment are a resource for future information. This process of exchange takes place mostly during introductions or at the end of business deals (Ball, Et al. 132- 146).

In the process of making business negotiations, it is imperative to note that the main agenda of most business discussions is entering into a contractual agreement. Negotiations serve as moments of solving business problems based on shared benefits and individual strengths. For that reason, emphasis should focus on the financial position and power. Further, those conducting business in U.S. should also understand the significance of the set business rules and guidelines (Ball, Et al. 132- 146)

Finally, Hofstede dimensions play a significant role for most of the American businesses. The first dimensions that business persons should embrace is the Distance Power Index (DPI) dimension. This is relative to individual equality between groups of other persons. The second dimension covers the aspects of Individualism (IDV). Indication of high scores portrays a powerful sense of individual independence and accountability. The next Hofstede's cultural dimension is the Masculinity (MAS). This dimension covers two significant aspects. One of the aspects is gender sensitivity. According to this dimension, the values of women remain similar in all areas. Women are capable of conducting business like men and they should have equal opportunity (Ball, Et al. 132- 146).

On the other hand, this dimension demonstrated that the values of men vary. This is because men are assertive and portray competitive qualities. In this case, the dimension that constitutes the world averages is 50. This average is similar to Canada's world average. This clearly indicates that there exists comparative balance between female male qualities in this country. China reports 66, Australia (61), and USA (62). The fourth and dimension is… [read more]

Advise for Business Structure Essay

… Business Structure

John and Fred are thinking about going into business together. To facilitate this, they need to first figure out how they would like to organize the business. The business is going to be related to their mutual hobby… [read more]

Export Business Plan: Moldovan Cellular Business Plan

… As regards the cellular phone industry, conditions in Moldova seem to be promising: Because Moldova is a small country, telecommunications companies manage to achieve good coverage in both wired and wireless communications infrastructure. Landline is available in most settlements, but… [read more]

Harvard Business Case Analysis Essay

… Appex Case Analysis

Summary of Significant Problems and Issues

Appex Corporation has experienced hyper growth as a result of favorable market dynamics in the management information systems and intercarrier network services industry for cellular telephone companies. The company founder and… [read more]

Zara Marketing and E-Commerce Research Paper

… Virtual stores can be visited unlimited number of times and items can be received either at home or a nearest store within 2-5 days. According to Lopez and Fan "Zara's vertical integration of design, just-in-time manufacturing, delivery and sales; flexible structure; low inventory rule; quick response policy and advanced information technology enable a quick response to customer's changing demands" (Lopez and Fan, 2009, p.281). Consumers can customize their products online and place an order which can receive by them in a very short period. Zara's new e-commerce growth strategy is perfect not only for the new markets but also for its loyal customers who know the brand, its quality and the comfortable fit that Zara has provided them for years.


Deatsch, K. (2012). "Zara will add home goods to its U.S. e-retail ensemble." Internet Retailer, Portal to E-Commerce Intelligence. Published Sept 28, 2012. Retrieved Dec 05, 2012.

Dishman, L. (2011). "H&M and Zara Duke It Out for U.S. Online Sales While Urban Outfitters Moves on Face book." Forbes. Published Aug 31, 2011. Retrieved Dec 05, 2012.

Jing Daily. (2012). "Zara Jumps On China's E-Commerce Bandwagon." The Business of Luxury and Culture in China. Published Sept 4, 2012. Retrieved Dec 05, 2012.

Kenna, A. (2011). Zara Plays Catch-Up with Online Shoppers. Bloomberg Business-week Magazine. Published August 25, 2011. Retrieved Dec 05, 2012.

Lopez, C and Fan, Y. (2009). Internationalization of the Spanish Fashion Brand Zara. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management. Brunel Business School, 13:2, 279-296.

Murphy, R. (2008), "Expansion Boosts Inditex Net," Women's Wear Daily, April 1

Zhenxiang, W and Lijie,… [read more]

Impact of Big Data on Business Strategy Term Paper

… ¶ … Big Data on Business Strategy

Business Strategies

The competitive nature of today's business environment is driving companies to use technology driven business strategies (Berman & Hagan, 2006, p.28). Big Data and technology are undoubtedly impacting on business strategy… [read more]

Legal Structure of Business Case Study

… A franchisee who gets involved with McDonalds as a corporation still has risk. Corporations are not licenses to get away with anything and simply walk away free and clear when things go bad. For example, it generally costs between $500,000 and $750,000 to invest in and be awarded a franchise. McDonalds will not franchise to people (or corporations) that have no capital. If something goes wrong, the corporation (and thus the people or persons owning and operating it) could easily lose that money. If the corporation has other assets, they could also be taken and sold to pay off debt or satisfy the judgment of a lawsuit. However, the advantage that franchisees have when they open a franchise as a corporation is this: the liability is generally limited to the corporation. That means that personal assets like cars and homes are generally not able to be taken. The law is complicated and there may be some exceptions to this rule, but overall there is no real concern that a franchisee who owns his or her franchise as a corporation can be held personally liable if there is a problem with the franchise itself. Corporations do not protect their owners 100%, but they are often believed to be safer. Of course, they also cost more to operate.

The cost of incorporation can be quite high. Depending on the nature of the business, the legal requirements in a particular state, and other issues, thousands of dollars can be spent setting up a corporation. Then there is the matter of profit. With a sole proprietorship, the profit is all going to go to the person who owns the franchise. A partnership will see the profit split between partners. In a corporation, there may be many people who have to get paid. Running a corporation, especially if it is a larger one and/or experiencing growth, is a full-time job. It takes more than just a couple of people, and each one of those people has to get paid for what they do. That seriously cuts down on the profits that the franchisee will receive, but he or she might feel as though that is a fair trade-off for the protection afforded to him or her by the more complicated corporate structure.

In the end, all McDonalds franchisees, and franchisees of any other company have to decide what is best for them. If they have many assets they want to protect, and they do not want the liability risk of operating a business where things could go wrong on a serious and expensive level, then they should consider incorporating. The lower amount of profit they will receive is generally mitigated quite nicely by the fact that their personal assets are not at risk if there is a lawsuit against the franchise. Anyone considering opening up a McDonalds franchise would be wise to consult with a lawyer and discuss his or her options thoroughly. That way, the best and most logical decision for that person can… [read more]

Business as an Ethical Calling Term Paper

… One of the greatest sticking points for many companies is that of the ethics of employing workers in developing nations for low wages. Using lower-wage workers enables the company to sell products at a lower price point, making them more accessible to a wider range of American consumers. But critics contend that it is unfair for large, wealthy corporations to pay workers a pittance, while they make products for the first world which they could ill-afford to buy themselves. Large companies also do not necessarily invest in the infrastructure of the developing world nations out of which they operate. However, others believe that such labor can help workers. An example of a beneficial arrangement is the college sports apparel company Knights Apparel, which opened up an 'experimental' factory in the Dominican Republic which pays workers a living wage. "Paying the 120 workers the 'living wage' -- or $500 a month -- means the factory's cost will be $4.80 a T-shirt, 80 cents or 20% more than if it paid minimum wage. Knights will absorb a lower-than-usual profit margin, selling the shirts for $8 wholesale, with most retailers marking them up to $18" (Conor 2010). However, because Knights Apparel is a privately-held company, it does not have to answer to shareholders.

Ethical conduct can have an important role in 'branding' a company in a manner that can be salutary for the company's long-term future. Competing on the low-price model alone is not the only way to build a brand name. A good example of this is Whole Foods, a company which sells organic produce with no artificial ingredients. Although Whole Foods is priced at a higher price point than general supermarkets, it has still proven to be extremely popular. Whole Foods advertises that it is an ethical business, as well as offers ethical food. According to Whole Foods: "Our Whole Planet Foundation fights poverty through micro-lending in communities around the world that supply Whole Foods Market stores with products. We underwrite the administrative costs so every dollar donated goes directly to those who need it most" ("Community giving," Whole Foods, 2012). Its 'branding' of ethics is essential to its success -- else why would people pay more to shop at Whole Foods? Of course, the problem is that when Whole Foods has been criticized for its moral behavior, it looses more brand credibility than Wal-Mart or another organization that advertises itself primarily upon its price point.

The mission statement of Whole Foods and companies with a similar vision underlines the idea that the 'ethical' behavior of a firm must take into consideration the need to be profitable, but also the fact that the firm operates out of a community context, on which it is dependent. It is also dependent upon the good will of the community and must earn the community's trust. As well as being legally compliant, firms must honor their existence within a community of diverse stakeholders. "Normative ethical stakeholder theory articulates the view that a business firm ought… [read more]

Corporation Definition a Business Entity Essay

… Corporation Definition

A business entity can take the form of one of several legal organizations, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The four basic business entities include sole proprietorships, partnerships, limited liability companies, and corporations. Furthermore, these companies can be divided into non-profit and for-profit organizations depending on the goals of the company. Corporations are unique in the way that they are structured and the power that the entity possesses, as opposed to other organizations.

A sole proprietorship is run by a self-employed individual "who operates a trade or business where all the tax consequences fall to that proprietor, including liabilities, debts, profits, and losses" (RMS Accounting, 2001). A partnership requires that two or more people enter into a contractual agreement as to how the business is to be run and how profits and losses will be shared. While a partnership is a separate entity for tax purposes, the partnership does not pay taxes as it is "a form of a conduit where income, losses, credits, and certain deductions are passed along to the partners' tax situation instead" (RMS Accounting, 2001). Like a sole proprietorship, partners in this organization do not have liability protection. A limited liability company (LLC) combines features found in a partnership with those found in a corporation. In order for an organization to qualify as an LLC, it must incorporate at least two of the main components of a corporation such as continuity, centralized management, and/or transferability of ownership.

A corporation can be defined as a "separate, legal entity formed through a state charter using articles of incorporation" (RMS Accounting, 2001). A corporation is authorized to perform all the basic business activities that an individual can perform "such as filing and paying taxes, signing contracts, and making loans" (RMS Accounting, 2001). Furthermore, a corporation is often formed through the issuance of stocks or securities, which help to generate revenue for the corporation. While a corporation can exist indefinitely and does not need to be dissolved after a management or ownership change, as a partnership could, it can be held liable for its actions and be prosecuted and punished if it… [read more]

E-Commerce and Organizational Learning Research Paper

… eCommerce and Organizational Learning

Improving the Performance of an Online University Using e-Commerce

Making the most of e-commerce platforms and technologies in the context of an online university needs to include strategies for increasing operational performance across the courses offered… [read more]

Mcdonald's Corporation How Recent Economic Trends Essay

… McDonald's Corporation

How recent economic trends are influencing the business

The recent global financial crisis that hit America the hardest affected almost all industries and sectors, including the fast food industry. However, looking at the financial performance of McDonald's the… [read more]

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