"Child Development / Youth / Teens" Essays

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Binge Drinking Among College Students Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,005 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Binge Drinking on College


The problem of binge drinking on college campuses has become a great concern over the past few years. With an estimated 1700 drinking-related deaths per annum on college campuses, the growing interest is not surprising (Dowdall, 4). Before the problem can hope to be curbed, it is necessary to try and understand it. It is… [read more]

Should the Government Force Poor Women to Limit the Number of Children They Have? Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … government force poor women to limit the number of children they have?

The so-called population problem has flirted with becoming a mainstream policy debate in the west. China, with its population of more than one billion people, has already implemented "family planning." Discussion over adopting kindred policies in the United States, and much of Europe, must take this trailblazing example into account. For the Chinese government, family planning is "a strategic policy that suits national conditions." Are one-child policies, typically directed at the poor, motivated by politics or benign attempts at saving the planet? According to China, (1, HY Conference)

The population problem is an important question that touches upon the survival and development of the Chinese nation, the success or failure of China's modernization drive as well as the coordinated and sustained development between the population on one hand, and the economy, society, resources and environment on the other. It is a natural choice that the Chinese government has made to implement family planning, control population growth and improve the life quality of the population a basic state policy on the basis of a wish to make the state strong and powerful, the nation prosperous and the people happy."

First, would the leaders of the United States be interested in institutionalized family planning? In fact, it seems likely that influential leaders in western governments are keen on the idea. That such a policy has taken on so similar a character across the board, might hint at a certain level of coordination among nations. Dr. Nina Federoff, the technology advisor to the U.S. Secretary of State, Hilary Clinton, told a BBC program, "There are probably already too many people on the planet…We need to continue to decrease the…… [read more]

Literacies According to Mora ), Literacy Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,391 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Literacies

According to Mora (2000), literacy is a broad term that encompasses a variety of factors. Academic literacy focuses on "abilities and attitudes needed for short-term and long-range success in school" (Mora, 2000). Cultural literacy is another important aspect of literacy. This term refers to the beliefs of ethnic groups and is based on traditional values and mores.… [read more]

Mental Retardation in Adolescents Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,756 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Mental Retardation in Adolescences

Mental Retardation in Adolescents

Being an adolescent is already hard enough. Add symptoms of mental retardation into the mix, and life can become incredibly complex without proper treatment and acknowledgment of the symptoms of such disorders and conditions. Mental retardation can affect adolescents hard, and recent research has shown the need for not only more specific… [read more]

Peanut Allergy Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,184 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Peanut Allergy in Children

Peanut allergy among children is a growing and serious medical issue all over the world. "Allergy to peanuts and tree nuts (TNs) is the leading cause of fatal and near-fatal food allergic reactions." (Sicherer, Munoz-Furlong and Sampson) the increased incidence of peanut allergy (Grundy, Matthews and Bateman) (Sicherer, Munoz-Furlong and Sampson) combined with the fact that… [read more]

Compare Wright's Poem Women to Child to John 15 Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (614 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Wright's poem Women to Child to John 15;5-6

Giving birth to a new humanity: Judith Wright's poem "Woman to Child" and the Gospel of John

Judith Wright's poem "Woman to Child" suggests that the creation of a child in the body of a woman is like the creation of the world. The speaking woman in Wright's poem takes pride in creating something from nothing, in making darkness light through the force of her important act. Women experience the godlike power of creation in childbirth: "Then all a world I made in me; / all the world you hear and see," says Wright's mother to her child. The child can "escape yet not escape" as the mother's presence lives on in her creative act.

The Hebrew Bible, however, offers a male-dominated, patriarchal image of creation. The created being can never extract itself from the embrace of the creator God, and tries to do so at its peril. In the Gospel of John, the abiding nature of God's love in his creation is not physical and personal, as in the case of Wright's poem. The Gospel states: "I am the vine, ye are the branches. He that abideth in me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit; for without me ye can do nothing. If a man abide not in me, he is cast forth as a branch, and is withered; and men gather them, and cast them into the fire, and they are burned" (John 15: 5-6). The male God is like a generative vine, giving forth branches in his fertility, but the branches must always know that they are dependant upon the vine for their continued existence.

Unlike the woman's creation of the child, a branch is not self-sustaining. Although Wright states "All time lay rolled in me, and sense" indicating motherhood's…… [read more]

Every Bit of Learning Takes Students Further From Their Parents Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,235 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Learning Separates Children From Their Parents

A child's pursuit or acquisition of an advanced educational degree can cause a separation between parents and their children for several reasons. First, adult children grow away from their parents as they meet new people and are exposed to new ideas on college campuses, and their parents might not always agree with or share their viewpoints. Secondly, adult children are at the final stage of asserting their independence as adults. As they walk away from college with an advanced degree and a hefty future earning's potential, their newfound freedom may assert itself in the form of temporary arrogance or disdain for their parents. Finally, adult children who attain master's or doctorate degrees might find themselves in the situation of not being able to relate to their parents when it comes to the most important aspects of their lives such as their careers or their research. Likewise, parents might find themselves intimidated by their son or daughter because of their advanced knowledge. All of these factors can cause a significant rift in the parent/child relationship.

Education drives a wedge between children and their parents beginning with the college experience itself. As children leave their family homes to attend colleges and universities, they leave the security of the nest and the safety of their parents' values. They soon find themselves barraged with new people, new ideas and new experiences. They begin to make friends, but these friends do not always share the same mores as their parents. They might also become exposed to new political ideas that are in direct opposition to their parents' traditional values. When children come home, they often see their parents differently than they saw them before they spent time in a university environment. By the time these children graduate with an advanced degree, it is highly likely that they will have to spend some time assessing their parents' values and comparing them to the values of their classmates. If the child ultimately sides with a traditional value system or can strike a balance between the old and the trendy, he or she is less likely to experience alienation from his or her parents, but if the child chooses to adopt the contrary values of his or her friends, it is likely that a rift will form between the parents and the child, and this rift may heal either very slowly or not at all.

Secondly, the struggle for physical and emotional independence can cause alienation between parents and their children, and this struggle can escalate as the child nears the end of the college experience. There are very few children who wish to entirely emulate the values, ideals and goals of their parents. Nearly all children experience the need to become individuals who are separate and distinct entities. When a child reaches his or her early teen years, this struggle for individual identity begins to form. The child may rebel against his or her parents. He or she may deliberately pick… [read more]

Child Support System Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (2,995 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Child Support Laws:

History of Child Support Laws:

The financial assistance paid by a non-custodial parent to a custodial parent for a child's care and welfare as ordered by the court is known as child support. States have programs which help families pay, process and collect payments. These programs are in accordance with the States laws. Over the years child… [read more]

Anne Tyler's Short Story "Teenage Wasteland Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (595 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Anne Tyler's short story "Teenage Wasteland" describes a mother's battles with her teenage son. Daisy grows worried when her son Donny begins having trouble at school. At first, Daisy tries diligently helping Donny with his homework. When his grades improve only nominally she takes Donny to a recommended "tutor" named Cal. Far from being an actual academic tutor, Cal facilitates Donny's decent into "teenage wasteland." Donny is expelled from private school and placed in a public school before he ultimately runs away and is never heard from again. The tragic story is told in the third person, but the narrator is not omniscient. Rather, the story is told from the point-of-view of Daisy. Telling the story from Daisy's point-of-view becomes a critical literary element, facilitating themes of parental control and loss.

One way Daisy's point-of-view facilitates the progression of the story is by affecting its tone. The story begins with a mother's wistful description of her son, describing how his hair changed from being "almost white" to being darker and "past his collar," (Paragraph 1). Change is one of the core themes of "Teenage Wasteland," as the adolescent years are portrayed as the most difficult time in a person's life. Daisy notes that she herself had a difficult childhood and therefore she understands what her son is going through. The sad tone that begins the story permeates it, as Daisy's perspective of teenage angst is one of an outsider looking in. Especially as the story ends with Donny disappearing, Daisy's point-of-view is crucial. The story becomes more about a mother's loss of her son. If "Teenage Wasteland" was told from Donny's point-of-view it would be an entirely different tale.

Daisy is never called "Donny's mother." Rather, she remains Daisy throughout the story, proving that Anne Tyler intends…… [read more]

Memories for Most Young Children, Birthdays Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (620 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Memories

For most young children, birthdays are a time of extreme excitement and joy -- there is the endless amount of possibility that exists in each papered package before it is unwrapped, the special treatment throughout the day at home and at school (sometimes prolonging the festivities by a day or two, should the birthday fall on a weekend or school holiday), and the grand seeming-importance of having your personal biographical odometer turn over -- one day your this old, and the next day you leap forward a full digit. All of these contributed to the joy of a childhood birthday, and all of these also contributed to the anticipation in the night -- sometimes the nights -- preceding that desperately-waited-for annual event.

All of these feelings contributed, at the ripe old age of twelve, to my realization that I was no longer a kid. More correctly, it was the lack of these feelings that led to this realization. Childhood is not something that one is especially aware of possessing or being caught up in, I suppose -- there are, of course, the moments of supreme frustration when told "you'll understand when you're older" or "you're too young," but this does not really place the important aspects of childhood into any sort of meaningful context. When I was lying in bed the night before my twelfth birthday, however, I cam to one realization that then slowly led to others, culminating in my most profound realization up until that point in my life -- those features of my personality and experience that had typified and even defined my childhood had largely fled, leaving me not at all grown up and yet strangely un-childlike. I lay there, staring at the darkened ceiling, caught in a train of morose and somewhat self-piteous thought, kept awake by something other than birthday anticipation.…… [read more]

Predisposing Factors That Lead to Juvenile Delinquency and Its Affects on Society Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,470 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Juvenile Delinquency


Predisposing Factors that Lead to Juvenile Delinquency

and its Effects on Society

Predisposing Factors

Juvenile delinquency is broadly defined as an anti-social behavior or violation of a law by a minor (Wordwebonline, 2009). Young people who live in unstable homes and social environments are considered at-risk on account of their vulnerability to those inherent conditions (Martin,… [read more]

Function of a Child's Environment on His Her Performance on an Assessment Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (892 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Function of a Child's Environment on his/her Performance on an Assessment

The function of a child's environment on assessment performance:

Social and economic factors

The function of a child's environment on assessment performance:

Social and economic factors

Testing a child is not like testing a car or a toy: children can be highly influenced by the environment in which the assessment takes place. A child who has never taken a standardized or psychological test will not have the same type of facility and comfort with the assessment process as a child who is accustomed to sitting in a classroom, filling out bubbles on a standardized test, or answering questions about puzzles and words before the gaze of an authority figure.

The attitude of the test administrator is one of the most critical but overlooked aspects of the testing environment. The administrator must strive to put the child at ease. Explaining what is transpiring in an age-appropriate fashion, talking with the child about things the child likes to do, and creating a non-threatening environment is essential. Cultural expectations, such as the child's perception of the test administrator as a friendly individual, because of his or her experiences with authority figures, or biases on the part of the administrator because of the child's demographic group, economic background, or past test results can have an unconscious impact on the assessment.

"Test administration must take into account cultural conditioning that may find the student terrorized in the face of a typographical error, a timed test, or the language-specific bias" of a test (Cargill-Power 1980). Because of test anxiety, an ESL student with a basic academic proficiency in English may temporarily lose some of his or her mastery of the language. Talking with the child socially before lapsing into the academic testing portion of the exam can help mitigate this problem.

The environment of the child before the test that creates the child's social worldview must also be kept in mind. Even in tests subjecting rats to a series of mazes, the rat's different laboratory environments affected performance outcomes in a series of timed trials (Lewejohann et al. 2006). Interestingly as well, the rat's housing conditions before the test affected results. A child from a poor and stressed environment of the same relative cognitive ability as another child from a more stable environment may have greater difficulty performing at an optimal level. Simple factors, such as whether a child has had breakfast that morning can also affect test results. According to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, an individual cannot access higher-level needs, including the need to optimally perform to please the examiner or a teacher, until basic needs such as…… [read more]

Child Abuse Is a Continuing Problem Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (711 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … child abuse is a continuing problem that remains, despite various laws and attempts to curtail what is happening. This is because of the overall pattern of abuse that is passed from one generation to the other. Where, those children who are abused by their parents will more than likely abuse their children. (Havelin, 2007) This is especially troubling when you consider the fact that 5.8 million children were involved in 3.2 million child abuse cases last year. ("National Child Abuse Statistics," 2010) However, to help those who are most vulnerable and break this pattern of abuse that is occurring are: those organizations that are dedicated to reaching out to children who suffer from abuse. One such organization is: the Network for Good, where they have coordinated their efforts with 1.5 million charities, to have the most effective reach possible ("About Us," 2010) Yet, to fully understand the impact of this organization requires that you examine the organization itself, how it helps contribute to protecting / preventing child abuse and how they can have an impact on the long-term career successes of the individuals they reach out to. It is through understanding the organization in this light; that will provide the greatest insights as to how Network for Good can help improve the chances for success of: those individuals who are working with it.

Like what was stated previously, the Network for Good coordinates various activities that support the overall issue of child abuses, through their organization and partner organizations. This means that if someone would like to donate to the cause or would like to volunteer in a community; there more than likely is something that is occurring through Network for Good or their partners. This overall approach allows the message of child abuse and protecting children to always remain at the forefront. ("About Us," 2010)

This organization can increase professional knowledge and abilities by providing volunteers with hands on experience, in working with abused children. Over the course of time, someone can gain invaluable insights and training as to the most effective way to tackle the problem. This helps improve confidence and…… [read more]

Early Childhood: Play Years Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (954 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Finally, by pretending to be someone else or by using one object to represent another, children develop abstract thinking skills. By playing with others, children learn how to problem solve and how to negotiate conflict (Bergen, 2002).

Conflict Negotiation in Early Childhood

Although some precocious children are able to negotiate conflicts verbally as early as the ages of three and four, the majority of children not able to successfully negotiate solutions to conflicts until the ages of five and six. There are several reasons for this. Three and four-year-olds are usually quite egocentric, which is a hallmark of the preoperational stage of development. They also have limited verbal and social skills, which makes it difficult for them to solve interpersonal conflicts such as whose turn it is to play on a piece of playground equipment or who gets to play with a particular toy. Five and six-year-olds, however, are growing closer to the concrete operational stage (Slavin, 2009), and are beginning to understand the concepts of sharing, empathy and communication, but children at this age are still unable to understand abstract concepts and the idea must be presented to them in a practical way that they can understand.

Relationships vs. Problem Solving

It is said that girls specialize in relationships, while boys specialize in problem solving. Although this is a broad generalization that does not take individual personalities into account, the statement can be considered largely factual based upon neuroscientists' understanding of brain development. The female brain is dominant in the language hemisphere, while the male brain is dominant in spatial abilities and problem solving. Therefore, females are more inclined to talk about their relationships and their emotions than males are, and their approach to problem solving is equally as important as solving the problem itself. In essence, females solve problems through relationships, while males choose a more practical, hands-on approach method of problem solving.


In early childhood, the language skills of a child can affect their social and emotional development. Males specialize in the areas of spatial logic and problem solving, while females have superior language skills. As children begin building relationships and exploring the larger world through pretend play, language skills can affect their ability to negotiate conflicts, to think in abstract terms, and to solve problems. In the long-term, their language skills can affect their ability to solve problems within interpersonal relationships.


Bergen, D. (2002). The role of pretend play in children's cognitive development. Early Childhood Research and Practice, 4(1), 193-483.

Block, C. (2003). Literacy difficulties: diagnosis and instruction for reading specialists and classroom teachers. (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

Church, E. (n.d.) The importance of pretend play. Scholastic Parents. Retrieved January 30, 2010 from http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=10175

Slavin, R. (2009). Education psychology: theory and practice. New Jersey: Pearson.

Sousa, D. (2005). How the brain learns…… [read more]

Families Delinquency and Crime Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,165 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Families, Delinquency & Crime

Describe the labeling theory and the consequences that labeling can have on a child.

Labeling theory is defined as "deviance [created] by making rules whose infractions constitute deviance, and by applying those rules to particular people and labeling them as outsiders… deviance is not a quality of the act a person commits, but rather a consequence… [read more]

Violence in the Media Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (680 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


The editors of an anti-violence Web site note, "61% of children's television programs contain violence and only 4% have an anti-violence theme. In programs with violence only 16% showed long-term consequences, 45% of the offenders went unpunished" (Editors, 2009). Children and teens often do not understand the real consequences of violence because of these types of shows, and so they are more prone to become violent because they do not understand the realities of violence on others.

Many parents do not monitor their children's activity viewing violent media, and they may not understand just how violent video games, television, and films can be. Children look up to their heroes as role models, and if their heroes are violent, they may emulate their actions, not understanding what happens with violent behavior in the real world. As films continue to become more violent, this behavior will certainly increase, and future generations could become increasingly violent if this trend toward violence is not checked. Parents need to be more pro-active when it comes to their children's media, and they need to monitor what they do at home, and when they are playing with other children, to make sure they are not playing with violent video games or other media.

In conclusion, violence in the media does cause violence in children and teens, as many studies have indicated. Our society is a violent society, and it is becoming increasingly violent in the media. Children do not understand the consequences of real violence, and so, they should be monitors and parents should limit the violence their children are exposed to.


Editors. (2009). Children and media violence. Retrieved 4 Dec. 2009 from the MediaFamily.org Web site: http://www.mediafamily.org/facts/facts_vlent.shtml.

Greene, K., & Krcmar, M. (2005). Predicting exposure to and liking of media violence: A uses and gratifications approach. Communication Studies, 56(1), 71+.

Partenheimer, D. (2009). Childhood exposure to media violence predicts young adult aggressive behavior, according to a new 15-year study. Retrieved 4 Dec. 2009, from the American Psychological…… [read more]

Rousseau's Opinions on How Young Children Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (676 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Rousseau's opinions on how young children should be treated to ensure they are going to get a good education? How do his ideas differ from standard opinion today? What is your opinion of his suggestions?

Rousseau stresses the need for the young child to enjoy a 'natural' lifestyle, to prepare him for the rigors of the educational system later in life. Instead of constraining the child, Rousseau says that a child should be allowed to fully exercise his body and free will. This is in stark contrast to contemporary emphasis on preparing a child for entering formal schooling and socializing the child to interact with other children. Programs such as Head Start, preschool programs, and even Sesame Street and Baby Einstein are all examples of the modern belief that a child must begin his or her education as soon as possible. Today, the idea of developmental 'windows' where it is easier to learn information earlier in life, is strongly endorsed.

However, Rousseau's ideas have a great deal to recommend them in an age where there is often so much emphasis on children growing up as fast as possible that children have forgotten how to be creative and even to play. Rousseau would likely see the modern crisis of childhood obesity and inactivity as a result of constraining young children too soon and not allowing them to freely explore their environment with their bodies as well as their minds.

Chapter 2: What should be emphasized in early years of formal education? How are his ideas different from those that are most commonly used today? What is you opinion of his ideas? Are they practical?

Rousseau emphasizes the need for the 'natural child' to cultivate his or her physical and sensory capabilities. The child should learn by observation and his own experimentation in nature, until he or she is developmentally capable and eager for more conventional book learning. Learning through experience should come first; children should learn the theoretical principles behind what they observe later on. But today,…… [read more]

Juvenile Delinquency Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,916 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


The idea of human trafficking of children is morally repugnant to me, and I think it should be one of the highest priorities in law enforcement across the country. The idea that it happens in our own cities is frightening, and something needs to be done to control it. Children need to be better educated about the dangers around them, and not to trust strangers or people they meet online. I wonder how many children disappear every year that are the victims of human trafficking, and how many families are traumatized every year.

As for juvenile delinquency, it does seem to be growing in numbers. Our society is increasingly violent, and worse, it is increasingly accepting of violence, especially in the media. We know that this violence creates imitators, and it can lead to acts of violence in our communities. I think that the media should stop supporting and reporting violence, and that the people should stop being so accepting of it. Violence is bad, it incites people to violence, and it serves no real purpose. Violence in the media should be severely limited, and it should never be available to very young children. Guns are too readily available, too, and that should change. Children should never be able to kill someone just because a gun was available, period.


Destefano, A.M. (2007). The war on human trafficking: U.S. policy assessed. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Editors. (2009). Human trafficking of children in the United States. Retrieved 24 Nov. 2009 from the U.S. Department of Education Web site: http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/osdfs/factsheet.html.

Jones, L., Engstrom, D.W., Hilliard, T., & Diaz, M. (2007). Globalization and human trafficking. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 34(2), 107+.

Katz, N. (2009). Prosecutor: Alyssa Bustamante killed Elizabeth Olten because "She wanted to know what it felt like." Retrieved 24 Nov. 2009 from the CBS News Web site: http://www.cbsnews.com/blogs/2009/11/19/crimesider/entry5709430.shtml?tag=contentMain;contentBody.

Lahey, B.B., Moffitt, T.E., & Caspi, A. (Eds.). (2003). Causes of conduct disorder and juvenile delinquency. New York: Guilford Press.

Shepherd Jr., R.E. (2009). How the media misrepresents juvenile policies. Retrieved 24 Nov. 2009 from the ABAnet.org Web site: http://www.abanet.org/crimjust/juvjus/12-4hmmjp.html.

Smith, S.L., Lachlan, K., Pieper, K.M., Boyson, A.R., Wilson, B.J., Tamborini, R., et al. (2004). Brandishing guns in American media: Two studies examining how often and in what context firearms appear on television and in popular video games. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 48(4), 584+.

Turner, M. (2006). Juvenile delinquency: causes and control, 2d Ed. Australian and New Zealand Journal…… [read more]

Enforcement of International Child Labour Law Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,878 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Enforcement of International Child Labor

Even in today's seemingly progressive world, there exists the abomination of child labor practices all over the world. In countries both struggling to develop and those with rising economies, there are immense child labor problems which put a dark blight on the practice of global capitalism. However, in some cases, the existence of child labor… [read more]

Rousseau vs. Locke Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (626 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Education of Young Children

John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau have both believed in promotion of reason as an essential factor in social contract theories yet their stance on early childhood education differ sharply. Locke principally believed in the role of reason in children's education and considered it primarily parents' duty to educate their children properly: "The well educating of their children is so much the duty and concern of parents, and the welfare and prosperity of the nation so much depends on it, that I would have everyone lay it seriously to heart and […] set his helping hand to promote everywhere that way of training up youth […] which is the easiest, shortest, and likeliest to produce virtuous, useful, and able men in their distinct callings." He felt that children have this innate capacity to reason and to decipher information according to their reasoning faculties. "children commonly get not those general Ideas [of the rational Faculty], nor learn the Names that stand for them, till having for a good while exercised their Reason about familiar and more particular Ideas" (Essay concerning Human understanding (EU): I.II, 14). But while these innate tendencies exist, Locke felt that it was still important to nurture them. The role of nurturing tendencies cannot be ignored in gaining knowledge. He also believed that absence of innate tendencies did not follow that a child wouldn't be able to gain knowledge. It is important they he is exposed to external stimuli and with practice, his mind would open to receive knowledge.

"I deny not, that there are natural tendencies imprinted on the Minds of Men; and that, from the very first instances of Sense and Perception, there are some things, that are grateful, and others that welcome to them; some things that they incline to, and others that they fly: But this makes nothing for innate Characters on the Mind,…… [read more]

Planned Giving Funding Proposal Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (591 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Planned Giving Funding Proposal for the New Youth Center

The New Youth Sports Center was established last year and, despite limited funds, they have managed to attract two hundred children and adolescents to participate in sports programs and competitions, but also in other programs of social development, such as tutoring, cleaning the environment or planting new trees. Participants are attracted by the possibility to meet peers and have fun, while parents are encouraged by the fact that their children spend their free time under supervision, learning social and environmental responsibility.

Project Financial Details

When the New Youth Center was founded one year ago, its financial sources were mainly retrieved from the five community churches. These recognized their decreased ability to support the development of the youth, due to the reduced appeal of religion to today's adolescents. Managing to cut down on costs by reducing their already unpopular youth programs, the churches decided to each donate 10 per cent of their earnings to the NYC. Despite the relative similarities in their earnings, at the end of the year, the deacons at the five churches felt that the percentage contribution was inequitable as one church paid more and one church paid less. The deacons at the churches which paid less argued that setting a fix sum would also be inequitable. Due to these frictions, the New Youth Center finds itself in need of more sponsors. The current aim is that of raising $360,000, which would constitute the minimum sufficiency for 2010.

3. Available Resources

Out of the $360,000 required, the NYC can rely on $60,000 as coming from the five community churches. Regardless of their disputes, the deacons recognize the importance of the center and have committed to donating at least $12,000 per annum in support of…… [read more]

Long-Term Implications of Current Conditions Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Education Politics

Factors that Mitigate Risk and Protect Children from negative Life OUtcomes

One of the unfortunate consequences of the human condition is that some children will not enjoy the same level of support and resources as their peers because of various socioeconomic and family situational factors. Nevertheless, history has demonstrated time and again that some children are able to overcome whatever adversities life throws at them to emerge as well adjusted and intelligent members of society who go on to achieve their personal and professional goals irrespective of these challenges and obstacles. These children, though, appear to be the exception rather than the rule, and it is reasonable to suggest that children who are at risk will suffer from these experiences rather than benefit from them no matter how resilient they may be. To determine those factors that can serve to protect at-risk children from negative outcomes, this paper reviews the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to collect and evaluate the strongest available evidence concerning those protective factors that support optimal early childhood development. An analysis of how these factors protect against the effects of an unequal start in life and their implications for later life outcomes is followed by a summary of the research and important findings.

In their timely report, "The Long-Term Effects of Recession-Induced Child Poverty," First Focus (2009) emphasizes that children who experience the effects of poverty are at particularly high risk for experiencing a number of adverse academic and health-related outcomes during their childhood as well as poorer health and diminished earning potential later in life. These are particularly salient issues as the global economic recession continues to adversely affect the ability of parents and the government to provide desperately needed early childhood development interventions. According to Yarrow (2009), "The economic crisis that began in 2008 and the 2009 federal stimulus package posed roadblocks and opportunities for an ambitious child-policy agenda, given both fiscal constraints and calls for 'investment' in school buildings, teachers, and children's education and health" (p. 27). Unfortunately, the longer young children spend in impoverished conditions, the more serious the consequences are across the broad range of measures, including higher rates of dropping out of school, and an inability to gain meaningful employment later in life (Brooks-Gunn & Duncan, 1997).

There is also a large amount of evidence to suggest that the psychological and even biomedical effects of childhood poverty can persist well into adulthood and in some instances for life, despite changes in the individual's condition and level of affluence. Measurement of adult body mass index, a typical measure of health with a narrow range…… [read more]

Somatic Relationship Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  13 pages (4,540 words)
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Somatic Psychology

The Somatic Relationship Between the Adult-Child and Their Parents: A Grounded Theory Study

The relationship between a child and parent is one of the most complex in psychological literature. This relationship has been considered one of the most important since the early pioneers, such as Freud in Jung. A literature review of available academic studies regarding requires an… [read more]

Outcomes of Divorce on Children Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (651 words)
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Divorce Outcomes on Children

Outcomes of Divorce in the Lives of Children

Before going any further, I believe that it is fitting to first introduce the concept of divorce. In the context of social sciences, divorce is known to be a "definite crisis period during which the nuclear family disintegrates. The dissolution and reorganizing process of divorce extends to children as well as to parents" (Despert in Henning & Oldham, 1977, p. 55). The effects of the dissolution of marital bonds clearly extend to children. It is in this light that this paper attempts to understand the implications of divorce especially focusing on children.

Psychological Effects on Children

The influence of divorce varies according to the developmental stage of the children. This was proven by the work of Henning & Oldham (1997, pp.55-56). Using a compilation of clinical experiences of divorced children in the pre-school, latency, and adolescent stage, they have found that children in their pre-school years resort to fantasy, i.e. thinking that they did something that caused the divorce since parents believe that explaining divorce to them would be futile. Children also resort to aggressive behavior, irritability, and depressive action. Children in the latency stage, on the other hand, tend to create a fantasized image of the absent parent. Finally, children in the adolescent state are more likely to display anger and depression. They also tend to be hostile to their parents in the hope that these actions would be manipulative enough to change marital decisions.


It is a general observation that school or academic performance has been a key indicator of the child's intellectual well-being. According to the 1976 study by Wallerstein & Kelly (1979, pp. 471-473), about half of their research subjects (children in the latency stage from divorced families) displayed acute changes in the demeanor in school. A marked decline in school performance was also present as well as moody and irritable behavior when they are with their peers.…… [read more]

Juvenile Justice and Native American Children Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,822 words)
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Juvenile Justice and Native American Children

The objective of this work is to examine the historical policy of removing Native American children from their homes and placing them in residential schools. The historical justification of this policy will be examined as well as how this policy was implemented. Further this work will examine the issue of seriously, violent juveniles (SVJs)… [read more]

Gay and Lesbian Couples Should Be Able to Be Parents Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,561 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Gay & Lesbian Couples should be able to be Parents

Affirming the Rights of Gay and Lesbian Couples to Adopt

"Equal rights for lesbians and gay men may be the greatest civil rights battle of the 21st century," (Avery et al. 2007:73). In today's world, there are sever restrictions placed on the legal and natural rights of gay and lesbian… [read more]

Management Pregnant Figureswomen Are a Group Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,051 words)
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¶ … Management

Pregnant figureswomen are a group of special interest as far as smoking is concerned. It is not only their own pregnanthealth that needs to be considered but also that of their unborn child. Because of this it is felt that it is important to achieve short-term abstention as well as smokers long-term cessation. It is thought that currently one quarter of pregnant women smoke. For some pregnant women, their pregnancy is good reason to stopmajority smoking but for others they keep on smoking throughout could their pregnancy. It is often thought that effectiveness of smoking cessation can be improved by a combination of smoking individual and public (Van Wheel, 2007).

Since the mid-1980s, national low birth weight and preterm rates have continued to rise. It is thought that this is due to limited maternal education, young maternal age, unmarried status, poverty, lack of prenatal care and smoking are associated with poor newborn and maternal health outcomes and contribute to infant mortality (the Birth Companions Program, n.d.).

Medical difficulties that are associated with adolescent pregnancy include poor maternal weight gain, anemia, and pregnancy-induced hypertension. These complications seem to be the greatest for those who are very young. Poverty, lack of education, and inadequate family support appear to contribute to a lack of adequate prenatal care. This is seen as accounting for the majority of negative health outcomes for the adolescent mother and her child. There is increasing evidence that pregnant adolescents are at increased risk for domestic violence. Younger mothers are more likely to be single parents and to receive no prenatal care or care only at the end of their pregnancies. These mothers are also less likely to finish high school (American Academy of Pediatrics: Care of Adolescent Parents and Their Children, 2001).

In an effort to provide efficient and effective care to patients the U.S. healthcare system has done a lot to redesign its delivery system. Developing an approach to meet the high demands of patients and to best utilize resources has become a necessity. The result is the common use of what is called a multidisciplinary team approach. This approach provides better care than the old way when it just involved the doctor and patient. When properly put into practice, a multidisciplinary team approach results in positive outcomes. "With a diverse group of healthcare professionals, such as physicians, nurses, pharmacists, dieticians, and health educators, social service and mental health providers there is more certainty that all of the needs of the patient will be met" (Veronica, 2007). The most important member of the multidisciplinary team is the patient themselves. They are at the center of the team. This approach is a good example of holistic health care (Veronica, 2007).

Multidisciplinary teams consist of people from different disciplines that come together for a common purpose. This approach is used in a variety of different setting including healthcare, education, mental health and criminal justice. The concept is that it is best to address an issue or problem… [read more]

Divorce of Parents Harms Their Children Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (1,982 words)
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Divorce of Parents Harms Their Children

According to the Centers for Disease Control, in 2005, there were 2,230,000 marriages, in America. The marriage rate, in the United States, was 7.5 per 1,000 total population. However, the divorce rate, that same year, was 3.6 per 1,000 total population ("Marriage & divorce," 2009). Although this rate has declined over the last fifteen… [read more]

Step Parenting and Stress Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,867 words)
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Stress and the breakup of a family -- through divorce, death, or separation -- have nearly always gone hand in hand. But when a "new" family is being created, with children in the picture and a new father (stepfather) or a new mother (stepmother), stressors frequently play a role in that situation as well. And in a newly formed family… [read more]

Sarah's Condition Case Study

Case Study  |  5 pages (1,770 words)
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Sarah's Condition

It is often said that obtaining an early diagnosis of SLE (systematic lupus erythematosus) is one of the most important yet difficult aspects of promoting a positive treatment outcome for children with this disorder. For many months, eleven-year-old Sarah has been manifesting joint pain, headaches, and mouth ulcers. Yet she was only diagnosed by her pediatrician with systemic… [read more]

Foster Care Canada Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,456 words)
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Foster Care in Canada

There is a darker side (injustice, bureaucracy, insensitivity, discrimination) and a brighter side (family-centered reform, more parental training, etc.) to the discussion of foster care in Canada. This paper will review the many sides of the issue, and offer potential solutions from the literature. The issue is urgent. To wit, in reviewing the literature relative to… [read more]

Should Juveniles Be Tried as Adults Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (3,403 words)
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Criminal Justice

Should Juveniles be tried as Adults?

The juvenile justice system in the United States has conventionally emphasized individualized treatment and rehabilitation. This focus has shifted over the years, however, and while juvenile courts are still directed at reform of young offenders, juvenile proceedings have become more punitive in nature (Steward-Lindsey, 2006). Recently there has been a dramatic change… [read more]

Shaken Baby Syndrome Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,610 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Shaken baby syndrome, a type of child abuse, is investigated by law enforcement officials as a criminal assault in the United States and in many countries around the world

("Shaken Baby…," ¶ 3).

Shaken Baby Syndrome Statistics/Symptoms

Each year, approximately 1,000 to 3,000 cases of SBS occur in the United States (U.S.), according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention… [read more]

Children's Literature Sass's the Cat Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (2,352 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Children's Literature

Sass's the Cat in the Hat and The BBC's Baby Penguins

Personification and Moral as Indicators of Different Intentions in Children's Literature Over Time

In children's literature, personification is often used in order to make characters more interesting to children, as well as to teach a lesson. Often, inanimate objects, such as The Little Engine That Could, are… [read more]

Criticism of Television Shows Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,313 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


TV Show Critique -- Gossip Girl

TV Show Critique of Gossip Girl

Media plays a powerful role in the development of a teenager's personality and on teen culture, as a whole. Celebrities and popular personalities on television, radio and magazines dictate what is "in" and what is "out" on impressionable teenagers. They are bombarded with images of media everyday and… [read more]

Ethnic Studies Gangs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,018 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Ethnic Studies - Gangs

Today's diverse groupings of ethnic youth in the United States are individuals of a wide range of characteristics and never has this group been quite so diverse. These groups are comprised of individuals who do not understand the ideology of what the 'American Dream' is truly composed of and it is likely that due to non-engagement… [read more]

Developing as an Individual Children's Understanding of the Earth Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,194 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … individual- Children's understanding of the Earth

Teaching abstract concepts to children can be a challenging task. Without a salient or familiar representation of a non-concrete object like gravity or the earth, it would be difficult for a child to form a coherent understanding of or even sustain attention on deep principles. Hence representational objects such as artifacts, maps, models, videos, and the like are powerful tools used by educators to improve appreciation and understanding of scientific concepts. This paper analyses two theories on children's understanding of the earth, an abstract concept, and how these affect children's knowledge about the globe, the earth's representative artifact. It also discusses the implications of these findings in children's interpretation of other abstract concepts like the atom, gravity, or evolution.

Unlike other representational insights (e.g. maps, scale models, photographs) it is quite difficult for young children to link the globe to its actual referent, i.e., the earth (Callanan, Jipsen, & Soennichsen, 2002). For one, the globe is an interesting object in itself -- colorful, fun to spin, ball-bouncy -- and children have a hard time understanding that it is a symbol for something else. Second, they probably know little about the earth itself (Liben, 1999, in Callanan, et al., 2002). Studies show that 7-year-old children have difficulty understanding that the earth is a sphere and that they tend to think that the earth is flat until 10-11 years (Nusbaum & Novak, 1976; Sneider & Pulos, 1983; and Vosniadou & Brewer, 1992 in Callanan, et al., 2002). Until the earth's shape is understood, children will indeed get lost in the earth-globe connection (Callanan, et al., 2002).

There are two communities of thought regarding children's understanding of the earth's shape and other features. One is the Mental Model Theory where children are thought to construct beliefs of the earth based on their intuition (Vosniadou & Brewer, 1992/1994 in Panagiotaki, Nobes, & Banarjee, 2006). A child's intuitive constraints lead her to think that things in general are two-dimensional and are supported. This presupposes her to believe that the earth is flat (Vosniadou & Brewer, 1992/1994 in Panagiotaki, et al., 2006). The alternative view is that children's understanding of the earth is culturally communicated and theory-free; i.e., before they acquire any knowledge of the earth, they simply do not know (Siegal, Butterworth, & Newcombe, 2004 in Panagiotaki, et al., 2006).

The discrepancy between these two theories can be explained by differences in methods used by each in the assessment of children's understanding of the earth (Panagiotaki, et al., 2006). In the Mental Model Theory, children are asked to illustrate their own version of the earth by drawing or creating play dough models. Then they are asked open-ended questions about the earth, which the experimenter can rephrase or repeat if the answers are not clear to them (Vosniadou & Brewer, 1992 in Panagiotaki, et al., 2006). In the alternate theory, children are asked to choose from a series of external 3-D models which they think best represents the… [read more]

Developing as an Individual Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,394 words)
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¶ … Individual

The so-called "object concept" is the knowledge that objects continue to exist even when they are out of sight. This knowledge, of course, is central to all human activities; we simply cannot function without it. As trivial as it may seem, the object concept has had its fair share of claims and controversies, especially as to when… [read more]

Risk and Abuse Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (2,151 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Risk & Abuse

Child Abuse Through Three Studies

The raising of children is an intimate practice in which social, cultural, religious, and ethnic beliefs are often a part. Though the fact that different ways of raising children exist is certainly positive, as no one model could be determined that would fit all children and families, it is still necessary to… [read more]

Developmental and Growth Norms: Music Play Therapy Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (330 words)
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Developmental and Growth Norms: Music Play Therapy With an Infant

Play therapy with six-month-olds often involves encouraging them to perform basic developmental acts, such as rolling over, either unassisted or with assistance, depending on their physical development. Children in this age group often delight in initiating contact with adults by making noises, or engaging in 'signed' communication like 'bye-bye.' However, music therapy has also been shown to be effective in enhancing premature infants' and full term infants' developmental responses and parents' responsiveness to the children's needs. In informal musically-oriented play, infants encouraged to respond to music "by gazing, smiling, vocalizing, cooing, kicking, tapping, waving, and reaching out to touch the mother's face or musical toy when the mothers initiated music-play actions," showed significantly greater responsiveness and engagement with adults in one study (Walworth 2009).

For the six-month-old involved in my play development exercise, activities involved encouraging the child to touch a musical toy (a plastic drum), encouraging the child to slap the drum to improve…… [read more]