"Child Development / Youth / Teens" Essays

123. . .Last ›
X Filters 

Child Development Evaluating Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (962 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The writer herself is a doctor and with the inclusion of opinion of other experts and their scientific findings this topics becomes more interesting and answers our question as to why most of us are not able to recall our early childhood memories (Klass).

The theoretical perspective that the author seem to use are biological and psychoanalytic. This can also be seen in the experts' point-of-view and in the scientific findings included in this article. At one point, we are told in this article that due to revolutionary reasons babies have to go through an extensive learning process, which indicates biological perspective, and on the other hand, we see in this article that memory test of two different children belonging to two different cultures showed different results which shows the presence of psychoanalytic perspective.

The author concludes her article by saying that development of memory, development of language, development of consciousness, development of personality and development of personality narrative all occurs side by side and seem to complement each other.

In my opinion, the conclusion seem to be valid because if we try recalling our childhood memories we will notice the strong presence of language skills, consciousness and personality and together all these things helps us in making sense of what we have recalled and how it can be related to us.

Overall, this article has informative implications for children and families. Beside this, it is highly important for parents because they are the one who give most time to their kids and if they once in a while sit with their kids and discuss past events to see how far their child memory can go then the distance of memory retrieval between grown ups and early childhood may be reduced (Klass). This might also help in the better grooming and personality development of our child as the child will be able to understand him in a much better way thus benefitting to the society as a whole (Papalia, Feldman and Feldman, pg 456).

In spite of the fact that the author has put in a very decent effort but there is still a room for more research to be included which can result in a much stronger and clear-cut conclusion. As after reading this article we still cannot determine the actual cause, for the failure to recall our earlier childhood memories and whether it has something to do with the human body and development of brain or, it is due to the external environmental factors exerted upon us during our childhood or, could it be the combination of all these factors (Papalia, Feldman and Feldman, pg 456).

Works Cited

Klass, Dr. Perri. "The Makings of Our Earliest Memories." 11-06 2012. The New York Times. 17-06 2012 .

Papalia, Diane, Ruth Duskin Feldman and Ruth Feldman. A Child's World: Infancy Through Adolescence. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011.… [read more]

Child Development Health Reflections Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (721 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


I thought about all the imbalanced and frankly, screwed up, adults that I know or encounter on a daily basis, and how a child development course for them or for their teachers would have gone a long way into making them more healthy. The epiphany was how great an impact proper and balanced child development can have upon us at all stages of human development.

After several weeks of child development coursework, I am still further interested in very early development, from birth to 5 years old, and adolescence. I have always been interested in very young children and adolescents. I additionally have a lot of sympathy for adolescents in the 21st century because of social media, and really, the kind of world we live in overall. I always felt that teenagers often got a bad rap or had lots of negative stereotypes unnecessarily projected onto them, as well as that a lot of issues that adults have often stem from those periods of development. I am interested in teaching preschool and high school as well, so that is one way my interest intersects with my professional goals.

I am more attuned to what stages of development children are in and am in a better position to assess their development in specific areas, and overall. I can also better infer what kind of school and home environments children occupy as well, based on their development and skills. I am also more in tune with how I would approach helping children develop holistically, and in specific areas. I feel like I know and understand children better. I feel as if they can pick up on my deeper or better understanding of what they are going through and I have noticed how increasingly comfortable children have become with me since I have experienced change and growth in my child development knowledge.


Gardner, H. (2003). Multiple Intelligences After Twenty Years. Harvard Graduate School of Education, American Education Research Association, 1 -- 15, Chicago: IL.

Piramide. (2012). Educating the Whole Child. The Piramide Approach to Early Learning, Web, Available from:…… [read more]

Child Development Imagination, Creativity, Consciousness Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (903 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Child Development

Imagination, creativity, consciousness, and play are some of the core elements of Lev Vygotsky's theories of child development. Vygotsky was concerned with the development of higher mental faculties in children, and wanted to study the origin and development of these functions (Vygotsky, 1966). Vygotsky did not believe that children were miniature adults, as was once believed (Vygotsky, 1966). However, child development also cannot be quantified, as the process of growth and development is far too complex. It is important to consider the possibility that evolution and revolution happen simultaneously in the child, so that growth occurs gradually for a while and then sometimes, in sudden bursts (Vygotsky, 1966). What Vygotsky observed was that growth and development in children is catalyzed by social experiences and social interactions. Social stimulation and children's observations of their social worlds cause both evolution and revolution in development.

Children learn by observing others, but they do not just learn behaviors and behavioral cues. Children also learn values and norms, by interacting with their social worlds and observing the reactions they receive after performing certain actions and also the reactions that others receive upon performing actions. As they mature, children are more able to perceive more complex stimuli and incorporate those into their matrix of awareness. One of the central and most unique components of Vygotsky's theory of child development is that Vygotsky believed that learning preceded actual development (Vygotsky, 1978). In other words, the child internalizes the lessons related to values, beliefs, behaviors, and norms. Then, that social learning becomes translated into personal development via internalization and processing. The internalization and processing are part of the higher order thinking Vygotsky remained concerned about throughout his career. Vygotsky's theory of child development is therefore also a theory of general cognitive development.

Like Vygotsky, Piaget was concerned with cognitive development as well as general child development. Piaget believed that the development of knowledge is a "spontaneous process" that is inherently linked to human biology (Piaget, 1961, p. 176). However, learning is "provoked by situations," and is therefore not linked to biology or instinct (Piaget, 1961, p. 176). In this case, Piaget does resonate with Vygotsky, as both researchers believed that social learning is the cornerstone of child development. The child acts as a sort of scientist or experimenter, according to Piaget. Learning cannot take place simply by observing something, as learning requires manipulation, interaction, operation, and experimentation. Development "explains learning," and learning is a function of development (Piaget, 1961, p. 176).

Piaget is perhaps best known for his theory of developmental stages. Even though Piaget resisted describing learning as being discrete events, the research did recognize stages of development. The four stages of cognitive development for Piaget…… [read more]

Deduce the Effects of Parenting Article Review

Article Review  |  3 pages (886 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


The sessions with the children included focus on increasing effective coping, improving the quality of the mother-child relationship and reducing negative thoughts about divorce related stressors using the help of activities such as video games, problem solving, role plays, etc. The literature control condition involved both mother and child being provided with 3 books about divorce adjustment and guidance to be completed over a period of six weeks.

To achieve the outcomes from the study, participants were interviewed on 5 different occasions; pre-test, post-test, 3 months after the test, 6 months after the test and 6 years after the test. These interviews included completing of subscales by both mothers and children on the factors of relationship quality, discipline and coping efforts. The results were deduced based on the data collected via the interviews, subscales and meditational testing.

The findings of the study reveal that the in the short-term period, the coping efficacy significantly increase, while in the longer term period, there are significantly higher levels of coping efficacy and active coping. Moreover, the finding also suggest that a strong relationship with the mother can have remarkable positive effects as they promote adaptive coping after parental divorces, and aid in helping children to battle off the stressors that can lead to avoidant coping. The findings also revealed that the discipline factor was non-significant with the coping process in children. The differences in the participants based on gender, parenting, and baseline risk status did not provide any evidence regarding the relations between the child's coping processes and parenting.

Unlike prior studies, this research contributes immensely on the inferences about the effects of parenting on the coping process. Moreover, the study can be highly significant in the creating of programs and policies that are relevant to child development as these suggest that a child can be aided with the coping process only with the parental influence. Additionally, the study would implicate on the issue of understand and preventing children from acquiring any mental health problems in the longer term.

The article and its research are significantly positive in helping to determine that children can be assisted with the coping process by the developing improved coping efficacy with the aid of a strong and quality relationship with the mother. Being a part of a family of divorced parents myself, the research topic is significant to me as it focuses and provides a solution on the aspect of child development of those children who have been a victim of parent divorces.


Ve'lez, C.E., Wolchik, S.A., Tein, J.-Y., & Sandler, I. (2011). Protecting Children From the Consequences of Divorce: A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Parenting…… [read more]

Child Development There Is an Extreme Deficiency Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (503 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Child Development

There is an extreme deficiency within the beliefs of nativist and behavioralist conceptions of the nature of development within the growing mind. Nativists believe the concept that development and influence comes directly from within. This thinking describes a much more internal version of the growing child, whereas behavioralists see it a much different way. According to behaviorists like Vygotsky, "The child solves an inner problem by means of exterior objects," (Vygotsky 1929). The external world dominates development through influence on mental development. Therefore, the culture has a large role within development. This is in contrast to the nativist view that development is independent of external factors, and would happen the same therefore, in all of us.

Therefore, Vygotsky's theories are much different to other prominent ideas which try to explain the nature of natural development within children. According to Vygotsky, "social interaction leads to continuous step-by-step changes in children's thought and behavior and that can very greatly from culture to culture," (Gallagher 1999). Thus, the social world is a powerful influence within the development of the child within it. Development, itself, "depends on interaction with people and the tools that the culture provides to help form their own view of the world," (Gallagher 1999). Therefore, language is fundamental in the developmental process within the context of Vygotsky's theory. Knowledge is self-constructed through observation of social interaction. Much different, was the views of Jean Piaget. His theory focuses on the cognitive influence on a child's development. According to Piaget, development…… [read more]

Child Development Humans Are Born Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (307 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


If a stage is managed well, the individual will carry away a certain virtue or psychosocial strength which will help him or her through the rest of the stages of life (Eric pp). However, if the individual does not do so well, then his or her future development may be endangered (Eric pp).

Work Cited

Eric Erikson.


Erikson's Eight Stages of Human Development

http://psychology.about.com/library/weekly/aa091500a.htm… [read more]

Child Development the First Two Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,277 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Freud's suggested that there are five psychosexual stages of development. Firstly the oral stage, which occurs from birth to about one year, is when the infant is orally oriented and everything the child touches is put into the mouth. According to Freud, this occurs not only for feeding purposes, but also for pleasure, and the gratification is sexual. Freud's second takes place between the ages of two and three years of age, when the erogenous zone shifts to the anal region. Freud believes children experience sexual gratification during bowel movements and when they withhold bowel movements. Following the Anal stage of development, and usually at around the age of three, the individual enters the Phallic Stage during which the child gains gratification from their sexual organs. The child notices differences and similarities between themselves and their parents and each sex wants to be with the parent of the other sex: for males this is known as the Oedipus complex and for girls this is referred to as the Elektra complex. Once the children realize they can not be with their mother or father, they identify with the parent of the same sex. Next is the Latency stage, characterized by a lack of change, and is a time of relative calm for the individual. The last stage of Freud's psychosexual development is the Genital Stage and, from puberty into adulthood, sexual desire and sexual relationships develop and mature.

Erikson took Freud's ideas and enhanced them, mainly by adding stages for the adult years, but also by emphasizing identity rather than sexuality. Erikson developed the eight psychosocial stages of development, the first of which occurs during infancy. This stage deals with trust vs. mistrust, and is when the child perceives whether the world can be trusted or not, and develops a trusting relationship with parents. The second stage, during early childhood, is known as autonomy vs. shame and doubt, and is when the child develops personal autonomy. This stage is important in determining whether or not a child develops a sense of self-certainty. Between the ages of three to six years, Erikson's third stage, that of initiative vs. guilt takes place. The individual develops initiative by the process of trial and error, and is important in developing the sense of enterprise. The fourth stage takes place around six years of age and lasts until puberty. This stage deals with industry vs. inferiority and is when the child learns skills of the culture and must deal with feelings of inferiority. Adolescence heralds the fifth stage, known as identity vs. identity confusion. It is during this stage that Erikson believes adolescents develop their sense of self and identity. The sixth stage for Erikson is known for intimacy vs. isolation and takes during young adulthood. This is when the individual seeks commitments from others, which if unsuccessful, may lead to isolation. The penultimate stage takes place during adulthood and is known as generativity vs. stagnation. The adult is concerned with guiding the next generation and… [read more]

Adolescent and Child Development Questionnaire

Questionnaire  |  7 pages (2,311 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Adolescent and Child Development

Lawrence Kohlberg's psychological theory of moral development is broken into three levels and a total of six stages (two stages for each level). Level One is the pre-conventional level of moral reasoning. This level is typically exuded by children as it considers the moral judgment of any situation as it relates to its direct consequences. Those… [read more]

Child Development When Sigmund Freud First Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (1,772 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Child Development

When Sigmund Freud first introduced the concepts of psychology, it led other theorists to look at the development of children into adults. Today, it is well-known that children develop from when they are born, with nearly no concept of the external world or themselves as separate beings, to adults, who learn about the world around them and how… [read more]

Child Development the Middle Childhood Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,614 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Child Development

The middle childhood is generally considered to be six to twelve years of age. I observed an eight-year-old boy playing at a playground. The boy's name is Chris.

He is smiling a lot so it can be seen that he has lost his baby teeth. Chris is rather tall for his age and he seems to be full… [read more]

Child Development Theories Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,515 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


After about five times of doing this with her father, Veronica tried it on her own. She needed help for the first two times, but on the third try was successful. She then practiced tying her shoe over and over for a good twenty minutes on her own until she was personally confident she had it down pat. Her beaming face of pride showed that she was pleased with her accomplishment.

Piaget's theories emphasize the importance of children having concrete learning experiences with actual objects in their environments as the only way for them to create mental maps of how things work both socially and physically. By teaching his daughter in the way that he did, Veronica's father was doing just this. He used a physical learning experience with an actual object from her environment (her shoe) to teach Veronica how to tie the shoe. By letting her practice on her own, he was giving Veronica the chance to create her own mental map of how a shoe is tied. Veronica was then able to relate the importance of knowing how to tie a shoe to her direct environment.


Resilience in Context: Ecological Systems." (2002). Building Resilience in the Early Years of School. Retrieved on November 9, 2003 at http://home pages.picknowl.com.au/Julietta/2-3Sys.htm.… [read more]

Social Concerns Theory Article Critique

Article Critique  |  4 pages (1,143 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


One conceptual framework produced by Yoshikawa, Aber and Beardslee (2012) examines four aspects of poverty and how these relate to the family and the children present in this arrangement. These factors are the main subjects or selection factors, the multidimensional nature of poverty, the mechanisms through which poverty affects children on an individual, relational and institutional level, and the multidimensionality of children's outcomes (Yoshikawa, Aber, & Beardslee, 2012). Of all the types of interventions studied, what showed to be the most effective was grounded on strategies formed by various economist and policy experts and were simply focused on reducing poverty as a solution. Based on multiple research findings, the authors are able to provide evidence that a causal effect between poverty and the negative impact on M-E-B health of children exists.


The theory of Social Concerns or Human Behaviors suggests something of a cause and effect type relationship between the person and their microsystem and well as broader systems that can be considered. The external factors related to a child's development can have a substantial influence on their development as well as be highly correlated with MEB issues later in life. However, children often lack the ability to seek a "goodness of fit" with their family environment during development. Thus the unity between a child and their parental environment is generally fairly static until the child reaches adult age.

This is an important developmental period as well because the environment has actual been shown to influence genetics and therefore the interactions a child has during development can have a lasting effect has indicate by several studies which adds credence to the perspective of viewing a family as a system. Although people have the capacity to change, the intimacy of the microsystem can have substantial effects on development and even their physiology. One question that remains is one that has plagued philosophers and researchers for centuries, where does free will come into play? Or does it?

Another interesting aspect of this work is how it can be applied to public health strategies to help mitigate negative effects on child development. Increasing evidence suggests that public health and health-promotion interventions that are based on social and behavioral science theories are more effective than those lacking a theoretical base (Glanz & Bishop, 2010). Obviously reducing poverty completely may not have sufficient political will in the current state of society. However, there are definitely opportunities for different health-promotion strategies based on evidence that could make societal improvements in the short-term. Therefore, from the perspective of the individual who is in need of assistance, any intervention that would help support them from outside their immediate microsystem could make a big difference in their quality of life as well as improve society on the whole.

Works Cited

Glanz, K., & Bishop, D. (2010). The Role of Behavioral Science Theory in Development and Implementation of Public Health Interventions. Annual Review of Public Health, 399-418.

Ha, J., Greenberg, J., & Seltzer, M. (2011). Parenting a Child With… [read more]

Interview of Testing a Child's Ability Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,740 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Child Development

Piaget's Conservation and Childhood Justification

Piaget's theories of child development have been generalized and widely accepted across the domains of psychology, child development, and education. It would not be inappropriate to label him as one of the most significant thinkers in the modern practice of these fields. Yet his work is not unassailable. He based the majority of… [read more]

J Piaget Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (552 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … child development is aimed at helping adult researchers become familiarized with how they were created out of the blissful ignorance of childhood. How do we know what we know, and how does the mind work within the limited context it is brought up within? In more recent times, neo-Vygotskian and Piagetian thinking, as seen in the work the Neo-Vygotskiam Approach to Child Development, adds additional dialogue into a long and heated debate regarding the evolution of the human mind from its origins in childhood.

Piaget posited a theory that we eventually reach a state of equilibrium when we have a good solid understanding of the world around us. We begin our journey as children with little understanding of the world. Eventually, we are exposed to various new stimuli which we then have to explain within our frame of mind. This understanding of stimuli within one's already structured existence is what Piaget called assimilation. The stimulus is assimilated into the bank of knowledge already in existence. However, some stimuli are more powerful in that they break free of prior understandings, forcing the child to create new schemas and understandings to explain the stimuli. This is the process of adaptation, where the child adapts his or her perceived notion of the world in order to account for new stimuli. The child's mind is thus in a state of equilibrium when there is a strong correlation between the nature of assimilation and accommodation. One reaches a state of equilibrium when one has a good solid and concrete knowledge of the universe and has adapted enough of its mind to accommodate for enough assimilation with relatively few needs…… [read more]

Immigrant Children's Development Children Immigrating Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,855 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Immigrant Children's Development

Children immigrating into the United States today represent a particularly diverse range of cultures, and some have had little or no formal education in their native countries. First and second- generation immigrant children are the fastest growing segment of the U.S. child population. Additionally, young immigrants are heavily concentrated in five states; California, New York, Texas, Florida,… [read more]

Early Childhood Development Issues Children Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,248 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


It is often the way adults express their emotions and actions that will tend to influence children and youth -- sometimes even more when dealing with special needs populations. Additionally, children with special needs tend to react to trauma and anything out of the ordinary based on their past experiences and ability to be aware of the current situation. These children have different triggers and cues, and adults in both the close and extended family can help these children by paying more attention to support their clues. Missing clues often leads to escalation, which then often leads to more frustration from adults. This is particularly true when the child has both a teacher and parent, since the two often see the child through different eyes (National Association of School Psychologists; Green and Shinn).

Within the family, the needs of the special child may often overshadow those of the other children -- not necessarily on purpose, but simply due to logistics. This sometimes results in greater care and empathy from the siblings, but sometimes causes jealousy and resentment, at least in the early years. Often, however, as the regular child matures, a bond is reached between the siblings that transcends through later years. The extended family, however, is usually quite supportive and a great help to the parents. Of course, there are those who shun the special child -- who are embarassed, but by in large being a "part-time" parent is typically easier than the duties of a full-time special needs caregiver, again depending on the particular disability of function (Parker).

Although every special-needs child is different and every family is unique, there are some common concerns that link parents of challenged kids, including getting appropriate care and accommodations; promoting acceptance in the extended family, school and community; planning for an uncertain future; and adjusting routines and expectations (Mission and Forums). In the last several years, though, the global approach to children with disabilities has changed -- largely based on education about this population, human rights issues, and a greater attention to social models. This paradigm shift focuses on the rights and needs of those with special needs -- how to be inclusive, not ashamed as parents and siblings, and to celebrate diversity. There are also far more support and help groups that specifically deal with stress and the needs of the parents and caregivers of special needs children, as well as the children themselves (International Disability and Development Consortium).

Works Cited

Green, S. And Shinn. "Parent Attitudes about Special Education." Exceptional Children 61.3 (1994): 269-74. Print.

Heron, K. "Special Children, Challenged Parents." Education and Treatment of CHildren 26.2 (2003): 201-14. Print.

International Disability and Development Consortium. "Guidance Note on Disability and Development." July 2004. Ec.europa.eu. Web. February 2012. .

"Mission and Forums." January 2012. Support for Special Needs. Web. February 2012. .

National Association of School Psychologists. "Coping with Crisis - Helping Children With Special Needs." March 2002. NASP Resources. Web. February 2012. .

Newacheck, P. And et. al. "An… [read more]

Spirituality in Young Children's Temperament and Self-Control: Cultural Influence Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  3 pages (1,150 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


" (Sharley, 2012, p. 1) It is reported that both Zapf (2005a) and Spretnak (1991) relate that spiritual values from this view make the assumption that nature and people are "inextricably linked." (Sharley, 2012, p. 1) Specifically stated about the tie that people have to the land is "A people rooted in the land over time have exchanged their tears, their breath, their bones, all of their element -- oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, all the rest -- with their habitat many times over. Here nature knows us." (Sharley, 2012, p. 1) From this view the individual is not held to be a different but the same as the natural environment and as such "conceptualized as a living system that is a source of energy and knowledge." (Sharley, 2012, p. 1) The physical environment form this view "does not provide a passive backdrop to human action but is a 'sensate conscious entity suffused with spiritual powers." (Sharley, 2012, p. 1) The ancestral relationships are reported to provide the individual with "clarity about the obligations, rights, roles and practices for connecting with people within and outside the culture of the whanu (wider family grouping), iwi (tribe) and hapu (Sub-tribe). (Sharley, 2012, p. 1) From the Western view this is known as the ecological or biopsychosocial model and conceptualizes the development of the child as "being influenced by interactive relationships occurring across a number of subsystems at ontogenic-level or the level of the individual, the micro-level of the family, and the exo-level or the community and finally at the macro-level or socio-cultural in the environment of the child.

III. Holladay (2007)

Children are influenced by music

Children are influenced by media

Children are influenced by television

Holladay (2007) reports that George Barna, known for conducting surveys and specifically related is that in Barna's studies on parenting and child development the following facts were revealed: "By the time an American child is 23 years of age, as was the killer in Virginia, he has seen countless murders among the more than 30,000 violent acts to which he is exposed through television, movies, and video games." (p.1) Holladay also relates "By age 23, the average American will have viewed thousands of hours of pornographic images, which diminish the dignity and the value of human life." (p.1) As well, Barna is reported by Holladay to have stated the following fact: "After nearly a quarter of a century, the typical American will have listened to hundreds of hours of music (I'll say thousands of hours of music) that fosters anger, hatred, disrespect for authority, selfishness, and radical independence. The younger generation is hooked on music." (2007, p.1) There is no doubt that culture has a great impact on the child's spiritual development, or alternatively, the lack of spiritual development of in the child.


Einoth, SR (2010) Building Strong Foundations World Vision's Focus on Early Childhood Development and Child Well-being. A research project carried out on behalf of the World Vision Institute for Research and… [read more]

Toddlers and Infants This Stage Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (946 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


The pieces or blocks are brightly colored to attract the eyes. The wooden geometric stacker has a base at which three wooden poles perpendicularly connected to holds the blocks together. The blocks or the pieces are stack one on top of the other either matching the colors shape or sizes. However, the children can play with the blocks independently from the wooden base. The toy offers entertaining and delightful experience.

The wooden geometric stacker is ideal for instilling shape, color and size contrast early in children. It is also credited with building creativity in those who use it as well as problem solving and sequencing skills. In addition, the toy enables children to be imaginative and enhances their cognitive, emotional and mental development. According to Berk (2009), children engagements with the toy help them blend socially with other children.

Middle School and Teenagers

Middle school children and teenagers have thoughts that are more abstract, especially in teenage, most of them use formal logic. They have the ability to outline abstract propositions, hypothesize and conclude. Many are approaching puberty and their "focus is mainly on de-ning personal values and goals and establishing autonomy from the family" (Berk, 2009, p. 8). Some of the most helpful activities or games for this category of children include leapfrog explorer learning game movies such as Hannah Montana; various puzzles, Monopoly and wire puzzles.

Monopoly is ideal for this age group; it offers educational benefits and is fun filled (Pascale, 2009). Monopoly makes it possible for the participants to do things together aiding in bonding. It encourages children to count aloud; this instills basic math as well as teaching them how to use money. Learning is made easy as the children count the dots on the die and the denomination of the monies. This prepares them for greater numbers as they learn in school. Monopoly helps enhance ability to complete simple transactions; playing the game involves transactions, cash exchanges and buying of property providing them with basic understanding of business sense.

Other than buying property, the game exposes the participants to experiences associated with places. For instance, it takes them to the amusement parks where they place ticket booths on spaces. In addition, they role-play increasing their commitment as they play. Monopoly teaches children how to engage well with others. This is essential in enhancing a child's ability to achieve educational success.


Berk, L.E. ( 2009). Development Through the Lifespan. Allyn and Bacon.

DoctorNDTV.com. (2007). Child development: Your Questions Answered.

Gabbard, C., & Rodrigues, L. (2008). Optimizing Early Brain and Motor Development Through

Movement. Retrieved March 17, 2012, from www.earlychildhoodnews.com: http://www.earlychildhoodnews.com/earlychildhood/article_view.aspx?ArticleID=360

Pascale, C. (2009, June 15). The Benefits of Playing Monopoly, Jr. Retrieved March 17, 2012, from www.christopher-pascale.suite101.com: http://christopher-pascale.suite101.com/the-benefits-of-playing-monopoly-jr

Teresa M. McDevitt, J.E. (2002). Child Development and Education. Merrill/Prentice Hall.… [read more]

Youth Jean Piaget's Theory Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,182 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Adolescence is not the end-stage of moral and cognitive development for Piaget, and he asserted that these would continue to be improved and refined throughout adulthood into old age. As with his theory of cognitive development, researchers like Lawrence Kohlberg also discovered that younger children are also able to comprehend abstract moral values at an earlier age than he realized.

. Erik Erikson revised the stages of development in Freudian psychoanalysis away from the emphasis on gratification of the basic drives and instincts of the id to gratification and development of the ego, and therefore like most of the later Freudians has been considered an ego psychologist. He did not name his stages oral, anal, phallic, latent and genital as Freud had, and deemphasized sexual gratification as the basic motor of human development. In the oral stage, for example, he argued that the infant was in a state of dependency on the mother and had to develop a sense of her "caring and dedication to feeding" and other basic needs (DeRobertis, 2008, p. 90). Without this, children would lack a sense or trust and hope, and if abused or neglected would withdraw into a state similar to schizophrenia. At the next stage of development during toilet training, children would develop a sense of autonomy and ego control, as long as they had supportive and helpful parents, but is they were abused or mistreated by controlling, domineering or neurotic parents then they would have personalities based on shame and doubt, as well as obsessive-compulsive personalities. In the phallic stage, which is one of initiative vs. guilt, children with abusive or controlling parents would end up feeling guilty about sexuality and develop hysterical neuroses (DeRobertis, p. 91). Adolescents must pass through a stage where they develop their own unique identities and moral codes vs. simply conforming and fitting in with the parents, families and peers. If they successfully navigate this stage -- and of course many people fail to do so -- then they will be healthy adults who are confident in their own identities. Late adolescents also pass through a stage of intimacy vs. isolation, in which they develop the ability to love and be loved by other adults, as well as to maintain friendships. Those who fail to pass through this stage may become emotionally distant and shut off, over overly needy and dependent on others.

The theories of Erikson and Piaget have been revised over time, particularly the idea that all children and adolescents pass through the same stages at the same ages, or that emotional, cognitive and moral development always proceed at the same pace in every individual. Nor do today's researchers consider each stage of life a 'crisis' as Erikson did, at least not for all individuals. Erikson and Piaget remain very influential today because of their pioneering work, even if contemporary development theorists reject the concept of rigid and inflexible stages of life. Youth development in contemporary times is considered far more fluid and experimental, with… [read more]

Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (797 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Thus many sources were tied together to attempt to create a unifying set of rights for children that can be governed by the United Nations.


The first article in the declaration simply defines the child as someone under the age of eighteen. This is something of an arbitrary date in my opinion. For example, if someone is eighteen years old and one day, then they have a different set of rights and responsibilities as they did the previous day. However, the definition of adulthood must be established somehow and an arbitrary date is probably the easiest way to do so. The second article ensures the rights of children even if their parents or legislative authorities have a different opinion based on race, sex, color, etc. This protects children from discrimination.

Most of the rest of the articles are about the protection of children in one respect or another. They cover topics as a child who is missing an identity as should be granted one. Or if a child is displaced then they should be relocated to an appropriate physical location. However, beyond these basic protections, one of the interesting aspects to the declarations is that it gives children the freedom of association and the freedom of peaceful assembly. This is interesting because it is not exactly practiced much and it has a lot of potential to change the political landscape. Consider climate change for example, this is going to affect the people who are currently going through their childhoods more so than the generation that is currently in power. Thus if children were to organize, as some have, and had their voices heard, then they might be able to achieve some intergenerational equality in the treatment of the world's ecological issues.

Works Cited

UNICEF. "Convention on the Rights of the Child ." 12 March 2014. UNICEF. Online. 31 March 2014.

United Nations. "Conventions on the Rights of the…… [read more]

Piagetian Theory the Child Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (632 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Piagetian theory

The child that I observed was a kindergartener named Billy. According to Piaget, children at Billy's age are in the preoperational stage of development. "During this stage, young children are able to think about things symbolically. Their language use becomes more mature. They also develop memory and imagination, which allows them to understand the difference between past and future, and engage in make-believe. But their thinking is based on intuition and still not completely logical. They cannot yet grasp more complex concepts such as cause and effect, time, and comparison" (Piaget's stages of development, 2013, WebMD). Billy's developing imaginative capacity is evidenced in his 'play' stacking and destroying walls made of available cardboard boxes while making noises that suggest explosions. After engaging in this for some time with a fellow student Billy then switched to assembling jigsaw puzzles. Although Billy was able to correctly assemble the puzzles, he eventually mixed up the pieces and tried to make a new puzzle with the available mixed sections. To Piaget this would indicate that Billy can replicate putting a puzzle together but does not fully understand that each puzzle is made up of unique shapes that can only be assembled correctly together.

During the preoperational stage, children tend to be very egocentric. "Children view things that are happening around them in only one point-of-view," namely their own (Presnell 1999). This egocentrism can be seen in Billy's occasional disruptive behavior, when he was biting and kicking another student to 'get his way.' Billy was unable to empathize with the other student's perspective. Nor was he able to empathize with other students who might want to assemble the jigsaw puzzles as he did, but could not now Billy had mixed up the pieces.

Observation: Vygotsky's theory

In contrast to Piaget's theory of development, which stresses that development occurs in a series of sequential stages that are relatively…… [read more]

Mediation in Family Law Cases Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,323 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


They have a problem with authority because with uninvolved parents they did not have authority figures. These children do not know what love is or how to love so they begin to fall into the wrong groups and place that label to what they feel is love which can harm them. All of these parenting styles have a major impact… [read more]

Divorce on Children Impact Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (1,991 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Remarriage, especially of the custodial parent, can significantly ease the economic adversity resulting from the divorce and therefore eliminate some of the practical stresses for children of divorce. This can significantly increase the well-being, both psychological and physical, of younger children (Peck 1989). However, remarriage tends to have a negative influence on older children, especially those in early adolescence and especially if the remarrying parent is the custodial mother. A 1989 study of the effects of remarriage on early adolescents found that "living with one's mother and stepfather following parents' divorce is associated with significantly less happiness and life satisfaction among both men and women" (Twaite et al. ____).

There is overwhelming evidence that divorce has a negative impact on the development of children at all ages. From the parental stress that influences an infant's anxiety level, to the psychological difficulties encountered by a young boy who has no consistent male role model, to the bitterness of the teenager who must move away from her friends to live somewhere cheaper, all aspects of divorce are disruptive to a child's sense of security, well-being, and confidence. However, there is some good news. While the impact of divorce on children is undeniable, it is not insurmountable. Children consistently show astonishing resilience and adaptive capabilities in the face of adversity, and children of divorce are no exception. When Acock & Demo (1994) compared the well-being of adults based on their childhood family structure, they found only a small difference between those who grew up in families untouched by divorce and those who grew up in divorced or remarried families. They concluded that, despite all of the stresses associated with divorce, "family structure has only a modest effect on children's well-being" (Weiten et al. 2012).


Benson, J. (2009) Social and Emotional Development in Infancy and Early Childhood. San Diego, CA: Elsevier.

DeFranc, W. And Mahalik, J.R. (2002) Masculine gender role conflict and stress in relation to parental attachment and separation. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, Vol. 3, Iss. 1, 51-60.

Hughes, R. (November 20, 2010) What is the real divorce rate in the U.S. Huffington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2012 from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/robert-hughes/what-is-the-real-divorce-_b_785045.html.

Nauert, R. (March 7, 2007) Family stress affects kid's physical health. PsychCentral. Retrieved Aprill 11, 2012 from http://psychcentral.com/news/2007/03/07/family-stress-affects-kids-physical-health/669.html.

Peck, J.S. (1989) The impact of divorce on children at various stages in the family life cycle. Children of Divorce: Developmental and Clinical Issues, C.A. Everett, ed. London: The Haworth Press.

Stadelmann, S., Perren, S., Groeben, M., and von Klizting, K. (March 2010) Parental separation and children's behavioral/emotional problems: the impact of parental representations and family conflict. Family Process, Vol. 49, Iss.1, p. 92-109.

Twaite, J.A., Silitsky, D. And Luchow, A. (1998) Children of Divorce: Adjustment, Parental Conflict, Custody, Remarriage, and Recommendations for Clinicians. N. Bergen, NJ: Aronson, Inc.

Weiten, W., Dunn, D. And Hammer, E.Y. (2012) Psychology Applied…… [read more]

Youth Transition Out of Foster Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  6 pages (1,523 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The instrument used for the investigation was the Multidimensional Adolescent Satisfaction Scale. Results of the study indicated that the only background characteristic found to be significantly associated with satisfaction with counseling was custody status, while attitudes toward mental health services was the only variable found to be a significant predictor of counseling satisfaction in the study (Scott et al., 2009).


Ahrens, K.R., Dubois, D.L., Richardson, L.P., Fan, M.Y., Lozano, P. (2008). Youth in foster care with adult mentors during adolescence have improved adult outcomes. Pediatrics, 121(2), e246-52.

Keller, T.E., Cusick, G, R., Courtney, M.E. (2007). Approaching the transition to adulthood: distinctive profiles of adolescents aging out of the child welfare system. Social Services Review, 81(3), 453-84.

Kushel, M.B., Yen, I.H., Gee, L., Courtney, M.E. (2007). Homelessness and healthcare access after emancipation: results from the Midwest evaluation of adult functioning of former foster youth. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 161(10), 986-93.

Munson, M.R., Smalling, S.E., Spencer, R., Scott, L.D., Tracy, E. (2009). A steady presence in the midst of change: nonkin natural mentors in the lives of older youth exiting foster care. Child and Youth Services Review, 32(4), 527-35.

Scott, L.D., Munson, M.R.,…… [read more]

Comprehensive Proposal for Development of an Early Childhood Education Program Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,742 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Early Childhood Educational Center

Program's center vision statement

The vision of the multicultural childhood center (MCC) is to structure a learning program that, whilst generally informative and inspiring, is individually catered to the character and potentialities of each child.

It aims to integrate families and the various ethnic communities into this education. It also aims to approach the… [read more]

Developing in a Family Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (3,295 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


Family Development

Child care advice for parents

Child care and day care institutions are very much part of family life in contemporary Western societies. Our new generation of parents, especially mothers, have been psyched to believe that starting a family is no longer an impediment to having an enduring career that is both personally and financially rewarding. It can be… [read more]

Human Development in the Environment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (4,145 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


¶ … Asher Lev

Just as one can develop a sociological analysis of the development of a person in the environment in which he or she was raised and make certain judgments about what influenced that development and how, so can one do the same thing with a fictional character, assuming the author has provide sufficient data that can be… [read more]

2-Year-Old Two-Year-Old Child Development Case Study

Case Study  |  9 pages (3,101 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


2-year-Old Case Study

Two-Year-old Child Development Case Study

Healthy early childhood development is highly dependent on some rather simple, yet profound variables. The first few feelings that an infant has are very basic instinctual attachments or bonding to his or her immediate environmental surroundings, including caregivers. Security is the primal most comforting feeling an infant has and if it is… [read more]

Child Psychology Mander Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (551 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Keith. (April 2004). "A risk and resiliency model of ambiguous loss in postdivorce stepfamilies." Journal of Communication, Vol. 4, Issue 2.

This study establishes the hypothesis that children who are known to be "capable of maintaining healthy relationships with other family members" are those who are best able to cope with family changes. These family changes include the loss of a parent (resulting from a divorce and one parent being a single parent) or the inclusion of a new parent and/or family. This study has relevance to single parenting and child development because it shows how single parenting is not a major factor affecting a person's development as an individual.

Guttmann, J. And M. Rosenberg. (September 2003). "Emotional intimacy and children's adjustment: a comparison between single-parent divorced and intact families." Educational Psychology, Vol. 23, Issue 4.

Important findings from this study show that single parents have "less intimate" relationships with their children than those families between children and their parents (from intact families). This study demonstrates how single parenting poses as a major influence in child development, and determining the factors that contribute to the decline in intimacy between single parent and child (children) is vital.

Dunn, J. And T. O'Connor. (December 2002). "Out of the picture: a study of family drawings by children from step-, single-parent, and non-step families." Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, Vol.31, Issue 4.

This study was conducted in order to determine how children cope with the effects of divorce and remarriage, which was found to affect their development. Results from the study reflect that non-biological relatedness, i.e., the addition of a step-family, results to greater disconnectedness between the…… [read more]

Younger Brother's Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,550 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Hereditary and environmental factors need to be taken into account as well. All children are born with traits that their parents have passed down to them. Everyone is born with hereditary potential, which is then shaped and molded by surroundings or the culture. A realistic definition of culture would be a social group.

In many cases, for example, a child who comes from an artistic or musical family will have this ability as well. Or, someone who has parents who were both overweight as they were growing up (due to genetics not diet) may also have a similar tendency.

A child's development will be determined by physical factors such as the type and amount of foods he/she eats, the amount of sleep received on average and the mother's health while pregnant. Socio-economic factors will also impact the child's development: For example, children from single-family homes are more at risk of having behavioral problems. Youth who are abused physically or emotionally may have psychological problems or learning delays.

It is important for a number of reasons to study child development. Above all, as noted above, is having proper expectations. This way, one can know what a child should or should not be capable of doing at what age, so action can be taken/or not as required. Information on normal development facilitates early detection of problems and helps in the prevention and treatment of deviant or atypical development.


Healy, Jane. Your child's growing mind. Galena, IL:…… [read more]

Piaget Harry James Potter Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (883 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Vygotsky and Bruner, both of whom also studied child development, noted that a stage theory is not as appropriate as a theory of developmental continuum (McLeod, 2009). The ages that Piaget ascribed to the stages might also be erroneous, and "progress to the formal operational stage is not guaranteed," (McLeod, 2009).

According to Cherry (n.d.), "even Piaget believed that development does not always follow such a smooth and predictable path," as would be assumed from over-simplification of Piaget's research. The research was more valuable in informing educators, psychologists, and parents that children think differently from their adult counterparts. Their methods of evaluating the world and assimilating new information are different from adults. As a result, educational programs and curricula could be designed in developmentally appropriate ways. Piaget himself did not develop educational practices, but Piaget's theories do inform current pedagogy. "Many educational programs are now built upon the belief that children should be taught at the level for which they are developmentally prepared," (Cherry, n.d.). Specific instructional methods such as "providing a supportive environment, utilizing social interactions and peer teaching, and helping children see fallacies and inconsistencies in their thinking" are also rooted in Piaget's theories (Cherry, n.d.).

Piaget did not take into account as many situational variables as might be necessary to provide a complete picture of child development, and his sampe sizes are also critiqued for being too small to yield valid results (McLeod, 2009). Environmental factors such as social setting do have an impact on learning and development, but Piaget does not take these issues into account (Vygotsky, cited by McLeod, 2009). Moreover, culture and ethnicity may play a role in child development. Piaget did not mention culture and ethnicity in his research. Some researchers have criticized Piaget's methodologies for research, as by claiming that the methods involved ineffective testing instruments (McLeod, 2009). Piaget's schema concept has also been criticized, and is incompatible with other theories of developmental psychology including behaviorism (McLeod, 2009). Furthermore, Sutton-Smith (1966) points out, Piaget also assumed a reductionist view of children's play activities: "Piaget deprives play of any genuinely constitutive role within thought," (p. 104). It is therefore difficult to prove Piaget's theories, however attractive they may be from the perspective of an educator.


Cherry, K. (n.d.). Background and key concepts of Piaget's theory. About.com. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/piagetstheory/a/keyconcepts.htm

McLeod, S. (2009). Jean Piaget. Simply Psychology. Retrieved online: http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html

"Stage Theory of Cognitive Development (Piaget)" (n.d.). Learning Theories. Retrieved online: http://www.learning-theories.com/piagets-stage-theory-of-cognitive-development.html

Sutton-Smith, B. (1966). Piaget on play: A critique. Psychological Review 73(1): 104-110.… [read more]

Counseling for Children Book Report

Book Report  |  4 pages (1,232 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … physical and sexual abuse on children. This is accomplished through critiquing the book Protecting Children from Violence and the ideas that are presented. Once this takes place, is when psychologists can use these tools in their practice setting to identify and address these issues.

Over the last several decades, child development has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because the incidents and events that are occurring during this part of an individual's life, will have an impact on who they will become in the future. A good example of this can be seen with a study that was conducted by the Center for Applied Studies in Education. They found, that the events and experiences of a child will have an impact upon the way they see the world around them. This is because, they will instinctively teach themselves how to deal with a host of issues they could be facing later on in life. Once this occurs, it will have an effect upon the kinds of decisions that are made when they become an adult. This is significant because, it is illustrating how there are a host of: events, ideas and people that will shape how a child develops over the long-term. (Bradely, 2002, pp. 371 -- 399)

In the book Protecting Children from Violence, Lampinen (2010) is discussing how: this is impacting children and possible strategies for dealing with a host of challenges. This is accomplished by taking various points-of-view into account and the long-term effects that they are having on child development. To fully understand how this is impacting their growth requires examining the different ideas that are discussed by the author and conducting an analysis of them. Together, these elements will provide the greatest insights as to what factors are influencing the way a child will see the world around them. (Lampinen, 2010)

Key Ideas of Protecting Children from Violence

In the book, Lampinen is focused on a number of different provisions that can be used in conjunction with one another to understand a host of events that are impacting children. The most notable include:

He is illustrating the long-term costs of physical and sexual abuse on society.

They are identifying relevant research to illustrate how public perceptions and policies are different on this issue.

They are discussing how violence that is directed at children is a worldwide phenomenon.

Lampinen is introducing strategies that can be utilized to reduce the levels of violence against children.

He is examining possible intervention strategies that can be used in preventing violence that is targeted at children.

These elements are important, because they are providing a basic foundation of the key ideas that the author is discussing throughout the book. Once this occurs, is when they can help psychologists to have a variety of tools in dealing with these situations. (Lampinen, 2010)

To provide further explanation about core concepts Lampinen is studying different aspects of the problem to include: the history, best… [read more]

Childhood Education Proposal Location: Anywhere Business Proposal

Business Proposal  |  9 pages (2,557 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


The outdoor area will be green and welcoming. Gardens and growing plants will be accessible and incorporated with play zones. Playground equipment will be age appropriate and surrounded by recycled fall-protection materials. We have identified wooden and other play structures that strive to keep a connection to where the wood comes from, and we will have neighborhood park outings and… [read more]

Developmental Process Presentation Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,168 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Child Development of Six and Ten-Year-Olds

According to the Center for Disease Control, childhood development is crucial both for the individual child and for society. An individual who is not provided with the resources he or she needs to develop properly will have trouble succeeding in life on a personal level. In addition, a society's cost of caring for those who do not develop normally is often discussed as an important consequence of those who do not provide for an environment for development. Thus, parents, teachers, and other people who work with children need to be aware of developmental stages, as interventions can be sought for those whose developmental problems are detected early. An examination of the development of children at ages six and ten will give examples of some of the stages that caregivers should observe.

At the sage of six, the normal developing child makes many strides in language, cognitive/emotional, physical, and social development. Six is the age when the child is just beginning to get used to schooling, which may have begun during pre-school. Thus, the six-year-old's already extensive vocabulary becomes enhanced through reading skills. They begin to communicate and use words more clearly, and their language becomes not only a method through which they communicate but also a platform for learning ("Child Development Tracker" 2003-2008). As them complete kindergarten, six-year-olds learn to read with "fluency," which helps them begin to use words to write, learning how to develop their ideas through print ("Child Development Tracker" 2003-2008).

In addition to linguistic development, the new experience of school also helps students develop in terms of intelligence and social steps. Six-year-olds begin developing their complex mathematic skills by learning how to place numbers on a number line, counting, understanding odd and even numbers, and beginning to learn how to add and subtract ("Child Development Tracker" 2003-2008). Creativity is also beginning to emerge, as children are exposed to different creative endeavors such as music and theater ("Child Development Tracker" 2003-2008). With their friends at school, six-year-olds develop socially through excitement and being able to show off.

They enjoy sharing and interacting with their friends, and begin to understand self-control through becoming more aware of their and their own and others' emotions. Their stable relationships with caregivers and other adults, as well as routines, help them to feel secure ("Child Development Tracker" 2003-2008).

Cognitively, the six-year-old is beginning to learn some basics of reality, such as being able to tell the difference between what is real and what is a fantasy, and learning to distinguish among feelings, thoughts, and actions ("Child Development Guide" 2006-2009). In addition, they begin to understand and "become comfortable with" their gender identities, and they begin developing problem solving schools ("Child Development Guide" 2006-2009). These developmental stages are important because they begin to move children into the realm of real life, allowing them to function, making decisions.

Finally, the six-year-old's physical development is characterized by high energy levels. They exhibit signs of restlessness, clumsiness, and sexual awareness.… [read more]

Children Sociology Theorizing Childhood Power Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,510 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Children Sociology

Child abuse is not an anomaly but part of the structural oppression of children. Assault and exploitation are risks inherent to 'childhood' as it is currently lived. It is not just the abuse of power over children that is the problem but the existence and maintenance of that power itself" (Kitzinger, 1997: 168). The power of the adults… [read more]

Psychology Developmental Children's Use Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,011 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Games can be motivational intellectually in the pre-school and primary school curriculum. (Kamii & Devries, 1980, Kamii, 1985)

Adults Interaction and Role in Children's Play:

The adult role in children's play should follow guidelines. The adult should value children's play and talk to the child about their play. When appropriate, play with the child, most specifically during the early years. Creation of a playful atmosphere as well as provision of materials that are conducive to exploration in play is important. Sometimes offering a new prop or suggesting new roles can provide more productive experiences through play. The adult should intervene to assure safety in play as well as negotiating conflicts between children that the children are unable to find a solution to themselves. (Caldwell, 1977). According to Sroufe, Cooper and & DeHart, 1996), a primary focus has been early attachment relationships with the primary caregivers and other aspects of early care. Individual differences in the quality of these relationship experiences are predicted to be linked to peer relationships in all phases of development.


The progression from simple to complex play is not an easy shift for some children in that children may exhibit nonsocial behavior which has been connected to peer rejection, social anxiety, loneliness, depression and negative esteem later in childhood and adolescence. Nonsocial play is also a negative indicator in terms of academic success. I recent studies the trend of nonsocial play was more often seen in classroom that were Title I having a larger proportion of children from low socioeconomic households. This in itself gives notice that policy makers need a better understanding of the cognitive development connections to children play in terms of academic performance.


Bergen, Doris (2001) "Pretend Play and Young Children's Development" ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education Champaign IL.

Online] located at http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed307967.html

DeHart, G.B., Sroufe, L.A., & Cooper, R.G. (2004). Child development: Its nature and course (5th ed.). Toronto: McGraw-Hill.

Bear, G.G., & Rys, G.S. (1994). Moral reasoning, classroom behavior, and sociometric status among elementary school children. Developmental Psychology, 30, 633-638.

Bergen, D. (1988). PLAY AS A MEDIUM FOR LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Caldwell, B. (1977). "Aggression and Hostility in Young Children." YOUNG CHILDREN, 32, pp. 4-13.

Fein, G. (1981). "Pretend Play in Childhood: An Integrative Review." CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 52, pp. 1095-1118.

Garvey, C. (1977). PLAY. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.


Kamii, C., & DeVries, R. (1980). GROUP GAMES IN EARLY EDUCATION: IMPLICATIONS OF PIAGET'S THEORY. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.

Collins, A. et al. (1996) "Relationships as Developmental Contexts"

Minnesota Symposium on Child Psychology 1996, University of Minnesota; Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,

DeHart G., Konchalski J., Keogh J., & Miller K. (1996, August). Averted conflicts in children's interactions with siblings and with friends. Poster presented at the biennial meeting of the International…… [read more]

Child Temperament Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,057 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Child Temperament

Temperament can be defined as behavioral inclination rather than behavior itself. Temperament, according to the temperament theorists is a natural and steady basis of later development of personality (Cicchetti; Toth, 1995). Although the theorists have the same opinion that formation of temperament is in the initial stage of life, yet they have different vision about what can be considered as temperamental components. According to Goldsmith temperament is the manifestation of primary emotions. He persisted that emotions give a tendency to the behaviors and psychological processes (Cicchetti; Toth, 1995).

On the other hand, Goldsmith, Buss and Plomin define limited temperament as negative emotionality like distress. In addition, they included negative emotionality as sociability and activity for instance cadence, vigor or behavioral arousal. Whereas, Thomas and Chess defined temperament as behavioral styles that are in response to environmental stimulus. Here according to them temperament includes not aptitude, emotionality or inspiration, but rather rhythmicity (Goldsmith; Alansky, 1987).

Thus, in the year 1970s, Thomas and Chess, described nine traits or characteristics of behavior in children, where every characteristic is on a spectrum from minor to intense. These traits have been used to describe the child's temperament (Fox; Kimmerly; Schafer, 1991).

Characteristics of Temperament

Activity level


Approach - withdrawal


Persistence - attention span

Intensity of reaction


Threshold of responsiveness

Quality of mood.

Activity level:

This trait is described as the total amount of physical movement during sleep and awake time. For instance, few babies are very happy to lie motionless on a blanket and occupy themselves with a toy for a longer period of time, while, others, roll themselves all over or continuously kick their arms and legs even though they are unable to roll themselves over. A common expression which is used to describe such highly active babies is "He's a bundle of energy!" (Seifer; Schiller; Sameroff; Resnick; Riordan, 1996).


Rhythmicity describes the regularity of functions like sleep or hunger. In this trait few babies promptly set up a habit of eating after every three hours or falling asleep at the same time daily, while other infants may be much less unsurprising in their every day habits (Seifer; Schiller; Sameroff; Resnick; Riordan, 1996).

Approach - withdrawal:

The approach - withdrawal characteristics refers to the preliminary response to a new situation or incentive. Few children are more flexible in moving easily into new settings, taking very less time to join up new playmates group. On the other hand, some may take time by firstly observing the scene for a longer period before joining or accepting a new situation (Seifer; Schiller; Sameroff; Resnick; Riordan, 1996).

This approach can also be related to other settings or situations like trying a new food or altering a daily routine, such as, some children are very keen in seeking new activities and experiences while others may withdraw themselves from any such new experiences.


Adaptability refers to the easiness or complexity with which reactions can be adapted. This trait is much similar to approach-withdrawal,… [read more]

Placement of Children and Youth Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,766 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Smith (1998) also documented another important trend in relation to juveniles in juvenile justice residential placement settings that has occurred since 1987. As reported by Smith, the proportion of youth held in juvenile facilities for violent offenses increased over the period from 1987 to 1995 for both males and females. Findings reported by Smith suggested that males were more likely… [read more]

Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,935 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


They want to feel like grown-ups, but they still have very little self-control. In addition, sexuality is just another piece of the puzzle that adds to their insecurities, taboos, curiosities etc. There'd plenty of sexually explicit material and they are bound to be attracted by what they know very little about, but are eager to find out as much as possible. The worst thing for adolescents would be to learn about their sexuality from television programs.

Most of the educational programs mentioned can be viewed worldwide thanks to cable, along with those each country has designed for its younger viewers. However, the regulations regarding TV commercials are widely varying, so the invitation to eat high calorie foods and drinks may still be allowed in some countries. Plus, television watching means being sedentary in any country. Television watching can create unhealthy eating habits and an overall unhealthy living style, inclination to violence, distorted ideas about sexuality, women vs. men's roles and other important social issues, therefore it should be strictly controlled and restricted to a minimum.

Works Cited page:

The American School System. Grades, School Hours and Terms. Available at: http://www.justlanded.com/english/United-States/USA-Guide/Education/The-American-school-system retrieved: Oct. 7th, 2014

Ferguson, Christopher J. 2013. Adolescents, Crime, and the Media: A Critical Analysis. Springer Science & Business Media

PMC. U.S. National Library of Medicine.

National Institutes of Health Impact of media use on children and youth. 2003. Paediatrics Child Health. 2003 May-Jun; 8(5): 301 -- 306. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2792691/#b1-pch08301 Retrieved: Oct 7th, 2014

Strasburger. VC. 1997. "Children, Adolescents and Television. A Call for Physician Action." West J. Med. May 1997; 166(5): 353 -- 354. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1304241/?page=1 Retrieved: Oct 7th, 2014

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2011. "Children And Watching TV." Facts For Families Pages. No. 54. Available at: http://www.aacap.org/AACAP/Families_and_Youth/Facts_for_Families/Facts_for_Families_Pages/Children_And_Wat_54.aspx Retrieved: Oct 7th, 2014

Cox, Adam. 2005 Family Matters. "TV is a Drug - Are Your Kids Addicted?" Available at: http://www.dradamcox.com/newsletter/05sept.html Retrieved: Oct 7th, 2014

American Academy of Pediatrics. "Media and Children." Available at: http://www.aap.org/en-us/advocacy-and-policy/aap-health-initiatives/Pages/Media-and-Children.aspx Retrieved: Oct 7th, 2014… [read more]

Modulators of Child Development Outcomes: Annotated Bibliography Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,135 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Developmental Psychology, 39(2), 274-91. Using the developmental-ecological model the authors of this study evaluated possible predictors of violence among boys attending fifth and seventh grade in inner-city Chicago schools. Parenting style and poverty were among the many variables examined; however, the variables included in the study explained only a percentage of the violence, which implies the existence of other, unidentified contributors to youth violence. Parenting practices and the concentration of poverty and crime were strong predictors of youth violence. This study highlights other factors, aside from single-parent households, that influence child development outcomes. Both Latino and African-American boys were included in the study, but not girls. The limitations include a small sample size and considerable overlap of contributions from variables.

Bubier, J.L., Drabick, D.A.G., & Breiner, T. (2009). Autonomic functioning moderates the relations between contextual factors and externalizing behaviors among inner-city children. Journal of Family Psychology, 23(4), 500-10. Modulators of the risk for negative child development outcomes include inherent predispositions to contextual influences. Accordingly, this study examined baseline autonomic indicators and grouped children of inner-city parents into low and high baseline autonomic activity. Low autonomic activity in response to stressors was protective against externalizing behaviors, while children with a high baseline were influenced significantly by harsh parenting and neighborhood cohesion. The vast majority of these inner-city minority children resided in single-parent households. Unfortunately, the power of the study was insufficient to adequately test for differences in outcomes by child gender.

McMahon, T.J., & Luthar, S.S. (2007). Defining characteristics and potential consequences of caretaking burden among children living in urban poverty. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77(2), 267-81. This study examined the impact of caretaker burden imposed on children between the ages of 8 and 17, living in inner-city households with mothers abusing drugs or suffering from psychiatric problems. Doing household chores, caring for siblings, and/or caring for mother were significant predictors of internalizing and externalizing behaviors and social competence. The authors mentioned continued controversy about how to measure caretaker burden in children, which could represent a significant limitation of this study.

Sagrestano, L.M., Paikoff, R.L., Holmbeck, G.N., & Fendrich, M. (2003). A longitudinal examination of familial risk factors for depression among inner-city African-American adolescents. Journal of Family Psychology, 17(1), 108-20. This longitudinal study followed children of inner-city, African-American single-parent household to better understand how family factors influenced the incidence of depression and anxiety among children and parents. Increased family conflict and reduced parental monitoring were both significant predictors of child depression, while increased positive parenting was protective. Interestingly, parental depression was increased by peer interactions with the child and decreased by positive parenting. The data was based on self-reports from child and mother and revealed significant differences in perceptions, which the authors attributed in part to the immaturity of the child.

Florsheim, P., Tolan, P., & Gorman-Smith, D. (1998). Family relationships, parenting practices, the availability of male family members, and the behavior of inner-city boys in single-mother and two-parent families. Child Development, 69(5), 1437-47. African-American and Latino families, with boys between… [read more]

Child Education Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (814 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Quality Education in Early Childhood Programs

In Italy, early childhood education programs are an essential part of helping the individual to interact with others and learn the skills they will need to become successful later on. To fully understand these different programs requires examining numerous sources on the subject. During this process, there will be an emphasis on the involvement of the government / nonprofits, the common types of early childhood care, the findings and offering a summary of these ideas. Together, these elements will show Italy's focus in meet key objectives over the long-term.

Involvement in the government and nonprofit organizations in Early Childhood Education programs

The government and nonprofit organizations play an important role. This occurs through providing additional amounts of funding and support. The funding helps to ensure that the program is expanding and allowing the children to think critically. While the support is making certain that it has enough resources to meet the needs of stakeholders in the process. (Harcourt, 2012) (Howes, 2010)

Common types of Early Childhood Care and education settings

The most common types of childhood education settings are focusing on Montessori and Reggio Emilia approaches. The Montessori Method is when educators are directors. Their main purpose is to guide the students into new areas that will spark their interest and curiosity. Reggio Emilia is when teachers, parents and children will collaborate throughout the learning process. This means that when a child shows interest in particular areas, they are encouraged to learn more. The basic idea is to enhance their understanding of the material and key concepts in order to spark the student's ability to understand specific ideas. (Harcourt, 2012) (Howes, 2010)

Content / curriculum

The content and curriculum are determined based upon how much interest the child shows. This decides what direction the teacher will steer the classroom. At the same time, they are encouraging them to want to learn more on their own. (Harcourt, 2012) (Howes, 2010)

Fostering social-emotional, cognitive, linguistic, and physical development

Social -- emotional, cognitive, linguistic and physical development are designed to help the student to expand their horizons. This occurs with educators working with parents to create curriculum which achieves these objectives. The children are encouraged to engage in different activities to build these skills. (Harcourt, 2012) (Howes, 2010)

Respecting culture, race, and home language

During the process, the child is taught to be respectful of others. This means that they will have understanding of…… [read more]

Human Behavior Theories Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,618 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


This includes behavior, learning, physical and mental health. Research shows that parenting is the primary influence on a child's development. The first three years are the ones are the most sensitive periods for the optimal growth of a child.

First, exercises health and nutrition are critical in the development of a child. When the child's brain is relatively immature, it… [read more]

Video Observation of Young Movie Review

Movie Review  |  2 pages (711 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Video Observation of Young Children

The video observation regarding infants -- newborns who were less than two years old, for the most part -- was very revealing about the physical, social, emotional and cognitive development of children. From a social and emotional perspective it was very interesting to see that each of the infants cried after their mothers left, a fact which reveals the degree of attachment that newborns have for familiar people and surroundings. Crying was the principle form of the rudimentary beginnings of language, which demonstrated the early stage of cognitive development of these children. Layla's actions were perhaps most revealing of all the children. She demonstrated her fledgling motor skills when she attempted to push and play with a blue ball. Similarly, she evinced a development that overlapped domains when she chose to stop crying and explore her surroundings. Such exploration is demonstrative of physical, social, and cognitive skills, which is essentially a universal tendency that all infants have at some point. It was interesting that it was the crying of another infant, which is an attempt towards language, which distracted Layla and spurred her exploration.

The segment in which toddlers were depicted was also fairly revealing of the various stages of development through which children go. One of the key facets of this segment that was indicative of universality was Santiago's affinity for music which he created by playing with a shaker; the fact that another child stopped to listen and watch him proves how widespread music is. Santiago's music-making is also an example of the interplay of domains since it involved cognition and the motor skills or physical development required to "play" his "instrument." Socially, it was fascinating to see the two toddlers hit one another and for the child who was hit to in turn hit another child. It was also compelling to see the children readily talking, although it was not always possible to understand them, which implies that they are still developing in this area of cognition.

The part of the video that is primarily about preschoolers is important because "one third of children are under 5…… [read more]

Classroom Design Environmental Design: Creating Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,912 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


For example, a twelve-year-old may have the physical growth and change of an adolescent but mentally still be in the concrete operational stage. This is normal because often one aspect of a child's being will mature faster than another. Most of the time, given the right nurturing and stimuli, everything will catch up in the end (Berger, 2008). These ages are just an average and should be looked at as a general guide rather than a rule.

Whatever impact educators have certain facts remain. When babies are in infancy, they are changing from being totally dependent on caregivers as they learn to walk and to talk and are realizing their individual selves. When children enter early childhood, they continue to improve their large and small motor skills as they run and move more smoothly. They also grow mentally and socially as they enter school and other places where they interact with children. During middle childhood, children continue to grow and improve physically, while also growing mentally as they attend school. They maintain friendships in large same-sex groups and begin forming ideas about gender roles and jobs. During adolescence, people go through puberty as their bodies mature and become capable to reproduce. Teens attempt to assert their individual identity while still needing rules and limits to continue to help them make good life decisions. During later adolescence, young adults begin the tasks of finding a job and creating their own next-generation family. It is our purpose as educators to ensure that these rough milestones are achieved and the student's potential maximized.


Berger, K. (2008). The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence. New York: NY: Worth Publishers.

Bjorklund, D. (2011). Children's Thinking. New York, NY: Wadsworth Publishing.

Bronfenbrenner U., & Morris, P.A. (1998). The ecology of developmental processes. In R.M. Lerner, Handbook of Child Psychology (Vol. 1:993 -- 1028). New York: Wile Publishing.

Downer, J., Rimm-Kaufman, S. And Pianta, R. (2007). How do classroom conditions and children's risk for school problems contribute to children's behavioral engagement in learning? Social Psych Review. 36(3): 413-422.

Ginsburg, H. And Opper, S. (1988). Piaget's theory of intellectual development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Osche, R. And Plug, C. (1986). Cross-cultural investigation of the validity of Erikson's theory of personality development. J. Of Personality and Social…… [read more]

Child Developmental Psychology Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,013 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Child Development -- Neonatal/Postnatal Transition

For the last several hours I have not been able to sleep or get comfortable. At least several times an hour I feel something squeezing me; it stops and then starts again a little while later. I also feel anxious, very much the same way my nervous system reacts after I hear those loud voices outside. The sounds don't actually scare me but I've noticed for at least a few months that the feelings that seem to come from inside me, from my blood, are somehow linked to the pitches, tones, and patterns of those voices outside. When the voices are soft and quiet, I usually feel calm and comfortable; but I've noticed that when they are loud it sometimes causes a rush of something in my system that makes me a little scared although I have no idea why. The same thing happens to me sometimes when I feel a much faster and jerkier pace to the jostling that I feel from the movements from outside even without any louder-then-usual voices from outside.

Now this is getting very annoying because I'm getting squeezed again only it is happening much more frequently; it seems like every few minutes; to top it off, I'm feeling very anxious too for some reason. Something has entered my word and that has never happened before. it's touching me and it is trying to turn me completely upside down. How rude.

So now I am upside down and getting squeezed very hard; I don't like this and I haven't gotten much restful sleep since yesterday. Sleep is out of the question now because I'm being pushed around and poked from outside. There are many more voices than usual too and it is so bright outside that it's coming right through the walls of whatever this is that I've been living in for almost a year.

Something is touching me on my head again and now I'm being pushed so hard that I may end up outside of wherever it is that I am. I knew it; my head is now outside and the rest of me is being squeezed very hard. There are more of those things like the one that was touching me before and rudely turning me upside down. This time, they seem to be all over me. Suddenly, I am no longer warm and comfortable at all and my chest is really beginning to hurt. It feels as though I desperately need to expand it somehow but I can't.

Suddenly, one of those rude things is holding me completely upside down by my ankles and another one smacks be on my bottom. All that does is make me cough but I still can't expand my chest. Why do I even want to? I don't know. A much smaller and thinner part of those things that have been bothering me all day is now inserting itself into my mouth and my throat and I'm getting really scared. Whatever… [read more]

Relationships and Abuse Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (927 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Psychological Abuse

Child abuse is one of the worst things many of us can imagine. The fact that it is almost always a child's parents who are the perpetrators of abuse makes the situation that much worse (Cook & Cook 2005, pp. 143). Sexual abuse is usually considered the worst type of child abuse, both by individuals and by the legal system, but other types of abuse exist. Psychological abuse is often overlooked in the uproar created by cases of physical and sexual abuse, but it is also a recognized form of child abuse with hugely detrimental effects (Cook & Cook 2005; Kairys & Johnson 2002). It is true that psychological damage is done by both physical and sexual abuse, but psychological abuse is also its own distinct entity. Quite often, physical and sexual abusers are also psychological abusers, but it is all too common to find situations of psychological abuse that is not accompanied by anything more physical or sexual in nature (Kairys & Johnson 2002, pp. 1). This can make it difficult to determine when such abuse occurs.

Psychological abuse is also referred to as emotional abuse, and occurs when "verbal put-downs and other behavior that terrorizes, threatens, rejects, or isolates children or damages their self-esteem, thought processing, or ability to manage social interactions (Cook & Cook 20o5, pp. 141). Such abuse can also be termed psychological maltreatment, and it should be stressed that, like physical and sexual abuse, it is almost always found to be pattern that defines the parent- (or abuser-) child relationship, rather than a single occurrence (Kairys & Johnson 2002, pp. 1). Basically, psychological abuse puts a child into a position of consistent belittling in a way that reduces their own sense of significance. It can also severely dampen their self-esteem and hinder their decision making processes as they learn to think of themselves the way the abuser appears to, as worthless and incapable of performing even simple tasks.

One stereotypical example of psychological abuse that persists today, often in front of the eyes and ears of other parents, is the obsessive encouragement (or admonishment, as is more often the case) of parents (often fathers) for their children (often sons) in athletic events and competitive sports. Though this pattern might not exist in other areas of the relationship, many fathers are relentless in their struggle to make their children achieve, and may even use derogatory language and express shame and other negative emotions when their sons fall short in their eyes. When this type of abusive language persists, it can actually have the reverse effect of what the father wants, making the son lose enjoyment in playing and confidence in his abilities.

The same thing can be seen in "stage-moms" or "pageant-moms" that push their daughters to…… [read more]

Five Stages of Psychosexual Theory of Development Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (943 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … five stages of psychosexual theory of development with the four stages of cognitive development. Briefly discuss and provide examples to support your response.

Freud described five stages of psychosexual development: the oral, anal, phallic, latent, and genital states. Struggles at any one stage could lead to fixations, neuroses, or habits related to that stage. Piaget also presented a stage theory of development. His four stages refer to cognitive development and include the sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete operational stage, and the formal operational stage. If an individual does not successfully master the cognitive skills associated with each developmental stage, then the person may be considered developmentally disabled. Therefore, Piaget did not suggest as Freud did that fixations develop because of insufficient transition between phases.

The Freud theory presumes the supremacy of the subconscious mind in determining psychological development. Piaget focuses more on conscious cognition and is less concerned with unconscious sexuality. Both take biology and physiology into account; the developmental stages are purported to have physical roots. However, Freud's oral, anal, and phallic stages are formulated and presented far differently, with focus on specific body parts and how individuals can become obsessed with them. Piaget is concerned with physicality as far as it impacts motor functioning, spatial relations, and the sense of self in the world. Freud's view on selfhood is tied to his tripartite division into id, ego, and superego.

2. What are some of the gross motor skills that most 5-year-olds' have mastered?

By age five, most five-year-olds have mastered walking and running, jumping, standing on one foot, walking on tiptoe, throwing overhead, and kicking balls. Between the ages of three and four, most children can ride tricycles or bikes with training wheels, can balance on one foot for up to ten seconds, and can walk in a line. Earlier motor skill mastery such as sitting up straight, pulling and pushing objects, has been well ensconced in the five-year-old's motor skill repertoire.

Gross motor stills that should emerge before the child is four include running around obstacles, jumping over small objects and landing with feet together, and manipulating wheeled toys. Between the ages of four and five, children can walk backwards effectively from toe to heel, somersault, and climb up stairs without assistance and by alternating feet.

3. According to Vygotsky, what role does culture play in determining what things a child will learn? Provide an example.

Vygotsky's sociocultural approach to human development stresses the role of an individual's background in determining moral development, language, and reasoning. Culture also determines what a child learns because parents will stress certain types of learning as important. For example, some children will learn musical skills because music is valued in their society. Others will learn verbal skills earlier because language literacy is more important in some cultures than…… [read more]

Techniques Used to Sell a Toy in a Commercial Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,014 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Advertising Ad Analysis: Undifferentiated and Intense Persuasion in Children's Advertising

But all of the other kids are getting one!" Every year, around Christmas time, normally sensible parents will devote themselves to spending hours in the toy stores, in malls, or online, to find a must-have toy for their child. The parents may defend their actions by stating that the toy… [read more]

Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,532 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Erik Erikson's Stages Of Psychosocial Development

Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development builds on the work of Sigmund Freud. Like Freud, Erikson basis his theory on the idea that internal, biological factors largely determine one's personality. However, Erikson also considers the importance of cultural and social factors in the development of one's personality. Furthermore, while Freud's theory stops at adolescence,… [read more]

Infants We Don't Really Know Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (411 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In one study, researchers demonstrated that the more social a mother was with her baby, the more likely the baby was to respond to the mother by touching and by reacting positively to being held (Mogilner, 1995), so it appears that caregiver behavior is important in many ways to the young infant. I believe that an infant needs lots of interaction with a caregiver so that child can know that his or her needs will be met and so the child will have many experiences to take in. The child may not be able to display what he or she has learned when the child is two or three months old, but the behaviors we see later as the infant explores its world have to have some sort of foundation. The caregiver is a vital link for socialization, learning about its culture, and personality development (Gonzalez-Mena, 1997).


Gonzalez-Mena, Janet. 1997. "The cultural context of infant caregiving. Childhood Education, Sept. 22.

Klaus, Marshall. 1998. "Mother and Infant: Early Emotional Ties." Pediatrics 102:5, November.

Mogilner, Celly. 1995. "Maternal social and physical contact: links to early infant attachment behaviors." Journal of Genetic Psychology, December.…… [read more]

Child Development Jean Piaget Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,238 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


It is at this age that their sense of personal competency begins to significantly develop (World Bank, 2002). Emotionally they are still ego-centric, seeing and interpreting events from their own perspectives (Huitt & Hummel, 2003).

Cognitively, they use language symbolically. Memory and imagination develop more, but thinking is pre-logical and is often magical in nature.

Early signs of the interplay between symbolic thinking and imagination might be if a child pretends that a broom is a horse (Staff writers, 2004). By age 3 or 4, children can use objects to represent other people or things, such as using a stone or stick to represent specific individuals in imaginative play (Staff writers, 2004). Children this age can begin to think through the actions they want to perform, using language, before doing them (Staff writers, 2004). Curiosity about the world increases, and interest in letters and numbers increases (World Bank, 2002). At the end of this stage, children begin to acquire reading and math skills.

Physiologically and socially the children's skills explode. Combined with emotional and cognitive developments, children can begin some simple team sports toward the end of this stage. Children develop real, solid friendships (World Bank, 2002) although they will still have difficulty seeing events from another person's point-of-view (Staff writers, 2004). It is during this period that they really learn to take turn, play cooperatively, and share (World Bank, 2002).

These facts about children's development have important implications for the classroom. Many parents have seen a child open a holiday or birthday present that was too advanced for the child, and then observed that the child plays with the box instead of the toy. Developmental stages cannot be rushed. While a Pre-Operational child may show some interest in letters and numbers, this does not mean that the child has developed sufficient memory, symbolic and language skills to be taught how to read. While a few children may be accelerated in development of those areas, the majority are not, and such development cannot be forced upon them. First come the developmental skills, and then the instruction using those skills can follow.

This means that the preschool environment will have to have a wide variety off materials available for the children's use that reflect the fact that each child will vary in what he or she is ready to do. This means that a good preschool classroom will contain, for instance, a wide variety of difficulty levels for puzzles, from simply placing one object in its cut out shape to puzzles that may require the child to put four, eight, or even more pieces together, to accommodate the development of all the children present.

Knowledge about multicultural information should be included at the preschool level. This can be done in a variety of ways including songs, games and dances from other countries, introducing the concept that objects have different names in different languages, and of course depicting people from many backgrounds and cultures in any visual materials present in the classroom… [read more]

Egocentrism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,951 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


As teens begin to develop and mature their physical appearance serves as a visual reminder to the world that they are barreling toward adulthood. These visual reminders help the world accept the fact that the child is no longer a child. When a teen has late or delayed development he or she may find it more difficult to be taken seriously in the natural steps of development. This can lead to feelings of frustration and anger and the teen may begin to associate with other social outcasts and begin to get into legal or school trouble.

Puberty not only marks the start of physical maturation, but in ideal settings it marks the beginning of emotional maturation as well.

When it begins early or late it can create an atmosphere in which the teen tries to make up the differences by actions. Those actions can create emotional issues with long-term consequences.

Isolation, depression, promiscuity and other things can develop when puberty hits outside of the normal pattern.

The third problem that can occur when puberty begins late is that the teen can try to act younger than he or she is. If the teen is not in puberty when all of his or her friends are the teen may begin to revert to more child like attitudes and behaviors.

The teen may try and get parents to do things for him that he can do for himself. He or she may expect teachers to give them chances that a teen of that age should not be entitled to.

The reverse can occur in a child who begins puberty early. They may be viewed as older than they are by the world and treated accordingly. The child may be expected to understand concepts and feelings that she or he is no where near ready to handle. The child may be expected to perform academically and at home in the same manner and with the same proficiency that an older teen could do (McDevitt, 2002).

The onset of puberty marks many milestones, and because it is physical, it tells the world of the child's entrance into adolescence. If it happens on time it works in tandem with the child's emotional development to move that individual to adulthood. If it appears early or late it can create many problems.


Child Development: Educating and Working with Children and Adolescents. (2nd Ed.) By McDevitt & Ormrod. Pearson-Prentice Hall 2002.

Learn the signs of early puberty http://pediatrics.about.com/cs/conditions/a/early_puberty.htm

Boys Delayed Puberty: How To Ease Fears by Charles Wibbelsman, MD

http://www.tnpc.com/parentalk/adolescence/teens21.html… [read more]

Babies Movie Review

Movie Review  |  2 pages (608 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


At the most basic level, parents love their children and all babies experience the same developmental stages (Copple & Bredekamp, 2009). They all coo, cry, poop, laugh, and explore. The environment simply dictates where these experiences happen. Also, while we of the modern world tend to look down on underdeveloped countries, we try to emulate a natural world for our babies to play in while those in rural Mongolia and Africa actually participate in natural and experience the world in a unique way. The film may try to make a statement that modern parenting is too overprotective and overbearing. Babies should be given the freedom to explore their environment.

I recommend this film to those who want another perspective on parenting. It is a movie that isn't judgmental; therefore all conclusions are based on your own perspective. The movie also demonstrates the bond between a mother and her child, which makes it a touching movie for anyone to see. It is an interesting film because it shows the similarities between all humans and how we all go through the stages of development. It makes people wonder how much affect your environment has on cognitive development. A good follow-up would be examining the same four children as they enter adolescence and their personalities are more pronounced. During this stage the audience can also examine the influence culture has on personality.


Balmes, T. (Director). (2010). Babies [Documentary]. France: Universal Studios Home Entertainment.

Copple, C., & Bredekamp, S. (2009). Developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood programs serving children from birth through age 8 (3rd ed.). Washington, D.C.: National Association for the Education of Young Children.

Howes, C. (2010). Culture and child development in early childhood programs: practices for quality education and care.…… [read more]

Parenting Styles: Big Daddy Most Parents Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,003 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Parenting Styles: Big Daddy

Most parents do not use a singular parenting style, but combine a variety of techniques, spanning the spectrum of authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative styles. In the 1999 film Big Daddy, the title character played by Adam Sandler immediately strikes the viewer as kind of a 'big kid,' an overgrown thirty-two-year-old adolescent likely to use a permissive style with the five-year-old child he unexpectedly acquires. This tendency of Sonny Kofax to be permissive is almost immediately underlined when he allows the young boy to choose his own clothing, no matter how inappropriate or outrageous, and agrees to go along with the boy's whim call himself 'Frankenstein' rather than his real name, that of Julian Sandler's Sonny more often parents by example -- but rather than encourage Julian by setting a good example, he often encourages the child by 'bad' examples. For example, when the two of them are not allowed to use a restaurant restroom, he instructs the child that the two of them have to use the wall of the restaurant alley in revenge. It is Sonny, not Julian who takes the initiative in this action.

However, this type of authoritative style can be used in a positive fashion "to be warm and exert firm control" (Cook & Cook 2005, p. 452). A parent dining at a restaurant who wants his or her child to eat vegetables can order vegetables with his or her own dinner. By eating the vegetables and appearing to enjoy them, the parent has more credibility when the child is asked to at least try one bite. This combination of firm guidance that still allows for choice is one reason, psychologists believe, that children raised with an authoritative style of parenting tend to be more successful in school and work. The style fosters personal responsibility and autonomy as well as encourages self-regulation and the instillation of positive values (Cook & Cook 2005, p. 453).

In contrast, permissive parents only act as indulgent 'friends' to their children, or discipline with a verbal 'slap on the wrist.' They may even condone or ignore their child's drug abuse, as when Sonny says to Julian: Man, this Yoo-Hoo is good…Know what's even better? Smokin' dope." Of course it could be argued that Julian does not understand what Sonny is saying, but many would argue that by taking such a lax attitude, when Julian does begin to understand (and he will, perhaps sooner than his parent anticipates) the ground has been laid for permissive parental attitudes towards real bad behavior. Even if parents in real life do not make such extreme statements as those used in Big Daddy for comic effect, simply by joking about drugs and promiscuity in a 'friendly' and lighthearted manner can send the wrong message to adolescents.

But Sandler also does provide some positive examples of parenting in an authoritative fashion -- when it looks like he will lose custody of Julian, he uses a bedtime story to indicate that they will see… [read more]

Evidence Between Infants and Toddlers: Review Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (903 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Evidence Between Infants and Toddlers:

Review of Research and Proposal for Research

Research involving very young children and their knowledge of visual events that are physically impossible vs. possible has been thus far contradictory. While a series of tests involving searching for a hidden object have revealed that infants can determine which events are physically impossible and which are not, and have a knowledge of the properties of physical objects including solidity and continuity, a series of similar tests with toddlers ages 2-3 suggested a lack of knowledge concerning these properties. The apparent contradiction of these tests have significant implications for child psychology and development if, indeed, legitimate. A review of the studies concerning the topic and research proposal will allow further studies to be conducted into the matter.

In Renee Baillargeon and Julie DeVos' 1991 study, the researchers found that four and a half and three and a half-month-old babies recognized that "objects continued to exist when hidden" (1227). Studies were conducted using a carrot sliding along a track, and infant's reaction to the carrot's disappearing behind a screen were gauged. The young infants recognized that a tall carrot should have appeared in the screen while sliding along a track, using their facial expressions and the length of time stared at the screen to suggest their surprise, and therefore, their understanding of the carrot's height and the fact that it still existed, even when it could not be seen (1991, 1227). This experiment, and others involving toys and screens suggest that the young infants concluded that objects existed even when not visible. The test, which had produced similar results in infants of older ages, suggested that even the youngest infants had knowledge of this event.

In a similar study conducted by Baillargeon and Adrea Aguiar, eight and a half month old infants successfully demonstrated their understanding width. In a test similar to the continuality and permanence test, infants in a control group were shown two containers and a small ball attached to a stick. The containers were then placed behind a screen, and then revealed with the ball's stick protruding from them. Infants in this control group looked at the containers for equal amounts of time, while infants in another group, to whom the same scenario was introduced with the exception that one of the containers was too small to hold the ball, looked at the improbably situation longer, suggesting they understood its meaning (1998, 636).

Most significantly and strangely, however, two-year-old toddlers seemed to loose these skills. In fact, a 2000 study of the phenomenon revealed that toddlers consistently failed experiments that were modified from the infant "looking-time" experiments detailed in the previous two articles. In these…… [read more]

Parenting Style and Culture Affects Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (629 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Studies reveal that there are instances when too strict values/discipline brought to a child can negatively influence the child's behavior. There are cases on such situation where a child develops rebellious attitude as a yield against the stringent rules that his parent carry to him. However, there are also cases where strict values and discipline results to a really disciplined child. Scramella and Leve (2004) suggests that

Consistent with existing theory, the quality of parent -- child interactions during early childhood affects children's social relationships and behavioral adjustment during middle childhood and adolescence. Harsh parenting and a propensity toward emotional overarousal interact very early in life to affect risk for later conduct problems.

There are other several researches and studies that reveal how parenting styles and culture influences the development of a child. In fact, it is a common sense that during the early development of a child, the behavior and attitude that the child sees from his parents who play as his caregivers are what he will use as basis of his behavior. Moreover, it is another fact that the first teachers of a child are his parents. As much as how school, peers, and environment may influence a child's development, the more that parenting style can because it is at home with his parents or caregivers that a child generally spends his real self. Similarly, it is at home with the nurturing of parents that the real personality of a child is being developed; unlike with peers or other environment where a child may just exhibit temporary behavior and attitude.


Azar, Beth. How Do Parents Matter? Let us Count the Ways.

2000. American Psychological Association Online.


Scramella, Laura V., Leve, Leslie D. Clarifying Parent-Child Reciprocities During Early Childhood: The Early Childhood Coercion Model.

Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 2004, Vol. 7. Issue 2,…… [read more]

Louise Kaplan Parenting Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (545 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Kim's difficulty was not felt by Claire, now in her 50s and mother of six. Claire was the 'typical mother,' devoting her time to her children, considering motherhood as profession enough for her. Thus, she did not pursue a career, for she felt that there is no greater career or profession more worthy for an individual than parenting (and in women's case, motherhood).

These differences in the beliefs that the two women have is a manifestation of the effect that social forces had on postmodern society. Claire lived in a period wherein female stereotypes prevailed and remained unchallenged. This, apparently, had a good effect on her being a parent, because she did not experience a conflict between maintaining her personal and family careers. Kim, influenced by the postmodern mentality as she pursued a higher level of education and became immersed in corporate life, now experiences inefficiency as a mother despite her success as an accountant. If Kim devotes her time to mothering, she would feel 'incomplete' as an individual who lacks personal development; however, if she decides to devote herself to corporate life, her relationship with her family would be inevitably strained. This was the dilemma that Kaplan talked about in her book: society cultivates the reality that "the modern mother is deprived of her rightful experience of mothering." Not surprisingly, this is the reality that most women face at present, resulting to an unhealthy child and, later on, individual, development.… [read more]

Child Poverty Effects Crime Rates Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  10 pages (3,252 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


This fierce competition within the industry requires the professionals to be more skillful and competent than ever. In this race, the people with the lowest income group fall behind other because they did not got the opportunity to attain education with facilities that can enhance their skills and talents. In fact, these people have been deprived with the basic educational… [read more]

Spirituality in Young Children's Temperament Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  3 pages (994 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


..enters a concrete stage; children associate religious identity with particular forms of behavior, kinship or dress, and prayer with specific concrete activities. They also interpret Bible stories concretely depicting God as a man or a power threatening specific action, often in response to specific transgression. (Gottlieb, 2006, p. 244 cited in: Grajczonek, nd, p. 14) This study contributes to the present study in the information provided about children's interpretation of their interactions with God.

The work of Geisenberg (2007) reports a study in which lasted 12 months and in which 56 children between the ages of three and seven years of age were observed and findings stated that "young children live in their spirituality and that young children are very aware of their surroundings and able to express abstract concepts such as love, beauty, wonder and compassion" and that the spirituality of young children is different from that of adults in that young children "to express a relationship with a transcendent being" and that spirituality "may be innate as described by Montessori (1949), Hegel (1807) and Descartes (in Luna & Vygotsky, 1998) This work contributes to the study through the provision of a different and even opposing view about the development of spirituality in children.

The work of Rose, a Jewish Rabbi (nd) relates that in view of the Jewish religion parents and the community have an obligations to "not only the obligation to provide children with strong religio-ethical identities and values for life, but that to do so is in fact as much our obligation to ourselves as well as to posterity. It is a reflection of our on values and commitments. This study contributes to the present study through its provision of information about the roles of adults in the development of the child's spirituality according to Jewish belief.


Giesenberg, A. (2007) The Phenomenon of Preschool Children's Spirituality. Retrieved from: eprints.qut.edu.au/16519/?

Fowler, J. (1981). Stages of faith: The psychology of human development and the quest for meaning. Blackburn: Dove Communications.

Gottlieb, E. (2006). Development of religious thinking. Religious Education, 101(2), 242-260.

Roehlkepartain, EC (2006) The Handbook of Spiritual Development in Childhood and Adolescence. SAGE. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=PshgZRO 6 LfkC&dq=Roehlkepartain,+ E.+C.+(2006).+The+handbook+of+spiritual+developm ent+in+childhood+and+adolescence.&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Grajczonek, J. (2006) Spiritual Development and Religious Education in the Early Years: A Review of the Literature. A Project Conducted for the Queensland Catholic Education Commission. Retrieved from: http://www.qcec.catholic.edu.au/upload/publicsite / Education/Final_Spiritual%20Development%20%20Religious%20Education%20in%20the%20Early%20Years_A%20Review%20of%20the%20Literature.pdf

Rosen, D. (nd) The Rights of the Child -- Jewish Perspectives. Retrieved from: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd= 25&cad=rja&ved=0CEoQFjAEOBQ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.rabbidavidrosen.net%2FArticles%2FJudaism%2FThe%2520Rights%2520of%2520the%2520Child%2520-%2520A%2520JewishFo%2520Perspective.doc&ei=MooEU8C3IaGGyAHxz YHIDg&usg=AF QjCNFkVoGfcRJpQMM3bpix9LPimhWK4w&sig2=0vXwwCIemlgD4MXbLtJf3g&bvm=bv.61535280,d.aWc… [read more]

Parenting Education for Teen Mothers Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  20 pages (6,240 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


Multi-purpose programs

Most of the parenting education intervention programs are aimed at developing parent-infant interaction, multi-purpose services such as stress management, parenting skills development, and supportive child care. Most of the studies being reviewed by the researchers were observed to have smaller sample size with lack of suitable or appropriate comparison group mothers, and inconsistent measurements. The studies have indicated… [read more]

Children Spiritual Development Rationale Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (639 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


That specifically is the area of exploration in this study and the questions examined relate to the impact of the church congregation on the child's spiritual development and whether that impact results in a higher level of spiritual development for the child. In other words, it would appear to be reasonable to believe that the church congregation has the potential to impact the child's development of spirituality in a manner that would 'culturally' affect the child rendering the child's in their development of a higher level of spiritual understanding about themselves and the world around them. This work examines how that impact and effect in the life of the child develops their ability to make choices that are more spiritually informed and that are based in spiritual principles and ultimately resulting in a value system that is guided by ethics,. Morality and spiritual-based principles and beliefs. Hitler is known to have stated that if someone gave a child to him until the age of six that the child would be his forever. This speaks to the importance of the early years influences on the life of the child in terms of their life trajectory and the principles and beliefs that once impressed upon child serves to guide them throughout their life's course. This also highlights the importance and critical role that the church congregation plays in influencing not only the spiritual development of the child but the entire life course of the child.


Jent, GA (nd) When Can a Person, Especially a Child, Have a Genuine Conversion Experience? Retrieved from: http://www.ttgst.ac.kr/upload/ttgst_resources13/20123-134.pdf… [read more]

Ecological System's Theory Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,467 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Ecological Systems Theory


Urie Bronfenbrenner was a Russian who migrated to America with his parents when he was only 6 years old (Yorganop, 2013). He studied music and psychology and achieved prominence for his work in child development. His most important contribution to the field was the Ecological Systems Theory, which many consider revolutionary. He helped found… [read more]

Decision Making, Impulse Control Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,449 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


In many cases, risk taking is a result of competition between the cognitive system and socio-emotional network (National Center for Juvenile Justice, 2013). At teenage years, the socio-emotional system is stronger and assertive than the cognitive system. Teenagers have the cognitive ability to regulate their impulses and risky behaviors; however, the socio-emotional system becomes active enough during emotional excitement to… [read more]

Child Abuse You Are an Experienced Protective Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (3,295 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


Child Abuse

You are an experienced protective services social worker. You have just been assigned a new case to investigate as a result of an abuse report. Your first task is to do a home visit to begin the assessment. How will you prepare for this visit? What is your objective for this first visit? Once you arrive, what would… [read more]

Male Child Cognitive Development Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,785 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Male Child Cognitive Development

The objective of this work is to describe, compare and contrast the negative effects of media containing violence, including news, movies, cartoons and internet on the male child between the age of six to puberty and how that impacts their cognitive development, thinking,


The work of Gentile and Sesma (2003) entitled: "Developmental… [read more]

Adolescent Growth and Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (347 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Adolescent Growth and Development

Huebner, Angela. (2000, Mar). Adolescent Growth and Development. 350-850.

Angela Huebner's article "Adolescent Growth and Development" provides a basic overview of the physical and psychological challenges presented by puberty for the adolescent and for individuals in charge of teaching and mentoring the adolescent, like teachers and parents. Huebner provides important reminders that some of the frustrating aspects of adolescence (from the point-of-view of an adult) like an increased demand for sleep, clumsiness, and moodiness have their roots in physical causes, and are normal, not the result of laziness or deliberate defiance on the part of the teen. However, the author does also warn of abnormal development that can occur as the result of the inner turmoil caused by adolescent biological changes, like eating disorders.

Perhaps the most interesting aspect of Huebner's article is the profound respect she shows for the unique developmental stage of adolescence and the unique learning opportunities it presents adolescents to learn lessons they can carry into adulthood. For example, her article highlights the cause-oriented focus…… [read more]

Video Assessment the 18-Month-Old Child Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (815 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


His happiness in play and in task fulfillment is something that should also be noted in assessments both as a means of ensuring appropriate perspective in such assessments and as a means of creating positive communication with parents and others who read the assessment (Wortham, 2008; Colorado Department of Education, "Finley's Parent Teacher Conference, n.d.). Sharing information about the observed emotionality of a child is important in caregiving relationships due to the lack of direct parental involvement of parents in many activities, as well, though it is clear the child in the video is capable of making strong emotional bonds and has one with the adult in the video (again, presumably though not certainly his mother).

Learning Activities

Though nothing in the video suggests anything abnormal for a child of 18 months, activities to promote faster recall, better coordination, and improved language use can be recommended. Using an assessment to guide instruction must be done with care, however, and is especially ill-advised when using only a single source of observation and assessment (Wortham, 2008). Keeping this caveat in mind, however, the parents can be suggested to read more frequently with him, asking questions about the story and the pictures in the book, engaging him with language and the learning and recall of facts as much as possible. Improving coordination can be encouraged with certain toys that require specific manipulations, such as holes through which blocks can only be passed when turned the right way and/or are the right shape.


Additional observation sessions such as this one, viewed independently by other assessors, would be the primary source of further data recommended here. Standardized testing for an 18-month-old is imprecise at best and entirely impossible at worst, and thus would not be recommended, therefore informal assessment is required (Wortham, 2008). This is best accomplished through prompted play such as is seen in this video. More complex activities and of course more variation over a longer period, including toys or pictures that involve colors or different shapes, would also be used to test current knowledge and cognitive abilities.


Colorado Department of Education. (n.d.) Finley's Parent Teacher Conference. [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.cde.state.co.us/resultsmatter/RMVideoSeries.htm

Colorado Department of Education. (n.d.) Sharing Documentation with Families. [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.cde.state.co.us/resultsmatter/RMVideoSeries.htm

Wortham, S. (2008). Assessment in Early Childhood Education. Merril Prentice Hall.… [read more]

Adolescent Sex Offenders: Early Development Article Review

Article Review  |  12 pages (3,258 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 14


" (Rowe, 1991)

The work of Groth and Loredo (1981) hold that the clinical assessment process must necessarily differentiated among three types of sexual behavior stated as follows:

(1) normative sexual activity that is situationally determined;

(2) inappropriate solitary sexual activity that is non-aggressive in nature; and (3) sexually assaultive or coercive behavior that poses some risk of harm to… [read more]

Counseling Be Mandatory for Teen Parents? Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,439 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12



Should parenting skills/counseling be mandatory for teen parents?

Teen parents are an issue that has been on the slow rise after falling for several years. In the U.S. alone, there are an estimated one million teen parents. About 85% of these parents usually have not planned their pregnancies. Therefore, there are huge… [read more]

Interpret Criteria for Child and Adolescent Development Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,932 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Child and adolescent development process is made up of about thirteen years. An inclusion the infancy and toddler stages make it eighteen years. Through these years, the child grows as well as develops in a number of ways. Several theories have been advanced in order to explain the concept of child and adolescent development. Each of these theories… [read more]

Child Language Development Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,420 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Child Language Development

Experts agree that language formation, like many aspects of child development, is consistent with the classic "Nature through Nurture" theory. That is, all children have an in-built biological capacity to learn language within the context of environment. Since different environments support language acquisition in different ways and to various extents, there are wide individual and group variations… [read more]

Personal Theory of Child and Adolescent Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,585 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Lifespan Development Theory

Personal Theory of Child and Adolescent Development

The Expectation Theory

This paper presents an examination of the child and adolescent life span development theory Expectation Development Theory. The theory is developed by the writer using the character Forrest Gump as the case study. Though the character Forrest Gump is a fictional character in a movie, the character… [read more]

Child Sexual Abuse Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,429 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … sexual abuse of children is among the most heinous crimes that exist. Such a crime not only affects the child at the time the abuse occurs but also well into the future. For the purposes of this discussion we will investigate how the sexual abuse of children has an affect on at-risk youth behavior. The research will explain… [read more]

Raising Well-Socialized Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,486 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Other studies have demonstrated that harsh parenting skills tend to be passed on from generation to generation within families (Conger, 2003) and that these entrenched family behaviors tend to contribute to antisocial, aggressive behavior in the children of those families.

Observation of interactions between adults and children demonstrate that a variety of methods exist to socialize our children. In the… [read more]

Unstructured Play and Child's Development Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,909 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This requires a review of the current child education curriculum to incorporate effectively the child development needs putting too much emphasis on educational needs. The policy on child education needs to enforce the need for the child's exposure to unstructured play and come up with advocacy programs. The advocacy programs should target to enlighten parents and school administrators and child caregivers on the need and benefits for unstructured out-door child play.

Community leaders and policy makers should take up initiative to set aside community playgrounds amidst the growing scarcity land areas due to developments in housing. The policy makers and the community leaders should also take up measures that will guarantee safety within these grounds for children to utilize them. The need to encourage parents and schools to utilize these facilities should also be on the forefront to see to effective child development measures. During public and school holidays schools should be encouraged to keep the school grounds open for all the children in the community. For a more comprehensive utilization of the community and school grounds, further security measures incorporating presence of a first aid caregiver and child caregivers is needful.


Barros, R.M., Silver, E.J., & Stein, R.E. (2009). School recess and group classroom behavior. Pediatrics, 123(2), 431-436.

Campbell, K.J., & Hesketh, K.D. (2007). Strategies which aim to positively impact on weight, physical activity, diet and sedentary behaviours in children from zero to five years. A systematic review of the literature. . Obes Rev., 8(4), 327-338.

Cleland, V., & Venn, A. (2010). Encouraging physical activity and discouraging sedentary behavior in children and adolescents. J Adolescent Health, 47(3), 221-222.

Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness, & Council on School Health. (2006). Active healthy living: prevention of childhood obesity through increased physical activity. Pediatrics, 117(5), 1834-1842.

Frost, J.L., & Norquist, T. (2007). The importance of play: International Playground Equipment Manufacturers Association (IPEMA). Recreation Management Magazine: Association Guest Column.

Miller, E., & Almon, J. (2009). Crisis in the Kindergarten: Why Children Need to Play in School. . College Park: Alliance for Childhood.

Mowan, A.J. (2010). Parks, Playgrounds, and Active Living; Active Living Research. San Diego, CA: Robert Wood Johnson.

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2010). The State of Play -- Gallup Survey of Principals and School Recess. Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

Scott. D., & Munson. W. (1994). Perceived constraints to park usage…… [read more]

Influences on Social Cognition in Children and Adolescents Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,651 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Thus, how children think and relate to others is heavily influenced by their parents over a number of different factors from parental warmth to the overall style of parenting. Moreover, early attitude formation regarding one's expectations of others, stereotyping, one's political views, etc. are shaped by parental interactions (Grusec, Goodnow & Kuczynski, 2000; White, & Matawie, 2004).

Peer Influences

As… [read more]

Cognitive, Social, and Emotional Developmental Theories Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,830 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Anna can also be assisted by joining group therapy sessions with people suffering from the same ailment. This will aid her open up and share her issues with people suffering from the same. She will also learn how these people deal with their issues and embrace those practices. Increasing her self-esteem will also go a long way in making her a responsible parent and adult. Anna needs to know how to value, love and accept herself thus making her feel good about herself (Shaffer, 2009).

Anna also needs to undergo parental training. Parents play a crucial part in the overall development of their children. Once Anna has learnt how to accept and love herself, she must train herself how to raise her child appropriately. Spiritual leaders often offer a good platform in which parents can learn how to raise their children. By attending a church conference on parenting, Anna will learn exactly how to care for her child. In addition, parental forums that are often organized at the community or local level may also help Anna become a responsible adult.

The overall development of children is essential to the society. Childhood development often affects how a person interacts with other people. For instance, children from abusive families tend to be violent or timid adults. Various scholars such as Piaget and Sigmund Feud have advanced various theories aimed at understanding how people interact with others. Piaget's cognitive theory can be used to understand how she interacts with Jojo. As discussed above, Anna's childhood development has largely affected her adulthood. For instance, Anna has some parenting issues as she neglects Jojo and suffers from suicidal ideations and depression. It is also vital to counsel her to love and appreciate herself to help shape her into a responsible adult and parent.


Shaffer, D.R. (2009). Social and personality development…… [read more]

Interplay of Influences and Development Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (764 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Interplay Of Influences and Development in Early Childhood

Reading the International Play Association's article entitled "Promoting the child's right to play" provided a good deal of insight of the role that play facilitated within my own childhood development, especially since there are so many variations of the importance ascribed to this phenomenon (Lester and Russell, 2010, p. 7). This article is intriguing because it provides a history and the overall objectives of an organization which recognizes the fact that play is not just a need, but a right of children (Fronczek, 2004). The article entails the fact that this organization (the International Play Association) was formed in Scandinavia in the years preceding World War II. It was initially created to address the fact that there are barriers to play -- which are always increasing. It quickly spread throughout the rest of the world and includes not only nationwide conferences but the publication of a journal and a website. Additionally, some of the crucial tenets of this organization are included in the United Nations of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which includes the fact that playing allows children a means of cultural and artistic expression that is vital to their development. Today, the organization exists to continuously address barriers to playing and enabling children to contextualize the world around them.

There is one extremely salient point in this article that deepens my understanding g of the value of play in the life of a child -- and which inherently impacts the way in which that child grows up and matures. Playing, whether indoors or outdoors, is a means by which children can fuse their imagination with their physical surroundings and envision an ideal setting in which they can live. The subsequent quotation from the aforementioned IPA article alludes to this fact, "play is not only about providing safe playgrounds for children. It is fundamentally about protecting their right to be free to explore and discover the physical and social world around them (Fronczek, 2004).

Therefore, this perspective helps me to understand that some of the ideas which I explored while playing with others has significantly affected my own development -- first as a child and now as an adult. I engaged in several different varieties of playing when I was…… [read more]

Rising Poverty in the Nation Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (853 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


They are also at risk for food insecurity, which can result in malnutrition and hunger, but also in obesity because of the type of binge-eating that frequently accompanies food insecurity (APA, 2013).

Furthermore, poverty has both direct and indirect impacts on children. For example, hunger is linked to poor performance in school, which is a direct effect of poverty. However, impoverished parents also lack many non-financial resources that parents in more affluent homes may have. For example, they probably lack the same basic education as parents from affluent homes and may be unable to help children with homework. Being impoverished makes them more likely to work odd-hours or multiple shifts, meaning that they do not have time to spend with their children (Vasagar, 2012). Finally, being impoverished means that they are stressed out, and, quite simply not at their best for their children.

At the most extreme end of poverty, children not only lack basic resources but may even be homeless. In fact, the recession and the related foreclosures resulted in tremendous numbers of students being homeless. "One million homeless children and youth were enrolled in U.S. schools in 2009. Experts estimate that as many as half a million more went uncounted because they weren't enrolled in school" (Salopek, 2010). There are many different varieties of homeless. Some homeless children are living with friends or relatives, so that, while they lack a home of their own, they still have the stability of knowing where they will stay at night. Other children are living in shelters, which, while it provides shelter can be very disruptive to the family unit and lacks the privacy and warmth of a home. Finally, some children lack shelter of any sort and are living on the street, sometimes with family unites, and sometimes on their own.


American Psychological Association. (2013). Effects of poverty, hunger, and homelessness on children and youth. Retrieved October 2, 2013 from: http://www.apa.org/pi/families/poverty.aspx

Engle, P. & Black, M. (2008). The effect of poverty on child development and educational outcomes. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1136, 243-256. Retrieved October 2, 2013 from Digital Commons website: http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1002&context=psycd_fac

Salopek, J. (2010). Homelessness: Creating a welcoming classroom for homeless students.

Association for Staff and Curriculum Development, 52(6).

Sum, A. (2011, September 29, 2011). The impact of rising poverty on the nation's young families and their children, 2000-2010. Retrieved October 2, 2013 from The Children's Defense Fund website: http://www.childrensdefense.org/child-research-data-publications/the-impact-of-rising-poverty.pdf

Vasagar, J. (2012, June 12). Poverty has two-fold impact on children's ability, says study.…… [read more]

123. . .Last ›
NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.