"Child Development / Youth / Teens" Essays

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Causes That Explain Clique Behavior Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,373 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


(Six) The great majority of adolescents do not become part of cliques. They tend to conform to the culture of the school, and go about their business. It's not that they are invisible or faceless, but they have their own ideas about what's important and their values and ideas are not necessarily powerful enough in one direction or with one cause (athletics, music, to attract them to others with similar values).

(Seven) This book stereotypes jocks unfairly. Simply because one study showed "most" jocks were "self-centered and egotistical" that does not necessarily prove anything. How many jocks were observed or interviewed? Yes, there is a built-in macho attitude when you play football especially, because you're out there putting your body on the line. And no doubt some jocks are antisocial and bullies. As for "self-centered" -- any researcher worth his or her salt could easily have pinned that label on any number of high school students. Jocks win games and bring pride to the school. Given that they are revered in many cases. In the maturing phase of adolescence Jocks will naturally have some swagger. Some display out-of-control hormones.

(Eight) Girls come off always popular but also as more adjusted and normal as a rule than boys in these clique surveys. Cheerleaders were not generally seen as snobs. Assuming that "trendies" were female, certainly many girls in adolescence are proud of their femininity and loved shopping because they wanted to be sexy like female movie and rock stars. Every high school has girls that are sexually provocative so there will always be "sluts."

(Nine) Membership in a clique is in most cases earned. Of course there may be situations with a guy clique picks out new potential members, but the old saying "birds of a feather flock together" is absolutely true in high school cliques. Drama students hang out together and even though they don't as a rule cause trouble or use heavy drugs, technically they are in cliques. Athletes hang together because they alone know the work that goes into getting in shape, hence they don't think anyone else really understands them outside of their athletic acumen.

(Ten) Typically those students that are ostracized are immigrants (Asians), gays, nerds, freaks (those going out of their way to be different) and punks. They were shunned or picked on verbally or physically bullied. For some, that drove them deeper into involvement with antisocial activities (stealing snorting cocaine, and/or causing damage to public places).

(Eleven) Cliques are pretty much a high school phenomenon. Certainly there are groups of college students of like mind and in similar majors that tend to hang out and/or party together, but cliques are based on adolescent experiences and once a student gets into college, those experiences are of the past and seen as absurd, in many cases. One could say street gangs are cliques, but graduating from high school for most young people is the end of cliques. Growing up will do that, especially serious college students… [read more]

Family Is Separated, a Father Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,639 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


5 hours each and consisting of six fathers per group (N = 18), were carried out over a period of 5 weeks. The facilitator for the outreach program contacted all fathers who said they wanted to participate in the interviews. Each focus group interview was led by two experienced group facilitators and was tape recorded for future analysis. One of… [read more]

Child Sexual Abuse Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (942 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


These forms of questionings go against the AACAP as they state that Children should be interviewed in simple open ended ways to allow for a total recall of the events as opposed to replying to specific forms of questions, AACAP also state that interviews should be unbiased, the Washington State police were not unbiased in their questioning.

Question 5.

Geci's research shows that children's memory can be inaccurate; Goodman's shows that children's memory can be quite accurate. What conclusions would you draw given that research supports both positions? How suspicious of a child's testimony would you be if you had to serve on a jury of such a case?

Although both forms of research supports all positions of psychological profiling for investigating child sexual abuse and interviewing the children concerned, moreover with these forms of research they still tackle the question of abuse to the children head on even though the guidelines from the AACAP issue warnings against this form of questioning.

However, by breaking each style of research into its basest form we can argue that both are seeking to bring forth memories from the child when there may be no memories there both must proceed with caution when using these tactics especially around certain age groups for instance those under the age of ten.

It would be very suspicious if sitting on a jury and informed of the line of questioning and interviewing used that a child or a group of children that were exposed to the same line of techniques including visual aids such as pointing to the groin of a teddy bear or doll to illustrate where they had been touched for all children would not have the same stories, in many cases it can be likened to the Salem witch trials where the voices of what was meant to be innocent children sent many people to the hangman's noose or to prison, now days these problems still occur and all it needs is for one overzealous investigator to taint the evidence and the problem begins again.

However this is not to say that child abuse does not happen what it does mean is that investigation and questioning needs to be thought out with more care for the children's memories…… [read more]

Working for a Community Mental Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,218 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


(Burke, Loeber, & Birmaher, 2002).

A later research was, however, more optimistic.

In 2003, Kumpfer and Alvorado published an article in the distinguished "American Psychologist" that demonstrated that although studies unanimously show that effective parenting is the most promising way to reducing adolescent conduct problems, most counselors still use ineffective programs. The authors reviewed two federal studies that involved comprehensive searches for effective programs that dealt with conduct disorder. The Federal programs that the authors used as case histories were: (a) Preventing Substance Abuse amongst Children and Adolescents, and (b) Strengthening America's families.

The authors, consequently, singled out 3 effective prevention approaches; 35 programs; and 13 principles of effectiveness. They thereupon recommended further research on training but cautioned researchers to adjust their discoveries according to specificities of one's particular clientele.

Interestingly enough, their research was quite similar to that conducted in 1998 by Brestan and Eybarg (1998) who conducted thorough review of existent studies on psychosocial conduct disorder and interventions in regards to children and adolescents. They also investigated oppositional defiant disorder. 82 experimental studies were evaluated using certain criteria created by the Clinical Psychology Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures. Authors concluded that the two most effective programs that met all conditions were the following: a. videotape modeling parents training program, and b. A parent-training program that was based on a certain treatise called "Living with Children'"(1968). 20 of the 82 studies may have fulfilled some of the conditions of effectiveness.

Kumpfer and Alvorado (2003) did not use the same criteria as that employed by Brestan and Eybarg (1998), but it may be possible that had they used that criteria they may have come to the same conclusions. This is particularly so since their two federal case studies had incorporated criteria from multiple researchers, practitioners, and policymakers - one of which was quite likely that of the Clinical Psychology Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures which is central to the discipline.


In short therefore, although Burke, Loeber, and Birmaher (2002) are pessimistic regarding the current state of efficacious interventions for CD, their opinion that a synthesis of modalities may be helpful support the conclusions of Kumpfer and Alvorado (2003) and Brestan and Eyebarg (1998). It is interesting also that conclude that:

If any single risk domain is to be singled out, aspects of parenting convey risks (including parenting behavior, psychopathology, and genetic contributions) and provide a useful focus for intervention. (1288)

All authors, therefore, assert the value of family-orientated interventions and research, indeed, unanimously shows this to be the most important component of addressing CD.

There may be some family-oriented modalities that may be more helpful than others due to the fact that they succeed in addressing pertinent criteria. The causes for the condition (whether genetic, neural, prenatal and perinatal problems, as well as child functional, socio-economic, and psychosocial factors) may still be unclear, but parent / family intervention remains the most promising route and certain programs seem to be more helpful… [read more]

Eugenics David Silver's the Virtual Child Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,171 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



David Silver's "The Virtual Child" -- Oh Brave New World, Oh Wonder -- that has such people (and cloned sheep in it!)

Dolly" was the first sheep ever to make the cover of Time Magazine. This seismic public act of acclaim occurred, not because of her innate charm, or beauty, nor was Dolly the star of an up-and-coming reality television show about wool farming. Rather, she was the first animal ever to be artificially cloned by human, scientific hands, as opposed to a twin occurring naturally as a result of arbitrary genetic processes. This event, warns author Lee Silver, a geneticist at Princeton University and author of "The Virtual Child," is only a frightening precursor as to what could happen to the American family as a result of human cloning. (513) if Dolly becomes the template for human reproductive behavior, warns silver, life and childhood as we know it, will come to a sorry and swift end.

The first human to be cloned would undoubtedly meet with similar fame as Dolly. Perhaps, if the parents allowed it, the child has a similarly prominent publicity 'run' on the cover of Time. But really, what should be featured suggests Silver, are the faces of the family members whom allow this to occur -- which seek to create a member of their family rather than accept the arbitrary nature of human mortality. These individuals who design their children as replicas or super children rather than as relatives by genetic chance will fundamentally upset the balance of nature, physically and psychologically.

Lee Silver's essay upon "The Virtual Child," is from a larger work, entitled Remaking Eden. This plays upon the notion of life as blissful ignorance in Eden. In Silver's view, despite his own academic prowess, the gaining of knowledge is a fall from grace, or at least as a dangerous thing to be feared. His pervasive fear is marked throughout the entire essay. It would have been better, Silver suggests, if we had never known how to clone, despite the potential benefits the science could give in terms of regenerating organs. The potential dangers are too great, he states, if the technology is used to its ultimate extent and possibilities. (516-517)

Silver does not merely argue that our technical understanding of science has transcended our current scientific, ethical frameworks and out societal comprehension of what it means to be human. Given the fast-paced development of what Silver calls "reprogenetics" technology, after all, how could it not? Many observers have noted that the most dated artistic conceptions of are how the past (today's present) was envisioned our future, from H.G. Wells' Time Machine, to Disney's "Tomorrow land," to "The Jetsons." But even though we could not have envisioned the present, we can at least circumvent what may happen tomorrow, Silver argues, with legal strictures. In other words, Silver states that ethically speaking we as a society should quit while we are 'ahead' (or behind) and give up the pursuit of genetic perfection, and… [read more]

Gender and Sexuality in Juno Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,348 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Sexuality in Juno

Pregnancy, Loss, and Adoption:

An Analysis of Juno

A woman is subjected to many difficulties throughout her life. Sometimes, these are much tougher than any faced by a man, yet it is in such struggle that a woman finds her strength. Perhaps one of the most difficult things for a woman to endure is the loss of… [read more]

Psychotherapy in 2006, 1.89 Million U.S. Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,013 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6



In 2006, 1.89 million U.S. children had a least 1 parent in the military (Chandra, Lara-Cinisomo, Jaycox, Tanielian, Burns, Ruder & Han, 2010), which leads us to question, what is the experience of parental deployment and absence for youth from families with a parent in the military? What if the parent returns with a disorder such as PTSD and/or… [read more]

How Gender Specific Behavior Is Imposed on Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,735 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Gender-Specific Behaviour is Imposed on Children

Both male and female children in our society are socialized from a very young age to behave in specific, predefined ways that are considered to be appropriate for their genders. Beginning with the parents of children, and then including many other influential factors in society, many sources define what type of behavior… [read more]

Psychology of Trauma Effects on Children of War Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (860 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Psychology of Trauma Effects on Children of War

A review paper written in 2005 (Pine et al., 2005) focused on more than 50 years of research that had been conducted in regards to the psychological effect of war and terrorism on children. It concluded that some children will be exposed to war and terrorism in the U.S.A. And that PTSD may be a result experienced by many although not all of them. Of those who experience PTSD, many of them will have recovered within a year provided that their environment is safe.

The number of children directly exposed to terrorism with be relatively little. A far greater quantity will be indirectly exposed to terrorism through channels such as the media and other people. Based on the research that the authors have conducted, they urge surveillance of the amount and content of children's exposure to the media as well as exposure to frightened adults. Implications of exposure to indirect terrorism may result in nightmare and clinging, particularly of young children but these again, should not last long. The most important condition is parental reaction. The way that the parents react will influence children's response.

The most dangerous environments for children are those outside of the U.S.A. where children are faced directly with war and terrorism. Examples of these are Palestine, parts of the Middle East (such as Lebanon), and parts of Africa or in Belfast, Mozambique, and other refugee camps. Here the impact is far longer. More intense, and possibly irreversible with the children, himself sometimes turning to terrorism as a result.

Impact of terrorism and war on the child living in these environments causes him to distrust the very underpinnings of civilian life. In fact, the undermining of society has more of a psychological impact on the child than the trauma (only felt much later on) has. The child may react by affiliating himself with terrorists, forming gangs, or imitating the violent behavior of those around him.

Identify a question left unanswered by the research. Using the article as a model, design a research study to answer the question.

1. Research question

Countries experience differences in the intensity of their terrorist attacks and war experiences. Although the review article (Pine et al., 2005) stated that terrorism and war has an impact on people living with these war ridden countries, it would be interesting to investigate whether the same psychological impact effects children regardless of the intensity of the events that they experience. In other words, it would be interesting to see whether differences exist in response to violent…… [read more]

Developmental Timeline Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (693 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


By two years, a child can speak incomplete sentences. At three, a child can climb stairs, and can skip and hop by 4 years. (Kliegman et al., 2009)

Cognitive and Moral Development

Piaget's theory of development divides the lifespan of an individual into four stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational. The first stage of development lasts from birth to two years of life, and is known as the sensor motor stage. At this stage, children learn through active interaction, through their five senses, with their surroundings. They learn to crawl, walk, point and grasp during these two years. As an infant grows, it progresses to the next few stages of development, which is characterized by higher language and mental capabilities. Eventually, a child develops the reasoning skills, which is the most complex level of cognitive development. (Rathus, 2010)

Kohlberg's theory tries to expand the theory of morality mentioned briefly in Piaget's theory. This theory organizes six stages, each under three different levels. The first level of pre-conventional morality reflects an individual's ability to reason an action, which is either to avoid punishment or is based on an individual's needs. The next level is conventional morality, at which stage children are no longer impressed by a single authority and are able to see that there are two sides to a given issue. The final level is post conventional morality, at which point individuals are more concerned with principles and values for a society's sake. (Rathus, 2010)

Erikson approach to development focused on the battle between negative and positive attitudes that an individual may develop. These include: trust and. Mistrust; autonomy, shame and doubt; initiative and guilt; industry and inferiority; identity, role confusion, intimacy and isolation; generativity and absorption; and lastly integrity and despair. Each stage emerges gradually as an infant moves into adulthood and up to the level of a senior citizen. (Rathus, 2010)


Kliegman, R., Behrman, R., Jenson, H., & Stanton, B. (2009).Nelson book of pediatrics. (18th ed., Vol. 1, pp. 33-57). Philadelphia: Saunders.

Rathus, S. (2010). Psychology;…… [read more]

Child With a Disability: Preparing a Classroom Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (743 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Classroom for a Child With a Disability

Next month, an autistic child will be entering my classroom. Erik is a ten-year-old autistic child with a varied history of education through home-schooling, integrated classrooms, and also special education classes. Like the majority of autistic children, Erik is male. He is entering into a fourth grade classroom, having been delayed in his schooling one year.

Autism can be difficult to diagnose because there are no physiological indicators, which diseases such as cancer do have, and it is only through interpretation of observing the child that he or she can be properly diagnosed. Autistic children are said to never connect emotionally and intellectually with the outside world, and are stereotypically thought to shrink from physical contact from other people. However, it is more understood today that autistic children simply connect differently to the world around them, and that every child has a completely different level of physical and emotional comfort depending on the circumstances, the people involved, and the state of the child. Autistic children may have difficulty developing language skills, perform repetitive behaviors such as rocking back and forth, throw prolonged temper tantrums, and sometimes even perform self-injury. Autism is believe to be a neurobiological disorder, and while it is characterized by social impairment, autistic children can be highly intelligent in specialized areas, such as mathematical computations. Many do suffer from auditory and sensory disorders, and some of the common behaviors such as toe-walking, rocking, and looking out of the corners of eyes, can be attributed to these. There has been a significant rise in the cases of autism that are occurring, and factors such as food additives and other toxic chemical exposure from the environment are theorized to be linked to these occurrences. Proper nutrition, immunotherapy, sensory integration therapy, and avoiding certain food allergens and additives can be effective ways to help the autistic child have reduced symptoms.

Erik goes through cycles of severity with his autism. On some days, he seems almost normal, though obviously easily distractible. Some days, it would be easy to mistake Erik for being disobedient or not paying attention purposefully in class. Other days, Erik will not speak to anyone or respond when spoken to.…… [read more]

Raising Cain: Protecting the Emotional Book Report

Book Report  |  4 pages (1,279 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" This "emotional mis-education" of boys needs to provide the proper "emotional steering" for boys so that they comprehend that the fact that it is quite normal to be or express their emotions openly.

Thus, in this context, the authors presented a well-developed seven points, as "What Boys Need." These points reach far ahead of the common psychobabble checklist and slogan list. They have made an alarming sketch of male youth in America; and through personal narratives and theoretical debates, this well written book examines the well of unhappiness, annoyance, and fright in America's adolescent boys.

Through this convincing case that compels that emotional literacy is the most precious gift one could offer to sons, Raising Cain is an influential and informative book, setting out to carefully search the way boys suffer as well as the causes behind their emotional pain. The book is written both for parents of boys and teachers. However, it can be read by those as well who wishes to comprehend why most boys behave the way they do and what one can do to help them with their emotional tussles.

The authors among different solutions suggested helping boys by developing tough, adaptable, emotional lives that allow them to have an internal life, which is full of uncontrolled emotions. Also, help them to develop and obtain an emotional vocabulary in order to better comprehend their own selves and communicate more efficiently with others. In other words boys should know that there are several other ways to "be a man."


The book is a valuable gift for all those who has ever been or known a boy or man. Through addressing many real-life examples from authors' own practices, the book presents the requirements and experiences of boys and men and how they relate to emotional literacy. It discussed as how community typecast along with their enforcement in various social settings obstruct boys in their ability to be cheerful, caring members of society and their role for understanding in all its forms. Furthermore, the book described as to how this information is connected to different subjects, for example sadness, use of drug and alcohol, friends, aggression or fighting, sexuality and relationships, mothers and sons and fathers and sons.

Thus, this book is not just for parents of teenage boys but also the authors have made a point in the book at many instances that it is very important for boys to require an emotional education that teaches them to identify different emotions as physical indications and with emotional consequences, which could only be taught through teachers. To further convince through this argument, the authors cited cases from their personal clinical backgrounds and presented practical suggestions about what should be done in order to find these problems and help children.

Thus, to conclude, Raising Cain is a tremendous work, full of emotional case studies and instances of today boys that stir up memories. The book, particularly for parents and teachers, will be referred time and again as various… [read more]

Divorce Rate Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,425 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The second analysis compared the effects for parental absence for the 1,223 students who experienced parental divorce or the death of a parent during the 1988 -- 1992 period, when compared with those children who were from intact families. The results from this study suggest that children of divorced families that are from lower family income have decreased academic success… [read more]

Does Divorce Affect Children? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,572 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Divorce Effect Children?

There is something unnatural about divorce, yet often necessary at the same time. Unfortunately, divorce has become commonplace in today's society. Most families have been effected by divorce, whether by parents, uncles, aunts, sisters, brothers, or cousins. The majority of people have at least one family member who has had a divorce, and unless that… [read more]

Child Observation (Deviant Behavior) Labeling Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (622 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Timmy began signing his drawings "Fagg" instead of writing his name. By the time I observed the facility, Timmy introduced himself as such, and was actively cross-dressing and wearing play make-up. I asked Timmy why he was wearing lipstick, and his response was, "I have to be the best Fag I can be!" Timmy now chants along with the other children when they taunt his behavior, and he seems to be striving for more and more extreme ways to express his identity as "Fagg." Later, I showed one of Timmy's drawings to him and asked him to point to his name on the piece of paper. He pointed to the letters FAGG he had written on the page, not to the name "Timmy" that the teacher had written. One child care worker told me that when they attempted to explain to him that this was not his name, his response was, "It's what everyone calls me. So it is my name."

When Timmy was first labeled as this by his peers, his behavior was not very out of the ordinary. He showed a healthy interest in activities that were not stereotypically male-oriented. However, once the other children started calling him by this slur, Timmy began taking on the role of that name. Perhaps Timmy found it easier to become what he was being labeled as so that it could not be taken as an insult but as a matter of fact and he would not be hurt by the actions of the other children. Or perhaps Timmy was already experiencing gender dysphoria, and even cross-dressing in private, and the children's taunting was simply a trigger that made him bring this behavior into the open. Either way, Timmy's behavior is an example of labeling enhancing deviant behavior.


Becker, Howard. Outsiders: Studies in Sociology of Deviance. Simon & Schuster,…… [read more]

Television the Effect Violence on Television Has on Our Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,803 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Television Violence and Its Effect on Children

According to a 1982 report by the National Institute of Mental Health, violent television programs lead to aggressive behavior by children and teenagers who watch them (APA, 2004). This report confirmed and extended an earlier study conducted by the United States Surgeon General. As a result of these and many other research findings,… [read more]

Difficulties in Comprehending Causal Relations Among Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,034 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Difficulties in Comprehending Causal Relations Among Children With ADHD: The Role of Cognitive Engagement" from the Journal of Abnormal Psychology (2004) is a significant report on the condition of ADHD in children. This article opens by acknowledging the significant academic difficulties that are experienced by students with ADHD, which are well documented in many studies. However, there has been a significant lack of research documenting the specific ways in which the comprehension and memory processes for complex, interconnected information differ between ADHD and normal children. An effective method that may be used to research these comprehension and memory processes is televised stories, which has been used in several documented studies that have produced consistent results.

In order to measure visual attention levels, researchers have had both ADHD and non-ADHD children view one television program in a room with no toys, and another television program in a room with toys. With no toys in the room, both ADHD and non-ADHD children averaged over 90% visual attention to the program. With toys in the room, ADHD children had a far larger drop in the amount of visual attention paid to the program than the non-ADHD children. There was no difference in the understanding of factual events between the groups of children. The ADHD group did have a larger drop in their understanding of causal relations compared to non-ADHD children when toys distracted them from the program. The question, then, is why the ADHD children are able to maintain this understanding of factual events, but not of the causal relations. Possible causes proposed include that children with ADHD shift visual attention more frequently which disrupts the continuity of the story processing, or that ADHD children look at the television for shorter spans of time with toys present which would also impair ability to construct the story. The first proposition has been shown to be unlikely, while the second has some evidence to support it. The reason that longer looks at the television may assist in causal relations comprehension is because they reflect greater cognitive engagement.

The phenomenon of attentional inertia suggests that the longer a look is maintained, the more likely it is to continue to be maintained; a look is most likely to be terminated in the first three seconds. Long looks have been linked to increased cognitive engagement and deeper processing. Studies have proven this in both adults and children, but not specifically between ADHD and non-ADHD children. This is the reason that the work done by these researchers is so monumental, it is the first study of its kind. This research applies previously tested information about cognitive engagement measured by visual engagement to the field of ADHD research. This kind of innovative research is precisely what is needed in order to make advances in the field of ADHD treatment.

The original research conducted compared 70 ADHD children with 64 non-ADHD children. The ADHD children suspended all medical treatment for their disorder on the day of the test. The… [read more]

Difficulty in Adulthood in Individuals Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,708 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Child sexual abuse may be a necessary, but rarely a sufficient cause of adult problems. Child sexual abuse acts in concert with other developmental experiences to leave the growing child with areas of vulnerability. This is a dynamic process at every level, and one in which there are few irremediable absolutes. Abuse is not destiny. It is damaging, and that… [read more]

Children's Understanding Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (622 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Interpretation rests on the distinction between what is said and what is meant, or the communicative intention. Recognizing interpretation is often difficult, even for an adult, as is shown by means of various examples. Often the interpretation is projected back into the text, and the reader mistakes the interpretation for the actual message of the text.

What particularly affected me in the text is the fact that it is sometimes difficult even for adults to recognize when an act of interpretation takes place. The interpretation is so intuitive that it is mistaken for the actual, literal message of the text. The impact of this on me personally is profound, and I am left wondering how many texts I have misunderstood in this way.

This is especially so with verbal utterances. How many of my inferences were actually accurate? How many future mistakes will I make in this way? Often when a person says something, I tend to infer from the utterance an alternative or deeper meaning. When I remember the incident, I tend to ascribe to the person a meaning that he or she may not have intended to convey.

This type of inferencing and interpretation I believe is what makes human relationships so interesting and complicated. The fact that this section of the article made me aware of how easy it is to mistake interpretation for actual text will help me to be a more careful listener. If I listen closely to what people say, maybe I will not be so quick to jump to conclusions about what was meant. Maybe in this particular case we are all children at heart. We tend to draw conclusions and form beliefs in whichever way we see fit, without truly thinking about it. This is something I…… [read more]

Effects of TV Violence on Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,447 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Television Violence on Children

In the 78 years since the invention of television, it has gone from a luxury item to a common household appliance. However, with an average of two televisions per household, its effects on children and society at large have transformed this household appliance into a virtual weapon of mass destruction. With the increased level… [read more]

Child Porn Online the Pedophiles Playground Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,918 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Child Porn Online: the Pedophiles' Playground

Child pornography, pedophiles and child sexual abuse have been around for centuries on a limited scale, but the proliferation of the Internet in recent years has provided the pedophiles a convenient tool to expand their activities manifold. Despite efforts at crackdown by crime fighting agencies and concerned citizens against the scourge of pedophilia, easy… [read more]

School as Viewed and Interpreted by a Young Child Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,203 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … School as a Young Child Might See it

School is commonly considered to be an institution where the child learns to read, write, and become aware of basic concepts of geography, history and science. In addition to this the school also provides the child enough room for learning to get on with people and to have a good start into the adult life. Schooling is considered as the first ever experience in the life of the child to go to a place outside their home. The child initiates to learn to become associated with a group of people external to his family. School plays a significant role in building the character of a child. There are wide and varied incidents that a child experiences in the school. The close contact with the children of different religion, beliefs and values that the child comes with in the school has a tremendous impact in his own psychology. Taking into consideration all such facts the schools are considered as the building blocks of the future of the child. (the child at school)

The starting school therefore is considered to be a place farther from home providing the child with some of his greatest challenges, successes, failures, and embarrassments. Since the school environment is out of the regulation of the parents it is considered to be embarrassing for both the parents and the child. The child learns at school about the functioning of the world, about suitable social interactions and about people beyond his family. The School provides him enough scope for learning about himself, his merits, weaknesses, interests and his social identity. The performance of the child is required to such a magnitude that he is capable of isolating himself from parents, confront social and academic challenges and make friends. The child finds the starting school to be both fun and tense. Most of the child demonstrates some anxiety about school. It is quite natural when the child first faces the initiation of each new session in the school every year or when he is admitted into a new school. The children seem to be less anxious during the initial days of the nursery, pre-school or kindergarten. Sometimes the mixed feelings of the parents like guilt, fear or anxiety in sending the child to school have tremendous impact on the hesitant, reluctant attitude of the child. The feelings of the parents their attitude have a tremendous impact on the experiences of the child in the starting school. (Starting School)

On the first day of school most of the children feel nervous as a result of the new teachers, new friends, and new campus. However, such nervousness is not of same magnitude in respect of all the children. The children those have the scope to play with more children finds no problem in going to school initially but those children who is playing only with his mother or do not have scope to play with more children there is strong protest against… [read more]

Effects of Divorce on Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,771 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Divorce can have a devastating impact on a family. Children are particularly vulnerable when their parents are divorced. For many years, experts in the field of child psychology have investigated the impact of divorce on children. They have found that children of divorce can have a plethora of problems including behavioral, emotional and adjustment difficulties. For the purposes of this… [read more]

Child Abuse There Is an Estimated Three Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,201 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Child Abuse

There is an estimated three million children abused or neglected each year in the United States, however, because abuse is not always reported, the statistics concerning child abuse may be incorrect and/or incomplete (Four 6). Most abusers are identified as the parents of the child, however, other relatives, such as uncles, aunts, grandparents, and siblings are also among abusers, as are step-parents, a parent's live-in partner, and even neighbors are just as often to be a child abuser (Havelin 6). There are many forms of abuse, each resulting in distinct ramifications (Four pp).

Abuse is generally considered to be the misuse or a person or object, for example, if a cell phone is not working properly an individual may become angry and smash it on the floor, resulting in no one suffering except perhaps the person who threw it because now he is without a phone and will have to purchase another at some monetary cost (Four pp). However, when the abuse is placed upon a human being, then everyone involved suffers ramifications (Four pp).

The four main types of child abuse listed in the majority of medical journals are sexual, emotional, mental, and physical (Four pp). These are the most commonly reported abuses and are responsible for ninety-eight percent of reported abuse cases in the United States (Four pp).

Sexual abuse is "rape, sexual assault or sexual molestation wherein the active person forces themselves onto the abused which may be of the same or opposite sex and of any age" (Four pp). Sexual abuse, particularly if it continues over a period of time, results in the victim feeling a loss of control not just over their bodies, but over their entire lives as well (Four pp). There may or may not be physical signs, such as bruises and abrasions, of sexual abuse, however, there are behaviors that provide clues to the occurrence of sexual abuse (Four pp). Victims may react by avoiding all intimate contact with others or may use sex as a way to express emotions such as love and acceptance, often becoming involved with various sexual acts which can lead to the development of deviate sexual behaviors (Four pp). It is very important that victims of sexual abuse seek both medical intervention to ensure against sexually transmitted diseases, and counseling with a licensed psychologist or psychiatrist who specializes in sexual abuse to ensure the victim learns proper coping skills for feelings and attitudes regarding sex and intimacy (Four pp). David Finkelhor, director of Crimes Against Children Research Center at the University of New Hampshire, reports that approximately 200,000 children a year are sexually abused (Thompson pp).

Emotional abuse is generally defined as "the debasement of a person's feeling so that he perceives himself as inept, uncared for and/or worthless" (Four pp). Parents and teachers often say things to a child regarding his/her behavior or skills that make a child feel as if they are stupid or useless, resulting in harm to a child's ego and… [read more]

ADHD Medications Term Paper

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ADHD Medications

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder -ADHD is a widespread and often undetected psychiatric disorder. (Wender, 1996) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder- ADHD is a slackly described collection of neuro-psychiatric collection of symptoms which come up during childhood and many times carry on into adulthood. (Kidd, 2000) Presently, 2 million children in the United States have been detected as having ADHD… [read more]

Concept of Childhood in South Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,306 words)
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¶ … Childhood in South

Childhood Dynamics; Perceptions of Children: Literature Review

Erica Burman: Appealing and Appalling Children, Psychoanalytic Studies

While Burman's title creates a sense that her 14-page research piece in Psychoanalytic Studies will delve in the main on nice and not-so-nice children, a careful read shows that her article is really about adult-child relationships, and adult perceptions of… [read more]

Tracing the Roots of Violence Term Paper

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¶ … biological theories of youth crime have diminished in importance. What is you view after reading "Ghosts from the Nursery: Tracing the Roots of Violence"?

After reading "Ghosts from the Nursery: Tracing the Roots of Violence," I would have to disagree with this statement. Robin Karr-Morse and Meredith S. Wiley look at both biological and social factors in a child's early existence as springing boards for violence in later life. They present case histories of children who kill and refer to current research on the topic. Their conclusions are both chilling and illuminating, and make the case that biological and social theories of youth crime are more relevant today than ever before."Ghosts from the Nursery: Tracing the Roots of Violence" reveals shocking new evidence to support the long-held theory that violent behavior is a product of abuse, neglect and lack of bonding during the first two years of life.

In chapter 2, Grand Central: Early Brain Anatomy and Violence, the authors include real-life examples in the form of case histories of children who kill. One example given is that of Jeffrey, who committed a murder when he was 16. He is now 19 and on death row. (Karr-Morse & Wiley, Chapter 2).

Research studies and the opinions of other experts support the authors' thesis. For example, in High Risk Children without a Conscience (1990), the noted authors, Magrid and McKelvey outline the causes and contributors of anti-social personality in children. They maintain that the most important contributor to the incidence of high-risk children is a lack of bonding. The authors state that "it is in the first year of life that a child learns to bond and attach to the primary caregiver (mother) and extends the attachment to the father. Without forming an adequate attachment, the child feels uncared for and lost. Consequently, he becomes hostile and resentful and learns to mistrust those around him. This lack of trust prevents him from learning to care for others and from developing a conscience." (Magrid & McKelvey, 1990). They also point out other areas of concern, such as are a shortage of quality daycare, lack of extended periods of time for maternity leave, foster care, and teenage pregnancy. The authors believe that "day-care is not merely a dilemma in finding satisfactory care, but a part of the problem, since the effects of separation from the mother are a painful burden endured by very young infants and children." Children who have been in and out of different foster homes beginning at an early age, are also at-risk for becoming psychopaths. These "multiple placements are interpreted by the child as rejections." Accompanying the infant day-care crisis and problems with adoptions is the soaring rate of illegitimacy. According to Magrid and McKelvey, "The results of illegitimacy are poverty, quitting school, and child abuse. When the infant becomes the cause of the mother's…… [read more]

Peer Pressure Term Paper

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Overall, peer pressure can be a factor leading some people towards deviant behavior. However, for most people, deviant behavior is not the major concern.

The more important concern is the emotional impact that peer pressure can have on teenagers. This is especially related to the way that peer pressure pushes people to fit in and gain acceptance. What happens though, when a person is not able to fit in? For example, consider the case of a teenage girls trying to fit in with beauty standards. For girls that lack what is considered accepted beauty, this can result in low self-esteem. Even in a seemingly positive environment where teenagers are pressured to do well at school, the ones that are not as capable may develop low self-esteem. This can result in depression, eating disorders, and in the most extreme cases, suicide. Peer pressure and the low self-esteem that can result from it can also cause other long-term psychological issues. Petersen (584) describes the importance of adolescence saying that the patterns that emerge in the teenage years will remain until the end of the person's life. Considering that peer pressure is a major influence on the patterns a person develops, it can actually have effects that go beyond just the teenage years. One study found that a person's position in life, financial success, and career status is determined by how they view themselves against others (Bachman & O'Malley 379). If peer pressure causes a person to view themselves poorly, this can impact their entire life.

Clearly, it is important that peer pressure remains a positive force and not a negative one. This leads to the question of how this can be achieved. It must be noted that this doesn't mean elimanating peer pressure, since teenagers looking to other for approval is a natural part of adolescence. Instead, it means ensuring that this is a positive force and not a negative one. Peer pressure programs used in schools often use this approach. This can involve having peers that are positive role models speak to adolescents. It can also mean having controlled discussions where teenagers speak to each other. Just communicating issues and allowing teenagers to openly discuss issues with their peers can alter how teenagers view themselves and their actions. Other programs teach teenagers how to say no and encourage them to take control of their own lives and make decisions for themselves. In addition, an adolescent's family and wider support network continue to play a role. Even if these people are not in the peer group, they are still looked to for support and guidance. Berk (400) notes that when teenagers have a strong family network, peer pressure is far less likely to have a negative influence. It seems that the solution to the problem of peer pressure is to educate teenagers and to educate parents about their role as well.

Overall then, it has been seen that peer pressure is a normal factor in adolescence. The solution to the peer pressure… [read more]

Divorce the Break-Up Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (411 words)
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3. It is therefore clear that divorce could be both positive and negative for children, depending on the circumstances of each situation. Making the decision for or against divorce is undoubtedly a difficult one, and should probably be done with help and counseling for both parents and children. Parents need to be aware of possible self-esteem issues facing their children both in a parental conflict situation or when opting for divorce. Children need to be reassured of the love of both parents, regardless of the conflict and hostility that parents may feel for each other.


Kim, Lauren S. (April, 1997). "Locus of control as a stress moderator and mediator in children of divorce." In Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Plenum Publishing Corporation. From online database Findarticles.com.

Lengua, Liliana J. (December, 1996). "Self-regulation as a moderator of the relation between coping and symptomatology in children of divorce." In Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Plenum Publishing Corporation. From online database Findarticles.com.

Wolchik, Sharlene A. (August, 2002). "Fear of abandonment as a mediator of the relations between divorce stressors and mother-child relationship quality and children's adjustment problems." In Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Plenum Publishing Corporation. From online database…… [read more]

Turn of the Screw Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
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The Governess, however, is actively abusing them by obsessing over the ghosts and tormenting the children because she suspects them of being under evil influence. It is also possible to interpret the Governess as being as innocent as the children, perhaps even more so. "The governess' youthfulness and inexperience are important to note, and the suggestion is that the age difference between her and Miles is no greater than that between her and Douglas." (Chase) the Governess may also be an innocent being, and perhaps the children are actually the source of corruption at work; after all, why have so many involved in their lives died? This may touch, intentionally or not on the part of James, on one aspect of child abuse which is so common: blaming children for having been abused.

As a piece of Freudian literature, the Turn of the Screw has obligatory major sexual themes that broach on the subject of abuse. The very title of the Novella has major sexual innuendo inherent in the word choices of "turn" and "screw," particularly from a Freudian perspective. An interpretation of James' work that is considered to be valid is that the ghosts are not actually aspects of the dead, but rather that they are the Governess' hallucinations caused by her own sexual repression. The Governess is herself the daughter of a clergyman, and from a rural area rather than a city, which would suggest she has had limited sexual experience herself. However, she becomes infatuated with her employer, the always-absent uncle of the children. The ghost of Peter Quint first appears to her immediately following her stated desire to " 'meet someone' -- a man presumably," (Chase) and his specter appears on the tower, which would in Freudian terms be a phallic symbol. When the ghost of the deceased Miss Jessel appears, it is upon the lake, which in Freudian interpretation would be a symbol of the female sexual organs. A sexually repressed caretaker does not alone imply child abuse, however in this case the incarnations of her repression -- the ghosts -- are being forced upon the children. Additionally, there is clear sexual behavior between the Governess and the children, particularly between her and Miles. The question of innocence is raised once again in this subject, for Freud believed that innocence was not the first stage in which a person exists, but rather ignorance, and that innocence is merely a myth. The sexually abused child, according to Freud, was not "abused" at all,… [read more]

Lion, the Witch Term Paper

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What do you think children will take from the text?

Rather than parents and teachers to lead the children of The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe to think and act in ways that they would not know or discover on their own, the children of the book learn from listening and talking with more knowledgeable magical figures such as Aslan, and learn how not to behave from examples such as the witch. This underlines Vygotsky's stress that scaffolding takes place not simply through verbal instruction but also through demonstration. Aslan demonstrates the moral value of sacrifice through his own Christ like sacrifice to the children, and eventually the children, by witnessing his example are able to engage in the actual participation in the task or activity of leadership in a realistic or hands-on context, when they eventually become kings and queens of the newly free Narnia.

Even though the children return to childlike status of subordination after the period of dwelling in the world of the wardrobe, this Narnia experience teaches them moral lessons, through experiential discovery, and through leadership and structured activities that go beyond merely listening to the words of others. "The only good kind of instruction is that which marches ahead of development and leads it; it must be aimed not so much at the ripe as at the ripening functions." (Vygotsky, 1978) Vygotsky states that there is always a need to gear learning at what he called a just-right level of support for children, and the entire project of Lewis' book can be seen as a 'just right' way to teach children larger moral values.

Rather than gear moral lessons in a purely safe and familiar childlike world, Lewis creates a world where children's actions have consequences of life and death, beyond, for example, buying a new bicycle or getting a good grade on a spelling test. But because the world is not real, and is created by an author rather than purely real, learning can take place through conversation, modeling, and active participation in learning and leadership-based tasks.

After reading The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe, children will be more able to engage in independent problem s determined under adult guidance, or in collaboration with "more capable" or older peers -- as the older siblings guide the younger children. (Vygotsky, 1978:86). "What children can do with the assistance of others is even more indicative of their mental development than what they can do alone," and the need for collaboration to act morally in small and large ways -- for not even Aslan can save Narnia alone -- is underlined in the book. (Vygotsky, 1978:85).

Work Cited

Lewis, C.S. The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe. New York: Harper Trophy, reprint 2000.

Vygotsky, L.S. Mind in society. M.Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Souberman (Eds.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1978.… [read more]

Autism in Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,165 words)
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Jacob and Lisa's parents are in support of them; however, the mother more so. Jacob and Lisa's father, Manuel, is a 46-year-old engineer who is a long-term employee of a federal power agency. He has few friends and prefers to spend his leisure time at home. He has a somewhat introverted personality and is marginally involved in one community organization. The father reports that he has not sought out extensive information on autism and that he prefers to leave that particular role to his wife.

The mother of Jacob and Lisa, Patricia, is a 47-year-old homemaker is extensively involved in advocating for her two children. After she realized that both of her children had autistic tendencies, she decided to have no more children. She sees her full-time role as advocating for her own children and online consultation with other parents who have children with autism. Patricia stays abreast of any new developments in the field of autism, continually reads books and literature on the subject, and occasionally travels to attend workshops that are geared toward the subject of autism. Due to the fact that the family resides in a small community, there is no specific advocacy group or physician specializing in autism. Because of this, Patricia has been involved in related support groups. As an advocate for her children, she spends a considerable amount of time in her children's schools, facilitating the inclusion of her children, in their programs. She spends an hour each day, tutoring her daughter during study hall. Prior to each school year beginning, she devotes a significant amount of time observing various classrooms, in order to determine the most suitable teacher and classroom climate for her children.

It seems as though both of the children discussed above do struggle somewhat, due to their diagnosis of autism; however, with the support from those around them, these children can become successful in their lives, to varying degrees. The support from parents and other siblings in the household is of most importance, as these children may require advocacy as well as emotional support, at the least. It is important to become aware of the many programs and support groups in the community and the nation. Parents and their children can then gain a better understanding of autism and realize that they can gain insight and ideas from others that are in or were in the same types of familial and school situations.

In conclusion, autism is a developmental disability that significantly affects verbal and non-verbal communication and social interaction usually evident before age 3 that adversely affects a child's educational performance. Symptoms of autism are usually apparent by 30 months of age. Research has indicated that a diagnosis of autism can be made as early as 2 years of age. Early identification and intervention is important and an integral part of the medical management and treatment of children with autism, which may reduce the impact of early deficits on later functioning. Autism diagnoses are behaviorally based and many early… [read more]

Risky Behaviors in Adolescents Engage Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,010 words)
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She told Mike that she bet him that he could not go really fast around a curve that was coming up. He said okay. As Mike proceeded to go around the curve, he began going faster and faster. This caused Mike, along with his friends to roll-over, in his truck, 4 times. By this time, Mike got thrown out of his vehicle, with the truck on top of him. His friends got out with a few scratches. Mike became paralyzed from the waste down, leaving him to struggle the rest of his life due to this tragic accident. Looking back, with good decision making, Mike could have told his friend no way, in turn not taking the dare, which changed his whole life. Mike is in a wheelchair now and going to college; however, he regrets each day the decision he made on that one tragic day. This is a true story of an individual who chooses to remain anonymous from Texas.

Engaging in risky behaviors is a major, and largely preventable, cause of morbidity and premature death, especially among economically disadvantaged youth. Prevention requires a greater understanding of what individual factors and environmental circumstances contribute to risk-taking, and how these factors can be best addressed through effective interventions (O'Donnel, L., 2002). It is important that youth have strong bonds with home, school and community. Strong and caring bonds are essential. For example, if adolescents feel cared for by people at their school and if they feel like a part of their school, they are less likely to engage in substance use, violence, or initiate sexual activity at an early age. Students who feel connected to their schools often report feelings of higher levels of emotional well-being ("Youth development," 2003).

In conclusion, adolescents engage in risky behaviors more and more these days. Adolescents are our future and although it is ultimately up to them to make the right decisions, society must act as a guide to help them to move on the right paths. It is important for parents to be aware of the things their children are doing and help prevent the damages that engaging in risky behavior can cause on them. In addition, it is important for our schools and community to continue to provide adolescents today with information and skills that can help protect them to make the right choices today, so that they can live a long and healthy life ahead.

Works Cited

Axmaker, L. (2003-2004). Risky behaviors can lead to serious diseases. Retrieved April

24, 2005, from Wellsource Website: http://vanderbiltowc.wellsource.com/dh

Carpenter, S. (2001, January). Teens' risky behavior is about more than race and family resources. Monitor on Psychology, 32, 1. Retrieved April 24, 2005, from PsychNET database.

"Despite improvements, many high school students still engaging in risky health behaviors." (2004, May 20). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, p.1

O'Donnel, L. (2002). Center for research on high risk behaviors. Retrieved April 24,

2005, from Health and Human Development Programs Web site:

http://www.hhd.org/centersprojects/centers 'Youth development programs… [read more]

Family Values Dear Editor Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (570 words)
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Family Values

Dear Editor:

Family values often change with time, and as society changes. As family values change, so to do parental ideas and attitudes about how children should be raised. My parents were raised in an era where respect and compliance were values not only expected but also commanded. As such, they became parents whose strict environment and household rules facilitated complete compliance and impeccable manners. Children at the time were expected to obey their parents, not question their authority.

Because of my parent's values, I still expect my children in this day and age to demonstrate appropriate manners. As times have changed however so too have I. I realized that following orders isn't as important as allowing children the opportunity to question rules and authority and express their opinions. Curiosity is an important element of growth. Rather than silence my children when they have questions, I encourage their curiosity and in fact often engage them. As such I have very open and nurturing relationships with my children, whom I consider friends as well as family members. This is something I did not experience with my parents during their time, in part because I felt more ordered than empowered.

It is my hope that more parents realize the importance of infusing their children with self-respect and dignity. As parents our goals should not only be to teach our children important concepts like manners, but also to empower them to engage their intellect and spirit. Children by nature are curious, and it is this curiosity that may potentially help them forge new and beneficial insights and contributions to their own families and communities in the years to come. I believe that my parents did the…… [read more]

Ainsworth Conducted an Experiment Dubbed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (840 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


According to Piaget, as children mature, they develop a sense of moral cooperation. In other words, children are able to view situations from another's point-of-view; they judge actions based on one's intention; they respect authority and recognize that rules can be altered; and they develop a sense of justice. Kohlberg, on the other hand, believes that children's morality is influenced by social acceptance; morality is a reflection of other's expectations. Regardless of theory, children's moral development is important for their overall growth. A healthy sense of morality contributes to children's self-image; it fosters autonomy; and it allows them to positively participate in society.

Middle childhood, which begins around seven years of age, marks an important developmental stage in life. During this period, children develop physically, cognitively, and socially. Physical changes include increased weight and height; greater command over fine and gross motor skills; more muscle strength; and greater participation in physical activity. Increased verbal skills, more flexible and complex thinking, and emerging reasoning and abstracting abilities indicate cognitive developments in middle childhood. Socially, children are increasingly more dependent upon their peers rather than their families; they want to belong to and be accepted by peer groups; they develop a sense of self; and they have a need for achievement. The tendency for children at this stage to compare themselves with others, which contributes to their desire to achieve, naturally influences the development of their self-esteem. Those who regularly feel a sense of achievement also likely display healthy self-esteem. Conversely, children who fail to achieve tend to exhibit low self-esteem.

Adolescence is a developmental stage marked by physical changes. Both sexes experience growth spurts; they grow taller and gain weight. Females' hips widen and fat is distributed throughout the body, such as in the buttocks and thighs. Furthermore, females develop breasts and experience menarche. Males' chests and shoulders broaden and they develop heavier muscles. Moreover, males experience genital growth and a deepening of the voice. Regardless of sex, physical changes in puberty can affect the psychological welfare of children. Early maturity can produce negative psychological effects in females whereas the opposite is generally true in males. During adolescence, females may experience dissatisfaction with their bodies, which may then contribute to depression. Males, also conscious of their body images, may feel physically inadequate to their male peers.


Morris, Charles & Maisto, Albert. Psychology: An Introduction. New Jersey: Prentice Hall,… [read more]

ADD ADHD and Use of Stimulant Drugs to Treat Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,412 words)
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children - Outline

Confusion over definition

Many different terms to mean same thing


Drugs first reaction by Pediatricians

Not enough research completed


Not conclusively known

Genetically transmitted

Imbalance or deficiency in brain chemicals

Use of glucose in brain

NIMH studies

Other Causes

Prenatal development

Birth complications

Later neurological damage


Poor diet

Incomplete… [read more]

Learning &amp Teaching, LSJ Expecting Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,125 words)
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Learning & Teaching, LSJ

Expecting More of Kids: The Essence of Effective Learning and Teaching

In her article "Students Can Do More: U.S. Adults Shield Kids from Tasks that Teach," Dorothy Rich suggests that, in general, teachers, parents, and society as a whole expect far little, in terms of skills, aptitudes, independence levels, and performance, from today's school-aged children. Skills and abilities that are typically expected of today's young students, at home, at school, and elsewhere, are often insufficiently demanding or challenging of them, as well as being too narrowly proscribed by age level or (perceived) ability. The result, as the author further suggests, is that today's school-aged children typically learn, inside and outside of school, only the minimum expected of them, and learn it within particular narrow and predictable environments, at that. Today's students are, therefore, not learning, doing, or attempting mastery of all that they might actually be capable of. Rich therefore asserts (and I agree) that expectations of school-aged children, from teachers, parents, and society as a whole, ought to be greater than they currently are, for the good of these children themselves, and for that of the society that they will grow up into.

Rich also observes that children typically rise to the level of others' expectations of them. At present, however, teachers, parents, and others do not expect nearly enough of them. Moreover, children who have had too little expected of them early on tend to lack confidence in themselves vis-a-vis the outer world, and to also lack either the curiosity or the initiative to learn experientially, or to risk testing their skills and abilities outside structured, familiar predictable environments.

According to "Early Years, Firm Foundations" (2004):

Children learn through hands-on experience. Good settings provide a broad range of rich and stimulating opportunities for children to investigate and explore their environment and... The world in which they live... with opportunities to use their senses, ask questions, and build on what they already know.

Dorothy Rich's example of American parents who cheerfully continue to push their children along in strollers when those children are perfectly capable of walking on their own, is emblematic of American culture's coddling and overprotective attitudes toward children. Further, Rich's stroller example also points to ways that today's parents may often, non-reflectively perpetuate their children's overdependence, lack of initiative, and dependency. Implicit in Rich's argument, also, is the idea that as adults, once-overprotected children will lack initiative; curiosity; flexibility, and desire to achieve beyond the minimum levels: in school, work, and life.

In Europe, as opposed to America, almost everyone walks everywhere on their own, from a very early age. Europeans, even the youngest, learn early on not to rely on others (or on strollers; cars, or other vehicles operated by protective caregivers) to transport them. Keeping up with bigger, older walkers, is not just a necessity; it is a matter of early personal pride. As a result European children learn autonomy; confidence; independence, and directional skills at an age that their… [read more]

Labeling Children: Gifted and Talented Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (728 words)
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The Mueller and Dweck studies revealed that children who are praised for their intelligence learn to value performance, while those who are praised for their effort and hard work learn to value learning opportunities (Mueller pp). The findings were virtually similar for boys and girls, as well as children from different ethnic groups in rural and urban communities (Mueller pp). Moreover, the differing effects that resulted from praise for effort and praise for ability were unrelated to children's ability, "for children with low test scores were equally likely to stress performance goals at the expense of mastery goals as children with high scores" (Mueller pp).

Mueller and Dweck believe that the results of their studies may demonstrate why bright young girls who do well in grade school often perform poorly in upper grades, noting that in their desire to boost a young girl's confidence and abilities, educators have praised them for their intelligence which, as these findings reveal, "could have an undesired impact on their subsequent motivation and performance" (Mueller pp).

The authors have concluded from their studies that labeling a child as gifted or talented may also have a negative impact on the child because such labeling may be the cause of a child becoming overly concerned with justifying the label and less concerned with meeting challenges that enhance his or her ability to learn and master skills (Mueller pp). The child may believe that academic setbacks indicate that he or she is undeserving of being labeled as gifted (Mueller pp).

Mueller and Dweck advise that when children succeed, attention and approval by parents and educators should be directed at the effort and hard work (Mueller pp). In other words, children should be "praised for how they do their work rather than for the final product or their ability" (Mueller pp).

Children should be commended for effort, whether they fail or succeed, and adults should refrain from placing too much emphasis on achievement.

Work Cited

Mueller, Claudia; Dweck, Carol. "The Pitfalls of Labeling Children 'Gifted and Talented.'" Retrieved October 04, 2005 from:

http://www.self-helpmagazine.com/articles/parenting/labelkids.html… [read more]

Parent-Child Attachment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (717 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


("Attachment Theory," 2005)

William Sears and his wife Martha Sears were responsible for coining the word "attachment parenting" -- a parenting style that is based on the attachment theory put forward by Bowlby and Ainsworth. They have written a number of books advocating a nurturing style of parenting aimed at creating an early, strong emotional bond that leads to a secure and enduring relationship between a child and her parents. Some of the specific practices recommended in attachment parenting includes co-sleeping, i.e., sleeping in the same bed with the baby or having the infant's co-sleeper attached to the side of the parent's bed; carrying the baby for long periods that give a child access to the movement and closeness of the parent's body, and breast feeding. (Nix, 2005) These attachment parenting techniques are of course not a new invention by any means; they are the most natural way of raising a child and were practiced by most parents until the introduction of commercial products such as baby cots, baby seats, and the milk-feeding bottle in modern societies. It is, however, important to remember that attachment parenting is not about a one-size-fit all approach; the basic idea is to be sensitive and responsive to a child's needs in order to provide her with a sense of security, which is so crucial for her healthy psychological development.


"Attachment Theory." (2005). Article from Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopeia. Retrieved on October 19, 2005 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attachment_theory

Breazeale, Tami E. (2001). "Attachment Parenting: A Practical Approach for the Reduction of Attachment Disorders and the Promotion of Emotionally Secure Children." A Master's Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of Bethel College. Retrieved on October 19, 2005 from http://www.visi.com/~jlb/thesis.html

Nix, Nelle. (2005). "Strings Attached: The Ins and Outs of Attachment Parenting." Parenthood.com. Retrieved on October 19, 2005 from http://parenting.parenthood.com/articles.html?article_id=7301

Attachment is defined as "the emotional bond that forms between two people" in psychological terms. (Nix 2005)… [read more]

Art Therapy for Abused Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,351 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The psychologist claimed that abused children typically put large hands on the drawings of their perpetrators (Drawings pp). Moreover, she claimed that the thick lines in the crotch of the father was meant to emphasis the penis and show the child's anxiety about the father (Drawings pp). Although the child continued to deny allegations that her father had sexually abused her, the therapist concluded that in fact she had been sexual abused by him (Drawings pp).

It is however, well documented that children have an increased tendency to recollect traumatic experiences as visual images that are portrayed through art, and artistic expression following a traumatic experience (Kozlowska pp).

Thus, making art in family therapy with young children takes advantage of children's spontaneous use of art to express themselves and immediately includes them in the therapeutic process (Kozlowska pp). According to some researchers, children are able to express unremembered as well as remembered memories through drawings (Kozlowska pp). Therefore, art serves to make "the invisible visible" and rescues non-declarative memorty from its wordless form by creating visible and palpable illustrations of experiences (Kozlowska pp).

According to Kasia Kozlowska, creating art is pleasurable and provides a contrary experience to the associated trauma, thus facilitating desensitization and processing of traumatic memories (Kozlowska pp). The actual art paper or work of art may act as a transitional space where intolerable feelings are able to be externalized in a concrete form that can then be manipulated, returned to and reworked as part of the therapeutic process (Kozlowska pp). Kozlowska points out that children are more likely to cope better with adverse events if they have an internal locus of control, and a strong sense of self-efficacy (Kozlowska pp).

Art allows the child to have control over the image and is "important in enhancing a sense of control, hope, competence, and mastery" (Kozlowska pp). Art allows for the symbolic representation of the child and others, "feelings, events, and specific sequences, and allows for exposure to traumatic cues in a less direct manner, anxiety to be tolerated, and the unspeakable or unthinkable to be contemplated in the image of the artwork" (Kozlowska pp).

Art work can also be used as stepping stones to creating a coherent narrative concerning a traumatic event or past, that involves both the ability to sequence temporal events, articulate associated affect, and be able to give appropriate semantic meaning in relation to the traumatic event or events (Kozlowska pp). According to Kozlowska, "failure to form a coherent narrative of traumatic events impacts attachment relationships in the family, impedes resolution of trauma, and makes the repetition of the abuse cycle more likely (Kozlowska pp). The story-book technique focuses initially on a visual representation of a segment of the child's life stow (Kozlowska pp). Family discussion about the artwork facilitates the creation of a verbal narrative, a process that helps the child sequence temporal events and explore associated feelings and facts (Kozlowska pp).

Comer Rudd-Gates, an art therapist at a shelter for abused or abandoned… [read more]