"Career / Labor / Human Resources" Essays

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American With Disabilities Act Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,789 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This leads to increase worker productivity through greater understanding and cooperation of the special needs and modifications required by Americans who have disabilities. Not only are relations improved, but education leads to improved hiring practices that allow more opportunities for applicants with disabilities to become part of the workforce. With increased awareness, the employers gain a greater understanding of the… [read more]

Career Counseling Theories and Psychology Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  3 pages (941 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Career Choice: Trait-Based and Other Theories

Choosing a career can be an extremely confusing and emotional process. The economy is constantly changing and many new jobs exist today that would not have only a few years ago. Also, the job prospects for various careers have likewise changed, thanks to shifts in technology and phenomena such as outsourcing, telecommuting, and the rise of startups. Career choice is an interaction between the individual's abilities, character, economic circumstances, and larger historical and social shifts.

Trait-based character theories

Theories of career choice often place a strong emphasis on the importance of character in career suitability. The Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA) stresses the importance of individual differences in career choice and states that there is a continual adjustment between the needs of the individual and the work environment. For the person, he or she is looking for a way to address his or her psychological and physiological needs while the workplace is looking to meet ability-based requirements (Leung 2008: 116). In support of the TWA, one study of the Israeli military found that "extroverted personality style and congruence were related to a higher level of performance ratings, which was consistent with TWA predictions" but actual ability was less of a factor than emotional compatibility with the role (Leung 2008: 117).

Some trait-based theories such as Holland's create a typology of workplace suitability. Holland suggests that there are six main vocational personality types, all of which are represented by a letter as follows: "Realistic (R), Investigative (I), Artistic (A), Social (S), Enterprising (E), and Conventional (C)." (Leung 2008: 118). Because of its easy-to-understand typology, Holland's theory has been very popular in creating career tests. People are given three-letter codes according to the traits which they exhibit to the greatest degree and this is used to target their career interests. Holland's approach also takes note of the degree of emphasis and interest placed upon the different types. Someone might be relatively undifferentiated in their profile as an ASE, for example, while someone, while technically showing preference for the same letters, might have a much more extreme degree of focus upon the artistic aspects of his or her character. Criticism of the Holland model has come from theorists who note that it lacks sufficient applicability in a cross-cultural context, particularly for individuals from more collectivist cultures. This might be a relevant consideration when deciding what tests to use when assessing the vocational profile of a client.

Most trait-based theories trace at least some part of their development to typologies regarding personality, specifically that of the Myers-Brigg personality theory which states that all individuals can be classified according to a personality 'type' based upon their degree of preference for introversion vs. extroversion; thinking vs. feeling; sensing vs. intuition; and sensing vs. perceiving. Although not specifically designed as a…… [read more]

Compensation for Career Service Employees and Issues Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,013 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Compensatory Time


Employees work according to a pre-arranged number of work hours for pre0arranged compensation. Excluded career service employees are a different type of employees. They are hired for special tasks, which are of higher quality to insure public interest. They are compensated for work hours beyond the 40 a week or 80 every two weeks in terms of regular compensation leave, annual leave and Regular Compensation leave credits of up to a lifetime maximum of 240 hours. The department directors must be duly informed of their compensation package by the agency before they file a suit. The agency should meet amicably with them and ask them to review the provisions of the Florida Administrative Code before they take any outside action. And the agency, for its part, should make it a policy to instruct all employees on the provisions of this Code in order to avoid future issues.


It is universally accepted that employees who work beyond the number of hours fixed by law of a nation must be given additional pay for additional work hours (ResearchOMatic, 2015). But the provision of compensation depends on a nation or state laws, which clarify the matter in detail, particularly in case of legal actions. There members o the workforce who are classified as excluded career service employees, who are not covered by this universal law. They are not entitled to extra compensation for extra work hours. The Florida Administrative Code expressly prohibits the granting of compensation to these employees for extending extra hours of work ( ResearchOMatic).


Is Their Claim Valid?

The department directors who threaten to file a complaint for being deprived of compensation for extending extra work hours stand to lose in the fight. They claim that, as excluded career service employees, they should be compensated for working longer hours than the ones fixed by law. The Florida Legislature (2015) identifies career service employees as those who hold positions listed under the Selected Exempted Service. They possess the right to belong to and stay or serve in those positions if these positions are not exempted by their employing agency. The department, which will hire them, shall then fix their salaries and specify their benefits according to the rules and policies of the Selected Exempt Service. They claim that they should be given overtime pay just like other employees, according to the half-time calculation method (Peterson et al., 2012 as qtd in ResearchOMatic, 2015). This method is observed by the United States, specifically the State of Florida, where the department directors work (the Florida Legislature).

The Florida Administrative Code (2015), however, also clarifies that the work hours fixed for the department directors total more than 40 hours a week. They are indeed entitled to compensation for their work hours just like other employees. But they are entitled only to their compensation as fixed by the department and not for extra work hours as other employees are (The Florida Legislature). The department directors' claim is,… [read more]

Social Workers' Social Status Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (1,965 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Gender Gap and Sex Segregation

Gender Gap & Sex Segregation

A disproportionate number of women are employed in the social service workforce, yet the median earnings of men in social service are higher in certain occupations in the field. Roughly 80.3% of social workers, 73.2% of social and human service assistants, and 69.3% of counselors are women ("BLS- 11," 2014).… [read more]

Seattle Minimum Wage Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,445 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4



There are a number of potential benefits for a $15 minimum wage policy in Seattle. The city highlights a few of them. In particular, the city (2014) notes that the policy will "help low income workers and families in their communities," and this occurs by boosting the wage of workers who otherwise would make significantly less. With higher take-home… [read more]

Compensation I Am Designing Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (731 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


This department can accept a moderately experienced secretary, and no degree is required. Thus, we can set our wage at the mean, so $40,800. This equates to around $19.62 per hour based on a 40-hour work week, which is higher than the Seattle minimum wage of $15 (Wallace, 2014). There are no plans to index our positions against the increase in the minimum wage. The benefits package is expected to cost the company a further $17,820, for a total compensation cost of $58,620. If the company wishes to lower its total compensation cost, it can reduce some of those benefits, for example by hiring a secretary on contract or with temp work. However, the position itself when held by a full-time employee will need to come with a competitive benefits package.

The position will therefore offer 10 days of vacation per year. The position will have to offer maternity leave in order to broaden the pool of available talent, and parental leave will also be offered should we have a male candidate to avoid discrimination. We do not expect to pay overtime for this role, or other supplemental income, which according to the BLS should lower our costs by $0.88. The company will offer the normal company health and insurance plans. The company is looking into its health care options vis-a-vis the ACA health exchanges, but that decision is corporate-wide, so the secretary position will receive the same treatment as the rest of the company, which at present is to offer health insurance. There will also be disability insurance, life insurance, and a defined contribution retirement plan with company matching.

The total cost of the package will therefore be the salary of $40,800 and benefits slightly lower than average because no overtime is expected. The benefits are now expected to total $15,990, for a total compensation cost to the company for the secretary position of $56,790.


BLS.gov. (2014). Retrieved June 13, 2014 from http://www.bls.gov/ro9/eciseat.htm

Heathfield, S. (2014). What's in a comprehensive employee benefits package? About.com. Retrieved June 13, 2014 from http://humanresources.about.com/od/compensation-structure/tp/employee-benefits-package.htm

Wallace, G. (2014). Seattle…… [read more]

Terkel, Working (Organizational Behavior) Case Study

Case Study  |  8 pages (3,877 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Her job has been entirely replaced by technology.) The interview I conducted with a NYC theatrical agent, "Brett Shelley," also noted the way in which humans can be reduced to something insignificant by the marketplace: "The client has spent 6 months of his life writing a screenplay -- but you'll know within a week, maybe two, if anybody's going to… [read more]

Economics Comparing Krugman's and Marriott Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (940 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The employees benefited, but the employers' motivation was to improve performance. This may be seen as a capricious, despite the success it was not implemented in a consistent manner with competing needs also resulting in other measures which were less 'employee centric', such as reducing working hours and reducing beneficial employment terms.

When looking at the argument of Bill Marriott, it appears that Sears found the same lesson that Marriott is advocating; that adopting a strategy which is employee centric is likely to improve employee satisfaction and as a result the level and quality of the employees work (Marriott, 1997). This is not a new idea, it was found within a number of motivational studies, such as Mayo's Hawthorne studies and the works of theorists such as Maslow and Herzberg (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2010). Marriott is advocating the idea that employees are central to their success and looking after them in beneficial. It is interesting that even in this context; the focus is on the benefits of happy employees and not an altruistic value. Furthermore, when looking at Marriott, there have also been problem associated with employee relations such as the 2011 strike at the Marriott Residence Inn Montreal-Westmount, due to dissatisfaction with working conditions, such as no pension or insurance provision (CTV News, 2011).

When examined at a deeper level it may be argued that Krugman and Marriott are not that far apart; they are both looking at ways organizations can maximize the benefits they receive from their employees, it is simply that the approaches are different, different strategies to the same, or a very similar end. For employees, the Marriott approach may be seen as caring, the employees certainly benefit from the strategy, but it may also be seen as "cruelly capricious," as it is an approach which is not possible to implement 100% of the time due to conflicting needs, even within the employee base. Invariably, the judgment will be subjective, and attitudes along with employer strategies may change leading to the potential for inconsistency, leaving those firms which are able to promote an employee centric approach to be seen as the caring expectations, or maybe caring expansions until they also change the way they seek to maximize the value of labor.


BBC News, (2005) Gate Gourmet: Profile, [online] http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/4153366.stm 24th Oct 2013

Buchanan, D; Huczynski, A, (2010), Organizational Behavior, Harlow, FT/Prentice Hall

Cook, Sarah, (2008), The Essential Guide to Employee Engagement: Better Business Performance Through Staff Satisfaction, Kogan Page Publishers

CTV News, (2011), Employees on strike at Marriott hotel, [online] http://montreal.ctvnews.ca/employees-on-strike-at-marriott-hotel-1.674578 24th Oct 2013

Krugman, P, (1998), The Accidental Theorist, Norton

Marriott, B, (1997), The Spirit to Serve,…… [read more]

Managing Employment Relationships Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,319 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


30), "Contractual claims are dealt with in the High Court or County Court. Statutory claims are dealt with in the Employment Tribunal." Created in 1964, the Employment Tribunal is the primary venue for the resolution of employment disputes in the UK today (Gregory & Cavanagh 2007). In this regard, Gregory and Cavanagh (2007, p. 30) advise that the Tribunal "is… [read more]

Workplace Child Care the World Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,617 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


In conclusion, most literature seems to be in agreement that achieving a work-life balance is an important component of the workplace for most employees. One important part of this is child care. Any company that can viably provide on-site child care facilities for their workers at a lower cost than external providers should do so.

The benefits are many, ranging from the general mental and emotional state of employees to material and financial savings for the company. Employees are saved the mental agony of leaving their children at an offsite facility while also saving money and time in terms of commuting. Employers save on employee turnover and absenteeism, while also gaining a higher quality of work from their employees.

In the light of the above, a careful cost-benefit analysis is recommended before implementation. Costs will include building, child care provider salaries, and equipment, some of which will need periodic replacement and servicing.

Work-life balance experts hold that employee morale is important for optimal success within a company. It is therefore recommended that, in a company where most employees have young children, an on-site facility should be provided. In general, an improvement in employer-eemployee relationships will be evident.


BASF (2013). Work-Life-Balance. Retrieved from: http://www.basf.com/group/corporate/en/sustainability/employees/work-life-balance

Casey, J. And Dobbs, J. (2007). Employer-Supported Child Care. Effective Workplace Series, 8. Retrieved from: http://workfamily.sas.upenn.edu/sites/workfamily.sas.upenn.edu/files/imported/pdfs/EWS_ESCC.pdf

Finn, L. (2013). Benefits of a Day Care in the Workplace. Global Post. Retrieved from: http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/benefits-day-care-workplace-2120.html

Hahn, C. (2013). Day Care: An Office Affair. Retrieved from: http://www.businessweek.com/debateroom/archives/2007/04/day_care_an_office_affair.html

Hein, C. And Cassirer, N. (2010). Workplace Solutions for Childcare. International Labor Office. Retrieved from: http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/@dgreports/@dcomm/@publ/documents/publication/wcms_110397.pdf

Magloff, L. (2013). Day Care in the Workplace. Chron Small Business. Retrieved from: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/day-care-workplace-11095.html… [read more]

Conflict Resolution Conflict Can Be Taken Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,850 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Conflict Resolution

Conflict can be taken as a state where two people are having a difference of opinion in the quest of what each one wants. It can be arisen due to the different needs, different interests, different habits and different values. This difference of opinion can be caused between two people, among a group, department or between organizations. There… [read more]

Decision Case Study

Case Study  |  7 pages (1,948 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


The latter might not be required because all three employees are specialists in positions that are often transient, where new opportunities are not particularly hard to come by. Thus, a severance package in accordance with time served will be sufficient -- this is a layoff, not a firing.

Post-Termination Litigation

It is unlikely that either Williams or Price would engage in post-termination litigation. Williams is not likely to sue for being fired on account of being Asian since the case would be quite weak. Price probably has no case, and certainly not under federal law. Both of these employees performed well enough to continue, but their specialties are often subject to contract work and project work. When projects end, so do positions and this is normal for IT roles. That the company has basically no work for them in light of the project cancellation is an effective defense should any action arise.

Jones is more likely to engage in a lawsuit, given her history of filling complaints in an activist fashion. She could claim any number of issues, but the reality is that her performance was poor. Jones has ample employment opportunities as a sales professional, so might prefer to focus on finding a new opportunity rather than suing a small microbrewery. Sales people do tend to be pragmatic and she is most likely to take that course of action. If she decides to file suit, she is likely to fail. Her performance is sales was poor, which alone could be grounds for termination. However, the company may also wish to argue that her poor sales performance made her a poor fit for existing sales opportunities elsewhere within the company.


Letting go of employees is never easy. All of the employees have arguments in favor of keeping them, but the company needs to approach the issue from a neutral frame of mind. It needs to evaluate the employees based on their performance and use this as the basis for determining who will be retained and who will be removed. It is worth considering that in this case the availability of future roles within the company also plays a role in the decision. By focusing the decision on performance-based metrics, the company works within the confines of the law and defends itself against any post-termination litigation. Retaining Smith and James is the best course of action for the company, since their performance on the project was strong and they have clear future roles for the company as well.

Works Cited:

Department of Labor. (2012). Employee rights under the National Labor Relations Act. U.S. Department of Labor. Retrieved April…… [read more]

Mollie's Job Moved From New Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (680 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


For example, regulations that deal with issues such as collective bargaining may be present in one country but not in another. Therefore, although there may be financial advantages for an individual firm to produce in a country without any meaningful regulations, it increases the externalities that the entire society must pay for. Thus there should be interventionist policies should be implemented to reduce such externalities.

Many people argue that free trade policies can foster innovations through greater levels of competition through specialization and international trade. However, many of the factors that go into production are not necessarily equal throughout the world; especially in regard to externalities. For example, firms operating in the United States must abide by many regulations from organizations such as labor unions, minimum wage laws, the EPA, or many others. However, similar companies in China or India may not have to operate with virtually any regulations whatsoever. These companies can squash collective bargaining through force and coercion. Therefore protectionism can be one way to level the playing field to ensure that the terms of competition are fact and equitable.

The most salient issues in the near future will likely be the arrangements that are made between countries with regard to globalization, labor, and environmental regulations. Organizations such as the WTO currently give discretion over policies to its members, but requests that a fundamental non-discrimination principle is respected: National Treatment (NT). The provision seeks to prevent protectionist use of domestic policy instruments, requesting that when an imported product is sufficiently similar to a domestic product, they are treated identically (Horn, 2011). Therefore even membership into an organization such as the WTO does not guarantee that the playing field will be level.

Works Cited

Horn, H. (2011). The burden of proof in trade disputes and the environment. Journal of Evironmental Economics and Management, 15-29.

Stewart, D. (N.d.). Mollie's Job. Retrieved from Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Mollies-Job-Story-Global-Assembly/dp/0743200306… [read more]

Labor Law Specifically in Cases of Termination of the Employment Contract Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (3,122 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Termination of Employment Contract in Labor Law

In the United States and other OECD countries, employers are generally constrained by statutes to implement unjust dismissal of employees. However, in the United States, employers could terminate non-labor union members at will and without cost. There is no comprehensive labor law in all the 50 states in the United States. However, most… [read more]

Company Unions or Employee Representation Plans Inferior Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (578 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … company unions or employee representation plans inferior to worker-Controlled unions?

Company unions, by definition, represent the interests of the company, not simply the workers. With employee representation plans, although workers can discuss issues they are having with their employer, they do not have the formal protections that labor unions possess under the law, such as collective bargaining. There are legal protections binding the negotiations of labor and management that prevent managers from changing policies when they happen to be advantageous to the company. Labor unions also (depending on the state and circumstance) may be located in 'closed shop' states that ensure that all members within a particular segment of the workforce must be unionized. Worker-controlled labor unions can engage in collective strikes and collectively lobby for higher wages and benefits. Employees cannot ignore the demands of such unions for collective bargaining or try to bully or control worker-controlled unions under the law. Worker-controlled unions are completely independent entities.

Q2. In what ways are traditional union models under pressure to change in the 21st century and what are some of the changes taking place?

Unions have been pressured to change and to take into consideration the needs of employers in a manner that is not purely adversarial. During the negotiations of the auto unions with the 'big three' American car manufacturers, unions were forced to make critical concessions to ensure the future health of the industry, acknowledging that if the companies were brought down by the long-term cost of pensions and benefits, everyone would suffer, including current workers and retirees. Even white collar unions like teachers' unions have been criticized for making unreasonable demands in eras of scarce public funds. Unions have had to work harder to 'sell'…… [read more]

Consensual Relationship Agreement Case Study

Case Study  |  6 pages (1,816 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Consensual Relationship Agreement Case Study

This study seeks to conceptualize the idea of Consensual Relationship Agreements at the place of work. For this reason, this case study will give an analysis on the aforementioned as it focuses on non-ethical ramifications. Consensual Relationship Agreements are used to define love and romance of people working in the same place. People have come… [read more]

Business Creativity Many Times People Have Wondered Article

Article  |  3 pages (1,074 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Business Creativity

Many times people have wondered how some businesses seem to thrive in any economic situation while others just cannot seem to keep up. The answer to this question is simple, creativity. Businesses that are creative are always innovating new ways of doing things or producing products De Miranda, Aranha, & Zardo, 2009.

Innovation has allowed them to remain competitive no matter the economic situation. Utilizing the employees' creativity, a business is able to tap into its own resources and come up with new knowledge and expertise. Creativity exists in all aspects of life because it is basically the creation of something new from scratch. Business creativity is employed within a specific business to accomplish a specific business venture at some given time.

In the current competitive environment, businesses are forced to make changes in all operational aspects. Employees have found out that the only sure way they can advance within the organization is by utilizing their creativity. No matter the external and internal challenges that a business is faced with, one thing remains constant, which is creativity. Though, human nature tends to resist any creative change, employees should endeavor to be creative to ensure that they advance their careers and promote the business success.

The ability of employees to think on their feet, be creative and flexible and the same time utilizing their formal education will allow an organization to compete in the future. It is sad that majority of organizations do not utilize their resources effectively, which gives the organization considerable disadvantage the market place. A case in point is that of General Motors who had started developing a hybrid car, but management did not see their value because the oil prices were very low in the 1990's. The lack of forward thinking and creativity of the managers led General Motors to lag behind its competitors. The company was forced to adapt to market forces, but it was too late since other competitors had already launched their hybrid cars and they were on sale for some years.

Employee creativity can be used to assist a business to effectively compete in the future by dealing with their current challenges. All businesses need to start listening to the ideas that their employees are developing. Some of these ideas will help the business to compete in the future and respond early to customer demands. Once a business manages to do this, it will maintain its market share and adjust effectively to future changes. When managers listen to all its employees and their ideas, they are able to foresee changes that would take place and develop strategies that would allow the business to evolve with these changes.

Organizations that strictly follow the authoritarian model do not encourage employee creativity. In these organizations, managers will tell employees what their roles are and the expectations the organization has in them completing their tasks. Any deviation from the laid out process will lead the employee to scrutiny from the managers. This authoritarian model leads… [read more]

Skills and Knowledge Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (895 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Personal Portfolio of Skills: Enhancement through Education

Attaining the skills and knowledge necessary for becoming an effective part of the workforce is a common goal for continuing education, but this perspective is actually narrow and limiting when it comes to the potentials that the right classes and the right attitude can provide one with. Education is not simply about learning rote facts and techniques, but about becoming a more effective individual that can contribute in multifaceted and dynamic ways to the modern workforce. The classes I have taken and the knowledge and skills I have come away with have had and will continue to have a profound and positive impact on my personal portfolio.

Foundations in Integrative Studies was one of the most significant classes I took in terms of understanding how knowledge is generated and how ideas form and evolve. Understanding the current perspectives and problems in interdisciplinary studies and the importance of being able to approach issues from a variety of angles will certainly help me in the workforce both in terms of far more conscious and refined critical thinking skills as well as in areas of teamwork and coordination. Leadership roles are an eventual goal in my career, and the skills and knowledge I engaged with during this class will serve both as a means to achieving these leadership positions and to meeting with success once they have been attained. Similarly, the Non-Verbal Communication course I took was ful of information and techniques that will be of immense use in interpersonal settings, whether these are meetings with peers, superiors, or employees that I might one day be managing and supervising. Sending appropriate non-verbal signals and learning to identify and respond to the signals sent by others will be of great value in business meetings, client meetings, and almost all professional settings. Working in any aspect of home healthcare requires a great deal of attention to the details interpersonal communication, and the marketing fields is entirely about communication -- knowing that every move, gesture, and expression communicates and having an understanding of how that communication occurs will be invaluable in my profession, and will help both subtly through use and explicitly through mention during employment interviews.

I have also learned a great deal about communications within organizations, and again this will be a great boon during employment interviews and in the actual operations of my profession. While marketing/liaison positions are most explicitly concerned with external communications -- those extending from the company to clients/consumers -- internal communication is equally vital in understanding that the right message is going out. My education has provided me with skills that help to support ongoing communication with…… [read more]

Managing People -- Wal-Mart Summary Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,113 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Wal-Mart is therefore responsible for nearly as many unemployed, underpaid and overworked people in America and other countries where they have their stores.

The management of Wal-Mart argues that, price depressing effects of Wal-Mart out-run the wage depressing effect that, they claim leads to an increase in the purchasing power for the employees. However this reduced prices that are realized… [read more]

Personal Success Plan Ultimate Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (2,756 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Although I have shown poise and leadership in the circumstances that suite my preferences well, I also realize that maintaining a positive attitude and behavior during times that less than ideal can be a key step in my professional development. This may include simply trying to make the best out of a situation that seems dull or boring. However, many… [read more]

Comparison of Three Countries ER System Application Essay

Application Essay  |  6 pages (2,994 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Country's ER Systems

The intent of this analysis is to evaluate the differences between China and Germany, Germany and Australia, and China and Australia. Taking the role of an Employee Relations (ER) Manager who is responsible for managing workforces in these areas, each country is compared based on their history, role of stakeholders, bargaining and labor laws.

China… [read more]

Business Ethics How Important Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,263 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Clearly, an ethical company will be straightforward with its employees as to what happens to private information once the employee has given informed consent to allow the company to gather that information. But there are companies that are so focused on profit and image they may not always be honest with employees vis-a-vis drug testing, monitoring and other policies that… [read more]

Diversity Challenges Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,088 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Diversity Challenges

Scenario 1 Overview -- a 10-year employee took 10 weeks off under the Family Medical Leave Act. The employee is now requesting another 3 weeks off and our company does not have an extended leave policy.

Legal Background

The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) is a federal law that requires covered employers to provide employees certain job-protected and unpaid leave rights for qualified medical or family reasons such as personal or family illness, military leave, pregnancy, adoption, or foster care. This Act was a major part of President Bill Clinton's agenda, and is administered by the United States Department of Labor (United States Department of Labor, 2012). The purpose of the Act was to provide more equitable and in-depth coverage so that individual employers would have more guidelines; and individual employees more structure when needing time off from work. Prior to the FMLA, leave could be denied for any reason based on the employer, and employees could even be fired for taking leave. These benefits allow for up to 12-weeks unpaid, but job protected leave for the care of a new child or family member, recuperation from illness, or to address qualifying emergencies. Once the employee returns to work, the employee's job, or similar level job, is guaranteed, as are benefits and reinstatement of benefits upon returning to work. Some states have enacted their own family leave thresholds, but in general, Federal FMLA applies only to employers with more than 50 employees (Galinsky, et.al., 2008).

Recommendation -- Based on the years of service and the assumption that to remain employed for 10 years, the employee in question must be performing job duties well, we should likely compromise on this situation. The employee is due, by law, another 2 weeks FMLA leave. We should offer two options for the employee: 1) Take the 3rd week off unpaid, or 2) Bundle the third week into future vacation time. In both cases it is imperative that the employee understand that the company is at the limit of its ability to offer more leave and guarantee a position and will expect the employee back to work three weeks hence. Their responsibility is to ensure that their situation is compliant within the 13 weeks or face termination.


Galinsky, E., et.al.. (2008). National Study of Employers. Families and Work Institute. Retrieved from: http://www.familiesandwork.org/site/research/reports/2008nse.pdf

United States Department of Labor. (2012, January). Family and Medical Leave Act. Retrieved from dol.gov: http://www.dol.gov/whd/fmla/index.htm

Scenario 2 -- Our company is diverse, with a number of individuals of differing religious faiths working. Because of this, we refer to certain days in December as the Holiday Season, typically December 24 to January 1. We must, however, maintain a skeleton crew during this time period. We have two positions open and six employees from which to choose:

Employee #

Job Title

Gender/Marital Status




F - Single




F -- Single




F -- Married, no children



Senior Programmer

M… [read more]

Interview Tool Identify Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  4 pages (1,584 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


As such, to help mitigate this conflict, I would purposefully ask questions designed to help the interviewee relax and feel comfortable divulging truthful information.

Add a section to allow the interviewer to rate the applicant based on the interview tool.



SKILL (1-5)

5 being the most favourable


Organisation and Time Management

Prioritising, dealing with paperwork; interruptions; planning your day.


Decision Making and Problem Solving

Ability to make decisions; selecting suitable solutions; analysis of appropriateness.



Leading teams; consulting team members; task allocation; objective setting.



Matching tasks to staff; providing guidance and advice; maintaining staff motivation and focus.



Applying motivational techniques; understanding individual motives; making tasks challenging; encouraging creativity; providing team support; engendering trust and openness.


Target Setting

Understanding and communicating organisational objectives; use of SMART objectives to achieve targets.





Providing guidance; listening skills; ability to draw out information; reinforcing behaviour using feedback; negotiating; planning goals and objectives.

Relating to others; building rapport and positive relationships; being sensitive to peoples needs; using influencing and persuasive skills to help others improve performance or overcome problems; listening effectively and providing feedback; being assertive; use of body language.



Written Communications

Structure and format of letters, memos, e-mails, reports



1) Hildebrand, Deborah. "Doing Well in a Job Interview Is an Important Skill to Learn | Suite101.com." Deborah S. Hildebrand | Suite101.com. Web. 11 Jan. 2012. .

2) "The Problems with Interviews." Pre-Employment Testing, Aptitude Testing, Personality Assessment and Employment Assessments. Web. 11 Jan. 2012. .

3) Staff, Co. "Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace: An Interview with Dr. Michael Rock." CanadaOne: Canada's Small Business…… [read more]

Labor Laws and Unions Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (698 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Labor Unions -- Labor Laws

Labor unions in the United States have been the source of support for workers when it comes to collective bargaining and worker's rights, and they have been a source of frustration for employers in many cases. In this paper the National Football Players Association (NFLPA) will be the focus.

The National Football League Players Association was started in 1956 but it did not have its full program of rights and responsibilities until several years later. The owners of the 12 teams in the league at that time did not want to pay the players very much but the players were demanding at least $5,000 per player per year. When the owners stonewalled the player negotiators -- and simply refused to negotiate -- the players association sued under the U.S. antitrust laws. The owners were obliged to cooperation with the association (later to become a union).

There are serious legal issues that are currently being litigated involving the NFLPA and the NFL. In 2011, it was discovered that members of the New Orleans Saints had set up a "bounty" program; players received cash (up to $10,000, reportedly) for injuring opponents. NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell fined these players and issued suspensions, including a suspension for a full year for Jonathan Vilma. Vilma (and other players) have sued the NFL and Goodell for defamation of character, saying that Goodell didn't abide by the collective bargaining agreement. Moreover, Vilma's attorneys said "Goodell did not have jurisdiction to appoint himself the arbitrator… because the accusations included on-the-field activity that, under the league's labor deal, is supposed to involve an arbitrator other than the commissioner" (Plaisance, 2012).

Goodell, for his part, said he has the right under the collective bargaining agreement to discipline players who exhibit "conduct detrimental" to the game act with "malice" and who break the rules in dramatic fashion.

This case is being heard in Federal Court in New Orleans, which has jurisdiction over state courts. What the courts do is examine the collective bargaining agreement to see if there were violations by management. Under the National…… [read more]

Imminent Hanging Critical Analysis Article Critique

Article Critique  |  2 pages (808 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Conflict resolution benefits all parties involved; it puts money in the right places and keeps the companies going overall.

Because of the extensive history and background that Crain provides, readers may be tempted to readily agree with his assertions. The labor struggle in the United States is fairly infamous and notorious, especially since the Industrial Revolution at the turn of the 20th century.

Union representation elections are often conducted in an environment of intimidation and coercion, denying employees the freedom to choose whether they wish to be represented by a union. In the United States, both unions and employers have engaged in unfair labor practices in pursuit of their own agendas -- misleading employees about the consequences of choosing union representation and, in extreme cases, threatening employees with physical harm. (Specter & Nguyen, Representation without Intimidation, 2008)

Familiarizing readers with the history of the U.S. labor struggle helps persuade readers in thinking U.S. workers are indeed in serious jeopardy of losing their voice in the treatment the receive and how they are perceived at the workplace. Crain perceives the federal government as benign and self-interested, "No . . . law affords workers a direct voice in how their day-to-day work lives are structured." (2011) To his credit, Crain provides counter-arguments and examples of how both labor unions and businesses have exploited the employment climate to their advantage, but his primary thesis remains that workers will continue to need some type of voice in their daily workplace lives, and that there continues to be a need for collective bargaining rights and legal remedies for their violation.

Crain is clearly advocating for workers' rights and for a just government. He believes that workers possess a fundamental right to refuse to work and terminate contracts when the circumstances and employer treatment demand it, yet not to act with recklessness. He advocates ultimately for the exercise of rights and free will, for workers, and for all who live in a free country. The writing is strong; the arguments are well presented, and the viewpoints are readily apparent. There is sufficient background and acknowledgement of opposing views. Regardless of one's personal opinion on the subject, Crain effectively gives readers a great deal to consider.


Crain, M. (2011) An Imminent Hanging. ABA Journal Of Labor & Employment Law, 26(2), 151-160.

Specter, A., & Nguyen, E.S. (2008) Representation Without Intimidation: Securing Workers' Right to Choose Under the…… [read more]

Work Disability in Small Firms Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,740 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Avoiding claims of prevalence will enhance focus on qualitative inquiry as to satisfaction and productivity given the qualification that those responses indicate perceptions or intent, like perceived job fit or intent to quit or search for different employment. Claims couched in terms of perception and ex-ante intent rather than as ex-post quantitative events, will avoid the type of subjectivity Hotchkiss (2002) e.g. finds underlying much of the research on incidence or causality.

Likewise reporting perceptions of ability, performance and satisfaction seeks to avoid confounding subjectivity of language but also of disclosure, because counting disability as only those conditions with medical documentation or real accommodation in the workplace, would omit workers with invisible disability they may have declined to report. That official definitions restricted by documentation and disclosure understate incidence of disability in the workplace is not only logically coherent, but becoming more recognized as a growing body of research demonstrates (e.g. Hotchkiss, 2002, pp. 8-13, or Kukla & Bond, 2012, p. 14). Kruse and Schur (2003), for example, raise plausible doubt about comparing statistics as definitions… [read more]

Employee Theft Fraud and Waste Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (961 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Employee Theft, Fraud and Waste

Employee theft, fraud as well as waste are of major concern for organizations today. Any organization that wishes to remain relevant in today's highly competitive business environment must not only enhance its profitability but it must also facilitate the efficient use of its resources. Employee theft, fraud and waste could impact negatively on both an entity's fair utilization of resources and profitability. With that in mind, the relevance of implementing deliberate measures aimed at reducing as well as averting instances of employee theft, fraud and waste cannot be overstated.

Employee Theft, Fraud and Waste: An Overview

Employee theft, fraud as well as waste are some of the more serious issues organizations have to contend with today. Siegel (2010) points out that in a recent survey conducted by an outfit that concerns itself with loss prevention, "the number of employees involved in pilferage is on the rise and so too is the value of the merchandise being stolen." But what exactly motivates employees to engage in theft and/or fraud? According to Siegel (2012), employees are motivated to steal by a number of factors. It is important to note that more often than not, employers or business owners wrongly attribute employee fraud to problems or conditions of an economic nature (Siegel, 2012). To effectively combat employee theft and fraud, there is a need to identify some of the actual factors that motivate such a behavior. Instances of wastage are also in most cases motivated by some of the same factors that motivate employee theft and fraud. Some of the factors that motivate employees to steal in the opinion of Siegel (2012) include "job dissatisfaction and the workers' belief that they are being exploited by employers or supervisors…"

Combating Employee Theft, Fraud and Waste

Given that cases of theft and fraud are clandestine in nature; both the prevention as well as detection of the same may prove to be an uphill task. Wastage of organizational resources is also in most cases disguised. In their own words, Bologna and Shaw (1997) note that "to avoid or prevent employee theft, fraud, and embezzlement, a climate of trust, honesty, and cooperation should be established." This assertion seems to support a view highlighted earlier on in this text that economic problems are not largely to blame for instances of theft as well as fraud in the workplace. Indeed, if economic problems did have a prominent role to play in motivating employee theft, fraud and waste; most of the recommended approaches to address the vices would not work.

It should be noted that the relevance of pre-hiring background checks cannot be overstated when it comes to the prevention of employee theft, fraud as well as waste. According to Beesley (2011), this should indeed be taken as one of the very first steps towards the prevention of employee fraud. In basic terms, chances of…… [read more]

Marginal Jobs Differ From the Traditional Four Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Marginal jobs differ from the traditional four norms of employment, including: legality of content, regular from an institutional perspective, stable, and offering sufficient pay for employees. Many jobs are considered marginal because they deal with socially unacceptable practices and what is known as deviant work that is typically either illegal or highly frowned upon. Secondly, unregulated work is another breach from the typical norms. A job is considered marginal when it does not follow typical government regulations for the protection and betterment of employees. Third, when a job is not stable it is marginal. Temporary or limited time frame for the job, meaning that the job is not meant to be permanent or a major career for the individual working in the position. Finally, insufficient pay is another tell-tale sign of a marginal position. Being paid minimum wage, where the worker cannot survive without supplemental income would make a job marginal. Typically, the most vulnerable populations work in marginal positions. This includes the youngest members of the labor force, including teens, and also immigrants with questionable legal status. They know much less about their rights, and are often unwilling to risk their position to secure more rights for themselves and their coworkers.

Question 2

Skill Upgrading occurs when employers and companies improve the skills of their workers in order so that employees can better deal with increasing technologies and more complicated changes to the work environment. This often requires extensive retraining and educational programs. On the other hand, Deskilling occurs when technology is implemented that removes the need for having skilled workers. In this case, automated or factory line style technologies replace the need for keeping skilled workers, and thus workers are either deskilled or replaced with less skilled workers…… [read more]

Mock Interview Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,557 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Mock Interview

The interview is in preparation for a job interview, with the position being Health care marketing professional. The employer has outlined a number of different competencies that it seeks for this position. Among these are a high level of written competency, excellent public speaking skills, a minimum of a 4-year Bachelor's degree in Communications, Marketing or Journalism, 1-year… [read more]

Labor Union Negotiations the Zinnia Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (610 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Since this is one of the key issues they should not settle on this point for anything less than two percent. Another key point is the issue of benefits. Healthcare costs continue to skyrocket and employees are left paying for the increases in costs without much help from their employers. Therefore, this should be the second key factor in the negotiations and should take the same stance. The Union should begin with a three percent offering and reduce it to no lower than two percent.

The other factors are slightly less salient however modest gains could stand to be earned in each of the different factors. For example, employees earn exactly zero vacation or holiday time during their first year. It is hard to imagine an employee working a whole year without any substantial break. Even a small vacation would do much to improve employee morale and make the workforce stronger. Therefore it is recommended that after three months of employment, employee should at least get a modest break. Then after six months they should also get another. They should at least a chance to take an extended weekend vacation somewhere so they can rejuvenate their spirits.

The two primary factors as well as the subsidiary concern about the vacation time should serve as the basis for any potential strike. The other factors can begin at a three percent offering but be used as leverage pieces for the negotiations. These are all points in which the hotel could gain their winning position in. It is likely that if the Union holds strong to their stance they can stand to benefit from the three primary goals and the hotel can also benefit from temporary relief from going any further on the other points of negotiation.… [read more]

Executive Coaching Areas Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,180 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … small but successful systems integrator had recently employed, Sam X, a young man of 25 to run the day-by-day business for the owner / managing director. The problem is that he people who have to report to him are significantly older, the average age in their 40s, most of t hem having been long employed b y the… [read more]

Equal Opportunity in the American Workplace Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (525 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Male Consciousness-Raising from a Sociological and Political Perspective

Male employees are often found showing negative attitude towards female employees' high status positions at the workplace and liberalization in the society. Through this article, the author aims to discuss the role of male consciousness groups and the impacts of power relationships on men's attitudes. The author has presented his views in the light of his vast experience in the field of Political Sciences and Sociology. He has also used subjective evaluation and approaches to make his research reliable and authentic for the future researchers. As the article contains much discussion on the dominance of females by male groups, it can also be used to explain the gender inequality at the workplace; especially the topics like male dominance patterns, impacts of male values on females' status, etc. have extensive research on gender discrimination. The author has delicately explained the different aspect of men's consciousness-raising without showing any biased opinion for either of the genders.

"Work in the 21st Century: an introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology"

By Frank J. Landy & Jeffrey M. Conte

This book has been written in the context of Globalization; that is, what changes has the World seen since the evolution of technology and internationalization of businesses. The authors have tried to cover all the aspects of industrial relations and organizational behavior in this edition. They have dedicated a full chapter to workplace diversity in which gender and cultural discrimination has been explained comprehensively in the light of different organizational behavior theories and approaches. The aim of the…… [read more]

Skills Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,374 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


An equal wage for the same job must be paid to either gender. The same ruling regards age, disability, religion, and ethnicity. The employer, too, is required to reasonably accommodate the religious belief of the employee unless doing so would impose undue hardship. An age limit for the job may only be specified in rare circumstances where age has proved to be an occupational qualification (Federal Laws Prohibiting Job Discrimination.) However employers can, and frequently do slip around these legislations, and very few violators are held accountable. Given these circumstances it seems almost impossible to succeed in a world that evaluates you according to disadvantageous characteristics that fate has bequeathed you with and that are beyond your ability to eradicate.

On the other hand, there do seem to be some skills that are innate and that, everyone, regardless of external merit can claim possession to if they are born with them. These skills enable people to get to where they wish to be.

Baron and Markman (2000), for instance, observed that startups are often doomed to failure but some are more successful than others due to personality traits of the individual entrepreneurs rather than due to their affluence or influence. It is the entrepreneur's social skills -- specific traits that help them interact effectively and personably with others -- that play a dominant role in their success. Economic capital does help but, oftentimes, too it may hinder, since companies that are flush with the money spend it too easily and fail to innovate. It is past experience, ability to deal with people, the skill in reading other's accurately, being able to make a favorable first impression, being flexible, and adaptable to a wide range of social situations that can most help individuals in making that important first impression and in influencing the quality of their business interactions later on. In other words, it is not so much external characteristics that help one succeed but rather internal characteristics that are, most times, innate or that can be acquired through persistence and will.

Current times give us a far greater opportunity than ever before to practice these innate characteristics and to side-step deprivation of birth or fate. Potential employers may, and do, evaluate others based on external characteristics of socio-economic strata, gender, race, and so forth. Tendency to do so will, quite likely, continue despite national rules and regulations to the contrary. One who is determined, however, to pursue his dream and pursue a certain career can more confidently step in that direction by taking a non-conventional route such as becoming an entrepreneur, starting his or her own business and/or using the Internet. The Internet enables one to assume a guise where oen can transcend limitations of context and space and, using one's skills, market one's capacities (product or service) to others. Opportunities such as entrepreneurship and the Internet focus more on merit-based work or production than on extrinsic properties and these enable the individual to side-step potential limitations.

Individuals from less… [read more]

Abuses in Every System Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (671 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


If Apple were to take such a stand, then they could be applauded and FoxComm might change its practices. However, it is not Apple's responsibility to take on another company's practices. What Apple can do is say to FoxComm, if you don't change the way you treat your employees, we will take our business elsewhere, but it is not Apple's responsibility to do so at all.

3) The fruits of labor are enjoyed by all of society, even those workers who may be used in strenuous manners. As our text states, oftentimes it is how "justice is perceived" (p. 37) that brings about change. If FoxComm's actions are perceived in a negative manner, then pressure will be brought to bear through the workplace environment that will bring those actions to the forefront. The workplace is constantly changing, improving and enhancing society and individual lives. As the demand for certain products grows, so does the labor market for producing those products. Perceived justice in the developed countries is often different than the perceived justice in developing countries. As those developing countries continue their efforts to become 'developed' naturally practices change and improve with that development.

The key is to adequately measure that improvement against the possibilities of abuse and misuse of employees. The positive aspects are that the undeveloped countries have the opportunity to improve their workforce and bring their society in line with the more developed countries. Comparing the negative aspects of that workforce enhancement will necessarily mean that organizational behaviors will come in to bear. When companies such as FoxComm overstep their boundaries by mistreating their employees, then other companies such as Apple can use their financial influence to change the manner in which the employees are treated.


Greenburg, J.; Behavior in Organizations Tenth Edition

Hansen, L.L. & Movahedi, S.; (2010) Wall Street scandals: The myth of individual greed, Sociological Forum, Vol. 25, Issue 2, pp. 367 -- 374

YOU will…… [read more]

Sociology: Labor Studies Unionization Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (549 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


However, the government would also prove to be influential in the reduction of union authority and involvement with the nation's workers. Legislation was passed to circumscribe some of the positive effects of the NLRA, including the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 and the Landrum-Griffith Act of 1957. Other noteworthy governmental actions that helped contribute to the decline of labor unions included Ronald Reagan's firing of air controllers in 1981, as well as the large amounts of "right to work" legislation that outlawed beneficiaries of collective bargaining contracts to pay dues to unions. Other factors responsible for the decline of union involvement include globalization and the outsourcing of traditional industries and sources of labor to overseas countries where there are no unions. Additionally, the splintering of the traditional AFL-CIO into other factions significantly detracted from the solidarity of unions.

The information provided within this excerpt appears to be poignantly true, particularly when it details the wage advantages that union membership offers vs. employees who are not part of labor unions. Furthermore, the awareness that such unions raise in their employees of non-wage related benefits, such as health coverage, increased vacation time, and lower premiums for health and life benefits, is certainly productive and may partially explain why the government was largely responsible for decreasing the effectiveness and the authority of unions in the past several decades. Yet what is suggested throughout the duration of this excerpt is that the true strength in unions lies in their membership. If enough people join them and become involved in them, it appears as if there potency can be elevated again to enable working class people…… [read more]

Discrimination and Affirmative Action Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (985 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Discrimination and Affirmative Action

Should disabled veterans get preferential treatment over better qualified candidates who are not disabled veterans?

Over the last several decades, the issue of employment discrimination has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of reason for this is because many minorities, women and the disabled are subject to instances of favoritism towards particular groups of workers over them. Once this takes place, it means that anyone who does not fall under these guidelines will have trouble finding good employment opportunities with the possibility of career advancement. This will have an impact on their standard of living and quality of life. To combat these issues, both the state and federal governments have been implementing various hiring quotas to give preference to these individuals. (Muhl, 1999, pg. 48)

However, the practice of enacting these quotas has been creating controversy. The reason why, is because there are previous court decisions which have determined that hiring someone based upon population demographics is unconstitutional. This is when the government will require employers to select staff members for key positions based upon actual population statistics. The basic idea is that this will address issues of discrimination and give select groups of individuals' advantages over the others. In the case of the federal government, they have been setting these kinds of quotas to ensure that disabled veterans are given equal treatment during hiring and promotions. This is troubling, because this practice is entering a gray area that is in violation of case precedent. While at the same time, the intent of these regulations are designed to ensure that everyone has equal access to the best positions based upon their qualifications. To determine if disabled veterans should be receiving this kind of preferential treatment. We will examine the Disabled Veterans Affirmative Action Program (DVAAP) in comparison with those that they have in place for women and minorities. Once this occurs, is when can see if this policy is in compliance with the various provisions of the law. This is the point that we can determine if these individuals should be given preferences over other qualified candidates who are not disabled veterans. (Muhl, 1999, pg. 48)

The DVAAP requires the federal agencies to give preferences in the hiring and promotion to disabled veterans from Vietnam and post-Vietnam conflicts. The basic idea is that by hiring these individuals, the federal government is giving those people who served their country the first opportunity for many job opening. As, these people will have a certain amount of setbacks that they must overcome. To enforce these various provisions each agency is required to submit a report to the Office of Personnel Management (OPM). In it they must describe the steps the agency is taking in to hire / promote the maximum number of disabled veterans. ("DVAAP," 2011) (Muhl, 1999, pg. 48)

This is different from other programs that the federal government is using when they are hiring minorities, women and the…… [read more]

Precipitating Events Leading to Voluntary Employee Turnover Dissertation

Dissertation  |  5 pages (1,366 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



The costs of replacing information technology professionals is enormous, and recent trends indicate that voluntary turnover in this industry in on the rise for reasons that remain better described than understood in the relevant literature. In his study, "Evaluation of Precipitating Events," Von Hagel emphasizes the need to better understand undesired employee turnover in the information technology industry in general and within the defense contracting industry in particular. To this end, this qualitative study used a series of 20 interviews with information technology professionals working in the defense contracting industry to develop his findings, conclusions and recommendations. This paper evaluates Von Hagel's qualitative study using the framework provided by Miles and Huberman (1994) and Creswell (2007). An evaluation of the study's methodology is followed by a discussion concerning the author's limitations, implications and recommendations. Finally, an assessment of the author's application of his selected methodology is followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.



Evaluation of methodology


Consistency in purpose statement, problem statement and research questions. The study's stated purpose was to examine the lived experiences of IT professionals working in the defense contracting industry to help understand the types of precipitating events that can result in voluntary turnover. This purpose is largely congruent with the author's general problem statement which relates to inordinately high and unacceptable levels of voluntary employee turnover among IT professionals which have far outpaced those of other professions with the specific problem being comparable levels of voluntary turnover in the defense contracting industry. The six research questions propounded by Von Hagel also naturally flow from the above-described problem statement and specifically focus on the respective why, what, when and why factors that compel IT professionals to remain with a firm or seek better opportunities elsewhere.


Selection of participants. The author states that a "purposeful" [sic, purposive?] sampling procedure was used to intentionally select those participants who possessed the lived knowledge that was of interest for the study's purposes. Potential participants were initially contacted by telephone or email to determine if they satisfied the study's several selection criteria. The selection criteria were straightforward and appropriate for these purposes: (a) participants must be actively employed as an IT professional; (b) must have held more than one position in the defense contracting industry and held their most recent position since January 1, 2006 (to minimize recall errors) and (c) those who work in the defense contracting industry in Fort Meade, Maryland.


Appropriateness of research method and research design. In support of his rationale for research method and design selection, Von Hagel describes the various attributes and capabilities of qualitative and quantitative research and explains why the selected approach was most suitable for the goals of his study. Taken together, the qualitative research method and design used by Von Hagel were appropriate for the… [read more]

Solid Evaluation Process for Feedback Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (607 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … solid evaluation process for feedback is a fairly integral component of large term success within a particular organization. It should be noted, however, that such an evaluation process is efficacious when it is specifically tailored as much as possible to meet the needs of the individual employee, so that he or she may be properly motivated to learn or be trained in a matter that seems most applicable to his or her career goals and lives. Although the terms "evaluation" and "performance feedback" appear synonymous, there are actually fine differences that distinguish the two, both of which are necessary to impart valuable responses for an individual regarding training.

An evaluation is a method of utilizing different criteria to determine one's aptitude for a particular task, function, or job-based performance. Performance feedback, however, is the results of such an evaluation. One of the key facets of insuring that an organization's performance feedback evaluation process is truly beneficial for its employees is to be sure and utilize multiple sources for the evaluation -- which should ideally be peer-related, performed by one's superiors, as well as be related to some subjective method of determination, perhaps one that is quantitative. However, when it comes to administering the performance feedback, it will benefit an organization tremendously to assess both an individual's strengths and areas for improvement in a manner that may be empathetic to the particular abilities and limitations of an employee.

Another key aspect of the aforementioned process is the provision of motivation for employees to actually want to improve their proficiency in their job or in functions closely related to their job duties. Motivation, in most cases, is simply an impetus or reason to direct positive change in one's life, and can stem from a number of internal sources related to personal life, family,…… [read more]

Employment Relations CIPD Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,480 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


This decline concerned only the recognized unions which had members at the workplaces. However, it was WERS 2004 that for the first time asked the managers if they recognized the trade unions that didn't have member in their workplace an d by doing this they for the first time broke the link between recognition and membership. The above mentioned scenario… [read more]