Study "Child Development / Youth / Teens" Essays 111-165

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Problem of Child Sex Trafficking Research Paper

… Consequently, law enforcement personnel in such countries are at disadvantaged positions against child traffickers.

Law enforcement officers in some countries have stated that they are limited in prosecuting child trafficking violations because of the weak child protection systems in their… [read more]

Child Faith Research Paper

… e., faith-based) schools (Holder, Coleman, & Wallace, 2010). The children rated their own levels of spirituality and happiness on well-designed questionnaires and the parents and teachers of these children also rated the children's temperament using the emotionality, activity, and sociability temperament survey. The study found that children who were more spiritual were happier. Spirituality accounted for between 3 and 26% of the unique variance in children's happiness depending on the measures. Temperament was also a predictor of happiness, but spirituality remained a significant predictor of happiness even after removing the variance associated with temperament.

Other research has focused on constructing models that can effectively explain how a child's faith can translate into aspects of their personality and behavior. Fowler (1981) relates two stages of spiritual development in children: Stage 1 Primal Faith and stage 2 intuitive faith. According to Fowler the important factors of the child's lives of faith happen "in utero and in the very first months" of the child's life" (p. 102 cited in: Grajczonek, nd. p. 12). Gottlieb (2006) relates a three stage development model of spiritual development that in the first stage that children "pass through an intuitive stage in which they see religious identity as being bestowed by God or parents prayers are conceptualized as recipes for gratifying personal desires. Although there seems to be some conflicting theories of how spirituality relates to a child's personality and behavior, there is evidence to suggest that faith can and does influence happiness and temperament in children.

Works Cited

Holder, M., Coleman, B., & Wallace, J. (2010). Spirituality, Religiousness, and Happiness in Children Aged 8 -- 12 Years. Journal…… [read more]

Tapping Into Young Children's Spirituality Research Paper

… When children aren't allowed to explore their spiritual sides in a safe manner, then they become either secretive or they just mimic the spiritual beliefs of the adults in their lives. This is unacceptable: children should be able to explore their spiritual sides in a safe and practical manner with dialogue and communication strongly engaged. In fact, researchers found "that children had little opportunity for negotiating a shared understanding or experience of spirituality with adults and, as a result, either preserved an isolated and secret sense of spirituality or accepted what they observed to be their trusted adults' stance" (Karlsen et al. 2012). This is so problematic as it demonstrates that without proper spiritual teaching, there's a very real danger that children will either hide their spiritual path/journey from their parents or the adults in their lives, or just imitate what is presented to them -- without any critical thinking or cognitive processing. Thus, one can conclude that it's necessary for their spiritual and emotional development.

Spiritual education is so necessary within the educational setting so that children can develop secure attachments. Just as securely attached children grow into securely attached adults, the same is true for children. For example, when distressed, children generally turn to their caregivers, who help them in a sensitive way to deal with the distressing situation, something which teachers kids that other human beings are available in times of need and that distressing situations don't have to feel overwhelming (Roehlkepartain, 2010). In this sense, developing a solid spiritual side for children can help them understand that the universe or their higher power is there for them in times of need and that there is a benevolent energy force which is present and shaping human experience and that they can turn to it for help.


Flanagan, K.S., & Loveall, R. (2012). The spiritual craft of forgiveness: Its need and potential in children. Journal of Psychology & Christianity, 3(1), 3-15.

Karlsen, M.L., Coyle, A., & Williams, E. (2013). "they never listen": towards a grounded theory of the role played by trusted adults in the spiritual lives of children. Mental Health,

Religion & Culture, 17(3), 297-312.

Roehlkepartain, E.C. (2006). The handbook of spiritual development in childhood and adolescence. Thousand…… [read more]

Child Demographics Child Welfare Term Paper

… It found that those placed in unfamiliar foster care had greater problems internalizing than children maltreated by caregivers, those in familiar care and those who received positive care giving. Both groups of institutionalized children and those in foster care were… [read more]

Teenagers: Alcohol and Drunkenness Essay

… Religion can help by providing teenagers with a sense of the "bigger picture." Religious values can provide teenagers with a strong moral compass, and a sense of something greater than themselves. Even if teenagers aren't overtly religious and don't go to church, religion can still act as a beacon for them during some of the more formidable challenges and pressures of drinking, by offering an overall guidepost and guidelines for living. Religious organizations and community groups can also provide a sense of support, so that navigating some of the challenges of drinking can be done with greater ease.

4. Loving

The most loving plan that I can come up with regarding alcohol and drunkenness is one which recognizes that everyone is human and everyone makes mistakes -- and that hopefully young people will learn from those mistakes. This is not to absolve people of responsibility. There is still a responsibility present of adults to provide as much guidance, expectations and help to teenagers along the way as possible. There is still a responsibility of teenagers to make informed decisions and to not be careless. But the most loving way to consider all of this is to recognize the human quality in everyone and to realize that everyone makes mistakes.

5. Committed to Doing Justice

Being committed to doing justice means articulating one's moral values and being able to articulate them to oneself, along with being able to respect and uphold them. This is the living process of doing justice to oneself. Furthermore, respecting the laws and values of society is also important.

What choices can you take regarding drinking alcohol/drunkenness that will lead you to be the best version of yourself as God created you to be?

I can accomplish this by setting my own personal boundaries and respecting them consistently. This will help me to feel like I'm respecting myself. Furthermore, not engaging in any behaviors which makes me feel uncomfortable will also help accomplish that.

Come up with a plan of action for dealing with drinking alcohol/drunkenness in the future. (I.e. If faced with a similar challenge/issue in the future, what actions will you take and how can Scripture, Tradition, Reason and Experience help you in your decision-making process?)

In the future, I would make sure that there was always a set designated driver in place for all parties. Then I would have a phone number on hand in my phone of someone I could ask for advice that I trusted. And next time, I would give myself more overt permission to listen to my gut. Whenever I don't feel comfortable doing something, I need to give myself immediate permission not to do it, and to not feel compelled to provide a reason for it.… [read more]

Erikson: The Eight Stages Term Paper

… These are the child-rearing years, when the individual is trying to be productive for his or her family and establish a healthy relationship with his or her spouse and children. This is also the phase in which many people experience… [read more]

Spanking Children Essay

… The popularity behind the parent being in charge and in control is losing its appeal and the fairer, more level-headed parenting styles are becoming quite popular and successful. It is this same type of parenting that has produced more children that are patient, less prone to angry outbursts, and are psychologically stable. Making a more direct comparison between those adults that were spanked as children, and those that were not spanked, the evidence shows a clear disadvantage for children whose parents deem corporal punishment as an appropriate way of acting.


Benjet, C. & Kazdin, A.E. (2003). Spanking children: the controversies, findings, and new directions. Clinical Psychology Review. 23(2), 197-224.

Kazdin, A.E. & Benjet, C. (2003). Spanking Children: Evidence and issues. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 12(3), 99-103.

Nofziger, S. (2008). The "Cause" of Low Self-Control: The Influence of Maternal Self-Control. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. 45(2), 191-224.

Rodriguez, C.M., & Richardson, M.J. (2007). Stress and anger as contextual factors and pre-existing cognitive schemas: Predicting parental child maltreatment risk. Child Maltreatment. 12(4), 325-337.

Stacks, A.M., Oshio, T., Gerard, J., & Roe, J. (2009). The moderating effect of parental warmth on the association between spanking and child aggression: a longitudinal approach. Infant and Child Development. 18(2), 178-194.

Taylor, C.A., Manganello, J.A., Lee, S.J., & Rice, J.C. (2010). Mothers' Spanking of 3-Year-old Children and Subsequent Risk of Children's Aggressive Behavior. Journal of Pediatrics. 12(5), 1057-1065.

Turner, H.A. & Muller, P.A. (2004). Long-Term Effects of Child Corporal…… [read more]

Human Languages Term Paper

… When between groups comparisons were made on English measures, there was also a bilingual advantage in paradigmatic responding during the 1st elicitation and for verbs.

Meanwhile, according to a paper written by Masahiko Minami (2005) of San Francisco State University, the findings obtained were reminiscent of previous findings that presented proof in support of the linguistic relativity hypothesis, in which Whorf (1956) claimed that from early childhood onwards, children attain a precise worldwide as they acquire language. For example, according to Bloom (1979), people who speak Chinese are less likely than English speakers to present hypothetical interpretations for a hypothetical story that is because Chinese does not use a subjunctive mood in the sense of an obligatory marking in each verb or an identifiable verbal sequence. The highly impressive of the performance of children from an Asian background in mathematics is widely acknowledged, and Miura and Okamoto (1989) suggest that dissimilarities in mathematics performance amongst Japanese and English speaking children, for example, seem to be due to primary variations in the cognitive illustration of numbers that result from variations in specific language characteristics.

Therefore, it is clear that children's development is affected by the quality of being multilingual while the external factors impacting the child's development also affect the learning of the child. In most schools in developing nations liked England and the U.S., teachers encourage parents to continue to teach their children their native tongue as it will enhance their learning abilities while also make them associated with their native culture via the use of their own native language.


Bialystok, E. (2004). Consequences of Bilingualism for Cognitive Development. York University, 1, 1-43.

Bloom, A. (1979). The Impact of Chinese Linguistic Structure on Cognitive Style . Current Anthropology, 20(3), 585-586.

Whorf, B.L., & Carroll, J.B. (1956). Language, thought, and reality: selected writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press.

Minami, M. (2005). Bilingual Narrative Development in English and Japanese -- "A Form/Function Approach. Cascadilla Press, 5, 1618-1629.

Sheng, L. (2006). Lexical-Semantic Organization in Bilingual Children: Evidence from a repeated word association task. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 49, 572.… [read more]

Teen Pregnancy in the United States Essay

… Teen Pregnancy in the United States: How it Impacts Maternity Nurses

Teen pregnancy is one of the United States' most significant public health problems. This is because, when compared to other similarly industrialized nations with similar health care systems, the… [read more]

Child Guidance the Watertown (MA) Essay

… Also called performance assessments, authentic assessments provide an objective look at what a child can do. More authentic assessment of children is needed in the early childhood classroom. It supports developmentally appropriate educational practices because children can demonstrate the skills they have mastered in order to progress to the next level.

Children develop at different rates; two different children may not be equally ready to move from the three-year-old to the four-year-old class. Developmentally appropriate practices (DAP) were created to address three important early childhood issues: lack of universal high-quality early education programs, inappropriate curricula for young children, and growing concerns over lags in achievement among certain groups of children (Kostelnik, Soderman, and Whiren, 2011, p. 18). It does not make sense to push children before they are ready, despite what the calendar says about their ages. Children can only build on their learning if a solid foundation has first been established.

Practitioners who use DAP make decisions about the education and well-being of young children based on what they know about how children develop and learn. They also consider what they know about the strengths, needs and interests of individual children and take into context what they know about the social and cultural climates in which children live. Developmentally appropriate education is thus age appropriate as well as appropriate for the individual given that child's social and cultural context (Kostelnik et al., p. 20).

In a developmentally appropriate education, goals must be challenging for the child but also achievable. Learning and development occur when scaffolding takes place, that is, building on what a child already knows and can do. According to the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC), "intentionality" is a hallmark of developmentally appropriate teachers. These teachers create a caring community of learners, plan their curriculum to achieve important goals and enhance development and learning, and establish reciprocal relationships with families. In doing these things, teachers foster the right environment in which developmentally appropriate learning can take place ("The Core of DAP," n.d.)


Grisham-Brown, J., Hallam, R., and Brookshire, R. (2006). Using authentic assessment to evidence children's progress toward early learning standards. Early Childhood Education Journal 34(1), pp. 45-51.

Kostelnik, M.J., Soderman, A.K., and Whiren, A.P. (2011). Developmentally appropriate curriculum: Best practices in early childhood education. Boston: Pearson.

Mueller, J. (2011). Authentic assessment toolbox. Retrieved from http://jfmueller.faculty

The core of DAP. (n.d.) National Association for the Education of Young Children. Retrieved from… [read more]

Boundaries for Children Rules Research Paper

… A well know study published in the Journal of Family Psychology found that families with healthy boundaries and routines experience greater emotional health, contain children with stronger sense of selves, and enable parents to enjoy happier marriages (Hokemeyer, P., web).… [read more]

Corporal Punishment and Child Rearing in History Essay

… Corporal Punishment and Child Rearing in History

In a January 8, 2011, edition of World Street Journal, Amy Chua, professor at Yale Law School, ignited a firestorm with her article "Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior," where she argued that the… [read more]

Dynamism Between Parents and Children Essay

… Based on the psychologists report, the parenting styles are categorised as: authoritative, permissive, and authoritarian style (Amy Black, 2011).

Authoritarian style of parenting is used by parents who are authoritative in nature. They set high standards of behavior for their… [read more]

Child Abuse and Neglect Term Paper

… Child Abuse and Neglect

The following describes a case study scenario in which I am an experienced, protective services worker about to do the first home visit with a new family. It goes on to speculate what might happen, the… [read more]

Effects of TV Violence on Children Research Paper

… ¶ … TV Violence on Children

The Media has had a very controversial role in the last decades, given that society is unable to determine whether it brings more benefits than troubles. Surely, the role of media is a very… [read more]

Educational Outcomes for Youth in Foster Care Term Paper

… ¶ … child as they flourish into adulthood. Home life, education of parents, stability in the child's life, the socio-economic placement of the home, and the presence of abuse, just to name a few can be instrumental in determining the… [read more]

Psychological Affects Sexual Abuse Has on Teens Who Are Most Likely to Commit These Crimes Research Paper

… Psychological Affects Sexual Abuse Has on Teens: Who Are Most Likely to Commit These Crimes

A situation where an adult, an older child or a youth uses a child or youth for his or her own sexual gratification is referred… [read more]

Children Need to Play Not Compete Book Report

… Children Need to Play, Not Compete

A century ago, children were considered "little people," and treated accordingly. Play was for the very young child; once a child was old enough to work or help on the farm the child was put to task to help in whatever capacity the family needed. In the contemporary world, however, the concept of childhood has evolved. Children are expected to live in a world of happiness, wonder, socializing, and exploring -- all designed to prepare them for adolescence and adulthood. Part of the way children learn is through the concept of play, which is essential for the cognitive, physical, social, and emotional well-being of children (Ginsburg, 2007). Play, though, can take on many attributes, some of which may not be as positive as one might think.

In her essay, "Children Need to Play, Not Compete," author Jessica Statsky notes that over the past thirty years organized sporting activities have increased in the United States. As the Baby Boomers and Gen-Xers raise their families, a certain expectation of participating in activities like Little League Baseball and Peewee Football, and the competitive atmosphere they engender, are part and parcel of the modern child's path. This is particularly true in middle and upper-middle class families, where the child often takes the place of the unfulfilled desires of the parent, and their own competitive nature with friends and neighbors (e.g. "My son has an average of," etc.). This is not to say that participating in childhood sports is not appropriate, instead, it is the nature and focus of these events that may transcend childhood play and whisk that child into adulthood expectations, both physical and mental, without adequate preparation. The psychological dangers of this are immense, "Martin Rablovsky, a former sports editor of the New York Times says that in all his years of watching young children play organized sports, he has noticed very few of them smiling. 'I've seen children enjoying a spontaneous pre-practice scrimmage become somber and serious when the coach's whistle blows… the spirit of play suddenly disappears, and sport becomes job like'" (Coakley, 94 in Statsky, 2005, 176).

When did society decide that our children needed to vie for professional level sporting expertise at age eight? Shouldn't sports not only teach concepts like teamwork, fair play, sportsmanship, communication, but also provide a pleasurable outlet for a child's growing body and exuberance? When we couple this with the almost rabid instinct adults have for winning, we find that we often place our children in a no-win scenario -- they simply cannot learn and experiment and win all the time. Teams do not win all the time, and teaching children that it is fine to yell at the Coach or other teammates, to…… [read more]

Family Violence and the Effects in the Childhood Stage Research Paper

… Society's Interactive Effect On Childhood

"No man is an island" begins a phrase from a poem from John Donne which encompasses the ecological theory proposed by Urie Bronfenbrenner (Crandell, Crandell, & Zanden, 2009). Another quote suggesting the same principle is… [read more]

Psychological Capital Thesis

… Psychological Capital and Learners K-12

Throughout its long history, psychology developed into a field that deals largely with abnormal conditions. Recently, a new trend has developed within the field that highlights positive psychological attributes and the ability used them to… [read more]

Observing Child Care Center Thesis

… ¶ … Valley Interfaith Child Care Center.

Program Basics:

The program name was Valley Interfaith Child Care Center, located at 948 Heather Drive, Blacksburg, Virginia. The center's hours of operation are 7:00 A.M. To 6:00 P.M.. Tuition for Valley Interfaith… [read more]

Adolescents or Children at Risk Term Paper


"Some adolescents are troubled and some get into trouble.

But the great majority (almost nine out of ten) do not

The bottom line is that good kids don't suddenly go bad in adolescence" - Laurence Steinberg and Ann… [read more]

Identity Development During Adolescence Thesis

… Identity Development in Adolescence

Adolescence is the period in the human life growth process when we experience more physical and psychological changes than any other period in the life cycle. Some experts hold that adolescent psychological development of identity in… [read more]

Milestones in Early Childhood Development the Relationship Essay

… Milestones in Early Childhood Development

The relationship between a child and the parents has been the subject of extensive research, because it helps us to understand how to raise children in a way that prepares them to be well adjusted… [read more]

Child Care Facility Business Plan Business Plan

… Child Care Facility Business Plan

Location and Regulations to be Met

As the contemporaneous society evolves and develops, the needs of children and parents increase exponentially. A most relevant example in this sense is the emergence of more and more… [read more]

Teenager's Awareness and Their Lack of Implementing Term Paper

… ¶ … Teenager's Awareness and Their Lack of Implementing Information Security and Online Privacy Concepts

This work contains a research proposal for a behavioral medication intervention for teens ages 12 to 17, as well as for their parents and peer-groups… [read more]

Drama Therapy for Children Term Paper

… Drama Therapy for Children

Children's play often involves pretending to be someone else, somewhere else, or in different situations. Playing "house," playing "school" and playing "make believe" in general are all parts of being a child that people of all… [read more]

Child Abuse Prevention and Intervention Term Paper

… Child Abuse Prevention and Intervention

Review of the Relevant Literature

The sad irony of the continuing high incidence of child abuse in the United States today is the fact that the nation has historically prided itself on recognizing the individual… [read more]

Juvenile Delinquency What Is Delinquency? In Legal Term Paper

… Juvenile Delinquency

What is delinquency?

In legal terminology juvenile delinquency refers to "...behavior of children and adolescents that in adults would be judged criminal under law. "("Juvenile Delinquency," 2004)

However, the definition of what constitutes a juvenile vary in the… [read more]

Divorce Affects the Personality Term Paper

… The model involves an evaluation of the adolescents of the conflict as a possible mediator for emotional distress and both appraisals and emotional distress as possible mediators for health risk behaviors. The emotional distress was involved with various facets of… [read more]

Developmental Counseling With Children Term Paper

… Developmental Counseling With Children

First, the process of social cognitive development is discussed. Next, some important developmental social skills issues are addressed as they relate to three specific stages of development: early child- hood, middle childhood, and adolescence. Three separate… [read more]

Music Therapy and the Child With Learning Disabilities Term Paper

… Music Therapy in Autistic Children

Autism is a relatively low-incidence developmental disability that, according to Frith (1991), results in impairments of socialization, communication, and imagination. In an article describing her experiences, Donna Williams (1994a), a person with autism, defined the… [read more]

Behavioral Science Analysis of Social Issue Term Paper

… Youth Violence

There is no question of whether youth violence is a problem within the United States. While the rate of crime and violence is on a general down trend, nationally, youth violence is rising consistently. According to the Office… [read more]

Effects and Results of Children Living or Coming From Fatherless Homes Term Paper

… ¶ … Children/Fatherless Homes

Parenting: The Effects and Results of Children

Homes without a Father Present

The purpose of this paper is to research a large representative group of statistics and facts in relation to children who grow up in… [read more]

ADHD Children and How Behavior Therapy Is Necessary With the Use of Medication Term Paper

… ¶ … Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and how it affects children. The symptoms of the disorder are also being discussed. Thereafter the paper shall deal with the different aspects of the treatment for this disorder. In terms of the treatment,… [read more]

Pornography and Children Term Paper

… Literature on the subject, in fact, suggests a host of social and psychological consequences ranging from guilt, shame, and fear to depression, hysteria, and difficulties in learning and interpersonal relationships. While some of these effects such as physical and somatic… [read more]

Family Functional and Productive Term Paper

… Of course, my brother and I were not always the perfect gentlemen and had to be disciplined at different times of our lives. This is an area of lifespan development where recommendations regularly change from "sparing the rod and spoiling the child" to "even spanking can cause future psychological problems." Although the controversy of spanking vs. non-spanking will continue, it has become very clear in this generation that child abuse -- excess physical or emotional punishment -- can not only cause problems such as juvenile delinquency and low self-esteem, but also be continued from one generation to the next. There is a high incidence of abused children whose parents were abused when they were young. My parents did not spank us, but they did punish us by taking away privileges or giving us time outs when we were young. Normally, the punishment equalized the infraction -- such as the time I snuck my first alcohol and had to stay home for a month on weekends. My parents were not only concerned about me, but also the bad role model I was being for my younger brother.

One of the arguments that my parents often had was their difference in discipline. My mother was more of a disciplinarian than my dad, and became angry when he did not always back her up on her decisions. That created communication problems, as well. My father had a tough time telling us "no." However, when he got mad -- we knew to stay clear! I realize that this is something that a husband and wife have to be clear on before raising children. It can create unnecessary conflicts and confuse the children.

My parents and their parents had little training in parenting. Today, youths receive some education on this in school. However, societal changes are making it much more difficult to raise children. The number of single parents, who are often economically disadvantaged, is on the rise. Family dynamics are changing -- the nuclear family is much less prevalent and there are many different types of family structures such as the single parent mentioned above, as well as grandparents and other relatives as caregivers, gay parents, later marriages and childbirth, and dual-income parents. Also, society is changing in other ways with increased crime, lower average incomes, increased divorce, changing sex roles and the aging population. My grandparents lived near us, so my parents had a support system. That, too, is changing in today's society as families live in different parts of the country and world.

Increasing numbers of educators in high schools and college are recognizing the import of teaching young adults about the intricacies about family life, coping with societal changes and taking better control of one's life. When traditions die out and change is in the forefront, education and training such as this is vital to lessen burdens and reduce the number of potential problems that dysfunctional families can bring.


Coles, Robert. (1970) Eric Erikson: The Growth of his Work. Boston:… [read more]

Childhood Development of Sexual Minorities Term Paper

… One can imagine that this discomfort within their bodies would also lead to a general rejection of some of the ideas of self and the body which ordinary development would be forming about this age. Less directly, members of this… [read more]

America Term Paper

… I remember verbally disciplining a child who belonged to a woman in my social group, and how angry she got. She said her child was her business and to never speak to her child about her actions again.

The environment that I grew up in allowed me to become secure in who I am. It also taught me that there are societal guidelines we must follow, as I learned when I would misbehave when my parents were not around and some other adult would tell me to stop.

The most important family values I was given was unconditional love. My parents let me know the rules but loved me even if I tested them. I knew they would always be there and that security allowed me to explore the society and community I was raised in.

The cultural values were almost unlimited as we came together for Italian Thanksgivings, holidays from home and other things that ingrained my heritage into my value system.

My culture has shaped my experience in life for several reasons. I find that I am much more sensitive to racial implications than my white friends are. I am an Italian, and most race troubles against my culture disappeared a generation ago. My parents however, told me of the things that they encountered and it has made me more sensitive to the plight of African-Americans and Asians etc. In this country. Had I not heard about the problems my parents encountered I might be less sensitive to racial equality and the importance of its achievement.

While I was growing up my parents shielded me from many of society's harsh realities. Now that I am a young adult I find that the world is a tougher place than they ever let me know. I was given self-confidence however, and that provides me with the protection I need to succeed as an adult. My community gave me a sense of pride in my heritage as well as in being an American. My parents gave me a sense of pride in my accomplishments. This armor will wear well and long in the world.

The next generation needs to be provided with values such as the ones I was raised with. Honesty, hard work, integrity and pride are all essential elements to success, but none of them are as important as compassion for fellow humans. The saying "It takes a village" holds true today, and will still hold true in the future. If society wants the world to move in a positive direction it must be willing to be part of that village and help nurture the children it raises. My childhood taught me about love and nurturing and the things I do as an adult will reflect the importance of those lessons.


Taking Parenting Public: The Case for a New Social Movement. Sylvia Ann Hewlett (Editor), Nancy Rankin (Editor), Cornel West (Editor)… [read more]

Children's Safety on the Internet Term Paper

… Children's Safety On The Internet

State and federal Internet laws and regulations have made it safer for children online.

One of the most frequent headlines hitting newspapers and also receiving attention in magazines is regarding the issue of online privacy… [read more]

Foster Children/Foster Care Issues Term Paper

… Beginning in the 1960s, the numbers of reports of child abuse and neglect grew dramatically -- from ten thousand in 1962 (Lindsey, 1996), to almost three million in 1999 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001a). Consistent with legal… [read more]

Gap: Early Childhood Intervention Term Paper

… "The findings of these early studies of mental growth of infants has been repeated sufficiently often so that it is now well established that test scores earned in the first year or two have relatively little predictive validity" (Bayley, 1970).… [read more]

Pregnant Teens Run a Severe Risk of Poor Outcomes for Their Children Chapter

… Prevention of Adolescent Pregnancy / Infant Mortality

Although the specific reasons are not yet clearly understood and accepted, it is a fact that adolescent pregnancy can lead to adverse birth outcomes. It is also a fact that pregnancy rates among adolescents have dropped significantly. This paper reviews the pregnancy rate among adolescents, reviews the adverse birth outcomes for those pregnant teens, and provides a plan to reduce and even prevent adolescent pregnancies.

Adolescent pregnancies and infant mortality

The birth rate for U.S. females between the ages of 15-19 has dropped dramatically over the past few years. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in 1991 the overall birth rate for adolescents in the above-mentioned age category was 61.8 births per 1,000 people. But by 2013, that rate had dropped to 26.6 per 1,000 (CDC). Among African-American adolescents the rate of births plummeted from 118.2 per 1,000 in 1991 to 39.2 per 1,000 on 2013 (CDC). Among Latino adolescents the birth rate dropped from 104.6 to 41.9 in the same time period as mentioned above. And when it comes to Native Americans and Alaska Natives, the rate of births dropped from 84.1 to 31.2 in the time frame alluded to in this paragraph (CDC).

The Department of Health & Human Services explains that one in six-15-year-old girls will give birth by the time she is twenty years old; for African-Americans, it is one in four girls and for thirteen-year-old Latinos one in three will have a child by her twentieth birthday (HHS). Also, the children born to teenage mothers: a) are known to have poorer "cognitive and educational outcomes"; b) have more behavioral issues ("fighting, delinquency, and early sexual experience"); and c) have "poor health outcomes" (HHS).

Teen pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes

The explanations for why there are adverse birth outcomes when teenagers are pregnant (poor social environment; poor prenatal care; or "biological immaturity") are controversial (Chen, 2007). But what is known is that the risks of pre-term delivery, very low birth weight (LBW), and "small for gestational age" (SGA), is far greater for mothers under 17 and "always highest among infants born to mothers aged 15 or younger" (Chen, p. 5).

A Teen pregnancy prevention program

The mission of PTP…… [read more]

Freud Was Right, Peter Muris Research Paper

… In addition, through modeling, children may repeat their parents' behavior, specifically abnormal behavior. Learning experiences, particularly aversive life events, can play a role in psychopathology, including simply the acquisition of negative information. Societal-level influences can include things such as the impact of racism leading to higher levels of anxiety in black South African children than in white South African children, which is linked to the socioeconomic differences between the two groups.

Muris discusses the impact that early intervention during youth can decrease adult psychopathology in impacted youth. These interventions can include parental training and various forms of cognitive behavioral therapy. However, interventions have not necessarily been specifically tailored to those working with problem youths. Moreover, many children may lack access to help because of the stigma related to mental health disorders.

The article of the title was misleading in that it did not really discuss Freudian psychology or even begin to investigate the notion that Freud's Oedipal theories may have hinted at the very real psychological disorders that can result from childhood sexual abuse, which dovetails nicely into theories linked to childhood obsession with parental sexuality. Instead, the article only focuses on whether or not abnormal behavior has its roots in childhood. The article makes it clear that there is substantial empirical support for multiple ideas linking abnormal psychology to childhood: 1) a link between adult abnormal behavior and childhood circumstances; 2) high rates of abnormal psychological behavior in children and adolescents; and 3) the success of early intervention.


Muris, P. (2006). Freud was right…about the origins of abnormal behavior. Journal of Child

and Family Studies, 15(1), pp.1-12. doi:…… [read more]

Obstacles: Economic Setbacks Facing Single Mothers With Children Research Paper

… The effect of single motherhood on spirituality, in the end, boils down to an individual, their upbringing, as well as their social and habitual networks.

Societal influence and expectations cannot, however, be overlooked, especially given that society would often consider any single mother ungodly, because of the common belief that it is 'ungodly acts' that get people to become single mothers in the first place (Lleras, 2008).


Single motherhood is a demanding role because it requires a woman to meet the financial needs of her family, while molding her children to be responsible adults. In addition to the problems imposed by reduced finances and less parent-child interaction, there are additional problems brought about by societal expectations. These can be categorized into physical, emotional, and spiritual effects, all of which result from public discourses that make single mothers appear inferior to their counterparts in intact families.


Atkins, R. (2010). Self-Efficacy and the Promotion of Health for Depressed Single Mothers. Mental Health in Family Medicine, 7(3), 155-168.

Bramlett, M.D. & Blumberg, S.J. (2007). Health: Children in Single Mother and Grandparent-Only Families have Poorer Health than Children Living with Two Biological Parents. Health Affairs, 26(2), 549-558.

Bronniman, S. (2008). The Stress of Single Mothers and Its Effect on Quality Child Care. Undergraduate Research Journal for the Human Sciences, vol.7.

Falana, B.A., Bada, F.O. & Ayodele, C.J. (2012). Single-Parent Family Structure, Psychological, Social and Cognitive Development of Children in Ekiti State. Journal of Educational and Development Psychology, 2(2), 158-164.

Huda, P.R. (2001). Single Out: A Critique of the Representation of Single Motherhood in Welfare Discourse. William and Mary Journal of Women and the Law, 7(2), 341-381.

Lleras, C. (2008). Employment, Work Conditions, and the Home Environment in single-Mother Families. Journal of Family Issues, 29(10), 1268-1297.

Murry, V.M., Bynum, M.S., Brody, G.H., Willert, A.…… [read more]

Strengthening Social and Emotional Competence in Young Children Term Paper

… Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Children's ability to control their emotions depends on their upbringing and training. Emotional and behavior management is a step towards good social skills and the academic performance. This article describes problem-solving skills that focus on skills like emotional literacy, communication skills, and anger management. Training children on the basic social skills are important for behavioral adjustments and academic success because good behavior facilitates cognitive development. The authors of this article suggest cognitive-behavioral therapy that would help children overcome their negative thoughts (Webster-Stratton, 2004).

Positive parenting is important in helping children develop social behaviors. Parents need to know the range of their children's emotional stands. In order to understand this, the parents need to work with their children and provide them with preschool social competencies. Study shows that children with low social skills come from families that experience excess hostile parenting, conflicts, and lack of attention. Children from stable families cope with situations easily and do not suffer from social behavior. Alternative parental strategies help solve two-thirds of the children's behavior problems (Webster-Stratton, 2004). Good home environment that involves good discipline, competence and good problem-solving skills help in moderating children thought and behavior system.

The second approach to child behavior involves teacher training. Teachers must recognize their students' emotional problems: they can be trained so that they can have problem-solving skills. Study indicates that the teacher' interaction with the students affects the students' socially and emotionally. Teachers must be positive in their teaching strategies by adopting the less aggressive techniques to control the students. Teacher training involves the use of workshops and training workshops that would help teachers acquire effective ways of fostering emotional development among their students. Other approaches to strengthening children's emotional competence are direct involvement of children in trainings on social, cognitive, and emotional management. Dinosaur program justifies parental guidance and teacher training as the effective ways of promoting cognitive behavior therapy.

The second article focuses on the responsibility of the schools towards the children's academic, moral, and social development. Teachers must always react positively…… [read more]

Understanding Children's Memory Essay

… Children's Developmental Stages And Testimony

Developmental Stages of Children

Describe a child's developmental stages as they relate to the ability to form memories and recall events.

Piaget is generally considered to have provided the starting point for theories related to child development. Developmental psychologists have established a robust body of literature that builds on Piagetian theory, and sometimes discounts it. Regardless, his work is seminal in the field of child development. Piaget's developmental stages theory has relevance to our discussion; they are as follows:

Sensorimotor stage: (birth to 2 years) it is important to note that this period has six sub-stages, during which intelligence is demonstrated through motor activity and is absent symbol use. Object permanence (memory and conceptualization of things existing out of one's sight) is acquired at about seven months. Infants acquire some receptive language and language symbolism (pointing, using basic sign language) long before they produce meaningful language (speak in words).

2. Pre-operational stage: (2-6 years) This 2-stage period shows demonstration of intellect through use of symbols, language, and imagination. Memory advances, but thinking is nonreversible and not logical with a solid egocentric base. Importantly, theory of mind develops during this stage, enabling children to understand that others have a separate point-of-view from their own. From this, children can interpret and explain what they observe and relay to others.

3. Concrete operational stage: (7-11 years) Intellect develops rapidly in this stage with seven types of conservation forming; that is, physical attributes are understood to have permanence unless altered by a named force or influence. Intellect is demonstrated by logical, systematic manipulation of symbols for concrete objects (circumference, volume, etc.). Mental actions are understood to be reversible and egocentric thought diminishes. In this stage, children attribute meaning to the actions of others based on what they will get or avoid (concrete).

4. Formal operational stage: (12 to adulthood) Intelligence is demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts. In adolescence, egocentric thought resurfaces, but to a lesser degree than in early childhood. Only about 35% of high school graduates in developed countries achieve formal operations, and it may be absent throughout adulthood. Cognitive maturation establishes opportunity for mental development: environmental influence is the key driver. Interpretation of recalled events is pegged to intellect and is self-referential.

In your opinion, what dynamic is the most influential in the elderly population that causes their dimensioned ability to recall events and situations?

Throughout their lives, people continually process information through assimilation and accommodation, aligning their thinking, constructs, and concepts to the environment. The processes occur…… [read more]

Military Children Research Paper

… Using a systems approach, it is apparent that parents need to participate more in social activities and make social connections for the health of their families, whether or not they are in the military. This is because social connections are… [read more]

Childhood -11Years) Cognitive Development Book Review

… In early years of preschool, stress is often as a result of efforts by caregivers to discipline children so that they can obey and comply. Another cause of stress is moving to a different culture. This is stress associated with transforming from one culture to another or mixed cultures as the child goes to school and meets other children.

A child's competencies or their capabilities that are related to physical, cognitive, and social and emotional development have an effect on how the child responds to stressful situations or interactions. Older children respond to stress differently as compared to young children. This is because of the physical, emotional cognitive development that they have gone through. Older children use emotion-focused coping strategies to manage or reduce emotional distress that arises in stressful situations.

3. Under nutrition and malnutrition

Malnutrition and the stress associated with this have an impact on a child's physical, cognitive, social and emotional development. For physical development if a child does not get sufficient and balanced food supply they will lack the nutrients which are required for their growth and development. When it comes to the cognitive development a child who is stressed due to lack of food will not be able to assimilate any form of formal instruction. They will also be emotionally affected due to the stress that comes with lack of food. Such children will not develop socially as they will be reserved and keep to themselves. Since the children will be having divided attention wherever they will be, there will not be sufficient time to play with their colleagues and socialize with them, hence they will be socially isolated and rebellious due to the malnutrition. This lack of the necessary basic interaction during play due to malnutrition will also affect children emotionally since their emotions will be bitterness and resentment as the body will not be in a position to allow the children mix with the others.


LearningRx Franchise Corp.(2014). Cognitive Stages for Child Development - Learning Requires Basic Cognitive Skills. Retrieved…… [read more]

Lasa 1 Promoting Cognitive Development Term Paper

… ¶ … developmental theorists provide similar theories concerning a person's development during the first two decades of his or her life. Piaget focused on explaining that children experience a graduate self-discovery process during their early years. From his perspective, the time period lasting from eleven and until sixteen is essential in people's lives because it is then when individuals realize that they have the power to devise solutions to their problems and put them into use. These people feel empowered by their self-awareness and are inclined to search for little to no assistance from their parents.

Erik Erikson partially agreed to Piaget's theories by emphasizing that teenagers are dedicated to finding their personal identities. Adolescents are apparently intrigued by the fact that life is becoming more complex at this point and they come to do everything in their power in order to create an identity that they can actually relate to. Many individuals are probable to lose understanding of the concept of responsibility at this point as they detach themselves from the world that they became accustomed to until that time.

B.F. Skinner focused on providing people with the reality that individuals act on account of stimuli and that operant conditioning plays an essential role in a person's development. A person is likely to continue to perform a particular activity if he or she observes that it is somehow rewarding. While the other theorists are primarily concerned about the developmental period, Skinner wants people to look at matters from a more general point-of-view and to understand that there is an explanation for any learned behavior, regardless of its character (Charlesworth 12).

Lev Vygostsky devised the zone of proximal development theory and explained that a lower limit of ZPD represents…… [read more]

Illuminate the Influence of Parents and Parenting Research Paper

… ¶ … illuminate the influence of parents and parenting on college-age drinking habits is indeed a worthwhile endeavor as the parenting style one exhibits clearly impacts the development of the child -- even into young adulthood such as the college… [read more]

Childhood Asthma Research Paper

… This is problematic as the longer asthma allows to subsist being under-diagnosed, the more lasting damage it is able to do to the lungs of the child (CHP, 21).


Children who have asthma live with an inflammation of the… [read more]

Meagans Law Meagan's Law Questions and Answers Essay

… Meagans Law

Meagan's law

Questions and Answers: Meagan's law

Questions and Answers: Meagan's law

Interviewing children requires a unique set of skills to accurately assess but at the same time, not re-traumatize the child. Discuss some of the finer points… [read more]

Physical Activity Sociological Essay

… The information provided on socialization into sport has profound implications concerning readiness for participation in organized sport (Maddison, Jiang, Vander Hoorn, Ni Mhurchu, Exeter, Utter, 2010). Children who come from families that value and participate in sport-related activities with their children would be expected to have a higher degree of readiness for participation in organized sport than those who do not. Children who are adequately socialized into the role of an athlete often accept this role willingly. There are, of course, exceptions to this broad generalization.

There are several ways in which socialization acts to help affect the readiness of a child for organized sport participation. Socialization through modeling and actual participation in sport-related activities would increase children's knowledge of the activity, make them less fearful of participation, assist in the development of sport related movement skills, and enhance their motivation to participate for either intrinsic or extrinsic reasons (Brown, Pfeiffer, McIver, Dowda, Addy, Pate, 2009). Knowledge, motor skill development and motivation have all been included in the present model for the prediction of organized sport participation readiness. Socialization contributes to the development of each. Consequently, it is predicted that socialization would be an especially powerful factor in a child's readiness for participation in organized sport. Without adequate socialization into the role of organized sport participant, successful and enjoyable sport experiences would seem unlikely.


I might have not have measured all of the important aspects of the schools and neighborhoods for determining children's physical activity. For example, in the current analyses I did not include measures of social inequality, racial discrimination, or social capital, because of less literature available on these aspects, yet it has been hypothesized that these factors may be important. Similarly, I have been unable to measure important aspects of the home environment and other student characteristics that are significant sociological aspects in physical activity of children.


Bower, J.K., Hales, D.P., Tate, D.F., Rubin, D.A., Benjamin, S.E., & Ward, D.S. (2008). The childcare environment and children's physical activity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 34, 23 -- 29.

Brown, William H; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Addy, Cheryl L.; and Pate Russell R. (2009). Social and Environmental Factors Associated With Preschoolers' Nonsedentary Physical Activity. Child Development, Volume 80, Number 1, Pages 45 -- 58.

Carver A, Timperio A, Crawford D. (2008). Playing it safe: the influence of neighborhood safety on children's physical activity. A review. Health Place.;14(2): 217-227.

Cradock AL, Kawachi I, Colditz GA, Gortmaker SL, Buka SL. (2009) Neighborhood social cohesion and youth participation in physical activity in Chicago. Social Science Med.;68(3):427-435.

Leatherdale ST, Manske S, Faulkner G, Arbour K, Bredin C. (2010). A multi-level examination of school programs, policies and resources associated with physical activity among elementary school youth in the PLAY-ON study. Int Journal Behavior Nutrition Physics Act.7 (1):6.

Maddison R, Jiang Y, Vander Hoorn S, Ni Mhurchu C, Exeter D, Utter J. (2010). Perceived vs. actual distance to local physical-activity facilities: does it really matter? Journal Physical Act Health.7… [read more]

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Special Education Case Study

… The alcohol essentially malforms brain cells and/or hinders the full development. FAS is one of the leading causes of retardation in western societies:

Mental retardation is a cardinal feature of FAS and is now recognized as the leading known cause… [read more]

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