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Analysis of Media Conglomerates Fox Inc and Walt Disney Essay

… ¶ … Media Conglomerates: Walt Disney and Fox Inc.

The Walt Disney and Fox Inc. are the conglomerate companies operating in the entertainment industry, and both companies have been able to achieve the competitive market advantages using an advance in… [read more]

Company Advertising and Supply Chain Management Research Paper

… XYZ Company manufactures vaporizers and e-liquids for retail distribution. Currently it uses traditional channels of distribution but to get the company's products into the hands of consumers, who are not likely to visit specialty shops or purchase off the shelf… [read more]

Country Analysis for Samsung S Presence in Egypt and China Assessment

… Country Analysis for Samsung in Egypt and China

Market Opportunity

Country Risk

Business Environment

Political factors

Economic factors

Environmental factors

Technological factors

e-Business Readiness Rating

Samsung Electronics comprises 150 worldwide subsidiaries, which include nine regional production and sales headquarters, each… [read more]

Impact of Cross Cultural Differences on Workplace Relationships Essay

… ¶ … Cross-Cultural Differences on Workplace Relationships

In many organizations, the effects of globalization have created a workplace environment that is characterized by a diverse workforce that is comprised of people from different cultures. Not surprisingly, cross-cultural differences can have an enormous positive or negative impact on workplace relationships depending on whether these differences are understood and taken into account. To help develop a better understanding concerning how cross-cultural differences can have an impact on workplace relationships, this paper reviews the relevant literature including a comparison of China and the United States using Geert Hofstede's six cultural dimensions. A summary of the research and important findings about the impact of cross-cultural differences on workplace relationships are provided in the conclusion.

Background and Overview

Today, China is a rising superpower that is well situated to take advantage of its burgeoning economic infrastructure to become the leading economic power in the world within the next few decades, or perhaps just years. Although the Chinese economy has experienced some setbacks in recent months, a number of economic reforms that have been implemented in 2014 are expected to have a positive effect in the short-term (Chinese economy, 2016). To some extent, China's relationship with the United States has been responsible for much of this economic growth, and the U.S. remains one of China's largest trading partner today (Chinese economy, 2016).

Moreover, growing numbers of Chinese expatriates are living and working in the United States for Chinese or American firms (Miao, 2011). These trends mean that it is likely that many Americans will encounter Chinese people in their workplace in some capacity, making the need for developing a better understanding of salient cross-cultural difference more important than ever. For this purpose, the six cultural dimensions developed by Geert Hofstede and his colleagues provide a useful framework in which to evaluate these cross-cultural differences and these issues are discussed further below.

Geert Hofstede's Six Cultural Dimensions

Based on his analysis of dozens of countries around the world, Hofstede originally developed five cultural dimensions (power-distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, and long-term orientation) to which a sixth (indulgence) was later added. Briefly, these six cultural dimensions are defined as set forth in Table 1 below:

Table 1

Brief definitions of Hofstede's six cultural dimensions

Dimension…… [read more]

Is Dillard S Inc Doomed Research Paper

… Dillard's Inc. Key Strategic Issues

That's the Dillard's dead zone. Nothing can survive over there. -- Mike Nagel, "The Twilight of the Indoor Mall," November 10, 2014

The above epigraph is indicative of the recent downwards trends that are being experienced by Dillard's, Inc. Founded in 1938 and currently headquartered in Little Rock, Arkansas, Dillard's, Inc. competes in the retail sector marketing a line of women's and men's fashion apparel, cosmetics, and home furnishing in 272 stores (including 25 clearance centers and a commercial Web site) throughout the United States (Company profile, 2015). The company also own and operates a general contracting construction company which provides it with renovation and construction services (Company profile, 2015). Today, Dillard's is faced with some serious challenges as it seeks to develop and sustain a competitive advantage in a highly competitive marketplace, and these issues are discussed further below.

Problem Statements

Today, Dillard's (hereinafter alternatively "the company") is faced with declining sales and increased operational costs in some of its markets (Waheed, 2015). Moreover, consumer spending for fashion apparel has stagnated and even declined in recent years, creating some significant challenges for the company's executive management team (Laden, 2013). In addition, consumer preferences for fashion apparel continue to change as well (Laden, 2013). Taken together, these problems represent significant challenges for Dillard's as it seeks to maintain solvency and regain its competitive advantage over major competitors such as J. C. Penney's and Kohls.

Major firm-specific problems/issues now facing the company

According to the company's most recent quarterly report (Form 10=Q) to the Securities and Exchange Commission, the company was forthright in assessing its current status as being less than optimal. For instance, Dillard's conceded that, "The Company's third quarter performance of fiscal 2015 was disappointing, as sales were weaker than expected. During the three months ended October 31, 2015, comparable store sales decreased 4% over last year's third quarter" (Form 10-Q, 2015, p. 2). Likewise, despite consistently paying modest dividends to its stockholders, the company's declining retail sales have also affected the value of its stock. As the company's Form 10-Q points out, "Net income decreased to $45.7 million ($1.19 per share) for the current year third quarter from $55.2 million ($1.30 per share) for the prior year third quarter" (2015, p. 2).

In response to the declining sales and increased operational costs in some of its markets, the company has elected to close some stores rather than attempt to resurrect their performance. For instance, Waheed reports that, "Dillard's, the upscale department-store chain, isn't expanding as consumer spending in the U.S. remains low. Instead, the company is cutting its operating costs to earn more profit" (2015, para. 3). Some of the retail outlets that the company has shut down in recent years include its Collin Creek location in Plano, Texas, the Euclid Square Mall clearance location in Euclid, Ohio and the University Mall location in Chapel Hill, North Carolina (Waheed, 2015).

Likewise, the company has converted some of its lower-performing retail outlets into clearance… [read more]

Analyzing the Team Building Phenomenon Essay

… Team Building

Self-directed teams are also referred to as self-managed teams, natural teams or semi-autonomous work groups (Silverman and Propst, 1996). In definition, a self-directed team is a team that consists of personnel who have multiple sets of skills and can also function or operate cross-wise and share accountabilities for undertaking a certain task, producing a certain product or rendering a particular service. There is great significance with regard to having self-managed teams. One of the key significances for self-directed teams include the endeavor to promote and attain customer satisfaction. Through using self-directed teams, consumer needs and feedback are obtained directly instead of being filtered by means of a supervisor (Silverman and Propst, 1996). The importance of this aspect is that members of the team gain the capability to make the most of this direct information to react and respond in a fitting manner to consumers, and as a result, incessantly increase their own learning and knowledge in time (Silverman and Propst, 1996). More so, the phase period or time, for making decisions related to the consumer right on the spot, is decreased. Another significance for self-directed teams within any organization the aspiration to encourage employee satisfaction. The potential of any human being has the prospect of being nurtured and applied to its utmost degree as members of the team are able to deal with additional roles and responsibilities. The autonomy that is contained within the team makes the most of all the talents, abilities, skills conceptions and experiences of all the team members (Silverman and Propst, 1996).

Another significance of self-directed teams lies in the notion that it enables organizations to become more preemptive and hands-on. In essence, it frees up individuals from the supervisor roles and responsibilities that are characteristically responsive in nature and releases them up to take part in future-oriented undertakings and tasks that inspires organizational development. There is a great level of significance in self-directed teams with regard to boosting productivity…… [read more]

Medical World and Sales Essay

… ¶ … uncommon qualities, which enabled him enter the process with Lohmann University Hospital (LUH) and as a Mediquip representative.


Mediquip was able to position the brand of products they wished to give out or put on display quite successfully. This integrity equally contributed to the corporate credibility Mediquip got in the market, which gave Thaldorf the extra kick of business strength needed to build a new strategy for business.

He was an ardent believer in the superiority of the Mediquip scanners, which gave him the much needed confidence and the motivation required to sell their products more effectively. This single attribute has been found to have a very positive effect on any new product line (Fu F.Q et al. (2010) and equally acted as a motivator for him.

The CT technology shown by Mediquip was quite new to the market. The sales representative was therefore able to have a huge impact on the sales procedures (Mediquip Case PDF).


Every other competitor is already established within the market, which shows that major relationships have been built and sustained with the buyers.

Mediquip CT scanner is a bit more expensive when compared to the prizes of other competitors.

2) Professor Steinborn, Dr. Rufur, and Carl Hartman are all members of the unit in charge of making decisions in Lohmann Hospital (Mediquip Case PDF).

3) Professor Steinborn is in charge of the department of Radiology. He is solely responsible for the study of all types of CT scanners found in the market today, which are used for Radiology (Mediquip).

Thaldorf gives him information about the scanner. As the Radiologist and the practitioner in charge of the scanner, Steinborn is more concerned about the best way to make use of the scanner and how to ensure its smooth operation to ensure the best possible care.

Steinborn submits the opinion that all Mediquip scanners are much more sophisticated than those of their competitors and has some good reasons to be a little more expensive (Mediquip Case PDF). However, this opinion of his is not considered to be enough when his status is put into consideration. When it gets to this point, it appears as if Dr. Rufur and Hartman possess the greatest authorities.

The overall director of the hospital is Hartmann. He is saddled with the responsibility of giving approval for things like the purchase of certain medical equipment like the CT scanner. All these concerns are all with regards to the finance. At the end of it all, Hartmann is unable to differentiate between the products presented (Mediquip Case PDF). Despite the excellent reviews of Mediquip, he still considers other offers and bids from others. Rufer is solely responsible for penning down every single specification about the scanner. Though, he simply copied another person's manual. His major area of concern is the safety of the patients, which can result in liabilities…… [read more]

Evaluation of Quasi Experimental Design Research Paper

… ¶ … quasi-experimental design revealing the benefits and shortcomings of the research design. The paper also investigates the reasons the quasi-experimental design are used more often than the experimental traditional design. The study reveals that the quasi-experiments are used in educational environment than other research settings.

Benefits and Shortcomings of Quasi-experiments

A quasi-experiment is the type an empirical study that researchers use to estimate the causal effect of an intervention of a target population. While a quasi-experiment shares some similarities with the traditional experimental design, however, the traditional experiment lacks elements to enhance a random assignment. On the other hand, a quasi-experimental design allows a researcher to control the assignment in order to treat condition. The quasi-experiments have some concerns with regards to the internal validity, however, participants still have the equal chance of being placed in the comparison group or intervention group. The quasi-experiment is has both advantages and disadvantages. (Goldberg, 1990).

The advantages of quasi-experiments is that they are easier to set up compared to the traditional experimental design that requires a random assignment of participants. Moreover, the quasi-experimental is able to address the threats associated to external validity because the findings can be applied to a more general population. Additionally, the quasi-experimentation method is efficient in carrying out a longitudinal research that involves a long period. Other advantages of the quasi-experimental design is that it gives a room to a manipulation. Other benefits of the quasi-experiment is that it is able to draw a stronger conclusion, and contribute to the original body of knowledge. (Ellis, & Levy, 2011).

Despite the benefits associated to the quasi-experimental research designs, nevertheless, they are several drawbacks associated to the quasi-experiments. The quasi-experiments have a challenge in achieving an internal validity despite that they may allow a study to be more feasible. Moreover, a randomization is lacking in the quasi-experimental design, thus, and it will be difficult to determine a causal relationships from the conclusion. Moreover, if a threat to the internal validity is stressed, the researcher may not able to have a total control over the extraneous variables. Other shortcoming of the quasi-experiment is its inability to establish a causal relationships between two or more variables. (Ellis, & Levy, 2011).

Fundamental Weakness of the Quasi-experimental Design

The fundamental weakness of the quasi-experimental design is that its internal validity is more inferior to randomized experimental design, this weakness does not matter because a researcher may put more weight on the external validity to offset the weakness of the quasi-experiment. (Trochim, & Donnelly, 2007).

2. Randomly Assign Participants

In an experiment associated to a random assignment, the group has the same equivalents at the beginning or at the end of the study because a random assignment assigns the same chance to a group in a quasi-experimental design to ensure that both control and experimental are equivalent. It is not possible to assume that the group is equivalent at the beginning of the study, however, it is possible to assume the equivalent of the… [read more]

Literature Review on Laser Deposition Technology Research Paper

… Laser Deposition Technology (LDT)

Laser Deposition Technology refers to the procedure whereby a metal powder is introduced in the focused beam of a high-power laser in strongly monitored atmospheric conditions. The surface of the target material is melted by the… [read more]

What Happened at Bhopal Case Study

… Fault Tree Analysis of the Bhopal Disaster

The Union Carbide factory at Bhopal was the site of the world's worst industrial accident (de Grazia, 2014). Union Carbide India was a small subsidiary of a large established multinational corporation (de Grazia, 2014). The facility was located in India due to the comparative advantages which could be leveraged, including lower labor costs, and less stringent safety and environmental regulations (Ali et al., 2012). However, the cause of the disaster was not the lower levels of safety facilitating more risky behaviour, but a series of incidences, starting with a poor safety culture that impacted negatively on the way decisions are made, and a lack of planning.

There were multiple causes associated with the disaster. The issue start with the design of the facility. Despite the presence of a report in 1972 indicating that any additional plants to be built should be the same construction standards as the plant in Virginia, the plant in Bhopal was not constructed to the same standards. Stainless steel piping was replaced with carbon steel, which would corrode more quickly (de Grazia, 2014), the number and quality of safety devices were reduced in order to save somewhere between $3 and $6 million (Ali et al., 2012). The devices which were installed lacked any automation, automated backup, and the systems were not monitored through computerised processes (de Grazia, 2014). Importantly, in Bhopal there were not even emergency procedures developed in case of an adverse incident (de Grazia, 2014). In addition, the Bhopal plant only had one gas scrubber, meaning there was no additional redundancy in case of a flaw, likewise, the problem of no redundancy was also seen with the presence of only one flare tower; the Virginia site had four vent gas scrubbers, and to flare towers (de Grazia, 2014; Ali et al., 2012). This demonstrates that the overall design of the facility, and the safety equipment was present was lacking. In the preceding years, cost-cutting exercises had been undertaken to reduce the overheads at the plant, which resulted in safety measures that were present being reduced or eliminated, such as turning off the alarms,…… [read more]

Are Csr Reports for Show Term Paper

… Csr Reports


Adidas is a privately-held company based in Germany. They make an interesting study because they are privately-held. It is not known whether being German matters for having a CSR report, but the private aspect, and the fact that Adidas is a highly-visible company may factor. Adidas produces a Sustainability Report. The report contains a management discussion of its approach and some key issues, then reports on metrics for targets that the company has set for people, product, planet and partnership. Adidas has produced this report for fifteen consecutive years.

The Adidas report is necessarily because the athetlic apparel industry has come under fire on a number of occasions for sweatshop labor. Adidas not only notes its philosophy but that it has hotlines for workers to report abuses, or deviations from Adidas' supply code. The company uses much of the document to discuss workers' rights issues in its supply chain, in a number of countries. In this effort, the company hits upon a number of different aspects of the issue that the reader might not have thought of -- at the very least, Adidas is comprehensive in their efforts to produce this document. It is worth considering that the public attention paid to this industry and the fact that they sell to consumers in a competitive marketplace seems to indicate that they need such a report, even though they are privately-held.

Bank of China

The Bank of China is an interesting company to study because it is a state-owned enterprise in the PRC. It does have some minimal operations overseas, however. The report is written in Mandarin, so they are not producing this for the Western audience, and since the BoC is not traded, they are not producing this for shareholders either. The target market for this is clearly domestic, and in all likelihood would be people who deal with the bank, such as customers. But there are only so many choices in China, and the different banks specialize in terms of what commercial work they do, so there is not that much competition. While I cannot read the text, it seems that the CSR report, being voluntarily disclosed and not for Western consumption, is a genuine attempt to communicate with stakeholders.


This was an obvious choice, because Monsanto comes under as much criticism for social resopnsiblity as any company in the U.S. Their CSR report weighs in at 168 pages. It is glossy, with lots of…… [read more]

Intrapreneurship Plan for Keller Williams Term Paper

… Intrapreneurship Plan

Description of Proposed Business Action as an Innovative Idea

The economy is constantly influenced by several factors. This in turn alters the forces of demand and supply. The main idea being proposed is piloting of surveys, seminars and workshops with the purpose of brainstorming and identifying the needs of the prevailing market. Once these requirements are pinpointed, a determination of how to take advantage of them will be done. Owing to the experiences of the recession, Keller Williams ought to distinguish that the present economy is different from the one during the start of the century, which was nurtured by easy access to loans and credit. That epoch ended and financial institutions are more restricting, with respect to giving out mortgage loans to consumers. Therefore, Keller Williams ought to scrutinize what can be done to assist buyers secure loans. This will encompass ascertaining approaches for decreasing debt-to-income ratios, improving credit scores, and legitimizing income constancy (Keller, 2013). It ought to also concentrate on detecting the niche market that is still purchasing, retailing and spending in real estate, and advance a stratagem to target that market.

How the Idea Will Benefit the Business in Terms of Return on Investment (ROI)

The idea being proposed will largely benefit the business in terms of return on investment. In definition, return on investment is a financial metric that fundamentally compares the amount and timing of investment gains directly with the amount and timing of expenses and outlays (Schmidt, 2009). A high return on investment is indicative of gains being more favorable, in comparison to expenses. To start with, this idea will increase the number of clients for the company. The implication of this is that it will increase the revenues of the Keller Williams. By analyzing the market, the company will also be able to understand the approaches to use in becoming cost-effective. In turn, this will decrease the expenses incurred by the organization, which increases the returns generated in the fiscal period. In addition, this will increase the market share of the company. The inference of this is that the business will enjoy an increase in its consumer base. An increase in consumer bases implies an increase in revenues from the loyal clients. More so, having a greater market share and increased consumer base implies that the constructive image of the company will spread, and therefore, improve the number of return customers. An increase in revenue increases the returns generated by the organization (Jeffery, 2004).

Plan for Idea Presentation


The vision of a company lays emphasis on the potential that is intrinsic of a company. Taking a look into the current position of the company in the market, Keller Williams has a massive potential of becoming a leading firm in the market. The main vision in mind in presenting this idea is placing Keller Williams above all of its competitors, regardless of the state of the market. Imagine Keller Williams being the top prevailing company, and unaffected by any fluctuations… [read more]

Reasons to Buy Apple I Watch SWOT

… Consumer Behavior: How People Make Buying Decisions

Consumer Behavior Model: Environmental Factors

Business Sustainability Trend: Environmentally, improper disposal of used or spoiled electronics is the biggest problem facing Apple i-watch. It's expensive to dispose Apple devices, especially those with lithium. This forces the Apple i-watch to rarely, discard these materials into the environment. The company has, however, put in place a strategy for the development of reusable or recyclable devices (Makos, 2015).

Energy use: The energy consumption and other accompanying effects of data centers can increase the costs of operation as the watch relies heavily on data centers and other internet platforms that require high usage of electricity. The company has been improving on the batteries, processors and other parts that radiate less heat through technological advancements (Makos, 2015).

Consumer Behavior Model: Consumer factors

Purchasing Power: The behavior of the consumer depends on his/her purchasing power. A consumer will purchase a product or a service only after a thorough assessment of his/her ability to buy with an informed decision. Therefore, better purchasing results can be achieved through consumer segmentation of their capacity to purchase the Apple i-watch products and services (Carter, 2015).

Personal Preferences: Younger generations do not like wearing watches. Therefore, the initial target market for the watches was the baby boomers (Carter, 2015).

Marketing Strategy: The more young generations would first analyze how convenient the watch is compared to a cell phone, they would realize that the device is easier to carry, and hand-grip is more enhanced than the cell phones, hence marketable. (Carter, 2015).

3. Role of Involvement in Consumer Decision-making

Because the device is costly, the consumers are always involved in deciding where it is worth to buy such an expensive item. The significant financial commitment is the center of the consumer's decision making on the purchase of the Apple i-watch (Goodwin, 2014).

4. Consumer Decision-making Process

Problem Recognition: Health-wise, the Apple i-watch can help one in knowing how much calories he is burning just by moving around. It's a cool accessory that efficiently notifies calories to the customer, besides being light and comfortable to carry than a cell phone with many external features (Higgins, 2015).

Information Search: In the world of a digital realm, Apple i-watch is…… [read more]

Analysis of iWatch and Apple Inc SWOT

… Apple iWatch

Creating Value for Customers

The company greatly creates value for its consumers. Apple Inc. is all about the experience of the users and the consumers. One of the strategic ways that Apple does this is through the Apple stores where the consumers are able to experience the products. For instance, to understand how the Apple iWatch functions and its features, one is able to visit the Apple stores and have such experiences. The culture of Apple Inc. and its brand are also the basic aspects that create value for the consumers. The operational strategies undertaken by the company steer the Apple brand in the direction of market-leading products and superior consumer experiences. For instance, Steve Jobs once stated, "We put ourselves in the customer's shoes and ask: 'What do we want?' ... " This shows that the company is focused and fixated on ensuring the consumer experience is the best (Phipps, 2013).

Role of the Customer in the Company's Strategic Plan

Apple's current mission statement is, "Apple designs Macs, the best personal computers in the world, along with OS X, iLife, iWork and professional software. Apple leads the digital music revolution with its iPods and iTunes online store. Apple has reinvented the mobile phone with its revolutionary iPhone and App store, and is defining the future of mobile media and computing devices, with iPad" (Rowland, 2015).

The mission statement of the company is very distinct in designating what Apple Inc. does and will do. However, the mission statement of the company is not effective in showing its commitment to having a consumer focus. The mission statement is distinct, manageable, attainable as well as realistic, but it is too narrow. Therefore, it can be seen that the mission statement could have more focus on the consumer. I would recommend it be modified by including consumer oriented aspects such as corporate social responsibility and widening its scope to show what the company offers the consumer (Rowland, 2015).

SWOT Analysis

1. Strength

Strong Market and Advertising

This is one of the strong points of Apple Inc. The implication is that irrespective of selling its products at high prices, the company's marketing is extensive and therefore compelling and resounding to the consumers to purchase products.…… [read more]

Internalization Theory in the International World Essay

… Internalization Theory

Many find it easy to understand that the Internalization theory describes the existence and running of a multinational enterprise. Research shows that the Internalization theory puts the emphasis on inadequacies in intermediate product marketplaces. (Casson 2009). There are two main types of intermediate products which are recognized as being distinguished. One of them is called knowledge flows and the other involves development (R&D) to production. The majority of applications of the theory emphasis on knowledge flow. (Buckley 2014). However, pproprietary knowledge is easier to correct when intellectual property rights for instance trademarks and patents are feeble. Even with strong protections, companies still manage to protect their knowledge through privacy. Rather than licensing their information to independent local producers, businesses abuse it themselves in their own manufacture services. Basically, they adopt the marketplace in knowledge within the company. The theory makes the assertions that the internalization is what guides the firm to larger, more multinational enterprises, for the reason that knowledge is a public good. (Delgado-Marquez 2011)Expansion of a new technology is focused within the corporation and the knowledge then reassigned to other services. This is important to understand because a lot of hard work in the global strategic- management sphere has unluckily not taken on board internalization-theory way of thinking and lacks the perceptions provided by this comparative institutional method. With that said, this essay will examine the Internalization theory and its role in business.

History of Internalization Theory

Internalization theory was put together by Buckley and Casson. According to Buckley (2014) Internalization theory for years has been demonstrated through some multinational enterprises. It is done by the way these MNE organizes packages of activities on the inside in a way that it is able to develop and abuse firm-detailed rewards in knowledge and other types of intermediate products. The privately-operated ownership of such FSAs aids to conquer the externality of knowledge being a public good (Buckley 2014). Provided the existence of marketplace disappointment, internalization, i.e., performing activities inside the multinational…… [read more]

Why Companies Produce CSR Report Term Paper


All publicly-traded firms are obligated to perform financial reporting by law, and this is done according to specified standards so that there is a high level of consistency between the reports. This makes for ease of comparability between companies,… [read more]

Ski and Deli Merger Research Paper

… Dunn's Emporium -- Consultancy Report

Dunn's Opportunity

Organizational Structure of the Company

Change Management

The Environment for Change Process

The case study presented covers the merging of two separate companies that have different strategies but are also complementary to each… [read more]

Analytical Decision Making Style Chapter

… Reasoning Style Self-Assessment

My highest ranked style is the analytical reasoning style and my lowest is the behavioral decision-making style.

I believe that the assessment results are accurate. I think of facts as being very critical to the decision-making process and am honestly very frustrated when people confuse emotions with facts. How someone feels about an issue does nothing to change the facts of the issue, and I feel that this overemphasis on emotions leads people to make the wrong decisions because they allow their feelings about an issue to color their analysis of the issue. Therefore, I completely understand why the analytical reasoning style would by my highest ranked style and the behavioral decision-making style would be my lowest ranked style.

On the other hand, I think it is important to point out something about both styles. When engaging in analytical reasoning, the fact that some people feel a certain way about an issue is a factor to be considered in an analysis. There are well-established links between human emotions and human behavior. The fact that Chevy's Nova sold so poorly in Spanish-speaking countries is a powerful testament to the impact of human emotion on sales. Nova sounds like "no van," which means "no go" in Spanish, and regardless of the car's actual benefits, it was too much of a hurdle to get people to purchase a car with that connotation. Therefore, acknowledging that people are emotional and that emotions will impact their behavior should have an impact on an analytical analysis.

3. Three advantages of the analytical reasoning decision-making style are that: (1) it is objective, allowing people to make decisions without being influenced by emotions; (2) it is enduring, because facts are less impacted by fads than feelings are; and (3) it enables a person to be a trailblazer because an analytical reasoning decision-maker can be confident in decisions even if they are not supported by others in similar situations.

The disadvantages of the analytical reasoning decision making style are more difficult to describe, because I am naturally so led to the analytical model. The first disadvantage would probably be that, while it is possible to make decisions without any emotional input using this approach, it is not probable. No matter how logical a human being is, emotions are going to influence their approach to an issue. Therefore, a person might subconsciously seek out the facts and figures that supports a particular approach to an issue. As a result, a person with an analytical decision-making style who comes to an issue with some type of bias must be extraordinarily careful to examine all facets of a problem before coming to an answer. The second disadvantage of the analytical-decision making model is that it might not reflect state-of-the-art technology and innovation. Because the style relies heavily on facts and figures, it may focus on research on existing technology and not be great for innovation, since it is impossible to gather real data on future innovations. The third disadvantage… [read more]

Industry and Restaurant Trends 2015 Essay

… Changing Trends in Restaurant Industry / Restaurant Trends, 2015

Trends Evaluation (Upcoming and Current) 3 Food


Nutrition 4 Equipment


New Services

New Methods for Training Employees

Impacts of these Trends

The backbone of the hospitality industry is the customer service and all segments of the industry share this concept. Restaurant industry reigns supreme in the hospitality industry. It remains the biggest element of the hospitality industry and can come in several forms like fast-food eateries, high-end restaurants, catering outfits, and several others (Reynolds, 2015). In the words of John Walker, the largest and fastest growing industry is the hospitality industry, and its main focus is on the delivery of products and services. Guest and customer impressions are always considered most critical for the restaurant industry as well (Walker, 2013).

Trend Evaluation (Upcoming and Current)


Poutine, a Canadian import, comes in its purest form, gravy, cheese curds, chips (which are very important comfort foods). Burgers have remained in focus as well, but the most recent reinvention offers much more than just the beef and adds other ingredients such as lobster, duck, scallops, squid and pork belly. Cepelinai, is one traditional delicacy, and is said to mean zeppelin, a name that came from its shape. Another popular food includes waffles dipped in caramel sauce largely laden with sweetness and richness from eggs, some milk and a combination of delicious and colorful dried fruit (Nice, 2015). Locally sourced produce includes the first two: seafood and meats. Mediterranean and Italian are some foods that are most likely to make an impact this year (Wolf, 2015). Natural nutrients and food processed minimally are also growing in demand (NRA, 2015b).


Foodie apps offering some incorporated loyalty programs include Level Up, Belly, Perka and Loyal Blocks. Geo-targeted ad options are offered by online advertising services, from Facebook and Twitter to Google AdWords. These app employ marketing strategies that instigate customers to celebrate success using the email newsletter and share special discount offers or talk about new menu items. Marketing strategies employed by social media has remained a force to be reckoned with in the world today. Blogs give you the chance to experiment with the personality and voice of your restaurant and keep your customers engaged. In today's internet-based business environment, the rule of the game is ease of use. Internet savvy-merchants enjoy taking advantage of most online delivery services that keep the ordering process streamlined (Marrs, 2015).


Most consumers request for low-fat and vegan food options without allergens. Food products made from wheat gluten and tofu such as lean beef breakfast options, meatless items, child-friendly foods are all trendy (NRA, 2015a).


Some of the most efficient equipments in the restaurant industry include: deep fryers that come with a cover known as FryerGate that provides a kind of barrier between the fryer cook and the hot oil; Heineken developed BrewLock for the provision of freshly-brewed beer in a format that is very easy to install. It occupies less space and does… [read more]

Differences Between Growth and Startup Research Paper

… Entrepreneurship: Startup vs. Growth


In numerous occasions, the term startup has been employed wrongly by being associated to young ventures and huge tech business. In trying to describe it, Osorio (2015) stated that startup could be defined as the process and practice of planning, organizing, operating and also assuming the risks of a business venture. A startup business is an idea, which is taken up and thereafter made real by bringing it into existence. Robehmed (2013) considers a startup to be a company or a business constantly working towards solving an issue or problem where such a solution is not obvious and more so where success is not really assured (Robehmed, 2013).

What is more, numerous initiators and originators would also be against the idea that acquisition contradicts startup status. Even though the terms of acquisitions are different and vary, a startup that is acquired becomes or grows to become part of a greater business and essentially an independent entity (Robehmed, 2013). In essence, for a startup to come about there has to be recognition of an opportunity or prospect and action done in effect of it. The need that is to be fulfilled or satisfied ought to be investigated and a plan has to be developed. Lastly, the resources that are required have to be determined, acquired and managed thereafter (Osorio, 2015).


The context or structure encompassing the growth of business is centered on the fact that all of these businesses experience and go through similar problems that come about at similar phases in their development. Understanding and gaining knowledge of this conception permits the owner of the business to gain important and valuable insights (Chruchill and Lewis, 1983).

There are five stages of growth, enumerated as existence, survival, success, take-off, and lastly resource maturity. Each aforementioned phase is categorized by a dissimilar incentive to growth and susceptible by a dissimilar challenge. As a business progresses or advances through every stage, it is imperative for the business owner to be cognizant of the appropriate time to relinquish control and when to delegate duties and responsibilities (Chruchill and Lewis, 1983).

The first stage of growth is existence and it encompasses the stage of business gaining consumers. This is the starting phase of the business as it begins to evolve. Any business cannot be said to exist if it does not have consumers to serve or render products or services to. The main aspects taken into consideration here is whether the company can attain sufficient consumers, be able to deliver its products and products efficiently and smoothly in order to become a business that is viable (Chruchill and Lewis, 1983).

It encompasses whether the business is able to expand its production to attain greater sales base. In a number of instances, some business owners are not able to cope with the different demands such as finances and end up quitting. The businesses that are able to cross the first stage successfully are stage two enterprises. The second phase of… [read more]

Overview and Strategy American Airlines Case Study

… American Airlines is one of the largest airlines in the United States. The airline filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in 2011, and emerged from this two years later. The Chapter 11 was brought about by a combination of difficult… [read more]

Risk Avoidance and the Pharmacutical Industry Term Paper

… Risk Avoidance Plan:

IP, intellectual property development and limitation, and product liability

For a company such as World-Wide which is dependent on unique ideas to thrive, protecting its intellectual property concerns is essential. Although trademarks and branding are less critical for pharmaceuticals and medical devices from a marketing standpoint, there is always a risk of counterfeiting, particularly in the developing world, as well as questions of other manufacturers capitalizing upon its research and development to generate innovative products (Meiners, Ringleb, & Edwards, 2015, p. 241). For drug manufacturers that have a limited patent on new drugs, it is critical to make a profit as long as possible before other companies are allowed to produce generic versions. Intellectual property also is linked to product liability concerns given that counterfeit products are often dangerous; they are often produced with inferior ingredients or parts to make them less expensive. "Guidelines are necessary for all types of IP within an organization. A full leadership team must be aware of and promote these policies, procedures and records. There should also be systems in place for managing IP with employees and among third-party supply chain companies," and the IP team should be constantly monitoring all potential areas of security 'leakage' along the supply chain spanning from computer systems which store critical data; to the construction of contracts; to employees and third party organizations with which World-Wide does business (Pressman 2013).

A pharmaceutical and medical technology company can only remain competitive through the constant cultivation of new products. "Over the last three years major pharmaceutical companies have lost tens of billions of dollars to smaller companies for one primary reason: the patent cliff -- a series of patent expirations of important prescription drugs" (Ahmed 2014). Careful planning is required to ensure that World-Wide does not have a series of patent expirations without a subsequent rise in new, unique brand-name drugs. This requires careful planning, foresight, and constant targeted research and development. "Innovation in drug discovery over the last decade has been considerably slower than before, and the necessity for a differentiable drug is imperative for sustained success among large pharmaceutical companies ... There will be a greater need to create a…… [read more]

Tuition Discounting Thesis

… Tuition discounting is a phenomena associated with institutional competition, to a large degree and as in varied, flexible ways institutions use tuition discounting to attempt to fulfill certain goals of the competitive higher education market. The phenomena is multi-faceted in both intention and results as institutions attempt to compete for enrollment goals including academic achievement as well as diversity and overall institutional prestige. (Davis, 2003, Corey, 2005 & Redd, 2000) Different institutions use different goals and tuition discounting plans and strategies to meet the many goals of the institution, some of which are contradictory, i.e. institutional profit or growth and improved access for those unable or unwilling to pay increasing tuition rates. (Redd, 2000)

For the most part the form of tuition discounting plans is one where internal resources are used (or forgone) to supplement tuition and other costs associated with attending college. Current research indicates that tuition discounting plans do not always meet intrinsic or extrinsic goals of the institution, and some even continue to operate such plans even when they mean the institution will be operating at a revenue loss.

Under tuition discounting plans, colleges use their institutional grants to reduce the tuition and fee charges students would otherwise be unable or unwilling to pay to attend particular higher education institutions. The discounts may be funded by tuition and fee revenue (the collective amounts of tuition and fees students and their families pay to attend postsecondary education institutions), donations from alumni or other private sources, and earnings from endowments. Discounts also may be unfunded tuition waivers, with which colleges and universities simply forgo all or part of the total tuition and fee charge that students otherwise would have had to pay to attend their institutions (Allen 1999). (Redd, 2000, p. 5)

According to Redd, the reasons for tuition discounting and its increase across both private and public institutions are many, but all have to do intrinsically with overall increases in tuition, across the board and the limitations and/or failures of strategies that individuals and institutions use to pay for such increases. (2000, pp. 3-5) This idea is supported by Corey, who points out that institutional, government and individual strategies for achievement in higher education attainment (and how it's paid for) have not met the increases that have been seen in broad tuition rates or the overall costs of attending college. (2005, p. 2) The competing and often conflicting intentions of institutional demands are well describes by Davis who states that;

The press to accomplish four objectives simultaneously -- increase revenue, reduce expenses, improve quality, enhance reputation -- leads institutions to attempt an array of proven and unproven management techniques and approaches. By so doing, colleges hope to reconcile these competing and often conflicting demands. (2003, p. 1)

The demands to meet all these goals often lead institutions to tuition discounting, for the various goals of the institution, yet do not always accomplish everything that the institutions hope to accomplish by doing so. Market inflation to some degree is… [read more]

Marketing Plan Caninantics Company Overview & Market Research Marketing Plan

… Marketing Plan: Caninantics Company Overview & Market Research

Overview of Company

The start-up firm, Caninantics, has come up with a revolutionary product -- a pet food dispensing machine that opens dog food cans, dumps their contents into the animal's bowl, and disposes of the can. Caninantics wishes to begin marketing this new pet-related accessory and, somewhere towards the year's close, expand its offering to include other doggy accessories. Its marketing approach endeavors to attract a larger share of the canine product market. Caninantics' focus has been designing products that meet the demands of the neglected economic niche. A number of individuals have been unable to discern market needs when it comes to canned pet food-related help, and hence, Caninantics aims to offer the required assistance. This new product being launched by the company will ensure efficient operations by canine owners. They no longer need to directly hand out food to their dogs -- they can conveniently depend on this mechanism for performing this function.

Market Research Strategies

i. Primary and Secondary Strategies

The specific purpose of primary data collection is tackling the issue in question. The decision-making party, an extension researcher, a marketing organization or a university performs this activity. Unlike data from secondary sources, one cannot find primary data anywhere else. Key primary data collection modes are focus groups, in-depth interviewing, experiments (e.g. taste tests) and surveys (Lev, Brewer & Stephenson, 2004).

The term, secondary data, is used to denote already-collected information, which can be availed in electronic or paper form. Gatherers, analysts and organizers of secondary data typically do so bearing a fixed purpose in their mind, which means that the information might have limited applicability to certain market researches. But secondary data also has its advantages, which include time and cost savings. Data published by governmental agencies is available for free, and easily, whereas that gathered, analyzed and compiled by private parties might sometimes not be available for use without permission. Secondary data may be obtained in corporate reports, Extension publications, newspaper articles, and governmental agency reports (e.g., U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) and Economic Research Service (ERS)) (Lev et al., 2004).


This is probably the most widely utilized primary data gathering mode. Various survey collection approaches exist, which include telephone surveys, direct one-on-one interviews, mail surveys, dot surveys, and Internet surveys. More informal survey collection methods include informal interviews and observation. Choice of survey collection technique depends on a number of factors, such as number of participants needed, time constraints, budget, and study population characteristics (Lev et al., 2004). One imperative point to bear in mind is that, with each of the above data collection techniques, acquired data will be hypothetical. In other words, participants may claim they look for particular product characteristics or are ready to purchase a product for a given price; this doesn't necessarily mean they will, in reality, actually purchase an item with those features or agree to pay the price cited.

ii. The Outside-in Approach

This strategy… [read more]

Analyzing and Making the Amazon Kindle Essay

… Amazon Kindle --

Making the Amazon Kindle

Hill (2014) is of the opinion that Amazon's Kindle was invented as a magical combination of high functionality, economy, design elegance, and high reliability. The company's focus was aggressively reducing Kindle prices to ensure it functions as a home digital library and enjoys a competitive advantage.

The Criteria and Manufacture of the Kindle

Therefore, Amazon came up with its Kindle design in a Californian laboratory, where substantial R&D expertise is found. Cambridge-based (Massachusetts) firm, E-Ink designed and manufactured a key Kindle element-- its "ink" (i.e., minuscule microcapsule beads employed as part of its display). But the majority of its manufacturing is contracted out to Asian manufacturers. Its costliest single constituent -- the display -- took approximately $60 to manufacture. No American manufacturer possessed the expertise necessary to create an electrophoretic bi-stable display capable of showing images even while not consuming battery power. Eventually, the company outsourced this part of the project (i.e., manufacturing the display) to Prime View International, a reliable and efficient Taiwanese company with significant expertise in manufacturing LCDs. The next costliest constituent is its $40 wireless card, which enables the devise to wirelessly connect to the digital bookstore of Amazon. South Korean company, Novatel Wireless, renowned for its expertise in the manufacture of wireless cellphone chipsets, manufactures this part. The card incorporates a Qualcomm (San Diego)-designed, Asian-manufactured chip that costs thirteen dollars. The Kindle's brain is a microprocessor chip (cost of production $8.64), designed by Freescale Semiconductor, a Texas-based company that outsources chip manufacturing to Chinese and Taiwanese foundries. Its $7.50 Li polymer battery, another important component, is manufactured by a Chinese company (Hill, 2014). The criteria adopted in the Kindle's design and creation proved useful, enabling Amazon to create a popular, efficient and effective product.

The Decline of American Competitiveness

As per Hill's (2014) estimations, the total production cost of the Kindle is roughly $185; U.S.-based activities make up 40-50 dollars (i.e., E Ink, Freescale, and Qualcomm activities), while the remainder is…… [read more]

General Motors and Tesla Term Paper

… Mergers

The two companies that analyzed are General Motors and Tesla, both U.S.-based automakers. These two companies have their own business models quite distinct from one another. General Motors is a traditional automaker, and one of the world's largest. They make a wide range of vehicles for the consumer market. Tesla makes luxury vehicles in the electric market, but is planning a move into the more mainstream market. Tesla is challenged in terms of its cash flow, in particular as needed to scale up production to enter the mainstream market, so there might be opportunity for a larger automaker to buy them out (Schaal, 2016)

The annual report for General Motors contains both financial and non-financial information. In the financial data, it is apparent that General Motors is a very large company. It has been profitable for several years, and earned $9.6 billion last year, on revenue of $152 billion. For a company that was bankrupt only a few years ago, General Motors now has established strong financial performance over the course of multiple years. The company has positive equity, though the amount has tended to fluctuate, which indicates that it is sometimes adding debt even in years when it is profitable. Still, GM has a reasonable cash position of $23 billion and total market capitalization of $49.2 billion.

Tesla is the much smaller company of the two. It currently has a very limited product range, though its products are very well-regarded. The key to Tesla's success of late is that the company has technological leadership, in particular with its batteries. These are actually available to be sold to the consumer market for homes. But more important, Tesla's cars outperform all other electric vehicles, and it appears that it will be able to maintain this technological superiority for at least the next few years, despite the investments of major automakers in the space.

The problem for Tesla, as the company's annual report attests, is that it is not yet profitable. Instead, it is investing significant money in building out its infrastructure so that it can launch more mainstream products to the broader market. The company's market cap has priced in a lot of this future potential, as it is worth $31 billion, not quite as much as GM but a lot given the relative sizes of these two companies. So GM would not be buying Tesla at a discount by any means. Usually, a discount would be normal for a financially distressed company, but despite Tesla's financials there is little sentiment in the market that it is financially distressed.

The numbers maybe tell a different story. The good part of Tesla's financials are that total revenue has been increasing rapidly, and in the last fiscal year was $4 billion. It lost $716 million on that, however, the company's biggest loss by far. So in that sense, the company is still experiencing significant financial growing pains. As of the end of 2015, Tesla had $1.2 billion in cash on its balance… [read more]

Analyzing the Avon Products Essay

… Avon Products

Avon -- Strategy

Until the middle of the past decade, Avon Products Inc. adopted a direct selling approach, whose advantages and drawbacks are cited as follows:

Advantages (Petryni, 2016):

Robust Relationships with Customers

Direct selling helps small businesses establish and manage personal company-client relationships. Direct selling personnel are able to forge more personal, memorable and meaningful bonds with customers. The nature of these relationships aids the company in better understanding and adapting to customer needs, whilst securing customers' brand loyalty.

Coordination with Business Strategies of Other Departments

As small-scale enterprises that employ a direct selling approach can effectively control their sales force, they are able to ensure harmony between their sales interactions and marketing and production strategies.

Price and Cost Control

Small companies employing direct selling strategies can exert considerable control over the areas of distribution and pricing. Consequently, such a company enjoys increased ability to verify its products' competitive prices.

iv. Increased Customer Access

Direct selling allows small companies a chance to access potential customers it probably cannot otherwise reach. A number of customers fail to receive or show positive response to a brand's media advertising. Likewise, some buyers might be frequenting retail stores which do not stock the company's products. Direct selling entails directly reaching such customers and initiating sales.

Disadvantages (Moving Downstream: Selling Direct to Consumers, 2009):

i. Decreased agility compared to other models, when it comes to responding to shifting customer needs and wants.

ii. All departments need to understand as well as adapt themselves to novel ways of functioning and iii. Inconsistency may result, across different indirect and direct channels.

2. Changes in Strategy

The organization followed decentralization, beginning from the mid-2000s. Avon's Chief Executive Officer started granting national and regional managers increased decision-making authority and autonomy, to make decisions and operate freely, akin to independent companies.

The decision-making element constitutes a key aspect of organizational managers' jobs. Above all other traits, decision-making competence is what sets a manager apart (Nooraie, 2014). Decentralization must be organized in such a way that the relationship between the parent organization and its subsidiaries balances decentralization and centralization of functions and power. The parent company must retain those functions a subsidiary will be incapable of carrying out, on account of the expertise or quantity of resources needed. It might need…… [read more]

SWOT and Pest Analysis Research Proposal

… Bob Clap founded Heilind Electronics in 1974 in Massachusetts. The company's headquarters remains there, and has witnessed major acquisitions both in 1986 (Force Electronics) and 1991 (Help Electronics). A leading distributor of switches, circuit protection and thermal management products, relays,… [read more]

IBM Analysis Essay

… International Business Machine Case Analysis

Structure of a Managerial Report

Global forces driving IBM Becoming a global Integrated Enterprise

Method IBM has Adapted

Skills of Global Leaders Should Possess

Important Lessons from the Case

Global forces driving IBM Becoming a global Integrated Enterprise

In April 2008, IBM 300 top leaders were drawn from 170 countries with the intent to deliberate on the strategy to make IBM becoming a globally integrated enterprise. The driving forces that make IBM becoming a global integrated enterprise is to achieve global market advantages. The company first approach was to shift its business attention to the emerging markets such as BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) to reap market advantages from these countries. Essentially, India and China are the most populous countries in the world, and the standard of livings of the residents of these countries have improved based on their business relations with the American companies. Moreover, IBM has launched its businesses in several countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America to reap global markets. Thus, IBM has moved from being solely American company to become a globally integrated enterprise to reap global market opportunities.

Moreover, IBM intends to derive more opportunities from globalization through an innovative approach. Over 100 years that the company has been operating, the IBM has "moved from international (exporting from the U.S.) to multi-national (with subsidiaries in many countries) to global.." (Kanter, 2009 p 1). Thus, IBM has adopted the global integrated supply chain that assists the company becoming one global instrument for requisitions.

1.3 Method IBM has Adapted

Several years of business experiences have made the IBM to develop different skills and capabilities to achieve competitive market advantages making the company increase its revenue. For example, IBM provides the global transformation outsourcing services to different companies across the globe. The services have assisted the company raising the revenue of $54 billion -$18 billion from GBS (Global Business Services) and $36 billion from GTS. The GTS services that the company offer made IBM recording additional revenue of $4 billion in 2007. The global services also made IBM increase its revenue from $63 billion to $82 billion with net profits of $8 billion.

IBM has used different strategies to become a global company. First, the company has used the merger and acquisition business strategies to become a global leader. "Between 2003 and 2007 IBM spent $16 billion to acquire over 50 smaller companies, mostly in software development." (Kanter, 2009 p 3).

Moreover, "IBM grouped its businesses into four main areas. Global Services included two segments - Global Technology Services (GTS), which focused on client IT infrastructure needs, and Global Business Services (GBS), which offered business consulting, systems integration, and application management expertise." ((Kanter, 2009 p 3).

Through the business transformation outsourcing services, IBM has offered services to different companies globally to trim costs and enhancing value creations. IBM also possess different capabilities that can assist the company becoming the global leader. First, IBM has transformed itself from the manufacturer of hardware… [read more]

Analyzing the Siemens Bribery Scandal Essay

… Siemens Bribery Scandal

The high level of corruption at Siemens and its rationalization by managers

One of the main factors that sheds light on the high level of corruption at Siemens is that from the outset, bribing officials was acceptable and considered as an expense within the business. However, when the rules and regulations were altered, Siemens failed to adhere to such transformation and went on with bribery. More so, the managers engaged and took part in these corrupt activities as they went on to put into place different ways in which they could conceal their illegal activities and actions. Top management at Siemens forced concerned personnel to sign conformity agreements so as to hide their bribery actions as these were essential to sustain current profit levels (Ewing, 2008; Watson, 2013). Watson (2013) in his article asserts, "Siemens is well versed in the high cost of corruption: in 2008, following a string of high-profile bribery scandals, it agreed to a record 1.6 billion U.S. dollars with American and European authorities." With regards to the corruption involvement and rationalization of Siemen's top and middle management Watson (2013) writes, "The scandal provided the necessary sense of urgency in the company's ranks, and the new CEO set out to reorganize the top three levels of management, replacing between 40% and 80% of executives in each."

Implications for managers for taking a stand against corrupt practices?

Taking into consideration that Siemens seems to have perceived bribery as an essential part of attaining the contracts it required to remain in business, it can be concluded that a manager who took a stand against the practice would most likely have been terminated or in the least, transferred to a less important low level position. This is because corruption had become so engrained and entrenched within the business to the extent that taking a contrasting and opposite stand would be perceived hostile and therefore taken in an extremely bad way.

Distorting competition…… [read more]

Drivers of Profit in Aluminum Case Study

… Alcoa operates globally, and has several different business segments, including rolled products, engineered products, transportation and construction, and primary products (, 2016). The primary products are those extracted from the ground, and subject to minimal processing. This paper will examine the primary products, to be known as Upstream according to information in the 2015 Annual Report, and the drivers of revenue and profit within that division. The primary metals segment contributed $5.6 billion in sales.

Commodity Prices

All upstream divisions produce goods that are primary products, with minimal processing. As such, the profit drivers are the revenue, which are tied to global commodity prices, and internal cost factors. In the 2015 Annual Report, Alcoa's CEO noted "Alcoa's common stock traded with a 95% correlation to the London Metal Exchange price (of aluminum)." The global price of aluminum dropped 28% and alumina by 43%. The company notes that the price of metal contributes $734 million out of $1.116 billion in net income. Currency fluctuations contributed $328 million, in a positive direction for the year. Energy costs are another contributor, but more for processed goods.

Underlying Forces, Generic Structure and Profitability

Primary metals are driven by the market price of the good, less the cost of getting it to market. There is minimal processing, so the market price tends to be the major revenue and profit driver of this segment. Primary metals are an undifferentiated product, a commodity that is subject to trade on global commodities markets. Alcoa's profitability is therefore dependent substantially on the market price for the good. There is some flexibility with respect to the company's cost of extraction, but the market price is fairly volatile and therefore is the most significant component of profitability, hence why the stock trades more or less like an aluminum derivative, in the CEO's words.

The aluminum market is driven by demand. Current demand drivers are changes to automobiles that require more aluminum, growth of cities and consequent demand for construction materials, and innovations that create new demand for aluminum. As demand changes, so too does the supply of aluminum. When the price of aluminum increases, more producers can be profitable, so the supply increases. The balance of supply and demand is generally held to determine the global aluminum prices (No author, 2016).


Demand is the key driver of prices in the market, and is closely tied to the overall economic growth in the economy. Alcoa has noted that the economic health of China has been a key component of recent trends in the aluminum price. Its use as a construction material is key, but aluminum demand is tied to overall consumption in an economy because of its broad array of uses. The political environment matters at times in primary metals. For example, in 2015 the price of aluminum declined 19% because China continued strong production amid a global glut. The central government was at the heart of that decision, and it affected the global aluminum market (Deaux & Elmquist, 2016). A… [read more]

Analyzing Pay and Benefits Term Paper

… Pay and Benefits

A midsized company with a proven product.

Executives are looking to keep labor costs at a minimum.

Does your program include stock options, profit sharing, an employee stock ownership plan (ESOP), healthcare, etc.

Our program involves some Stock bonus arrangements-plans that allow employees to own stock in the organization. This would help employees get financial benefits from shares value appreciation and/or the income and dividends from 401(k) and stock Plans. It permits the employees to save tax amounts (2% of monthly income) as they can use a part of their salary before tax and invest the money in stock bonus plan, or fixed contribution that encourages profit-sharing. The program also provides medical insurance; similarly, the program also provisions overtime dividends which amounts to 0.5% of the monthly income.

Are your specified options provided for employees of all levels or just for certain positions?

This one option that is reserved for the fulltime employees in the ESOP case and mostly for the executives of the top-level management. The other dividends are accessible to all employees. Where regular employees receive 0% benefit from the ESOP option, top management can make profits in direct proportion the business growth in the financial year.

What are the costs to the company for each added incentive?

The only extra dividends the company pays is the pension plan or 401(1) that is usually matched to the employee's monthly pension saving, but not more than 10% of employee monthly income.

How do these incentives shape/determine the type of employee you attract?

The inclusion of the 401(k) plan will be an added attraction to gifted individuals who plan to retire with very huge retirement packages when they retire from active service.

Additionally, more knowledgeable senior staff who have plans of increasing the profitability of the business to enable them partake in the profit boom through shares will be brought in by the stock options.

How is employee performance rewarded? Include a strategy for raises and bonuses. How do your strategies differ by job level and function?

Step 1

Place your bonuses assessment and your wages in the picture of general employee policy.

Step 2

Create future earnings and sales with realistic estimations. Make use of this estimation to enable determining how much bonuses and raises your small business can possibly pay.

Step 3

Develop a new job description for every key position in your company. These job descriptions must identify each job's tasks and responsibilities quite clearly.

Step 4

Make sure the process of your performance review is well structured to enable each employee know your major expectations about performance and competencies well in advance.

Step 5

Create your new bonus program to enable employees know what qualifies them to become a beneficiary of the bonus program and what they are required to do in order to earn such benefits

Step 6

Track bonus effects and ensure you raise policies. Try to find out how any policy encourages job performance.

The strategy is quite broad, which… [read more]

Implications of Organized Labor for Retailers Term Paper

… ¶ … Organized Labor for Retailers

In response to your request for reviewing your company's collective bargaining policies, this paper reviews the relevant literature to identify the benefits of starting a retail company both with and without organized labor and… [read more]

Google Competitive Environment and International Ops Essay

… Google's competitive environment is intense, but manageable. The company's primary business is online advertising, and Google is the dominant player in this market. Other major companies are Yahoo, Microsoft and Facebook, all doing multiple billions of dollars in this industry. The online advertising industry was worth $42.8 billion in 2013 (Nath, 2013), and in 2015 Google's advertising revenue was $67 billion (Google Form 10k, 2015). The company's success is driving the industry to its rapid pace of growth.

Google has become the dominant player in the industry because of its superior metrics. Basically, Google drives more traffic than any other website family. Because of this, it gathers more data than anybody else, and then it uses that data to deliver better advertising targeting that other companies. As a consequence, Google's ads are more effective on a dollar-for --dollar basis than anybody else's. Google has refined this business considerably over the years as well, in order to stay ahead of competitors.

The company's technical capabilities are what has driven its success to date. At present, Google also has substantial financial resources that it can plow back into its technical skills, by attracting the best talent in the world and ensuring that they have the resources they need to continue being the leaders in the world at what they do

Google has also taken steps to improve its innovation. Culturally, Google has tremendous innovative capabilities because it does not take the standard view of innovation. Two of its major projects -- Chrome and Android, are market leaders but do not contribute directly to revenue. Most companies would not encourage innovations whose impact on the bottom line is uncertain, but Google will, and this is one of the reasons why it has been such an innovative company during its history. The company is now using some of its financial resources to become an incubator, which only serves to increase the innovative capability of the company.

Google…… [read more]

Analyzing Organizational Behaviour Skills Essay

… Organizational Behaviour Skills

In accordance to Lunenburg (2010), communication can be defined as the process of conveying information and common understanding from one individual to another. There are four main barriers to communication. These include personal barriers, process barriers, semantic barriers and physical barriers. The following paper encompasses how, I as a manager, would overcome these barriers to communication within the setting.

Semantic Barriers

Semantic barriers take place when there is a discrepancy and variance regarding the words being used in communication. Semantic barriers more often than not are present on the basis of people emanating from dissimilar cultures, hindering the involved parties to have a common understanding of the concepts and the words being employed. The main way in which I would overcome this barrier as a manager will be to select the correct and precise words that will bear the similar meaning for the employees in different contexts. It is imperative to note that not all employees will understand the same technical language. Therefore, so as to convey the message at hand to the employees past these semantic barriers, as the manager I will elucidate technical terms in order for all of them to have full comprehension. This will be done as not all employees are experts in all areas and therefore understanding of such key words will benefit from such explanations. For instance, being the finance manager of a department, I will not be able to convey the problem in question to other managers and personnel if I solely depend on the terminologies used in the field of finance (Lunenburg, 2010). In addition, as the manager, I will also be mindful of my expression, tone of voice as well as the receptiveness of how I respond to the personnel as it will have a significant influence on the individuals I plan to reach.

2. Process Barriers

The communication process takes into account one individual that sends the information and the other that receives information. In essence, communication can be delineated as the process of conveying information and common comprehension from one individual to another. There has to be a common comprehension in the exchange of information. This is what is referred to as the process of communication. However, this communication process can break down. Each phase of the process is vital for effective and good communication and therefore any phase that is blocked in the communication process can be a barrier. As a manager, one of the ways I would overcome this communication barrier would be to make sure that all stages of the process of communication are being employed effectively. This starts from the sender to the encoder, from the encoder…… [read more]

Mcdonalds Supply Chain Logistics Essay

… Supply Chain

McDonald's is a fast food restaurant, the largest in the world and the dominant player in the U.S. market (QSR, 2014). They operate franchised locations around the world, selling fast food staples such as hamburgers and desserts. The company's supplemental menu items have varied over the years to include things like pizza and salads, though these do not always stick on the menu. Additionally, McDonalds tailors its menus to different locations around the world. Sometimes this is a single unique menu item, but in other cases nearly the entire menu would be unrecognizable to an American (Schlossberg, 2015).

One food item that is available in most countries is the McChicken. The McChicken consists of chicken, bread, vegetables and sauces. These are typically sourced in the nation of origin. Another major product is the companies fries, the primary source ingredients of which are potatoes, vegetable oil and salt.

According to the company's website, the McChicken contains chicken (breaded), mayonnaise, iceberg lettuce and a bun. There are a number of ingredients that go into this -- the breading on the chicken contains a variety of starches and seasonings. The company uses third party suppliers for these ingredients, taking delivery of pre-made buns and patties, and then preparing them at the individual restaurant level. All of the ingredients are sourced from company-authorized suppliers to ensure product consistency across the franchises. These are cooked on equipment that are sourced from company-authorized suppliers. But it is the daily deliveries of ingredients that matter most to the company. The franchises will typically receive regular deliveries of almost all key ingredients on the menu. Because the franchisees sometimes have options with respect to which authorized supplier that they will work with, this creates a situation where centralized warehouses may or may not be used in the supply chain.

Transportation Analysis

Transportation has been one of the least problematic areas of the company's supply chain. Faced with multiple different scandals, McDonalds have invested significant effort into supply chain transparency in recent years (New, 2015). The company has developed strong relationships with suppliers and redundancy throughout its supply chain. However, most suppliers of a given good are located in a similar geographic area.

What this means for transportation is that McDonalds relies heavily on trucks for moving goods. A bun supplier, for example, might cover several states. The buns are produced at a large factory bakery, and then shipped for hundreds of miles by truck. The use of trucks allows each franchisee to be reached efficiently. McDonalds restaurants have exceptional throughput by industry standards (QSR, 2014) and this means that it is relatively efficient for the restaurants to take truckload shipments. If a franchisee wishes to take delivery at a warehouse and then serve all franchises from that warehouse, this is also an option that many within the company exercise.

There is very little that McDonalds will source from another country. There are a couple of reasons for this. One is that even in today's global trade… [read more]

Strategic Analysis of Yahoo Inc Case Study

… Yahoo! Inc. is an Internet service provider company that was founded by David Filo and Jerry Yang in 1994. The founders were Electrical Engineering students at Stanford University when they started the company as a hobby. Since inception, Yahoo has experienced exponential growth to an extent that it's currently a multifaceted brand that serves individual and corporate internet users worldwide. Some of the various products and services that the firm offers on its portal include news, classifieds, horoscopes, emails, sports, maps, picture hosting, and job searches. However, the recent success and profitability of this company has been characterized by several major issues given that it lacks the innovative capabilities of its major competitors, particularly Google. Yahoo has essentially lost its popularity and productivity because of its strategic approach to doing business and factors in the external environment.

Strategic Approach to Doing Business

Yahoo! Inc.'s core business that has contributed to its initial success and growth include its web content, display advertising, and search properties. In addition to its core business, Yahoo provides a wide range of products and services. However, the company has a relatively simple corporate structure that is based on two major aspects of business (Henry, Sutorius & Thacher, 2007). The first line of business for Yahoo is provision of marketing services to businesses across its wide range of products and services. Secondly, the company generates its revenues through creating paying relationships with its premium services' users, which is categorized as fees.

The company's strategic approach to business is generating revenues through these two lines of business. In its first line of business, the firm creates revenues through charging business clients for advertisements appearing on its portal and for placing targeted advertisements on its affiliated sites. This essentially means that Yahoo earns revenues when a certain keyword is entered into its search bar, when a portal user views certain content, when users click advertisement links, and when users view impression advertisements. Yahoo! Inc. measures the profitability of these revenue-generating measures through a click-through system that is proportional to the size of its user base. Since inception, Yahoo's strategic approach to doing business has entailed generating revenues through advertising. Even though its founders and management team were not aware of the actual size of the Internet, they built the business on the model of advertising (Ocastaneda, 2008).

Long-term Objectives

Based on its business model and strategic approach to doing business, Yahoo's long-term objectives include simplifying the brand through narrowing its focus on its strengths in order to enhance growth, generate more revenue, and enhance efficiency. Secondly, the firm seeks to enhance the quality of its consumer and advertiser products while increasing the number of daily active users. The third long-term objective for Yahoo is to promote constant growth in revenue through Mavens strategy i.e. mobile, video, native, and socials (Yahoo Inc., 2016). The other long-term objectives include lessening operating expenses…… [read more]

Cross Cultural Business Management Issues A2 Coursework

… Policy Issues and Cultural Diversity

Given the increasing diversity of the workplace, identifying opportunities to improve policy formulation has assumed new importance and relevance today. To this end, this study is about evaluating current policy issues as they regard cultural diversity in a typical workplace. An assessment concerning why this problem is worthy of study and how it will be researched is followed by a description of the author's personal and professional experience in this realm is followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.

While the value of a diversified workforce has been documented time and again, there remains a gap in the relevant literature concerning optimal policies to promote the contributions of various ethnic populations. For example, Mor Barak (2000) emphasizes that, "The problems arising from today's workforce diversity are caused not by the changing composition of the workforce itself but by the inability of work organizations to truly integrate and use a heterogeneous workforce at all levels of the organization" (p. 339). Similarly, citing the growing diversity of the American population, Fine (2008) points out that, "The challenge posed by the increasing cultural diversity of the U.S. workforce is perhaps the most pressing challenge of our times" (p. 485). These observations suggest that many business managers are failing to reap the benefits that can accrue to drawing on the talents, feedback and skills that a truly diversified workforce offers.

Although many businesses seek to apply diversity management to comply with federal and state regulations as well as a desire to ensure that employees are not discriminated on the basis of race, age, gender, disability, ethnicity, or religion, effective diversity management is clearly a complex issue (Von Bergen & Soper, 2002). In an era when cultural diversify has become the focus of critics of multiculturalism and even nationalism, these issues assume even more importance because there is little or nothing that business manager can do to reverse to tide.

Consequently, it just makes good business sense to forge the best possible scenarios that will help achieve an organization's goals as possible within these dynamic culture parameters. Despite the compelling need, far too many business managers continue to draw on age-old stereotypes and prejudices that prevent or constrain the full contributions of a fully diversified workforce (Hoffman & Stallworth, 2008). Certainly, business…… [read more]

Adapting to Different Workplaces Term Paper

… ¶ … Organizational Culture

There are five stages of team development. These stages include orientation, conflict, structure, work and dissolution. Each stage is critical to the overall development of a team. This development occurs over time.

Orientation is the first stage, and is that which occurs when team members are first getting together with one another. Orientation is required to inform everyone of a team's goals and some of the different ways that the team will go about achieving them. Basic roles are identified, such as leaders. During orientation people get to know one another and their jobs.

The conflict stage is when team members get to react to the information they learned during orientation. For example, certain team members may not agree with one another or with the positions that they are filling within a team. This stage is typically filled with tension and disagreements.

During the structure stage, the team is able to coalesce. Individuals get more comfortable with their roles and the way they interact with one another. An example of this stage is increased communication between team members, who know one another and how to talk to each other better through working with each other over time.

During the work stage team members become adept at working with one another. They hone in on specific goals and may even achieve them. An example of the work stage is sales team members collaborating with one another to fulfill end of the month sales objectives in the automotive industry.

The final stage is dissolution. Teams dissolve when they have accomplished their goals. At this point their roles change, and people go their own ways. A good example of this stage is during the offseason after a sports team wins a championship, and players are traded to other teams.

Both climate and culture play very important roles in organizations. Although these terms are similar, they actually refer to two different things. Climate is focused on context, and on the specific context in which actions take place. Climax is more about relationships between things, and about how people interact with each other. On the other hand, company culture is more about the meaning of certain actions, and the way that they are interpreted. Company culture is based on an organization's values. Climate is more about the environment in which people work and how they are able to relate to each other.

Company culture affects the way that people do things in a company. The best example of this fact is provided by Enron, which admittedly had an aggressive company culture. At the end of certain amount of time, the employees that produced…… [read more]

Code of Ethics Implementation Research Paper

… Code of Ethics

Description of Code and Links with the Organization

The code of ethics underpins everything else. Its values are embedded in some of the most important documents for the organization, such as the vision and mission statements. The code of ethics is less about ethics, and more about behavior, so it has a lot of influence over how people interact with each other; that is the main focus of the code. The subject matter of the code -- mentorship, diversity, respect and learning, are universal values, and we should guide our behaviors in accordance with those principles.

The mission statement is in some ways a rewording of the code of ethics, which highlights how important the code of ethics is to the organization. Mentorship, respect, diversity and learning are all key elements of the mission statement, and they are all underpinned by the philosophies that are embedded in the code. Because so much of the code consists of actionable items, the organization is equipped to use the code of ethics in governing behavior. As such, it is important that the code of ethics, along with the mission statement, are effectively communicated throughout the organization

Launching the Code

In any established organization, it is necessary to formally launch a code of ethics. Kaptein and Wempe (1998) note that organizations already have an embedded code of ethics in their organizations, on the basis of organizational policy and culture. The motivation for a written code is mainly to remedy the insufficiencies of the implicit code (Ibid). In some cases, an implicit code can lack clarity, and have inherent contradictions. Developing an explicit code helps to remedy this. However, because the organization is already functioning with an implicit code, there will need to be a process of reconciliation with the new and old codes. The new code will need to be supported by senior management

The code will need to be supported by senior management, and then communicated frequently. Multiple media should be used -- it should be communicated both in writing and verbally, and frequently referenced by management at all levels. If there are known inconsistencies between the new code of ethics and the existing organizational culture, then management has to be honest about this, because those are the areas that will require the greatest effort to explain the code, how things change, and what that means for expected norms of behavior. A strong focus on the message through repetition, explanation and preferably through other icons of effective communication - slogans, acronyms and buzzwords -- can prove effective to bring about change in behaviors in a short period of time (Goodman & Truss, 2004).

The code should also have its champions, throughout the organization. These are people who believe strongly in the code and its value to the organization. They are the people who have been tasked with identifying and overcoming any resistance. Ultimately, people are creatures of habit and any change imposed from an external source can take an adjustment… [read more]

AnalyzingWoolworths Case Study

… ¶ … Woolworths

Organizations and their human resource (HR) executives face an increasingly diverse workforce, with disabled individuals accounting for a major, yet largely overlooked population. When investigating disability's impacts in the context of workplaces, researchers have given particular attention to the detection and explaining of likely differences between personnel without and with disabilities. When organizations understand and acknowledge these workplace perception disparities, they can cultivate an organizational climate that promotes fair treatment as well as effective occupational inclusion of every employee -- including employees who are disabled (Waterhouse, Kimberley, Jonas and Glover 2010). This paper will be in the form of a case study that assesses Woolworths' incorporation of workers with disabilities via organizational behavior theory.


Disabled workers face both unintentional and deliberate employment barriers, erected Inadvertently) by their employers. A number of employers acknowledge their reluctance to hire disabled individuals. However, fortunately, this reluctance mostly does not arise from prejudice about disabled individuals' disabilities/abilities, but rather, it results from uncertainty regarding their (i.e., the organizations') ability of effectively facilitating the disabled worker within the organization. In its proposal to the National Inquiry into Employment and Disability, the Australian Industry (AI) Group claimed to recognize diversity of workplace experiences among disabled individuals as well as business type. Further, it suggested that raising awareness and education, in place of threat of penalty, is vital to employer engagement. This hints at employer backing, at the very least in theory, for increasing disabled persons' participation in the nation's workforce. Glover, Waterhouse, Kimberley, and Jonas (2010) identify four key organizational fears that limit disabled persons' employment opportunities, namely, fear of hiring costs; fear of productivity loss and additional supervision; fear of being left with "damaged goods"; and fear of being coerced to hold on to an underperforming worker (Waterhouse, Kimberley, Jonas and Glover, 2010).


Woolworths is very diligent in its commitment to diversity in the workplace. Specifically, with respect to diversity in terms of disability employment, the company has had long-lasting affiliations with disability support agencies (e.g., National Disability Recruitment Coordinator and CRS Australia) and disabled-employee service providers. Woolworths was a pioneer Australian employer to hire individuals suffering from major intellectual disability. This dedication to maintaining a workforce of sustainable diversity is what enables the company to be a sought-after Australian workplace (Case 4 Woolworths: what it does take n.d).

The Issue

Further, according to the Australia's Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ACCI), risk is one among the major employer fears. The ACCI discovered that employers' greatest concerns are in relation to potential effects of Occupational Safety and Health, Equal Opportunity for Employment, Workers' Compensation, and Disability Discrimination (Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry 2008). ACCI also refers to the existence of a negative perception (especially in the retail sector) that consumers will be driven away by visibility of disabled employees. Additionally, it states that company reticence is aggravated by government non-coordination between employment, education, and training (Waterhouse, Kimberley, Jonas and Glover 2010).

Woolworth's Approach

Retailer Woolworths accepts that overall organizational… [read more]

New Product Design Reflective Statement Essay

… ¶ … successful thus far, but not entirely without its challenges. The brainstorming process was actually a lot of fun. It was a bit daunting initially to have such an open book in front of us, as we are not accustomed to that with most of our projects, but once we began brainstorming it became much more enjoyable. We went through a few different ideas and it was interesting just to see the different influences we each brought to the project and how those came out. Ideas were presented, and the ones that resonated the most with the group were ultimately the ones that were explored in much greater detail.

We looked at certain brands that either influenced us or where we thought there was an opportunity to add to them. These were not entirely the same thing, as we started first with the brands, such as Stella McCartney and Agent Provocateur, before finally settling on Charlotte Olympia's branding and concept as holding the most promise. Through this phase the group members were quite open about where they thought there was opportunity, and the ideas flowed well. As a group, we were all well aware of some of the impediments to creativity, such as group members being dismissive of other ideas out of hand. This aspect of the group work was good -- we all seemed to understand that the brainstorming phase is a distinct phase from the idea analysis phase. That allowed everybody to get involved, which ultimately was quite useful for the group, as it meant that everybody was engaged in the process from the outset.

The next step, once we had settled on the Charlotte Olympia idea, was to set the framework for the project. For this, we envisioned that we were working for the brand and seeking out new opportunities, particularly for accessories. This required us to understand what the brand was, its missions, its image and then try to think about how we could come up with a product that fit into that. This part of the creative process was different, because of the framing. It provided us with a little bit of constraint, which was good because this part of the idea generation process should be more refined, and getting closer to having a final product. Eventually, we settled on the idea of the collar accessories. It was quite interesting to have students coming at this from the business perspective, when one might expect fashion designers to be doing this sort of thing. It was actually a lot of fun. The idea did not come like a flash of lightning, but was actually something that came about as the result of hard work, with a lot of ideas having been thought up, until something struck the group as having serious potential.

To this point, we felt that the group concept was beneficial. There was not groupthink in the negative sense of the word, but we used each other to bounce ideas off of one… [read more]

Analyzing and Identifying Issues of Ethics and Employee Fear Uncertainty Research Paper

… ¶ … Ethics and Employee Fear Uncertainty

Factors of diversity and types of diversity likely to be encountered in the organization.

Factors of diversity









Types of diversity

Demographic diversity: such as age,… [read more]

Red Wing Shoes Demand Forecasting Case Essay

… Demand Planning & Fulfillment

The Red Wing Shoe case highlights a number of key issues from the class regarding demand planning, order fulfillment and other aspects of supply chain management. At issue was the structure of the demand forecasting process, and how this influenced fulfillment. Red Wing typically produced its own footwear, at a variety of sites around the world, but had a broad retail presence as well.

The case covered a lot of concepts from the class, starting with demand forecasting. How a company chooses to do their demand forecasting will influence a number of factors -- in the case it was demurrage charges, fulfillment rates and the amount of inventory that the company had on hand. All of these problems stemmed from a disorganized demand forecasting process that had not accountability built into the system. The following presentation outline highlights the case facts and the different elements of the case that relate to the material from the textbook on demand forecasting and fulfillment management.

Slide 1:

Red Wing Shoes was similar to many firms

At Stage 1 or 2 of the 4 stage S&OP process

Recognized the need for change

Set about designing and implementing a change program

Slide 2:

The original forecasting system did not take into account changes in forecasts

The system was complex -- 450 pages of spreadsheets

Reasons for sales deviations were not explored

Supply chain ran the sales forecasts, not marketing

No responsibility for high inventory holding costs…… [read more]

Apple Supply Chain Case Case Study

… Apple's Supply Chain

Forecasting and demand patterns is one, with Apple estimating how many phones it needs, and how fast.. This is then built into the company's demands that it puts on its suppliers for component parts. Lead time is a critical element of this case. Apple did not give its suppliers much lead time. Because of this, the companies in its supply chain, such as Flextronics, ended up using recruiters in order to fill the need for labor. With longer lead times, it may have been possible to avoid some of the recruiters, thus delivering better outcomes for the workers who were recruited to work in these factories. . Stockouts ended up as an issue, when Flextronics was not able to deliver the quantity needed with the quality demanded.

Quality control is just touched upon loosely. Dhong's job was in quality control, but the exact nature of the quality problems with the cameras was never really explained. Just that there were a lot of problems, a 70% rejection rate, and eventually that cost Flextronics its role in the Apple supply chain, to the detriment of the workers, most of whom were blameless in the QC problem. The QC issues and the short lead times might have been related to each other, but both were definitely related to the problems that the workers experienced.

2. The case reflects the reality that the desire to produce products in an ethical manner is detached from market demands. In many cases, where there is conflict between market demands and the desire to be ethical, the ethics become, at best, flexible. Apple wanted to…… [read more]

Analyzing Entrepreneurship Business Term Paper

… Entreprenuership

History Growth and Development of Napoleon Perdis

Napoleon Perdis' early life upbringing was a direct contrast of the life he lived in the Anglo western environment. Life was tough for him in his new neighborhood. Perdis was hard working… [read more]

Analying Ethical Considerations and Organizational Behaviour Discussion Chapter

… Ethical Considerations and Organizational Behaviour

How Do Ethics Factor into Organizational Behaviour?

The concept of ethics is wound around people's behaviour. It is the choice between doing the right thing and not doing it. When ethical leaders come to these dilemmas, they do what ought to be done on the basis of what's right. A common guideline in organizational behaviour states that values are the key drivers of people's behaviour. In other words, it is values that influence the view of things. Attitudes, in turn, influence behaviour. Therefore, values are key elements in the formation of attitudes. They are the basic influential forces on how humans react to situations and other people. Virtuous values identify with ethical conduct. There are some practices that aid organizational leadership to drive their entities towards good ethics. Leaders will usually act in line with organizational ethics when they are well grounded in their core values and inculcated in the staffs. It has been observed that written codes of conduct and clearly laid out behavioural guidelines promote virtues and values as they encourage ethical behaviour in organizations.

When organizations establish behavioural standards, they outline clear actions that are expected in specific organizational situations. The behaviour standards and the ethical codes of conduct established within such organizations can help promote ethical observance by providing staffs with a cue on what should be done through written text or signs. Such standards are the cornerstones of people's internal values and progressively gain strength with firm, but fairly administered consequences (Kerns, 2003).

When all the aspects are considered in one pool, they generate a formula such as the one shown below. This may heighten the chances of ethical organizational behaviour. Therefore, observe a trend that when virtuous values are combined with aligned action along with behavioural standards or codes of conduct, the end result is stricter observance of ethical standards.

In practice, the process involves embracing virtuous values and setting them in tandem with major managerial leadership decisions such as employee orientation, selection, and even the socialization that they get within the organization. When leaders act on the three pinnacles, they assist the staff steer towards a common ethical organizational behaviour (Kerns, 2003).

It is the right action because employees and stakeholders expect ethical treatment

It is of more economic significance to the company. There are indications that emphasizing on such aspects as ethics influences the bottom-line positively

Ethical considerations provide a long-term social mainstay that sees beyond shareholder value.

The above reasons influence organizational leaders to embrace ethics (Kerns,…… [read more]

Analyzing and Assessing a Case Essay

… MedImmune is devoted to assisting patients to live better lives by means of the different advances and developments in science and medicine. Several hundred thousands of patients have profited and benefited from their products, which are purposely created for the treatment or prevention of infectious illnesses, cancer and inflammatory illnesses. The comprehensive endeavors of MedImmune with regard to research and developed all place emphasis on these similar fields or areas. MedImmune attained FluMist when it acquired Aviron in the year 2002. In particular, FluMist is the leading product for Aviron in terms of development and commercialization. To be specific, it is a live virus vaccine that is rendered to the patient as a nasal mist for the purpose of preventing Influenza (Sullivan, 2002).

Key issues

The board of directors of MedImmune was of the belief that Aviron was an appropriate and fitting strategy. However, the did not know what to offer. There is a need to perceive all the benefits and downsides in order to come to a conclusion. With respect to other vaccines and products for the treatment of cancer, MedImmune purposes to attain greater market shares and grow into the leader in vaccine innovation, manufacture as well as marketing in the market and industry. As pointed out, it can be perceived that Aviron also operates as a biopharmaceutical company. FluMist, which is its prevailing product, is also a live vaccine. There is a massive overlap in their research studies, which can provide MedImmune a good scale of economy and effectiveness in cost. For instance, as indicated, Synagis, as the focal product of MedImmune, is the foremost monoclonal antibody efficaciously technologically advanced to fight communicable disease. It is designated for the inhibition of grave lower respiratory area ailment triggered by "respiratory syncytial virus" (RSV) among pediatric patients with higher…… [read more]

Real Estate Investing What No One Tells Book Report

… ¶ … Tells You About Investing in Real Estate

Only a small percentage of those who invest in, or embrace, real estate deals rake in a fortune -- as per their projections. As a matter of fact, investing in real estate comes across as being more complicated than other more "conventional" approaches to investing -- such as investing in the stock market or, perhaps, starting a grocery store.

When it comes to investing in real estate, I must point out that after reading Robert J. Hill's book, What No One Tells You About Investing in Real Estate, I realized that I was largely clueless on how to make profitable investments on this front. Previously, I was more inclined towards what has variously been referred to as 'real estate trading'. Here, the intention is to purchase a property and flipping it over after holding it for a short period of time. The holding period is could be anything from four to six months. It is for this reason that I refer to this approach of real estate investment as the swing investing or 'wild real estate investment ride.' The trick is always to look for distressed properties or properties whose value seems to be understated. It is important to note that with this approach to investing in real estate, the risk of being 'trapped' is rather high. This is particularly the case if one is caught up in a scenario where unloading a property is an impossibility -- i.e. due to relatively steep mortgage payments, or a shift in market dynamics. For me, it took Hill's book to adjust my preferred approach to real estate investing. In addition, the book also made me revaluate some life decisions I had made in the past.

It is important to note that in addition to being easily digestible, the book is also presented in a practical and easy to comprehend format. Prior to reading the book, I had not really given much thought to owning rental properties. As I have pointed out elsewhere in this text, I was largely interested in real estate trading. Little did I know that land lording is also a viable real estate engagement that could, in the long-term, be quite be a profitable venture. As a matter of fact, I was, for some reason, convinced that all landlords needed to do was identify some property, buy the said property or further develop it and simply wait for tenants to start flowing in. Sadly, this is the same viewpoint most have when they think of buying or developing some rental property. Some of the most important tenets of successful 'land lording' are comprehensively addressed in this book. These include, but they are not limited to, tenant screening, developing a good contract, dealing with property managers, handling irrational tenants, etc.

It should be…… [read more]

Analyzing Integrated Business Communication Research Paper

… Integrated Business Communication

Business Communication

As a future manager there are numerous correspondence issues one would confront as he or she sets out upon their chosen career. As the world becomes connected, with advanced technology and rapid changes and developments in the global market, administrators need to adjust to the developing change. Successful relational abilities are basic for the part of any manager (Stuart, Sarow, and Stuart, 2007, p. 375).

In any official capacity, whether a corporate official, an organization chief, or an inventive business person, your relational abilities are the major components to your prosperity. Therefore, as a manager there are numerous correspondence issues I will confront. Correspondence at any level has its unique issues and complexities. As fresh business issues develop, there will be correspondence issues emerging from change, for example, association change, innovative change, social and dialect hindrances, moral instability, and taking care of clients' expanding requests and desires. Erasing the correspondence gap that exists amongst management and staff, and that between workers and clients, is additionally of vital significance for a company's survival.

Executives should comprehend that countering tougher competition and difficult issues will require deeper and continued learning, wider and extensive strategizing, and a more responsible commitment from workers at all levels of the organization. This methodology moves staff to get committed, and empowers them to disseminate and assemble critical data for the organization. Likewise, inability to impart any vital changes or earnestness for change to staff can bring about negative impacts or severe setbacks to a company.

Confidentiality is another basic issue to confront. Relevant issues are raised on shopper security on web use and subsequent database data. For instance, with a specific end goal to monitor decisions and purchasing conduct of clients, many hotels preserve client's data from requests on bar and room requests. Additionally, real markets give clients extraordinary store rebates and remunerate cards. This is to empower store administration track the acquiring preferences of clients, however the client's security is attacked and put at danger to the general population. Confidentiality concerns likewise raise moral vulnerabilities on the online use designs. The previously stated key correspondence issues are the developing issues inching into the worldwide market that I will surely need to confront as I set out on my profession.

Will communication become more complex, or less, why

Given the way innovation has rapidly advanced throughout most of the recent decade, I am convinced that correspondence will become more dynamic. Cutting edge administration faces broad correspondence challenges as supervisors will be relied upon to energize and advance successful correspondence procedures addressing all levels, with workers, clients, suppliers and partners. Social obligation and privacy issues are additionally developing critical correspondence problems. For instance, social obligation issues in the fast-food industry, advancing from poor correspondence relationship amongst staff and clients; such distancing can damage an organization's image, diminish its net revenue, and stain the firm's image, and validity. Problems of compromised confidentiality are likewise predominant in our time particularly on identity theft, competitive advantages,… [read more]

Analyses of Lincoln S Leadership and Communication Skills Essay

… Business -- Persuasive Communication -- Summary of Communication


Throughout his life, Lincoln learned and honed his abilities and skills for effective leadership and persuasion. According to his contemporaries, he was committed to… [read more]

Analyzing Competitors Analysis and Competitive Strategy Research Paper

… Competitors Analysis and Competitive Strategy

Samsung: Competitors Analysis and Competitive Strategy

Mexico is globally well positioned in the exportation and assembling of electronics. Statistics indicate that the production level with regard to the electronic industry in Mexico was close to… [read more]

Analyzing the Business Ethics Phenomenon Essay

… Business Ethics

Background of Scenario

The marketing Vice President of one's organization (engaged in chicken processing), where one holds the post of Chief Executive, suggests that by putting the "free range" label on their chickens, they can raise the price they charge by 20%, thereby significantly enhancing the company's profit margin. However, one discovers that the law on putting the "free range" label on processed chicken is so lenient that one only needs to let the chickens out into the open for about five minutes per day (or more precisely, "open the henhouse door for five minutes")However, in this short duration, it is highly unlikely that all chickens will step out; in fact, it has been observed that only a few will do so. Furthermore, this term (i.e., "free range") can be employed irrespective of the space one allows per chicken, time period spent outside, and the number of hens.

The Ethical Dilemma

Here, the ethical quandary boils down to upholding company integrity and that of one's product, in terms of how one exploits the word "free range." Clearly, one can very easily make one's company earn better revenues (Writer Thoughts). But this may be at the cost of one's products. As stated earlier, the label of "free range" can be employed irrespective of the space one allows per chicken, time period spent outside, and the number of hens, thus leaving ample opportunity for different ways of interpretation. It may end up leading one's organization into trouble; hence, the dilemma.


There is a strong link between organizational profits and marketing. A sound marketing plan can result in extensive brand growth, growth of customer base, and eventually, profits. For profit maximization, however, organizations are frequently seen straddling the boundary of ethically-correct marketing and unethical marketing. Some examples of debatable ethics in companies' marketing activities include broadcasting sexual advertisements for attracting customers to one's service or product offering, making use of violence for drawing consumers' attention to one's service or product, and targeting kids in advertisements (Miksen). In the scenario in question, the debatable issue is the marketing department's plan to attach the "free range" label to the company's processed chickens, when the term's definition appears not to be very ethical or accurate. One alternative would be: completely giving up this idea of tagging the "free range" label to one's offering, to ultimately maintain organizational integrity and escape ethical conflict.

Production activities linked to nearly all products have some or other environmental impact. Organizations bent on profit maximization may resort to ethically-incorrect environmental practices (like forest destruction, increasing pollution, and contamination of water supplies). Typically, it is relatively cheaper to harm our environment than to impact it positively. For instance, a small, fledgling enterprise might not have extra funds at hand and may find it far cheaper to continue its operations via a highly-polluting factory than to construct one that is safer or remodel the existing plant (Miksen). Such firms (particularly those situated in developed…… [read more]

Being Attentive to Others in Groups How to Succeed at Group Work Essay

… ¶ … Group Polarization" and "What Everybody Knows" I discovered that failure in groups is extremely easy and common. But why is this? One would think that the more minds that are involved the better. Yet this is not always the case. Group work can actually have a more negative impact on a project than independent work can. One of the reasons for this is group polarization.

The idea of group polarization is fascinating and extremely relatable. Anyone who has worked in groups before knows this to be true. For example, one person in a group might share an idea that another in the group will be enthusiastic about, but two more persons might dismiss it out of hand. Suddenly, polarization is happening around this one idea and it can set a negative tone right away for the duration of the project, especially if bitterness and resentment set in on one side. One would like to avoid extremism in a group but in such cases it can be difficult to do and the risk of its happening is high once polarizing elements set in.

One way to prevent this from happening, however, is to move out of your comfort zone. Allow others to have a say and hold an opinion even if it contradicts with your own. This is part of what being in a group is all about: learning to respect the thoughts and ideas of others. This is how positivity can be maintained. On the other hand, risky behavior in a group is dangerous and imperils everyone in the group. If group members begin with some willingness to engage in risky behavior, groups will engage in more of that behavior as a result of group discussion. There is less variation when this occurs. Thus, it is important when in a group to be respectful and courteous but also to be mindful of avoiding risky behavior that could lead a group down the wrong path.

Another…… [read more]

Value Chains and Business Processes Assessment

… Business Processes

The concept of strategic alignment reflects the need of an organization to align its people and processes with its strategic objectives. A high degree of alignment means that resources and processes are oriented in the same direction, and that direction is consistent with what management feels is the best direction for the company. In essence, strategic alignment means that the entire organization is pulling in the same direction.

An example of strategic alignment would be the fourth element of business processes, which is process-based competition. In this, business processes are examined, and those that are weakest are changed to strengthen them, while the organization seeks to utilize its strengths to a greater degree (Deming Prize Application, 1998). Campbell, Kay and Avison (2005) note that all elements of the business should be aligned. They advocate aligning the information systems with the processes and with strategy. The logic behind this is that the organization must gather the right information to ensure that its processes are working effectively. This means understanding how the processes are affecting strategy so that if there is misalignment that the processes can be changed in response to the need for a new strategy.

One of the interesting dynamics with respect to strategic alignment is that, as Campbell et al. (2005) note, strategies that are developed at the highest levels of the organization are often undermined, or altered, at the lower levels. The reason for this that the processes by which the organization works at those levels has poor alignment with the overall strategy. It can be difficult to achieve this alignment. As Campbell notes, however, the closer that the CEO and CIO work, and the COO could be included in this discussion as well, the more likely it is that the systems that drive the organization can achieve a higher level of alignment. To do that, there need to be an understanding that permeates the organization with respect to what types of information, and decision-making processes, are needed in order to facilitate the organization's overall strategy. There will also need to be flexibility and willingness to implement changes to these processes, should they be found to have poor alignment.

2. The value chain is one of the main ways in which a business renders itself competitive (or uncompetitive, as the case may be). The value chain reflects the "all the activities a firm performs, and how they interact" ("Value Chain ... "). It consists of inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, marketing & sales, and service. Each of these has the potential to add value for the company, so if the company can distinguish itself from its competitors on these dimensions, then it will be more competitive.

The relationship between the competitive environment and the value chain flows two ways. First, the competitive environment influences the value chain by defining where value is added. For example, a company might start life with a competitive advantage, and gain market share by exploiting that. But if all competitors adopt… [read more]

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