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Child Development Evaluating Child Development

The writer herself is a doctor and with the inclusion of opinion of other experts and their scientific findings this topics becomes more interesting and answers our question as to why most of us are not able to recall our early childhood memories (Klass). The theoretical perspective that the author seem to use are biological and psychoanalytic. This can also be seen in the experts' point-of-view and in the scientific findings included in this article. At one point, we are told in this article that due to revolutionary reasons babies have to go through an extensive learning process, which indicates biological perspective, and on the other hand, we see in this article that memory test of two different children belonging to two different cultures showed different results which shows the presence of psychoanalytic perspective. The author concludes her article by saying that development of memory, development of language, development of consciousness, development of personality and development of personality narrative all occurs side by side and seem to complement each other. In my opinion, the conclusion seem to be valid because if we try recalling our childhood memories we will notice the strong presence of language skills, consciousness and personality and together all these things helps us in making sense of what we have recalled and how it can be related to us. Overall, this article has informative implications for children and families. Beside this, it is highly important for parents because they are the one who give most time to their kids and if they once in a while sit with their kids and discuss past events to see how far their child memory can go then the distance of memory retrieval between grown ups and early childhood may be reduced (Klass). This might also help in the better grooming and personality development of our child as the child will be able to understand him in a much better way thus benefitting to the society as a whole (Papalia, Feldman and Feldman, pg 456). In spite of the fact that the author has put in a very decent effort but there is still a room for more research to be included which can result in a much stronger and clear-cut conclusion. As after reading this article we still cannot determine the actual cause, for the failure to recall our earlier childhood memories and whether it has something to do with…

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Child Development There Is an Extreme Deficiency

Child Development There is an extreme deficiency within the beliefs of nativist and behavioralist conceptions of the nature of development within the growing mind. Nativists believe the concept that development and influence comes directly from within. This thinking describes a much more internal version of the growing child, whereas behavioralists see it a much different way. According to behaviorists like Vygotsky, "The child solves an inner problem by means of exterior objects," (Vygotsky 1929). The external world dominates development through influence on mental development. Therefore, the culture has a large role within development. This is in contrast to the nativist view that development is independent of external factors, and would happen the same therefore, in all of us. Therefore, Vygotsky's theories are much different to other prominent ideas which try to explain the nature of natural development within children. According to Vygotsky, "social interaction leads to continuous step-by-step changes in children's thought and behavior and that can very greatly from culture to culture," (Gallagher 1999). Thus, the social world is a powerful influence within the development of the child within it. Development, itself, "depends on interaction with people and the tools that the culture provides to help form their own view of the world," (Gallagher 1999). Therefore, language is fundamental in the developmental process within the context of Vygotsky's theory. Knowledge is self-constructed through observation of social interaction. Much different, was the views of Jean Piaget. His theory focuses on the cognitive influence on a child's development. According to Piaget, development……

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Child Development Humans Are Born

If a stage is managed well, the individual will carry away a certain virtue or psychosocial strength which will help him or her through the rest of the stages of life (Eric pp). However, if the individual does not do so well, then his or her future development may be endangered (Eric pp). Work Cited Eric Erikson. http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/erikson.html Erikson's Eight Stages of Human Development http://psychology.about.com/library/weekly/aa091500a.htm…

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Deduce the Effects of Parenting

The sessions with the children included focus on increasing effective coping, improving the quality of the mother-child relationship and reducing negative thoughts about divorce related stressors using the help of activities such as video games, problem solving, role plays, etc. The literature control condition involved both mother and child being provided with 3 books about divorce adjustment and guidance to be completed over a period of six weeks. To achieve the outcomes from the study, participants were interviewed on 5 different occasions; pre-test, post-test, 3 months after the test, 6 months after the test and 6 years after the test. These interviews included completing of subscales by both mothers and children on the factors of relationship quality, discipline and coping efforts. The results were deduced based on the data collected via the interviews, subscales and meditational testing. The findings of the study reveal that the in the short-term period, the coping efficacy significantly increase, while in the longer term period, there are significantly higher levels of coping efficacy and active coping. Moreover, the finding also suggest that a strong relationship with the mother can have remarkable positive effects as they promote adaptive coping after parental divorces, and aid in helping children to battle off the stressors that can lead to avoidant coping. The findings also revealed that the discipline factor was non-significant with the coping process in children. The differences in the participants based on gender, parenting, and baseline risk status did not provide any evidence regarding the relations between the child's coping processes and parenting. Unlike prior studies, this research contributes immensely on the inferences about the effects of parenting on the coping process. Moreover, the study can be highly significant in the creating of programs and policies that are relevant to child development as these suggest that a child can be aided with the coping process only with the parental influence. Additionally, the study would implicate on the issue of understand and preventing children from acquiring any mental health problems in the longer term. The article and its research are significantly positive in helping to determine that children can be assisted with the coping process by the developing improved coping efficacy with the aid of a strong and quality relationship with the mother. Being a part of a family of divorced parents myself, the research topic is significant to me as it focuses and provides a solution on…

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Child Development the First Two

Freud's suggested that there are five psychosexual stages of development. Firstly the oral stage, which occurs from birth to about one year, is when the infant is orally oriented and everything the child touches is put into the mouth. According to Freud, this occurs not only for feeding purposes, but also for pleasure, and the gratification is sexual. Freud's second takes place between the ages of two and three years of age, when the erogenous zone shifts to the anal region. Freud believes children experience sexual gratification during bowel movements and when they withhold bowel movements. Following the Anal stage of development, and usually at around the age of three, the individual enters the Phallic Stage during which the child gains gratification from their sexual organs. The child notices differences and similarities between themselves and their parents and each sex wants to be with the parent of the other sex: for males this is known as the Oedipus complex and for girls this is referred to as the Elektra complex. Once the children realize they can not be with their mother or father, they identify with the parent of the same sex. Next is the Latency stage, characterized by a lack of change, and is a time of relative calm for the individual. The last stage of Freud's psychosexual development is the Genital Stage and, from puberty into adulthood, sexual desire and sexual relationships develop and mature. Erikson took Freud's ideas and enhanced them, mainly by adding stages for the adult years, but also by emphasizing identity rather than sexuality. Erikson developed the eight psychosocial stages of development, the first of which occurs during infancy. This stage deals with trust vs. mistrust, and is when the child perceives whether the world can be trusted or not, and develops a trusting relationship with parents. The second stage, during early childhood, is known as autonomy vs. shame and doubt, and is when the child develops personal autonomy. This stage is important in determining whether or not a child develops a sense of self-certainty. Between the ages of three to six years, Erikson's third stage, that of initiative vs. guilt takes place. The individual develops initiative by the process of trial and error, and is important in developing the sense of enterprise. The fourth stage takes place around six years of age and lasts until puberty. This stage deals with industry vs. inferiority…

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Child Development Imagination, Creativity, Consciousness,

Child Development Imagination, creativity, consciousness, and play are some of the core elements of Lev Vygotsky's theories of child development. Vygotsky was concerned with the development of higher mental faculties in children, and wanted to study the origin and development of these functions (Vygotsky, 1966). Vygotsky did not believe that children were miniature adults, as was once believed (Vygotsky, 1966). However, child development also cannot be quantified, as the process of growth and development is far too complex. It is important to consider the possibility that evolution and revolution happen simultaneously in the child, so that growth occurs gradually for a while and then sometimes, in sudden bursts (Vygotsky, 1966). What Vygotsky observed was that growth and development in children is catalyzed by social experiences and social interactions. Social stimulation and children's observations of their social worlds cause both evolution and revolution in development. Children learn by observing others, but they do not just learn behaviors and behavioral cues. Children also learn values and norms, by interacting with their social worlds and observing the reactions they receive after performing certain actions and also the reactions that others receive upon performing actions. As they mature, children are more able to perceive more complex stimuli and incorporate those into their matrix of awareness. One of the central and most unique components of Vygotsky's theory of child development is that Vygotsky believed that learning preceded actual development (Vygotsky, 1978). In other words, the child internalizes the lessons related to values, beliefs, behaviors, and norms. Then, that social learning becomes translated into personal development via internalization and processing. The internalization and processing are part of the higher order thinking Vygotsky remained concerned about throughout his career. Vygotsky's theory of child development is therefore also a theory of general cognitive development. Like Vygotsky, Piaget was concerned with cognitive development as well as general child development. Piaget believed that the development of knowledge is a "spontaneous process" that is inherently linked to human biology (Piaget, 1961, p. 176). However, learning is "provoked by situations," and is therefore not linked to biology or instinct (Piaget, 1961, p. 176). In this case, Piaget does resonate with Vygotsky, as both researchers believed that social learning is the cornerstone of child development. The child acts as a sort of scientist or experimenter, according to Piaget. Learning cannot take place simply by observing something, as learning requires manipulation, interaction, operation, and…

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Child Development Health Reflections on

I thought about all the imbalanced and frankly, screwed up, adults that I know or encounter on a daily basis, and how a child development course for them or for their teachers would have gone a long way into making them more healthy. The epiphany was how great an impact proper and balanced child development can have upon us at all stages of human development. After several weeks of child development coursework, I am still further interested in very early development, from birth to 5 years old, and adolescence. I have always been interested in very young children and adolescents. I additionally have a lot of sympathy for adolescents in the 21st century because of social media, and really, the kind of world we live in overall. I always felt that teenagers often got a bad rap or had lots of negative stereotypes unnecessarily projected onto them, as well as that a lot of issues that adults have often stem from those periods of development. I am interested in teaching preschool and high school as well, so that is one way my interest intersects with my professional goals. I am more attuned to what stages of development children are in and am in a better position to assess their development in specific areas, and overall. I can also better infer what kind of school and home environments children occupy as well, based on their development and skills. I am also more in tune with how I would approach helping children develop holistically, and in specific areas. I feel like I know and understand children better. I feel as if they can pick up on my deeper or better understanding of what they are going through and I have noticed how increasingly comfortable children have become with me since I have experienced change and growth in my child development knowledge. References: Gardner, H. (2003). Multiple Intelligences After Twenty Years. Harvard Graduate School of Education, American Education Research Association, 1 -- 15, Chicago: IL. Piramide. (2012). Educating the Whole Child. The Piramide Approach to Early Learning, Web, Available from:……

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Adolescent and Child Development

Adolescent and Child Development Lawrence Kohlberg's psychological theory of moral development is broken into three levels and a total of six stages (two stages for each level). Level One is the pre-conventional level of moral reasoning. This level is typically exuded by children as it considers the moral judgment of any situation as it relates to its direct consequences. Those…

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Child Development When Sigmund Freud First Introduced

Child Development When Sigmund Freud first introduced the concepts of psychology, it led other theorists to look at the development of children into adults. Today, it is well-known that children develop from when they are born, with nearly no concept of the external world or themselves as separate beings, to adults, who learn about the world around them and how…

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Child Development the Middle Childhood Is Generally

Child Development The middle childhood is generally considered to be six to twelve years of age. I observed an eight-year-old boy playing at a playground. The boy's name is Chris. He is smiling a lot so it can be seen that he has lost his baby teeth. Chris is rather tall for his age and he seems to be full…

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Child Development Theories of Several

After about five times of doing this with her father, Veronica tried it on her own. She needed help for the first two times, but on the third try was successful. She then practiced tying her shoe over and over for a good twenty minutes on her own until she was personally confident she had it down pat. Her beaming face of pride showed that she was pleased with her accomplishment. Piaget's theories emphasize the importance of children having concrete learning experiences with actual objects in their environments as the only way for them to create mental maps of how things work both socially and physically. By teaching his daughter in the way that he did, Veronica's father was doing just this. He used a physical learning experience with an actual object from her environment (her shoe) to teach Veronica how to tie the shoe. By letting her practice on her own, he was giving Veronica the chance to create her own mental map of how a shoe is tied. Veronica was then able to relate the importance of knowing how to tie a shoe to her direct environment. References Resilience in Context: Ecological Systems." (2002). Building Resilience in the Early Years of School. Retrieved on November 9, 2003 at http://home pages.picknowl.com.au/Julietta/2-3Sys.htm.…

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Interview of Testing a Child's Ability

Child Development Piaget's Conservation and Childhood Justification Piaget's theories of child development have been generalized and widely accepted across the domains of psychology, child development, and education. It would not be inappropriate to label him as one of the most significant thinkers in the modern practice of these fields. Yet his work is not unassailable. He based the majority of…

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Social Concerns Theory to Social

One conceptual framework produced by Yoshikawa, Aber and Beardslee (2012) examines four aspects of poverty and how these relate to the family and the children present in this arrangement. These factors are the main subjects or selection factors, the multidimensional nature of poverty, the mechanisms through which poverty affects children on an individual, relational and institutional level, and the multidimensionality of children's outcomes (Yoshikawa, Aber, & Beardslee, 2012). Of all the types of interventions studied, what showed to be the most effective was grounded on strategies formed by various economist and policy experts and were simply focused on reducing poverty as a solution. Based on multiple research findings, the authors are able to provide evidence that a causal effect between poverty and the negative impact on M-E-B health of children exists. Discussion The theory of Social Concerns or Human Behaviors suggests something of a cause and effect type relationship between the person and their microsystem and well as broader systems that can be considered. The external factors related to a child's development can have a substantial influence on their development as well as be highly correlated with MEB issues later in life. However, children often lack the ability to seek a "goodness of fit" with their family environment during development. Thus the unity between a child and their parental environment is generally fairly static until the child reaches adult age. This is an important developmental period as well because the environment has actual been shown to influence genetics and therefore the interactions a child has during development can have a lasting effect has indicate by several studies which adds credence to the perspective of viewing a family as a system. Although people have the capacity to change, the intimacy of the microsystem can have substantial effects on development and even their physiology. One question that remains is one that has plagued philosophers and researchers for centuries, where does free will come into play? Or does it? Another interesting aspect of this work is how it can be applied to public health strategies to help mitigate negative effects on child development. Increasing evidence suggests that public health and health-promotion interventions that are based on social and behavioral science theories are more effective than those lacking a theoretical base (Glanz & Bishop, 2010). Obviously reducing poverty completely may not have sufficient political will in the current state of society. However, there are…

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J Piaget

¶ … child development is aimed at helping adult researchers become familiarized with how they were created out of the blissful ignorance of childhood. How do we know what we know, and how does the mind work within the limited context it is brought up within? In more recent times, neo-Vygotskian and Piagetian thinking, as seen in the work the Neo-Vygotskiam Approach to Child Development, adds additional dialogue into a long and heated debate regarding the evolution of the human mind from its origins in childhood. Piaget posited a theory that we eventually reach a state of equilibrium when we have a good solid understanding of the world around us. We begin our journey as children with little understanding of the world. Eventually, we are exposed to various new stimuli which we then have to explain within our frame of mind. This understanding of stimuli within one's already structured existence is what Piaget called assimilation. The stimulus is assimilated into the bank of knowledge already in existence. However, some stimuli are more powerful in that they break free of prior understandings, forcing the child to create new schemas and understandings to explain the stimuli. This is the process of adaptation, where the child adapts his or her perceived notion of the world in order to account for new stimuli. The child's mind is thus in a state of equilibrium when there is a strong correlation between the nature of assimilation and accommodation. One reaches a state of equilibrium when one has a good solid and concrete knowledge of the universe and has adapted enough of its mind to accommodate for enough assimilation with relatively few needs……

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Early Childhood Development Issues Children

It is often the way adults express their emotions and actions that will tend to influence children and youth -- sometimes even more when dealing with special needs populations. Additionally, children with special needs tend to react to trauma and anything out of the ordinary based on their past experiences and ability to be aware of the current situation. These children have different triggers and cues, and adults in both the close and extended family can help these children by paying more attention to support their clues. Missing clues often leads to escalation, which then often leads to more frustration from adults. This is particularly true when the child has both a teacher and parent, since the two often see the child through different eyes (National Association of School Psychologists; Green and Shinn). Within the family, the needs of the special child may often overshadow those of the other children -- not necessarily on purpose, but simply due to logistics. This sometimes results in greater care and empathy from the siblings, but sometimes causes jealousy and resentment, at least in the early years. Often, however, as the regular child matures, a bond is reached between the siblings that transcends through later years. The extended family, however, is usually quite supportive and a great help to the parents. Of course, there are those who shun the special child -- who are embarassed, but by in large being a "part-time" parent is typically easier than the duties of a full-time special needs caregiver, again depending on the particular disability of function (Parker). Although every special-needs child is different and every family is unique, there are some common concerns that link parents of challenged kids, including getting appropriate care and accommodations; promoting acceptance in the extended family, school and community; planning for an uncertain future; and adjusting routines and expectations (Mission and Forums). In the last several years, though, the global approach to children with disabilities has changed -- largely based on education about this population, human rights issues, and a greater attention to social models. This paradigm shift focuses on the rights and needs of those with special needs -- how to be inclusive, not ashamed as parents and siblings, and to celebrate diversity. There are also far more support and help groups that specifically deal with stress and the needs of the parents and caregivers of special needs children, as well…

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Immigrant Children's Development Children Immigrating

Immigrant Children's Development Children immigrating into the United States today represent a particularly diverse range of cultures, and some have had little or no formal education in their native countries. First and second- generation immigrant children are the fastest growing segment of the U.S. child population. Additionally, young immigrants are heavily concentrated in five states; California, New York, Texas, Florida,…

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Toddlers and Infants This Stage

The pieces or blocks are brightly colored to attract the eyes. The wooden geometric stacker has a base at which three wooden poles perpendicularly connected to holds the blocks together. The blocks or the pieces are stack one on top of the other either matching the colors shape or sizes. However, the children can play with the blocks independently from the wooden base. The toy offers entertaining and delightful experience. The wooden geometric stacker is ideal for instilling shape, color and size contrast early in children. It is also credited with building creativity in those who use it as well as problem solving and sequencing skills. In addition, the toy enables children to be imaginative and enhances their cognitive, emotional and mental development. According to Berk (2009), children engagements with the toy help them blend socially with other children. Middle School and Teenagers Middle school children and teenagers have thoughts that are more abstract, especially in teenage, most of them use formal logic. They have the ability to outline abstract propositions, hypothesize and conclude. Many are approaching puberty and their "focus is mainly on de-ning personal values and goals and establishing autonomy from the family" (Berk, 2009, p. 8). Some of the most helpful activities or games for this category of children include leapfrog explorer learning game movies such as Hannah Montana; various puzzles, Monopoly and wire puzzles. Monopoly is ideal for this age group; it offers educational benefits and is fun filled (Pascale, 2009). Monopoly makes it possible for the participants to do things together aiding in bonding. It encourages children to count aloud; this instills basic math as well as teaching them how to use money. Learning is made easy as the children count the dots on the die and the denomination of the monies. This prepares them for greater numbers as they learn in school. Monopoly helps enhance ability to complete simple transactions; playing the game involves transactions, cash exchanges and buying of property providing them with basic understanding of business sense. Other than buying property, the game exposes the participants to experiences associated with places. For instance, it takes them to the amusement parks where they place ticket booths on spaces. In addition, they role-play increasing their commitment as they play. Monopoly teaches children how to engage well with others. This is essential in enhancing a child's ability to achieve educational success. References Berk, L.E. (…

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Spirituality in Young Children's Temperament and Self-Control: Cultural Influence

" (Sharley, 2012, p. 1) It is reported that both Zapf (2005a) and Spretnak (1991) relate that spiritual values from this view make the assumption that nature and people are "inextricably linked." (Sharley, 2012, p. 1) Specifically stated about the tie that people have to the land is "A people rooted in the land over time have exchanged their tears, their breath, their bones, all of their element -- oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, all the rest -- with their habitat many times over. Here nature knows us." (Sharley, 2012, p. 1) From this view the individual is not held to be a different but the same as the natural environment and as such "conceptualized as a living system that is a source of energy and knowledge." (Sharley, 2012, p. 1) The physical environment form this view "does not provide a passive backdrop to human action but is a 'sensate conscious entity suffused with spiritual powers." (Sharley, 2012, p. 1) The ancestral relationships are reported to provide the individual with "clarity about the obligations, rights, roles and practices for connecting with people within and outside the culture of the whanu (wider family grouping), iwi (tribe) and hapu (Sub-tribe). (Sharley, 2012, p. 1) From the Western view this is known as the ecological or biopsychosocial model and conceptualizes the development of the child as "being influenced by interactive relationships occurring across a number of subsystems at ontogenic-level or the level of the individual, the micro-level of the family, and the exo-level or the community and finally at the macro-level or socio-cultural in the environment of the child. III. Holladay (2007) Children are influenced by music Children are influenced by media Children are influenced by television Holladay (2007) reports that George Barna, known for conducting surveys and specifically related is that in Barna's studies on parenting and child development the following facts were revealed: "By the time an American child is 23 years of age, as was the killer in Virginia, he has seen countless murders among the more than 30,000 violent acts to which he is exposed through television, movies, and video games." (p.1) Holladay also relates "By age 23, the average American will have viewed thousands of hours of pornographic images, which diminish the dignity and the value of human life." (p.1) As well, Barna is reported by Holladay to have stated the following fact: "After nearly a quarter…

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Youth Jean Piaget's Theory of

Adolescence is not the end-stage of moral and cognitive development for Piaget, and he asserted that these would continue to be improved and refined throughout adulthood into old age. As with his theory of cognitive development, researchers like Lawrence Kohlberg also discovered that younger children are also able to comprehend abstract moral values at an earlier age than he realized. . Erik Erikson revised the stages of development in Freudian psychoanalysis away from the emphasis on gratification of the basic drives and instincts of the id to gratification and development of the ego, and therefore like most of the later Freudians has been considered an ego psychologist. He did not name his stages oral, anal, phallic, latent and genital as Freud had, and deemphasized sexual gratification as the basic motor of human development. In the oral stage, for example, he argued that the infant was in a state of dependency on the mother and had to develop a sense of her "caring and dedication to feeding" and other basic needs (DeRobertis, 2008, p. 90). Without this, children would lack a sense or trust and hope, and if abused or neglected would withdraw into a state similar to schizophrenia. At the next stage of development during toilet training, children would develop a sense of autonomy and ego control, as long as they had supportive and helpful parents, but is they were abused or mistreated by controlling, domineering or neurotic parents then they would have personalities based on shame and doubt, as well as obsessive-compulsive personalities. In the phallic stage, which is one of initiative vs. guilt, children with abusive or controlling parents would end up feeling guilty about sexuality and develop hysterical neuroses (DeRobertis, p. 91). Adolescents must pass through a stage where they develop their own unique identities and moral codes vs. simply conforming and fitting in with the parents, families and peers. If they successfully navigate this stage -- and of course many people fail to do so -- then they will be healthy adults who are confident in their own identities. Late adolescents also pass through a stage of intimacy vs. isolation, in which they develop the ability to love and be loved by other adults, as well as to maintain friendships. Those who fail to pass through this stage may become emotionally distant and shut off, over overly needy and dependent on others. The theories of Erikson…

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Developing in a Family

Family Development Child care advice for parents Child care and day care institutions are very much part of family life in contemporary Western societies. Our new generation of parents, especially mothers, have been psyched to believe that starting a family is no longer an impediment to having an enduring career that is both personally and financially rewarding. It can be…

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Human Development in the Environment

¶ … Asher Lev Just as one can develop a sociological analysis of the development of a person in the environment in which he or she was raised and make certain judgments about what influenced that development and how, so can one do the same thing with a fictional character, assuming the author has provide sufficient data that can be…

Pages: 12  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 12


2-Year-Old Case Study Two-Year-Old Child Development Case

2-year-Old Case Study Two-Year-old Child Development Case Study Healthy early childhood development is highly dependent on some rather simple, yet profound variables. The first few feelings that an infant has are very basic instinctual attachments or bonding to his or her immediate environmental surroundings, including caregivers. Security is the primal most comforting feeling an infant has and if it is…

Pages: 9  |  Case Study  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 5


Comprehensive Proposal for Development of an Early Childhood Education Program

¶ … Early Childhood Educational Center Program's center vision statement The vision of the multicultural childhood center (MCC) is to structure a learning program that, whilst generally informative and inspiring, is individually catered to the character and potentialities of each child. It aims to integrate families and the various ethnic communities into this education. It also aims to approach the…

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Child Psychology Mander, G. (May

Keith. (April 2004). "A risk and resiliency model of ambiguous loss in postdivorce stepfamilies." Journal of Communication, Vol. 4, Issue 2. This study establishes the hypothesis that children who are known to be "capable of maintaining healthy relationships with other family members" are those who are best able to cope with family changes. These family changes include the loss of a parent (resulting from a divorce and one parent being a single parent) or the inclusion of a new parent and/or family. This study has relevance to single parenting and child development because it shows how single parenting is not a major factor affecting a person's development as an individual. Guttmann, J. And M. Rosenberg. (September 2003). "Emotional intimacy and children's adjustment: a comparison between single-parent divorced and intact families." Educational Psychology, Vol. 23, Issue 4. Important findings from this study show that single parents have "less intimate" relationships with their children than those families between children and their parents (from intact families). This study demonstrates how single parenting poses as a major influence in child development, and determining the factors that contribute to the decline in intimacy between single parent and child (children) is vital. Dunn, J. And T. O'Connor. (December 2002). "Out of the picture: a study of family drawings by children from step-, single-parent, and non-step families." Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, Vol.31, Issue 4. This study was conducted in order to determine how children cope with the effects of divorce and remarriage, which was found to affect their development. Results from the study reflect that non-biological relatedness, i.e., the addition of a step-family, results to greater disconnectedness between the……

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Mediation in Family Law Cases

They have a problem with authority because with uninvolved parents they did not have authority figures. These children do not know what love is or how to love so they begin to fall into the wrong groups and place that label to what they feel is love which can harm them. All of these parenting styles have a major impact…

Pages: 7  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 4


Divorce on Children Impact of

Remarriage, especially of the custodial parent, can significantly ease the economic adversity resulting from the divorce and therefore eliminate some of the practical stresses for children of divorce. This can significantly increase the well-being, both psychological and physical, of younger children (Peck 1989). However, remarriage tends to have a negative influence on older children, especially those in early adolescence and especially if the remarrying parent is the custodial mother. A 1989 study of the effects of remarriage on early adolescents found that "living with one's mother and stepfather following parents' divorce is associated with significantly less happiness and life satisfaction among both men and women" (Twaite et al. ____). There is overwhelming evidence that divorce has a negative impact on the development of children at all ages. From the parental stress that influences an infant's anxiety level, to the psychological difficulties encountered by a young boy who has no consistent male role model, to the bitterness of the teenager who must move away from her friends to live somewhere cheaper, all aspects of divorce are disruptive to a child's sense of security, well-being, and confidence. However, there is some good news. While the impact of divorce on children is undeniable, it is not insurmountable. Children consistently show astonishing resilience and adaptive capabilities in the face of adversity, and children of divorce are no exception. When Acock & Demo (1994) compared the well-being of adults based on their childhood family structure, they found only a small difference between those who grew up in families untouched by divorce and those who grew up in divorced or remarried families. They concluded that, despite all of the stresses associated with divorce, "family structure has only a modest effect on children's well-being" (Weiten et al. 2012). References Benson, J. (2009) Social and Emotional Development in Infancy and Early Childhood. San Diego, CA: Elsevier. DeFranc, W. And Mahalik, J.R. (2002) Masculine gender role conflict and stress in relation to parental attachment and separation. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, Vol. 3, Iss. 1, 51-60. Hughes, R. (November 20, 2010) What is the real divorce rate in the U.S. Huffington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2012 from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/robert-hughes/what-is-the-real-divorce-_b_785045.html. Nauert, R. (March 7, 2007) Family stress affects kid's physical health. PsychCentral. Retrieved Aprill 11, 2012 from http://psychcentral.com/news/2007/03/07/family-stress-affects-kids-physical-health/669.html. Peck, J.S. (1989) The impact of divorce on children at various stages in the family life cycle. Children of Divorce: Developmental and Clinical…

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Youth Transition Out of Foster

The instrument used for the investigation was the Multidimensional Adolescent Satisfaction Scale. Results of the study indicated that the only background characteristic found to be significantly associated with satisfaction with counseling was custody status, while attitudes toward mental health services was the only variable found to be a significant predictor of counseling satisfaction in the study (Scott et al., 2009). References Ahrens, K.R., Dubois, D.L., Richardson, L.P., Fan, M.Y., Lozano, P. (2008). Youth in foster care with adult mentors during adolescence have improved adult outcomes. Pediatrics, 121(2), e246-52. Keller, T.E., Cusick, G, R., Courtney, M.E. (2007). Approaching the transition to adulthood: distinctive profiles of adolescents aging out of the child welfare system. Social Services Review, 81(3), 453-84. Kushel, M.B., Yen, I.H., Gee, L., Courtney, M.E. (2007). Homelessness and healthcare access after emancipation: results from the Midwest evaluation of adult functioning of former foster youth. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 161(10), 986-93. Munson, M.R., Smalling, S.E., Spencer, R., Scott, L.D., Tracy, E. (2009). A steady presence in the midst of change: nonkin natural mentors in the lives of older youth exiting foster care. Child and Youth Services Review, 32(4), 527-35. Scott, L.D., Munson, M.R.,……

Pages: 6  |  "Literature Review" Chapter  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Piagetian Theory the Child That

¶ … Piagetian theory The child that I observed was a kindergartener named Billy. According to Piaget, children at Billy's age are in the preoperational stage of development. "During this stage, young children are able to think about things symbolically. Their language use becomes more mature. They also develop memory and imagination, which allows them to understand the difference between past and future, and engage in make-believe. But their thinking is based on intuition and still not completely logical. They cannot yet grasp more complex concepts such as cause and effect, time, and comparison" (Piaget's stages of development, 2013, WebMD). Billy's developing imaginative capacity is evidenced in his 'play' stacking and destroying walls made of available cardboard boxes while making noises that suggest explosions. After engaging in this for some time with a fellow student Billy then switched to assembling jigsaw puzzles. Although Billy was able to correctly assemble the puzzles, he eventually mixed up the pieces and tried to make a new puzzle with the available mixed sections. To Piaget this would indicate that Billy can replicate putting a puzzle together but does not fully understand that each puzzle is made up of unique shapes that can only be assembled correctly together. During the preoperational stage, children tend to be very egocentric. "Children view things that are happening around them in only one point-of-view," namely their own (Presnell 1999). This egocentrism can be seen in Billy's occasional disruptive behavior, when he was biting and kicking another student to 'get his way.' Billy was unable to empathize with the other student's perspective. Nor was he able to empathize with other students who might want to assemble the jigsaw puzzles as he did, but could not now Billy had mixed up the pieces. Observation: Vygotsky's theory In contrast to Piaget's theory of development, which stresses that development occurs in a series of sequential stages that are relatively……

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Younger Brother's Development Since He

Hereditary and environmental factors need to be taken into account as well. All children are born with traits that their parents have passed down to them. Everyone is born with hereditary potential, which is then shaped and molded by surroundings or the culture. A realistic definition of culture would be a social group. In many cases, for example, a child who comes from an artistic or musical family will have this ability as well. Or, someone who has parents who were both overweight as they were growing up (due to genetics not diet) may also have a similar tendency. A child's development will be determined by physical factors such as the type and amount of foods he/she eats, the amount of sleep received on average and the mother's health while pregnant. Socio-economic factors will also impact the child's development: For example, children from single-family homes are more at risk of having behavioral problems. Youth who are abused physically or emotionally may have psychological problems or learning delays. It is important for a number of reasons to study child development. Above all, as noted above, is having proper expectations. This way, one can know what a child should or should not be capable of doing at what age, so action can be taken/or not as required. Information on normal development facilitates early detection of problems and helps in the prevention and treatment of deviant or atypical development. References Healy, Jane. Your child's growing mind. Galena, IL:……

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Development Discuss the Topic of

Thus many sources were tied together to attempt to create a unifying set of rights for children that can be governed by the United Nations. Discussion The first article in the declaration simply defines the child as someone under the age of eighteen. This is something of an arbitrary date in my opinion. For example, if someone is eighteen years old and one day, then they have a different set of rights and responsibilities as they did the previous day. However, the definition of adulthood must be established somehow and an arbitrary date is probably the easiest way to do so. The second article ensures the rights of children even if their parents or legislative authorities have a different opinion based on race, sex, color, etc. This protects children from discrimination. Most of the rest of the articles are about the protection of children in one respect or another. They cover topics as a child who is missing an identity as should be granted one. Or if a child is displaced then they should be relocated to an appropriate physical location. However, beyond these basic protections, one of the interesting aspects to the declarations is that it gives children the freedom of association and the freedom of peaceful assembly. This is interesting because it is not exactly practiced much and it has a lot of potential to change the political landscape. Consider climate change for example, this is going to affect the people who are currently going through their childhoods more so than the generation that is currently in power. Thus if children were to organize, as some have, and had their voices heard, then they might be able to achieve some intergenerational equality in the treatment of the world's ecological issues. Works Cited UNICEF. "Convention on the Rights of the Child ." 12 March 2014. UNICEF. Online. 31 March 2014. United Nations. "Conventions on the Rights of the……

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Developmental Process Presentation

Child Development of Six and Ten-Year-Olds According to the Center for Disease Control, childhood development is crucial both for the individual child and for society. An individual who is not provided with the resources he or she needs to develop properly will have trouble succeeding in life on a personal level. In addition, a society's cost of caring for those who do not develop normally is often discussed as an important consequence of those who do not provide for an environment for development. Thus, parents, teachers, and other people who work with children need to be aware of developmental stages, as interventions can be sought for those whose developmental problems are detected early. An examination of the development of children at ages six and ten will give examples of some of the stages that caregivers should observe. At the sage of six, the normal developing child makes many strides in language, cognitive/emotional, physical, and social development. Six is the age when the child is just beginning to get used to schooling, which may have begun during pre-school. Thus, the six-year-old's already extensive vocabulary becomes enhanced through reading skills. They begin to communicate and use words more clearly, and their language becomes not only a method through which they communicate but also a platform for learning ("Child Development Tracker" 2003-2008). As them complete kindergarten, six-year-olds learn to read with "fluency," which helps them begin to use words to write, learning how to develop their ideas through print ("Child Development Tracker" 2003-2008). In addition to linguistic development, the new experience of school also helps students develop in terms of intelligence and social steps. Six-year-olds begin developing their complex mathematic skills by learning how to place numbers on a number line, counting, understanding odd and even numbers, and beginning to learn how to add and subtract ("Child Development Tracker" 2003-2008). Creativity is also beginning to emerge, as children are exposed to different creative endeavors such as music and theater ("Child Development Tracker" 2003-2008). With their friends at school, six-year-olds develop socially through excitement and being able to show off. They enjoy sharing and interacting with their friends, and begin to understand self-control through becoming more aware of their and their own and others' emotions. Their stable relationships with caregivers and other adults, as well as routines, help them to feel secure ("Child Development Tracker" 2003-2008). Cognitively, the six-year-old is beginning to learn some…

Pages: 4  |  Thesis  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 3


Counseling for Children

¶ … physical and sexual abuse on children. This is accomplished through critiquing the book Protecting Children from Violence and the ideas that are presented. Once this takes place, is when psychologists can use these tools in their practice setting to identify and address these issues. Over the last several decades, child development has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because the incidents and events that are occurring during this part of an individual's life, will have an impact on who they will become in the future. A good example of this can be seen with a study that was conducted by the Center for Applied Studies in Education. They found, that the events and experiences of a child will have an impact upon the way they see the world around them. This is because, they will instinctively teach themselves how to deal with a host of issues they could be facing later on in life. Once this occurs, it will have an effect upon the kinds of decisions that are made when they become an adult. This is significant because, it is illustrating how there are a host of: events, ideas and people that will shape how a child develops over the long-term. (Bradely, 2002, pp. 371 -- 399) In the book Protecting Children from Violence, Lampinen (2010) is discussing how: this is impacting children and possible strategies for dealing with a host of challenges. This is accomplished by taking various points-of-view into account and the long-term effects that they are having on child development. To fully understand how this is impacting their growth requires examining the different ideas that are discussed by the author and conducting an analysis of them. Together, these elements will provide the greatest insights as to what factors are influencing the way a child will see the world around them. (Lampinen, 2010) Key Ideas of Protecting Children from Violence In the book, Lampinen is focused on a number of different provisions that can be used in conjunction with one another to understand a host of events that are impacting children. The most notable include: He is illustrating the long-term costs of physical and sexual abuse on society. They are identifying relevant research to illustrate how public perceptions and policies are different on this issue. They are discussing how violence that is directed at children is a worldwide…

Pages: 4  |  Book Report  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


Child Temperament

Child Temperament Temperament can be defined as behavioral inclination rather than behavior itself. Temperament, according to the temperament theorists is a natural and steady basis of later development of personality (Cicchetti; Toth, 1995). Although the theorists have the same opinion that formation of temperament is in the initial stage of life, yet they have different vision about what can be considered as temperamental components. According to Goldsmith temperament is the manifestation of primary emotions. He persisted that emotions give a tendency to the behaviors and psychological processes (Cicchetti; Toth, 1995). On the other hand, Goldsmith, Buss and Plomin define limited temperament as negative emotionality like distress. In addition, they included negative emotionality as sociability and activity for instance cadence, vigor or behavioral arousal. Whereas, Thomas and Chess defined temperament as behavioral styles that are in response to environmental stimulus. Here according to them temperament includes not aptitude, emotionality or inspiration, but rather rhythmicity (Goldsmith; Alansky, 1987). Thus, in the year 1970s, Thomas and Chess, described nine traits or characteristics of behavior in children, where every characteristic is on a spectrum from minor to intense. These traits have been used to describe the child's temperament (Fox; Kimmerly; Schafer, 1991). Characteristics of Temperament Activity level Rhythmicity Approach - withdrawal Adaptability Persistence - attention span Intensity of reaction Distractibility Threshold of responsiveness Quality of mood. Activity level: This trait is described as the total amount of physical movement during sleep and awake time. For instance, few babies are very happy to lie motionless on a blanket and occupy themselves with a toy for a longer period of time, while, others, roll themselves all over or continuously kick their arms and legs even though they are unable to roll themselves over. A common expression which is used to describe such highly active babies is "He's a bundle of energy!" (Seifer; Schiller; Sameroff; Resnick; Riordan, 1996). Rhythmicity: Rhythmicity describes the regularity of functions like sleep or hunger. In this trait few babies promptly set up a habit of eating after every three hours or falling asleep at the same time daily, while other infants may be much less unsurprising in their every day habits (Seifer; Schiller; Sameroff; Resnick; Riordan, 1996). Approach - withdrawal: The approach - withdrawal characteristics refers to the preliminary response to a new situation or incentive. Few children are more flexible in moving easily into new settings, taking very less time to…

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Children Sociology Theorizing Childhood Power Over Children

Children Sociology Child abuse is not an anomaly but part of the structural oppression of children. Assault and exploitation are risks inherent to 'childhood' as it is currently lived. It is not just the abuse of power over children that is the problem but the existence and maintenance of that power itself" (Kitzinger, 1997: 168). The power of the adults…

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Piaget Harry James Potter Was

Vygotsky and Bruner, both of whom also studied child development, noted that a stage theory is not as appropriate as a theory of developmental continuum (McLeod, 2009). The ages that Piaget ascribed to the stages might also be erroneous, and "progress to the formal operational stage is not guaranteed," (McLeod, 2009). According to Cherry (n.d.), "even Piaget believed that development does not always follow such a smooth and predictable path," as would be assumed from over-simplification of Piaget's research. The research was more valuable in informing educators, psychologists, and parents that children think differently from their adult counterparts. Their methods of evaluating the world and assimilating new information are different from adults. As a result, educational programs and curricula could be designed in developmentally appropriate ways. Piaget himself did not develop educational practices, but Piaget's theories do inform current pedagogy. "Many educational programs are now built upon the belief that children should be taught at the level for which they are developmentally prepared," (Cherry, n.d.). Specific instructional methods such as "providing a supportive environment, utilizing social interactions and peer teaching, and helping children see fallacies and inconsistencies in their thinking" are also rooted in Piaget's theories (Cherry, n.d.). Piaget did not take into account as many situational variables as might be necessary to provide a complete picture of child development, and his sampe sizes are also critiqued for being too small to yield valid results (McLeod, 2009). Environmental factors such as social setting do have an impact on learning and development, but Piaget does not take these issues into account (Vygotsky, cited by McLeod, 2009). Moreover, culture and ethnicity may play a role in child development. Piaget did not mention culture and ethnicity in his research. Some researchers have criticized Piaget's methodologies for research, as by claiming that the methods involved ineffective testing instruments (McLeod, 2009). Piaget's schema concept has also been criticized, and is incompatible with other theories of developmental psychology including behaviorism (McLeod, 2009). Furthermore, Sutton-Smith (1966) points out, Piaget also assumed a reductionist view of children's play activities: "Piaget deprives play of any genuinely constitutive role within thought," (p. 104). It is therefore difficult to prove Piaget's theories, however attractive they may be from the perspective of an educator. References Cherry, K. (n.d.). Background and key concepts of Piaget's theory. About.com. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/piagetstheory/a/keyconcepts.htm McLeod, S. (2009). Jean Piaget. Simply Psychology. Retrieved online: http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html "Stage Theory of…

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Childhood Education Proposal Location: Anywhere,

The outdoor area will be green and welcoming. Gardens and growing plants will be accessible and incorporated with play zones. Playground equipment will be age appropriate and surrounded by recycled fall-protection materials. We have identified wooden and other play structures that strive to keep a connection to where the wood comes from, and we will have neighborhood park outings and…

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Placement of Children and Youth

Smith (1998) also documented another important trend in relation to juveniles in juvenile justice residential placement settings that has occurred since 1987. As reported by Smith, the proportion of youth held in juvenile facilities for violent offenses increased over the period from 1987 to 1995 for both males and females. Findings reported by Smith suggested that males were more likely…

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Psychology Developmental Children's Use of

Games can be motivational intellectually in the pre-school and primary school curriculum. (Kamii & Devries, 1980, Kamii, 1985) Adults Interaction and Role in Children's Play: The adult role in children's play should follow guidelines. The adult should value children's play and talk to the child about their play. When appropriate, play with the child, most specifically during the early years. Creation of a playful atmosphere as well as provision of materials that are conducive to exploration in play is important. Sometimes offering a new prop or suggesting new roles can provide more productive experiences through play. The adult should intervene to assure safety in play as well as negotiating conflicts between children that the children are unable to find a solution to themselves. (Caldwell, 1977). According to Sroufe, Cooper and & DeHart, 1996), a primary focus has been early attachment relationships with the primary caregivers and other aspects of early care. Individual differences in the quality of these relationship experiences are predicted to be linked to peer relationships in all phases of development. Conclusion: The progression from simple to complex play is not an easy shift for some children in that children may exhibit nonsocial behavior which has been connected to peer rejection, social anxiety, loneliness, depression and negative esteem later in childhood and adolescence. Nonsocial play is also a negative indicator in terms of academic success. I recent studies the trend of nonsocial play was more often seen in classroom that were Title I having a larger proportion of children from low socioeconomic households. This in itself gives notice that policy makers need a better understanding of the cognitive development connections to children play in terms of academic performance. Bibliography Bergen, Doris (2001) "Pretend Play and Young Children's Development" ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education Champaign IL. Online] located at http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed307967.html DeHart, G.B., Sroufe, L.A., & Cooper, R.G. (2004). Child development: Its nature and course (5th ed.). Toronto: McGraw-Hill. Bear, G.G., & Rys, G.S. (1994). Moral reasoning, classroom behavior, and sociometric status among elementary school children. Developmental Psychology, 30, 633-638. Bergen, D. (1988). PLAY AS A MEDIUM FOR LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Caldwell, B. (1977). "Aggression and Hostility in Young Children." YOUNG CHILDREN, 32, pp. 4-13. Fein, G. (1981). "Pretend Play in Childhood: An Integrative Review." CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 52, pp. 1095-1118. Garvey, C. (1977). PLAY. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Kamii, C. (1985). YOUNG CHILDREN…

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Child Developmental Psychology

Child Development -- Neonatal/Postnatal Transition For the last several hours I have not been able to sleep or get comfortable. At least several times an hour I feel something squeezing me; it stops and then starts again a little while later. I also feel anxious, very much the same way my nervous system reacts after I hear those loud voices outside. The sounds don't actually scare me but I've noticed for at least a few months that the feelings that seem to come from inside me, from my blood, are somehow linked to the pitches, tones, and patterns of those voices outside. When the voices are soft and quiet, I usually feel calm and comfortable; but I've noticed that when they are loud it sometimes causes a rush of something in my system that makes me a little scared although I have no idea why. The same thing happens to me sometimes when I feel a much faster and jerkier pace to the jostling that I feel from the movements from outside even without any louder-then-usual voices from outside. Now this is getting very annoying because I'm getting squeezed again only it is happening much more frequently; it seems like every few minutes; to top it off, I'm feeling very anxious too for some reason. Something has entered my word and that has never happened before. it's touching me and it is trying to turn me completely upside down. How rude. So now I am upside down and getting squeezed very hard; I don't like this and I haven't gotten much restful sleep since yesterday. Sleep is out of the question now because I'm being pushed around and poked from outside. There are many more voices than usual too and it is so bright outside that it's coming right through the walls of whatever this is that I've been living in for almost a year. Something is touching me on my head again and now I'm being pushed so hard that I may end up outside of wherever it is that I am. I knew it; my head is now outside and the rest of me is being squeezed very hard. There are more of those things like the one that was touching me before and rudely turning me upside down. This time, they seem to be all over me. Suddenly, I am no longer warm and comfortable at all…

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Relationships and Abuse

Psychological Abuse Child abuse is one of the worst things many of us can imagine. The fact that it is almost always a child's parents who are the perpetrators of abuse makes the situation that much worse (Cook & Cook 2005, pp. 143). Sexual abuse is usually considered the worst type of child abuse, both by individuals and by the legal system, but other types of abuse exist. Psychological abuse is often overlooked in the uproar created by cases of physical and sexual abuse, but it is also a recognized form of child abuse with hugely detrimental effects (Cook & Cook 2005; Kairys & Johnson 2002). It is true that psychological damage is done by both physical and sexual abuse, but psychological abuse is also its own distinct entity. Quite often, physical and sexual abusers are also psychological abusers, but it is all too common to find situations of psychological abuse that is not accompanied by anything more physical or sexual in nature (Kairys & Johnson 2002, pp. 1). This can make it difficult to determine when such abuse occurs. Psychological abuse is also referred to as emotional abuse, and occurs when "verbal put-downs and other behavior that terrorizes, threatens, rejects, or isolates children or damages their self-esteem, thought processing, or ability to manage social interactions (Cook & Cook 20o5, pp. 141). Such abuse can also be termed psychological maltreatment, and it should be stressed that, like physical and sexual abuse, it is almost always found to be pattern that defines the parent- (or abuser-) child relationship, rather than a single occurrence (Kairys & Johnson 2002, pp. 1). Basically, psychological abuse puts a child into a position of consistent belittling in a way that reduces their own sense of significance. It can also severely dampen their self-esteem and hinder their decision making processes as they learn to think of themselves the way the abuser appears to, as worthless and incapable of performing even simple tasks. One stereotypical example of psychological abuse that persists today, often in front of the eyes and ears of other parents, is the obsessive encouragement (or admonishment, as is more often the case) of parents (often fathers) for their children (often sons) in athletic events and competitive sports. Though this pattern might not exist in other areas of the relationship, many fathers are relentless in their struggle to make their children achieve, and may even use…

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