Study "Child Development / Youth / Teens" Essays 661-715

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Juveniles Since Biblical Times Term Paper

… Social Forces, Vol. 75, No. 4, Jun 1997. 1,239-69 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina

Akers, R.L. (1973). Law and Control in Society. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Bartol, C., & Bartol, A. (2005). Criminal Behavior: A Psychosocial Approach. (7th Ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall

Juvenile justice panel (2009) Retrieved from:

McCord, J. And Conway, P. (2010). 'Patterns of Juvenile Delinquency and Co-Offending'. In: Waring R, Weisburd D, editors. Crime and Social Organization. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers; 2002. p. 15-30

Puzzanchera, C. (2010) U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Juvenile Arrests 2008

1 I.K. Ben-Amos, Adolescence and Youth in Early Modern English Society (New Haven, 1994).

2. Hugh Cunningham, Children and Childhood in Western Society since 1500 (London, 1995).

3. Rosemary O'Day, The Family and Family Relationships 1500- 1900 (Basingstoke, 1994).

4. A. Fraser, The Weaker Vessel: Women's lot in Seventeenth Century England (London, 1984).

5. R. Houlbrooke, English Family life -- An anthology (New York, 1988).

6. R. Houlbrooke, The English Family 1450-1700 (London, 1984).

7. A. Laurence, Women in England (London, 1984).

8. A. Macfarlane, Marriage and Love in England 1500-1800 (Oxford, 1986).

9. Lloyd De Mause, (ed.), The History of Childhood (London, 1976).

10 J.H. Plumb, The New World of Children in Eighteenth Century England, in, Past and Present 67, 1975.

11. Linda Pollock, Forgotten Children - Parent: Child Relations from 1500-1900 (Cambridge…… [read more]

Media Violence on Youth Damaging Essay

… As such, some teenagers may feel socially conscious about who they are and what they look like, resulting in poor body image habits (, 2010).

6.0 Conclusion

Media has become an ever influencing source for developing young adults. When young adults are developing themselves into the person they wish to become, they learn by observing, imitating, and making behaviors their own. As easily accessible sources, magazines, comic books, posters and advertisements, movies, music, and videogames all provide as samples (Dahl & DellaVigna, 2002). In order to better protect the youth, parents must become involved in what media their children come into contact with, but marketing firms for the media sources must stop forcing adult material onto children.


Dahl, G., & DellaVigna, S.. (2009). Does Movie Violence Increase Violent Crime? The

Quarterly Journal of Economics, 124(2), 677. Retrieved February 14, 2011, from

Journal of Youth and Adolescence. (2010, December 17). Violent video games don't predict aggressive behavior. Retrieved February 14, 2011 from

Kirsch, S.J., & Olczak, P.V. (2002). The effects of extremely violent comic books on social information processing. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 17(11), 1160-1178. (2010). Negative effects of music. Retrieved February 14, 2011 from (2010). Special issues for tweens and teens. Retrieved February 14, 2011

from (2010). The concerns. Retrieved February 14, 2011 from (2010). Violence. Retrieved February 14, 2011 from (2001). Juvenile offenders and victims: National report series bulletin. Retrieved February 24, 2011 from… [read more]

Child Sexual Abuse Term Paper

… Thirdly sexual offenders should be prohibited from working in environments where there are children under the age of fourteen years who could be possibly at risk when under the watch of such sexual offenders.

Secondly the government and concerned authorities should step up their efforts and limit the distribution of internet child pornography; this would curtail at least one form of child sexual abuse and in the long run may lead to decline in the cases of child sexual abuse. Two ways in which the government can tackle this is to remove child pornography content from the internet sites at the source and secondly ensure that access by users to such internet sites are blocked.

Social action against child sexual abuse

Within the society parameters it would be first important to identify why adults or older children sexually abuse children under the age of fourteen years, how and why they target their victims and what factors makes minors to become targets, the knowledge of these factors can help the society to effectively educate and prevent sexual abuses from affecting the future generation in the long run.

Social workers and parents, based on this knowledge will be able to equip their minors with skills necessary to defend themselves against potential offenders, they would also be able to make their children less prone to sexual offenders and again parents will be aware of what factors in their parenting techniques can contribute to child sexual abuse.

However, it is important to design prevention programs in such a manner that it will not cause anxiety among the participants; an example of a well designed preventive program is the Project TRUST that has been effective in equipping children with necessary knowledge and skills necessary to protect themselves against offenders.


Cases of child sexual abuse are on a rise and according to the recent reports released by United Nations it showed that these figures tend to be on a rise mostly in the conflict zones of which majority are in Africa, most notably is the Democratic Republic of Congo which made headlines last year when report showed a shocking increase in the number of sexual offenses in that country.

These facts are some of the true issues which this paper has highlighted and the recommendation so made can go along way to end this menace and in conclusion this paper would further add that the other actions that can be undertaken to educate and prevent against child sexual abuse within the society is coordinating services dealing with children in five areas that are; health, social welfare, education, the police and the legal system and creating specialized treatment for victims and aggressors.

Work cited

Cynthia Crosson-Tower (2008). Understanding child abuse and neglect, Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.

Durkin, K.F., and Clifton D.B., (1999), "Propagandizing pederasty: A thematic analysis of the online exculpatory accounts of unrepentant pedophiles" Deviant Behavior

Lascaratos, J, Ascaratos J. And Poulakou-Rebelakou, E (2000), "Child Sexual abuse: Historical cases in the Byzantine Empire (324 --… [read more]

Women Who Kill Their Children Research Paper

… Women Who Kill Their Children

The Nature of the Unnatural:

On January 27th of this year, Julie Powers, a 50-year-old mother from Tampa, Florida, shot her two teenage children to death. When asked by police for an explanation, she replied… [read more]

Life Term Paper

… Life Span Development

Life-Span Development: From Birth to Death

One's personal, physical and emotional development is cumulative. The nature of experiences and development during each state of the life-span will have an impact on how subsequent stages are experienced for better or for worse. The following is a concise overview of the changes and normative patterns relating to the life-span. Thus, the discussion will provide a brief examination of each phase, including the prenatal, infancy, early childhood, middle childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, middle adulthood and late adulthood stages. This will contribute to a general understanding of the way that experiences, exposures and environments will impact one throughout one's life.


The process of human development is assessed according to multiple phases, each of which carries its own distinct set of expectations in terms of emotional growth, psychological development, physical maturation and social awareness. With each phase will also come a distinct set of life cycle considerations and a set of both socially and self-imposed pressures to participate in certain rites and elements of the life cycle. The intercession of these realities produces what are referred to in psychology and sociology as the stages of development. These will tend to be distinguished from one another in a normally developing individual by an array of physical, mental and sexual changes that will significantly shape the course of one's life. The concept of emotional development is described in Erik H. Erikson's 1963 text, Childhood and Society. Here, the sociologist asserts that the ability of one's parents during the formative stages of life to earn the infant's trust will impact directly the success of his development. To the point, in elucidating the stages of emotional development which contribute to the mental and psychological growth…… [read more]

Youth Services, Juvenile Justice System Article Review

… They also note the critical period of late adolescence for psychosocial development, and how this critical period is affected by life in a correctional facility. Factors identified that promote positive adult outcomes for juvenile offenders include positive, stable, supportive peers and adults, opportunities to develop mature autonomy and build self-esteem through demonstrated competency, maintenance of gainful employment, and sufficient practice with self-governance.

Critique: This chapter is an excellent antidote to the CDFs highly negative article. By focusing on possible successful outcomes due to positive support in these children's lives, and the fact that these positive adult outcomes seem to be increasing over the last several years, the authors are more likely to inspire realistic changes in the juvenile justice system. While they do include informative statistics and brief interpersonal interviews with juvenile offenders, their focus remains positive and hopeful rather than bleak and overwhelmed. Similar to the McManus article and in contrast to the Eppright article, these authors offer practical solutions that social workers involved with juvenile offenders can begin stressing right away. Making sure every juvenile offender is given the specialized individual treatment they need (rather than being lumped into the "bad kid, bad adult" pile), as well as working to ensure that each child has sufficient peer and elder support, are two reasonable strategies that can potentially turn life around for thousands of troubled adolescents struggling to maneuver into a successful adulthood.


CDF, s. (2007). America's Cradle to Prison Pipeline. The Children's Defense Fund.

Chung, H.L., Little, M., & Steinberg, L. (2005). The Transition to Adulthood for Adolescents in the Juvenile Justice System: A Developmental Perspective. In D.W. Osgood, E.M. Foster, C. Flanagan, & G. Ruth, On Your Own Without a Net (p. Chapter 3). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Eppright, T., Kashani, J., Robison, B., & Reid, J. (1993). Comorbidity of Conduct Disorder and Personality Disorders in an Incarcerated Juvenile Population. The American Journal of Psychiatry: 150, 8, 1233.

McManus, M., Alessi, N., Grapentine, W., &…… [read more]

Teen Pregnancy Formally Essay

… Teen Pregnancy

Formally, teen pregnancy is based on a woman who will not reach her 20th birthday by the expected birth of her first child. This definition does not assume marriage, nor if the woman is legally an adult (depending on the country). The idea of marriage and birthing age has, of course, changed based on societal and cultural issues. At one time, when the lifespan was 40, it made sense for a girl to begin her childbearing years as soon as she was able, usually around 12-13. In contemporary U.S. culture, however, the amount of information and professional data that is needed to become a well-rounded citizen is so high that we usually gauge 18 as the very minimum age to begin to have the resources and/or acumen to raise a family. Like many other contemporary issues, though, the impact of diet and artificial hormones in the food supply, combined with advertising and entertainment's push towards sexuality, often pressures younger people to experiment with sex far earlier, regardless of the health or psychological consequences (Linking Teen Pregnancy Prevention to Other Critical Social Issues, 2010).

However, this is not to say that there have not been tremendous successes in curbing teenage pregnancy since 1991. National statistics show that because of the work in family planning, sex education, the availability of birth control, and even free condom distribution, has especially had an effect on social statistics in the United States. The United States still has one of the highest teen pregnancy ratios (about 750,000 annual, or about 3 out of every 10, mostly focusing on the poor and disenfranchised population. In fact, the problem is multifaceted; if a baby is born to a teen mother, the parents unmarried when the child was born, and the mother failed to receive her GED or high school diploma, a child has different levels of chance of growing up and remaining in poverty. 27%, in fact, with one of the above; 42% with two, and 64% with three. but, the public and societal costs are cut drastically, and a child has about a 7% chance of growing up in poverty if none of the items mentioned happens to them (Ibid.).

However, the issue changes drastically when some of the sociological issues of contemporary society are introduced. Certainly, trying to legislate morality is not the answer; the issue of becoming pregnant is rarely one of a moral nature. Most of the urban poor that comprise the bulk of the teen pregnancy population indicate they still wish for marriage and a nuclear family someday. Instead, many of these teen mothers indicate that having a baby at an early age was an opportunity…… [read more]

Risk and Resilience: Accommodating Article Review

… This does not have to mean immediate acceptance of failure from the child. Rather, it should be used as a tool to determine how the educational system may be able to assist the child in choosing their own optimistic path… [read more]

Psychology -- the Development of Behavior Kohlberg Essay

… Psychology -- the Development of Behavior

Kohlberg's Moral Development and Plagiarism

Plagiarism can be explained in several different ways under Kohlberg's theory of moral development depending on the stage of individual development at the time of the incident. In adolescence, most people begin to become more aware of and begin to conform to societal expectations of behavior according to Stage 3 of Kohlberg's analysis. However, the same need for social approval can also undermine moral reasoning by resulting in conforming to deviant group values when peers are all doing the same thing (i.e. plagiarizing). By the time most people enter Kohlberg's Stage 4, they would recognize the greater importance of upholding basic ethical principles and of avoiding academic dishonesty in any form, on objective principle.

Once the individual passes from the Conventional levels of moral development to post-conventional levels, the individual may justify plagiarism by rationalizing that certain types of academic dishonesty are not necessarily morally wrong even though they violate explicit rules and agreements. For example, an engineering student might justify plagiarism in a mandatory literature course because no person will ever be harmed by his failing to learn whatever he was supposed to learn in a literature class. He might distinguish the moral insignificance of plagiarism in literature from cheating in his engineering classes because someone could be harmed by his professional engineering incompetence.

Likewise, a person in the post-conventional stages of Kohlberg's formulation of moral development might accept the general benefit of academic honesty but might distinguish overt use of another's work from so-called "accidental" plagiarism because it requires more work and effort and because the lines defining what is original though are subjective anyway.

Helping Teens and Adults Avoid Long-term Consequences of Poor Choices

Some of the decisions that teens and young adults make have the potential to affect the rest of their lives…… [read more]

Intervention for Mentally Disabled Children Research Paper

… 7%) and fine motor skills (58.3%) but had mean fine motor skill levels that exceeded their mean gross motor skill levels (50%). Based on the results, EIPs for children with Down syndrome appear to provide a foundation for subsequent learning… [read more]

Early Childhood the Stages of Childhood Development Essay

… Early Childhood

The Stages of Childhood Development

Toddlerhood/Early Childhood:

As a child, I may have taken the implications of walking through a toy store for granted. Instead, I would largely be struck by the "Mommy, I want it" condition that is a common affliction for young children. My observations today are quite different as a I wander through the toy-store and consider the implications of the toys lining the shelves. To a certain extent, I am relieved to find that many of the classic toys that I enjoyed as a child are still omnipresent.

The toys that were so important to me while growing up appear still to be in heavily circulation. Prominent among these are building blocks, LEGOs, train sets and Play-Doh. These examples would strike me because of the positive goals that they seem to represent for the developing intellect. Namely, these toys seem to present no immediately apparent and specific path of usage. Instead, each represents the opportunity for the child to create, to dismantle, to event, to alter and to ultimately employ these toys to whatever ends the child can imagine. In this regard, such toys seem to encourage play without limitations as well as to incline children to think outside of the traditional rules and structures which govern formal learning. In many ways, such toys reflect the array of creative possibilities before the child. Their continued popularity seems to suggests that parents continue to approve of these toys, that children continue to gain positive developmental tools from these toys and that there is some connection between said toys and the child's aptitude for problem-solving, ingenuity and the achievement of balance between the rules governing the toy's workability (i.e. The balance of blocks, the interlocking of LEGOs, etc.) and the relative freedom otherwise afforded by the toy in question.

This is quite an important function, conforming with Erikson's developmental theories suggesting early childhood to be a time for recognizing rule formation. Accordingly, Erikson would express the view that "during this stage we learn to master skills for ourselves. Not only do we learn to walk, talk and feed ourselves, we are learning finer motor development as well as the much appreciated toilet training. Here we have the opportunity to build self-esteem and autonomy as we gain more control over our bodies and acquire new skills, learning right from wrong." (Harder, 1)

This differs, however, from a very significant portion of the toys found in a store which instead do appear to reflect certain usage limitations and to fulfill certain economic, cultural and sociological agenda. Perhaps most significantly among the items which bear this impact are those which are highly gender-loaded toys. A reflection of the history of toy-making and marketing, toys continue to be divided into the categories of 'dolls' and 'action figures,' with the most significant difference being the respective gender stereotypes fulfilled by each. Indeed, dolls and action figures appear designed with the agenda of reinforcing certain gender norms for their users such that… [read more]

Self-Regulation in Children Annotated Bibliography

… Evans and Rosenbaum (2008). Self-Regulation and the Achievement Ga

One of the prime assumptions regarding the achievement gap between children has been focused on the economics of the individual family. Parents who have greater disposable income typically spend more on… [read more]

Teen Violence Abuse Versus Non-Abusive Situations Research Paper

… Teen Abuse

Recognizing the Signs of Abusive Teenage Relationships

For both the perpetrator and the victim, tendencies toward involvement in an abusive relationship may reveal themselves even before full adulthood. Because these tendencies are often a manifestation of formative childhood… [read more]

Child Abuse in a Called it by David Pelzer Case Study

… Intervention in Child Abuse and Its Complications

In A Child Called "It": One Child's Courage to Survive by David J. Pelzer, and his alcoholic mother are the characters as well as the foster care family. It is the opinion of… [read more]

Self-Esteem Issues Research Paper

… ¶ … adolescent self-esteem: the factors that cause or predict high and low self-esteem, some possible consequences of low self-esteem, and mechanisms that underlie change in self-esteem or reroute possible consequences of low self-esteem. Predictive factors fell into two large… [read more]

Sandlot and Adolescence Term Paper

… Adolescent Development and Transition to Adulthood

Adolescence Development and Transition to Adulthood

The transition from adolescence to adulthood is a significant developmental milestone in the life cycle of an individual. Development can be broken down into a series of stages… [read more]

Understanding Runaway Teens Article Review

… ¶ … Martinez, Ruby J. "Understanding Runaway Teens" Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing (May 2006).

Approximately 1.6 million American children (aged 12 to 17) run away from home annually. In doing so, they expose themselves to great risk of physical harm and emotional and psychological trauma. Many of them already suffer from behavioral and psychological problems and have suffered previous experiences of the type known to predispose them to additional trauma. The article details one research study and identifies three specific motivations in the minds of teenage runaways: changing their current living and family situation, creating new friendships and other affiliations, and learning from their experiences. The researchers concluded that the prevalence of this behavior among American teenagers exposes large numbers of teens to grave dangers and illustrates the need for more social services and other alternatives for at-risk teenagers who are so unhappy at home that they runaway and brave the consequences of life on the street.

Research Design and Methodology

The study involved interviewing 23 teenage subjects over an 18-month period. The subjects were teenagers encountered in a detention facility of a large Midwestern inner city area and consisted of individuals who had previously left their homes without permission of parents or guardians for several consecutive nights. The researchers recorded conversations with the teenagers about their reasons for running away and they also took notes about nonverbal communication as well as the circumstances under which the subjects requested that the recording of the conversations be suspended.


The major findings of the study were that: (1) teenagers at greatest risk of runaway behavior are those who experienced physical or sexual abuse…… [read more]

Welfare of Peruvian Women and Children Research Paper

… Welfare of Peruvian Women and Children, Specifically Children

Poverty is recognized as a multidimensional phenomenon that deprives human beings, especially children, from meeting their fundamental and basic rights, and diminishing their opportunity to achieve their full potential. Child poverty provokes… [read more]

Miracle Worker Is an Inspiring Play Assessment

… Miracle Worker is an inspiring play for both students and teachers. Teachers can thrill to the story of a young woman, Annie Sullivan, who truly makes a difference in the life of a child. Students can gain insight into the life of a disabled child, and take delight in seeing a play where someone of their own age group is a central part of the action. The play's dialogue and set-up is somewhat dated: it is a very dialogue-driven play with little spectacle or innovative scenery. However, for the right actresses, it offers two potentially riveting roles. Its theme of hope and the humanity evident within the hearts of all people is still important today.

Ramona Quimby, Age 8 by Beverley Cleary.

The Quimby's Quarrel and Chapter 5: The Extra-Good Sunday

Actors: Ages 7-9

Audience: Ages 7-9

Ramona, her sister Beezus, her father, and mother begin to eat dinner.

Ramona's mother tries to serve them tongue because it is cheap.

Ramona and her sister refuse to eat tongue.

Ramona and her sister are told they have to make dinner the following Sunday.

Ramona and her sister try to be 'extra good' on Sunday by not complaining about the rain.

Ramona and her sister are told that they still have to make dinner: they are pushed into the kitchen by their parents.

Ramona and her sister guess that their mother's recipe for chicken thighs involves the chicken being cooked with chili powder and mushroom soup. They pour everything into one dish.

Ramona and her sister pull the skin off the chicken.

Ramona and her sister improvise making cornbread with Cream of Wheat and yogurt.

The sisters nearly burn the rice and have to poach pears in apricot jam for dessert.

The girls serve the meal by candlelight so their parents can't see how pale the Cream of Wheat cornbread is; although the red specks in the chicken were paprika, not spicy chili pepper, the meal tastes good and is judged a success.

Question 3

Smith and Kraus

Ten-Minute Comedy Plays for Kids 7-10/10+ Format: Volume 4 by Kristen Dabrowski is intended to be a fun introduction to the art of theater for children. It emphasizes fun, engaging and non-judgmental plays. For help in structuring lessons it also includes games and worksheets.

Shakespeare with Children: Six Scripts for Young Players by Elizabeth Weinstein: Quite often Shakespeare is not introduced to children until relatively late in their education. Acting in these accessible, non-intimidating plays encourages children to appreciate Shakespeare's genius and become better prepared to approach the Bard as high schoolers.

Multicultural Plays for Children: Volume 1: Grades K-3 (Young Actor Series) by Pamela Gerke incorporates lessons about tolerance and multicultural themes into drama classes.

Plays of People at Work: Grades K-3 (Young Actors Series) by L.E. McCullough: 'What do I want to be when I grow up:' these plays strive to answer this question by exploring possible career choices for young actors in a series of dramatic scenes.

Anchorage Press

Aladdin: A… [read more]

Lack of Policy Protecting Children From Abuse Neglect Essay

… ¶ … Future Generation

Listen to any discussion of public policy and it won't take too long for you to hear somebody talk about how children are our most precious resource and how we have to do everything possible to… [read more]

Child Observation Term Paper

… ¶ … working with children, it is important to look at both cognitive development and various theoreticians. Cognitive science is a multidisciplinary field, comprising cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, linguistics, neuroscience, and anthropology. In recent years, cognitive science has become a predominant paradigm in studies of the mind. Cognitive science incorporates concepts and methods from philosophy, cognitive psychology etc., whereas behaviorism dominated the psychological sciences during the first part of this century. Cognitive scientists are interested in mental structures and processes of the mind. For this particular observational exercise, the basic development sets of Skinner, Erickson and Piaget formed the background.

Observations -- During the sessions, eleven children were observed, ranging in estimated age from 2 to 7. Both observation days were Sunday, time chosen was noon, specifically to attempt to observe children potentially coming home from church services. Seven children were male ( 64%), 4 female (36%). During this particular observation, all children were either Hispanic or African-American, for the purposes of this paper not a significant modifier. No information was available on demographics, although in all by one case it was a female (either relative, caregiver, or mother) who attended the children. The play lasted approximately 13.4 minutes on average, and was interrupted by the caregiver rather than the child tiring of the interaction.

Whether due to the particular place involved (a playland environment) or to the familiarity with the area (all children seemed to "know" how to get to the play area, where the toys were stored, what was available, etc.), the children were eager to begin a play session with whomever was in the area. It did not appear that any of the children knew each other beforehand, with the exception of one family who had three…… [read more]

Teenage Abortion Essay

… Teenage Abortion

Lindsey: A Story of Teenage Abortion

Some individuals believe that all teenaged girls who become pregnant and have abortions are immoral, unethical and murderous. However, for many underage girls, their parents make the choice for them to have abortions. Since they are minors they have little choice in the matter. That decision can haunt both the parents and the daughter for a lifetime.

I have two cousins. Danielle is the older of the two. Danielle was a pretty, vivacious teenager who had no problem attracting members of the opposite sex. At the age of sixteen she became involved with a street gang member named Julio. She soon found out that she was carrying his child. She carried the pregnancy through to full term with her parents' consent and gave birth to a healthy baby girl who they named Skylar. Danielle and the baby lived at home with her parents. At first Danielle made the effort to be an attentive mother, but after about three months she stopped getting up in the middle of the night when the baby cried. My Aunt Gladys got up to take care of the baby, and it wasn't long until Gladys had assumed the full-time care of her granddaughter. Danielle was still too young, immature and irresponsible to be a good mother.

My younger cousin Lindsey had been going steady with Robbie since eighth grade. Robbie was a devout Baptist who planned to be a minister one day and did not believe in sex outside of marriage, so she stayed out of trouble until he went away to college. Distance did not improve their relationship, and they soon drifted apart emotionally. Lindsey began dating a soldier from the nearby military base. When she was sixteen, she found that she was pregnant. She told the soldier about her situation, expecting that he would offer to marry her. He swore at her and said the baby probably wasn't his anyway. She never heard from him again.

When she finally worked up the nerve to tell Gladys that she was expecting a baby, Gladys was livid. After a tear-filled explosion, she calmly called Planned Parenthood and scheduled an abortion for her younger daughter. Lindsey was devastated. She could not understand why her mother would help care for Danielle's baby but would not do the same for…… [read more]

Physical Psychological and Socioemotional Development During Infancy Thesis


Physical, Psychological, and Socioemotional Development during Infancy

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

There is no known safe dosage of alcohol that a woman can imbibe during pregnancy: the safest policy for a pregnant woman to pursue is not to drink at all (FADS, 2009, CDC). Sadly, some women continue to drink while they are pregnant, either because of an addiction to alcohol, a lack of education about the dangers alcohol can pose to their fetus, or a lack of awareness of the fact they are pregnant until it is too late. Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) require additional care and support, and it is essential that adoptive parents are aware of the physical, psychological, and socio-emotional effects of the syndrome.

Physical effects

Children with FAS often have a smooth ridge between their nose and upper lip. They tend to be short for their age, have small heads, and their body weight is low from infancy onwards. The often have heart, bone or kidney-related health issues. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), there are "significant changes in the structure of the brain as seen on brain scans such as MRIs or CT scans" of children with FAS (Diagnosis, 2009, CDC).

As a result of these neurological problems, children with FAS may exhibit poor coordination, and learn to walk, talk, and engage in age-appropriate physical behavior (like sucking as an infant) at a later date than their peers, or not at all. Vision and hearing problems are also common, and the child may require corrective lenses or a hearing aid to engage in normal communication and/or participate in normal activities.…… [read more]

Teenager's Guide to the Real World Research Proposal

… ¶ … Teenager's Guide to the Real World," written by Marshall Brain. The chapter in case is entitled Relationships Are Random (Brain, 1997).

The purpose of this chapter consists in bringing some light in the confusing mind of the teenager… [read more]

What Is the Effect of Media on Young Children? Essay

… ¶ … theories surrounding the subject of violence and the media. Some experts such as Jensen (2006) assert that television has no effect on children while others like Dudley (2005) and McLellan (2002) argue that even a small amount of television can have detrimental effects on a child or adult, making them more susceptible to violent behavior and disorders like ADD or ADHD. Depending on whose word you take, and which studies you believe, it is possible to come to any number of conclusions. However, the studies which show a strong correlation between the number of hours a child watches television, particularly violent television, and the violent crimes committed by juveniles, leave out a few very important considerations. These considerations, when paired with other perspectives and opinions lead toward a more reasonable conclusion that while there can be some detrimental effects from watching television, children a no more or less likely to commit violent crimes or become ADHD from watching television as they are from any other activity. The type of programming is very important (Jensen, 2006), as with any substance or stimulant. Without this consideration, studies and opinions do not have any relative bearing with which to find common ground.


The idea that violent television or media programming causes violent behavior seems like a logical assumption. More and more children have access to televisions (Schmidt and Vandewater, 2008) and video games, and there have been numerous school shootings and other violent events which have sparked some major studies and have led to the widely-accepted idea that violent television shows and video games turn kids into violent teenagers and adults (Dudley, 2005). But similar arguments have been made throughout American history. Specifically, it was argued that rock and roll music caused deviant sexual behavior, and that the music itself led to drug use and juvenile delinquency. We now know that this is not particularly true. Some parts of American society were threatened by their inability to relate to and understand the youth culture of the time and tried to blame the ills of society on one of the easiest, most ambiguous, norm-threatening entities in existence at the time, which was rock and roll music and culture. We also now know that rock and roll music didn't create a scourge of drug use or sexual promiscuity. These two commonly-obsessed over issues were prevalent in the youth culture before rock and roll music, and it was only with the detachment of the previous generation from being able to fully relate to the younger one that these explanations for societal problems arose.

Bearing this fact in our minds, it is possible to take a more accurate, more informed look at what the experts are telling us about the correlation between violent behavior and television watching. Instead of television creating the violent behavior, there are likely other factors that lead to this behavior in the first place which correlate well with heavy television watching. One of them is the fact that those children… [read more]

Teen Birth Control Research Proposal

… Teen Birth Control

Birth control is a global issue, with people everywhere having come across the problem at a certain point in their lives. The matter is critical because an unwanted pregnancy or a sexually transmitted disease can have a devastating effect on one's life. People generally prefer to avoid the topic, immaturely believing that they are immune to problems relating to their sexual life. In spite of its rather boring character, the most effective method of keeping away from pregnancy is abstinence. Of course, one does not have to be abstinent their whole life from fear of an unwanted baby. In the present, birth control is one of the most divisive problems discussed among teenagers, as, unlike most adults, the general number of adolescents is unprepared both psychologically and financially to have a baby.

Sexually active teenagers need to be instructed properly by their families and by people specially assigned to do so, so that they do not affect themselves and their future. In spite of the fact that men generally prefer to evade having to use condoms, motivating that their sensation is being limited by them, teenagers should always use one, since it is virtually one of the easiest methods of birth control.

It is rather difficult for teenagers to make good use of the advices that they hear concerning their sexual life. Their entourage definitely has a more profound effect on them and on their thinking. Adolescents generally believe that a healthy sexual life is one without any form of outside intervention that involves birth control. Considering this, a teenager might be inclined to suppose that he or she can control the consequences of their sexual intercourses by choosing the right partners and by knowing when to avoid insemination.

The general public's opinion relating births outside marriage is that teenagers are the main reason for such occurrences. However, it seems that the outside marriage births provoked by teenagers only represent a small number from the overall percentage. According to Isabel V. Sawhill, women over 20 are accountable for 70% of all births that occur outside marriage.

Apparently, it seems that adults are less capable of controlling child birth than are teenagers. Even with that, one cannot take this assumption for granted, since there are several variables intervening in the situation.

There are a lot of chances for first child births outside marriage to occur during adolescence, and, once having gave birth, people are less capable of preventing another unwanted pregnancy. Births among teenagers are known to cost the state large amounts of money every year. These are two strong determinants in preventing childbirth during teenage years, as the happening would bring distress both to the persons involved in the problem and to the whole nation. It is difficult for a single mother to raise a child on her own, not to mention the difficulties that emerge when the respective woman is a teenager. An adolescent single mother is inclined to abandon school in favor of raising her… [read more]

Development Theory Brought Forth by Piaget Applied Essay

… ¶ … development theory brought forth by Piaget applied to my life and different phases of my learning processes. The paper also incorporates the views highlight by Santrock in his book "Life Span and Development" and how the heredity aspects… [read more]

Child Policy Can the Chinese Government "Catch Research Proposal

… ¶ … Child Policy

Can the Chinese Government "Catch the Wind?"

The one child policy was enacted in the late 1970s to help promote economic growth in China. Thirty years later, the economy has exploded and the policy represents a risk to China's economy. The policy is coming under fire from families who can afford and desire multiple children. It is time for the one child policy to be reversed, and self-regulation to be allowed. This will lessen some of the damage the one child policy is creating, and appease the people.

"Little Emperors" and "Little Empresses"

China's one child policy was introduced about twenty years ago as a key element of China's economic development plan. Since then an entire new generation of Chinese people has arrived on the scene. In China, this new generation is called the "little emperors" and "little empresses," because in the world of the only child, this child receives privileges unheard of by all previous generations of Chinese families. Now the time has come when little emperors and little empresses want to have families of their own. This generation is not the tired and frightened Chinese generation who lived through Chairman Mao's Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. This is, indeed, the generation of Chinese people who watched the unprecedented tragedy of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, and who sat by their television sets and wept as they saw the agony of Chinese parents who had lost their only child. This generation knows what it wants and they think that they know how to get it. In the following discussion, we will note the signs that seem to show that one day in the future we will be seeing large families in China once again.

Catching the Wind

Deng Xiao Ping: From Many to One

The late Deng Xiao Ping was not a man for emotional expression. Deng marched by the side of the Communist leader Chairman Mao Tse Tung on the Long March and fought through China's brutal and bloody Civil War (1937-1949) at Mao's side. Then, during the infamous "Let One Hundred Flowers" campaign, when Mao pretended to ask for criticism from his comrades and later punished the ones who spoke up, Deng was branded by Mao as a "capitalist roader," and was severely punished. In one sense, the former Communist emperor of China had been quite correct. Mao had sensed or suspected that Deng wanted to see China develop economically under a free market system. A few years after Mao's death, then, it was Deng who led China into its recent high-energy stage of capitalist development with the following slogan…… [read more]

Confronting Childhood Stress: Identification and Acknowledgment Research Proposal

… Confronting Childhood Stress: Identification and Acknowledgment

The relationship between the brain, the body and the nervous system
tends to receive its most suitable investigations within the field of
clinical psychology. Among the most important tasks to be taken up in… [read more]

Serial Child Sex Offenders Thesis

… Serial Child Sex Offenders

Defining Sexual abuse

Child sexual abuse is an extremely common phenomenon in the United States and unlike what most people believe, 80% children are sexually abused by a family member while 19% children are abused by… [read more]

Psychology Gender Essay

… Psychology-Gender

A whole array of classical English, Russian, Polish and French writers populated my parent's library and I owe a great deal of my understanding of the world and my formation later in life to those books. Although I was… [read more]

Nikes Exploitation of Child Laborers in Asian Countries Thesis

… Nike and Child Labor

It is no secret that American-owned countries frequently outsource their labor to people in foreign countries, because foreign labor is cheap when compared to domestic labor. One reason that foreign labor is frequently less expensive than… [read more]

Teenage Breast Augmentation Research Proposal

… Teenage Breast Augmentation

This is a guideline and template. Please do not use as a final turn-in paper.

A Death Causes Debate

Stephanie Kuleba, 18, went in for a breast augmentation procedure in March, 2008. She died. Though many blamed… [read more]

Ethnic Studies Thesis

… Ethnic Studies

The objective of this work is to conduct a comparative analysis of the experiences of Nicaraguan children, Filipino children, Vietnamese children, Haitian children and West Indian children and their experience in America.

The work of Zhou (1997) entitled: "Growing up American: The Challenge Confronting Immigrant Children and Children of Immigrants" states of the "increase in contemporary immigration to the United States that this increase has "...given rise to a record number of children who, regardless of place of birth, are raised in immigrant families. The work of Zhou (1997) additionally states that the family is the most critical of all American institutions "...outside of school for socialization adaptation and the future social mobility of children. Success in school, one of the most important indications of adapting to society, depends not only on the cognitive ability and motivation of individual children, but also on the economic and social resources available to them through their families." (Zhou, 1997, p. 8) it is stated in the work of Portes, Fernandez-Kelly and Haller (2005) entitled: "Segmented Assimilation on the Group: The New Second Generation in Early Adulthood" that the children of "Asian, black, mullato, and mestizo immigrants cannot escape their ethnicity and race as defined by the mainstream. Their enduring physical differences from white and the equally persistent strong effects of discrimination based on those differences...throws a barrier in the path of occupational mobility and social acceptance. Immigrant children's identities, their aspirations, and their academic performance are affected accordingly (Fernandez-Kelly and Curran 2001; Lopez and Stanton Salazar 2001 cited in Portes, Fernandez-Kelly and Haller, 2005, p.8). It is noted that teenaged immigrants are on the receiving end of racism and discrimination and on a constant basis and this results in their development of "perceptions of the overwhelming influence of race on their lives and life chances that differ from their parents' views. These teens experience being hassled by police and store owners, being turned down for jobs they apply for, and being attacked on the street if they venture into white neighborhoods." (Portes, Fernandez-Kelly and Haller, 2005) the following chart shows the racial identity of children of immigrants in the United States as stated in the work of Portes, Fernandez-Kelly and Haller, (2005) for the year 1996.

Figure 1

The Racial Identity of Children of Immigrants (1996)

Source: Portes, Fernandez-Kelly and Haller (2005)

As shown in the foregoing chart labeled figure the Asian immigrant population is the largest population of children of immigrant parents in the United States followed by Hispanic and Latino, then Mexican followed by white, then multiracial, black and finally the racial group listed as 'other'. Therefore, according to the foregoing chart the Asian immigrant child population represents approximately 32% of the child immigrant population in the United States. As identified in the introduction to this study, the educational attainment of immigrant children is greatly dependent upon the family in terms of resources available and expectations for the immigrant child's academic achievement. The following chart labeled Figure 2 shows… [read more]

Resiliency Despite Poverty Research Proposal

… Resiliency Despite Poverty

This work intends to examine the various ways that children from poverty excel and are resilient in terms of life cognitive development and academics despite their socioeconomic status.

There are some children that despite living in poverty… [read more]

Effects on Children Who Grow Up in Fatherless Homes Research Proposal

… The Negative Implications of the Fatherless Child

The theoretically and empirically argued connection between the
fatherless home and the disadvantaged child is explored to greater depth in
this research endeavor. A surface level literature review will consider
some pieces… [read more]

Creating a Supportive Environment for Young Children With Autism Thesis

… ¶ … Supportive Environment

for Young Children with Autism

Creating a Supportive Environment for Young Children with Autism

"Children with an autism spectrum disorder need to know what is going to happen next"

Marci Wheeler (2003).

For Young Children with… [read more]

Controversial Mass Media Argument Research Proposal

… Children and Television

Violence in American society is a public health problem, according to author W. James Potter, who researched hundreds of existing empirical studies about violence (Potter, 1999, p. 1). Potter claims that "most" of the 2,000 teenagers in a national survey said they had a degree of fear for crime and violence that affects their "everyday behavior" (Potter 1). The author blames the media -- and in particular television -- and asks (Potter 2) "…What strategies can we use to protect children from the negative effects of exposure to violence" on television? This paper reviews current literature relating to several problems connected to excessive television watching by children including: excessive violence; obesity and a lack of fitness; dissatisfaction with one's physical appearance (that can lead to eating disorders); and poor literacy development. The position of this paper is that television is harmful to children in many instances, and that it is up to the parents to take control away from children when it comes to the remote channel changer.

The Literature on Television and Children:

On page 29 of his book, Potter asserts, "…Boys and younger children are more affected" by violence on television; boys "pay more attention to violence" and that may be part of the reason they are affected to a greater degree, he explains. But the fact that younger children have more trouble "following story plots" (in other words, children at a young age have limited attention spans) leads them to "drawn into high-action episodes without considering motives or consequences" (Potter 29). Moreover, children from low-income families and children from minority and immigrant groups are "vulnerable" to the violence because they are "heavy viewers of television" (Potter 29). There are studies that show children living in households where they are abused "watch more violence, and identify more with violent heroes" (Potter 29).

Potter points out (Potter 30) that studies conducted by developmental psychologists have revealed that age 3, children begin watching television "using an exploratory approach" in which they are searching for meaning; and prior to reaching age 5, children are "attracted to and influenced by vivid production features" which of course include violent action (those kinds of features are in many cartoons).

Studying the negative effects of television violence on children is not a new concept; there are published studies dating back to the 1950s on this subject. Researchers were already conducting a great deal of research work in the 1980s. In a 1983 article in the NASSP (National Association of Secondary School Principals) Bulletin the writers claim too much television "retards the language development of viewers who are middle level age and older" (Van Hoose, et al. 1983). Typically, middle level youths begin watching television after school at about 4:30 P.M., the article explains, and while a break is taken for dinner and homework, many youths go back to the tube for several hours. What they watch during those hours are "large doses of violence and sex" (Van Hoose).

Poor fitness and obesity… [read more]

Innovative Treatment Strategies Essay

… Interventions for Delinquent Youth

Are Individual Factors or Family Factors More Important When Creating Interventions for Delinquent Youth?

There are a variety of factors that contribute to delinquency in youths. These factors must first be considered before determining which is more important when creating interventions for delinquent youth -- individual factors or family factors. Individual factors are those characteristics or behaviors that affect an individual's risk of, or resistance to, delinquent behavior. In contrast, family factors typically involve the family's support, culture, structure, and functioning as they affect the behavior of the individual family members ("Risk and protective," 2007). In his study on the factors leading to delinquency for youth, Ek (2008) surmised that the primary individual risk and protective factors associated with delinquency, or prevention thereof, were: coping skills, self-esteem, attitudes toward drug use, attitudes towards antisocial behavior, and commitment to education. Family factors of risk or protection included: parental supervision, parental discipline, parental conflict, and intergenerational or extended-family influences.

Considering the impact of the above listed personal and familial risk factors for delinquency, I would say both are equally important when developing interventions for delinquent youths. Ek's (2008) study demonstrated clusters of respondents who had were lacking in one area, but not the other, and still the result was a higher level of delinquency than the cluster who had protective factors in place in both familial and individual categories. It follows that simply addressing one side of the delinquency equation would not provide the positive result needed to develop an effective delinquency intervention.

The type of intervention I feel is most effective is a multi-pronged approach that not only seeks to address individual and familial factors, but also community, peer, and educational factors as well (Christie & Yell, 2008). An effective delinquency intervention must address the youth's self-esteem needs as well as improving their coping skills. The youth's attitudes towards drugs and antisocial behavior must be altered, as well as their commitment to schooling. With this increased commitment to education must come an educational factor to the intervention program to help facilitate learning for the affected youths. The parents and extended family must be involved, for the intervention to be successful. This includes, but is not limited to, improving parenting skills involving supervision and discipline. Community factors, including: the physical environment, recreational and economic opportunities, and social supports, must be in place to ensure the success of the residents ("Risk and protective," 2007). Additionally, as Leve and Chamberlain (2005) noted "association with delinquent peers is a recognized pre-cursor to continued delinquency" and as such must be a part of an effective delinquency intervention.

Regretfully, there is no singular intervention program that can be applied to delinquent youths. Each program must address the unique needs of the youth in question. In instances where protective community factors are present, then the intervention would not need to be designed with a remedy for this component. An effective intervention for delinquent youth will support the already protective factors in place, while working… [read more]

Teen Drinking Term Paper

… Teen Drinking

It's Friday night, and you're driving slowly down one of the many residential streets in my small hometown. Just a few hours earlier, you would have heard shouts of delight between young children as they scampered in the warm weather, but these children have since been tucked into bed. But the street is not silent, as brothers and sisters of the tucked-in children listen to loud music and laugh in their family's garages. At first, you might smile, thinking back to the parties of your own adolescence, but this is no innocent party, and by the end of the night, end of the week, or end of the year, another one of those laughing teens will be dead.

Alcohol has claimed the lives of more than fourteen students at my small, local high school in the last five years. These were good kids who, only years earlier, had been among the children called inside for bed by their mothers. They wanted to go to college, join the army, become electricians, teachers, congressmen and women, mothers, husbands, fathers, and wives. But they didn't end up in college or the armed services -- they ended up in a box because of judgment impaired by alcohol, and the resulting auto accidents. I like to think that they didn't die in vain, that their deaths serve as a warning and a call to action. From their graves, they plead with us to end our silence, to tell their stories in order to save more lives.

In this small community, filled with families, good students, and an efficient police force, it has been easy to pretend that we don't have a problem. After each death, parents, teachers, and community members have shaken their heads and commented on the tragedy, but at the same time, the entire community has seen teen drinking as a problem for the parents of the one who is dead. In fact, many community members have probably judged those parents. They must have done something wrong, many of us thought. I'm so glad that my child doesn't engage in that kind of behavior. But teen drinking…… [read more]

Sexual Maturation Thesis

… ¶ … Sexual Maturation: The Implications of Early Childhood Sexual Development and Awareness

Gilbert Herdt and Martha Mcclintock (2000) examine that aspect of early sexual maturation following the onset of adrenal puberty, clinically referred to as adrenarche, precipitating the development… [read more]

Teen Pregnancy in Rural U.S Essay

… Vermilion Parish Louisiana and Teen Pregnancy Factors

The statistics coming out of Vermilion Parish, Louisiana, concerning teens living in the Parish who are sexually active and the resultant pregnancy rates should be of concern to Louisiana, and to the rest of America too. Louisiana, and in Vermilion Parish as an example, the rate of teen pregnancy is higher in rural areas than the national averages when compared to urban teen populations (Skatrud, Julia DeClerque, Bennett, Trude, and Loda, Frank, 1998, 21). According to a Kaiser Family Foundation (2006) report, overall teen pregnancies fell in 2000. However, there remains much to be concerned about with teens in rural areas, where the average teen pregnancy rate is 17% higher than it is in urban areas. It raises the question of how to teach teens in urban areas to prevent unwanted teen pregnancies, especially when, as is the case in Louisiana, the school system where the teen builds their social network of social experiences prevents sexual education other than abstinence.

The answer might be to approach the problem from two directions. First, treat the problem not a teen pregnancy problem, or sexual behavioral problem, but as one that is disease related and topic focused. Do not teach the teens about the problems of sexually transmitted diseases, but rather reverse the roles and allow the teens to teach the mentors about how to prevent sexually transmitted diseases. Allow the teens in the groups to act as the non-designated facilitators, and when the question of how to prevent sexually transmitted diseases is put to them, allow them to direct the conversation as to the ways in which the teaching comes from the student, not the instructor or the facilitator.

As educators and health specialists, we take what the teens in the rural areas already know - sexual impulse, and we take their knowledge to have peer-based discussion and let them suggest the many ways to prevent STDs. This is one to have a discussion on the subject…… [read more]

Parent Interview on School Violence Research Proposal

… Parent Interview- School Violence: Project Description

The subjects of this project include two parents who have children in the public school system in urban Los Angeles. Both parents have children attending the same high school, the level at which one… [read more]

Educational Psychology Schools Must Take a Firm Thesis

… Educational Psychology

Schools Must Take a Firm Stand Against Bullying

Bullying in public schools is not a new phenomenon but it is a pervasive and serious problem, and a great deal of research has gone into the psychological aspects of… [read more]

Peer Relationships Among Children Has Gained Attention Research Proposal

… ¶ … peer relationships among children has gained attention and much interest since the 1930s. This is demonstrated by the voluminous studies dealing with the topic, which found the profound effect of acceptance or rejection of a child among his peers on his future emotional well being in later years. These various studies at various points in time corroborate that peer-group rejection takes place alongside with the child's incapacity to adapt to different future situations, as well as in the context of his school environment. These findings positively link children's "school adjustment problems" to acceptance or rejection of experienced by children from their peers (Buhs, Ladd, & Herald, 2006).

The article points to the missing dimension in research on peer relationships among children is the dearth of theorizing concerning the processes that bring about the negative impact of peer rejection to a child's participation in the school environment and achievement. To fill this theoretical gap, attempts have been made by scholars to come up with frameworks to possibly explain the mediating process between peer rejection/acceptance to children's participation and achievement in school. The article cursorily cites the work of seminal work of Coie (1991), which served as the point of reference for the earlier work of Buhs and Ladd, which put forward two intervening agencies to explain the impact of non-acceptance experienced by children from their peers to their academic accomplishment.

Building upon the limitations of the Buhs and Ladd in 2001, the authors set out to deal with the weaknesses of the previous study utilizing "theories of psychological risk, stress, and support" based on earlier works of Dohrenwend & Dohrenwend, Johnson, Ladd & Troop-Gordon. In so doing, the framework argues that a linear relationship exists among peer rejection or acceptance, participation in or withdrawal from the school environment, and achievement. Two major categories were developed and further broken down into the key variables, which the study looked into. Peer acceptance/reception, peer exclusion, and peer abuse make up the category for peer maltreatment while classroom participation and school avoidance were categorized as classroom disengagement. To provide a clearer representation of classroom participation, they further classified it into autonomous and cooperative participation, which also indicated achievement of children.

Instead of supplanting the earlier Buhs-Ladd model, the framework presented by Buhs, Ladd and Herald extensively builds on the previous Buhs-Ladd model and addresses its limitations point by point. Three pillars were used in developing the model which included further refinement of the Buhs-Ladd model, the extension of the time frame within which the study was to be conducted as well as the revision of the assessment plan, and the testing of the assumption that peer maltreatment takes place only after peer rejection. The rigorous process of model development was also presented using the hypothesized model as a reference point. Determining what they call "alternative pathways" to demonstrate the process through which behaviors of aggression or withdrawal as a response to rejection or acceptance can lead to achievement was likewise discussed. The extent… [read more]

Development of Children Essay

… ¶ … Children

The Psychological Affects of Remarriage on Young Children

Understandably, the effects of divorce on children have been long studied by psychologists and others concerned with child welfare. In fact, Jeynes (1998) notes that, "by the end of the 1980s, few researchers questioned the notion that parental divorce had a negative impact on the psychological impact and well being and the scholastic performance of children" (p.25). The subject of the effects of remarriage on children, however, wasnot tested with such voracity because remarriage was generally thought to be beneficial to children, as it was believed to provide stability, another role model, financial benefits, and relief to the single parent (Jeynes 1998, p. 23). These views were furthered by the fact that studies before the 1980s consisted of several inadequacies, including incorrect samples.

Thus, the current body of literature on the topic is widely varied. Some scholars believe that children from remarried families have psychologically and academically worse of than children of biological two-parent families, while a minority of these scholars argue that these factors make little difference. Evidence for both positions exist. Some studies have found…… [read more]

Pre-School Children 2-6 Years of Age Thesis

… Television Exposure in Pre-School Children (2 to 6 Years of Age) and Aggressive Behaviors

Viewing violence on television has a greater impact on boys who are preschool age than it has on girls at the same age and additionally, the… [read more]

Child Hood Memories Thesis

… Childhood Memories

The interviewee chosen for this project grew up in a big family, where she was the third-eldest child out of four children. She has two sisters - one younger and one older - and an older brother. There are fifteen years between the age of the oldest child and the age of the youngest child. All of the children are natural children, born to the mother and father, and there was no adoption present. The family had both a mother and a father present in the home. The mother stayed home and took care of the children and the father worked to provide for the family. He also had some health problems, which stopped him from doing as much with his family as he otherwise might have. Since he was raised in an orphanage, he didn't really know how to interact with a family that well and be that close to them, which was something that was reflected in his affection level for his children and his wife. The mother in the family helped to make up for that, and the interviewee does not harbor ill will toward either parent or her childhood surroundings, at least not outwardly.

The interviewee grew up in Ohio, in a medium-sized town that had a lot to do but wasn't full of the bustle of the big city. The town was close to larger cities, however, and small towns as well, so there were many places to work, to shop, and to attend events for the parents. Despite that, however, the parents were careful with money and did not go to that many places. They were not a rich family, nor were they poor, falling in the lower-middle class range and having all of what they needed and some of what they wanted. The family went to church, made friends with the neighbors, and did the 'normal' things that one assumes a functioning family actually does. There was some animosity between siblings, as is expected, but no more than the usual family squabbles were present.

The interviewee states that her parents were well-prepared for her birth. By the time she came along they had already had a girl and a boy who would have been six and two at the time of her birth, so they had baby clothes and items, and the mother had a good understanding of what childbirth and childrearing was going to be like. The interviewee's parents did not have a set number of children that they were trying or not trying to have, so the pregnancy was neither deliberately planned nor an accident that was unwanted. The interviewee arrived basically on time, within just a few days of the due date, and did not have any health complications. She weighed 7.5 pounds and was 19.5 inches long at birth. She was a healthy, normal term, normal weight baby, as were all of her siblings. She was the first baby born in the hospital to the family, as… [read more]

Child Developing Psychology Research Proposal

… ¶ … Naturalistic Observations

The advantages of naturalistic observations are that they require researchers to draw their theories from 'real life' and the fact that empirical data can often challenge conventional wisdom. For example, anecdotal observations of children at play may defy gender stereotypes more than previous research suggests. There are exceptions to every rule. On the other hand, appearances may deceive or create impressions of false causality. The emotional biases or expectations of the researcher can also impede objectivity

What are the three main purposes of a theory?

Theories can provide clarity and illustrate consistency to enable better cognitive functioning on the part of observers. Theories can describe a phenomenon with relative accuracy and predict future phenomenon.

Chapter 3

What factors determine whether an at-risk couple should have children?

The degree to which the risk is likely to occur (a slim vs. A highly likely eventuality), the nature of the risk (whether the condition is mild and treatable or life-threatening and incapacitating), and the ability of the couple to realistically anticipate and cope with the challenges of raising a child with special needs are all determining factors as to whether a couple should proceed with an at-risk pregnancy. Finally, the risk to the mother should also be evaluated, as well as her ability to realistically gauge her personal risk should complications occur over the course of her pregnancy.

Chapter 4

What do you think about laws that would prevent pregnant women from taking recreational drugs, such as alcohol, cocaine, or marijuana or even smoking?

It is absurd to attempt to legally force a woman to have a perfect pregnancy because it cannot be done without infringing upon a woman's individual liberties. First of all, to place special regulations upon women regarding cocaine and marijuana is unnecessary, as these substances are illegal for all individuals, not simply pregnant women. Secondly, although it is certainly better for a pregnant woman not to smoke or drink, a free society must exhibit some degree of trust that its citizens can make good decisions. Even if this is not always the case, the fact people make bad decisions at times is inevitable, and while a potential child's eventual health and well-being may be at stake, to take that argument to its logical extent would be to say that the state could regulate pregnant women's diet and activity, in the interest of the developing fetus' health.

Chapter 5

Describe what you found most interesting in this chapter and why?

Often the 'nature vs. nurture' is reduced to an 'either or' equation by the media. This chapter illustrated that nature and nurture go hand-in-hand. It is well-known that someone may have a biological tendency to develop alcoholism,…… [read more]

Art Therapy With Children Experiencing Grief Research Proposal

… Art Therapy With Children Experiencing Grief

This work seeks to answer the question of: "What is the effectiveness of art therapy with children that are experiencing grief?

Art therapy is a form of therapy that was first utilized by the… [read more]

Parents Magazine ) Term Paper

… Every Toddler is Unique

Some children may have more difficulty socializing with their peer group, and although it can be painful for parents to let their children go for even a few hours to a place where a child may… [read more]

Erikson: Stages of Development Term Paper

… Erik Erikson: Stages of Development

Erik Erikson's psychosocial theory of social development views the development of the human personality as transpiring over a series of developmental stages, much in the way of Freud, whose study of human sexual development and the family romance of the Oedipal complex dominated the field of human psychology in Erikson's era. However, rather than concentrating solely on the development of the individual's sexual identity and development, Erikson instead focused on the different stresses different junctures of the lifecycle present for the individual. Erikson was highly influenced by his work in anthropology, particularly his studies of the society of the Sioux Indians. Erikson is often categorized as a neo-Freudian or a functionalist, in the sense that he is interested in the type of function people play in their respective societies ("Erik Homburg Erikson," 2008). Erikson acknowledged that culture and society shape our personality just as much as our families and our inner conflicts are the product of social as well as personal forces (Cramer, et al., "Erik Erikson," 1997).

Contributions to the field of psychology of personality

Erikson's major contribution is his idea that human beings do not wrestle continuously with conflicts with one, singular basis (sexuality) but that internal conflicts change as our role in society changes. He was one of the first major architects of a theory of personality to place personality in a social and cultural light, rather than to study man or woman as merely a personal, isolate product of family turmoil. His views of human personality still resonate and echo in developmental theory today, even if they are no longer taken as absolute.

Erikson's first stage, the Oral-Sensory stage, is when an infant strives to form his or her first loving, trusting relationship with a primary caregiver, usually a mother -- or develops a sense of mistrust with that caregiver. The stage revolves around feeding and security and mother's withdrawal or offering of her breast (or bottle) (Cramer, 1997, "Introduction to Stages"). Erikson thus took Freud's Oral Stage of sucking and polymorphous erotic sensuality and rendered it into a social conflict between mother and child.

The Muscular Anal Stage, echoing Freud's 'toilet training' Anal Phase, is defined by Erikson as a crisis of autonomy vs. shame and doubt, whereby the child's energies are directed toward the development of physical skills. Erikson included walking and grasping as well as toilet training in this phase, noting that the crucial conflict was really that of control and mastery. The goal must be for the child to attain a sense of control without learning shame about his or her natural physical developments and needs. This is followed by a stage not inspired by Freud, the Locomotor Stage which posits a conflict between initiative vs. guilt, and the child's need for independence (i.e. 'the terrible twos,' where every parental request is met with a 'no!'). The child must be allowed to continue to become more assertive and to take more initiative, but not be too forceful… [read more]

California Crip Gang Crips Term Paper

… California Crip Gang

Crips in California

From Watts to Compton [...] to South Central [...] to the Avalon Franklin Fushed Town and Front Street Atlantic Drive, Kelly Park, we still serve heats [...] and we got beef till we die,… [read more]

Cognitive Development Term Paper

… Cognitive Development

The objective of this work is to compare and contrast Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development and Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory of Development. Additionally this work will provide specific examples of how teachers can incorporate each of these theories in the classroom."

To Jean Piaget, the most vital element in the individual development of cognition of a child was based on interacting among his own peers and that this interaction results in conflict on the cognitive level. Piaget held that children were not as challenged in their interactions with those considered their peers, as they would be when among adults. Vygotsky's assertion was that a child learns best among peers who are more skilled which provides the child with a scaffold comprised of intellect and experience and through this; the child is able to complete tasks much more complex than they would be capable of on their own. DeVries (nd) writes in the work entitled: "Vygotsky, Piaget, and Education: A Reciprocal Assimilation of Theories and Educational Practices" which incidentally is a comparison of Vygotsky and Piaget, that she was for quite a long time "unable to see Vygotsky as a constructivist." She relates that those who have read Vygotsky in Russian challenge this and state that he certainly is a constructivist and states that evidence supporting that Vygotsky is indeed a constructivist "comes principally from his theory of the dialectic." (DeVries, nd Otherwise DeVries states that Vygotsky sounded like Piaget in the statement of:

any new form of cultural experience does not simply come from outside independently of the state of the organism at a given point of development. The fact is that the organism that is mastering external influences masters a number of forms of behavior or assimilates these forms depending on its level of mental development...these external materials are reprocessed and assimilated in the organism." (1981; 169)


Piaget stated: "To know an object or a happening is to make use of it by assimilation into an action schema. Human beings know the world in selective ways - if a stimulus cannot be incorporated into an action schema, it will remain outside the domain of knowledge."

It can be understood then that a child constructs knowledge in a process that is active. From this view as the child internalizes the actions they become ideas and are neither completely mental nor completely cultural but are ideas that spring from the interaction of the child with the world around them. Piaget views the child as moving through specific stages. The first stage is the stages referred to as reflexes stage from birth to six weeks of age. The second stage if the stage in which the child is six weeks to four months of age when the child acquires habits suck as thumb-sucking. The third stage is from age four months to age 8 months in which the child learns that he can affect his environment. The fourth stage is age 9 to 12 months in… [read more]

Child Abuse and Neglect Are the Child Protection Services Protecting Our Children Term Paper

… ¶ … child abuse from all angles to try to understand what we as a society may be doing wrong, and also what we may be doing right to help the young victims of child abuse. What part does the… [read more]

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