"Child Development / Youth / Teens" Essays

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Advertisements Around Dolls That Promote Consumerism Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,591 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Advertising Is to Make the Consumer Pathologically Inclined to Consume Your Product

As such, marketers use all means possible to get products and services flowing in the market. While marketing their brands, manufacturers of children toys use the mass media to manipulate children to want their products. Pervasive advertising has a significant influence since it is protected under… [read more]

Identity Formation as Multidimensional Concept Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,625 words)
Bibliography Sources: 16


Identity Formation as Multidimensional Concept

The immigration adaptation of the children globally emphasizes on the significance of age at arrival, location of schooling, language acquisition. The research will focus on the timing and context of the parental migration associates with the education, health, and well-being of the respective children exposed to immigration. With the children focused with the capability, learn… [read more]

Fine Motor Skill Development Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,769 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



In short, fine motor skills come after the development of gross motor skills and they are important to help children write, dress, eat and function independently as they grow. The development of these fine motor skills can be done using a range of activities, especially to help those children who lag behind. Parents, teachers and caregivers who work with young children should know what to look in terms of fine motor skill development milestone and what they should do to improve this important skill in children.


Smith, Jodene. (2003). Activities for Fine Motor Skills Development Grd PreK-1. Westminster, CA: Teacher Created Resources.

No author. (2011). Fine motor control. Medline Plus. Retrieved from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002364.htm

Curtis, Kathleen; Newman, Peggy. (2005). The PTA Handbook: Keys to Success in School and Career for the Physical Therapist Assistant. New Jersey: Slack Incorporated.

Charlesworth, Rosalind. (2010). Understanding Child Development. Mason, OH: South-western Cengage Learning.

Roger, Stewart; Audrey, Rule; Giordano, Debra. (Oct 2007). The Effect of Fine Motor Skill on Kindergarten Student Attention. Early Childhood Education Journal. Vol 35(2). pp 103-109.

Roger, Stewart; Audrey, Rule; (Sep 2002). Effect of Practical Life Materials on Kindergartners Fine Motor Skills. Early Childhood Education Journal. Vol 30(1). pp 9-13.

Gargiulo, Richard; Kilgo, Jennifer. (2010). An Introduction to Young Children with Special Needs. Independence, KY: Cengage Learning.

Woodfield, Lynda. (2004). Physical Development in the Early Years. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Daly, Christopher; Kelley, Gail; Krauss, Andrea. (2003). Relationship Between Visual-motor Integration and Handwriting Skills of Children in Kindergarten. American Occupational Therapy Association. Vol 67 (2).

Isbell, Christy. (2010). Everyday Play: Fun Games…… [read more]

Child and Elder Abuse Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,002 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


However, he later on admitted that he had indeed molested the victim. The accused claimed that he chose to take advantage of the old lady as he was fully aware she was blind and therefore couldn't identify him. Hall in the words of Hollingsworth (2013) "was charged with sexual battery and lewd and lascivious battery on an elderly person."

Forms of Abuse Involved in the Cases Above and their Impact on Victims

In the very first case (i.e. case 1), the form of abuse is child neglect. Neglect in the words of Starr and Wolfe (1991) "is the failure to provide basic necessities for the child that may or does result in damage to the physical, emotional, or intellectual development and well-being of the child." Clearly, Skinner's failure to provide the toddler with necessities regarded basic borders on child neglect. Already, there is evidence to demonstrate that Skinner failed to provide the toddler with basic needs including but not limited to a decent shelter. At the time of rescue, the baby was also in dire need of medical attention. Skinner failed to ensure that the child was attended to by competent medical personnel. As a result of the said neglect, the baby's physical as well as emotional well-being could have been injured.

The second case (i.e. case 2) can be seen as an instance of sexual assault. Sexual assault takes place when an individual is coerced to engage in an act of a sexual nature against his or her will. Sexual assault could be painful and even traumatizing. In the aforementioned case, Hill committed a sexual act on the unnamed lady against her will. Sexual assault does have a negative impact on survivors. In addition to causing actual physical harm, sexual assault could lead to severe feelings of stress or anxiety. For instance, in our case, the 90-year-old victim reportedly experienced what she called burning urination after the incident. This was the physical consequence of the unfortunate act. Following the incident, the old woman may have experienced significant anxiety as a result of stress and fear.


In my opinion, no effort should be spared in seeking to bring down the rate of child as well as elder abuse. This is more so the case given the impact such offenses have on victims. One of the approaches that could be introduced to rein in child and elder abuse is the introduction of more punitive prison sentences for offenders. This could act as a deterrent.


Hollingsworth, H. (2013, February 12). David and Pamela Martin Charged With Child Abuse for Allegedly Handcuffing Teen to Pole. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from the Huffington Post website: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/02/12/david-pamela-martin-child-abuse-handcuff-teen-pole_n_2670898.html

Rojas, J. (2013, February 15). Citrus County Woman Charged With Severely Abusing Toddler. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from Bay News website: http://www.baynews9.com/content/news/baynews9/news/article.html/content/news/articles/bn9/2013/2/15/citrus_county_woman_.html

Starr, R. & Wolfe, D.A. (Eds.). (1991). The Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect: Issues and Research. New York, NY: Guilford Press.… [read more]

Abused and Neglected Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,604 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Abused and Neglected Children

An estimated 3.3 million children in the United States are referred to the children protective services, on suspicion of maltreatment in 2009, with 700,000 being confirmed victims of maltreatment. To the Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act 42 U.S.C.A. §5106g, child abuse and neglect, is any recent failure on the part of a caretaker or… [read more]

Socio Political and Economic Situation of Youth in Antigua and Barbuda Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,808 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6



Socio-Political and Economic Situation of Youth in Antigua and Barbuda: An Examination of Literature and Statistics

The following situational analysis examines the issues related to youths in Antigua and Barbuda from economic and sociopolitical perspectives, identifying risks and opportunities that currently face this population of minors. Background information on the island nation is given, with current economic dependence on… [read more]

Positive Influence of Peer and Parent Interaction on Social Cognition Development During Infancy to Adolescence Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,091 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Positive Influence of Peer and Parent Interaction on Social-Cognition Development during Infancy to Adolescence


Early Childhood

Middle Childhood


The nature and characteristics evidently expresses the man as a social animal, which signifies that interaction with others is one of the primary elements during the entire cycle of the life. In other words, the process of interaction with parents,… [read more]

Parenting Styles and Their Effect Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,034 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


It is commonly practiced on the part of the parents that they change their parenting habits with time. Few parents are more rigid with elder children and less rigid with younger ones. Hence, the time period, changes in culture and environment and changes in circumstances evolves the parents as well as their parenting style.

Ethnicity is another vital aspect that… [read more]

Childhood Development Cognitive Behavioral Analysis Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,466 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


For example, when engaging in 'kitchen play,' the child often ignored the needs of her playmates. When she was pretending to 'cook' the plastic food and then give it to the adults, she did not ask her playmates, who were also engaged in playing kitchen, if she should do so. She did not show consideration for their needs and feelings;… [read more]

Child Abuse This Research Investigates Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,602 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 18, 151 -- 158.

Berenson, A.B., Wiemann, C.M., & McCombs, S. (2001). Exposure to violence and associated health-risk behaviors among adolescent girls. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 155, 1238 -- 1242.

Briere, J. (1996). A self-trauma model for treating adult survivors of severechild abuse. In J. Briere, L. Berliner, J.A. Bulkley, C. Jenny, & T. Reid (Eds.), The APSAC handbook on child maltreatment (pp. 175 -- 203). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Dube, S.R., Felitti, V.J., Dong, M., Giles, W.H., & Anda, R.F. (2003). The impact of adverse childhood experiences on health problems: Evidence from four birth cohorts dating back to 1900. Preventive Medicine, 37, 268 -- 277.

Rodgers, C.S., Lang, A.J., Laffate, C., Satz, L.E., Dresselhaus, T.R., & Stein, M.B. (2004). The impact of individual forms of childhood maltreatment on health behavior. Child Abuse & Neglect, 28, 575 -- 586.

Senn, T.E., Carey, M.P., & Vanable, P.A. (2008). Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse and subsequent sexual risk behavior: Evidence from controlled studies, methodological critique, and suggestions for research. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 711 -- 735.

Walker, E.A., Gelfand, A., Katon, W.J., Koss, M.P., Von Korff, M., Bernstein, D., & Russo, J. (1999). Adult health status of women with histories of childhood abuse and neglect. American Journal of Medicine, 107, 332 -- 339.

Widom, C.S. (1989b, April 14). The cycle of violence. Science, 244, 160 -- 166.

Widom, C.S., & Kuhns, J.B. (1996). Childhood victimization and subsequent risk for promiscuity, prostitution, and teenage pregnancy: A prospective study. American Journal of Public Health, 86, 1607 -- 1612.

Wilson, H.W., & Widom, C.S. (2008a). An examination of risky sexual behavior and HIV among victims of child abuse and neglect: A thirty year follow-up. Health Psychology, 27, 149 -- 158.

Wilson, H.W., & Widom, C.S.…… [read more]

Effects of Teratogens on the Developing Fetus and Child Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,373 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Teratogens on the developing fetus and child

Teratogens are toxic agents that can cause abnormal development that may lead to birth defects. It can also be viewed as any exposure that can cause harm to the unborn or a breastfeeding baby. Teratogenic substance does not affect each developing fetus in the same way. The highest risk posed by the teratogens on the fetus is during the development of organs i.e. organogenesis. There are a number of teratogens such as alcohol, prescribed or non-prescribed medications, illegal drugs, vaccines, illnesses, environmental exposures, occupational exposures or even maternal autoimmune disorders. Every woman has 3-5%risk of a baby that is born with a defect, however this risk may be increased greatly and all this is dependent on when exactly during the pregnancy is the teratogen exposed to the woman, the dose or amount that the woman is exposed to and the route of exposure. Defects that will be presented later like growth development and some functional impairment are usually hard to relate to teratogen exposure since the time between birth and impairment detection there can be exposure to other toxicants which may pose a great challenge in identifying the particular toxicant that is responsible (Gilbert, 2009)

This paper will look at alcohol as a teratogen, its effects on fetus and brain. Some of the long-term problems that the child can demonstrate due to the effects of alcohol as a teratogen will also be looked at. Finally the prognosis of their problem will be addressed and the significance of looking at alcohol as a teratogen to the general public.

Alcohol as a teratogen

Alcohol is among the known teratogenic agents, Ethanol-ethyl alcohol to be precise. It all depends on the amount that the pregnant woman consumes of the alcohol; the amounts will therefore determine the risk of miscarriage and the child birth defects. Alcohol when consumed during pregnancy can lead to behavioral, neurological and also skeletal problem in the baby after birth.

Effects of alcohol on the fetus and brain

A small moderate amount can cause Fetal Alcohol Effect which increases the risk of miscarriage, delays in development and child becomes hyperactive. On the other hand heavy use of alcohol eventually leads to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome which sees the increase of risk of miscarriage to a higher rate, the development of a small head size of a baby, some abnormalities in the face such as small eyes and nose, small nails, heart defects, learning difficulties, mental retardation, ear abnormalities and behavioral problems. Fetal alcohol syndrome is therefore is the term, which describes the patterns of birth defects that is found in children of mothers who consume alcohol when they are pregnant.

When MRI images of children with FAS is compared to brains of non-FAS children there is an indication that the brains deep gray matter is reduced in all regions of the brains of children with FAS.The deep gray matter serves as the brains relay station that sends and receives signals between the… [read more]

Parenting Styles in Correlation to Alcoholism and Social Change Research Paper

Research Paper  |  18 pages (6,779 words)
Bibliography Sources: 18


Parenting Styles & Alcoholism in College Students

Parenting Styles in Relation to Alcoholism & Social Change

Parenting Styles & Alcoholism

Research regularly Conducted on Parenting Styles & Adolescents' Alcohol Intake

Alcoholism & Its Relation to Parenting Styles

Frequency & Beginning of Alcoholism

Theoretical Implications

Measures for Controlling Alcoholism in Adolescence

Sponsors of Community Awareness Programs

Limitations of the Community Awareness… [read more]

Educational Theories Numerous Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (3,738 words)
Bibliography Sources: 11


It is the belief of Lev that internalization of the apparatus prompted advanced thinking skills (Parke & Clarke-Stewart, 2010).

While most schools have conventionally considered instructionists or transmissionists model of teaching whereby teachers transmits knowledge to children, Lev's facilitated a context of learning where students play a dynamic function in learning. The roles of student and that of their teachers… [read more]

Lifespan Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (6,197 words)
Bibliography Sources: 14


Lifespan Development: Britney Spears

Many people believe that they know Britney Spears. Having grown up in front of a camera, first on Mickey Mouse Club, and then as a major worldwide pop star, her life was covered by the camera. Unfortunately, Spears might be more notable for her personal problems than for her major life success. She had a public… [read more]

Discipline for Children Understanding Effective Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (4,828 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


In accordance with the child's age, reponses of parental discipline vary. Studies show us that younger children experience more physical punishments in comparison which older age children (Dietz, 2000; Ghate et al., 2003). Nevertheless, it is also noted that, older age children face, in comparison to younger children, more strict physical punishments than younger children (Nobes and Smith, 2002; Straus… [read more]

Child Psychological Development Child Developmental Case Study

Case Study  |  9 pages (2,690 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


As she is almost one year she speaks clear words. Mother told me how she observed her baby during the developmental phase.

Erikson Theory of Psychological Development

Erikson recognized different stages of child development that are; Infancy, Early Childhood, Play age, School Age, Adolescence, Young Adulthood and Old Age. According to him, the child must go through and solve a… [read more]

Divorce on an Only Child Effects Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,556 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Divorce on an Only Child

Effects of Divorce and Poor Parenting on an only Child

Narcissistic mothers have the tendency to deny most of their wrongdoings concerning the way they raise up their children. They set a bad precedent through uncouth behaviors that are easily picked by their children. Most often, such mothers are cruel to their children… [read more]

Child Grief at Loss Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (2,087 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Child Grief at Loss

Grief is a natural and inevitable part of human existence and most people experience some kind of loss during their lifetimes. In the past the majority of research literature regarding grief has addressed this phenomenon in adults and very little research has addressed the depth of suffering children may experience in response to loss (Bonanno et… [read more]

Youth Aging Out of Foster Care to the World of Homelessness and Crime Research Paper

Research Paper  |  12 pages (4,083 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Foster Care Aging Out

Societal Problem

Annually, about 20,000 of 542,000 youths age out of foster care across the United States (Courtney, 2005). Except for incarcerated youth, foster youth are the only individuals who are involuntarily removed from their families through government intervention. Despite the fact that this separation is mandated to protect these young adults from harm by their… [read more]

Teen Aggression Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,412 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Teen aggression is a serious issue tat has received a great deal of attention in recent years. Today's teenagers often have a great deal of rage and anger that is expressed through aggressive behavior. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the phenomenon of teen aggression from a social psychology perspective. The research will focus on the causes of… [read more]

Teen Pregnancy and Parenting on the Educational Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  75 pages (22,066 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


¶ … teen pregnancy and parenting on the educational advancement of a girl child in Buea-Cameroon

In the past 3 decades, there has been an ever increasing interest in the link between lower educational advancements of teenage mothers and adolescents who get pregnant. Numerous studies have confirmed that higher levels of teenage pregnancy are directly linked to higher levels of… [read more]

Effects on Violent Video Games on Children Thesis

Thesis  |  15 pages (4,289 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … Video Game Violence

During the 20th century, American culture changed tremendously. Communications media began playing a larger and larger role in many human societies and helped shape major national and international events. In the last few decades of the century, the "computer revolution" changed the way we communicate professionally and store and retrieve large volumes of data, beginning… [read more]

Children Being Raised by Stepparents That Are Not of the Same Race or Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  25 pages (6,876 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 30


Children Raised by Stepparents

Of Different Race Or Culture

This work in research investigates the inherent problems that exist in families characterized by parents and stepparents of a biracial union, or of a union that is characterized by diversity in terms of ethnicity, cultural, or religious differences or the diverse households headed by lesbian or gay parents. The conceptual framework… [read more]

Too Many Video Games or Too Much Television Is Bad for Children's Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,438 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Video Games or Too Much Television Is Bad for Children's Development

It is an undisputed fact that all that surrounds us have an effect on the way we think and behave. We are born in a world where every existing thing is a stimulus, a special invitation to react and explore, to respond to its more or less… [read more]

Effects on Children of Patients With Parkinson Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,083 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … children of parents with Parkinson's disease (PD)?

GENERALIZATION: There are definitely psychological and social / emotional problems associated with the children (of all ages) of PD patients, but the general consensus among scholars is that not enough is known about these dynamics. Still, what is known is that having a parent suffer from PD can be devastating for… [read more]

Violence Against Children the Structure Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,060 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Unfortunately this structure of relationship is more likely to result in violence than kinship care directed by human service agencies. Kinship foster care which involves human services comprises the second largest group with over 400,000 where social services helps place a child with a relative who has been designated as the child's provider by the courts (Urban, 2003: Oct). This… [read more]

Foster Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  35 pages (12,574 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Another provision of the Adoption and Safe Families Act was designed to expedite adoption for children who could not safely be returned to their birth families. For children who spent 15 of the previous 22 months in foster care, and could not be returned to their families, before requesting determination of parental rights could be filed, and upon approval of… [read more]

Child Abuse in England Initial Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,697 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


She needs to be told that Dennis is at the center of her life, which should not be the case. She should understand that she is merely replacing her vacant father image with Dennis, and that Dennis' closeness to Clara does not mean that Clara is more loved. She should be made to focus on the irrationality of the jealousy… [read more]

Summer Camps and Programs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,360 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Each of which offer a wide range of recreational, outdoor experiences and adventures. Evenings are filled with outdoor campfires, music, games and stories. Children are responsible for outdoor and indoor chores on a daily basis.

Programs such as Camp Wilderness in Missouri have open tents rather than cabins where beds are covered by mosquito nets and where running water is… [read more]

Children Exposed to Domestic Violence: Material Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,889 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Exposure to Domestic Violence Effects Children's mental health

When children are faced with violence, adults usually focus on school performance, aggressive behaviors, and anxiety and/or depression, as these are crucial psychological needs following restoration of the child to safety. However, recent research depicts that the less-obvious negative impacts on the physical health of these children are also worrisome… [read more]

Problem of Child Sex Trafficking Research Paper

Research Paper  |  12 pages (3,820 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Consequently, law enforcement personnel in such countries are at disadvantaged positions against child traffickers.

Law enforcement officers in some countries have stated that they are limited in prosecuting child trafficking violations because of the weak child protection systems in their countries. They have also stated that they do not have necessary expertise and technical equipment to deal with child traffickers… [read more]

Child Faith Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (552 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


e., faith-based) schools (Holder, Coleman, & Wallace, 2010). The children rated their own levels of spirituality and happiness on well-designed questionnaires and the parents and teachers of these children also rated the children's temperament using the emotionality, activity, and sociability temperament survey. The study found that children who were more spiritual were happier. Spirituality accounted for between 3 and 26% of the unique variance in children's happiness depending on the measures. Temperament was also a predictor of happiness, but spirituality remained a significant predictor of happiness even after removing the variance associated with temperament.

Other research has focused on constructing models that can effectively explain how a child's faith can translate into aspects of their personality and behavior. Fowler (1981) relates two stages of spiritual development in children: Stage 1 Primal Faith and stage 2 intuitive faith. According to Fowler the important factors of the child's lives of faith happen "in utero and in the very first months" of the child's life" (p. 102 cited in: Grajczonek, nd. p. 12). Gottlieb (2006) relates a three stage development model of spiritual development that in the first stage that children "pass through an intuitive stage in which they see religious identity as being bestowed by God or parents prayers are conceptualized as recipes for gratifying personal desires. Although there seems to be some conflicting theories of how spirituality relates to a child's personality and behavior, there is evidence to suggest that faith can and does influence happiness and temperament in children.

Works Cited

Holder, M., Coleman, B., & Wallace, J. (2010). Spirituality, Religiousness, and Happiness in Children Aged 8 -- 12 Years. Journal…… [read more]

Tapping Into Young Children's Spirituality Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (793 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


When children aren't allowed to explore their spiritual sides in a safe manner, then they become either secretive or they just mimic the spiritual beliefs of the adults in their lives. This is unacceptable: children should be able to explore their spiritual sides in a safe and practical manner with dialogue and communication strongly engaged. In fact, researchers found "that children had little opportunity for negotiating a shared understanding or experience of spirituality with adults and, as a result, either preserved an isolated and secret sense of spirituality or accepted what they observed to be their trusted adults' stance" (Karlsen et al. 2012). This is so problematic as it demonstrates that without proper spiritual teaching, there's a very real danger that children will either hide their spiritual path/journey from their parents or the adults in their lives, or just imitate what is presented to them -- without any critical thinking or cognitive processing. Thus, one can conclude that it's necessary for their spiritual and emotional development.

Spiritual education is so necessary within the educational setting so that children can develop secure attachments. Just as securely attached children grow into securely attached adults, the same is true for children. For example, when distressed, children generally turn to their caregivers, who help them in a sensitive way to deal with the distressing situation, something which teachers kids that other human beings are available in times of need and that distressing situations don't have to feel overwhelming (Roehlkepartain, 2010). In this sense, developing a solid spiritual side for children can help them understand that the universe or their higher power is there for them in times of need and that there is a benevolent energy force which is present and shaping human experience and that they can turn to it for help.


Flanagan, K.S., & Loveall, R. (2012). The spiritual craft of forgiveness: Its need and potential in children. Journal of Psychology & Christianity, 3(1), 3-15.

Karlsen, M.L., Coyle, A., & Williams, E. (2013). "they never listen": towards a grounded theory of the role played by trusted adults in the spiritual lives of children. Mental Health,

Religion & Culture, 17(3), 297-312.

Roehlkepartain, E.C. (2006). The handbook of spiritual development in childhood and adolescence. Thousand…… [read more]

Child Demographics Child Welfare Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,431 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 9


It found that those placed in unfamiliar foster care had greater problems internalizing than children maltreated by caregivers, those in familiar care and those who received positive care giving. Both groups of institutionalized children and those in foster care were evaluated on emotion tasks at 30 and 40 months of age. These studies suggest that children's conditions can improve by… [read more]

Teenagers: Alcohol and Drunkenness Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (956 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Religion can help by providing teenagers with a sense of the "bigger picture." Religious values can provide teenagers with a strong moral compass, and a sense of something greater than themselves. Even if teenagers aren't overtly religious and don't go to church, religion can still act as a beacon for them during some of the more formidable challenges and pressures of drinking, by offering an overall guidepost and guidelines for living. Religious organizations and community groups can also provide a sense of support, so that navigating some of the challenges of drinking can be done with greater ease.

4. Loving

The most loving plan that I can come up with regarding alcohol and drunkenness is one which recognizes that everyone is human and everyone makes mistakes -- and that hopefully young people will learn from those mistakes. This is not to absolve people of responsibility. There is still a responsibility present of adults to provide as much guidance, expectations and help to teenagers along the way as possible. There is still a responsibility of teenagers to make informed decisions and to not be careless. But the most loving way to consider all of this is to recognize the human quality in everyone and to realize that everyone makes mistakes.

5. Committed to Doing Justice

Being committed to doing justice means articulating one's moral values and being able to articulate them to oneself, along with being able to respect and uphold them. This is the living process of doing justice to oneself. Furthermore, respecting the laws and values of society is also important.

What choices can you take regarding drinking alcohol/drunkenness that will lead you to be the best version of yourself as God created you to be?

I can accomplish this by setting my own personal boundaries and respecting them consistently. This will help me to feel like I'm respecting myself. Furthermore, not engaging in any behaviors which makes me feel uncomfortable will also help accomplish that.

Come up with a plan of action for dealing with drinking alcohol/drunkenness in the future. (I.e. If faced with a similar challenge/issue in the future, what actions will you take and how can Scripture, Tradition, Reason and Experience help you in your decision-making process?)

In the future, I would make sure that there was always a set designated driver in place for all parties. Then I would have a phone number on hand in my phone of someone I could ask for advice that I trusted. And next time, I would give myself more overt permission to listen to my gut. Whenever I don't feel comfortable doing something, I need to give myself immediate permission not to do it, and to not feel compelled to provide a reason for it.… [read more]

Erikson: The Eight Stages Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,531 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


These are the child-rearing years, when the individual is trying to be productive for his or her family and establish a healthy relationship with his or her spouse and children. This is also the phase in which many people experience a mid-life crisis, or a frustrated sense that they are not 'dong something' meaningful with their lives. "Failure to provide… [read more]

Spanking Children Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,563 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The popularity behind the parent being in charge and in control is losing its appeal and the fairer, more level-headed parenting styles are becoming quite popular and successful. It is this same type of parenting that has produced more children that are patient, less prone to angry outbursts, and are psychologically stable. Making a more direct comparison between those adults that were spanked as children, and those that were not spanked, the evidence shows a clear disadvantage for children whose parents deem corporal punishment as an appropriate way of acting.


Benjet, C. & Kazdin, A.E. (2003). Spanking children: the controversies, findings, and new directions. Clinical Psychology Review. 23(2), 197-224.

Kazdin, A.E. & Benjet, C. (2003). Spanking Children: Evidence and issues. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 12(3), 99-103.

Nofziger, S. (2008). The "Cause" of Low Self-Control: The Influence of Maternal Self-Control. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. 45(2), 191-224.

Rodriguez, C.M., & Richardson, M.J. (2007). Stress and anger as contextual factors and pre-existing cognitive schemas: Predicting parental child maltreatment risk. Child Maltreatment. 12(4), 325-337.

Stacks, A.M., Oshio, T., Gerard, J., & Roe, J. (2009). The moderating effect of parental warmth on the association between spanking and child aggression: a longitudinal approach. Infant and Child Development. 18(2), 178-194.

Taylor, C.A., Manganello, J.A., Lee, S.J., & Rice, J.C. (2010). Mothers' Spanking of 3-Year-old Children and Subsequent Risk of Children's Aggressive Behavior. Journal of Pediatrics. 12(5), 1057-1065.

Turner, H.A. & Muller, P.A. (2004). Long-Term Effects of Child Corporal…… [read more]

Human Languages Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,681 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


When between groups comparisons were made on English measures, there was also a bilingual advantage in paradigmatic responding during the 1st elicitation and for verbs.

Meanwhile, according to a paper written by Masahiko Minami (2005) of San Francisco State University, the findings obtained were reminiscent of previous findings that presented proof in support of the linguistic relativity hypothesis, in which Whorf (1956) claimed that from early childhood onwards, children attain a precise worldwide as they acquire language. For example, according to Bloom (1979), people who speak Chinese are less likely than English speakers to present hypothetical interpretations for a hypothetical story that is because Chinese does not use a subjunctive mood in the sense of an obligatory marking in each verb or an identifiable verbal sequence. The highly impressive of the performance of children from an Asian background in mathematics is widely acknowledged, and Miura and Okamoto (1989) suggest that dissimilarities in mathematics performance amongst Japanese and English speaking children, for example, seem to be due to primary variations in the cognitive illustration of numbers that result from variations in specific language characteristics.

Therefore, it is clear that children's development is affected by the quality of being multilingual while the external factors impacting the child's development also affect the learning of the child. In most schools in developing nations liked England and the U.S., teachers encourage parents to continue to teach their children their native tongue as it will enhance their learning abilities while also make them associated with their native culture via the use of their own native language.


Bialystok, E. (2004). Consequences of Bilingualism for Cognitive Development. York University, 1, 1-43.

Bloom, A. (1979). The Impact of Chinese Linguistic Structure on Cognitive Style . Current Anthropology, 20(3), 585-586.

Whorf, B.L., & Carroll, J.B. (1956). Language, thought, and reality: selected writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press.

Minami, M. (2005). Bilingual Narrative Development in English and Japanese -- "A Form/Function Approach. Cascadilla Press, 5, 1618-1629.

Sheng, L. (2006). Lexical-Semantic Organization in Bilingual Children: Evidence from a repeated word association task. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 49, 572.… [read more]

Teen Pregnancy in the United States Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,574 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Teen Pregnancy in the United States: How it Impacts Maternity Nurses

Teen pregnancy is one of the United States' most significant public health problems. This is because, when compared to other similarly industrialized nations with similar health care systems, the United States has an embarrassingly high teen pregnancy rate. In fact, if judged solely by the teen pregnancy rate, one… [read more]

Child Guidance the Watertown (MA) Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (864 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Also called performance assessments, authentic assessments provide an objective look at what a child can do. More authentic assessment of children is needed in the early childhood classroom. It supports developmentally appropriate educational practices because children can demonstrate the skills they have mastered in order to progress to the next level.

Children develop at different rates; two different children may not be equally ready to move from the three-year-old to the four-year-old class. Developmentally appropriate practices (DAP) were created to address three important early childhood issues: lack of universal high-quality early education programs, inappropriate curricula for young children, and growing concerns over lags in achievement among certain groups of children (Kostelnik, Soderman, and Whiren, 2011, p. 18). It does not make sense to push children before they are ready, despite what the calendar says about their ages. Children can only build on their learning if a solid foundation has first been established.

Practitioners who use DAP make decisions about the education and well-being of young children based on what they know about how children develop and learn. They also consider what they know about the strengths, needs and interests of individual children and take into context what they know about the social and cultural climates in which children live. Developmentally appropriate education is thus age appropriate as well as appropriate for the individual given that child's social and cultural context (Kostelnik et al., p. 20).

In a developmentally appropriate education, goals must be challenging for the child but also achievable. Learning and development occur when scaffolding takes place, that is, building on what a child already knows and can do. According to the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC), "intentionality" is a hallmark of developmentally appropriate teachers. These teachers create a caring community of learners, plan their curriculum to achieve important goals and enhance development and learning, and establish reciprocal relationships with families. In doing these things, teachers foster the right environment in which developmentally appropriate learning can take place ("The Core of DAP," n.d.)


Grisham-Brown, J., Hallam, R., and Brookshire, R. (2006). Using authentic assessment to evidence children's progress toward early learning standards. Early Childhood Education Journal 34(1), pp. 45-51.

Kostelnik, M.J., Soderman, A.K., and Whiren, A.P. (2011). Developmentally appropriate curriculum: Best practices in early childhood education. Boston: Pearson.

Mueller, J. (2011). Authentic assessment toolbox. Retrieved from http://jfmueller.faculty


The core of DAP. (n.d.) National Association for the Education of Young Children. Retrieved from http://www.naeyc.org/dap/core… [read more]

Boundaries for Children Rules Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,905 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


A well know study published in the Journal of Family Psychology found that families with healthy boundaries and routines experience greater emotional health, contain children with stronger sense of selves, and enable parents to enjoy happier marriages (Hokemeyer, P., web).

Importance of Boundaries for Children in Educaitonal Environment

Society constitutes an entity of people who join together. Social order occurs… [read more]

Corporal Punishment and Child Rearing in History Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,727 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Corporal Punishment and Child Rearing in History

In a January 8, 2011, edition of World Street Journal, Amy Chua, professor at Yale Law School, ignited a firestorm with her article "Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior," where she argued that the Chinese model of rigorous parenting is a highly effective way of rearing responsible and successful children (Chua, 2011). Chua explained… [read more]

Dynamism Between Parents and Children Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,045 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Based on the psychologists report, the parenting styles are categorised as: authoritative, permissive, and authoritarian style (Amy Black, 2011).

Authoritarian style of parenting is used by parents who are authoritative in nature. They set high standards of behavior for their children and obedience is the main virtue required in the children. Devotion to this parenting style gets little input from their children when making decision. The children brought up in this style grow up with low self-esteem and rely more on voice of authority (Amy Black, 2011). Permissive style is used where the parents allow the children to make their own decisions; they encourage creativity and spontaneity in children. Parents here use reasoning when setting limit is the style can result to in immature behaviour and inability to control impulse. Authoritative style is the best style; it is not firm and liberal. They set standards for their children but leave some of the children to decide. The parents here reason and listen to children the parents are not hesitant to insist on certain behaviours and limits. They help children here grow with essence of independence and self efficiency.

Parenting today is diverse and different from a decade ago. Parenting technique in our society is continuously evolving entailing various challenges in the dynamics between parent and child. Effective parenting today is predetermined by technology which is part of our daily life, the use of cell phones and TV watching. The child needs to be protected against online dangers and non-social infiltrations like child pornography (Milos Pesic, 2007). Media on the other hand yields a greater influence today so children tend to grow focused on what they want. The experts have analyzed that children today start dating when they are much younger they get sexually active at a very early age as opposed to the past.

There is a general concern over the influence of the media on the behavior and focus of the children. The media tends to mould the child where physical image is often compared to celebrities and models, the girl child nowadays tends to pursue surgeries and use lots of cosmetics to enhance appearance to take after the models more than any other time. There is a need to control what the media teaches the child through constant counseling and guidance.


Amy Black 2011 Authoritative, Authoritarian and Permissive Parenting Types Retrieved April

26. 2011 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/614981/authoritative_authoritarian_and_permissive.html

Baby Care Help2011 Exploring Different Types of Parenting Styles Retrieved April 26. 2011

From http://www.babycarehelp.com/parenting.htm

Cathy Meyer, 2011 Tips to Help Restore Your Relationship with Your Child/Children Retrieved

April 26. 2011 from http://divorcesupport.about.com/od/meetingyourchildsneeds/qt/restore_rel.htm

Donna Rae Jacobson, (1998). Struggles between Parents and Teens. Retrieved April 26, 2011

from http://www.thefunplace.com/guild/teen01.html

Encarta World English Dictionary [North American Edition], (2009). Microsoft Corporation.

Definition of Dynamics Retrieved April 26, 2011 from http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_1861607123/dynamism.html dynamism

Milos Pesic, (2011). The Challenges of Parenting Today. Retrieved April 26. 2011 from http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Challenges-of-Parenting-Today&id=605599 2007… [read more]

Child Abuse and Neglect Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,153 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Child Abuse and Neglect

The following describes a case study scenario in which I am an experienced, protective services worker about to do the first home visit with a new family. It goes on to speculate what might happen, the families reactions, cultural variations and engagement tools and recommendations.

Crosson-Tower, C. (2010). Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect Eighth Edition. Boston:… [read more]

Effects of TV Violence on Children Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,062 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … TV Violence on Children

The Media has had a very controversial role in the last decades, given that society is unable to determine whether it brings more benefits than troubles. Surely, the role of media is a very important one when considering that it is responsible for providing the general public with a lot of information. However, it… [read more]

Educational Outcomes for Youth in Foster Care Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,846 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … child as they flourish into adulthood. Home life, education of parents, stability in the child's life, the socio-economic placement of the home, and the presence of abuse, just to name a few can be instrumental in determining the outcome of a child. Yet, stories pour out from all different types of media outlets, including books, magazines, even movies… [read more]

Psychological Affects Sexual Abuse Has on Teens Who Are Most Likely to Commit These Crimes Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,547 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Psychological Affects Sexual Abuse Has on Teens: Who Are Most Likely to Commit These Crimes

A situation where an adult, an older child or a youth uses a child or youth for his or her own sexual gratification is referred to as sexual abuse. In the case where the abuse is committed by a family member, like a parent, parent… [read more]

Children Need to Play Not Compete Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (914 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Children Need to Play, Not Compete

A century ago, children were considered "little people," and treated accordingly. Play was for the very young child; once a child was old enough to work or help on the farm the child was put to task to help in whatever capacity the family needed. In the contemporary world, however, the concept of childhood has evolved. Children are expected to live in a world of happiness, wonder, socializing, and exploring -- all designed to prepare them for adolescence and adulthood. Part of the way children learn is through the concept of play, which is essential for the cognitive, physical, social, and emotional well-being of children (Ginsburg, 2007). Play, though, can take on many attributes, some of which may not be as positive as one might think.

In her essay, "Children Need to Play, Not Compete," author Jessica Statsky notes that over the past thirty years organized sporting activities have increased in the United States. As the Baby Boomers and Gen-Xers raise their families, a certain expectation of participating in activities like Little League Baseball and Peewee Football, and the competitive atmosphere they engender, are part and parcel of the modern child's path. This is particularly true in middle and upper-middle class families, where the child often takes the place of the unfulfilled desires of the parent, and their own competitive nature with friends and neighbors (e.g. "My son has an average of," etc.). This is not to say that participating in childhood sports is not appropriate, instead, it is the nature and focus of these events that may transcend childhood play and whisk that child into adulthood expectations, both physical and mental, without adequate preparation. The psychological dangers of this are immense, "Martin Rablovsky, a former sports editor of the New York Times says that in all his years of watching young children play organized sports, he has noticed very few of them smiling. 'I've seen children enjoying a spontaneous pre-practice scrimmage become somber and serious when the coach's whistle blows… the spirit of play suddenly disappears, and sport becomes job like'" (Coakley, 94 in Statsky, 2005, 176).

When did society decide that our children needed to vie for professional level sporting expertise at age eight? Shouldn't sports not only teach concepts like teamwork, fair play, sportsmanship, communication, but also provide a pleasurable outlet for a child's growing body and exuberance? When we couple this with the almost rabid instinct adults have for winning, we find that we often place our children in a no-win scenario -- they simply cannot learn and experiment and win all the time. Teams do not win all the time, and teaching children that it is fine to yell at the Coach or other teammates, to…… [read more]

Family Violence and the Effects in the Childhood Stage Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,593 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Society's Interactive Effect On Childhood

"No man is an island" begins a phrase from a poem from John Donne which encompasses the ecological theory proposed by Urie Bronfenbrenner (Crandell, Crandell, & Zanden, 2009). Another quote suggesting the same principle is "It takes a village to raise a child" (African proverb). The basic premise in these quotes is that there are… [read more]

Psychological Capital Thesis

Thesis  |  15 pages (4,962 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


Psychological Capital and Learners K-12

Throughout its long history, psychology developed into a field that deals largely with abnormal conditions. Recently, a new trend has developed within the field that highlights positive psychological attributes and the ability used them to provide a more productive and meaningful life. Rather than focusing on he negative aspects of a person's psyche, psychological capital… [read more]

Observing Child Care Center Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,136 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Valley Interfaith Child Care Center.

Program Basics:

The program name was Valley Interfaith Child Care Center, located at 948 Heather Drive, Blacksburg, Virginia. The center's hours of operation are 7:00 A.M. To 6:00 P.M.. Tuition for Valley Interfaith Child Care Center is $145.00 per week ($623.50 per month) for full-time child care. This includes children from the age of infant up to those turning 5 after September 30th. For those who are 5 years old by September 30th, these children transition to kindergarten or another program. There is also a one-time $50 registration fee. It includes the summer activity fee. However, there are no reduction in fees for missed days, vacation time, or center observed closings, vacations or holidays ("Tuition, 2008). Valley Interfaith Child Care Center is a 501(c)(3) not for profit organization and is licensed by the state of Virginia. Valley Interfaith Child Care Center models its programs after the High Scope approach. Their active learning and hands-on experiences engage the children with the world around them, allowing them to make choices and decisions from an early age ("Valley," n.d.).


The center's caregivers include: four teachers, one assistant teacher, four teacher's aides, and one center aide. Volunteers are also used for administrative duties as well as one-on-one interaction with children and special projects. The qualifications for teachers includes an educational background in early childhood development, while teacher's aides are only required to have a high school diploma. Experience is checked by phone prior to interview. The child-adult ratio for the center is approximately 5:1 for infants to three years of age and approximately 7:1 for four- and five-year-olds. Teacher turnover rate is extremely low; however, teacher aides typically see turnover every 12 to 24 months.


The teacher and child initiated activities center of social, physical, emotional, and cognitive development. Activities typically involve a variety of materials and textures and cover the areas of art, music, puppetry, science, gardening, reading, rhythm and movement, and creative play. The children learn how to follow simple directions, sit in a group, and use their words for their wants and needs. Each day, the children spend time outside as well.

Health and Safety:

Valley Interfaith Child Care Center is equipped with basic required safety equipment including: fire extinguishers, smoke detectors, and first aid kits; however, no emergency plan is clearly stated in any of their documentation, for the center as a whole. For individual emergencies, each child's enrollment documentation not only includes their parent or guardian's emergency contact information, as well as an extra emergency contact. Safety guidelines only allow the release of a child to a person listed on the enrollment form. Others may pick up a child if the parent or guardian gives verbal permission and the person has a photo ID. The center's health policy is that if a child is not well enough to participate in all of the day's activities, including going outside, then they are not well enough to be at the center. A… [read more]

Adolescents or Children at Risk Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,813 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12



"Some adolescents are troubled and some get into trouble.

But the great majority (almost nine out of ten) do not

The bottom line is that good kids don't suddenly go bad in adolescence" - Laurence Steinberg and Ann Levine (20th century)

(Steinberg and Levine, as cited in Columbia World of Quotations, 1996).

Contemporary Issues and Concerns

Although adolescents… [read more]

Identity Development During Adolescence Thesis

Thesis  |  12 pages (3,863 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Identity Development in Adolescence

Adolescence is the period in the human life growth process when we experience more physical and psychological changes than any other period in the life cycle. Some experts hold that adolescent psychological development of identity in a complex western society is a vastly differently, intricate, and almost fragile process (Moshman, David, 1999, p. 6). It is… [read more]

Milestones in Early Childhood Development the Relationship Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,525 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Milestones in Early Childhood Development

The relationship between a child and the parents has been the subject of extensive research, because it helps us to understand how to raise children in a way that prepares them to be well adjusted and productive members of society. There remain many obstacles to researching and understanding the relationship between a child and the… [read more]

Child Care Facility Business Plan Business Plan

Business Plan  |  10 pages (2,964 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Child Care Facility Business Plan

Location and Regulations to be Met

As the contemporaneous society evolves and develops, the needs of children and parents increase exponentially. A most relevant example in this sense is the emergence of more and more specialized and well equipped day care centers. Just like any other businesses, opening a day care center has to follow… [read more]

Teenager's Awareness and Their Lack of Implementing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  31 pages (8,637 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 30


¶ … Teenager's Awareness and Their Lack of Implementing Information Security and Online Privacy Concepts

This work contains a research proposal for a behavioral medication intervention for teens ages 12 to 17, as well as for their parents and peer-groups in an initiative to facilitate a change in behavior relating to the way they perceive information technology security and privacy… [read more]

Drama Therapy for Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,026 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Drama Therapy for Children

Children's play often involves pretending to be someone else, somewhere else, or in different situations. Playing "house," playing "school" and playing "make believe" in general are all parts of being a child that people of all cultures and backgrounds are familiar with. Role-playing appears to be a natural part of development that is instrumental for learning and identity development, and it has been incorporated into various behavioral therapies as well as learning initiatives for children. In what contexts have role playing or drama therapies been utilized with children? How effective have these interventions proven to be? Why would a clinician choose drama based therapies instead of alternate interventions?

Role playing has been used in both skills training and therapy contexts with children for various purposes. Skills training programs focused on the prevention of childhood abduction have proven useful and effective (Johnson, Miltenberger, Knudson, Egemo-Helm, Kelso, Jostad, Langley, (2006). Based on studies that assessed these types of skills training programs, it was determined that children have the ability to learn safety skills and demonstrate the use of these skills in simulated abduction situations where the children are presented with a typical abduction lure (Johnson et al., 2006). In these simulated situations, children were taught self-protective behaviors in order to prevent abduction. These self-protective behaviors learned by the children included responses to authoritative and incentive lures. These responses were typically statements such as "No, I have to ask my teacher if I'm allowed," followed by quickly moving away from the lure and running towards the school (Johnson et al., 2006). Studies indicated that on week following this training, all children correctly displayed the target behavior when presented with a realistic simulated abduction situation without knowing that they were in fact being assessed, but it was also found that these skills were no maintained over time (Johnson et al., 2006). Based on their own research, Johnson et al. (2006) concluded that behavior skills training combined with in situ training involving role playing was more effective in instructing abduction-prevention skills to children that behavior skills training alone. However, in order for these learned skills to pervade over time, it is necessary that children receive repeated exposure to role playing sessions in natural environments (Johnson, 2006).

Another type of skills training program that utilized role-playing addressed firearm injury prevention. A study conducted by Gatheridge, Miltenberger, Huneke, Satterlund, Mattern, Johnson, and Flessner (2004) investigated the efficacy of two different programs that were developed for the prevention of gun play among children. One of the programs under investigation was a Gun Safe program developed by the National Rifle Association, and the other was a behavioral skills training program utilizing role-play that placed emphasis on the use of instruction, modeling behavior, rehearsal of the behavior, and feedback (Gatheridge et al., 2004).

The results of the study by Gatheridge et al. (2004) indicated that both of the firearm safety programs were effective in instructing the children to verbalize the message regarding safety skills being taught,… [read more]

Child Abuse Prevention and Intervention Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,700 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Child Abuse Prevention and Intervention

Review of the Relevant Literature

The sad irony of the continuing high incidence of child abuse in the United States today is the fact that the nation has historically prided itself on recognizing the individual rights of every citizen. According to Dodds (2006), "Americans are shocked by the treatment of women in Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia,… [read more]

Juvenile Delinquency What Is Delinquency? In Legal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (4,248 words)
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Juvenile Delinquency

What is delinquency?

In legal terminology juvenile delinquency refers to "...behavior of children and adolescents that in adults would be judged criminal under law. "("Juvenile Delinquency," 2004)

However, the definition of what constitutes a juvenile vary in the United States, "...the maximum age being set at 14 years in some states and as high as 21 years in… [read more]

Divorce Affects the Personality Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,670 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The model involves an evaluation of the adolescents of the conflict as a possible mediator for emotional distress and both appraisals and emotional distress as possible mediators for health risk behaviors. The emotional distress was involved with various facets of parental conflict, when no other variables were taken into consideration. The adolescents seem to have more emotionally distressed while their… [read more]

Developmental Counseling With Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,963 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Developmental Counseling With Children

First, the process of social cognitive development is discussed. Next, some important developmental social skills issues are addressed as they relate to three specific stages of development: early child- hood, middle childhood, and adolescence. Three separate children were observed over a period of 2 to 3 hours each, and the above mentioned areas were analyzed in… [read more]

Music Therapy and the Child With Learning Disabilities Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,858 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Music Therapy in Autistic Children

Autism is a relatively low-incidence developmental disability that, according to Frith (1991), results in impairments of socialization, communication, and imagination. In an article describing her experiences, Donna Williams (1994a), a person with autism, defined the disability as a pervasive developmental disability affecting recognition and comprehension including proprioception, kinesthetic sense, sense of self and other, visualization,… [read more]

Behavioral Science Analysis of Social Issue Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,327 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Youth Violence

There is no question of whether youth violence is a problem within the United States. While the rate of crime and violence is on a general down trend, nationally, youth violence is rising consistently. According to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, there was a 40% increase in violent crime, and over 25% of those crimes were committed by juveniles (Snyder, 1994).

However, there are questions as to the causes of such violent behaviors among the juvenile population of the United States. Of the perhaps hundreds of possible answers, those within the psychological, social, and anthropological schools of thought are often perceived to be the best explanations. This paper will examine the reasons behind youth violence in the United States from all three perspectives, and will attempt to show that while a single factor alone may not cause youth violence, a combination of psychological, social, and cultural factors may blend together to form a breeding ground for violence among the youth of the United States.

Before examining the reasons behind violence, however, it is important to understand the scope of the problem. Between 1985 and 1995, there was a 249% increase in gun-related murders in the juvenile population. In fact, by 1992, firearm murders were the most increasing cause of death for black and white adolescents. Further statistics show that juveniles in 1994 were responsible for over 14% of violent crime, including 20% of all robberies, 14% of rapes, 13% of assaults, and over 10% of murders (FBI, 1995). Estimates of juvenile crime rates report that by 2010, youths between 10-17 will be arrested for violent crimes over twice as often than even the current statistics show (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1994).

As violence rises among the juveniles of the United States, the question occurs as to the possible causes of such increased violent activity. From a psychological standpoint, many researchers believe the cause to be internal, in that the problems arise from the psychological aspect of the youth. According to the American Psychological Association, one psychological reason for youth violence may be expression. The researchers note that, in some juveniles, the release of violence or anger is used to express their out of control emotions. Since youths generally go through multiple periods of hormonal changes, the youth often feels as through there are no answers to problems, and no way to deal with issues. As a result, they may begin to react violently (APA, 2004).

Additionally, the APA notes that, in the cases of some youths, violence is used as a way to manipulate situations in order to gain control. Teenagers, in particular, lead lives in which others are instructing them as to what they need to accomplish. The APA believes that, in some cases, these youths resent that control, and attempt to manipulate those in control through violent measures. Through threats and violence, the youths are then able to feel in control over their own associations (APA, 2004).

Coinciding with this need to manipulate… [read more]

Parenting Program for Women and Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  150 pages (41,621 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Parenting Program for Women and Children in Residential Treatment

Addiction is something that has been around for many years, and there have been increasingly new ways of treating it that have been created over the course of much research and study. There are many different forms that addiction takes, and there are many different drugs and substances that someone can… [read more]

Effects and Results of Children Living or Coming From Fatherless Homes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,533 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Children/Fatherless Homes

Parenting: The Effects and Results of Children

Homes without a Father Present

The purpose of this paper is to research a large representative group of statistics and facts in relation to children who grow up in fatherless homes. Further examined will be the variables expressed in gender, race, economic status and geographical location and how these… [read more]

ADHD Children and How Behavior Therapy Is Necessary With the Use of Medication Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,764 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and how it affects children. The symptoms of the disorder are also being discussed. Thereafter the paper shall deal with the different aspects of the treatment for this disorder. In terms of the treatment, the paper shall emphasize on medications and behavior therapy and shall understand the important role played by both these approaches… [read more]

Pornography &amp Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,759 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Literature on the subject, in fact, suggests a host of social and psychological consequences ranging from guilt, shame, and fear to depression, hysteria, and difficulties in learning and interpersonal relationships. While some of these effects such as physical and somatic complaints are short-term, others stay with the victim carrying over into adulthood. For example, adult women who were sexually abused… [read more]

Family Functional and Productive Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,063 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Of course, my brother and I were not always the perfect gentlemen and had to be disciplined at different times of our lives. This is an area of lifespan development where recommendations regularly change from "sparing the rod and spoiling the child" to "even spanking can cause future psychological problems." Although the controversy of spanking vs. non-spanking will continue, it has become very clear in this generation that child abuse -- excess physical or emotional punishment -- can not only cause problems such as juvenile delinquency and low self-esteem, but also be continued from one generation to the next. There is a high incidence of abused children whose parents were abused when they were young. My parents did not spank us, but they did punish us by taking away privileges or giving us time outs when we were young. Normally, the punishment equalized the infraction -- such as the time I snuck my first alcohol and had to stay home for a month on weekends. My parents were not only concerned about me, but also the bad role model I was being for my younger brother.

One of the arguments that my parents often had was their difference in discipline. My mother was more of a disciplinarian than my dad, and became angry when he did not always back her up on her decisions. That created communication problems, as well. My father had a tough time telling us "no." However, when he got mad -- we knew to stay clear! I realize that this is something that a husband and wife have to be clear on before raising children. It can create unnecessary conflicts and confuse the children.

My parents and their parents had little training in parenting. Today, youths receive some education on this in school. However, societal changes are making it much more difficult to raise children. The number of single parents, who are often economically disadvantaged, is on the rise. Family dynamics are changing -- the nuclear family is much less prevalent and there are many different types of family structures such as the single parent mentioned above, as well as grandparents and other relatives as caregivers, gay parents, later marriages and childbirth, and dual-income parents. Also, society is changing in other ways with increased crime, lower average incomes, increased divorce, changing sex roles and the aging population. My grandparents lived near us, so my parents had a support system. That, too, is changing in today's society as families live in different parts of the country and world.

Increasing numbers of educators in high schools and college are recognizing the import of teaching young adults about the intricacies about family life, coping with societal changes and taking better control of one's life. When traditions die out and change is in the forefront, education and training such as this is vital to lessen burdens and reduce the number of potential problems that dysfunctional families can bring.


Coles, Robert. (1970) Eric Erikson: The Growth of his Work. Boston:… [read more]

Childhood Development of Sexual Minorities Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,444 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


One can imagine that this discomfort within their bodies would also lead to a general rejection of some of the ideas of self and the body which ordinary development would be forming about this age. Less directly, members of this minority group may tend to have other aspects of development which are affected by their status. While this does not… [read more]

America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,013 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


I remember verbally disciplining a child who belonged to a woman in my social group, and how angry she got. She said her child was her business and to never speak to her child about her actions again.

The environment that I grew up in allowed me to become secure in who I am. It also taught me that there are societal guidelines we must follow, as I learned when I would misbehave when my parents were not around and some other adult would tell me to stop.

The most important family values I was given was unconditional love. My parents let me know the rules but loved me even if I tested them. I knew they would always be there and that security allowed me to explore the society and community I was raised in.

The cultural values were almost unlimited as we came together for Italian Thanksgivings, holidays from home and other things that ingrained my heritage into my value system.

My culture has shaped my experience in life for several reasons. I find that I am much more sensitive to racial implications than my white friends are. I am an Italian, and most race troubles against my culture disappeared a generation ago. My parents however, told me of the things that they encountered and it has made me more sensitive to the plight of African-Americans and Asians etc. In this country. Had I not heard about the problems my parents encountered I might be less sensitive to racial equality and the importance of its achievement.

While I was growing up my parents shielded me from many of society's harsh realities. Now that I am a young adult I find that the world is a tougher place than they ever let me know. I was given self-confidence however, and that provides me with the protection I need to succeed as an adult. My community gave me a sense of pride in my heritage as well as in being an American. My parents gave me a sense of pride in my accomplishments. This armor will wear well and long in the world.

The next generation needs to be provided with values such as the ones I was raised with. Honesty, hard work, integrity and pride are all essential elements to success, but none of them are as important as compassion for fellow humans. The saying "It takes a village" holds true today, and will still hold true in the future. If society wants the world to move in a positive direction it must be willing to be part of that village and help nurture the children it raises. My childhood taught me about love and nurturing and the things I do as an adult will reflect the importance of those lessons.


Taking Parenting Public: The Case for a New Social Movement. Sylvia Ann Hewlett (Editor), Nancy Rankin (Editor), Cornel West (Editor)… [read more]

Children's Safety on the Internet Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,143 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Children's Safety On The Internet

State and federal Internet laws and regulations have made it safer for children online.

One of the most frequent headlines hitting newspapers and also receiving attention in magazines is regarding the issue of online privacy and safety. From one of the oldest crimes such as credit card theft, to relatively new ones such as cyber… [read more]

Foster Children/Foster Care Issues Term Paper

Term Paper  |  25 pages (8,637 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Beginning in the 1960s, the numbers of reports of child abuse and neglect grew dramatically -- from ten thousand in 1962 (Lindsey, 1996), to almost three million in 1999 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001a). Consistent with legal mandates that certain professionals report suspected child maltreatment, more than half (54.7%) of the reports in 1999 were from professionals… [read more]

Gap: Early Childhood Intervention Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (6,336 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


"The findings of these early studies of mental growth of infants has been repeated sufficiently often so that it is now well established that test scores earned in the first year or two have relatively little predictive validity" (Bayley, 1970). Comprehensive reviews of the literature by Thomas (1970) fully support Bayley's view and draw the same conclusion. There are exceptions,… [read more]

Pregnant Teens Run a Severe Risk of Poor Outcomes for Their Children Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  2 pages (749 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Prevention of Adolescent Pregnancy / Infant Mortality

Although the specific reasons are not yet clearly understood and accepted, it is a fact that adolescent pregnancy can lead to adverse birth outcomes. It is also a fact that pregnancy rates among adolescents have dropped significantly. This paper reviews the pregnancy rate among adolescents, reviews the adverse birth outcomes for those pregnant teens, and provides a plan to reduce and even prevent adolescent pregnancies.

Adolescent pregnancies and infant mortality

The birth rate for U.S. females between the ages of 15-19 has dropped dramatically over the past few years. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in 1991 the overall birth rate for adolescents in the above-mentioned age category was 61.8 births per 1,000 people. But by 2013, that rate had dropped to 26.6 per 1,000 (CDC). Among African-American adolescents the rate of births plummeted from 118.2 per 1,000 in 1991 to 39.2 per 1,000 on 2013 (CDC). Among Latino adolescents the birth rate dropped from 104.6 to 41.9 in the same time period as mentioned above. And when it comes to Native Americans and Alaska Natives, the rate of births dropped from 84.1 to 31.2 in the time frame alluded to in this paragraph (CDC).

The Department of Health & Human Services explains that one in six-15-year-old girls will give birth by the time she is twenty years old; for African-Americans, it is one in four girls and for thirteen-year-old Latinos one in three will have a child by her twentieth birthday (HHS). Also, the children born to teenage mothers: a) are known to have poorer "cognitive and educational outcomes"; b) have more behavioral issues ("fighting, delinquency, and early sexual experience"); and c) have "poor health outcomes" (HHS).

Teen pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes

The explanations for why there are adverse birth outcomes when teenagers are pregnant (poor social environment; poor prenatal care; or "biological immaturity") are controversial (Chen, 2007). But what is known is that the risks of pre-term delivery, very low birth weight (LBW), and "small for gestational age" (SGA), is far greater for mothers under 17 and "always highest among infants born to mothers aged 15 or younger" (Chen, p. 5).

A Teen pregnancy prevention program

The mission of PTP…… [read more]

Freud Was Right, Peter Muris Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (588 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


In addition, through modeling, children may repeat their parents' behavior, specifically abnormal behavior. Learning experiences, particularly aversive life events, can play a role in psychopathology, including simply the acquisition of negative information. Societal-level influences can include things such as the impact of racism leading to higher levels of anxiety in black South African children than in white South African children, which is linked to the socioeconomic differences between the two groups.

Muris discusses the impact that early intervention during youth can decrease adult psychopathology in impacted youth. These interventions can include parental training and various forms of cognitive behavioral therapy. However, interventions have not necessarily been specifically tailored to those working with problem youths. Moreover, many children may lack access to help because of the stigma related to mental health disorders.

The article of the title was misleading in that it did not really discuss Freudian psychology or even begin to investigate the notion that Freud's Oedipal theories may have hinted at the very real psychological disorders that can result from childhood sexual abuse, which dovetails nicely into theories linked to childhood obsession with parental sexuality. Instead, the article only focuses on whether or not abnormal behavior has its roots in childhood. The article makes it clear that there is substantial empirical support for multiple ideas linking abnormal psychology to childhood: 1) a link between adult abnormal behavior and childhood circumstances; 2) high rates of abnormal psychological behavior in children and adolescents; and 3) the success of early intervention.


Muris, P. (2006). Freud was right…about the origins of abnormal behavior. Journal of Child

and Family Studies, 15(1), pp.1-12. doi:…… [read more]

Obstacles: Economic Setbacks Facing Single Mothers With Children Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,633 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


The effect of single motherhood on spirituality, in the end, boils down to an individual, their upbringing, as well as their social and habitual networks.

Societal influence and expectations cannot, however, be overlooked, especially given that society would often consider any single mother ungodly, because of the common belief that it is 'ungodly acts' that get people to become single mothers in the first place (Lleras, 2008).


Single motherhood is a demanding role because it requires a woman to meet the financial needs of her family, while molding her children to be responsible adults. In addition to the problems imposed by reduced finances and less parent-child interaction, there are additional problems brought about by societal expectations. These can be categorized into physical, emotional, and spiritual effects, all of which result from public discourses that make single mothers appear inferior to their counterparts in intact families.


Atkins, R. (2010). Self-Efficacy and the Promotion of Health for Depressed Single Mothers. Mental Health in Family Medicine, 7(3), 155-168.

Bramlett, M.D. & Blumberg, S.J. (2007). Health: Children in Single Mother and Grandparent-Only Families have Poorer Health than Children Living with Two Biological Parents. Health Affairs, 26(2), 549-558.

Bronniman, S. (2008). The Stress of Single Mothers and Its Effect on Quality Child Care. Undergraduate Research Journal for the Human Sciences, vol.7.

Falana, B.A., Bada, F.O. & Ayodele, C.J. (2012). Single-Parent Family Structure, Psychological, Social and Cognitive Development of Children in Ekiti State. Journal of Educational and Development Psychology, 2(2), 158-164.

Huda, P.R. (2001). Single Out: A Critique of the Representation of Single Motherhood in Welfare Discourse. William and Mary Journal of Women and the Law, 7(2), 341-381.

Lleras, C. (2008). Employment, Work Conditions, and the Home Environment in single-Mother Families. Journal of Family Issues, 29(10), 1268-1297.

Murry, V.M., Bynum, M.S., Brody, G.H., Willert, A.…… [read more]

Strengthening Social and Emotional Competence in Young Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (681 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Children's ability to control their emotions depends on their upbringing and training. Emotional and behavior management is a step towards good social skills and the academic performance. This article describes problem-solving skills that focus on skills like emotional literacy, communication skills, and anger management. Training children on the basic social skills are important for behavioral adjustments and academic success because good behavior facilitates cognitive development. The authors of this article suggest cognitive-behavioral therapy that would help children overcome their negative thoughts (Webster-Stratton, 2004).

Positive parenting is important in helping children develop social behaviors. Parents need to know the range of their children's emotional stands. In order to understand this, the parents need to work with their children and provide them with preschool social competencies. Study shows that children with low social skills come from families that experience excess hostile parenting, conflicts, and lack of attention. Children from stable families cope with situations easily and do not suffer from social behavior. Alternative parental strategies help solve two-thirds of the children's behavior problems (Webster-Stratton, 2004). Good home environment that involves good discipline, competence and good problem-solving skills help in moderating children thought and behavior system.

The second approach to child behavior involves teacher training. Teachers must recognize their students' emotional problems: they can be trained so that they can have problem-solving skills. Study indicates that the teacher' interaction with the students affects the students' socially and emotionally. Teachers must be positive in their teaching strategies by adopting the less aggressive techniques to control the students. Teacher training involves the use of workshops and training workshops that would help teachers acquire effective ways of fostering emotional development among their students. Other approaches to strengthening children's emotional competence are direct involvement of children in trainings on social, cognitive, and emotional management. Dinosaur program justifies parental guidance and teacher training as the effective ways of promoting cognitive behavior therapy.

The second article focuses on the responsibility of the schools towards the children's academic, moral, and social development. Teachers must always react positively…… [read more]

Understanding Children's Memory Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (854 words)
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Children's Developmental Stages And Testimony

Developmental Stages of Children

Describe a child's developmental stages as they relate to the ability to form memories and recall events.

Piaget is generally considered to have provided the starting point for theories related to child development. Developmental psychologists have established a robust body of literature that builds on Piagetian theory, and sometimes discounts it. Regardless, his work is seminal in the field of child development. Piaget's developmental stages theory has relevance to our discussion; they are as follows:

Sensorimotor stage: (birth to 2 years) it is important to note that this period has six sub-stages, during which intelligence is demonstrated through motor activity and is absent symbol use. Object permanence (memory and conceptualization of things existing out of one's sight) is acquired at about seven months. Infants acquire some receptive language and language symbolism (pointing, using basic sign language) long before they produce meaningful language (speak in words).

2. Pre-operational stage: (2-6 years) This 2-stage period shows demonstration of intellect through use of symbols, language, and imagination. Memory advances, but thinking is nonreversible and not logical with a solid egocentric base. Importantly, theory of mind develops during this stage, enabling children to understand that others have a separate point-of-view from their own. From this, children can interpret and explain what they observe and relay to others.

3. Concrete operational stage: (7-11 years) Intellect develops rapidly in this stage with seven types of conservation forming; that is, physical attributes are understood to have permanence unless altered by a named force or influence. Intellect is demonstrated by logical, systematic manipulation of symbols for concrete objects (circumference, volume, etc.). Mental actions are understood to be reversible and egocentric thought diminishes. In this stage, children attribute meaning to the actions of others based on what they will get or avoid (concrete).

4. Formal operational stage: (12 to adulthood) Intelligence is demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts. In adolescence, egocentric thought resurfaces, but to a lesser degree than in early childhood. Only about 35% of high school graduates in developed countries achieve formal operations, and it may be absent throughout adulthood. Cognitive maturation establishes opportunity for mental development: environmental influence is the key driver. Interpretation of recalled events is pegged to intellect and is self-referential.

In your opinion, what dynamic is the most influential in the elderly population that causes their dimensioned ability to recall events and situations?

Throughout their lives, people continually process information through assimilation and accommodation, aligning their thinking, constructs, and concepts to the environment. The processes occur…… [read more]

Military Children Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,358 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Using a systems approach, it is apparent that parents need to participate more in social activities and make social connections for the health of their families, whether or not they are in the military. This is because social connections are integral for resilience. Developing a strong social support network is not something that comes naturally for all parents, which is… [read more]

Childhood -11Years) Cognitive Development Book Review

Book Review  |  2 pages (686 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


In early years of preschool, stress is often as a result of efforts by caregivers to discipline children so that they can obey and comply. Another cause of stress is moving to a different culture. This is stress associated with transforming from one culture to another or mixed cultures as the child goes to school and meets other children.

A child's competencies or their capabilities that are related to physical, cognitive, and social and emotional development have an effect on how the child responds to stressful situations or interactions. Older children respond to stress differently as compared to young children. This is because of the physical, emotional cognitive development that they have gone through. Older children use emotion-focused coping strategies to manage or reduce emotional distress that arises in stressful situations.

3. Under nutrition and malnutrition

Malnutrition and the stress associated with this have an impact on a child's physical, cognitive, social and emotional development. For physical development if a child does not get sufficient and balanced food supply they will lack the nutrients which are required for their growth and development. When it comes to the cognitive development a child who is stressed due to lack of food will not be able to assimilate any form of formal instruction. They will also be emotionally affected due to the stress that comes with lack of food. Such children will not develop socially as they will be reserved and keep to themselves. Since the children will be having divided attention wherever they will be, there will not be sufficient time to play with their colleagues and socialize with them, hence they will be socially isolated and rebellious due to the malnutrition. This lack of the necessary basic interaction during play due to malnutrition will also affect children emotionally since their emotions will be bitterness and resentment as the body will not be in a position to allow the children mix with the others.


LearningRx Franchise Corp.(2014). Cognitive Stages for Child Development - Learning Requires Basic Cognitive Skills. Retrieved…… [read more]

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