Study "Child Development / Youth / Teens" Essays 1-54

123. . .Last ›
X Filters 

Child Development Evaluating Essay

… The writer herself is a doctor and with the inclusion of opinion of other experts and their scientific findings this topics becomes more interesting and answers our question as to why most of us are not able to recall our early childhood memories (Klass).

The theoretical perspective that the author seem to use are biological and psychoanalytic. This can also be seen in the experts' point-of-view and in the scientific findings included in this article. At one point, we are told in this article that due to revolutionary reasons babies have to go through an extensive learning process, which indicates biological perspective, and on the other hand, we see in this article that memory test of two different children belonging to two different cultures showed different results which shows the presence of psychoanalytic perspective.

The author concludes her article by saying that development of memory, development of language, development of consciousness, development of personality and development of personality narrative all occurs side by side and seem to complement each other.

In my opinion, the conclusion seem to be valid because if we try recalling our childhood memories we will notice the strong presence of language skills, consciousness and personality and together all these things helps us in making sense of what we have recalled and how it can be related to us.

Overall, this article has informative implications for children and families. Beside this, it is highly important for parents because they are the one who give most time to their kids and if they once in a while sit with their kids and discuss past events to see how far their child memory can go then the distance of memory retrieval between grown ups and early childhood may be reduced (Klass). This might also help in the better grooming and personality development of our child as the child will be able to understand him in a much better way thus benefitting to the society as a whole (Papalia, Feldman and Feldman, pg 456).

In spite of the fact that the author has put in a very decent effort but there is still a room for more research to be included which can result in a much stronger and clear-cut conclusion. As after reading this article we still cannot determine the actual cause, for the failure to recall our earlier childhood memories and whether it has something to do with the human body and development of brain or, it is due to the external environmental factors exerted upon us during our childhood or, could it be the combination of all these factors (Papalia, Feldman and Feldman, pg 456).

Works Cited

Klass, Dr. Perri. "The Makings of Our Earliest Memories." 11-06 2012. The New York Times. 17-06 2012 .

Papalia, Diane, Ruth Duskin Feldman and Ruth Feldman. A Child's World: Infancy Through Adolescence. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011. [read more]

Child Development Health Reflections Essay

… I thought about all the imbalanced and frankly, screwed up, adults that I know or encounter on a daily basis, and how a child development course for them or for their teachers would have gone a long way into making them more healthy. The epiphany was how great an impact proper and balanced child development can have upon us at all stages of human development.

After several weeks of child development coursework, I am still further interested in very early development, from birth to 5 years old, and adolescence. I have always been interested in very young children and adolescents. I additionally have a lot of sympathy for adolescents in the 21st century because of social media, and really, the kind of world we live in overall. I always felt that teenagers often got a bad rap or had lots of negative stereotypes unnecessarily projected onto them, as well as that a lot of issues that adults have often stem from those periods of development. I am interested in teaching preschool and high school as well, so that is one way my interest intersects with my professional goals.

I am more attuned to what stages of development children are in and am in a better position to assess their development in specific areas, and overall. I can also better infer what kind of school and home environments children occupy as well, based on their development and skills. I am also more in tune with how I would approach helping children develop holistically, and in specific areas. I feel like I know and understand children better. I feel as if they can pick up on my deeper or better understanding of what they are going through and I have noticed how increasingly comfortable children have become with me since I have experienced change and growth in my child development knowledge.


Gardner, H. (2003). Multiple Intelligences After Twenty Years. Harvard Graduate School of Education, American Education Research Association, 1 -- 15, Chicago: IL.

Piramide. (2012). Educating the Whole Child. The Piramide Approach to Early Learning, Web, Available from:… [read more]

Child Development Imagination, Creativity, Consciousness Essay

… Child Development

Imagination, creativity, consciousness, and play are some of the core elements of Lev Vygotsky's theories of child development. Vygotsky was concerned with the development of higher mental faculties in children, and wanted to study the origin and development of these functions (Vygotsky, 1966). Vygotsky did not believe that children were miniature adults, as was once believed (Vygotsky, 1966). However, child development also cannot be quantified, as the process of growth and development is far too complex. It is important to consider the possibility that evolution and revolution happen simultaneously in the child, so that growth occurs gradually for a while and then sometimes, in sudden bursts (Vygotsky, 1966). What Vygotsky observed was that growth and development in children is catalyzed by social experiences and social interactions. Social stimulation and children's observations of their social worlds cause both evolution and revolution in development.

Children learn by observing others, but they do not just learn behaviors and behavioral cues. Children also learn values and norms, by interacting with their social worlds and observing the reactions they receive after performing certain actions and also the reactions that others receive upon performing actions. As they mature, children are more able to perceive more complex stimuli and incorporate those into their matrix of awareness. One of the central and most unique components of Vygotsky's theory of child development is that Vygotsky believed that learning preceded actual development (Vygotsky, 1978). In other words, the child internalizes the lessons related to values, beliefs, behaviors, and norms. Then, that social learning becomes translated into personal development via internalization and processing. The internalization and processing are part of the higher order thinking Vygotsky remained concerned about throughout his career. Vygotsky's theory of child development is therefore also a theory of general cognitive development.

Like Vygotsky, Piaget was concerned with cognitive development as well as general child development. Piaget believed that the development of knowledge is a "spontaneous process" that is inherently linked to human biology (Piaget, 1961, p. 176). However, learning is "provoked by situations," and is therefore not linked to biology or instinct (Piaget, 1961, p. 176). In this case, Piaget does resonate with Vygotsky, as both researchers believed that social learning is the cornerstone of child development. The child acts as a sort of scientist or experimenter, according to Piaget. Learning cannot take place simply by observing something, as learning requires manipulation, interaction, operation, and experimentation. Development "explains learning," and learning is a function of development (Piaget, 1961, p. 176).

Piaget is perhaps best known for his theory of developmental stages. Even though Piaget resisted describing learning as being discrete events, the research did recognize stages of development. The four stages of cognitive development for Piaget… [read more]

Deduce the Effects of Parenting Article Review

… The sessions with the children included focus on increasing effective coping, improving the quality of the mother-child relationship and reducing negative thoughts about divorce related stressors using the help of activities such as video games, problem solving, role plays, etc. The literature control condition involved both mother and child being provided with 3 books about divorce adjustment and guidance to be completed over a period of six weeks.

To achieve the outcomes from the study, participants were interviewed on 5 different occasions; pre-test, post-test, 3 months after the test, 6 months after the test and 6 years after the test. These interviews included completing of subscales by both mothers and children on the factors of relationship quality, discipline and coping efforts. The results were deduced based on the data collected via the interviews, subscales and meditational testing.

The findings of the study reveal that the in the short-term period, the coping efficacy significantly increase, while in the longer term period, there are significantly higher levels of coping efficacy and active coping. Moreover, the finding also suggest that a strong relationship with the mother can have remarkable positive effects as they promote adaptive coping after parental divorces, and aid in helping children to battle off the stressors that can lead to avoidant coping. The findings also revealed that the discipline factor was non-significant with the coping process in children. The differences in the participants based on gender, parenting, and baseline risk status did not provide any evidence regarding the relations between the child's coping processes and parenting.

Unlike prior studies, this research contributes immensely on the inferences about the effects of parenting on the coping process. Moreover, the study can be highly significant in the creating of programs and policies that are relevant to child development as these suggest that a child can be aided with the coping process only with the parental influence. Additionally, the study would implicate on the issue of understand and preventing children from acquiring any mental health problems in the longer term.

The article and its research are significantly positive in helping to determine that children can be assisted with the coping process by the developing improved coping efficacy with the aid of a strong and quality relationship with the mother. Being a part of a family of divorced parents myself, the research topic is significant to me as it focuses and provides a solution on the aspect of child development of those children who have been a victim of parent divorces.


Ve'lez, C.E., Wolchik, S.A., Tein, J.-Y., & Sandler, I. (2011). Protecting Children From the Consequences of Divorce: A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Parenting… [read more]

Child Development There Is an Extreme Deficiency Essay

… Child Development

There is an extreme deficiency within the beliefs of nativist and behavioralist conceptions of the nature of development within the growing mind. Nativists believe the concept that development and influence comes directly from within. This thinking describes a much more internal version of the growing child, whereas behavioralists see it a much different way. According to behaviorists like Vygotsky, "The child solves an inner problem by means of exterior objects," (Vygotsky 1929). The external world dominates development through influence on mental development. Therefore, the culture has a large role within development. This is in contrast to the nativist view that development is independent of external factors, and would happen the same therefore, in all of us.

Therefore, Vygotsky's theories are much different to other prominent ideas which try to explain the nature of natural development within children. According to Vygotsky, "social interaction leads to continuous step-by-step changes in children's thought and behavior and that can very greatly from culture to culture," (Gallagher 1999). Thus, the social world is a powerful influence within the development of the child within it. Development, itself, "depends on interaction with people and the tools that the culture provides to help form their own view of the world," (Gallagher 1999). Therefore, language is fundamental in the developmental process within the context of Vygotsky's theory. Knowledge is self-constructed through observation of social interaction. Much different, was the views of Jean Piaget. His theory focuses on the cognitive influence on a child's development. According to Piaget, development… [read more]

Child Development Humans Are Born Term Paper

… If a stage is managed well, the individual will carry away a certain virtue or psychosocial strength which will help him or her through the rest of the stages of life (Eric pp). However, if the individual does not do so well, then his or her future development may be endangered (Eric pp).

Work Cited

Eric Erikson.

Erikson's Eight Stages of Human Development [read more]

Child Development the First Two Term Paper

… Freud's suggested that there are five psychosexual stages of development. Firstly the oral stage, which occurs from birth to about one year, is when the infant is orally oriented and everything the child touches is put into the mouth. According to Freud, this occurs not only for feeding purposes, but also for pleasure, and the gratification is sexual. Freud's second takes place between the ages of two and three years of age, when the erogenous zone shifts to the anal region. Freud believes children experience sexual gratification during bowel movements and when they withhold bowel movements. Following the Anal stage of development, and usually at around the age of three, the individual enters the Phallic Stage during which the child gains gratification from their sexual organs. The child notices differences and similarities between themselves and their parents and each sex wants to be with the parent of the other sex: for males this is known as the Oedipus complex and for girls this is referred to as the Elektra complex. Once the children realize they can not be with their mother or father, they identify with the parent of the same sex. Next is the Latency stage, characterized by a lack of change, and is a time of relative calm for the individual. The last stage of Freud's psychosexual development is the Genital Stage and, from puberty into adulthood, sexual desire and sexual relationships develop and mature.

Erikson took Freud's ideas and enhanced them, mainly by adding stages for the adult years, but also by emphasizing identity rather than sexuality. Erikson developed the eight psychosocial stages of development, the first of which occurs during infancy. This stage deals with trust vs. mistrust, and is when the child perceives whether the world can be trusted or not, and develops a trusting relationship with parents. The second stage, during early childhood, is known as autonomy vs. shame and doubt, and is when the child develops personal autonomy. This stage is important in determining whether or not a child develops a sense of self-certainty. Between the ages of three to six years, Erikson's third stage, that of initiative vs. guilt takes place. The individual develops initiative by the process of trial and error, and is important in developing the sense of enterprise. The fourth stage takes place around six years of age and lasts until puberty. This stage deals with industry vs. inferiority and is when the child learns skills of the culture and must deal with feelings of inferiority. Adolescence heralds the fifth stage, known as identity vs. identity confusion. It is during this stage that Erikson believes adolescents develop their sense of self and identity. The sixth stage for Erikson is known for intimacy vs. isolation and takes during young adulthood. This is when the individual seeks commitments from others, which if unsuccessful, may lead to isolation. The penultimate stage takes place during adulthood and is known as generativity vs. stagnation. The adult is concerned with guiding the next generation and… [read more]

Adolescent and Child Development Questionnaire

… Adolescent and Child Development

Lawrence Kohlberg's psychological theory of moral development is broken into three levels and a total of six stages (two stages for each level). Level One is the pre-conventional level of moral reasoning. This level is typically… [read more]

Child Development When Sigmund Freud First Research Proposal

… Child Development

When Sigmund Freud first introduced the concepts of psychology, it led other theorists to look at the development of children into adults. Today, it is well-known that children develop from when they are born, with nearly no concept… [read more]

Child Development the Middle Childhood Term Paper

… Child Development

The middle childhood is generally considered to be six to twelve years of age. I observed an eight-year-old boy playing at a playground. The boy's name is Chris.

He is smiling a lot so it can be seen… [read more]

Child Development Theories Research Paper

… After about five times of doing this with her father, Veronica tried it on her own. She needed help for the first two times, but on the third try was successful. She then practiced tying her shoe over and over for a good twenty minutes on her own until she was personally confident she had it down pat. Her beaming face of pride showed that she was pleased with her accomplishment.

Piaget's theories emphasize the importance of children having concrete learning experiences with actual objects in their environments as the only way for them to create mental maps of how things work both socially and physically. By teaching his daughter in the way that he did, Veronica's father was doing just this. He used a physical learning experience with an actual object from her environment (her shoe) to teach Veronica how to tie the shoe. By letting her practice on her own, he was giving Veronica the chance to create her own mental map of how a shoe is tied. Veronica was then able to relate the importance of knowing how to tie a shoe to her direct environment.


Resilience in Context: Ecological Systems." (2002). Building Resilience in the Early Years of School. Retrieved on November 9, 2003 at http://home [read more]

Social Concerns Theory Article Critique

… One conceptual framework produced by Yoshikawa, Aber and Beardslee (2012) examines four aspects of poverty and how these relate to the family and the children present in this arrangement. These factors are the main subjects or selection factors, the multidimensional nature of poverty, the mechanisms through which poverty affects children on an individual, relational and institutional level, and the multidimensionality of children's outcomes (Yoshikawa, Aber, & Beardslee, 2012). Of all the types of interventions studied, what showed to be the most effective was grounded on strategies formed by various economist and policy experts and were simply focused on reducing poverty as a solution. Based on multiple research findings, the authors are able to provide evidence that a causal effect between poverty and the negative impact on M-E-B health of children exists.


The theory of Social Concerns or Human Behaviors suggests something of a cause and effect type relationship between the person and their microsystem and well as broader systems that can be considered. The external factors related to a child's development can have a substantial influence on their development as well as be highly correlated with MEB issues later in life. However, children often lack the ability to seek a "goodness of fit" with their family environment during development. Thus the unity between a child and their parental environment is generally fairly static until the child reaches adult age.

This is an important developmental period as well because the environment has actual been shown to influence genetics and therefore the interactions a child has during development can have a lasting effect has indicate by several studies which adds credence to the perspective of viewing a family as a system. Although people have the capacity to change, the intimacy of the microsystem can have substantial effects on development and even their physiology. One question that remains is one that has plagued philosophers and researchers for centuries, where does free will come into play? Or does it?

Another interesting aspect of this work is how it can be applied to public health strategies to help mitigate negative effects on child development. Increasing evidence suggests that public health and health-promotion interventions that are based on social and behavioral science theories are more effective than those lacking a theoretical base (Glanz & Bishop, 2010). Obviously reducing poverty completely may not have sufficient political will in the current state of society. However, there are definitely opportunities for different health-promotion strategies based on evidence that could make societal improvements in the short-term. Therefore, from the perspective of the individual who is in need of assistance, any intervention that would help support them from outside their immediate microsystem could make a big difference in their quality of life as well as improve society on the whole.

Works Cited

Glanz, K., & Bishop, D. (2010). The Role of Behavioral Science Theory in Development and Implementation of Public Health Interventions. Annual Review of Public Health, 399-418.

Ha, J., Greenberg, J., & Seltzer, M. (2011). Parenting a Child With… [read more]

Interview of Testing a Child's Ability Term Paper

… Child Development

Piaget's Conservation and Childhood Justification

Piaget's theories of child development have been generalized and widely accepted across the domains of psychology, child development, and education. It would not be inappropriate to label him as one of the most… [read more]

J Piaget Essay

… ¶ … child development is aimed at helping adult researchers become familiarized with how they were created out of the blissful ignorance of childhood. How do we know what we know, and how does the mind work within the limited context it is brought up within? In more recent times, neo-Vygotskian and Piagetian thinking, as seen in the work the Neo-Vygotskiam Approach to Child Development, adds additional dialogue into a long and heated debate regarding the evolution of the human mind from its origins in childhood.

Piaget posited a theory that we eventually reach a state of equilibrium when we have a good solid understanding of the world around us. We begin our journey as children with little understanding of the world. Eventually, we are exposed to various new stimuli which we then have to explain within our frame of mind. This understanding of stimuli within one's already structured existence is what Piaget called assimilation. The stimulus is assimilated into the bank of knowledge already in existence. However, some stimuli are more powerful in that they break free of prior understandings, forcing the child to create new schemas and understandings to explain the stimuli. This is the process of adaptation, where the child adapts his or her perceived notion of the world in order to account for new stimuli. The child's mind is thus in a state of equilibrium when there is a strong correlation between the nature of assimilation and accommodation. One reaches a state of equilibrium when one has a good solid and concrete knowledge of the universe and has adapted enough of its mind to accommodate for enough assimilation with relatively few needs… [read more]

Immigrant Children's Development Children Immigrating Essay

… Immigrant Children's Development

Children immigrating into the United States today represent a particularly diverse range of cultures, and some have had little or no formal education in their native countries. First and second- generation immigrant children are the fastest growing… [read more]

Early Childhood Development Issues Children Research Paper

… It is often the way adults express their emotions and actions that will tend to influence children and youth -- sometimes even more when dealing with special needs populations. Additionally, children with special needs tend to react to trauma and… [read more]

Spirituality in Young Children's Temperament and Self-Control: Cultural Influence Literature Review

… " (Sharley, 2012, p. 1) It is reported that both Zapf (2005a) and Spretnak (1991) relate that spiritual values from this view make the assumption that nature and people are "inextricably linked." (Sharley, 2012, p. 1) Specifically stated about the tie that people have to the land is "A people rooted in the land over time have exchanged their tears, their breath, their bones, all of their element -- oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, all the rest -- with their habitat many times over. Here nature knows us." (Sharley, 2012, p. 1) From this view the individual is not held to be a different but the same as the natural environment and as such "conceptualized as a living system that is a source of energy and knowledge." (Sharley, 2012, p. 1) The physical environment form this view "does not provide a passive backdrop to human action but is a 'sensate conscious entity suffused with spiritual powers." (Sharley, 2012, p. 1) The ancestral relationships are reported to provide the individual with "clarity about the obligations, rights, roles and practices for connecting with people within and outside the culture of the whanu (wider family grouping), iwi (tribe) and hapu (Sub-tribe). (Sharley, 2012, p. 1) From the Western view this is known as the ecological or biopsychosocial model and conceptualizes the development of the child as "being influenced by interactive relationships occurring across a number of subsystems at ontogenic-level or the level of the individual, the micro-level of the family, and the exo-level or the community and finally at the macro-level or socio-cultural in the environment of the child.

III. Holladay (2007)

Children are influenced by music

Children are influenced by media

Children are influenced by television

Holladay (2007) reports that George Barna, known for conducting surveys and specifically related is that in Barna's studies on parenting and child development the following facts were revealed: "By the time an American child is 23 years of age, as was the killer in Virginia, he has seen countless murders among the more than 30,000 violent acts to which he is exposed through television, movies, and video games." (p.1) Holladay also relates "By age 23, the average American will have viewed thousands of hours of pornographic images, which diminish the dignity and the value of human life." (p.1) As well, Barna is reported by Holladay to have stated the following fact: "After nearly a quarter of a century, the typical American will have listened to hundreds of hours of music (I'll say thousands of hours of music) that fosters anger, hatred, disrespect for authority, selfishness, and radical independence. The younger generation is hooked on music." (2007, p.1) There is no doubt that culture has a great impact on the child's spiritual development, or alternatively, the lack of spiritual development of in the child.


Einoth, SR (2010) Building Strong Foundations World Vision's Focus on Early Childhood Development and Child Well-being. A research project carried out on behalf of the World Vision Institute for Research and… [read more]

Toddlers and Infants This Stage Research Paper

… The pieces or blocks are brightly colored to attract the eyes. The wooden geometric stacker has a base at which three wooden poles perpendicularly connected to holds the blocks together. The blocks or the pieces are stack one on top of the other either matching the colors shape or sizes. However, the children can play with the blocks independently from the wooden base. The toy offers entertaining and delightful experience.

The wooden geometric stacker is ideal for instilling shape, color and size contrast early in children. It is also credited with building creativity in those who use it as well as problem solving and sequencing skills. In addition, the toy enables children to be imaginative and enhances their cognitive, emotional and mental development. According to Berk (2009), children engagements with the toy help them blend socially with other children.

Middle School and Teenagers

Middle school children and teenagers have thoughts that are more abstract, especially in teenage, most of them use formal logic. They have the ability to outline abstract propositions, hypothesize and conclude. Many are approaching puberty and their "focus is mainly on de-ning personal values and goals and establishing autonomy from the family" (Berk, 2009, p. 8). Some of the most helpful activities or games for this category of children include leapfrog explorer learning game movies such as Hannah Montana; various puzzles, Monopoly and wire puzzles.

Monopoly is ideal for this age group; it offers educational benefits and is fun filled (Pascale, 2009). Monopoly makes it possible for the participants to do things together aiding in bonding. It encourages children to count aloud; this instills basic math as well as teaching them how to use money. Learning is made easy as the children count the dots on the die and the denomination of the monies. This prepares them for greater numbers as they learn in school. Monopoly helps enhance ability to complete simple transactions; playing the game involves transactions, cash exchanges and buying of property providing them with basic understanding of business sense.

Other than buying property, the game exposes the participants to experiences associated with places. For instance, it takes them to the amusement parks where they place ticket booths on spaces. In addition, they role-play increasing their commitment as they play. Monopoly teaches children how to engage well with others. This is essential in enhancing a child's ability to achieve educational success.


Berk, L.E. ( 2009). Development Through the Lifespan. Allyn and Bacon. (2007). Child development: Your Questions Answered.

Gabbard, C., & Rodrigues, L. (2008). Optimizing Early Brain and Motor Development Through

Movement. Retrieved March 17, 2012, from

Pascale, C. (2009, June 15). The Benefits of Playing Monopoly, Jr. Retrieved March 17, 2012, from

Teresa M. McDevitt, J.E. (2002). Child Development and Education. Merrill/Prentice Hall. [read more]

Youth Jean Piaget's Theory Term Paper

… Adolescence is not the end-stage of moral and cognitive development for Piaget, and he asserted that these would continue to be improved and refined throughout adulthood into old age. As with his theory of cognitive development, researchers like Lawrence Kohlberg also discovered that younger children are also able to comprehend abstract moral values at an earlier age than he realized.

. Erik Erikson revised the stages of development in Freudian psychoanalysis away from the emphasis on gratification of the basic drives and instincts of the id to gratification and development of the ego, and therefore like most of the later Freudians has been considered an ego psychologist. He did not name his stages oral, anal, phallic, latent and genital as Freud had, and deemphasized sexual gratification as the basic motor of human development. In the oral stage, for example, he argued that the infant was in a state of dependency on the mother and had to develop a sense of her "caring and dedication to feeding" and other basic needs (DeRobertis, 2008, p. 90). Without this, children would lack a sense or trust and hope, and if abused or neglected would withdraw into a state similar to schizophrenia. At the next stage of development during toilet training, children would develop a sense of autonomy and ego control, as long as they had supportive and helpful parents, but is they were abused or mistreated by controlling, domineering or neurotic parents then they would have personalities based on shame and doubt, as well as obsessive-compulsive personalities. In the phallic stage, which is one of initiative vs. guilt, children with abusive or controlling parents would end up feeling guilty about sexuality and develop hysterical neuroses (DeRobertis, p. 91). Adolescents must pass through a stage where they develop their own unique identities and moral codes vs. simply conforming and fitting in with the parents, families and peers. If they successfully navigate this stage -- and of course many people fail to do so -- then they will be healthy adults who are confident in their own identities. Late adolescents also pass through a stage of intimacy vs. isolation, in which they develop the ability to love and be loved by other adults, as well as to maintain friendships. Those who fail to pass through this stage may become emotionally distant and shut off, over overly needy and dependent on others.

The theories of Erikson and Piaget have been revised over time, particularly the idea that all children and adolescents pass through the same stages at the same ages, or that emotional, cognitive and moral development always proceed at the same pace in every individual. Nor do today's researchers consider each stage of life a 'crisis' as Erikson did, at least not for all individuals. Erikson and Piaget remain very influential today because of their pioneering work, even if contemporary development theorists reject the concept of rigid and inflexible stages of life. Youth development in contemporary times is considered far more fluid and experimental, with… [read more]

Development Term Paper

… Thus many sources were tied together to attempt to create a unifying set of rights for children that can be governed by the United Nations.


The first article in the declaration simply defines the child as someone under the age of eighteen. This is something of an arbitrary date in my opinion. For example, if someone is eighteen years old and one day, then they have a different set of rights and responsibilities as they did the previous day. However, the definition of adulthood must be established somehow and an arbitrary date is probably the easiest way to do so. The second article ensures the rights of children even if their parents or legislative authorities have a different opinion based on race, sex, color, etc. This protects children from discrimination.

Most of the rest of the articles are about the protection of children in one respect or another. They cover topics as a child who is missing an identity as should be granted one. Or if a child is displaced then they should be relocated to an appropriate physical location. However, beyond these basic protections, one of the interesting aspects to the declarations is that it gives children the freedom of association and the freedom of peaceful assembly. This is interesting because it is not exactly practiced much and it has a lot of potential to change the political landscape. Consider climate change for example, this is going to affect the people who are currently going through their childhoods more so than the generation that is currently in power. Thus if children were to organize, as some have, and had their voices heard, then they might be able to achieve some intergenerational equality in the treatment of the world's ecological issues.

Works Cited

UNICEF. "Convention on the Rights of the Child ." 12 March 2014. UNICEF. Online. 31 March 2014.

United Nations. "Conventions on the Rights of the… [read more]

Piagetian Theory the Child Essay

… ¶ … Piagetian theory

The child that I observed was a kindergartener named Billy. According to Piaget, children at Billy's age are in the preoperational stage of development. "During this stage, young children are able to think about things symbolically. Their language use becomes more mature. They also develop memory and imagination, which allows them to understand the difference between past and future, and engage in make-believe. But their thinking is based on intuition and still not completely logical. They cannot yet grasp more complex concepts such as cause and effect, time, and comparison" (Piaget's stages of development, 2013, WebMD). Billy's developing imaginative capacity is evidenced in his 'play' stacking and destroying walls made of available cardboard boxes while making noises that suggest explosions. After engaging in this for some time with a fellow student Billy then switched to assembling jigsaw puzzles. Although Billy was able to correctly assemble the puzzles, he eventually mixed up the pieces and tried to make a new puzzle with the available mixed sections. To Piaget this would indicate that Billy can replicate putting a puzzle together but does not fully understand that each puzzle is made up of unique shapes that can only be assembled correctly together.

During the preoperational stage, children tend to be very egocentric. "Children view things that are happening around them in only one point-of-view," namely their own (Presnell 1999). This egocentrism can be seen in Billy's occasional disruptive behavior, when he was biting and kicking another student to 'get his way.' Billy was unable to empathize with the other student's perspective. Nor was he able to empathize with other students who might want to assemble the jigsaw puzzles as he did, but could not now Billy had mixed up the pieces.

Observation: Vygotsky's theory

In contrast to Piaget's theory of development, which stresses that development occurs in a series of sequential stages that are relatively… [read more]

Mediation in Family Law Cases Term Paper

… They have a problem with authority because with uninvolved parents they did not have authority figures. These children do not know what love is or how to love so they begin to fall into the wrong groups and place that… [read more]

Divorce on Children Impact Research Paper

… Remarriage, especially of the custodial parent, can significantly ease the economic adversity resulting from the divorce and therefore eliminate some of the practical stresses for children of divorce. This can significantly increase the well-being, both psychological and physical, of younger children (Peck 1989). However, remarriage tends to have a negative influence on older children, especially those in early adolescence and especially if the remarrying parent is the custodial mother. A 1989 study of the effects of remarriage on early adolescents found that "living with one's mother and stepfather following parents' divorce is associated with significantly less happiness and life satisfaction among both men and women" (Twaite et al. ____).

There is overwhelming evidence that divorce has a negative impact on the development of children at all ages. From the parental stress that influences an infant's anxiety level, to the psychological difficulties encountered by a young boy who has no consistent male role model, to the bitterness of the teenager who must move away from her friends to live somewhere cheaper, all aspects of divorce are disruptive to a child's sense of security, well-being, and confidence. However, there is some good news. While the impact of divorce on children is undeniable, it is not insurmountable. Children consistently show astonishing resilience and adaptive capabilities in the face of adversity, and children of divorce are no exception. When Acock & Demo (1994) compared the well-being of adults based on their childhood family structure, they found only a small difference between those who grew up in families untouched by divorce and those who grew up in divorced or remarried families. They concluded that, despite all of the stresses associated with divorce, "family structure has only a modest effect on children's well-being" (Weiten et al. 2012).


Benson, J. (2009) Social and Emotional Development in Infancy and Early Childhood. San Diego, CA: Elsevier.

DeFranc, W. And Mahalik, J.R. (2002) Masculine gender role conflict and stress in relation to parental attachment and separation. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, Vol. 3, Iss. 1, 51-60.

Hughes, R. (November 20, 2010) What is the real divorce rate in the U.S. Huffington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2012 from

Nauert, R. (March 7, 2007) Family stress affects kid's physical health. PsychCentral. Retrieved Aprill 11, 2012 from

Peck, J.S. (1989) The impact of divorce on children at various stages in the family life cycle. Children of Divorce: Developmental and Clinical Issues, C.A. Everett, ed. London: The Haworth Press.

Stadelmann, S., Perren, S., Groeben, M., and von Klizting, K. (March 2010) Parental separation and children's behavioral/emotional problems: the impact of parental representations and family conflict. Family Process, Vol. 49, Iss.1, p. 92-109.

Twaite, J.A., Silitsky, D. And Luchow, A. (1998) Children of Divorce: Adjustment, Parental Conflict, Custody, Remarriage, and Recommendations for Clinicians. N. Bergen, NJ: Aronson, Inc.

Weiten, W., Dunn, D. And Hammer, E.Y. (2012) Psychology Applied… [read more]

Youth Transition Out of Foster Literature Review

… The instrument used for the investigation was the Multidimensional Adolescent Satisfaction Scale. Results of the study indicated that the only background characteristic found to be significantly associated with satisfaction with counseling was custody status, while attitudes toward mental health services was the only variable found to be a significant predictor of counseling satisfaction in the study (Scott et al., 2009).


Ahrens, K.R., Dubois, D.L., Richardson, L.P., Fan, M.Y., Lozano, P. (2008). Youth in foster care with adult mentors during adolescence have improved adult outcomes. Pediatrics, 121(2), e246-52.

Keller, T.E., Cusick, G, R., Courtney, M.E. (2007). Approaching the transition to adulthood: distinctive profiles of adolescents aging out of the child welfare system. Social Services Review, 81(3), 453-84.

Kushel, M.B., Yen, I.H., Gee, L., Courtney, M.E. (2007). Homelessness and healthcare access after emancipation: results from the Midwest evaluation of adult functioning of former foster youth. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 161(10), 986-93.

Munson, M.R., Smalling, S.E., Spencer, R., Scott, L.D., Tracy, E. (2009). A steady presence in the midst of change: nonkin natural mentors in the lives of older youth exiting foster care. Child and Youth Services Review, 32(4), 527-35.

Scott, L.D., Munson, M.R.,… [read more]

Comprehensive Proposal for Development of an Early Childhood Education Program Research Paper

… ¶ … Early Childhood Educational Center

Program's center vision statement

The vision of the multicultural childhood center (MCC) is to structure a learning program that, whilst generally informative and inspiring, is individually catered to the character and potentialities of each… [read more]

Developing in a Family Essay

… Family Development

Child care advice for parents

Child care and day care institutions are very much part of family life in contemporary Western societies. Our new generation of parents, especially mothers, have been psyched to believe that starting a family… [read more]

Human Development in the Environment Term Paper

… ¶ … Asher Lev

Just as one can develop a sociological analysis of the development of a person in the environment in which he or she was raised and make certain judgments about what influenced that development and how, so… [read more]

2-Year-Old Two-Year-Old Child Development Case Study

… 2-year-Old Case Study

Two-Year-old Child Development Case Study

Healthy early childhood development is highly dependent on some rather simple, yet profound variables. The first few feelings that an infant has are very basic instinctual attachments or bonding to his or… [read more]

Child Psychology Mander Term Paper

… Keith. (April 2004). "A risk and resiliency model of ambiguous loss in postdivorce stepfamilies." Journal of Communication, Vol. 4, Issue 2.

This study establishes the hypothesis that children who are known to be "capable of maintaining healthy relationships with other family members" are those who are best able to cope with family changes. These family changes include the loss of a parent (resulting from a divorce and one parent being a single parent) or the inclusion of a new parent and/or family. This study has relevance to single parenting and child development because it shows how single parenting is not a major factor affecting a person's development as an individual.

Guttmann, J. And M. Rosenberg. (September 2003). "Emotional intimacy and children's adjustment: a comparison between single-parent divorced and intact families." Educational Psychology, Vol. 23, Issue 4.

Important findings from this study show that single parents have "less intimate" relationships with their children than those families between children and their parents (from intact families). This study demonstrates how single parenting poses as a major influence in child development, and determining the factors that contribute to the decline in intimacy between single parent and child (children) is vital.

Dunn, J. And T. O'Connor. (December 2002). "Out of the picture: a study of family drawings by children from step-, single-parent, and non-step families." Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, Vol.31, Issue 4.

This study was conducted in order to determine how children cope with the effects of divorce and remarriage, which was found to affect their development. Results from the study reflect that non-biological relatedness, i.e., the addition of a step-family, results to greater disconnectedness between the… [read more]

Younger Brother's Development Term Paper

… Hereditary and environmental factors need to be taken into account as well. All children are born with traits that their parents have passed down to them. Everyone is born with hereditary potential, which is then shaped and molded by surroundings or the culture. A realistic definition of culture would be a social group.

In many cases, for example, a child who comes from an artistic or musical family will have this ability as well. Or, someone who has parents who were both overweight as they were growing up (due to genetics not diet) may also have a similar tendency.

A child's development will be determined by physical factors such as the type and amount of foods he/she eats, the amount of sleep received on average and the mother's health while pregnant. Socio-economic factors will also impact the child's development: For example, children from single-family homes are more at risk of having behavioral problems. Youth who are abused physically or emotionally may have psychological problems or learning delays.

It is important for a number of reasons to study child development. Above all, as noted above, is having proper expectations. This way, one can know what a child should or should not be capable of doing at what age, so action can be taken/or not as required. Information on normal development facilitates early detection of problems and helps in the prevention and treatment of deviant or atypical development.


Healy, Jane. Your child's growing mind. Galena, IL:… [read more]

Piaget Harry James Potter Research Paper

… Vygotsky and Bruner, both of whom also studied child development, noted that a stage theory is not as appropriate as a theory of developmental continuum (McLeod, 2009). The ages that Piaget ascribed to the stages might also be erroneous, and "progress to the formal operational stage is not guaranteed," (McLeod, 2009).

According to Cherry (n.d.), "even Piaget believed that development does not always follow such a smooth and predictable path," as would be assumed from over-simplification of Piaget's research. The research was more valuable in informing educators, psychologists, and parents that children think differently from their adult counterparts. Their methods of evaluating the world and assimilating new information are different from adults. As a result, educational programs and curricula could be designed in developmentally appropriate ways. Piaget himself did not develop educational practices, but Piaget's theories do inform current pedagogy. "Many educational programs are now built upon the belief that children should be taught at the level for which they are developmentally prepared," (Cherry, n.d.). Specific instructional methods such as "providing a supportive environment, utilizing social interactions and peer teaching, and helping children see fallacies and inconsistencies in their thinking" are also rooted in Piaget's theories (Cherry, n.d.).

Piaget did not take into account as many situational variables as might be necessary to provide a complete picture of child development, and his sampe sizes are also critiqued for being too small to yield valid results (McLeod, 2009). Environmental factors such as social setting do have an impact on learning and development, but Piaget does not take these issues into account (Vygotsky, cited by McLeod, 2009). Moreover, culture and ethnicity may play a role in child development. Piaget did not mention culture and ethnicity in his research. Some researchers have criticized Piaget's methodologies for research, as by claiming that the methods involved ineffective testing instruments (McLeod, 2009). Piaget's schema concept has also been criticized, and is incompatible with other theories of developmental psychology including behaviorism (McLeod, 2009). Furthermore, Sutton-Smith (1966) points out, Piaget also assumed a reductionist view of children's play activities: "Piaget deprives play of any genuinely constitutive role within thought," (p. 104). It is therefore difficult to prove Piaget's theories, however attractive they may be from the perspective of an educator.


Cherry, K. (n.d.). Background and key concepts of Piaget's theory. Retrieved online:

McLeod, S. (2009). Jean Piaget. Simply Psychology. Retrieved online:

"Stage Theory of Cognitive Development (Piaget)" (n.d.). Learning Theories. Retrieved online:

Sutton-Smith, B. (1966). Piaget on play: A critique. Psychological Review 73(1): 104-110. [read more]

Counseling for Children Book Report

… ¶ … physical and sexual abuse on children. This is accomplished through critiquing the book Protecting Children from Violence and the ideas that are presented. Once this takes place, is when psychologists can use these tools in their practice setting… [read more]

Childhood Education Proposal Location: Anywhere Business Proposal

… The outdoor area will be green and welcoming. Gardens and growing plants will be accessible and incorporated with play zones. Playground equipment will be age appropriate and surrounded by recycled fall-protection materials. We have identified wooden and other play structures… [read more]

Developmental Process Presentation Thesis

… Child Development of Six and Ten-Year-Olds

According to the Center for Disease Control, childhood development is crucial both for the individual child and for society. An individual who is not provided with the resources he or she needs to develop… [read more]

Children Sociology Theorizing Childhood Power Term Paper

… Children Sociology

Child abuse is not an anomaly but part of the structural oppression of children. Assault and exploitation are risks inherent to 'childhood' as it is currently lived. It is not just the abuse of power over children that… [read more]

Psychology Developmental Children's Use Term Paper

… Games can be motivational intellectually in the pre-school and primary school curriculum. (Kamii & Devries, 1980, Kamii, 1985)

Adults Interaction and Role in Children's Play:

The adult role in children's play should follow guidelines. The adult should value children's play and talk to the child about their play. When appropriate, play with the child, most specifically during the early years. Creation of a playful atmosphere as well as provision of materials that are conducive to exploration in play is important. Sometimes offering a new prop or suggesting new roles can provide more productive experiences through play. The adult should intervene to assure safety in play as well as negotiating conflicts between children that the children are unable to find a solution to themselves. (Caldwell, 1977). According to Sroufe, Cooper and & DeHart, 1996), a primary focus has been early attachment relationships with the primary caregivers and other aspects of early care. Individual differences in the quality of these relationship experiences are predicted to be linked to peer relationships in all phases of development.


The progression from simple to complex play is not an easy shift for some children in that children may exhibit nonsocial behavior which has been connected to peer rejection, social anxiety, loneliness, depression and negative esteem later in childhood and adolescence. Nonsocial play is also a negative indicator in terms of academic success. I recent studies the trend of nonsocial play was more often seen in classroom that were Title I having a larger proportion of children from low socioeconomic households. This in itself gives notice that policy makers need a better understanding of the cognitive development connections to children play in terms of academic performance.


Bergen, Doris (2001) "Pretend Play and Young Children's Development" ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education Champaign IL.

Online] located at

DeHart, G.B., Sroufe, L.A., & Cooper, R.G. (2004). Child development: Its nature and course (5th ed.). Toronto: McGraw-Hill.

Bear, G.G., & Rys, G.S. (1994). Moral reasoning, classroom behavior, and sociometric status among elementary school children. Developmental Psychology, 30, 633-638.

Bergen, D. (1988). PLAY AS A MEDIUM FOR LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Caldwell, B. (1977). "Aggression and Hostility in Young Children." YOUNG CHILDREN, 32, pp. 4-13.

Fein, G. (1981). "Pretend Play in Childhood: An Integrative Review." CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 52, pp. 1095-1118.

Garvey, C. (1977). PLAY. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.


Kamii, C., & DeVries, R. (1980). GROUP GAMES IN EARLY EDUCATION: IMPLICATIONS OF PIAGET'S THEORY. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.

Collins, A. et al. (1996) "Relationships as Developmental Contexts"

Minnesota Symposium on Child Psychology 1996, University of Minnesota; Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,

DeHart G., Konchalski J., Keogh J., & Miller K. (1996, August). Averted conflicts in children's interactions with siblings and with friends. Poster presented at the biennial meeting of the International… [read more]

Child Temperament Term Paper

… Child Temperament

Temperament can be defined as behavioral inclination rather than behavior itself. Temperament, according to the temperament theorists is a natural and steady basis of later development of personality (Cicchetti; Toth, 1995). Although the theorists have the same opinion… [read more]

Placement of Children and Youth Term Paper

… Smith (1998) also documented another important trend in relation to juveniles in juvenile justice residential placement settings that has occurred since 1987. As reported by Smith, the proportion of youth held in juvenile facilities for violent offenses increased over the… [read more]

Research Paper

… They want to feel like grown-ups, but they still have very little self-control. In addition, sexuality is just another piece of the puzzle that adds to their insecurities, taboos, curiosities etc. There'd plenty of sexually explicit material and they are bound to be attracted by what they know very little about, but are eager to find out as much as possible. The worst thing for adolescents would be to learn about their sexuality from television programs.

Most of the educational programs mentioned can be viewed worldwide thanks to cable, along with those each country has designed for its younger viewers. However, the regulations regarding TV commercials are widely varying, so the invitation to eat high calorie foods and drinks may still be allowed in some countries. Plus, television watching means being sedentary in any country. Television watching can create unhealthy eating habits and an overall unhealthy living style, inclination to violence, distorted ideas about sexuality, women vs. men's roles and other important social issues, therefore it should be strictly controlled and restricted to a minimum.

Works Cited page:

The American School System. Grades, School Hours and Terms. Available at: retrieved: Oct. 7th, 2014

Ferguson, Christopher J. 2013. Adolescents, Crime, and the Media: A Critical Analysis. Springer Science & Business Media

PMC. U.S. National Library of Medicine.

National Institutes of Health Impact of media use on children and youth. 2003. Paediatrics Child Health. 2003 May-Jun; 8(5): 301 -- 306. Available at: Retrieved: Oct 7th, 2014

Strasburger. VC. 1997. "Children, Adolescents and Television. A Call for Physician Action." West J. Med. May 1997; 166(5): 353 -- 354. Available at: Retrieved: Oct 7th, 2014

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2011. "Children And Watching TV." Facts For Families Pages. No. 54. Available at: Retrieved: Oct 7th, 2014

Cox, Adam. 2005 Family Matters. "TV is a Drug - Are Your Kids Addicted?" Available at: Retrieved: Oct 7th, 2014

American Academy of Pediatrics. "Media and Children." Available at: Retrieved: Oct 7th, 2014 [read more]

Modulators of Child Development Outcomes: Annotated Bibliography Essay

… Developmental Psychology, 39(2), 274-91. Using the developmental-ecological model the authors of this study evaluated possible predictors of violence among boys attending fifth and seventh grade in inner-city Chicago schools. Parenting style and poverty were among the many variables examined; however, the variables included in the study explained only a percentage of the violence, which implies the existence of other, unidentified contributors to youth violence. Parenting practices and the concentration of poverty and crime were strong predictors of youth violence. This study highlights other factors, aside from single-parent households, that influence child development outcomes. Both Latino and African-American boys were included in the study, but not girls. The limitations include a small sample size and considerable overlap of contributions from variables.

Bubier, J.L., Drabick, D.A.G., & Breiner, T. (2009). Autonomic functioning moderates the relations between contextual factors and externalizing behaviors among inner-city children. Journal of Family Psychology, 23(4), 500-10. Modulators of the risk for negative child development outcomes include inherent predispositions to contextual influences. Accordingly, this study examined baseline autonomic indicators and grouped children of inner-city parents into low and high baseline autonomic activity. Low autonomic activity in response to stressors was protective against externalizing behaviors, while children with a high baseline were influenced significantly by harsh parenting and neighborhood cohesion. The vast majority of these inner-city minority children resided in single-parent households. Unfortunately, the power of the study was insufficient to adequately test for differences in outcomes by child gender.

McMahon, T.J., & Luthar, S.S. (2007). Defining characteristics and potential consequences of caretaking burden among children living in urban poverty. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77(2), 267-81. This study examined the impact of caretaker burden imposed on children between the ages of 8 and 17, living in inner-city households with mothers abusing drugs or suffering from psychiatric problems. Doing household chores, caring for siblings, and/or caring for mother were significant predictors of internalizing and externalizing behaviors and social competence. The authors mentioned continued controversy about how to measure caretaker burden in children, which could represent a significant limitation of this study.

Sagrestano, L.M., Paikoff, R.L., Holmbeck, G.N., & Fendrich, M. (2003). A longitudinal examination of familial risk factors for depression among inner-city African-American adolescents. Journal of Family Psychology, 17(1), 108-20. This longitudinal study followed children of inner-city, African-American single-parent household to better understand how family factors influenced the incidence of depression and anxiety among children and parents. Increased family conflict and reduced parental monitoring were both significant predictors of child depression, while increased positive parenting was protective. Interestingly, parental depression was increased by peer interactions with the child and decreased by positive parenting. The data was based on self-reports from child and mother and revealed significant differences in perceptions, which the authors attributed in part to the immaturity of the child.

Florsheim, P., Tolan, P., & Gorman-Smith, D. (1998). Family relationships, parenting practices, the availability of male family members, and the behavior of inner-city boys in single-mother and two-parent families. Child Development, 69(5), 1437-47. African-American and Latino families, with boys between… [read more]

Child Education Research Paper

… Quality Education in Early Childhood Programs

In Italy, early childhood education programs are an essential part of helping the individual to interact with others and learn the skills they will need to become successful later on. To fully understand these different programs requires examining numerous sources on the subject. During this process, there will be an emphasis on the involvement of the government / nonprofits, the common types of early childhood care, the findings and offering a summary of these ideas. Together, these elements will show Italy's focus in meet key objectives over the long-term.

Involvement in the government and nonprofit organizations in Early Childhood Education programs

The government and nonprofit organizations play an important role. This occurs through providing additional amounts of funding and support. The funding helps to ensure that the program is expanding and allowing the children to think critically. While the support is making certain that it has enough resources to meet the needs of stakeholders in the process. (Harcourt, 2012) (Howes, 2010)

Common types of Early Childhood Care and education settings

The most common types of childhood education settings are focusing on Montessori and Reggio Emilia approaches. The Montessori Method is when educators are directors. Their main purpose is to guide the students into new areas that will spark their interest and curiosity. Reggio Emilia is when teachers, parents and children will collaborate throughout the learning process. This means that when a child shows interest in particular areas, they are encouraged to learn more. The basic idea is to enhance their understanding of the material and key concepts in order to spark the student's ability to understand specific ideas. (Harcourt, 2012) (Howes, 2010)

Content / curriculum

The content and curriculum are determined based upon how much interest the child shows. This decides what direction the teacher will steer the classroom. At the same time, they are encouraging them to want to learn more on their own. (Harcourt, 2012) (Howes, 2010)

Fostering social-emotional, cognitive, linguistic, and physical development

Social -- emotional, cognitive, linguistic and physical development are designed to help the student to expand their horizons. This occurs with educators working with parents to create curriculum which achieves these objectives. The children are encouraged to engage in different activities to build these skills. (Harcourt, 2012) (Howes, 2010)

Respecting culture, race, and home language

During the process, the child is taught to be respectful of others. This means that they will have understanding of… [read more]

Human Behavior Theories Term Paper

… This includes behavior, learning, physical and mental health. Research shows that parenting is the primary influence on a child's development. The first three years are the ones are the most sensitive periods for the optimal growth of a child.

First,… [read more]

Video Observation of Young Movie Review

… Video Observation of Young Children

The video observation regarding infants -- newborns who were less than two years old, for the most part -- was very revealing about the physical, social, emotional and cognitive development of children. From a social and emotional perspective it was very interesting to see that each of the infants cried after their mothers left, a fact which reveals the degree of attachment that newborns have for familiar people and surroundings. Crying was the principle form of the rudimentary beginnings of language, which demonstrated the early stage of cognitive development of these children. Layla's actions were perhaps most revealing of all the children. She demonstrated her fledgling motor skills when she attempted to push and play with a blue ball. Similarly, she evinced a development that overlapped domains when she chose to stop crying and explore her surroundings. Such exploration is demonstrative of physical, social, and cognitive skills, which is essentially a universal tendency that all infants have at some point. It was interesting that it was the crying of another infant, which is an attempt towards language, which distracted Layla and spurred her exploration.

The segment in which toddlers were depicted was also fairly revealing of the various stages of development through which children go. One of the key facets of this segment that was indicative of universality was Santiago's affinity for music which he created by playing with a shaker; the fact that another child stopped to listen and watch him proves how widespread music is. Santiago's music-making is also an example of the interplay of domains since it involved cognition and the motor skills or physical development required to "play" his "instrument." Socially, it was fascinating to see the two toddlers hit one another and for the child who was hit to in turn hit another child. It was also compelling to see the children readily talking, although it was not always possible to understand them, which implies that they are still developing in this area of cognition.

The part of the video that is primarily about preschoolers is important because "one third of children are under 5… [read more]

Classroom Design Environmental Design: Creating Term Paper

… For example, a twelve-year-old may have the physical growth and change of an adolescent but mentally still be in the concrete operational stage. This is normal because often one aspect of a child's being will mature faster than another. Most of the time, given the right nurturing and stimuli, everything will catch up in the end (Berger, 2008). These ages are just an average and should be looked at as a general guide rather than a rule.

Whatever impact educators have certain facts remain. When babies are in infancy, they are changing from being totally dependent on caregivers as they learn to walk and to talk and are realizing their individual selves. When children enter early childhood, they continue to improve their large and small motor skills as they run and move more smoothly. They also grow mentally and socially as they enter school and other places where they interact with children. During middle childhood, children continue to grow and improve physically, while also growing mentally as they attend school. They maintain friendships in large same-sex groups and begin forming ideas about gender roles and jobs. During adolescence, people go through puberty as their bodies mature and become capable to reproduce. Teens attempt to assert their individual identity while still needing rules and limits to continue to help them make good life decisions. During later adolescence, young adults begin the tasks of finding a job and creating their own next-generation family. It is our purpose as educators to ensure that these rough milestones are achieved and the student's potential maximized.


Berger, K. (2008). The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence. New York: NY: Worth Publishers.

Bjorklund, D. (2011). Children's Thinking. New York, NY: Wadsworth Publishing.

Bronfenbrenner U., & Morris, P.A. (1998). The ecology of developmental processes. In R.M. Lerner, Handbook of Child Psychology (Vol. 1:993 -- 1028). New York: Wile Publishing.

Downer, J., Rimm-Kaufman, S. And Pianta, R. (2007). How do classroom conditions and children's risk for school problems contribute to children's behavioral engagement in learning? Social Psych Review. 36(3): 413-422.

Ginsburg, H. And Opper, S. (1988). Piaget's theory of intellectual development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Osche, R. And Plug, C. (1986). Cross-cultural investigation of the validity of Erikson's theory of personality development. J. Of Personality and Social… [read more]

Child Developmental Psychology Essay

… Child Development -- Neonatal/Postnatal Transition

For the last several hours I have not been able to sleep or get comfortable. At least several times an hour I feel something squeezing me; it stops and then starts again a little while… [read more]

Relationships and Abuse Essay

… Psychological Abuse

Child abuse is one of the worst things many of us can imagine. The fact that it is almost always a child's parents who are the perpetrators of abuse makes the situation that much worse (Cook & Cook 2005, pp. 143). Sexual abuse is usually considered the worst type of child abuse, both by individuals and by the legal system, but other types of abuse exist. Psychological abuse is often overlooked in the uproar created by cases of physical and sexual abuse, but it is also a recognized form of child abuse with hugely detrimental effects (Cook & Cook 2005; Kairys & Johnson 2002). It is true that psychological damage is done by both physical and sexual abuse, but psychological abuse is also its own distinct entity. Quite often, physical and sexual abusers are also psychological abusers, but it is all too common to find situations of psychological abuse that is not accompanied by anything more physical or sexual in nature (Kairys & Johnson 2002, pp. 1). This can make it difficult to determine when such abuse occurs.

Psychological abuse is also referred to as emotional abuse, and occurs when "verbal put-downs and other behavior that terrorizes, threatens, rejects, or isolates children or damages their self-esteem, thought processing, or ability to manage social interactions (Cook & Cook 20o5, pp. 141). Such abuse can also be termed psychological maltreatment, and it should be stressed that, like physical and sexual abuse, it is almost always found to be pattern that defines the parent- (or abuser-) child relationship, rather than a single occurrence (Kairys & Johnson 2002, pp. 1). Basically, psychological abuse puts a child into a position of consistent belittling in a way that reduces their own sense of significance. It can also severely dampen their self-esteem and hinder their decision making processes as they learn to think of themselves the way the abuser appears to, as worthless and incapable of performing even simple tasks.

One stereotypical example of psychological abuse that persists today, often in front of the eyes and ears of other parents, is the obsessive encouragement (or admonishment, as is more often the case) of parents (often fathers) for their children (often sons) in athletic events and competitive sports. Though this pattern might not exist in other areas of the relationship, many fathers are relentless in their struggle to make their children achieve, and may even use derogatory language and express shame and other negative emotions when their sons fall short in their eyes. When this type of abusive language persists, it can actually have the reverse effect of what the father wants, making the son lose enjoyment in playing and confidence in his abilities.

The same thing can be seen in "stage-moms" or "pageant-moms" that push their daughters to… [read more]

Five Stages of Psychosexual Theory of Development Research Proposal

… ¶ … five stages of psychosexual theory of development with the four stages of cognitive development. Briefly discuss and provide examples to support your response.

Freud described five stages of psychosexual development: the oral, anal, phallic, latent, and genital states. Struggles at any one stage could lead to fixations, neuroses, or habits related to that stage. Piaget also presented a stage theory of development. His four stages refer to cognitive development and include the sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete operational stage, and the formal operational stage. If an individual does not successfully master the cognitive skills associated with each developmental stage, then the person may be considered developmentally disabled. Therefore, Piaget did not suggest as Freud did that fixations develop because of insufficient transition between phases.

The Freud theory presumes the supremacy of the subconscious mind in determining psychological development. Piaget focuses more on conscious cognition and is less concerned with unconscious sexuality. Both take biology and physiology into account; the developmental stages are purported to have physical roots. However, Freud's oral, anal, and phallic stages are formulated and presented far differently, with focus on specific body parts and how individuals can become obsessed with them. Piaget is concerned with physicality as far as it impacts motor functioning, spatial relations, and the sense of self in the world. Freud's view on selfhood is tied to his tripartite division into id, ego, and superego.

2. What are some of the gross motor skills that most 5-year-olds' have mastered?

By age five, most five-year-olds have mastered walking and running, jumping, standing on one foot, walking on tiptoe, throwing overhead, and kicking balls. Between the ages of three and four, most children can ride tricycles or bikes with training wheels, can balance on one foot for up to ten seconds, and can walk in a line. Earlier motor skill mastery such as sitting up straight, pulling and pushing objects, has been well ensconced in the five-year-old's motor skill repertoire.

Gross motor stills that should emerge before the child is four include running around obstacles, jumping over small objects and landing with feet together, and manipulating wheeled toys. Between the ages of four and five, children can walk backwards effectively from toe to heel, somersault, and climb up stairs without assistance and by alternating feet.

3. According to Vygotsky, what role does culture play in determining what things a child will learn? Provide an example.

Vygotsky's sociocultural approach to human development stresses the role of an individual's background in determining moral development, language, and reasoning. Culture also determines what a child learns because parents will stress certain types of learning as important. For example, some children will learn musical skills because music is valued in their society. Others will learn verbal skills earlier because language literacy is more important in some cultures than… [read more]

Techniques Used to Sell a Toy in a Commercial Term Paper

… Advertising Ad Analysis: Undifferentiated and Intense Persuasion in Children's Advertising

But all of the other kids are getting one!" Every year, around Christmas time, normally sensible parents will devote themselves to spending hours in the toy stores, in malls, or… [read more]

Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development Term Paper

… Erik Erikson's Stages Of Psychosocial Development

Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development builds on the work of Sigmund Freud. Like Freud, Erikson basis his theory on the idea that internal, biological factors largely determine one's personality. However, Erikson also considers… [read more]

Infants We Don't Really Know Term Paper

… In one study, researchers demonstrated that the more social a mother was with her baby, the more likely the baby was to respond to the mother by touching and by reacting positively to being held (Mogilner, 1995), so it appears that caregiver behavior is important in many ways to the young infant. I believe that an infant needs lots of interaction with a caregiver so that child can know that his or her needs will be met and so the child will have many experiences to take in. The child may not be able to display what he or she has learned when the child is two or three months old, but the behaviors we see later as the infant explores its world have to have some sort of foundation. The caregiver is a vital link for socialization, learning about its culture, and personality development (Gonzalez-Mena, 1997).


Gonzalez-Mena, Janet. 1997. "The cultural context of infant caregiving. Childhood Education, Sept. 22.

Klaus, Marshall. 1998. "Mother and Infant: Early Emotional Ties." Pediatrics 102:5, November.

Mogilner, Celly. 1995. "Maternal social and physical contact: links to early infant attachment behaviors." Journal of Genetic Psychology, December.… [read more]

Child Development Jean Piaget Term Paper

… It is at this age that their sense of personal competency begins to significantly develop (World Bank, 2002). Emotionally they are still ego-centric, seeing and interpreting events from their own perspectives (Huitt & Hummel, 2003).

Cognitively, they use language symbolically. Memory and imagination develop more, but thinking is pre-logical and is often magical in nature.

Early signs of the interplay between symbolic thinking and imagination might be if a child pretends that a broom is a horse (Staff writers, 2004). By age 3 or 4, children can use objects to represent other people or things, such as using a stone or stick to represent specific individuals in imaginative play (Staff writers, 2004). Children this age can begin to think through the actions they want to perform, using language, before doing them (Staff writers, 2004). Curiosity about the world increases, and interest in letters and numbers increases (World Bank, 2002). At the end of this stage, children begin to acquire reading and math skills.

Physiologically and socially the children's skills explode. Combined with emotional and cognitive developments, children can begin some simple team sports toward the end of this stage. Children develop real, solid friendships (World Bank, 2002) although they will still have difficulty seeing events from another person's point-of-view (Staff writers, 2004). It is during this period that they really learn to take turn, play cooperatively, and share (World Bank, 2002).

These facts about children's development have important implications for the classroom. Many parents have seen a child open a holiday or birthday present that was too advanced for the child, and then observed that the child plays with the box instead of the toy. Developmental stages cannot be rushed. While a Pre-Operational child may show some interest in letters and numbers, this does not mean that the child has developed sufficient memory, symbolic and language skills to be taught how to read. While a few children may be accelerated in development of those areas, the majority are not, and such development cannot be forced upon them. First come the developmental skills, and then the instruction using those skills can follow.

This means that the preschool environment will have to have a wide variety off materials available for the children's use that reflect the fact that each child will vary in what he or she is ready to do. This means that a good preschool classroom will contain, for instance, a wide variety of difficulty levels for puzzles, from simply placing one object in its cut out shape to puzzles that may require the child to put four, eight, or even more pieces together, to accommodate the development of all the children present.

Knowledge about multicultural information should be included at the preschool level. This can be done in a variety of ways including songs, games and dances from other countries, introducing the concept that objects have different names in different languages, and of course depicting people from many backgrounds and cultures in any visual materials present in the classroom… [read more]

Egocentrism Term Paper

… As teens begin to develop and mature their physical appearance serves as a visual reminder to the world that they are barreling toward adulthood. These visual reminders help the world accept the fact that the child is no longer a child. When a teen has late or delayed development he or she may find it more difficult to be taken seriously in the natural steps of development. This can lead to feelings of frustration and anger and the teen may begin to associate with other social outcasts and begin to get into legal or school trouble.

Puberty not only marks the start of physical maturation, but in ideal settings it marks the beginning of emotional maturation as well.

When it begins early or late it can create an atmosphere in which the teen tries to make up the differences by actions. Those actions can create emotional issues with long-term consequences.

Isolation, depression, promiscuity and other things can develop when puberty hits outside of the normal pattern.

The third problem that can occur when puberty begins late is that the teen can try to act younger than he or she is. If the teen is not in puberty when all of his or her friends are the teen may begin to revert to more child like attitudes and behaviors.

The teen may try and get parents to do things for him that he can do for himself. He or she may expect teachers to give them chances that a teen of that age should not be entitled to.

The reverse can occur in a child who begins puberty early. They may be viewed as older than they are by the world and treated accordingly. The child may be expected to understand concepts and feelings that she or he is no where near ready to handle. The child may be expected to perform academically and at home in the same manner and with the same proficiency that an older teen could do (McDevitt, 2002).

The onset of puberty marks many milestones, and because it is physical, it tells the world of the child's entrance into adolescence. If it happens on time it works in tandem with the child's emotional development to move that individual to adulthood. If it appears early or late it can create many problems.


Child Development: Educating and Working with Children and Adolescents. (2nd Ed.) By McDevitt & Ormrod. Pearson-Prentice Hall 2002.

Learn the signs of early puberty

Boys Delayed Puberty: How To Ease Fears by Charles Wibbelsman, MD [read more]

Babies Movie Review

… At the most basic level, parents love their children and all babies experience the same developmental stages (Copple & Bredekamp, 2009). They all coo, cry, poop, laugh, and explore. The environment simply dictates where these experiences happen. Also, while we of the modern world tend to look down on underdeveloped countries, we try to emulate a natural world for our babies to play in while those in rural Mongolia and Africa actually participate in natural and experience the world in a unique way. The film may try to make a statement that modern parenting is too overprotective and overbearing. Babies should be given the freedom to explore their environment.

I recommend this film to those who want another perspective on parenting. It is a movie that isn't judgmental; therefore all conclusions are based on your own perspective. The movie also demonstrates the bond between a mother and her child, which makes it a touching movie for anyone to see. It is an interesting film because it shows the similarities between all humans and how we all go through the stages of development. It makes people wonder how much affect your environment has on cognitive development. A good follow-up would be examining the same four children as they enter adolescence and their personalities are more pronounced. During this stage the audience can also examine the influence culture has on personality.


Balmes, T. (Director). (2010). Babies [Documentary]. France: Universal Studios Home Entertainment.

Copple, C., & Bredekamp, S. (2009). Developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood programs serving children from birth through age 8 (3rd ed.). Washington, D.C.: National Association for the Education of Young Children.

Howes, C. (2010). Culture and child development in early childhood programs: practices for quality education and care.… [read more]

Parenting Styles: Big Daddy Most Parents Essay

… Parenting Styles: Big Daddy

Most parents do not use a singular parenting style, but combine a variety of techniques, spanning the spectrum of authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative styles. In the 1999 film Big Daddy, the title character played by Adam… [read more]

123. . .Last ›
NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.