Study "Child Development / Youth / Teens" Essays 56-110

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Evidence Between Infants and Toddlers: Review Research Paper

… ¶ … Evidence Between Infants and Toddlers:

Review of Research and Proposal for Research

Research involving very young children and their knowledge of visual events that are physically impossible vs. possible has been thus far contradictory. While a series of tests involving searching for a hidden object have revealed that infants can determine which events are physically impossible and which are not, and have a knowledge of the properties of physical objects including solidity and continuity, a series of similar tests with toddlers ages 2-3 suggested a lack of knowledge concerning these properties. The apparent contradiction of these tests have significant implications for child psychology and development if, indeed, legitimate. A review of the studies concerning the topic and research proposal will allow further studies to be conducted into the matter.

In Renee Baillargeon and Julie DeVos' 1991 study, the researchers found that four and a half and three and a half-month-old babies recognized that "objects continued to exist when hidden" (1227). Studies were conducted using a carrot sliding along a track, and infant's reaction to the carrot's disappearing behind a screen were gauged. The young infants recognized that a tall carrot should have appeared in the screen while sliding along a track, using their facial expressions and the length of time stared at the screen to suggest their surprise, and therefore, their understanding of the carrot's height and the fact that it still existed, even when it could not be seen (1991, 1227). This experiment, and others involving toys and screens suggest that the young infants concluded that objects existed even when not visible. The test, which had produced similar results in infants of older ages, suggested that even the youngest infants had knowledge of this event.

In a similar study conducted by Baillargeon and Adrea Aguiar, eight and a half month old infants successfully demonstrated their understanding width. In a test similar to the continuality and permanence test, infants in a control group were shown two containers and a small ball attached to a stick. The containers were then placed behind a screen, and then revealed with the ball's stick protruding from them. Infants in this control group looked at the containers for equal amounts of time, while infants in another group, to whom the same scenario was introduced with the exception that one of the containers was too small to hold the ball, looked at the improbably situation longer, suggesting they understood its meaning (1998, 636).

Most significantly and strangely, however, two-year-old toddlers seemed to loose these skills. In fact, a 2000 study of the phenomenon revealed that toddlers consistently failed experiments that were modified from the infant "looking-time" experiments detailed in the previous two articles. In these…… [read more]

Parenting Style and Culture Affects Term Paper

… Studies reveal that there are instances when too strict values/discipline brought to a child can negatively influence the child's behavior. There are cases on such situation where a child develops rebellious attitude as a yield against the stringent rules that his parent carry to him. However, there are also cases where strict values and discipline results to a really disciplined child. Scramella and Leve (2004) suggests that

Consistent with existing theory, the quality of parent -- child interactions during early childhood affects children's social relationships and behavioral adjustment during middle childhood and adolescence. Harsh parenting and a propensity toward emotional overarousal interact very early in life to affect risk for later conduct problems.

There are other several researches and studies that reveal how parenting styles and culture influences the development of a child. In fact, it is a common sense that during the early development of a child, the behavior and attitude that the child sees from his parents who play as his caregivers are what he will use as basis of his behavior. Moreover, it is another fact that the first teachers of a child are his parents. As much as how school, peers, and environment may influence a child's development, the more that parenting style can because it is at home with his parents or caregivers that a child generally spends his real self. Similarly, it is at home with the nurturing of parents that the real personality of a child is being developed; unlike with peers or other environment where a child may just exhibit temporary behavior and attitude.


Azar, Beth. How Do Parents Matter? Let us Count the Ways.

2000. American Psychological Association Online.

Scramella, Laura V., Leve, Leslie D. Clarifying Parent-Child Reciprocities During Early Childhood: The Early Childhood Coercion Model.

Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 2004, Vol. 7. Issue 2,…… [read more]

Louise Kaplan Parenting Term Paper

… Kim's difficulty was not felt by Claire, now in her 50s and mother of six. Claire was the 'typical mother,' devoting her time to her children, considering motherhood as profession enough for her. Thus, she did not pursue a career, for she felt that there is no greater career or profession more worthy for an individual than parenting (and in women's case, motherhood).

These differences in the beliefs that the two women have is a manifestation of the effect that social forces had on postmodern society. Claire lived in a period wherein female stereotypes prevailed and remained unchallenged. This, apparently, had a good effect on her being a parent, because she did not experience a conflict between maintaining her personal and family careers. Kim, influenced by the postmodern mentality as she pursued a higher level of education and became immersed in corporate life, now experiences inefficiency as a mother despite her success as an accountant. If Kim devotes her time to mothering, she would feel 'incomplete' as an individual who lacks personal development; however, if she decides to devote herself to corporate life, her relationship with her family would be inevitably strained. This was the dilemma that Kaplan talked about in her book: society cultivates the reality that "the modern mother is deprived of her rightful experience of mothering." Not surprisingly, this is the reality that most women face at present, resulting to an unhealthy child and, later on, individual, development.… [read more]

Child Poverty Effects Crime Rates Capstone Project

… This fierce competition within the industry requires the professionals to be more skillful and competent than ever. In this race, the people with the lowest income group fall behind other because they did not got the opportunity to attain education… [read more]

Spirituality in Young Children's Temperament Literature Review

… ..enters a concrete stage; children associate religious identity with particular forms of behavior, kinship or dress, and prayer with specific concrete activities. They also interpret Bible stories concretely depicting God as a man or a power threatening specific action, often in response to specific transgression. (Gottlieb, 2006, p. 244 cited in: Grajczonek, nd, p. 14) This study contributes to the present study in the information provided about children's interpretation of their interactions with God.

The work of Geisenberg (2007) reports a study in which lasted 12 months and in which 56 children between the ages of three and seven years of age were observed and findings stated that "young children live in their spirituality and that young children are very aware of their surroundings and able to express abstract concepts such as love, beauty, wonder and compassion" and that the spirituality of young children is different from that of adults in that young children "to express a relationship with a transcendent being" and that spirituality "may be innate as described by Montessori (1949), Hegel (1807) and Descartes (in Luna & Vygotsky, 1998) This work contributes to the study through the provision of a different and even opposing view about the development of spirituality in children.

The work of Rose, a Jewish Rabbi (nd) relates that in view of the Jewish religion parents and the community have an obligations to "not only the obligation to provide children with strong religio-ethical identities and values for life, but that to do so is in fact as much our obligation to ourselves as well as to posterity. It is a reflection of our on values and commitments. This study contributes to the present study through its provision of information about the roles of adults in the development of the child's spirituality according to Jewish belief.


Giesenberg, A. (2007) The Phenomenon of Preschool Children's Spirituality. Retrieved from:

Fowler, J. (1981). Stages of faith: The psychology of human development and the quest for meaning. Blackburn: Dove Communications.

Gottlieb, E. (2006). Development of religious thinking. Religious Education, 101(2), 242-260.

Roehlkepartain, EC (2006) The Handbook of Spiritual Development in Childhood and Adolescence. SAGE. Retrieved from: 6 LfkC&dq=Roehlkepartain,+ E.+C.+(2006).+The+handbook+of+spiritual+developm ent+in+childhood+and+adolescence.&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Grajczonek, J. (2006) Spiritual Development and Religious Education in the Early Years: A Review of the Literature. A Project Conducted for the Queensland Catholic Education Commission. Retrieved from: / Education/Final_Spiritual%20Development%20%20Religious%20Education%20in%20the%20Early%20Years_A%20Review%20of%20the%20Literature.pdf

Rosen, D. (nd) The Rights of the Child -- Jewish Perspectives. Retrieved from: 25&cad=rja&ved=0CEoQFjAEOBQ& YHIDg&usg=AF QjCNFkVoGfcRJpQMM3bpix9LPimhWK4w&sig2=0vXwwCIemlgD4MXbLtJf3g&bvm=bv.61535280,d.aWc… [read more]

Parenting Education for Teen Mothers Capstone Project

… Multi-purpose programs

Most of the parenting education intervention programs are aimed at developing parent-infant interaction, multi-purpose services such as stress management, parenting skills development, and supportive child care. Most of the studies being reviewed by the researchers were observed to… [read more]

Children Spiritual Development Rationale Essay

… That specifically is the area of exploration in this study and the questions examined relate to the impact of the church congregation on the child's spiritual development and whether that impact results in a higher level of spiritual development for the child. In other words, it would appear to be reasonable to believe that the church congregation has the potential to impact the child's development of spirituality in a manner that would 'culturally' affect the child rendering the child's in their development of a higher level of spiritual understanding about themselves and the world around them. This work examines how that impact and effect in the life of the child develops their ability to make choices that are more spiritually informed and that are based in spiritual principles and ultimately resulting in a value system that is guided by ethics,. Morality and spiritual-based principles and beliefs. Hitler is known to have stated that if someone gave a child to him until the age of six that the child would be his forever. This speaks to the importance of the early years influences on the life of the child in terms of their life trajectory and the principles and beliefs that once impressed upon child serves to guide them throughout their life's course. This also highlights the importance and critical role that the church congregation plays in influencing not only the spiritual development of the child but the entire life course of the child.


Jent, GA (nd) When Can a Person, Especially a Child, Have a Genuine Conversion Experience? Retrieved from:… [read more]

Ecological System's Theory Research Paper

… Ecological Systems Theory


Urie Bronfenbrenner was a Russian who migrated to America with his parents when he was only 6 years old (Yorganop, 2013). He studied music and psychology and achieved prominence for his work in child… [read more]

Decision Making, Impulse Control Essay

… In many cases, risk taking is a result of competition between the cognitive system and socio-emotional network (National Center for Juvenile Justice, 2013). At teenage years, the socio-emotional system is stronger and assertive than the cognitive system. Teenagers have the… [read more]

Child Abuse You Are an Experienced Protective Essay

… Child Abuse

You are an experienced protective services social worker. You have just been assigned a new case to investigate as a result of an abuse report. Your first task is to do a home visit to begin the assessment.… [read more]

Male Child Cognitive Development Thesis

… Male Child Cognitive Development

The objective of this work is to describe, compare and contrast the negative effects of media containing violence, including news, movies, cartoons and internet on the male child between the age of six to puberty and… [read more]

Adolescent Growth and Development Term Paper

… Adolescent Growth and Development

Huebner, Angela. (2000, Mar). Adolescent Growth and Development. 350-850.

Angela Huebner's article "Adolescent Growth and Development" provides a basic overview of the physical and psychological challenges presented by puberty for the adolescent and for individuals in charge of teaching and mentoring the adolescent, like teachers and parents. Huebner provides important reminders that some of the frustrating aspects of adolescence (from the point-of-view of an adult) like an increased demand for sleep, clumsiness, and moodiness have their roots in physical causes, and are normal, not the result of laziness or deliberate defiance on the part of the teen. However, the author does also warn of abnormal development that can occur as the result of the inner turmoil caused by adolescent biological changes, like eating disorders.

Perhaps the most interesting aspect of Huebner's article is the profound respect she shows for the unique developmental stage of adolescence and the unique learning opportunities it presents adolescents to learn lessons they can carry into adulthood. For example, her article highlights the cause-oriented focus…… [read more]

Video Assessment the 18-Month-Old Child Essay

… His happiness in play and in task fulfillment is something that should also be noted in assessments both as a means of ensuring appropriate perspective in such assessments and as a means of creating positive communication with parents and others who read the assessment (Wortham, 2008; Colorado Department of Education, "Finley's Parent Teacher Conference, n.d.). Sharing information about the observed emotionality of a child is important in caregiving relationships due to the lack of direct parental involvement of parents in many activities, as well, though it is clear the child in the video is capable of making strong emotional bonds and has one with the adult in the video (again, presumably though not certainly his mother).

Learning Activities

Though nothing in the video suggests anything abnormal for a child of 18 months, activities to promote faster recall, better coordination, and improved language use can be recommended. Using an assessment to guide instruction must be done with care, however, and is especially ill-advised when using only a single source of observation and assessment (Wortham, 2008). Keeping this caveat in mind, however, the parents can be suggested to read more frequently with him, asking questions about the story and the pictures in the book, engaging him with language and the learning and recall of facts as much as possible. Improving coordination can be encouraged with certain toys that require specific manipulations, such as holes through which blocks can only be passed when turned the right way and/or are the right shape.


Additional observation sessions such as this one, viewed independently by other assessors, would be the primary source of further data recommended here. Standardized testing for an 18-month-old is imprecise at best and entirely impossible at worst, and thus would not be recommended, therefore informal assessment is required (Wortham, 2008). This is best accomplished through prompted play such as is seen in this video. More complex activities and of course more variation over a longer period, including toys or pictures that involve colors or different shapes, would also be used to test current knowledge and cognitive abilities.


Colorado Department of Education. (n.d.) Finley's Parent Teacher Conference. [Video file]. Retrieved from

Colorado Department of Education. (n.d.) Sharing Documentation with Families. [Video file]. Retrieved from

Wortham, S. (2008). Assessment in Early Childhood Education. Merril Prentice Hall.… [read more]

Adolescent Sex Offenders: Early Development Article Review

… " (Rowe, 1991)

The work of Groth and Loredo (1981) hold that the clinical assessment process must necessarily differentiated among three types of sexual behavior stated as follows:

(1) normative sexual activity that is situationally determined;

(2) inappropriate solitary sexual… [read more]

Counseling Be Mandatory for Teen Parents? Essay


Should parenting skills/counseling be mandatory for teen parents?

Teen parents are an issue that has been on the slow rise after falling for several years. In the U.S. alone, there are an… [read more]

Interpret Criteria for Child and Adolescent Development Research Paper

… ¶ … Child and adolescent development process is made up of about thirteen years. An inclusion the infancy and toddler stages make it eighteen years. Through these years, the child grows as well as develops in a number of ways.… [read more]

Child Language Development Essay

… Child Language Development

Experts agree that language formation, like many aspects of child development, is consistent with the classic "Nature through Nurture" theory. That is, all children have an in-built biological capacity to learn language within the context of environment.… [read more]

Personal Theory of Child and Adolescent Development Term Paper

… Lifespan Development Theory

Personal Theory of Child and Adolescent Development

The Expectation Theory

This paper presents an examination of the child and adolescent life span development theory Expectation Development Theory. The theory is developed by the writer using the character… [read more]

Child Sexual Abuse Term Paper

… ¶ … sexual abuse of children is among the most heinous crimes that exist. Such a crime not only affects the child at the time the abuse occurs but also well into the future. For the purposes of this discussion… [read more]

Raising Well-Socialized Children Term Paper

… Other studies have demonstrated that harsh parenting skills tend to be passed on from generation to generation within families (Conger, 2003) and that these entrenched family behaviors tend to contribute to antisocial, aggressive behavior in the children of those families.… [read more]

Unstructured Play and Child's Development Research Paper

… This requires a review of the current child education curriculum to incorporate effectively the child development needs putting too much emphasis on educational needs. The policy on child education needs to enforce the need for the child's exposure to unstructured play and come up with advocacy programs. The advocacy programs should target to enlighten parents and school administrators and child caregivers on the need and benefits for unstructured out-door child play.

Community leaders and policy makers should take up initiative to set aside community playgrounds amidst the growing scarcity land areas due to developments in housing. The policy makers and the community leaders should also take up measures that will guarantee safety within these grounds for children to utilize them. The need to encourage parents and schools to utilize these facilities should also be on the forefront to see to effective child development measures. During public and school holidays schools should be encouraged to keep the school grounds open for all the children in the community. For a more comprehensive utilization of the community and school grounds, further security measures incorporating presence of a first aid caregiver and child caregivers is needful.


Barros, R.M., Silver, E.J., & Stein, R.E. (2009). School recess and group classroom behavior. Pediatrics, 123(2), 431-436.

Campbell, K.J., & Hesketh, K.D. (2007). Strategies which aim to positively impact on weight, physical activity, diet and sedentary behaviours in children from zero to five years. A systematic review of the literature. . Obes Rev., 8(4), 327-338.

Cleland, V., & Venn, A. (2010). Encouraging physical activity and discouraging sedentary behavior in children and adolescents. J Adolescent Health, 47(3), 221-222.

Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness, & Council on School Health. (2006). Active healthy living: prevention of childhood obesity through increased physical activity. Pediatrics, 117(5), 1834-1842.

Frost, J.L., & Norquist, T. (2007). The importance of play: International Playground Equipment Manufacturers Association (IPEMA). Recreation Management Magazine: Association Guest Column.

Miller, E., & Almon, J. (2009). Crisis in the Kindergarten: Why Children Need to Play in School. . College Park: Alliance for Childhood.

Mowan, A.J. (2010). Parks, Playgrounds, and Active Living; Active Living Research. San Diego, CA: Robert Wood Johnson.

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2010). The State of Play -- Gallup Survey of Principals and School Recess. Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

Scott. D., & Munson. W. (1994). Perceived constraints to park usage…… [read more]

Influences on Social Cognition in Children and Adolescents Research Paper

… Thus, how children think and relate to others is heavily influenced by their parents over a number of different factors from parental warmth to the overall style of parenting. Moreover, early attitude formation regarding one's expectations of others, stereotyping, one's… [read more]

Cognitive, Social, and Emotional Developmental Theories Term Paper

… Anna can also be assisted by joining group therapy sessions with people suffering from the same ailment. This will aid her open up and share her issues with people suffering from the same. She will also learn how these people deal with their issues and embrace those practices. Increasing her self-esteem will also go a long way in making her a responsible parent and adult. Anna needs to know how to value, love and accept herself thus making her feel good about herself (Shaffer, 2009).

Anna also needs to undergo parental training. Parents play a crucial part in the overall development of their children. Once Anna has learnt how to accept and love herself, she must train herself how to raise her child appropriately. Spiritual leaders often offer a good platform in which parents can learn how to raise their children. By attending a church conference on parenting, Anna will learn exactly how to care for her child. In addition, parental forums that are often organized at the community or local level may also help Anna become a responsible adult.

The overall development of children is essential to the society. Childhood development often affects how a person interacts with other people. For instance, children from abusive families tend to be violent or timid adults. Various scholars such as Piaget and Sigmund Feud have advanced various theories aimed at understanding how people interact with others. Piaget's cognitive theory can be used to understand how she interacts with Jojo. As discussed above, Anna's childhood development has largely affected her adulthood. For instance, Anna has some parenting issues as she neglects Jojo and suffers from suicidal ideations and depression. It is also vital to counsel her to love and appreciate herself to help shape her into a responsible adult and parent.


Shaffer, D.R. (2009). Social and personality development…… [read more]

Interplay of Influences and Development Essay

… Interplay Of Influences and Development in Early Childhood

Reading the International Play Association's article entitled "Promoting the child's right to play" provided a good deal of insight of the role that play facilitated within my own childhood development, especially since there are so many variations of the importance ascribed to this phenomenon (Lester and Russell, 2010, p. 7). This article is intriguing because it provides a history and the overall objectives of an organization which recognizes the fact that play is not just a need, but a right of children (Fronczek, 2004). The article entails the fact that this organization (the International Play Association) was formed in Scandinavia in the years preceding World War II. It was initially created to address the fact that there are barriers to play -- which are always increasing. It quickly spread throughout the rest of the world and includes not only nationwide conferences but the publication of a journal and a website. Additionally, some of the crucial tenets of this organization are included in the United Nations of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which includes the fact that playing allows children a means of cultural and artistic expression that is vital to their development. Today, the organization exists to continuously address barriers to playing and enabling children to contextualize the world around them.

There is one extremely salient point in this article that deepens my understanding g of the value of play in the life of a child -- and which inherently impacts the way in which that child grows up and matures. Playing, whether indoors or outdoors, is a means by which children can fuse their imagination with their physical surroundings and envision an ideal setting in which they can live. The subsequent quotation from the aforementioned IPA article alludes to this fact, "play is not only about providing safe playgrounds for children. It is fundamentally about protecting their right to be free to explore and discover the physical and social world around them (Fronczek, 2004).

Therefore, this perspective helps me to understand that some of the ideas which I explored while playing with others has significantly affected my own development -- first as a child and now as an adult. I engaged in several different varieties of playing when I was…… [read more]

Rising Poverty in the Nation Research Proposal

… They are also at risk for food insecurity, which can result in malnutrition and hunger, but also in obesity because of the type of binge-eating that frequently accompanies food insecurity (APA, 2013).

Furthermore, poverty has both direct and indirect impacts on children. For example, hunger is linked to poor performance in school, which is a direct effect of poverty. However, impoverished parents also lack many non-financial resources that parents in more affluent homes may have. For example, they probably lack the same basic education as parents from affluent homes and may be unable to help children with homework. Being impoverished makes them more likely to work odd-hours or multiple shifts, meaning that they do not have time to spend with their children (Vasagar, 2012). Finally, being impoverished means that they are stressed out, and, quite simply not at their best for their children.

At the most extreme end of poverty, children not only lack basic resources but may even be homeless. In fact, the recession and the related foreclosures resulted in tremendous numbers of students being homeless. "One million homeless children and youth were enrolled in U.S. schools in 2009. Experts estimate that as many as half a million more went uncounted because they weren't enrolled in school" (Salopek, 2010). There are many different varieties of homeless. Some homeless children are living with friends or relatives, so that, while they lack a home of their own, they still have the stability of knowing where they will stay at night. Other children are living in shelters, which, while it provides shelter can be very disruptive to the family unit and lacks the privacy and warmth of a home. Finally, some children lack shelter of any sort and are living on the street, sometimes with family unites, and sometimes on their own.


American Psychological Association. (2013). Effects of poverty, hunger, and homelessness on children and youth. Retrieved October 2, 2013 from:

Engle, P. & Black, M. (2008). The effect of poverty on child development and educational outcomes. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1136, 243-256. Retrieved October 2, 2013 from Digital Commons website:

Salopek, J. (2010). Homelessness: Creating a welcoming classroom for homeless students.

Association for Staff and Curriculum Development, 52(6).

Sum, A. (2011, September 29, 2011). The impact of rising poverty on the nation's young families and their children, 2000-2010. Retrieved October 2, 2013 from The Children's Defense Fund website:

Vasagar, J. (2012, June 12). Poverty has two-fold impact on children's ability, says study.…… [read more]

Advertisements Around Dolls That Promote Consumerism Research Paper

… ¶ … Advertising Is to Make the Consumer Pathologically Inclined to Consume Your Product

As such, marketers use all means possible to get products and services flowing in the market. While marketing their brands, manufacturers of children toys use the… [read more]

Identity Formation as Multidimensional Concept Term Paper

… Identity Formation as Multidimensional Concept

The immigration adaptation of the children globally emphasizes on the significance of age at arrival, location of schooling, language acquisition. The research will focus on the timing and context of the parental migration associates with… [read more]

Fine Motor Skill Development Research Paper

… Conclusion

In short, fine motor skills come after the development of gross motor skills and they are important to help children write, dress, eat and function independently as they grow. The development of these fine motor skills can be done using a range of activities, especially to help those children who lag behind. Parents, teachers and caregivers who work with young children should know what to look in terms of fine motor skill development milestone and what they should do to improve this important skill in children.


Smith, Jodene. (2003). Activities for Fine Motor Skills Development Grd PreK-1. Westminster, CA: Teacher Created Resources.

No author. (2011). Fine motor control. Medline Plus. Retrieved from:

Curtis, Kathleen; Newman, Peggy. (2005). The PTA Handbook: Keys to Success in School and Career for the Physical Therapist Assistant. New Jersey: Slack Incorporated.

Charlesworth, Rosalind. (2010). Understanding Child Development. Mason, OH: South-western Cengage Learning.

Roger, Stewart; Audrey, Rule; Giordano, Debra. (Oct 2007). The Effect of Fine Motor Skill on Kindergarten Student Attention. Early Childhood Education Journal. Vol 35(2). pp 103-109.

Roger, Stewart; Audrey, Rule; (Sep 2002). Effect of Practical Life Materials on Kindergartners Fine Motor Skills. Early Childhood Education Journal. Vol 30(1). pp 9-13.

Gargiulo, Richard; Kilgo, Jennifer. (2010). An Introduction to Young Children with Special Needs. Independence, KY: Cengage Learning.

Woodfield, Lynda. (2004). Physical Development in the Early Years. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Daly, Christopher; Kelley, Gail; Krauss, Andrea. (2003). Relationship Between Visual-motor Integration and Handwriting Skills of Children in Kindergarten. American Occupational Therapy Association. Vol 67 (2).

Isbell, Christy. (2010). Everyday Play: Fun Games…… [read more]

Child and Elder Abuse Essay

… However, he later on admitted that he had indeed molested the victim. The accused claimed that he chose to take advantage of the old lady as he was fully aware she was blind and therefore couldn't identify him. Hall in the words of Hollingsworth (2013) "was charged with sexual battery and lewd and lascivious battery on an elderly person."

Forms of Abuse Involved in the Cases Above and their Impact on Victims

In the very first case (i.e. case 1), the form of abuse is child neglect. Neglect in the words of Starr and Wolfe (1991) "is the failure to provide basic necessities for the child that may or does result in damage to the physical, emotional, or intellectual development and well-being of the child." Clearly, Skinner's failure to provide the toddler with necessities regarded basic borders on child neglect. Already, there is evidence to demonstrate that Skinner failed to provide the toddler with basic needs including but not limited to a decent shelter. At the time of rescue, the baby was also in dire need of medical attention. Skinner failed to ensure that the child was attended to by competent medical personnel. As a result of the said neglect, the baby's physical as well as emotional well-being could have been injured.

The second case (i.e. case 2) can be seen as an instance of sexual assault. Sexual assault takes place when an individual is coerced to engage in an act of a sexual nature against his or her will. Sexual assault could be painful and even traumatizing. In the aforementioned case, Hill committed a sexual act on the unnamed lady against her will. Sexual assault does have a negative impact on survivors. In addition to causing actual physical harm, sexual assault could lead to severe feelings of stress or anxiety. For instance, in our case, the 90-year-old victim reportedly experienced what she called burning urination after the incident. This was the physical consequence of the unfortunate act. Following the incident, the old woman may have experienced significant anxiety as a result of stress and fear.


In my opinion, no effort should be spared in seeking to bring down the rate of child as well as elder abuse. This is more so the case given the impact such offenses have on victims. One of the approaches that could be introduced to rein in child and elder abuse is the introduction of more punitive prison sentences for offenders. This could act as a deterrent.


Hollingsworth, H. (2013, February 12). David and Pamela Martin Charged With Child Abuse for Allegedly Handcuffing Teen to Pole. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from the Huffington Post website:

Rojas, J. (2013, February 15). Citrus County Woman Charged With Severely Abusing Toddler. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from Bay News website:

Starr, R. & Wolfe, D.A. (Eds.). (1991). The Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect: Issues and Research. New York, NY: Guilford Press.… [read more]

Abused and Neglected Children Term Paper

… Abused and Neglected Children

An estimated 3.3 million children in the United States are referred to the children protective services, on suspicion of maltreatment in 2009, with 700,000 being confirmed victims of maltreatment. To the Federal Child Abuse Prevention and… [read more]

Socio Political and Economic Situation of Youth in Antigua and Barbuda Essay

… Antigua

Socio-Political and Economic Situation of Youth in Antigua and Barbuda: An Examination of Literature and Statistics

The following situational analysis examines the issues related to youths in Antigua and Barbuda from economic and sociopolitical perspectives, identifying risks and opportunities… [read more]

Positive Influence of Peer and Parent Interaction on Social Cognition Development During Infancy to Adolescence Term Paper

… Positive Influence of Peer and Parent Interaction on Social-Cognition Development during Infancy to Adolescence


Early Childhood

Middle Childhood


The nature and characteristics evidently expresses the man as a social animal, which signifies that interaction with others is one… [read more]

Parenting Styles and Their Effect Research Paper

… It is commonly practiced on the part of the parents that they change their parenting habits with time. Few parents are more rigid with elder children and less rigid with younger ones. Hence, the time period, changes in culture and… [read more]

Childhood Development Cognitive Behavioral Analysis Case Study

… For example, when engaging in 'kitchen play,' the child often ignored the needs of her playmates. When she was pretending to 'cook' the plastic food and then give it to the adults, she did not ask her playmates, who were… [read more]

Child Abuse This Research Investigates Article Review

… American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 18, 151 -- 158.

Berenson, A.B., Wiemann, C.M., & McCombs, S. (2001). Exposure to violence and associated health-risk behaviors among adolescent girls. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 155, 1238 -- 1242.

Briere, J. (1996). A self-trauma model for treating adult survivors of severechild abuse. In J. Briere, L. Berliner, J.A. Bulkley, C. Jenny, & T. Reid (Eds.), The APSAC handbook on child maltreatment (pp. 175 -- 203). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Dube, S.R., Felitti, V.J., Dong, M., Giles, W.H., & Anda, R.F. (2003). The impact of adverse childhood experiences on health problems: Evidence from four birth cohorts dating back to 1900. Preventive Medicine, 37, 268 -- 277.

Rodgers, C.S., Lang, A.J., Laffate, C., Satz, L.E., Dresselhaus, T.R., & Stein, M.B. (2004). The impact of individual forms of childhood maltreatment on health behavior. Child Abuse & Neglect, 28, 575 -- 586.

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Wilson, H.W., & Widom, C.S.…… [read more]

Effects of Teratogens on the Developing Fetus and Child Research Paper

… ¶ … Teratogens on the developing fetus and child

Teratogens are toxic agents that can cause abnormal development that may lead to birth defects. It can also be viewed as any exposure that can cause harm to the unborn or… [read more]

Parenting Styles in Correlation to Alcoholism and Social Change Research Paper

… Parenting Styles & Alcoholism in College Students

Parenting Styles in Relation to Alcoholism & Social Change

Parenting Styles & Alcoholism

Research regularly Conducted on Parenting Styles & Adolescents' Alcohol Intake

Alcoholism & Its Relation to Parenting Styles

Frequency & Beginning… [read more]

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… Lifespan Development: Britney Spears

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… In accordance with the child's age, reponses of parental discipline vary. Studies show us that younger children experience more physical punishments in comparison which older age children (Dietz, 2000; Ghate et al., 2003). Nevertheless, it is also noted that, older… [read more]

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Erikson Theory of Psychological Development

Erikson recognized different stages of child development that are; Infancy, Early Childhood, Play… [read more]

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… ¶ … Divorce on an Only Child

Effects of Divorce and Poor Parenting on an only Child

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Child Grief at Loss Essay

… Child Grief at Loss

Grief is a natural and inevitable part of human existence and most people experience some kind of loss during their lifetimes. In the past the majority of research literature regarding grief has addressed this phenomenon in… [read more]

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… Foster Care Aging Out

Societal Problem

Annually, about 20,000 of 542,000 youths age out of foster care across the United States (Courtney, 2005). Except for incarcerated youth, foster youth are the only individuals who are involuntarily removed from their families… [read more]

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… ¶ … teen pregnancy and parenting on the educational advancement of a girl child in Buea-Cameroon

In the past 3 decades, there has been an ever increasing interest in the link between lower educational advancements of teenage mothers and adolescents… [read more]

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… ¶ … Video Game Violence

During the 20th century, American culture changed tremendously. Communications media began playing a larger and larger role in many human societies and helped shape major national and international events. In the last few decades of… [read more]

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… Children Raised by Stepparents

Of Different Race Or Culture

This work in research investigates the inherent problems that exist in families characterized by parents and stepparents of a biracial union, or of a union that is characterized by diversity in… [read more]

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… ¶ … Video Games or Too Much Television Is Bad for Children's Development

It is an undisputed fact that all that surrounds us have an effect on the way we think and behave. We are born in a world where… [read more]

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… ¶ … children of parents with Parkinson's disease (PD)?

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… Unfortunately this structure of relationship is more likely to result in violence than kinship care directed by human service agencies. Kinship foster care which involves human services comprises the second largest group with over 400,000 where social services helps place… [read more]

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… Another provision of the Adoption and Safe Families Act was designed to expedite adoption for children who could not safely be returned to their birth families. For children who spent 15 of the previous 22 months in foster care, and… [read more]

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… She needs to be told that Dennis is at the center of her life, which should not be the case. She should understand that she is merely replacing her vacant father image with Dennis, and that Dennis' closeness to Clara… [read more]

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… Each of which offer a wide range of recreational, outdoor experiences and adventures. Evenings are filled with outdoor campfires, music, games and stories. Children are responsible for outdoor and indoor chores on a daily basis.

Programs such as Camp Wilderness… [read more]

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… ¶ … Exposure to Domestic Violence Effects Children's mental health

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