"Child Development / Youth / Teens" Essays

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Lasa 1 Promoting Cognitive Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (578 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … developmental theorists provide similar theories concerning a person's development during the first two decades of his or her life. Piaget focused on explaining that children experience a graduate self-discovery process during their early years. From his perspective, the time period lasting from eleven and until sixteen is essential in people's lives because it is then when individuals realize that they have the power to devise solutions to their problems and put them into use. These people feel empowered by their self-awareness and are inclined to search for little to no assistance from their parents.

Erik Erikson partially agreed to Piaget's theories by emphasizing that teenagers are dedicated to finding their personal identities. Adolescents are apparently intrigued by the fact that life is becoming more complex at this point and they come to do everything in their power in order to create an identity that they can actually relate to. Many individuals are probable to lose understanding of the concept of responsibility at this point as they detach themselves from the world that they became accustomed to until that time.

B.F. Skinner focused on providing people with the reality that individuals act on account of stimuli and that operant conditioning plays an essential role in a person's development. A person is likely to continue to perform a particular activity if he or she observes that it is somehow rewarding. While the other theorists are primarily concerned about the developmental period, Skinner wants people to look at matters from a more general point-of-view and to understand that there is an explanation for any learned behavior, regardless of its character (Charlesworth 12).

Lev Vygostsky devised the zone of proximal development theory and explained that a lower limit of ZPD represents…… [read more]

Illuminate the Influence of Parents and Parenting Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,000 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … illuminate the influence of parents and parenting on college-age drinking habits is indeed a worthwhile endeavor as the parenting style one exhibits clearly impacts the development of the child -- even into young adulthood such as the college age (Benson & Haith, 2009, p.281). This is as a result of the fact that the family unit has a… [read more]

Childhood Asthma Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,032 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


This is problematic as the longer asthma allows to subsist being under-diagnosed, the more lasting damage it is able to do to the lungs of the child (CHP, 21).


Children who have asthma live with an inflammation of the bronchial tubes. Generally they can breathe normally, except when something triggers their asthma, at which point their bronchial tubes narrow,… [read more]

Meagans Law Meagan's Law Questions and Answers Essay

Essay  |  14 pages (5,402 words)
Bibliography Sources: 28


Meagans Law

Meagan's law

Questions and Answers: Meagan's law

Questions and Answers: Meagan's law

Interviewing children requires a unique set of skills to accurately assess but at the same time, not re-traumatize the child. Discuss some of the finer points in interviewing a child. What must be considered to insure that the material uncovered will be helpful to the case?… [read more]

Physical Activity Sociological Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,054 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


The information provided on socialization into sport has profound implications concerning readiness for participation in organized sport (Maddison, Jiang, Vander Hoorn, Ni Mhurchu, Exeter, Utter, 2010). Children who come from families that value and participate in sport-related activities with their children would be expected to have a higher degree of readiness for participation in organized sport than those who do not. Children who are adequately socialized into the role of an athlete often accept this role willingly. There are, of course, exceptions to this broad generalization.

There are several ways in which socialization acts to help affect the readiness of a child for organized sport participation. Socialization through modeling and actual participation in sport-related activities would increase children's knowledge of the activity, make them less fearful of participation, assist in the development of sport related movement skills, and enhance their motivation to participate for either intrinsic or extrinsic reasons (Brown, Pfeiffer, McIver, Dowda, Addy, Pate, 2009). Knowledge, motor skill development and motivation have all been included in the present model for the prediction of organized sport participation readiness. Socialization contributes to the development of each. Consequently, it is predicted that socialization would be an especially powerful factor in a child's readiness for participation in organized sport. Without adequate socialization into the role of organized sport participant, successful and enjoyable sport experiences would seem unlikely.


I might have not have measured all of the important aspects of the schools and neighborhoods for determining children's physical activity. For example, in the current analyses I did not include measures of social inequality, racial discrimination, or social capital, because of less literature available on these aspects, yet it has been hypothesized that these factors may be important. Similarly, I have been unable to measure important aspects of the home environment and other student characteristics that are significant sociological aspects in physical activity of children.


Bower, J.K., Hales, D.P., Tate, D.F., Rubin, D.A., Benjamin, S.E., & Ward, D.S. (2008). The childcare environment and children's physical activity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 34, 23 -- 29.

Brown, William H; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Addy, Cheryl L.; and Pate Russell R. (2009). Social and Environmental Factors Associated With Preschoolers' Nonsedentary Physical Activity. Child Development, Volume 80, Number 1, Pages 45 -- 58.

Carver A, Timperio A, Crawford D. (2008). Playing it safe: the influence of neighborhood safety on children's physical activity. A review. Health Place.;14(2): 217-227.

Cradock AL, Kawachi I, Colditz GA, Gortmaker SL, Buka SL. (2009) Neighborhood social cohesion and youth participation in physical activity in Chicago. Social Science Med.;68(3):427-435.

Leatherdale ST, Manske S, Faulkner G, Arbour K, Bredin C. (2010). A multi-level examination of school programs, policies and resources associated with physical activity among elementary school youth in the PLAY-ON study. Int Journal Behavior Nutrition Physics Act.7 (1):6.

Maddison R, Jiang Y, Vander Hoorn S, Ni Mhurchu C, Exeter D, Utter J. (2010). Perceived vs. actual distance to local physical-activity facilities: does it really matter? Journal Physical Act Health.7… [read more]

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Special Education Case Study

Case Study  |  10 pages (3,737 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


The alcohol essentially malforms brain cells and/or hinders the full development. FAS is one of the leading causes of retardation in western societies:

Mental retardation is a cardinal feature of FAS and is now recognized as the leading known cause of mental retardation in the Western world. Conservatively estimated for the United States, the economic cost associated with FAS-related growth… [read more]

Social Support in Ensuring Successful Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (917 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Their longitudinal study demonstrates the need for ongoing social support that should begin in the early stages and extend into early childhood and adolescence.

Improving psychological health is crucial, and social supports are key in effecting this, there is a great deal of support available in the literature to support these theories. The need for support increases when there are additional stresses, for example in low-income neighborhoods, where the parents may tend to be poor, often minorities, and in need of parenting education. In a 2008 study of single African-American mothers from a low-income segment of the population, significant distress was experienced as the women transitioned from pregnancy into the state of parenthood (Hudson, Campbell-Grossman, Keating-Lefler, and Cline, 2008). The women were shown to have difficulties tending to the needs of their infants during this transition period. The psychological stress encountered was found to be significantly lessened when social supports were in place. Improvements were noted in the physical and psychological health of the study participants who were given social support; in addition, their parenting skills showed marked improvement.

As stated above, support is particularly important when there are environmental conditions that may be stressful to the family. A 2002 conducted by Ceballo and McLoyd of African-American single mothers of pre-adolescent to adolescent-age children (seventh to eighth grade) strongly supports this assertion. The researchers found that as the neighborhood deteriorated, the bonds between parents and children also deteriorated as well. In neighborhoods in which support was made available to the parents, the relationship between parents and children was positively affected in significant ways.


Beeber L.S., and Miles M.S. (2003). Maternal mental health and parenting in poverty.

Annual Review of Nursing Research 21:303-31.

Carpiano, R.M. And Kimbro, R.T. (2012). Neighborhood social capital, parenting strain, and personal mastery among female primary caregivers of children. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 53(2):232-47.

Ceballo, R. And McLoyd, V.C. (2002). Social support and parenting in poor, dangerous neighborhoods. Child Development 73(4):1310-21.

Cochran, M., & Niego, S. (1995). Parenting and social networks. In M.H. Bornstein (Ed.),

Handbook of parenting: Volume 3: Status and social conditions of parenting (pp. 393-

418). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Honig, A.S., & Morin, C. (2001). When should programs for teen parents and babies begin?

Longitudinal evaluation of a teen parents and babies program. The Journal of Primary Prevention 21(4): 447-454.

Hudson D.B., Campbell-Grossman C., Keating-Lefler R., Cline P. (2008). New Mothers

Network: the development of an Internet-based social support intervention for African

American mothers. Issues Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing 31(1):23-35.

Sheldon, S. (2002). Parents' social networks and beliefs as predictors of parent involvement. The Elementary School Journal, 102, 301-316.…… [read more]

Social Marketing and Sustainability a Report on a Social Marketing Campaign Napcan Prevent Child Abuse Book Report

Book Report  |  7 pages (2,493 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


¶ … Social Marketing NAPCAN Prevent Child Abuse Case Study

The threat of child abuse is still very real within even our modern society. Child abuse and neglect is still a major issue within Australian society and politics. According to the research, about 5-10% of all children under the age of eighteen have experienced physical abuse, 4-8% witness abuse within… [read more]

Parenting on the Academic Achievement Multiple Chapters

Multiple Chapters  |  7 pages (2,646 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


One would suspect that in larger families headed by a single female parent that the boys would have less intimate relationships with their mother than the girls leading to more difficulties with their development. Thus, it appears as if many of the factors identified in the literature are potentially modifiable.

Downey, Ainsworth-Darnell, and Dufur (1998) discussed individualistic vs. structuralist standpoints… [read more]

Self-Efficacy and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Research Paper

Research Paper  |  15 pages (5,668 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


Commonly, children who receive diagnoses of oppositional defiant disorder in preschool or early elementary school transition to a diagnosis of one of three major categories of disorder: depression, anxiety, or ADHD (Hamilton & Armando, 2008). Then, too, a goodly number of children do not develop co-existing conditions (Hamilton & Armando, 2008). Many children with oppositional defiant disorder continue to exhibit… [read more]

Psychological Effects of Divorce Research Paper

Research Paper  |  20 pages (6,143 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Weakened Parenting after Divorce

Another factor that causes children to become stressed is when parenting they receive is inept, clumsy and incompetent. Extreme marital conflicts have severe effects when it comes to the adjustment of children. Mothers, in specific, tend to become less affectionate and more negligent when there are harsh agreements during marriage. They are reprted to become more… [read more]

Social Development Barack Obama: Erikson Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (685 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


It was during this period of time, when Obama had moved back to the United States while his mother was completing her graduate research abroad, that he began to struggle with his biracial identity. He appeared to be African-American, yet was chastised as not being 'black enough' by his friends. Obama also experimented with alcohol and drug use, as a way of finding himself. "I was living out a caricature of black male adolescence...at least on the basketball courts I could find a community of sorts" (Obama 118-119).

However, Obama appeared to successfully resolve the questions of 'who he was' enough to transition to the 'intimacy vs. isolation' stage of young adulthood. He moved onto college, transferred from Occidental College to Columbia University, and became the editor of the prestigious Harvard Law Review while a student at the institution. He also met his wife Michelle, who was to provide a formidable grounding influence upon him. Caring about others and acting as a community organizer in an underprivileged area in Chicago (passing up lucrative, high-paying corporate law jobs after his Harvard graduation) also provided him with a sense of fulfillment and helped answer the question 'who am I?'

Finding himself through connecting to others through politics seems to be at the core of Obama's identity resolution. The current middle-aged stage of 'generativity vs. self-absorption' seems to be successfully being resolved by Obama as president, given the extent to which he has consistently put personal grandstanding aside and tried to make compromises to ensure that what he believes are vital legislative acts such as healthcare are passed. There are, however, some hints of unsuccessful resolutions of earlier stages that have made him too quick to compromise and too quick to emotionally distance himself from others, perhaps rooted in his turbulent and unstable upbringing where he often felt that he did not 'belong' to a specific group.


Barack Obama. (2012). Biography. Retrieved:


Obama, Barack. (2004). Dreams From My Father. Broadway Stages of social-emotional development. (2012). Child Development Info.

http://childdevelopmentinfo.com/child-development/erickson.shtml… [read more]

Adolescents &amp Advertising Media Messages Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (640 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Retrieved from: http://her.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/5/719.full

(4) American Psychological Association (2004). Report of the APA task force on advertising and children. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pi/families/resources/advertising-children.pdf.

(5) American Psychological Association (2009). Resolution on promotion of healthy active lifestyles and prevention of obesity and unhealthy weight control behaviors in children and youth. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved fromhttp://www.apa.org/about/governance/council/policy/chapter-12b.aspx#active-lifestyle.

(6) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2006). NHANES data on the prevalence of overweight among children and adolescents: United States, 2003 -- 2006. Atlanta, GA: CDC National Center for Health Statistics, Health E-Stat.

(7) Kaiser Family Foundation (2004). The role of media in childhood obesity. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved fromhttp://www.kff.org/entmedia/upload/The-Role-Of-Media-in-Childhood-Obesity.pdf.

(8) Tweens, Teens, and Magazines (2008) The Kaiser Family Foundation and Education.com. Retrieved from: http://www.education.com/reference/article/Ref_Tweens_Teens/

(9) Gurian, Anita (2008) How to Raise an Educated Consumer. Education.com. Retrieved from: http://www.education.com/reference/article/Ref_How_Raise_Educated/

(10) Cook, JL and Cook, G (2009) Explaining Media's Effects. Education.com. Retrieved from: http://www.education.com/reference/article/explaining-medias-effects-children/

(11) Teachable Media Moments (2010) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Education.com. Retrieved from: http://www.education.com/reference/article/Ref_Teachable_Media/

(12) Girls and Body Image (2010) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Education.com Retrieved from: http://www.education.com/reference/article/Ref_Girls_Body_Image/

(13) Kaiser Family Foundation (2005). Generation M: Media in the lives of eight to eighteen-year-olds. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.kff.org/entmedia/entmedia030905pkg.cfm.

(14) How to Magazines Effect Body Image (2008) Center on Media and Child Health. Education.com. Retrieved from: http://www.education.com/reference/article/how-magazines-affect-body-image/

(15) Ransohoff, J. (2010) Teens and the Media. Palo Alto Medical Foundation. Retrieved from: http://www.pamf.org/teen/life/bodyimage/media.html… [read more]

Lost Boy by Dave Pelzer Book Review

Book Review  |  10 pages (3,354 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


He thus constantly strives for his mother's attention and for her recognition that he is a good boy, an admission which, the reader knows, can never happen.

The only respite for the child comes in the form of Ms. Gold, who he calls an angel, and who is his assigned social worker. It is astonishing to see how David describes… [read more]

Domestic Violence Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,275 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Kolbo, Blakely, and Engleman (1996) also reported that studies measuring the differences in physical health between children exposed to domestic violence and those from nonviolent homes did not find evidence of a causal link between exposure to violence and health problems in the children. Recent research has looked at more specific measures of emotional and cognitive functioning and how being… [read more]

Child Study Christopher Cole Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (653 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Child Study

Christopher Cole is a ten-year-old boy currently in the 5th grade. His general academic aptitude is at about the 1st grade level. This year Cristopher has been diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome, which is a form of autism. He has also been diagnosed with ADHD. Christopher was born with a cleft palate, which may lead to speech difficulties as well as impacting his self-esteem ("Cleft Lip and Palate," 2011). Moreover, Christopher has poor eyesight and requires corrective lenses.

Christopher has exhibited behavioral problems concurrent with his condition. Schools have been woefully unable to accommodate for Christopher's needs. He has been placed in as many as three different private schools in the Waxahachie area, but none have been able to help Christopher overcome is attention deficits and social disorders. However, homeschooling has also not been a constructive learning environment for Christopher.

Christopher is prone to throwing tantrums and exhibiting signs of violence toward others. He even slapped me in the face out of frustration, on multiple occasions. Patience has been the key to working with Christopher, who has made great strides over the past year.

II. Christopher uses rituals to make his world more manageable, familiar, and controllable. For example, he asks the same questions over and over even though he knows what the answer will be. Christopher has no concept of time. I am trying to teach him not only how to read the clock, but also about the social function of time. If I tell Christopher to return in five minutes, he does not know when five minutes has passed or what it means to be late or stand up a person. Christopher is left-handed. When he writes, his penmanship is about at the level of a kindergartner and he does not know how to spell. Reading is also a problem for Christopher, who does not grasp the concept of punctuation. He reads straight through passages as if there are no ends or beginnings…… [read more]

Piaget's Cognitive Development the Webster Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,475 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


In the concrete operational stage, the child starts to distribute with intellectual concepts such as relationships and numbers. At this are children learn mastery of classes, relationships, how to reason and numbers. Furthermore in this level the child increases the aptitude to decenter and comprehends the idea of preservation. This change from not understanding preservation to understanding it is not… [read more]

Promoting Physical Activity in Elementary-School Aged Children Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (3,150 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


Promoting Physical Activity in Elementary-School Aged Children: What Parents Can Do

By now, everyone understands that childhood obesity is a serious problem, and it almost impossible to overstate the seriousness of that problem. "Over the past 20 years, obesity rates in U.S. children and youth have skyrocketed. Among children ages 6 to 11, 15.8% are overweight (?95th percentile body mass… [read more]

Parenting Styles the Effects Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,999 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Connell and Prinz (2002) report that the level of maternal education is related to the appropriate parental interactions and that these patterns of interaction are related in turn to high levels of social and communication skills in children. While longitudinal studies (Baker, Mackler, Sonnenschein, and Serpell, 2001; Morrison, Rimm-Kaufman & Pianta, 2003) found a strong relationship between patterns of early… [read more]

Child Custody Family Law Thesis

Thesis  |  20 pages (6,441 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


This is employed as an alternative to having a child testify directly. The therapist cannot testify on behalf of the child, but can account to the court his interpretation of information gathered from sessions with the child. Psychologists must not give opinions regarding the physiological functioning of individuals who they have not personally evaluated, which implies that the therapist cannot… [read more]

Spanking Discipline vs. Aggression Imagine Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,530 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Reason or verbal admonition cannot appeal or move a toddler. The only language he knows at this age and stage is physical in nature. And the message cannot be postponed to a later time when he can understand better. The message must be sounded at the moment the misbehavior or unsafe act is performed. And that message has to be… [read more]

Romantic Child and Rousseau's Emile Seminar Paper

Seminar Paper  |  3 pages (997 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The Romantic Child and Emile by Rousseau

Jean Jacques Rousseau wrote Emile in 1762. The alternate title of this innovative novel is On Education because Rousseau's motivation for the story was to describe a system of education that would allow the natural innocence and intrinsic goodness of the young child to survive without corruption into adulthood. It is sometimes regarded as the first detailed and complete philosophy of education in Western culture. "To say that children enjoyed special status in the Romantic period is perhaps to spout a cliche. The Romantics created a new economy of respect for children by acknowledging their differences from adults, and henceforth viewing them as adequate children as opposed to deficient adults." (Ferguson, Winter 2003) This was an important and highly significant time for the fields of education, child psychology and child development, sociology, and family studies. The meaning of childhood changed considerably in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, and Emile is one of the most famous texts to depict this new world view.
The methods that Rousseau employed to introduce and promote his ideas are best depicted within five components, corresponding with the five individual units that make up the whole of Emile. These five components consist of the fundamental philosophy of Rousseau's educational system and how best to incorporate that philosophy into raising a child, the initial interaction between the child and the world, the need for early selection of a trade, the child's emotional education during his adolescence, and the philosophic foundation of female educational requirements.
The opening line of Emile is famous for its implied criticisms on the nature and intent of society: "Everything is good as it leaves the hands of the Author of things; everything degenerates in the hands of man." (Rousseau, 1979) This statements is indicative of Rousseau's general philosophic view of man and the world, discussed in detail in The Social Contract, first published in the same year as Emile. The premise is that man's base nature must be suppressed in order to live in harmony with and function appropriately in civilized society. In Emile, Rousseau attempts to figure out how it might be possible to raise a child to take a proper place in a society that both expects and demands accountability, responsibility, and productivity, without training the fundamental innocence and goodness out of the child's nature.
In Book I, Rousseau begins with the early physical and emotional development of the child. He endorses breastfeeding and swaddling for the infant, and advises one not to shelter a young child so he learns early that there are harshness and hardships to be found in the adult world. Within this point of view is the memory of this author's childhood and a father whose constant refrain was, "Life is hard! Life is not easy! Life is not fair!" This was a man who believed strongly in building a foundation of resilience and endurance in his children with rigid expectations and harsh discipline. He seems…… [read more]

Adolescence Stress and Depression Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,014 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Stress and Depression Among Adolescents

What are the common causes of stress and depression among American adolescents? What is the relationship between stress and depression in young people? How does the conflict between adolescents and their parents contribute to stress? These and other questions will be addressed in this paper.

Stress among Adolescents

An article in the journal Social Forces… [read more]

Developmental Psychology if a Parent Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,291 words)
Bibliography Sources: 14


This can lead to poor nutrition and low weight gain for the baby.

The patient should leave with an understanding of the importance of proper nutrition during pregnancy and also proper weight gain for the mother. This is important because this is one of the most common problems for pregnant teenagers. The patient should also leave the office having an understanding of the way drugs might affect the developing fetus. A young mother might not realize that her actions affect the health of her baby. The third thing the patient should understand is the affect stress could have on the development of the baby. If extremely stressed about the pregnancy, the mother might want to take steps to mentally accept the pregnancy because this might affect her willingness to live a healthy lifestyle during and after the pregnancy.

7. If a friend of mine wanted to adopt a child who was born addicted to a drug, such as cocaine and who lived in foster care for 6 months, I would warn that friend of the possible concerns with the child including physical, social and cognitive concerns. Physically, this child might have issues with the central nervous system. This is often where drug related issues present. The good news here is the infant was taken away from that situation early on and therefore not exposed continually to the drug following birth. On the other hand, taking the child away from the mother at birth and entering into foster care might present problems in the social realm. For instance, attachment might not be secure as the infant probably did not have one steady caregiver to become attached to while in foster care. Also, in the early days, this child would have cried more and been irritable more, all while living in a rehab center. Depending on the quality of care, this infant might not have had as much contact and human touch as a baby without these problems. Cognitively, the infant might experience trouble in the area of language development and normal brain function.

To reduce the effects of the scenario, the person adopting the child should be sure the child has a normal healthy life that includes nutrition, regular school and other mentally stimulating activities. If the child has parents that are present, attentive and responsible, the effects of the drug might diminish over time.

9. It seems the child is having difficulty with joint attention. The parents should understand that using something (a symbol) to represent something else (an object) is really the same concept whether we are discussing a verbal symbol or a visual symbol. Before a child will understand the concept of the point, or understand that a word represents an object, the child must master joint attention. This can be a problem such as delayed language, or can even be autism.

To further understand the case, I would want to know how the child is communicating in other ways. For instance, if the child wants something, must… [read more]

Community Interview Interview

Interview  |  5 pages (1,527 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Jewish Child and Family Services (JCFS) since it is within my community, services a wide, not necessarily, Jewish population, has a significant reputation, and, most importantly, I myself have used some of its services and know some of its personnel well.

Having an easy access to Robyn Carr, one of the social workers there, and someone who has… [read more]

Disproportionality and Disparity in Child Welfare Services White Paper

White Paper  |  6 pages (1,724 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Disparity…Child Welfare Services REVISED

Disproportionality and disparity are long-standing issues in child welfare. Kirk and Griffith (2008) wrote that studies focused on documenting their existence and describing their features appeared in the early 1970s; researchers then began to look at possible sources. Were racial and ethnic minority children at greater risk, or were their disproportionate numbers the result of systematic… [read more]

Characteristics of Asperger Syndrome and Coping Strategies Research Paper

Research Paper  |  33 pages (10,627 words)
Bibliography Sources: 30


Asperger Syndrome

Asperger's Disorder -- also referred to as Asperger syndrome (AS) -- is essentially a "…chronic neurodevelopmental disorder" that limits the afflicted person's ability to have normal social interaction and communication, according to an article in the journal, European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (Woodbury-Smith, et al., 2009, p. 2). While AS is not associated with the problems resulting from… [read more]

Family Health Care Child and Adolescent Nursing Book Report

Book Report  |  5 pages (2,208 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Australian Health Care V

Purpose of the Report -- Most countries are realizing that it is through the health and welfare of their children that the success of the future will occur. This is even more important as we move into an increasingly global society in which outdated political and cultural boundaries are replaced with social networks and areas of… [read more]

Child Development Theory Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,259 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Educational Psychology Case Study and Analysis

The subject of this case study is an 18-year-old male who, for the purposes of this project, will be referred to as "Steven." Steven illustrated high intelligence and precocious cognitive development as an infant, and as a small child. In those respects, Steven reached several specific milestones of cognitive development before his peers and performed very well in educational measures generally associated with intelligence throughout elementary and middle school. However, as Steven entered adolescence, he became easily bored and distracted in school and his academic performance dropped significantly. Steven also found himself in trouble for disciplinary violations on many occasions.

In many respects, at least with the benefit of hindsight, there were indications of problems in Steven's perception of moral rules and values even before adolescence. Those problems became much worse in adolescence and eventually resulted in his being confined to a school for troubled boys at the age of 17 for repeated disciplinary problems in school as well as at home. Steven began talking earlier than his peers and also demonstrated other elements of high intelligence and cognitive development in relation to perceiving various physical relationships and associations. Steven also absorbed rules and logical principles early.

However, Steven always (in retrospect) seemed to lack the ability to appreciate some of the fundamental principles and concepts served by rules. That was particularly evident in the distinctions that Steven made in connection with telling the truth, making promises, and negotiating fair solutions to problems. From a very early age, Steven spoke very definitively about and could articulate the meaning and importance of being "honest"; on the other hand, he seemed to lack the same ability (or interest) in honesty in the spirit of rule that he had always easily recognized in terms of honesty in the proverbial letter of rules and promises.

Two specific examples concerned an incident involving the trade of his bike for skateboard that he had been specifically forbidden to purchase with his allowance and the manner in which he used to trick his much younger brother into accepting unfair compromises or agreements. In the first case, when Steven was 14, he had expressed the desire to purchase an expensive custom-made skateboard with his allowance. His parents forbade him from "spending your money on a skateboard" primarily because they thought it was too dangerous and also because they disapproved of the particular friends with whom he intended to skateboard. His parents agreed to allow Steven to "buy yourself a bike instead." Steven purchased a bike and immediately traded it for a skateboard. When his father confiscated it, Steven had a tantrum because, according to him, he "didn't buy a fucking skateboard; I bought a bike and traded for the skateboard."

The other incident occurred when Steven was 12 and his younger brother was 5. Steven allowed his brother to watch cartoons on television instead of a science fiction program in return for the agreement that "I get to watch whatever I want… [read more]

Online Sexual Predators Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,637 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Sexual Predators

Online sexual predators are a serious threat to society. "One in four U.S. teen girls reported that they met strangers off the Internet. One in seven boys admitted they did as well," ("Internet Predators"). About one-fourth of all children have been "exposed to unwanted pornographic material online," (SentryPC). More importantly, young people are "dying at the hands of… [read more]

Infant Brain Development Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,671 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Infant Brain Development

Complex dynamic processes underlie the development of various functionalities of the infant brain and its maturation into an adult brain. Today, neurologists have concurred that both nature and nurture play a significant role during the initial years of development of the brain. Advancements in neuroimaging techniques including the various refinements in MRI and optical tomography have made… [read more]

Education Outcomes for Youth in Foster Care Article Review

Article Review  |  6 pages (2,066 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Foster Care and Education

Educational Outcomes for Youth in Foster Care

The importance of this issue for social workers -- vis-a-vis the educational achievements of at-risk individuals and the overall, ongoing need for an educated, productive society -- is reflected in the fact that an estimated 800,00 youth are living in foster care environments annually in the U.S. -- and… [read more]

Neo-Vygotskian Approach to Child Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (609 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … mediation and in what cases should be used to develop children's ability for sociodramatic play?

According to Vygotsky and his followers, children's social environments must be mediated by adults, so that children develop into fully functional adults. Unlike previous developmental theorists, Vygotsky did not believe that children 'naturally' met developmental milestones without direction. Adults must engage in social interactions with children and help shape the types of psychological tools the children will use as adults. However, this 'mediating' is not necessarily authoritative in nature. An adult should ideally play a supportive role when the child is engaged in play, "resourcing, expanding and deepening learning dialogues between people and between different perspectives" (Wegerif, 2007). An adult observing child at play, for example, does not have to tell a child what to do, but might ask, for example "how does the doll feel," or "who is that sad person in the picture," to direct the child's attention to a specific lesson the adult is attempting to reinforce.

Q2. What are major accomplishments that accompany successful formation of leading activity in early childhood?

Play, formal learning, or other 'lead' activities must enable children to be more functional in school and in the community. Children need to learn language and other vital skills necessary to enable them to function with others. They must learn to listen to peers and adults, and learning how to do so informs their own creative and observational skills and abilities. Teachers can create the opportunity for 'shaped' experience that points the children in a desired direction, of learning and socially appropriate behavior as well as directly lead students in the classroom. "When creating a quality sociodramatic play environment, parents or teachers should create a center that appeals to the children, promote the story lines, and evaluate the play. When choosing a…… [read more]

Consequences of Children's Law Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (608 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Consequences of Children's Law

Children's law

Consequences of Children's Law

There are many laws are designed to provide children with protection from abuse and from various forms of ill treatment. However, there are also a number of consequences that can result from these laws that have to be considered. In particular an increasing number of educationalists and social workers are concerned that the application of these laws is having a negative effect on child development, especially when parents become too afraid or are prevented from disciplining their children in a normal way.

On the one hand, children should never be abused or become disciplined to an extreme degree, as this can lead to both developmental and psychological problems. However, when parents no longer discipline or guide their children correctly according to socially acceptable standards, then this can lead to even greater problems and consequences.

Educationists and psychologists claim that one of the main problems that affect modern children and adolescents is as lack of discipline. This means that children do not have any form of guidance and direction or an understanding of the moral and ethical boundaries of socially acceptable behavior. Consequently, they have no basis or guide for their actions and perceptions. This can result in immoral and unethical behavior, as well as psychological consequences resulting from a loss of coherent identity and a sense of meaninglessness.

There are many practical implications to this problem. One of the most obvious is the lack of education and schooling advancement. It is common knowledge that a lack of discipline and guidance in the home often leads to a lack of discipline at school. This is an important consequence as the lack of an education has important repercussions for the future of the child.

As noted briefly above, possibly the most disturbing consequence is the lack…… [read more]

Raising a Sensory Smart Child: The Definitive Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,605 words)
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Raising a Sensory Smart Child: The Definitive Handbook for Helping Your Child With Sensory Processing Issues. A Book by Lindsey Biel and Nancy Peske.

Raising a Sensory Smart Child

Author Lindsey Biel went from having her own advertising and marketing agency -- from, as she writes, "…wearing tailored suits and heels to boring meetings -- to wearing "fingerpaint and tuna-fish-smeared… [read more]

Psychology Problems Facing Adolescents in the 21st Century Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (980 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



The idea of beauty is changing with each generation. The physical events of adolescence have always been the same. Since the dawn of Hollywood and pop culture, there has been a trend developing amongst early adolescents and teens. "Beauty" is approaching a new level of competitiveness with plastic surgery and computer enhancement. These "perfect bodies" have confused young Americans experiencing adolescence toward climatic problems. This trend is that with each generation body image is becoming more of a determining factor for self-esteem. It may originate from the American obsession with beauty. There are many physical changes that occur during adolescence, which are discussed in detail. In the 21st century, body image's grasp on self-esteem and has become problematic and detrimental toward social development. Taking the proper steps to prevent these problems and many other that come with adolescence is also mentioned.

The physical changes that occur during adolescence are so numerous that they are accredited with transforming boys to men and girls to women. They usually start at the age of thirteen and continue to about age eighteen with no two adolescents experiencing the exact same transformation. It is difficult to consider what comes first or at what time any change will occur during an adolescent's development. Therefore, a list of commonly occurring events will be displayed and explained with details exemplifying distinct characteristics of a physical or social change happening in these young adults ("Development in Adolescence").

Adolescence is renowned for the physical changes that occur. The most common starters to adolescences involve signs of puberty. For young girls this may mean menstruation happens for the first time, for boys it may be hair growing in places it never grew before. Once adolescence begins, a roller coaster ride of changes starts involving emotional, physical, and sexual development. Usually a change in voice is very noticeable during the early stages of adolescence. Growth spurts, developing breasts, and muscular development are all important physical changes with serious impacts on the emotional and sexual development because they involve body image and self-esteem ("Development in Adolescence").

The specific details of what emotional and sexual developments happen during adolescence are not available. According to the Child Development Institute, everyone has problems understanding young adults even psychologists and teachers ("Adolescent stages of Development"). It is important to understand certain developments for the sake of grasping how and why body image and self-esteem are being influenced by the 21st century culture. Ego-identity and gender role are the two most influential aspects of adolescence development and both are tremendously affected by body image along with self-esteem.

There are exact definitions for these two concepts but analogies explained them well too. Ego-identity is analogous to expert in a career field. Regardless of the profession each expert knows where they belong and understand how the environment surrounding them behaves. When this does not develop properly during adolescence, it transforms the expert into a lost puppy. It does not…… [read more]

Effect of Single Child Family Structure on the Communication Process Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  12 pages (4,156 words)
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¶ … Child Family Structure on the Communication Process

"the family is an extraordinarily rich context or gathering information on human social behavior"

(Floyd & Haynes, 2005, p. 79).

During a hard-line speech in 1979, Deng Xiaoping initially stressed that China's one child policy be put into practice, Steven W. Mosher (2006), president of the Population Research Institute in Front… [read more]

Epidemiology Global and Public Health Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,323 words)
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Epidemiology: Global and Public Health

Epidemiology studies the frequency of diseases or health conditions in different population groups, as well as the reasons for this frequency. The findings of such a study can then be used in strategies to help prevent the problems related to the condition, or indeed, to prevent the condition itself.

One key step is to identify a particular population that is at risk of the condition being studied. Specifically, the condition addressed here is teenage pregnancy in Fulton, Georgia. The population group addressed is therefore teenagers in Fulton, and the condition examined is unwanted pregnancy. The importance of this study relates to the fact that unwanted teenage pregnancy is not only a health issue, but also a sociological one. In the typical epidemiological study then, both strategies to mitigate the consequences of unwanted pregnancy and to prevent the phenomenon can be established.

Selecting the target population is an important issue. Often completely random selection is not possible. Examining the entire target population is also not a very feasible option. It is therefore often necessary to make a partially random selection by means of identifying an accessible subset within the target population. Fulton, GA is then selected as such an accessible subset, with a random population chosen to examine the teenage pregnancy problem.

This is a viable approach, because the subset is sufficiently representative of teenagers and their risk of unwanted pregnancy across the United States. Once teenagers in Fulton are therefore examined for their risk factors, the conclusions and strategies identified as a result can be applied to other similar population groups with a large degree of probable success.

In selecting the specific study population for this epidemiological investigation, it is required that there are three main similar characteristics: participating members must be female, within the teen age group, and resident in Fulton, Georgia.

For the year 2006, the demographics of Fulton, Georgia is as follows:

The total population for Fulton was 960,009. Of this, the percentage of children under 18 was 25%. The median household income from 2000 was $51,882, with individuals in poverty estimated at 15,4%. In the Healthy Children category, babies with a birth weight of more than 2,500 grams was 89,7%, with babies with low birth weight being 10.7%. Infant mortality per 1,000 for the county was 7.1. In terms of sexual activity among teenagers, teen pregnancies for ages between 15-17 per 1,000 was 35,7, and teen births for ages 15-19 per 1,000 were 41,6. Teen mothers giving birth to another child before she was 20 was 22,2%, and the incidence of STD for youths between 15-19 per 1,000 was 60,9. Teen deaths or ages 15-19 per 100,000 was 55.6. Teenagers dropping out from high school between ages 16-19 was 9%. In the same age group, those not working and not at school was also 9%. In terms of families, incidents of child abuse and/or neglect per 1,000 was 10,9. The unemployment rate was 4,8%, and children living in poverty was 24.6%.… [read more]

Sociology Teenage Pregnancy Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,558 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6



Teenage Pregnancy

Teenage pregnancy is a common ever increasing important health issue among teenagers today. It has negative consequences for both the teenagers who become pregnant and for their children. Babies that are born to teenagers are more likely to have lower birth weights, increased infant mortality, and an increased risk of hospital admission in early childhood. They are… [read more]

Restorative Justice," John Braithwaite ) Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,280 words)
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¶ … Restorative Justice," John Braithwaite (1998) suggests that Hollywood movies and television shows lend credence to the American view that the justice system should be hard on crime. Anyone who as watched an episode of Law and Order or CSI would have to agree. Many times these shows depict stories of criminals who do not commit crimes out of pre-meditation, but rather desperation and need. In most, these criminals are not treated any differently than those who commit crimes coldly, and with premeditation. With this hard-line Hollywood attitude, one might suspect that Americans believe that a get-touch correctional system is correct, but this is not necessarily true. Through an exploration of restorative justice in the community and specific attitudes in the United States, one can determine that the American people actually want a rehabilitative correctional system.

Instead of a punitive criminal justice system, which pits criminals and victims against each other, a rehabilitative system is more community-based, encouraging a tighter-knit community and country. These are characteristics that the American people value. According to Braithwaite (1998), restorative justice is not only a "major development in criminological thinking," but also it is the first and primary method of penal systems throughout history (433).

In fact, Braithwaite argues that it has been the dominant system for many different peoples and cultural groups, including Hindus, Buddhists, Arabs, Greeks, and Romans. While some may suggest that this does not hold relevance for the United States, the truth is actually just the opposite. In fact, the laws and cultures in the United States are made up primarily of the building blocks from these communities. If the ancient Greek and Roman ideas of government and learning have been passed on to the United States, it would make sense that attitudes toward the penal system would be similarly passed to United States Citizens. Furthermore, this information suggests that a variety of cultures, religions, and ethnicities are united by their desire to help others, a desire for rehabilitation.

Not only is the melting pot nation of the United States made up of cultures that have embraced rehabilitation, but also restorative justice is also integral in bringing together the community. As community cohesiveness is a value that is praised by United States' citizens, this suggests that most United States' citizens favor rehabilitation. In Braithwaite's (1998) case study, he gives the example of two teens arrested for robbery, one who dies early because of a penal system, and the other who undergoes a restorative justice programs and is reunited with his victim, to both of their advantage. The teen is given a support system that allows him to function semi-normally in society and the victim becomes sympathetic to his situation, and is no longer afraid to walk alone. This system suggests that the community is coming together. In the second case, the high school, family, the victim, and her family came together. Several people who would have been oblivious of each other or enemies were brought together in order to… [read more]

Childcare Facility Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (779 words)
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Child Care Policy

Childcare Policies

The difficulty with case studies regarding care of sick children is that both sides are correct. The childcare center has an obligation to provide a safe and healthy environment for the children under their care. When a child is sick, it threatens the ability of the childcare facility to provide a healthy environment for the rest of the children and staff. This case study addresses two separate issues: sick children and payment issues. They are both violations of daycare policy, but they are two entirely separate issues. This analysis will address the implications of policies regarding both of these issues.

The most difficult of the issues is that of sick children and the parent who refuses to pick up their child due to work. It is easy for the childcare facility to blame the parent, but both sides must consider the position of the other. The parent may be pressured by her work environment, or may be in danger of losing her employment if she continually has to take off work to attend to a sick child. The parent has no good choice in this case. Low-income families are particularly at risk for this type of dilemma (Heymann, Penrose, & Earle, 2006). This issue cannot be resolved between the parent and the childcare center. Both sides need to pressure the government for an extension of the Family Medical Leave Act to include sick children (Heymann, Earle, & Penrose, 2007). If parents were not afraid of losing their job, they would be more willing to abide by childcare facility policies and pick up their child quickly.

When a parent refuses to pick up their child, it has an impact on the willingness of the other parent to pick up their children as well. However, if children are continually exposed to sickness when at daycare, parents will not feel as if they are placing their children in a safe environment. The daycare center cannot jeopardize the loss of an otherwise well-paying client.

One instance can have a negative impact on the childcare center, as the care of a sick child takes more effort than the care of a healthy child. If the behavior continues, then it could become as contagious as the illness. Continued allowance of this behavior could make it appear as if the childcare…… [read more]

Social Work Assessment Within Child Protection Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  9 pages (2,480 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


Social Work

The Importance of Assessment and Framework in Social Work

An Emphasis on Child Protection

Social programs and the existence of professionals tasked with facilitating goodwill and functionality in the public society is far from a new concept. In fact, certain social programs existed for peasants during the Middle Ages, and the United States has a rich history of… [read more]

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD Term Paper

Term Paper  |  17 pages (6,369 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Attention Deficit HyperactivITY Disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit HyperactivITY Disorder

Theories of child development and guidelines for parents are not cast in stone.

They are constantly changing and adapting to new information and new pressures.

There is no "right" way, just as there are no magic incantations that will always painlessly resolve a child's problems."

Lawrence Kutner (20th century) (Columbia, 1996)… [read more]

Child Psychology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,058 words)
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The objective of this work to compare and contrast three learner developmental theories from the perspective of: (1) three key concepts of each three theories; (2) three major points of similarity among the three theories; and (3) three major points of difference among the three theories. There will… [read more]

Child Psychology Behaviorism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,951 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Child Psychology and Inherent Concepts of Animacy

The question of animacy and how early an understanding of the concept develops among human beings is not as certain as was once thought. In the past, based largely on the work of Jean Piaget, psychologists came to accept his conclusion that children developed a conception of animism very gradually over a… [read more]

Absence of Paternal Involvement and Sexual Risk Term Paper

Term Paper  |  21 pages (5,319 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 22


¶ … Absence of Paternal Involvement and Sexual Risk Taking Behavior in Adolescent Females

Influence of Father Involvement on Child Development




Emotional Development

Social Development

Father Involvement and Female Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviors

Measures of Father Involvement


The objective of this… [read more]

Child Rearing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,842 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … corporal punishment with regard to children and now the use of corporal punishment has changed over the years.

There are few parenting topics that spark the intensity of debate more strongly than the topic of spanking. For many years parents and experts have argued, studied, and examined the use of corporal punishment on children with mixed results. In… [read more]

Breaking the Cycle of Child Abuse in Our Communities Through Parenting Prevention Education Programs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,277 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Parenting Programs/Child Abuse

Child abuse in the United States continues to be endemic levels. According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2005), in 2002 State child protective services agencies received reports that alleged the maltreatment of about 4.5 million children. Over half of these reports came from community professionals, and the remainder from family, friends, relatives, or neighbors. In this same year, investigations by State child protective services agencies determined that an estimated 896,000 children were victims of abuse or neglect, equivalent to a rate of 12.3 per 1,000 children under 18 years old.

Victimization was highest among the youngest children, with 16% of victims being newborns to age 3. Among the estimated 1,400 children who died of abuse and neglect, children under one accounted for 41.2% of fatalities and children under seven for 87.9%, with 79% involving a parent as a perpetrator. Just this week, studies are showing that the children of soldiers deployed to Iraq are suffering increased abuse, as well. The problem is not getting better.

As a result of these statistics, community organizations and the states are putting a greater emphasis on preventative measures. The State of Ohio, for example, is considering a law that would make it mandatory for all parents to attend a child abuse program before leaving the hospital with a newborn. This dissertation will conduct a literature analysis on the different types of parent education programs and the results of the studies conducted to date of parent education on lowering child abuse.


The dissertation literature review will be divided into two sections: 1) a historical perspective of parent education for child care, especially abuse and 2) a review of the research conducted on the preventative impact of parent education on reducing child abuse levels.

Parent education has been defined as "a systematic and conceptually-based program intended to impart information, awareness and skills to the participants on aspects of parenting" (Fine 1980:5). The basic understanding this education is that a parent who is properly prepared for the challenges associated with childrearing is more able to deal with the increasing stress factors. Such programs have been developed since the 1980s, although the structure of the programs has changed. Parent education is normally believed to be of benefit in two ways: by increasing parents' understanding of child development and necessary methods for child-rearing, decision making and home management; and by decreasing parental stress through the availability of social support networks.

Parenting education can have a powerful role in preventing child abuse. Many parents at-risk for abusing their children have similar characteristics, such as being young with little social support. They have a great deal of stress in their life and do not truly understand child development. Overall, they might not have reasonable expectations of what a child is and is not capable of doing at different life stages. In addition, what these young parents have seen through the media has been a biased perception of parenting, which has added to… [read more]

Gifted Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,616 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … gifted child. The writer explores characteristics of gifted children, family structure and environment, and the differences between a gifted child and a non-gifted child. There were six sources used to complete this paper.

The Gifted Child Explored

Years ago, if a student showed exceptional ability or completed class work with record speeds, that student was asked to help… [read more]

Impact of Father Involvement on Infant Development Within the Realm of Pre-And Perinatal Psychology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,383 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Father Involvement in Infant Development

Studies showed that children whose father was more involved in their care exhibited greater security in their attachment than those whose father was less involved (Caldera, 2004). Infants of fathers who more actively participated in their care were more socially inclined, played independently with toys, more compliant and enjoyed a warmer relationship with their father.… [read more]

Anger Management for Students in Schools Tom Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,292 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Anger Management for Students in Schools

Tom Mashberg writes about teens who meet once a week in Boston MA to address the explosive anger they have inside them in his newspaper article: "Breaking chains of anger challenges teens in therapy." (Mashberg, 2000, ¶ 1) Jesska, 13, carries Bic lighters with her and burns herself, along with other things. She was… [read more]

Psychosocial Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (388 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Psychosocial Development

Erik Erikson

In the Journal of Men's Studies, there was an article entitled Exploring Erikson's Psychosocial theory of development: generativity and its relationship to paternal identity, intimacy, and involvement in childcare. This article talks about a study of fathers who participate in their child's childcare, identity, intimacy and generativity, in order to understand which variables best predicted variation in fathers' levels of generativity. The study's findings were that fathers' paternal identity, psychosocial identity, and psychosocial intimacy were the bet overall predictors of fathers' levels of generativity, and that the fathers' paternal identity was the best predictor of fathers' generativity. Surprisingly, it found out that fathers' involvement in childcare was not a good predictor of fathers' generativity. (Palkovitz. 340)

This study was based on Erik Erikson's Eight Stages of psychosocial development. In each eight psychosocial crises, there is a struggle between 2 conflicting personality characteristics. These two characteristics are in extreme in each level, however in reality no one reaches either extreme. (Page 2006)

One of the stages is the stage in which generativity develops. That is in Middle Adulthood, or 35-55-65 years of age, in which the significant task is to "perpetuate…… [read more]

Protecting Children Online Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,165 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Internet Safety and Youth

Developing computer skills is vital for today's children. It has become an important means for communication, plays an important role in nearly every job, can enhance both education and general quality of life (Rupley, 2004). The difficulty with children using the computer is that some people online may use computers to gain access to our children for inappropriate and even criminal reasons. Children, by their nature, will not have the skills on their own to avoid the dangers that can come with internet access, so it is up to parents and educators both to protect children and to teach them how to keep themselves safe online

The risks to children are very real. The FBI reports that one in five children receive pornography or are solicited by sexual predators online (McKinley, 2002). By the time they are teenagers, one in four has been contacted by strangers who want to meet them in real life (Rupley, 2004). Since the Internet is now used more than the telephone, and since most children are not supervised all the time they are online (McKinley, 2002), predators attempt to exploit their vulnerability. Very often the children and teens, underestimating the risk, unaware of the risk, or believing that they can avoid being victimized, get online while they are supposed to be asleep. They may talk with strangers as well as people they know (Rupley, 2004).

Whether the predators seek to sell pornography or to meet in person, they are all too often successful. In 2003, John Zuccarini pled guilty under the federal "Truth in Domain Names Act." Using over 3,000 domain names that mimicked TV shows youth often watch, such as www.teltubbies.com (no longer a real domain) he misdirected children to sites containing hard-core pornography (Rupley, 2004). In a more disturbing case, in 2001 a 13-year-old girl left to meet her online "boyfriend" at a local fast-food restaurant. He was actually a 25-year-old man, and he killed her (McKinley, 2002).

When children cannot fully protect themselves, it is up to the adults around them to act, which is what AOL executive Teri Schroeder did. She realized that young people were contacting AOL about the problem of adults inappropriately approaching them online. They didn't go to their parents because they were afraid that their parents wouldn't let them use the computer any longer (McKinley, 2002). Schroeder investigated how predators lured these kids away from monitored discussions into unsupervised, private chat rooms, and founded "I-Safe," a non-profit group designed to teach young people how to stay safe while online. Congress responded to her actions and provided funds for school outreach programs. I-SAFE teaches educators how to help protect the students in their charge. It also works with community leaders to promote safety online for children and teenagers (McKinley, 2002).

In addition to using the training available from I-SAFE, schools can take a number of actions that will help protect their students as they use the Internet, setting policies in place that can dramatically… [read more]

Parental Training Statistics Show Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (3,433 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


These happen when the psychological maltreatment is a result of deliberate destructive actions on the part of the adult. Experts identify this as "a concerted attack by an adult on a child's development of self and social competence" (Garbarino, Guttman, and Seeley, qtd in Neeley 2000).

This "concerted attack" generally takes five forms. In the least severe form, an adult… [read more]

How Large Is the Problem of Child Abuse and What Are We Doing About It? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  16 pages (4,401 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Child Abuse

How large is the problem of child abuse and what are we doing about it?

Children, today, are being abused at an alarming rate. The abuse can range from physical abuse to sexual abuse, psychological abuse or neglect (Righthand, Kerr, & Drach, 2003). Whichever the type of abuse inflicted on the child, he/she is affected in a negative… [read more]

Behavioral Differences in Adopted Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,190 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Behavioral Responses among Early Adopted, Late Adopted, and Non-Adopted Children

This study will examine differences in the behavioral responses of children who are adopted at an early age, adopted at a later age, and those who are not adopted, to determine if the different populations behave differently in a similar social setting. In order to determine this, children… [read more]

Impact of Modern Technologies on Human Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (4,966 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Psychosocial Impact of Modern Technologies on Human Development

What is psychosocial development?

The discussion of psychological impacts of modern technology is to be based on the theories of psychosocial development. This compels us to first briefly discuss what psychosocial development is before we get into modern technology. The entire subject was developed by Erik Erikson, who lived during the period… [read more]

Peer Pressure on Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,452 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Most researches on the subject have indicated that the fear of being isolated or "left out" is very strong among teenagers.

Fear of being ridiculed or being made to feel "inadequate" is another important reason why many adolescents are susceptible to negative types of "peer pressure" against their better judgment. They are also afraid that their peers would "make fun… [read more]

Early Childhood Development Education Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,453 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Early childhood development and education in third world countries is essentially part of the process of change and transformation that many of these countries are undergoing. Many developing countries are emerging from years of colonial rule and entering into a modern industrial and urban phase. This means that in understanding child education and development in many countries in Africa for… [read more]

To What Extent Should Parents Be Held Responsible for the Behavior of Their Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,662 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Parents Be Held Responsible for the Behavior of Their Children

Stephen Everson (1991) writes, "Psychology is, as one might expect, an ancient discipline. The philosophers and scientists of antiquity were, like their modern successor, properly intrigued by the fact that some natural substances are capable of movement and action- that is, of behavior-" for the past several decades,… [read more]

Theories of Cognitive Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,031 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … problem-solving behavior from three different developmental perspectives. I will be handling the material as though the two children are from different families since if they were sisters, each of them, especially two-year-old Sara, could be influenced by the problem-solving process of the other.

Piaget: Constructivist Theories

Jean Piaget must be considered the father of developmental psychology. Even if many of his theories have shown weaknessess, the important thing is he created theories about how people learn. His stages of development helped to provide shape and order in thinking about learning. In the course of providing that shape and order he gave others something to focus their work on. This is, in many ways, the heart and soul of research: each worker uses the work of others as the baseline to see how their own work is coming. The four stages of development provide something to measure observations against.

Constructivist theories state that thinking and learning are a process of interaction between a person and the environment. These theories also state that all species inherit basic tendencies to organize their lives and adapt to their environment. The theories also go on to state the ideas that by a combination of innate cognitive structures and experience cause the constant revision of one's own knowledge. There area three major aspects of constructivist theories. Assimilation: is the acquisition of new knowledge and organizing it to fit what is already known. Accommodation: the new information changes what the person thinks about a given subject. Equilibration: the attempt that is constantly made to make sense of and seeming differences of experience and perceptions.

One of the stages of development Piaget postulates involves what he calls a characteristic of egocentrism which is defined roughly as an unawareness of any point-of-view but one's own. Sara, at age two is in this stage and might very well buy her mother the same kind of present she herself would like to receive -- the mentioned doll, or maybe a teddy bear. Jane, however, at the age of 10 is in the stage Piaget labels concrete operations and Jane is more likely to observe what kinds of things her mother buys for herself and is also more likely to perform the very concrete operation of asking the advice of an adult.

Vygotsky: Socialcultural Theories

Lev Vygotsky worked at the same time as Piaget and is one who built his body of work on and in contrast to Piaget. Vygotsky postulated that values, beliefs, skills and traditions that are transmitted from one generation to the next are the most important factors in growth of understanding one's world. Vygotsky agreed with Piaget that learning is active and constructed but he also believed that interaction and direct teaching played a critical role in a child's cognitive development. He also forwarded the concepts of relationships and private speech.

By Vygotsky's ideas, even Sara at the age of 2 could have enough of an understanding of the values of her world to know how… [read more]

Autism in Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,540 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Autism in Children

Autism is a neurodevelopment malady wherein impairment of the behavior and abnormalities constitute the only basis for medical detection. (Courchesne, 2004) Autism and the connected persistent maladies in maturity are marked by examples of impediment and departure in the growth of social, communicative, and cognitive proficiency that happen in the initial years of life. Even if often… [read more]

Children in the U.S Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,849 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Conclusion - Statistical reality that one in every five children in the U.S. has a learning difficulty, that the socioeconomic factors to it cannot as yet be effectively addressed and that treatments or approaches are still on an individual basis, learning disabilities sound an alarm and require the constant support and attention of families, school, community and the public education system. This surge of incidence of maladjustment in the young is telling society something quite serious, as it indicates the kind of future they face. Learning disabilities and ADHD cannot be treated directly because their causes are indirect. The roots lie deep in the social structure and this takes all the honesty and will of parents, schools, communities and the government. The trend is letting everyone know that youngsters today are not learning what they should to fashion and operate their own world in the future. The spade work belongs to those in charge of these children at present and, in the meantime, the causes not only increase both in kind and volume. Adequately containing the condition needs all that can be done within the time still allowed.


1. Blair, Clancy. (2002). Proportion of Learning Difficulty Placements Associated with Low Socio-economic Status: Evidence for a Gradient? Journal of Special Education, Pro-Ed. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOHDF/is_1_36/ai_85916838

2. Farmer, Jeanette. (2004). Retrain the Brain Your Family Health Site. http://www.retainthebrain.com/?OVRAW=learning%20disabilities&OVKEY=learning%20disability&OVMT

3. Kidsource Online. (2003). General Information About Learning Disabilities. Kidsource Online, Inc. http://www.kidsource.com/NICHCY/learning_disabilities.html

4. National Institute of Mental Health. (2003). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Firstgov.com http://www.nimh.nih.gov/healthinformation/adhdmenu.cfm

5. National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities. (2002). Learning Difficulties. NICHCY fact sheet # 7. http://www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/general_info/gen-2.html

6. Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (1999). Children with Learning Difficulties. Fact sheet # 16. http://www.aacap.org/publications/factsfam/ld.htm

7. -. Children Who Can't Pay Attention. Fact sheet # 6. http://www.aacap.org/publications/factsfam/noattent.htm

8. -. Children Who Won't Go to School. Fact sheet # 7. http://www.aacp.org/publications/factsfam/noschool.htm

9. -. Conduct Disorder. Fact sheet # 33. http://www.aacp.org/publications/factsfam/conduct.htm… [read more]

Domestic Violence on Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (4,184 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


A history of abuse is also related to the severity of a given mental disturbance, including suicidality, age at first admission to facility for care, frequency and length of admissions, time spent in seclusion, likelihood and dosage of psychiatric medication, and global symptom severity (Beitchman, et al., 1992; Briere, et al., 1997; Bryer, et al., 1987; Pettigrew & Burcham, 1997).… [read more]

Children's Television Programs More Violent Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,113 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The program and network options were then separated between the two target audience categories. A random drawing was made on May 9 until three hours of viewing were covered for the adult and children/youth categories. The selected programs were then checked against program categories, to ensure that at least two of the options for each audience category were covered. The… [read more]

Infant Child Care and Attachment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,006 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The converse is equally applicable.

It is believed that stress and parent anxiety render the experience of separation and also adjustment to the foreign care environment a difficult one for the infant.

Conversely, the supplementary nature of a sound care-giving environment can act as a genuine support in the alleviation of family stresses and difficulties, improving the infant's chances of… [read more]

Psychology Daycare Centers Are Lifesavers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (427 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Children should, however, be encouraged to balance play with learning activities that incorporate some of the elements of play. Especially at a young age, children need to be exposed to as many different educational opportunities as possible such as language and math skills. However, play does not necessarily include Bible studies and parents should take care to allow their children to develop their moral spiritual understanding through reason, inquiry, and experience rather than dogma.

4. Whether monetary or not, rewards help a child develop self-esteem and encourages them to practice positive behaviors in the future. Offering positive reinforcement is a fundamental factor in healthy child-rearing, as children who only hear admonishments from parents hear an overabundance of negative messages. Offering rewards for behavior that is expected of them, like cleaning up, teaches children to have a positive attitude regarding chores that can carry over into adulthood.

5. Effective parenting does involve both discipline and reward. However, it is not necessary to frame every behavior in absolute morality. Certain thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are ethically neutral, such as anger. While it is important to teach children how to deal with anger effectively, placing a moral judgment on that anger can be detrimental to the…… [read more]

Working Parents and Daycare Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,455 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


On the basis of the findings from the NICHD (1998) study, it would appear that high-quality daycare services operate to produce positive outcomes in some cases and fail to do so in other cases. As reported by NICHD, children who attended child care centers that met American Public Health Association/American Academy of Pediatrics (APHA/AAP) showed greater school readiness, higher language… [read more]

Social Work Dimension Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,367 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The question can be asked about who will take 'unwanted' children in a market-led system where individual schools have the right to choose the students they want. An example of this can be seen in this illustration, little girl was sexually molested and developed some behavioral problems including the fact that she was being bullied by classmates who knew about… [read more]

Raising Children in a Socially Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,163 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


What can we do to reduce levels of toxicity in the social world of childhood? How can we protect our children form this harmful environment? Dr. Garbarino suggests ways of doing so and it must begin at home, he says. "Programs that prepare couples for marriage and teach parents how to develop successful families are important, as are laws and policies that require parents to do all they can to avoid separation and divorce." (199) If adults to do not know what it means to have a healthy relationship, they will certainly not be able to teach their children different. Programs that teach parents how to have successful families will be the greatest good to children. Parents aren't born with this type of information, they need to learn it. In my opinion, this is the greatest form of education we can provide.

Discipline strategies is another suggestion Dr. Garbarino gives. Parents should focus on, "strategies that teach youngsters love and self-control. Help them build positive identities based not only on talents and skills, but on character and moral conduct." (211) It all begins with what and how much parents give to their children. It's not only important to give children your time, but to think about what it is you fill that time with. I believe parenting is much about sacrifice and parents need to do more of it. Parents must regulate the time their children devote to television and video games; they need to be constantly aware of what is going into the minds of their children. "Encourage positive media experiences, positive language and positive peer relations. Join with other parents and teachers to enforce the same media standards at home and school." (217) Parents and teachers need to be constantly aware of "what our youngsters see, hear and feel," according to Dr. Garbarino. "Parents and teachers should be the guardians of childhood and should band together to shield the children" from toxic influences, in clothing, language, television, music and social activities. (223)

The ideas and arguments presented by Dr. Garbarino are without a doubt valid and proven. Today's environment is toxic to us all and should be focused on more by educators and parents. More education should be given to parents on what a healthy environment actually is. For students involved in studying child development, this means learning to recognize the damages caused by an unhealthy environment, and learning to overcome these damages.

The suggestions of Dr. Garbarino and numerous other researchers are good, but in my opinion they lack something because thus far we haven't been able to make those changes. The family belief system that Dr. Garbarino presents is something that I certainly agree with, but one that a lot of families would find to be far-fetched. A lot of families would disagree with the Dr. Garbarino about what is toxic to their children and what isn't. I believe there has to be a middle road between these researchers and these families. Parents need to understand… [read more]

Using Developmentally Appropriate Assessment and Instruction Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,704 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Cognitive Instructional Goal

1. Mark will count 10 or more objects in 7 out of 10 tries following one verbal cue to "Count the ____(name of objects) by June 15, 2014.

2. Mark will correctly name 4 out of 8 colors following one verbal cue to "Name the colors you see" by June 15, 2014.

3. Mark will participate in… [read more]

Parenting That Works Book Review

Book Review  |  5 pages (1,800 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


In many ways, a divorce signals the breakdown of the lessons one expects a child to carry into adulthood, such as conflict management, problem solving, and empathy. Moreover, most divorces are at least somewhat acrimonious, increasing the chances that children will have seen one or both parents behave in ways that conflict with those parents' goals for the child as the child grows. Furthermore, it only takes one parent failing to behave in a civil or appropriate manner to cause a breakdown of communication in a family with divorce. That the authors addressed divorce and addressed how one parent can model appropriate behavior even without the other parent's cooperation was helpful. However, the information may not be realistic or appropriate for families that had previously experienced domestic violence or where the threat of domestic violence remains after the divorce.

The book's advice was easy-to-understand and easy to implement for parents motivated to implement the book's advice. Although I did not learn anything new about modeling, I did gain new insights into how parents model behavior for their children. There were some weaknesses in the book. For example, it was clearly geared towards the "normal" or "average" child. Parents struggling with children with autism or mental illnesses may not be able to get results using the fairly simplistic approach. Another flaw in the book was that parents would choose to model appropriate behavior. While it is true that parents who are likely to read parenting books are probably more likely to modify their own behavior, the parents with their own personal anger management issues would probably be unlikely to read the book, or, if they did, unlikely to apply its lessons to their own behavior.


Christophersen, E. & Mortweet, S. (2003). Parenting that works: Building skills that last a…… [read more]

Juvenile Delinquency Baldry, A.C. ) Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  12 pages (3,319 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


Juvenile Delinquency

Baldry, A.C. (2014). Bullying and juvenile delinquency. Organized Crime, Corruption, and Crime Prevention. 2014: 3-12.

Although this study focuses on a Southern Italian cohort, the results may be generalized and applied to any other population because it involves the relationship between bullying and juvenile delinquency. The author is a professor at the Second University of Naples. Findings in… [read more]

Heward Reference Is a Book Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,341 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


Such ambivalence could develop when the parents realize that the child's disability may be permanent, as they explore the different options the child can follow for dealing with the disability, or as they begin to contemplate how the disability will affect the future for both the child and for the family. Ferguson (2002) also notes that educators often present the… [read more]

Diversity Experience the Boys Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,140 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


This was one aspect that really got me thinking. The whole community is here to support our children in need and without the help and effort provided by the community, these kids would have no other place to go. This was essentially an example of interdependence. According to the text, "as with biological ecosystems, any social system has multiple related parts and multiple relationships with other systems" (141). The business organizations and other volunteer groups all show their support for the work being done at the Centre because those teens need employment and are the very next generation to run the city. This is also suggestive that Kelowna is an example of a typical locality-based community, where "interpersonal ties exist among community members (residents); they are based on geographical proximity," (177). Kelowna is definitely a locality-based community that takes care of their own.

Additionally, I was surprised to see the type of teens that were being supported by the Centre and all the programs it offers. I went in expecting more minority teens than anything else, primarily minorities and native tribes from further outside the city's proximity. Yet, I was surprised to actually see teens of all races and ethnicities in so much need. There were just as much Caucasian teens at the event than other minority groups as well. It was really interesting and eye-opening to see that the face of the average teen in need was not always from some minority group, which has come to be kind of a stereotype here in Canada and elsewhere. It definitely says something about the status of the city's citizens here in British Colombia. The nature of the have and have nots is evolving and now race is much less of a characteristic to determine one's socioeconomic status. This was one aspect that was definitely something of interest to me. I definitely did not expect to see so much of diversity in the at-risk teens that were taking advantage of the free BBQ food and the various programs and services the Centre had to offer them. It was refreshing, however, to know that these kids -- no matter what race or gender -- had a place to turn to in their time of need.

The Boys and Girls Club here in Kelowna is doing very great work for both individuals and the community. In order to get a better idea of what the group id, I did more research about the specific program I visited. It was established back in 1959 with a mission "to provide safe, supportive place where children and youth can experience new opportunities, overcome barriers, build positive relationships and develop confidence and skills for life" (Okanagan Boys and Girls Club 2013). The group works specifically with older kids because they have very unique needs that do not often fall into other child protection services. The Centre works hard to help these at-risk teens deal with their life transitions as they continue the journey towards adulthood.


Kloos,… [read more]

Autism What Can We Learn Film Review

Film Review  |  5 pages (1,469 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



What can we learn from the unique approach presented in Horse Boy? What do you think was effective in helping this child? How can we apply learning from this film in schools, clinics, and counseling settings?

"Horse Boy" is one of the most significant undertakings that employed various approaches and mechanisms of maintaining a reputable advance between children and… [read more]

Adoption Rationale for Annotated Bibliography Selections Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  4 pages (1,166 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Adoption

Rationale for annotated bibliography selections: With the increase in international adoptions over the past decade, it is important to look at the emotional and behavioral issues that are often manifested. Adoptive parents and educators must be aware of the risk factors that may be associated with adoptees. Understanding the causes of the problems, including genetics, pre- and post-natal care, and length and nature of pre-adoptive care, can help in the planning of education and behavior management programs. The articles selected examine recent literature on this topic.

Balbernie, R. (2010). Reactive attachment disorder as an evolutionary adaptation.

Attachment & Human Development 12(3), pp. 265-281.

Behaviors associated with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) may be a function of adaptation rather than a mental health issue. RAD is most often observed in institutionalized children, but some fostered and adopted children may also exhibit characteristics of the disorder. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) describes RAD as a form of "markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate social relatedness in most contexts." Understanding how and why RAD occurs may help adoptive parents better cope with a child when they realize s/he is not deliberately selfish, scheming and distant. The child's survival instinct has taught him, from a very early age, what to expect from adults the child looks to for care. The positive conclusion reached by the authors, following a review of the literature, is that even small children grossly deprived in the infant and toddler years of affection and mothering can benefit from normal family relationships after adoption.

Hawk, B., and McCall, R. (2010). CBCL behavior problems of post-institutionalized international adoptees. Clinical Child & Family Psychology Review 13(2), pp. 199-

As the number of international adoptions increases, researchers are interested in the developmental outcomes of the adoptees. Results, to date, have been inconsistent because of the variety of backgrounds from which the adoptees have come. Hawk and McCall reviewed eighteen studies that used the Child Behavior Checklist. According to their findings, post-institutional children have more behavior problems, and more likely to have problems that manifest in adolescence. The researchers discussed their findings in terms of early deficient experiences, including caregiver interactions.

Juffer, F., Palacio, J., Le Mare, L., Sonuga-Barke, E.J.S., Tieman, W., Bakermans-

Kranenburg, M.J., Vorria, P., van Izendoorn, M.H., and Verhulst, F.C. (2011). II.

Development of adopted children with histories of early adversity. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 76(4), pp. 31-61.

The authors report on seven longitudinal studies focusing on the development of adopted children. Children with and without experiences of early adversity were considered, as were biological effects and the supportiveness of the adopted family. The authors concede that pre-adoption adversities play a significant role in emotional and behavioral issues experienced by adoptive children, but post-adoptive influences are equally important. Key factors include interactions both within and outside the family and the child's growing understanding of being abandoned, then adopted. Race may also be a consideration, particularly when a child is bi-racial or adopted… [read more]

Juvenile Detention Standards Juvenile Delinquency Article Critique

Article Critique  |  3 pages (867 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


There are numerous standards for juvenile corrections. The development of standards for juvenile and adult corrections facilities continues to grow and change. (Livers & Kehoe, 2012) Correctional advocates are concerned with effective rehabilitation of offenders as well as sustaining humane and productive standards as part of the correctional system.


I found this article to be interesting. It was difficult for me to assess the relevance of this subject, though. Maintaining standards and safety in correctional institutions, for adults or for juveniles, is kind of a conundrum. It seems to be evident that there is a great deal of abuse in correctional facilities. This truth makes correctional standards kind of hollow and meaningless. The standards are meaningless unless they are really put into practice. Additionally, people might be less likely to prescribed strict practices in juvenile corrections because the offenders are children and youth. Despite crimes or alleged crimes committed, they are still children (juveniles). Weaknesses for children may inhibit the correct choices from being made regarding appropriate correction and rehabilitation.

In many respects, it was more difficult to write standards for juvenile corrections than for adult corrections because of the philosophical differences between juvenile justice and juvenile detention and corrections professionals on some of the more critical issues, including the incarceration of status offenders and juveniles in adult facilities. (Livers & Kehoe, 2012, 37)

People want to advocate and legalize standards for corrections, but there is plenty of evidence and documentation of systemic abuse of various kinds. Thus, to read this article was a bit confusing. Is this article participating or perpetuating the facade that the committees, organizations, and agencies of the federal government, truly care for the well being of those in correctional facilities? Or is this article truly coming from an altruistic and real place that reflects progression and humanity toward residents of correctional facilities? These were the questions that came to mind at the beginning of the read and after I finished reading the article. The authors very much want to convey that the perspective toward corrections and toward juvenile corrections has evolved over the past century, approximately.


Department of Justice: Office of the Federal Detention Trustee. (2011). Juvenile Federal Performance-Based Detention Standards Handbook. Department of Justice, Web, Available from: http://www.justice.gov/ofdt/juvenile.pdf. 2013 February 15.

Department of Justice: Office of Justice Programs -- Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (2013). Correctional Facilities. Department of Justice, Web, Available from: http://www.ojjdp.gov/mpg/progTypesCorrectional.aspx. 2013 February 15.

Livers, M., & Kehoe, C.J. (2012). Juvenile Detention and Corrections Standards: Looking Back and Ahead. Corrections Today, 74(1),…… [read more]

Developmental Psychology and the Physical Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,234 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


To this end, Greenwood et al. (2002) devised a mechanism that is used to evaluate the infant's progress, and the significant advantage of the tool lies in its ability to frequently chart the infant child's physical and mental growth. It is also necessary to remain cognizant of the fact that the infant child's growth is not necessarily linear, but can involve spurts of accelerated progress followed by periods of regression. One of the accomplishments of developmental psychology is that it has made people aware of the way in which the physical and cognitive progress of infants is not uniform but rather varies between children. According to Kagan (2008), the reason for the child's constant growth is that they do not have adult-like cognitive faculties but are instead engaged in a constant process of acclimating themselves to their surroundings; even seemingly banal activities such as watching their surroundings or sleeping are in fact profound activities in the life of the infant child.

One of the reasons why developmental psychology is essential in charting the progress of the infant child is that, as Campos et al. (2008) note, the trajectory of infant development is constantly engulfed in a system of forward, contemporary, and backward reflection. Although there is not necessarily predictive value to how an infant behaves, the way an infant behaves at 3 months will inform the way they behave 3 months later. For example, if an infant responds with fear to loud noises at 4 months of age, their early exposure to loud noises may make it so that they are more tolerant of them 4 months later. While the standardized general outcome measurement test developed by Greenwood et al. (2002) is useful for measuring the progress of infants, the most important aspect of the standardized test is that it be administered frequently, so that one can have a strong understanding of an infant's progress.

Context is an important aspect of developmental psychology and the cognitive and physical maturation of infants because it is specific to each child. Additionally, the actions that a child performs can have vastly different connotations depending on the context and their own history. In this regard, Campos et al. (2008) provide the example that a child crying can have very different meanings depending on the circumstances. A child who cries because they are separated from their mother reflects a very different cognitive state from a child who cries because they are cold or hungry. Where the former example is tied to the socialization of the child, the latter is based on the biological needs of the infant. Developmental psychology is useful in illuminating the underlying connotations associated with a specific action, elucidating the connection between the movement and the cognitive dimension associated with it.

When applied properly, developmental psychology is useful because it acknowledges the variance in cognitive and physical development between infants, and how the development of a child is not linear but instead involves spurts of rapid growth and regression. The child's physical… [read more]

Successful Interviews Are Results Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,007 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


This program was first introduced by MetLife Foundation and helps students and elderly people connect and help each other (PBS.)

The students profit and the elderly profit, showing that there is little reason why this program cannot be introduced, in a slightly different way limited solely to the eating science for students who have behavioral problems.

Generations United is another program that activated similar programs. Generations United describes themselves as a:

National membership organization focused solely on improving the lives of children, youth, and older people through intergenerational strategies, programs, and public policies.

We represent more than 100 national, state, and local organizations representing more than 70 million Americans. Since 1986, Generations United has served as a resource for policymakers and the public on the economic, social, and personal imperatives of intergenerational cooperation.

The institution has effectively managed to stimulate collaboration between adolescents and the elderly exposing each to the richness of each generation.

They claim that they improve the lives of children, youth and older adults (Generations United.). We can use their template to improve the lives of challenging students by exposing them to a different age range that will help them see life in a different way.

Students with behavioral problems generally have emotional difficulties. The problem is that students with psychical disabilities are given attention and included, but students with emotional disabilities (of which behavioral problems are a result) appear the same as others and are, therefore, excluded. This aggravates their situation. They need an emphatic, listening ear and someone who cares for them. They are usually not given this in the anonymity and largeness of the school setting (Hewitt). My program advocates the matching of the student with emotional difficulties to one or more elderly individuals who will take an interest in them and communicate with them. The interaction will not only benefit both but will provide this student with the social support and social connection that he so much needs potentially leading to diminishment of his behavioral problems.

Problems may well occur however due to the syndrome which Hewitt calls "pessimism" which may be encountered by all actors involved. Students, themselves, have become acclimated to experiencing exclusion and may feel skeptical at being introduced to a place that will actually accept them leading them to test the environment. Parents of students may be pessimistic of idea for the same reason. The principal, teachers, and persons involved with the nursing homes may be pessimistic for other reasons doubting that students with behavioral challenges will be able to make the transition and behave respectfully in the nursing home environment. I will have to overcome each of these pessimists. The interview with the person outline in Section One may help me.


Generations United. Our Impact.


PBS. In the Mix Bridging the Years…Teens and Seniors Mix It Up! http://www.pbs.org/inthemix/educators/lessons/bridgingtheyears_guide.pdf

Hewitt, MB Meeting The Challenge of Inclusion For

Students With Emotional Disabilities

http://www.behavioradvisor.com/InclusionOfEBD.html… [read more]

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