"Child Development / Youth / Teens" Essays

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Child Development Theory Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,259 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Educational Psychology Case Study and Analysis

The subject of this case study is an 18-year-old male who, for the purposes of this project, will be referred to as "Steven." Steven illustrated high intelligence and precocious cognitive development as an infant, and as a small child. In those respects, Steven reached several specific milestones of cognitive development before his peers and performed very well in educational measures generally associated with intelligence throughout elementary and middle school. However, as Steven entered adolescence, he became easily bored and distracted in school and his academic performance dropped significantly. Steven also found himself in trouble for disciplinary violations on many occasions.

In many respects, at least with the benefit of hindsight, there were indications of problems in Steven's perception of moral rules and values even before adolescence. Those problems became much worse in adolescence and eventually resulted in his being confined to a school for troubled boys at the age of 17 for repeated disciplinary problems in school as well as at home. Steven began talking earlier than his peers and also demonstrated other elements of high intelligence and cognitive development in relation to perceiving various physical relationships and associations. Steven also absorbed rules and logical principles early.

However, Steven always (in retrospect) seemed to lack the ability to appreciate some of the fundamental principles and concepts served by rules. That was particularly evident in the distinctions that Steven made in connection with telling the truth, making promises, and negotiating fair solutions to problems. From a very early age, Steven spoke very definitively about and could articulate the meaning and importance of being "honest"; on the other hand, he seemed to lack the same ability (or interest) in honesty in the spirit of rule that he had always easily recognized in terms of honesty in the proverbial letter of rules and promises.

Two specific examples concerned an incident involving the trade of his bike for skateboard that he had been specifically forbidden to purchase with his allowance and the manner in which he used to trick his much younger brother into accepting unfair compromises or agreements. In the first case, when Steven was 14, he had expressed the desire to purchase an expensive custom-made skateboard with his allowance. His parents forbade him from "spending your money on a skateboard" primarily because they thought it was too dangerous and also because they disapproved of the particular friends with whom he intended to skateboard. His parents agreed to allow Steven to "buy yourself a bike instead." Steven purchased a bike and immediately traded it for a skateboard. When his father confiscated it, Steven had a tantrum because, according to him, he "didn't buy a fucking skateboard; I bought a bike and traded for the skateboard."

The other incident occurred when Steven was 12 and his younger brother was 5. Steven allowed his brother to watch cartoons on television instead of a science fiction program in return for the agreement that "I get to watch whatever I want… [read more]


Online Sexual Predators Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,637 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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Sexual Predators

Online sexual predators are a serious threat to society. "One in four U.S. teen girls reported that they met strangers off the Internet. One in seven boys admitted they did as well," ("Internet Predators"). About one-fourth of all children have been "exposed to unwanted pornographic material online," (SentryPC). More importantly, young people are "dying at the hands of… [read more]


Adolescence Stress and Depression Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,014 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

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Stress and Depression Among Adolescents

What are the common causes of stress and depression among American adolescents? What is the relationship between stress and depression in young people? How does the conflict between adolescents and their parents contribute to stress? These and other questions will be addressed in this paper.

Stress among Adolescents

An article in the journal Social Forces… [read more]


Romantic Child and Rousseau's Emile Seminar Paper

Seminar Paper  |  3 pages (997 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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The Romantic Child and Emile by Rousseau

Jean Jacques Rousseau wrote Emile in 1762. The alternate title of this innovative novel is On Education because Rousseau's motivation for the story was to describe a system of education that would allow the natural innocence and intrinsic goodness of the young child to survive without corruption into adulthood. It is sometimes regarded as the first detailed and complete philosophy of education in Western culture. "To say that children enjoyed special status in the Romantic period is perhaps to spout a cliche. The Romantics created a new economy of respect for children by acknowledging their differences from adults, and henceforth viewing them as adequate children as opposed to deficient adults." (Ferguson, Winter 2003) This was an important and highly significant time for the fields of education, child psychology and child development, sociology, and family studies. The meaning of childhood changed considerably in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, and Emile is one of the most famous texts to depict this new world view.
The methods that Rousseau employed to introduce and promote his ideas are best depicted within five components, corresponding with the five individual units that make up the whole of Emile. These five components consist of the fundamental philosophy of Rousseau's educational system and how best to incorporate that philosophy into raising a child, the initial interaction between the child and the world, the need for early selection of a trade, the child's emotional education during his adolescence, and the philosophic foundation of female educational requirements.
The opening line of Emile is famous for its implied criticisms on the nature and intent of society: "Everything is good as it leaves the hands of the Author of things; everything degenerates in the hands of man." (Rousseau, 1979) This statements is indicative of Rousseau's general philosophic view of man and the world, discussed in detail in The Social Contract, first published in the same year as Emile. The premise is that man's base nature must be suppressed in order to live in harmony with and function appropriately in civilized society. In Emile, Rousseau attempts to figure out how it might be possible to raise a child to take a proper place in a society that both expects and demands accountability, responsibility, and productivity, without training the fundamental innocence and goodness out of the child's nature.
In Book I, Rousseau begins with the early physical and emotional development of the child. He endorses breastfeeding and swaddling for the infant, and advises one not to shelter a young child so he learns early that there are harshness and hardships to be found in the adult world. Within this point of view is the memory of this author's childhood and a father whose constant refrain was, "Life is hard! Life is not easy! Life is not fair!" This was a man who believed strongly in building a foundation of resilience and endurance in his children with rigid expectations and harsh discipline. He seems…… [read more]


Raising a Sensory Smart Child: The Definitive Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,605 words)
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Raising a Sensory Smart Child: The Definitive Handbook for Helping Your Child With Sensory Processing Issues. A Book by Lindsey Biel and Nancy Peske.

Raising a Sensory Smart Child

Author Lindsey Biel went from having her own advertising and marketing agency -- from, as she writes, "…wearing tailored suits and heels to boring meetings -- to wearing "fingerpaint and tuna-fish-smeared… [read more]


Effect of Single Child Family Structure on the Communication Process Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  12 pages (4,156 words)
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¶ … Child Family Structure on the Communication Process

"the family is an extraordinarily rich context or gathering information on human social behavior"

(Floyd & Haynes, 2005, p. 79).

During a hard-line speech in 1979, Deng Xiaoping initially stressed that China's one child policy be put into practice, Steven W. Mosher (2006), president of the Population Research Institute in Front… [read more]


Epidemiology Global and Public Health Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,323 words)
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Epidemiology: Global and Public Health

Epidemiology studies the frequency of diseases or health conditions in different population groups, as well as the reasons for this frequency. The findings of such a study can then be used in strategies to help prevent the problems related to the condition, or indeed, to prevent the condition itself.

One key step is to identify a particular population that is at risk of the condition being studied. Specifically, the condition addressed here is teenage pregnancy in Fulton, Georgia. The population group addressed is therefore teenagers in Fulton, and the condition examined is unwanted pregnancy. The importance of this study relates to the fact that unwanted teenage pregnancy is not only a health issue, but also a sociological one. In the typical epidemiological study then, both strategies to mitigate the consequences of unwanted pregnancy and to prevent the phenomenon can be established.

Selecting the target population is an important issue. Often completely random selection is not possible. Examining the entire target population is also not a very feasible option. It is therefore often necessary to make a partially random selection by means of identifying an accessible subset within the target population. Fulton, GA is then selected as such an accessible subset, with a random population chosen to examine the teenage pregnancy problem.

This is a viable approach, because the subset is sufficiently representative of teenagers and their risk of unwanted pregnancy across the United States. Once teenagers in Fulton are therefore examined for their risk factors, the conclusions and strategies identified as a result can be applied to other similar population groups with a large degree of probable success.

In selecting the specific study population for this epidemiological investigation, it is required that there are three main similar characteristics: participating members must be female, within the teen age group, and resident in Fulton, Georgia.

For the year 2006, the demographics of Fulton, Georgia is as follows:

The total population for Fulton was 960,009. Of this, the percentage of children under 18 was 25%. The median household income from 2000 was $51,882, with individuals in poverty estimated at 15,4%. In the Healthy Children category, babies with a birth weight of more than 2,500 grams was 89,7%, with babies with low birth weight being 10.7%. Infant mortality per 1,000 for the county was 7.1. In terms of sexual activity among teenagers, teen pregnancies for ages between 15-17 per 1,000 was 35,7, and teen births for ages 15-19 per 1,000 were 41,6. Teen mothers giving birth to another child before she was 20 was 22,2%, and the incidence of STD for youths between 15-19 per 1,000 was 60,9. Teen deaths or ages 15-19 per 100,000 was 55.6. Teenagers dropping out from high school between ages 16-19 was 9%. In the same age group, those not working and not at school was also 9%. In terms of families, incidents of child abuse and/or neglect per 1,000 was 10,9. The unemployment rate was 4,8%, and children living in poverty was 24.6%.… [read more]


Sociology Teenage Pregnancy Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,558 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

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Sociology

Teenage Pregnancy

Teenage pregnancy is a common ever increasing important health issue among teenagers today. It has negative consequences for both the teenagers who become pregnant and for their children. Babies that are born to teenagers are more likely to have lower birth weights, increased infant mortality, and an increased risk of hospital admission in early childhood. They are… [read more]


Restorative Justice," John Braithwaite ) Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,280 words)
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¶ … Restorative Justice," John Braithwaite (1998) suggests that Hollywood movies and television shows lend credence to the American view that the justice system should be hard on crime. Anyone who as watched an episode of Law and Order or CSI would have to agree. Many times these shows depict stories of criminals who do not commit crimes out of pre-meditation, but rather desperation and need. In most, these criminals are not treated any differently than those who commit crimes coldly, and with premeditation. With this hard-line Hollywood attitude, one might suspect that Americans believe that a get-touch correctional system is correct, but this is not necessarily true. Through an exploration of restorative justice in the community and specific attitudes in the United States, one can determine that the American people actually want a rehabilitative correctional system.

Instead of a punitive criminal justice system, which pits criminals and victims against each other, a rehabilitative system is more community-based, encouraging a tighter-knit community and country. These are characteristics that the American people value. According to Braithwaite (1998), restorative justice is not only a "major development in criminological thinking," but also it is the first and primary method of penal systems throughout history (433).

In fact, Braithwaite argues that it has been the dominant system for many different peoples and cultural groups, including Hindus, Buddhists, Arabs, Greeks, and Romans. While some may suggest that this does not hold relevance for the United States, the truth is actually just the opposite. In fact, the laws and cultures in the United States are made up primarily of the building blocks from these communities. If the ancient Greek and Roman ideas of government and learning have been passed on to the United States, it would make sense that attitudes toward the penal system would be similarly passed to United States Citizens. Furthermore, this information suggests that a variety of cultures, religions, and ethnicities are united by their desire to help others, a desire for rehabilitation.

Not only is the melting pot nation of the United States made up of cultures that have embraced rehabilitation, but also restorative justice is also integral in bringing together the community. As community cohesiveness is a value that is praised by United States' citizens, this suggests that most United States' citizens favor rehabilitation. In Braithwaite's (1998) case study, he gives the example of two teens arrested for robbery, one who dies early because of a penal system, and the other who undergoes a restorative justice programs and is reunited with his victim, to both of their advantage. The teen is given a support system that allows him to function semi-normally in society and the victim becomes sympathetic to his situation, and is no longer afraid to walk alone. This system suggests that the community is coming together. In the second case, the high school, family, the victim, and her family came together. Several people who would have been oblivious of each other or enemies were brought together in order to… [read more]


Childcare Facility Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (779 words)
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Child Care Policy

Childcare Policies

The difficulty with case studies regarding care of sick children is that both sides are correct. The childcare center has an obligation to provide a safe and healthy environment for the children under their care. When a child is sick, it threatens the ability of the childcare facility to provide a healthy environment for the rest of the children and staff. This case study addresses two separate issues: sick children and payment issues. They are both violations of daycare policy, but they are two entirely separate issues. This analysis will address the implications of policies regarding both of these issues.

The most difficult of the issues is that of sick children and the parent who refuses to pick up their child due to work. It is easy for the childcare facility to blame the parent, but both sides must consider the position of the other. The parent may be pressured by her work environment, or may be in danger of losing her employment if she continually has to take off work to attend to a sick child. The parent has no good choice in this case. Low-income families are particularly at risk for this type of dilemma (Heymann, Penrose, & Earle, 2006). This issue cannot be resolved between the parent and the childcare center. Both sides need to pressure the government for an extension of the Family Medical Leave Act to include sick children (Heymann, Earle, & Penrose, 2007). If parents were not afraid of losing their job, they would be more willing to abide by childcare facility policies and pick up their child quickly.

When a parent refuses to pick up their child, it has an impact on the willingness of the other parent to pick up their children as well. However, if children are continually exposed to sickness when at daycare, parents will not feel as if they are placing their children in a safe environment. The daycare center cannot jeopardize the loss of an otherwise well-paying client.

One instance can have a negative impact on the childcare center, as the care of a sick child takes more effort than the care of a healthy child. If the behavior continues, then it could become as contagious as the illness. Continued allowance of this behavior could make it appear as if the childcare…… [read more]


Social Work Assessment Within Child Protection Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  9 pages (2,480 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15

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Social Work

The Importance of Assessment and Framework in Social Work

An Emphasis on Child Protection

Social programs and the existence of professionals tasked with facilitating goodwill and functionality in the public society is far from a new concept. In fact, certain social programs existed for peasants during the Middle Ages, and the United States has a rich history of… [read more]


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD Term Paper

Term Paper  |  17 pages (6,369 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

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Attention Deficit HyperactivITY Disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit HyperactivITY Disorder

Theories of child development and guidelines for parents are not cast in stone.

They are constantly changing and adapting to new information and new pressures.

There is no "right" way, just as there are no magic incantations that will always painlessly resolve a child's problems."

Lawrence Kutner (20th century) (Columbia, 1996)… [read more]


Child Psychology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,058 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

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DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY: COMPARE & CONTRAST THREE THEORIES of CHILD and ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT

The objective of this work to compare and contrast three learner developmental theories from the perspective of: (1) three key concepts of each three theories; (2) three major points of similarity among the three theories; and (3) three major points of difference among the three theories. There will… [read more]


Absence of Paternal Involvement and Sexual Risk Term Paper

Term Paper  |  21 pages (5,319 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 22

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¶ … Absence of Paternal Involvement and Sexual Risk Taking Behavior in Adolescent Females

Influence of Father Involvement on Child Development

Infant

One-year-of-age

School-aged

Emotional Development

Social Development

Father Involvement and Female Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviors

Measures of Father Involvement

THE CORRELATION BETWEEN the ABSENCE of PATERNAL INVOLVEMENT and SEXUAL RISK TAKING BEHAVIOR in ADOLESCENT FEMALES

The objective of this… [read more]


Child Rearing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,842 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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¶ … corporal punishment with regard to children and now the use of corporal punishment has changed over the years.

There are few parenting topics that spark the intensity of debate more strongly than the topic of spanking. For many years parents and experts have argued, studied, and examined the use of corporal punishment on children with mixed results. In… [read more]


Breaking the Cycle of Child Abuse in Our Communities Through Parenting Prevention Education Programs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,277 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

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Parenting Programs/Child Abuse

Child abuse in the United States continues to be endemic levels. According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2005), in 2002 State child protective services agencies received reports that alleged the maltreatment of about 4.5 million children. Over half of these reports came from community professionals, and the remainder from family, friends, relatives, or neighbors. In this same year, investigations by State child protective services agencies determined that an estimated 896,000 children were victims of abuse or neglect, equivalent to a rate of 12.3 per 1,000 children under 18 years old.

Victimization was highest among the youngest children, with 16% of victims being newborns to age 3. Among the estimated 1,400 children who died of abuse and neglect, children under one accounted for 41.2% of fatalities and children under seven for 87.9%, with 79% involving a parent as a perpetrator. Just this week, studies are showing that the children of soldiers deployed to Iraq are suffering increased abuse, as well. The problem is not getting better.

As a result of these statistics, community organizations and the states are putting a greater emphasis on preventative measures. The State of Ohio, for example, is considering a law that would make it mandatory for all parents to attend a child abuse program before leaving the hospital with a newborn. This dissertation will conduct a literature analysis on the different types of parent education programs and the results of the studies conducted to date of parent education on lowering child abuse.

LITERATURE REVIEW

The dissertation literature review will be divided into two sections: 1) a historical perspective of parent education for child care, especially abuse and 2) a review of the research conducted on the preventative impact of parent education on reducing child abuse levels.

Parent education has been defined as "a systematic and conceptually-based program intended to impart information, awareness and skills to the participants on aspects of parenting" (Fine 1980:5). The basic understanding this education is that a parent who is properly prepared for the challenges associated with childrearing is more able to deal with the increasing stress factors. Such programs have been developed since the 1980s, although the structure of the programs has changed. Parent education is normally believed to be of benefit in two ways: by increasing parents' understanding of child development and necessary methods for child-rearing, decision making and home management; and by decreasing parental stress through the availability of social support networks.

Parenting education can have a powerful role in preventing child abuse. Many parents at-risk for abusing their children have similar characteristics, such as being young with little social support. They have a great deal of stress in their life and do not truly understand child development. Overall, they might not have reasonable expectations of what a child is and is not capable of doing at different life stages. In addition, what these young parents have seen through the media has been a biased perception of parenting, which has added to… [read more]


Gifted Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,616 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

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¶ … gifted child. The writer explores characteristics of gifted children, family structure and environment, and the differences between a gifted child and a non-gifted child. There were six sources used to complete this paper.

The Gifted Child Explored

Years ago, if a student showed exceptional ability or completed class work with record speeds, that student was asked to help… [read more]


Impact of Father Involvement on Infant Development Within the Realm of Pre-And Perinatal Psychology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,383 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

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Father Involvement in Infant Development

Studies showed that children whose father was more involved in their care exhibited greater security in their attachment than those whose father was less involved (Caldera, 2004). Infants of fathers who more actively participated in their care were more socially inclined, played independently with toys, more compliant and enjoyed a warmer relationship with their father.… [read more]


Anger Management for Students in Schools Tom Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,292 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15

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Anger Management for Students in Schools

Tom Mashberg writes about teens who meet once a week in Boston MA to address the explosive anger they have inside them in his newspaper article: "Breaking chains of anger challenges teens in therapy." (Mashberg, 2000, ¶ 1) Jesska, 13, carries Bic lighters with her and burns herself, along with other things. She was… [read more]


Spanking Discipline vs. Aggression Imagine Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,530 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

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Reason or verbal admonition cannot appeal or move a toddler. The only language he knows at this age and stage is physical in nature. And the message cannot be postponed to a later time when he can understand better. The message must be sounded at the moment the misbehavior or unsafe act is performed. And that message has to be… [read more]


Promoting Physical Activity in Elementary-School Aged Children Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (3,150 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9

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Promoting Physical Activity in Elementary-School Aged Children: What Parents Can Do

By now, everyone understands that childhood obesity is a serious problem, and it almost impossible to overstate the seriousness of that problem. "Over the past 20 years, obesity rates in U.S. children and youth have skyrocketed. Among children ages 6 to 11, 15.8% are overweight (?95th percentile body mass… [read more]


Piaget's Cognitive Development the Webster Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,475 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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In the concrete operational stage, the child starts to distribute with intellectual concepts such as relationships and numbers. At this are children learn mastery of classes, relationships, how to reason and numbers. Furthermore in this level the child increases the aptitude to decenter and comprehends the idea of preservation. This change from not understanding preservation to understanding it is not… [read more]


Child Study Christopher Cole Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (653 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Child Study

Christopher Cole is a ten-year-old boy currently in the 5th grade. His general academic aptitude is at about the 1st grade level. This year Cristopher has been diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome, which is a form of autism. He has also been diagnosed with ADHD. Christopher was born with a cleft palate, which may lead to speech difficulties as well as impacting his self-esteem ("Cleft Lip and Palate," 2011). Moreover, Christopher has poor eyesight and requires corrective lenses.

Christopher has exhibited behavioral problems concurrent with his condition. Schools have been woefully unable to accommodate for Christopher's needs. He has been placed in as many as three different private schools in the Waxahachie area, but none have been able to help Christopher overcome is attention deficits and social disorders. However, homeschooling has also not been a constructive learning environment for Christopher.

Christopher is prone to throwing tantrums and exhibiting signs of violence toward others. He even slapped me in the face out of frustration, on multiple occasions. Patience has been the key to working with Christopher, who has made great strides over the past year.

II. Christopher uses rituals to make his world more manageable, familiar, and controllable. For example, he asks the same questions over and over even though he knows what the answer will be. Christopher has no concept of time. I am trying to teach him not only how to read the clock, but also about the social function of time. If I tell Christopher to return in five minutes, he does not know when five minutes has passed or what it means to be late or stand up a person. Christopher is left-handed. When he writes, his penmanship is about at the level of a kindergartner and he does not know how to spell. Reading is also a problem for Christopher, who does not grasp the concept of punctuation. He reads straight through passages as if there are no ends or beginnings…… [read more]


Lost Boy by Dave Pelzer Book Review

Book Review  |  10 pages (3,354 words)
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He thus constantly strives for his mother's attention and for her recognition that he is a good boy, an admission which, the reader knows, can never happen.

The only respite for the child comes in the form of Ms. Gold, who he calls an angel, and who is his assigned social worker. It is astonishing to see how David describes… [read more]


Raising Children in a Socially Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,163 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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What can we do to reduce levels of toxicity in the social world of childhood? How can we protect our children form this harmful environment? Dr. Garbarino suggests ways of doing so and it must begin at home, he says. "Programs that prepare couples for marriage and teach parents how to develop successful families are important, as are laws and policies that require parents to do all they can to avoid separation and divorce." (199) If adults to do not know what it means to have a healthy relationship, they will certainly not be able to teach their children different. Programs that teach parents how to have successful families will be the greatest good to children. Parents aren't born with this type of information, they need to learn it. In my opinion, this is the greatest form of education we can provide.

Discipline strategies is another suggestion Dr. Garbarino gives. Parents should focus on, "strategies that teach youngsters love and self-control. Help them build positive identities based not only on talents and skills, but on character and moral conduct." (211) It all begins with what and how much parents give to their children. It's not only important to give children your time, but to think about what it is you fill that time with. I believe parenting is much about sacrifice and parents need to do more of it. Parents must regulate the time their children devote to television and video games; they need to be constantly aware of what is going into the minds of their children. "Encourage positive media experiences, positive language and positive peer relations. Join with other parents and teachers to enforce the same media standards at home and school." (217) Parents and teachers need to be constantly aware of "what our youngsters see, hear and feel," according to Dr. Garbarino. "Parents and teachers should be the guardians of childhood and should band together to shield the children" from toxic influences, in clothing, language, television, music and social activities. (223)

The ideas and arguments presented by Dr. Garbarino are without a doubt valid and proven. Today's environment is toxic to us all and should be focused on more by educators and parents. More education should be given to parents on what a healthy environment actually is. For students involved in studying child development, this means learning to recognize the damages caused by an unhealthy environment, and learning to overcome these damages.

The suggestions of Dr. Garbarino and numerous other researchers are good, but in my opinion they lack something because thus far we haven't been able to make those changes. The family belief system that Dr. Garbarino presents is something that I certainly agree with, but one that a lot of families would find to be far-fetched. A lot of families would disagree with the Dr. Garbarino about what is toxic to their children and what isn't. I believe there has to be a middle road between these researchers and these families. Parents need to understand… [read more]


Parenting Styles the Effects Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,999 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

Connell and Prinz (2002) report that the level of maternal education is related to the appropriate parental interactions and that these patterns of interaction are related in turn to high levels of social and communication skills in children. While longitudinal studies (Baker, Mackler, Sonnenschein, and Serpell, 2001; Morrison, Rimm-Kaufman & Pianta, 2003) found a strong relationship between patterns of early… [read more]


Social Marketing and Sustainability a Report on a Social Marketing Campaign Napcan Prevent Child Abuse Book Report

Book Report  |  7 pages (2,493 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Social Marketing NAPCAN Prevent Child Abuse Case Study

The threat of child abuse is still very real within even our modern society. Child abuse and neglect is still a major issue within Australian society and politics. According to the research, about 5-10% of all children under the age of eighteen have experienced physical abuse, 4-8% witness abuse within… [read more]


Autism in Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,540 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Autism in Children

Autism is a neurodevelopment malady wherein impairment of the behavior and abnormalities constitute the only basis for medical detection. (Courchesne, 2004) Autism and the connected persistent maladies in maturity are marked by examples of impediment and departure in the growth of social, communicative, and cognitive proficiency that happen in the initial years of life. Even if often… [read more]


Theories of Cognitive Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,031 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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¶ … problem-solving behavior from three different developmental perspectives. I will be handling the material as though the two children are from different families since if they were sisters, each of them, especially two-year-old Sara, could be influenced by the problem-solving process of the other.

Piaget: Constructivist Theories

Jean Piaget must be considered the father of developmental psychology. Even if many of his theories have shown weaknessess, the important thing is he created theories about how people learn. His stages of development helped to provide shape and order in thinking about learning. In the course of providing that shape and order he gave others something to focus their work on. This is, in many ways, the heart and soul of research: each worker uses the work of others as the baseline to see how their own work is coming. The four stages of development provide something to measure observations against.

Constructivist theories state that thinking and learning are a process of interaction between a person and the environment. These theories also state that all species inherit basic tendencies to organize their lives and adapt to their environment. The theories also go on to state the ideas that by a combination of innate cognitive structures and experience cause the constant revision of one's own knowledge. There area three major aspects of constructivist theories. Assimilation: is the acquisition of new knowledge and organizing it to fit what is already known. Accommodation: the new information changes what the person thinks about a given subject. Equilibration: the attempt that is constantly made to make sense of and seeming differences of experience and perceptions.

One of the stages of development Piaget postulates involves what he calls a characteristic of egocentrism which is defined roughly as an unawareness of any point-of-view but one's own. Sara, at age two is in this stage and might very well buy her mother the same kind of present she herself would like to receive -- the mentioned doll, or maybe a teddy bear. Jane, however, at the age of 10 is in the stage Piaget labels concrete operations and Jane is more likely to observe what kinds of things her mother buys for herself and is also more likely to perform the very concrete operation of asking the advice of an adult.

Vygotsky: Socialcultural Theories

Lev Vygotsky worked at the same time as Piaget and is one who built his body of work on and in contrast to Piaget. Vygotsky postulated that values, beliefs, skills and traditions that are transmitted from one generation to the next are the most important factors in growth of understanding one's world. Vygotsky agreed with Piaget that learning is active and constructed but he also believed that interaction and direct teaching played a critical role in a child's cognitive development. He also forwarded the concepts of relationships and private speech.

By Vygotsky's ideas, even Sara at the age of 2 could have enough of an understanding of the values of her world to know how… [read more]


To What Extent Should Parents Be Held Responsible for the Behavior of Their Children Term Paper

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¶ … Parents Be Held Responsible for the Behavior of Their Children

Stephen Everson (1991) writes, "Psychology is, as one might expect, an ancient discipline. The philosophers and scientists of antiquity were, like their modern successor, properly intrigued by the fact that some natural substances are capable of movement and action- that is, of behavior-" for the past several decades,… [read more]


Peer Pressure on Children Term Paper

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Most researches on the subject have indicated that the fear of being isolated or "left out" is very strong among teenagers.

Fear of being ridiculed or being made to feel "inadequate" is another important reason why many adolescents are susceptible to negative types of "peer pressure" against their better judgment. They are also afraid that their peers would "make fun… [read more]


Early Childhood Development Education Term Paper

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Early childhood development and education in third world countries is essentially part of the process of change and transformation that many of these countries are undergoing. Many developing countries are emerging from years of colonial rule and entering into a modern industrial and urban phase. This means that in understanding child education and development in many countries in Africa for… [read more]


Behavioral Differences in Adopted Children Term Paper

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¶ … Behavioral Responses among Early Adopted, Late Adopted, and Non-Adopted Children

This study will examine differences in the behavioral responses of children who are adopted at an early age, adopted at a later age, and those who are not adopted, to determine if the different populations behave differently in a similar social setting. In order to determine this, children… [read more]


How Large Is the Problem of Child Abuse and What Are We Doing About It? Term Paper

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Child Abuse

How large is the problem of child abuse and what are we doing about it?

Children, today, are being abused at an alarming rate. The abuse can range from physical abuse to sexual abuse, psychological abuse or neglect (Righthand, Kerr, & Drach, 2003). Whichever the type of abuse inflicted on the child, he/she is affected in a negative… [read more]


Impact of Modern Technologies on Human Development Term Paper

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Psychosocial Impact of Modern Technologies on Human Development

What is psychosocial development?

The discussion of psychological impacts of modern technology is to be based on the theories of psychosocial development. This compels us to first briefly discuss what psychosocial development is before we get into modern technology. The entire subject was developed by Erik Erikson, who lived during the period… [read more]


Parental Training Statistics Show Term Paper

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These happen when the psychological maltreatment is a result of deliberate destructive actions on the part of the adult. Experts identify this as "a concerted attack by an adult on a child's development of self and social competence" (Garbarino, Guttman, and Seeley, qtd in Neeley 2000).

This "concerted attack" generally takes five forms. In the least severe form, an adult… [read more]


Protecting Children Online Term Paper

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Internet Safety and Youth

Developing computer skills is vital for today's children. It has become an important means for communication, plays an important role in nearly every job, can enhance both education and general quality of life (Rupley, 2004). The difficulty with children using the computer is that some people online may use computers to gain access to our children for inappropriate and even criminal reasons. Children, by their nature, will not have the skills on their own to avoid the dangers that can come with internet access, so it is up to parents and educators both to protect children and to teach them how to keep themselves safe online

The risks to children are very real. The FBI reports that one in five children receive pornography or are solicited by sexual predators online (McKinley, 2002). By the time they are teenagers, one in four has been contacted by strangers who want to meet them in real life (Rupley, 2004). Since the Internet is now used more than the telephone, and since most children are not supervised all the time they are online (McKinley, 2002), predators attempt to exploit their vulnerability. Very often the children and teens, underestimating the risk, unaware of the risk, or believing that they can avoid being victimized, get online while they are supposed to be asleep. They may talk with strangers as well as people they know (Rupley, 2004).

Whether the predators seek to sell pornography or to meet in person, they are all too often successful. In 2003, John Zuccarini pled guilty under the federal "Truth in Domain Names Act." Using over 3,000 domain names that mimicked TV shows youth often watch, such as www.teltubbies.com (no longer a real domain) he misdirected children to sites containing hard-core pornography (Rupley, 2004). In a more disturbing case, in 2001 a 13-year-old girl left to meet her online "boyfriend" at a local fast-food restaurant. He was actually a 25-year-old man, and he killed her (McKinley, 2002).

When children cannot fully protect themselves, it is up to the adults around them to act, which is what AOL executive Teri Schroeder did. She realized that young people were contacting AOL about the problem of adults inappropriately approaching them online. They didn't go to their parents because they were afraid that their parents wouldn't let them use the computer any longer (McKinley, 2002). Schroeder investigated how predators lured these kids away from monitored discussions into unsupervised, private chat rooms, and founded "I-Safe," a non-profit group designed to teach young people how to stay safe while online. Congress responded to her actions and provided funds for school outreach programs. I-SAFE teaches educators how to help protect the students in their charge. It also works with community leaders to promote safety online for children and teenagers (McKinley, 2002).

In addition to using the training available from I-SAFE, schools can take a number of actions that will help protect their students as they use the Internet, setting policies in place that can dramatically… [read more]


Psychosocial Development Term Paper

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Psychosocial Development

Erik Erikson

In the Journal of Men's Studies, there was an article entitled Exploring Erikson's Psychosocial theory of development: generativity and its relationship to paternal identity, intimacy, and involvement in childcare. This article talks about a study of fathers who participate in their child's childcare, identity, intimacy and generativity, in order to understand which variables best predicted variation in fathers' levels of generativity. The study's findings were that fathers' paternal identity, psychosocial identity, and psychosocial intimacy were the bet overall predictors of fathers' levels of generativity, and that the fathers' paternal identity was the best predictor of fathers' generativity. Surprisingly, it found out that fathers' involvement in childcare was not a good predictor of fathers' generativity. (Palkovitz. 340)

This study was based on Erik Erikson's Eight Stages of psychosocial development. In each eight psychosocial crises, there is a struggle between 2 conflicting personality characteristics. These two characteristics are in extreme in each level, however in reality no one reaches either extreme. (Page 2006)

One of the stages is the stage in which generativity develops. That is in Middle Adulthood, or 35-55-65 years of age, in which the significant task is to "perpetuate…… [read more]


Child Psychology Behaviorism Term Paper

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Psychology

Child Psychology and Inherent Concepts of Animacy

The question of animacy and how early an understanding of the concept develops among human beings is not as certain as was once thought. In the past, based largely on the work of Jean Piaget, psychologists came to accept his conclusion that children developed a conception of animism very gradually over a… [read more]


Psychology Problems Facing Adolescents in the 21st Century Term Paper

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Psychology

The idea of beauty is changing with each generation. The physical events of adolescence have always been the same. Since the dawn of Hollywood and pop culture, there has been a trend developing amongst early adolescents and teens. "Beauty" is approaching a new level of competitiveness with plastic surgery and computer enhancement. These "perfect bodies" have confused young Americans experiencing adolescence toward climatic problems. This trend is that with each generation body image is becoming more of a determining factor for self-esteem. It may originate from the American obsession with beauty. There are many physical changes that occur during adolescence, which are discussed in detail. In the 21st century, body image's grasp on self-esteem and has become problematic and detrimental toward social development. Taking the proper steps to prevent these problems and many other that come with adolescence is also mentioned.

The physical changes that occur during adolescence are so numerous that they are accredited with transforming boys to men and girls to women. They usually start at the age of thirteen and continue to about age eighteen with no two adolescents experiencing the exact same transformation. It is difficult to consider what comes first or at what time any change will occur during an adolescent's development. Therefore, a list of commonly occurring events will be displayed and explained with details exemplifying distinct characteristics of a physical or social change happening in these young adults ("Development in Adolescence").

Adolescence is renowned for the physical changes that occur. The most common starters to adolescences involve signs of puberty. For young girls this may mean menstruation happens for the first time, for boys it may be hair growing in places it never grew before. Once adolescence begins, a roller coaster ride of changes starts involving emotional, physical, and sexual development. Usually a change in voice is very noticeable during the early stages of adolescence. Growth spurts, developing breasts, and muscular development are all important physical changes with serious impacts on the emotional and sexual development because they involve body image and self-esteem ("Development in Adolescence").

The specific details of what emotional and sexual developments happen during adolescence are not available. According to the Child Development Institute, everyone has problems understanding young adults even psychologists and teachers ("Adolescent stages of Development"). It is important to understand certain developments for the sake of grasping how and why body image and self-esteem are being influenced by the 21st century culture. Ego-identity and gender role are the two most influential aspects of adolescence development and both are tremendously affected by body image along with self-esteem.

There are exact definitions for these two concepts but analogies explained them well too. Ego-identity is analogous to expert in a career field. Regardless of the profession each expert knows where they belong and understand how the environment surrounding them behaves. When this does not develop properly during adolescence, it transforms the expert into a lost puppy. It does not…… [read more]


Meagans Law Meagan's Law Questions and Answers Essay

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Meagans Law

Meagan's law

Questions and Answers: Meagan's law

Questions and Answers: Meagan's law

Interviewing children requires a unique set of skills to accurately assess but at the same time, not re-traumatize the child. Discuss some of the finer points in interviewing a child. What must be considered to insure that the material uncovered will be helpful to the case?… [read more]


Childhood Asthma Research Paper

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This is problematic as the longer asthma allows to subsist being under-diagnosed, the more lasting damage it is able to do to the lungs of the child (CHP, 21).

Dynamics

Children who have asthma live with an inflammation of the bronchial tubes. Generally they can breathe normally, except when something triggers their asthma, at which point their bronchial tubes narrow,… [read more]


Illuminate the Influence of Parents and Parenting Research Paper

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¶ … illuminate the influence of parents and parenting on college-age drinking habits is indeed a worthwhile endeavor as the parenting style one exhibits clearly impacts the development of the child -- even into young adulthood such as the college age (Benson & Haith, 2009, p.281). This is as a result of the fact that the family unit has a… [read more]


Lasa 1 Promoting Cognitive Development Term Paper

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¶ … developmental theorists provide similar theories concerning a person's development during the first two decades of his or her life. Piaget focused on explaining that children experience a graduate self-discovery process during their early years. From his perspective, the time period lasting from eleven and until sixteen is essential in people's lives because it is then when individuals realize that they have the power to devise solutions to their problems and put them into use. These people feel empowered by their self-awareness and are inclined to search for little to no assistance from their parents.

Erik Erikson partially agreed to Piaget's theories by emphasizing that teenagers are dedicated to finding their personal identities. Adolescents are apparently intrigued by the fact that life is becoming more complex at this point and they come to do everything in their power in order to create an identity that they can actually relate to. Many individuals are probable to lose understanding of the concept of responsibility at this point as they detach themselves from the world that they became accustomed to until that time.

B.F. Skinner focused on providing people with the reality that individuals act on account of stimuli and that operant conditioning plays an essential role in a person's development. A person is likely to continue to perform a particular activity if he or she observes that it is somehow rewarding. While the other theorists are primarily concerned about the developmental period, Skinner wants people to look at matters from a more general point-of-view and to understand that there is an explanation for any learned behavior, regardless of its character (Charlesworth 12).

Lev Vygostsky devised the zone of proximal development theory and explained that a lower limit of ZPD represents…… [read more]


Physical Activity Sociological Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 6

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The information provided on socialization into sport has profound implications concerning readiness for participation in organized sport (Maddison, Jiang, Vander Hoorn, Ni Mhurchu, Exeter, Utter, 2010). Children who come from families that value and participate in sport-related activities with their children would be expected to have a higher degree of readiness for participation in organized sport than those who do not. Children who are adequately socialized into the role of an athlete often accept this role willingly. There are, of course, exceptions to this broad generalization.

There are several ways in which socialization acts to help affect the readiness of a child for organized sport participation. Socialization through modeling and actual participation in sport-related activities would increase children's knowledge of the activity, make them less fearful of participation, assist in the development of sport related movement skills, and enhance their motivation to participate for either intrinsic or extrinsic reasons (Brown, Pfeiffer, McIver, Dowda, Addy, Pate, 2009). Knowledge, motor skill development and motivation have all been included in the present model for the prediction of organized sport participation readiness. Socialization contributes to the development of each. Consequently, it is predicted that socialization would be an especially powerful factor in a child's readiness for participation in organized sport. Without adequate socialization into the role of organized sport participant, successful and enjoyable sport experiences would seem unlikely.

Conclusions

I might have not have measured all of the important aspects of the schools and neighborhoods for determining children's physical activity. For example, in the current analyses I did not include measures of social inequality, racial discrimination, or social capital, because of less literature available on these aspects, yet it has been hypothesized that these factors may be important. Similarly, I have been unable to measure important aspects of the home environment and other student characteristics that are significant sociological aspects in physical activity of children.

References

Bower, J.K., Hales, D.P., Tate, D.F., Rubin, D.A., Benjamin, S.E., & Ward, D.S. (2008). The childcare environment and children's physical activity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 34, 23 -- 29.

Brown, William H; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Addy, Cheryl L.; and Pate Russell R. (2009). Social and Environmental Factors Associated With Preschoolers' Nonsedentary Physical Activity. Child Development, Volume 80, Number 1, Pages 45 -- 58.

Carver A, Timperio A, Crawford D. (2008). Playing it safe: the influence of neighborhood safety on children's physical activity. A review. Health Place.;14(2): 217-227.

Cradock AL, Kawachi I, Colditz GA, Gortmaker SL, Buka SL. (2009) Neighborhood social cohesion and youth participation in physical activity in Chicago. Social Science Med.;68(3):427-435.

Leatherdale ST, Manske S, Faulkner G, Arbour K, Bredin C. (2010). A multi-level examination of school programs, policies and resources associated with physical activity among elementary school youth in the PLAY-ON study. Int Journal Behavior Nutrition Physics Act.7 (1):6.

Maddison R, Jiang Y, Vander Hoorn S, Ni Mhurchu C, Exeter D, Utter J. (2010). Perceived vs. actual distance to local physical-activity facilities: does it really matter? Journal Physical Act Health.7… [read more]


Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Special Education Case Study

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The alcohol essentially malforms brain cells and/or hinders the full development. FAS is one of the leading causes of retardation in western societies:

Mental retardation is a cardinal feature of FAS and is now recognized as the leading known cause of mental retardation in the Western world. Conservatively estimated for the United States, the economic cost associated with FAS-related growth… [read more]


Social Support in Ensuring Successful Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 8

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Their longitudinal study demonstrates the need for ongoing social support that should begin in the early stages and extend into early childhood and adolescence.

Improving psychological health is crucial, and social supports are key in effecting this, there is a great deal of support available in the literature to support these theories. The need for support increases when there are additional stresses, for example in low-income neighborhoods, where the parents may tend to be poor, often minorities, and in need of parenting education. In a 2008 study of single African-American mothers from a low-income segment of the population, significant distress was experienced as the women transitioned from pregnancy into the state of parenthood (Hudson, Campbell-Grossman, Keating-Lefler, and Cline, 2008). The women were shown to have difficulties tending to the needs of their infants during this transition period. The psychological stress encountered was found to be significantly lessened when social supports were in place. Improvements were noted in the physical and psychological health of the study participants who were given social support; in addition, their parenting skills showed marked improvement.

As stated above, support is particularly important when there are environmental conditions that may be stressful to the family. A 2002 conducted by Ceballo and McLoyd of African-American single mothers of pre-adolescent to adolescent-age children (seventh to eighth grade) strongly supports this assertion. The researchers found that as the neighborhood deteriorated, the bonds between parents and children also deteriorated as well. In neighborhoods in which support was made available to the parents, the relationship between parents and children was positively affected in significant ways.

References

Beeber L.S., and Miles M.S. (2003). Maternal mental health and parenting in poverty.

Annual Review of Nursing Research 21:303-31.

Carpiano, R.M. And Kimbro, R.T. (2012). Neighborhood social capital, parenting strain, and personal mastery among female primary caregivers of children. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 53(2):232-47.

Ceballo, R. And McLoyd, V.C. (2002). Social support and parenting in poor, dangerous neighborhoods. Child Development 73(4):1310-21.

Cochran, M., & Niego, S. (1995). Parenting and social networks. In M.H. Bornstein (Ed.),

Handbook of parenting: Volume 3: Status and social conditions of parenting (pp. 393-

418). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Honig, A.S., & Morin, C. (2001). When should programs for teen parents and babies begin?

Longitudinal evaluation of a teen parents and babies program. The Journal of Primary Prevention 21(4): 447-454.

Hudson D.B., Campbell-Grossman C., Keating-Lefler R., Cline P. (2008). New Mothers

Network: the development of an Internet-based social support intervention for African

American mothers. Issues Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing 31(1):23-35.

Sheldon, S. (2002). Parents' social networks and beliefs as predictors of parent involvement. The Elementary School Journal, 102, 301-316.…… [read more]


Parenting on the Academic Achievement Multiple Chapters

Multiple Chapters  |  7 pages (2,646 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

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One would suspect that in larger families headed by a single female parent that the boys would have less intimate relationships with their mother than the girls leading to more difficulties with their development. Thus, it appears as if many of the factors identified in the literature are potentially modifiable.

Downey, Ainsworth-Darnell, and Dufur (1998) discussed individualistic vs. structuralist standpoints… [read more]


Self-Efficacy and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Research Paper

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Commonly, children who receive diagnoses of oppositional defiant disorder in preschool or early elementary school transition to a diagnosis of one of three major categories of disorder: depression, anxiety, or ADHD (Hamilton & Armando, 2008). Then, too, a goodly number of children do not develop co-existing conditions (Hamilton & Armando, 2008). Many children with oppositional defiant disorder continue to exhibit… [read more]


Psychological Effects of Divorce Research Paper

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Weakened Parenting after Divorce

Another factor that causes children to become stressed is when parenting they receive is inept, clumsy and incompetent. Extreme marital conflicts have severe effects when it comes to the adjustment of children. Mothers, in specific, tend to become less affectionate and more negligent when there are harsh agreements during marriage. They are reprted to become more… [read more]


Social Development Barack Obama: Erikson Research Paper

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It was during this period of time, when Obama had moved back to the United States while his mother was completing her graduate research abroad, that he began to struggle with his biracial identity. He appeared to be African-American, yet was chastised as not being 'black enough' by his friends. Obama also experimented with alcohol and drug use, as a way of finding himself. "I was living out a caricature of black male adolescence...at least on the basketball courts I could find a community of sorts" (Obama 118-119).

However, Obama appeared to successfully resolve the questions of 'who he was' enough to transition to the 'intimacy vs. isolation' stage of young adulthood. He moved onto college, transferred from Occidental College to Columbia University, and became the editor of the prestigious Harvard Law Review while a student at the institution. He also met his wife Michelle, who was to provide a formidable grounding influence upon him. Caring about others and acting as a community organizer in an underprivileged area in Chicago (passing up lucrative, high-paying corporate law jobs after his Harvard graduation) also provided him with a sense of fulfillment and helped answer the question 'who am I?'

Finding himself through connecting to others through politics seems to be at the core of Obama's identity resolution. The current middle-aged stage of 'generativity vs. self-absorption' seems to be successfully being resolved by Obama as president, given the extent to which he has consistently put personal grandstanding aside and tried to make compromises to ensure that what he believes are vital legislative acts such as healthcare are passed. There are, however, some hints of unsuccessful resolutions of earlier stages that have made him too quick to compromise and too quick to emotionally distance himself from others, perhaps rooted in his turbulent and unstable upbringing where he often felt that he did not 'belong' to a specific group.

References

Barack Obama. (2012). Biography. Retrieved:

http://www.biography.com/people/barack-obama-12782369

Obama, Barack. (2004). Dreams From My Father. Broadway Stages of social-emotional development. (2012). Child Development Info.

http://childdevelopmentinfo.com/child-development/erickson.shtml… [read more]


Adolescents &amp Advertising Media Messages Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (640 words)
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Retrieved from: http://her.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/5/719.full

(4) American Psychological Association (2004). Report of the APA task force on advertising and children. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pi/families/resources/advertising-children.pdf.

(5) American Psychological Association (2009). Resolution on promotion of healthy active lifestyles and prevention of obesity and unhealthy weight control behaviors in children and youth. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved fromhttp://www.apa.org/about/governance/council/policy/chapter-12b.aspx#active-lifestyle.

(6) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2006). NHANES data on the prevalence of overweight among children and adolescents: United States, 2003 -- 2006. Atlanta, GA: CDC National Center for Health Statistics, Health E-Stat.

(7) Kaiser Family Foundation (2004). The role of media in childhood obesity. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved fromhttp://www.kff.org/entmedia/upload/The-Role-Of-Media-in-Childhood-Obesity.pdf.

(8) Tweens, Teens, and Magazines (2008) The Kaiser Family Foundation and Education.com. Retrieved from: http://www.education.com/reference/article/Ref_Tweens_Teens/

(9) Gurian, Anita (2008) How to Raise an Educated Consumer. Education.com. Retrieved from: http://www.education.com/reference/article/Ref_How_Raise_Educated/

(10) Cook, JL and Cook, G (2009) Explaining Media's Effects. Education.com. Retrieved from: http://www.education.com/reference/article/explaining-medias-effects-children/

(11) Teachable Media Moments (2010) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Education.com. Retrieved from: http://www.education.com/reference/article/Ref_Teachable_Media/

(12) Girls and Body Image (2010) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Education.com Retrieved from: http://www.education.com/reference/article/Ref_Girls_Body_Image/

(13) Kaiser Family Foundation (2005). Generation M: Media in the lives of eight to eighteen-year-olds. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.kff.org/entmedia/entmedia030905pkg.cfm.

(14) How to Magazines Effect Body Image (2008) Center on Media and Child Health. Education.com. Retrieved from: http://www.education.com/reference/article/how-magazines-affect-body-image/

(15) Ransohoff, J. (2010) Teens and the Media. Palo Alto Medical Foundation. Retrieved from: http://www.pamf.org/teen/life/bodyimage/media.html… [read more]


Domestic Violence Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,275 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

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Kolbo, Blakely, and Engleman (1996) also reported that studies measuring the differences in physical health between children exposed to domestic violence and those from nonviolent homes did not find evidence of a causal link between exposure to violence and health problems in the children. Recent research has looked at more specific measures of emotional and cognitive functioning and how being… [read more]


Child Custody Family Law Thesis

Thesis  |  20 pages (6,441 words)
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This is employed as an alternative to having a child testify directly. The therapist cannot testify on behalf of the child, but can account to the court his interpretation of information gathered from sessions with the child. Psychologists must not give opinions regarding the physiological functioning of individuals who they have not personally evaluated, which implies that the therapist cannot… [read more]


Developmental Psychology if a Parent Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,291 words)
Bibliography Sources: 14

SAMPLE TEXT:

This can lead to poor nutrition and low weight gain for the baby.

The patient should leave with an understanding of the importance of proper nutrition during pregnancy and also proper weight gain for the mother. This is important because this is one of the most common problems for pregnant teenagers. The patient should also leave the office having an understanding of the way drugs might affect the developing fetus. A young mother might not realize that her actions affect the health of her baby. The third thing the patient should understand is the affect stress could have on the development of the baby. If extremely stressed about the pregnancy, the mother might want to take steps to mentally accept the pregnancy because this might affect her willingness to live a healthy lifestyle during and after the pregnancy.

7. If a friend of mine wanted to adopt a child who was born addicted to a drug, such as cocaine and who lived in foster care for 6 months, I would warn that friend of the possible concerns with the child including physical, social and cognitive concerns. Physically, this child might have issues with the central nervous system. This is often where drug related issues present. The good news here is the infant was taken away from that situation early on and therefore not exposed continually to the drug following birth. On the other hand, taking the child away from the mother at birth and entering into foster care might present problems in the social realm. For instance, attachment might not be secure as the infant probably did not have one steady caregiver to become attached to while in foster care. Also, in the early days, this child would have cried more and been irritable more, all while living in a rehab center. Depending on the quality of care, this infant might not have had as much contact and human touch as a baby without these problems. Cognitively, the infant might experience trouble in the area of language development and normal brain function.

To reduce the effects of the scenario, the person adopting the child should be sure the child has a normal healthy life that includes nutrition, regular school and other mentally stimulating activities. If the child has parents that are present, attentive and responsible, the effects of the drug might diminish over time.

9. It seems the child is having difficulty with joint attention. The parents should understand that using something (a symbol) to represent something else (an object) is really the same concept whether we are discussing a verbal symbol or a visual symbol. Before a child will understand the concept of the point, or understand that a word represents an object, the child must master joint attention. This can be a problem such as delayed language, or can even be autism.

To further understand the case, I would want to know how the child is communicating in other ways. For instance, if the child wants something, must… [read more]


Social Work Dimension Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,367 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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The question can be asked about who will take 'unwanted' children in a market-led system where individual schools have the right to choose the students they want. An example of this can be seen in this illustration, little girl was sexually molested and developed some behavioral problems including the fact that she was being bullied by classmates who knew about… [read more]


Working Parents and Daycare Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,455 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

On the basis of the findings from the NICHD (1998) study, it would appear that high-quality daycare services operate to produce positive outcomes in some cases and fail to do so in other cases. As reported by NICHD, children who attended child care centers that met American Public Health Association/American Academy of Pediatrics (APHA/AAP) showed greater school readiness, higher language… [read more]


Psychology Daycare Centers Are Lifesavers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (427 words)
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Children should, however, be encouraged to balance play with learning activities that incorporate some of the elements of play. Especially at a young age, children need to be exposed to as many different educational opportunities as possible such as language and math skills. However, play does not necessarily include Bible studies and parents should take care to allow their children to develop their moral spiritual understanding through reason, inquiry, and experience rather than dogma.

4. Whether monetary or not, rewards help a child develop self-esteem and encourages them to practice positive behaviors in the future. Offering positive reinforcement is a fundamental factor in healthy child-rearing, as children who only hear admonishments from parents hear an overabundance of negative messages. Offering rewards for behavior that is expected of them, like cleaning up, teaches children to have a positive attitude regarding chores that can carry over into adulthood.

5. Effective parenting does involve both discipline and reward. However, it is not necessary to frame every behavior in absolute morality. Certain thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are ethically neutral, such as anger. While it is important to teach children how to deal with anger effectively, placing a moral judgment on that anger can be detrimental to the…… [read more]


Infant Child Care and Attachment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,006 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

The converse is equally applicable.

It is believed that stress and parent anxiety render the experience of separation and also adjustment to the foreign care environment a difficult one for the infant.

Conversely, the supplementary nature of a sound care-giving environment can act as a genuine support in the alleviation of family stresses and difficulties, improving the infant's chances of… [read more]


Children's Television Programs More Violent Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,113 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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The program and network options were then separated between the two target audience categories. A random drawing was made on May 9 until three hours of viewing were covered for the adult and children/youth categories. The selected programs were then checked against program categories, to ensure that at least two of the options for each audience category were covered. The… [read more]


Domestic Violence on Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (4,184 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

A history of abuse is also related to the severity of a given mental disturbance, including suicidality, age at first admission to facility for care, frequency and length of admissions, time spent in seclusion, likelihood and dosage of psychiatric medication, and global symptom severity (Beitchman, et al., 1992; Briere, et al., 1997; Bryer, et al., 1987; Pettigrew & Burcham, 1997).… [read more]


Children in the U.S Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,849 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Conclusion - Statistical reality that one in every five children in the U.S. has a learning difficulty, that the socioeconomic factors to it cannot as yet be effectively addressed and that treatments or approaches are still on an individual basis, learning disabilities sound an alarm and require the constant support and attention of families, school, community and the public education system. This surge of incidence of maladjustment in the young is telling society something quite serious, as it indicates the kind of future they face. Learning disabilities and ADHD cannot be treated directly because their causes are indirect. The roots lie deep in the social structure and this takes all the honesty and will of parents, schools, communities and the government. The trend is letting everyone know that youngsters today are not learning what they should to fashion and operate their own world in the future. The spade work belongs to those in charge of these children at present and, in the meantime, the causes not only increase both in kind and volume. Adequately containing the condition needs all that can be done within the time still allowed.

References

1. Blair, Clancy. (2002). Proportion of Learning Difficulty Placements Associated with Low Socio-economic Status: Evidence for a Gradient? Journal of Special Education, Pro-Ed. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOHDF/is_1_36/ai_85916838

2. Farmer, Jeanette. (2004). Retrain the Brain Your Family Health Site. http://www.retainthebrain.com/?OVRAW=learning%20disabilities&OVKEY=learning%20disability&OVMT

3. Kidsource Online. (2003). General Information About Learning Disabilities. Kidsource Online, Inc. http://www.kidsource.com/NICHCY/learning_disabilities.html

4. National Institute of Mental Health. (2003). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Firstgov.com http://www.nimh.nih.gov/healthinformation/adhdmenu.cfm

5. National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities. (2002). Learning Difficulties. NICHCY fact sheet # 7. http://www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/general_info/gen-2.html

6. Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (1999). Children with Learning Difficulties. Fact sheet # 16. http://www.aacap.org/publications/factsfam/ld.htm

7. -. Children Who Can't Pay Attention. Fact sheet # 6. http://www.aacap.org/publications/factsfam/noattent.htm

8. -. Children Who Won't Go to School. Fact sheet # 7. http://www.aacp.org/publications/factsfam/noschool.htm

9. -. Conduct Disorder. Fact sheet # 33. http://www.aacp.org/publications/factsfam/conduct.htm… [read more]


Childhood -11Years) Cognitive Development Book Review

Book Review  |  2 pages (686 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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In early years of preschool, stress is often as a result of efforts by caregivers to discipline children so that they can obey and comply. Another cause of stress is moving to a different culture. This is stress associated with transforming from one culture to another or mixed cultures as the child goes to school and meets other children.

A child's competencies or their capabilities that are related to physical, cognitive, and social and emotional development have an effect on how the child responds to stressful situations or interactions. Older children respond to stress differently as compared to young children. This is because of the physical, emotional cognitive development that they have gone through. Older children use emotion-focused coping strategies to manage or reduce emotional distress that arises in stressful situations.

3. Under nutrition and malnutrition

Malnutrition and the stress associated with this have an impact on a child's physical, cognitive, social and emotional development. For physical development if a child does not get sufficient and balanced food supply they will lack the nutrients which are required for their growth and development. When it comes to the cognitive development a child who is stressed due to lack of food will not be able to assimilate any form of formal instruction. They will also be emotionally affected due to the stress that comes with lack of food. Such children will not develop socially as they will be reserved and keep to themselves. Since the children will be having divided attention wherever they will be, there will not be sufficient time to play with their colleagues and socialize with them, hence they will be socially isolated and rebellious due to the malnutrition. This lack of the necessary basic interaction during play due to malnutrition will also affect children emotionally since their emotions will be bitterness and resentment as the body will not be in a position to allow the children mix with the others.

References

LearningRx Franchise Corp.(2014). Cognitive Stages for Child Development - Learning Requires Basic Cognitive Skills. Retrieved…… [read more]


Military Children Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,358 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

Using a systems approach, it is apparent that parents need to participate more in social activities and make social connections for the health of their families, whether or not they are in the military. This is because social connections are integral for resilience. Developing a strong social support network is not something that comes naturally for all parents, which is… [read more]


Understanding Children's Memory Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (854 words)
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Children's Developmental Stages And Testimony

Developmental Stages of Children

Describe a child's developmental stages as they relate to the ability to form memories and recall events.

Piaget is generally considered to have provided the starting point for theories related to child development. Developmental psychologists have established a robust body of literature that builds on Piagetian theory, and sometimes discounts it. Regardless, his work is seminal in the field of child development. Piaget's developmental stages theory has relevance to our discussion; they are as follows:

Sensorimotor stage: (birth to 2 years) it is important to note that this period has six sub-stages, during which intelligence is demonstrated through motor activity and is absent symbol use. Object permanence (memory and conceptualization of things existing out of one's sight) is acquired at about seven months. Infants acquire some receptive language and language symbolism (pointing, using basic sign language) long before they produce meaningful language (speak in words).

2. Pre-operational stage: (2-6 years) This 2-stage period shows demonstration of intellect through use of symbols, language, and imagination. Memory advances, but thinking is nonreversible and not logical with a solid egocentric base. Importantly, theory of mind develops during this stage, enabling children to understand that others have a separate point-of-view from their own. From this, children can interpret and explain what they observe and relay to others.

3. Concrete operational stage: (7-11 years) Intellect develops rapidly in this stage with seven types of conservation forming; that is, physical attributes are understood to have permanence unless altered by a named force or influence. Intellect is demonstrated by logical, systematic manipulation of symbols for concrete objects (circumference, volume, etc.). Mental actions are understood to be reversible and egocentric thought diminishes. In this stage, children attribute meaning to the actions of others based on what they will get or avoid (concrete).

4. Formal operational stage: (12 to adulthood) Intelligence is demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts. In adolescence, egocentric thought resurfaces, but to a lesser degree than in early childhood. Only about 35% of high school graduates in developed countries achieve formal operations, and it may be absent throughout adulthood. Cognitive maturation establishes opportunity for mental development: environmental influence is the key driver. Interpretation of recalled events is pegged to intellect and is self-referential.

In your opinion, what dynamic is the most influential in the elderly population that causes their dimensioned ability to recall events and situations?

Throughout their lives, people continually process information through assimilation and accommodation, aligning their thinking, constructs, and concepts to the environment. The processes occur…… [read more]


Strengthening Social and Emotional Competence in Young Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (681 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Children's ability to control their emotions depends on their upbringing and training. Emotional and behavior management is a step towards good social skills and the academic performance. This article describes problem-solving skills that focus on skills like emotional literacy, communication skills, and anger management. Training children on the basic social skills are important for behavioral adjustments and academic success because good behavior facilitates cognitive development. The authors of this article suggest cognitive-behavioral therapy that would help children overcome their negative thoughts (Webster-Stratton, 2004).

Positive parenting is important in helping children develop social behaviors. Parents need to know the range of their children's emotional stands. In order to understand this, the parents need to work with their children and provide them with preschool social competencies. Study shows that children with low social skills come from families that experience excess hostile parenting, conflicts, and lack of attention. Children from stable families cope with situations easily and do not suffer from social behavior. Alternative parental strategies help solve two-thirds of the children's behavior problems (Webster-Stratton, 2004). Good home environment that involves good discipline, competence and good problem-solving skills help in moderating children thought and behavior system.

The second approach to child behavior involves teacher training. Teachers must recognize their students' emotional problems: they can be trained so that they can have problem-solving skills. Study indicates that the teacher' interaction with the students affects the students' socially and emotionally. Teachers must be positive in their teaching strategies by adopting the less aggressive techniques to control the students. Teacher training involves the use of workshops and training workshops that would help teachers acquire effective ways of fostering emotional development among their students. Other approaches to strengthening children's emotional competence are direct involvement of children in trainings on social, cognitive, and emotional management. Dinosaur program justifies parental guidance and teacher training as the effective ways of promoting cognitive behavior therapy.

The second article focuses on the responsibility of the schools towards the children's academic, moral, and social development. Teachers must always react positively…… [read more]


Obstacles: Economic Setbacks Facing Single Mothers With Children Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,633 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

SAMPLE TEXT:

The effect of single motherhood on spirituality, in the end, boils down to an individual, their upbringing, as well as their social and habitual networks.

Societal influence and expectations cannot, however, be overlooked, especially given that society would often consider any single mother ungodly, because of the common belief that it is 'ungodly acts' that get people to become single mothers in the first place (Lleras, 2008).

Conclusion

Single motherhood is a demanding role because it requires a woman to meet the financial needs of her family, while molding her children to be responsible adults. In addition to the problems imposed by reduced finances and less parent-child interaction, there are additional problems brought about by societal expectations. These can be categorized into physical, emotional, and spiritual effects, all of which result from public discourses that make single mothers appear inferior to their counterparts in intact families.

References

Atkins, R. (2010). Self-Efficacy and the Promotion of Health for Depressed Single Mothers. Mental Health in Family Medicine, 7(3), 155-168.

Bramlett, M.D. & Blumberg, S.J. (2007). Health: Children in Single Mother and Grandparent-Only Families have Poorer Health than Children Living with Two Biological Parents. Health Affairs, 26(2), 549-558.

Bronniman, S. (2008). The Stress of Single Mothers and Its Effect on Quality Child Care. Undergraduate Research Journal for the Human Sciences, vol.7.

Falana, B.A., Bada, F.O. & Ayodele, C.J. (2012). Single-Parent Family Structure, Psychological, Social and Cognitive Development of Children in Ekiti State. Journal of Educational and Development Psychology, 2(2), 158-164.

Huda, P.R. (2001). Single Out: A Critique of the Representation of Single Motherhood in Welfare Discourse. William and Mary Journal of Women and the Law, 7(2), 341-381.

Lleras, C. (2008). Employment, Work Conditions, and the Home Environment in single-Mother Families. Journal of Family Issues, 29(10), 1268-1297.

Murry, V.M., Bynum, M.S., Brody, G.H., Willert, A.…… [read more]


Freud Was Right, Peter Muris Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (588 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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In addition, through modeling, children may repeat their parents' behavior, specifically abnormal behavior. Learning experiences, particularly aversive life events, can play a role in psychopathology, including simply the acquisition of negative information. Societal-level influences can include things such as the impact of racism leading to higher levels of anxiety in black South African children than in white South African children, which is linked to the socioeconomic differences between the two groups.

Muris discusses the impact that early intervention during youth can decrease adult psychopathology in impacted youth. These interventions can include parental training and various forms of cognitive behavioral therapy. However, interventions have not necessarily been specifically tailored to those working with problem youths. Moreover, many children may lack access to help because of the stigma related to mental health disorders.

The article of the title was misleading in that it did not really discuss Freudian psychology or even begin to investigate the notion that Freud's Oedipal theories may have hinted at the very real psychological disorders that can result from childhood sexual abuse, which dovetails nicely into theories linked to childhood obsession with parental sexuality. Instead, the article only focuses on whether or not abnormal behavior has its roots in childhood. The article makes it clear that there is substantial empirical support for multiple ideas linking abnormal psychology to childhood: 1) a link between adult abnormal behavior and childhood circumstances; 2) high rates of abnormal psychological behavior in children and adolescents; and 3) the success of early intervention.

References

Muris, P. (2006). Freud was right…about the origins of abnormal behavior. Journal of Child

and Family Studies, 15(1), pp.1-12. doi:…… [read more]


Pregnant Teens Run a Severe Risk of Poor Outcomes for Their Children Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  2 pages (749 words)
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Prevention of Adolescent Pregnancy / Infant Mortality

Although the specific reasons are not yet clearly understood and accepted, it is a fact that adolescent pregnancy can lead to adverse birth outcomes. It is also a fact that pregnancy rates among adolescents have dropped significantly. This paper reviews the pregnancy rate among adolescents, reviews the adverse birth outcomes for those pregnant teens, and provides a plan to reduce and even prevent adolescent pregnancies.

Adolescent pregnancies and infant mortality

The birth rate for U.S. females between the ages of 15-19 has dropped dramatically over the past few years. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in 1991 the overall birth rate for adolescents in the above-mentioned age category was 61.8 births per 1,000 people. But by 2013, that rate had dropped to 26.6 per 1,000 (CDC). Among African-American adolescents the rate of births plummeted from 118.2 per 1,000 in 1991 to 39.2 per 1,000 on 2013 (CDC). Among Latino adolescents the birth rate dropped from 104.6 to 41.9 in the same time period as mentioned above. And when it comes to Native Americans and Alaska Natives, the rate of births dropped from 84.1 to 31.2 in the time frame alluded to in this paragraph (CDC).

The Department of Health & Human Services explains that one in six-15-year-old girls will give birth by the time she is twenty years old; for African-Americans, it is one in four girls and for thirteen-year-old Latinos one in three will have a child by her twentieth birthday (HHS). Also, the children born to teenage mothers: a) are known to have poorer "cognitive and educational outcomes"; b) have more behavioral issues ("fighting, delinquency, and early sexual experience"); and c) have "poor health outcomes" (HHS).

Teen pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes

The explanations for why there are adverse birth outcomes when teenagers are pregnant (poor social environment; poor prenatal care; or "biological immaturity") are controversial (Chen, 2007). But what is known is that the risks of pre-term delivery, very low birth weight (LBW), and "small for gestational age" (SGA), is far greater for mothers under 17 and "always highest among infants born to mothers aged 15 or younger" (Chen, p. 5).

A Teen pregnancy prevention program

The mission of PTP…… [read more]


Causal Relationship Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,379 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Gay Adoption

Florida's 1977 law banning gay adoption is getting national attention this month (Miller, 2010), as several gays are presently awaiting the court's ruling on whether they can adopt children from the Department of Families and Children. Regardless of Florida's decision, the latest study from New York University on parental gender once again confirms that children being adopted and raised by gay and lesbian parents has no bearing on the development of the children. Organizations across the United States are in need of adoptive parents, as thousands of children of all ages await permanent parents. Given research findings, there should be no reason why gay parents should not be able to adopt. When gays or lesbians apply for adoption, their ability to raise a child should be assessed by the same criteria as that for straight individuals.

According to the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU, 2010), as of 2007, approximately 130,000 children in the child welfare system were on the list to be adopted. At the same time, a Library of Congress report noted "serious shortages" of qualified adoptive parents. The ACLU argues that many gay and lesbian families want to adopt children and frequently are willing to adopt the more-difficult-to-place children and youth, such as those that are older or disabled. However, the state governments and many adoption agencies and cultural norms continually create barriers for gay and lesbian couples to adopt. Many gay and lesbian adults and couples are interested in adopting children. However, discrimination has made it difficult for gay and lesbian adults and couples to complete the adoption process (Brodzinsky, 2003). Excluding gays and lesbians as potential adopters is not only discriminatory but it limits the number of potential adults available to adopt the thousands of children eligible for adoption.

Gary Bauer, president of the Family Research Council, a national "pro-family" organization within the religious right, exemplifies the opponents to these adoptions. He has stated that "…ACLU-driven decision to treat homosexual and unmarried couples the same as married couples in adoption considerations is a disaster for children and families." His reasons are as follows: 1) the decision could deny the privilege of adoption to many heterosexual, married couples. This point is not accurate, since there are enough children available for adoption for both gays and heterosexuals; 2) children should be brought up by a mother and a father. Many children are raised by their single mother through divorce or widowhood;

3) thousands of children will forever be denied having mothers. In fact, with a lesbian couple, they can have two mothers; 4) a child has the best chance of developing a healthy sexual and emotional identity if raised by heterosexual spouses. There are no studies that show that this is the case; and 5) Common sense and an overwhelming body of social science data suggest that children raised outside of one-mother, one-father families are more likely to experience problems like drug abuse, depression, poor discipline and confused sexual identity. Once again, no studies support this… [read more]


Juvenile Delinquency Is the Legal Expression Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,963 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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Juvenile delinquency is the legal expression used to describe the behavior of children and adolescents that if they were an adult would be considered criminal. Throughout the United States, the definition of a juvenile along with the age limits is different. There has been seen a maximum age of 14 years in some states to 21 in others. The group… [read more]


Child Abuse Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,113 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Child Abuse

All types of child abuse and neglect leave lasting scars and significant impacts on the children. Some of the scars might be physical in nature and some emotional. Scarring has lifelong effects and is damaging to a child's sense of itself and the capability to have healthy relationships. Of course, just because one sees a warning sign doesn't automatically mean that a child is being abused. it's important to look further for a pattern of abusive behavior and warning signs. If one notices that something is off, they should then go and involve authorities in order to prevent further harm to the child (Saisan, Smith, & Segal, 2009).

Child abuse is often defined as an assortment of abnormal behaviors directed against children. It can take many forms. Child abuse is seen as a psychological dilemma or perversion of the abuser. Child abuse consists of the following conditions: child sexual abuse, pedophilia, child neglect, physical abuse, emotional neglect and failure to thrive. Child sexual abuse contains any action that uses a child to generate sexual gratification. Although the touching of children as a sign of affection and for hygiene is considered normal and necessary, there are ways in order to distinguish ordinary touching from child sexual abuse. The key is the meaning put forth by the perpetrator to be sexually stimulated by the action or the intention to create sexual arousal in others. The aim to use children in any way to create sexual arousal is measured to be illegal. This is criminal behavior that is often prosecuted and severely punished by the law (Child Abuse, 2010).

Physical abuse of children is described as extreme intentional physical injury to a child or severe corporal punishment of a child. Torture, assault and beatings of children are all types of physical abuse. Corporal punishment by parents is in question to evaluation and explanation. Spanking with a hand and other forms of soft physical punishment that do not leave any marks are thought to be within the area of parental discretion. Punishment that leads to marks that last for more an extended period of time is thought to be abuse, despite the intention. The use of any items to strike a child is considered wrong. This includes belts, paddles, and sticks, along with any other object. A family custom of beatings or the fact that the parent was subjected to physical abuse as a child is not an satisfactory excuse for severely injuring a child (Child Abuse, 2010).

There are numerous theories and styles associated with child rearing. Typically, these are psychological templates that approach different parenting situations in unique ways based on a child's behavior, the situation, and even life-stages. Parenting styles are affected by both parents' and children's disposition, often based on the parent's own issues with their childhood (Harris, 1998). The similarity one has for one's own cultural values and child- rearing practices sometimes conflict with the legal definition of child abuse and neglect. Research often indicates that adult's… [read more]


Children in Sports From a Biopsychosocial Perspective Book Review

Book Review  |  4 pages (1,584 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Children in Sports; From a Biopsychosocial Perspective

Children and Youth in Sport: a Biopsychosocial Perspective by Frank Smoll and Ronald E. Smith is a comprehensive sports psychology book that focuses on children and their participation in sports from a physical, psychological and social perspective. The authors discuss how there is a strong tendency in our society to view participation in… [read more]


Parental Issues in Neon Genesis Evangelion Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,826 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

Parental Issues in Neon Genesis Evangelion

Like Angelic Days a previous manga spun off of the sensational Evangelion anime -- this series is based on a videogame, which was in turn inspired by a well-remembered fantasy sequence in the Evangelion TV show's final episode, wherein the cast live regular junior high lives instead of the main series' post apocalyptic emotional… [read more]


Media Violence and Violent Behavior Thesis

Thesis  |  30 pages (8,255 words)
Bibliography Sources: 25

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Media Violence and Violent Behavior

The notion that violent media -- especially violent film, television, and video games -- plays a role in contributing to violent and criminal behavior in children and youths of all ages is an idea that has long been a topic of controversial discourse. Is there a link between media violence and violent or criminal behavior?… [read more]


Play Fighting and Bullying in Children and Adolescents Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,463 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … ology of Aggression

Over the last several years, the issue of childhood relationships has been continually brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because how children interact with one another, will have an impact in the development of the personality of the child. In the case of role playing (playing fighting), this is used… [read more]


Truancy Policy in Richmond California Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,778 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

Truancy Policy in Richmond California

Truancy Policy in Richmond, CA

Truancy, the unexcused absence from school, is a nationwide epidemic that is impacting today's youth and their ability to obtain a solid education. Truant behaviors have been found to be correlated with the development of juvenile delinquency and future criminal acts (Garry, 1996). Policy makers in Richmond, CA have unanimously… [read more]


Community Resources and Education When One Thinks Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,749 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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Community Resources and Education

When one thinks of educational reform, people think of what teachers, principals, and other educators can do for students. However, the reality is that educators can only drive a small portion of education reform and can only institute some change in an educational system. Parents and other community members, who have high stakes in the outcome… [read more]


Parents Can Affect the Connection Between Negative Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (1,924 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

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¶ … parents can affect the connection between negative emotions and problematic behavior in young children. In particular, this paper examines how authoritarian parenting matches up with authoritative parenting in terms of helping children to avoid expressing their negative feelings through disruptive behavior.

This is a noteworthy area of research because there have been a number of studies linking children's… [read more]


Narrative Inquiry Functions Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,797 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Narrative inquiry functions as a way of "studying the ways humans experience the world" (Connely & Clandinin, 1990, p. 2). Narrative data provides "a way of understanding one's own and others' actions, of organizing events and objects into a meaningful whole, and of connecting and seeing the consequences of actions and events over time" (Chase, 2005). The subject of this… [read more]

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