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General Motors and Tesla Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,010 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



The two companies that analyzed are General Motors and Tesla, both U.S.-based automakers. These two companies have their own business models quite distinct from one another. General Motors is a traditional automaker, and one of the world's largest. They make a wide range of vehicles for the consumer market. Tesla makes luxury vehicles in the electric market, but is planning a move into the more mainstream market. Tesla is challenged in terms of its cash flow, in particular as needed to scale up production to enter the mainstream market, so there might be opportunity for a larger automaker to buy them out (Schaal, 2016)

The annual report for General Motors contains both financial and non-financial information. In the financial data, it is apparent that General Motors is a very large company. It has been profitable for several years, and earned $9.6 billion last year, on revenue of $152 billion. For a company that was bankrupt only a few years ago, General Motors now has established strong financial performance over the course of multiple years. The company has positive equity, though the amount has tended to fluctuate, which indicates that it is sometimes adding debt even in years when it is profitable. Still, GM has a reasonable cash position of $23 billion and total market capitalization of $49.2 billion.

Tesla is the much smaller company of the two. It currently has a very limited product range, though its products are very well-regarded. The key to Tesla's success of late is that the company has technological leadership, in particular with its batteries. These are actually available to be sold to the consumer market for homes. But more important, Tesla's cars outperform all other electric vehicles, and it appears that it will be able to maintain this technological superiority for at least the next few years, despite the investments of major automakers in the space.

The problem for Tesla, as the company's annual report attests, is that it is not yet profitable. Instead, it is investing significant money in building out its infrastructure so that it can launch more mainstream products to the broader market. The company's market cap has priced in a lot of this future potential, as it is worth $31 billion, not quite as much as GM but a lot given the relative sizes of these two companies. So GM would not be buying Tesla at a discount by any means. Usually, a discount would be normal for a financially distressed company, but despite Tesla's financials there is little sentiment in the market that it is financially distressed.

The numbers maybe tell a different story. The good part of Tesla's financials are that total revenue has been increasing rapidly, and in the last fiscal year was $4 billion. It lost $716 million on that, however, the company's biggest loss by far. So in that sense, the company is still experiencing significant financial growing pains. As of the end of 2015, Tesla had $1.2 billion in cash on its balance… [read more]

Analyzing the Avon Products Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (767 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Avon Products

Avon -- Strategy

Until the middle of the past decade, Avon Products Inc. adopted a direct selling approach, whose advantages and drawbacks are cited as follows:

Advantages (Petryni, 2016):

Robust Relationships with Customers

Direct selling helps small businesses establish and manage personal company-client relationships. Direct selling personnel are able to forge more personal, memorable and meaningful bonds with customers. The nature of these relationships aids the company in better understanding and adapting to customer needs, whilst securing customers' brand loyalty.

Coordination with Business Strategies of Other Departments

As small-scale enterprises that employ a direct selling approach can effectively control their sales force, they are able to ensure harmony between their sales interactions and marketing and production strategies.

Price and Cost Control

Small companies employing direct selling strategies can exert considerable control over the areas of distribution and pricing. Consequently, such a company enjoys increased ability to verify its products' competitive prices.

iv. Increased Customer Access

Direct selling allows small companies a chance to access potential customers it probably cannot otherwise reach. A number of customers fail to receive or show positive response to a brand's media advertising. Likewise, some buyers might be frequenting retail stores which do not stock the company's products. Direct selling entails directly reaching such customers and initiating sales.

Disadvantages (Moving Downstream: Selling Direct to Consumers, 2009):

i. Decreased agility compared to other models, when it comes to responding to shifting customer needs and wants.

ii. All departments need to understand as well as adapt themselves to novel ways of functioning and iii. Inconsistency may result, across different indirect and direct channels.

2. Changes in Strategy

The organization followed decentralization, beginning from the mid-2000s. Avon's Chief Executive Officer started granting national and regional managers increased decision-making authority and autonomy, to make decisions and operate freely, akin to independent companies.

The decision-making element constitutes a key aspect of organizational managers' jobs. Above all other traits, decision-making competence is what sets a manager apart (Nooraie, 2014). Decentralization must be organized in such a way that the relationship between the parent organization and its subsidiaries balances decentralization and centralization of functions and power. The parent company must retain those functions a subsidiary will be incapable of carrying out, on account of the expertise or quantity of resources needed. It might need…… [read more]

SWOT and Pest Analysis Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  12 pages (3,994 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


Bob Clap founded Heilind Electronics in 1974 in Massachusetts. The company's headquarters remains there, and has witnessed major acquisitions both in 1986 (Force Electronics) and 1991 (Help Electronics). A leading distributor of switches, circuit protection and thermal management products, relays, connectors, wiring accessories, terminal blocks, wire and cable, identification and insulation products, Heilind Electronics prides itself for being a company… [read more]

IBM Analysis Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,010 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


International Business Machine Case Analysis

Structure of a Managerial Report

Global forces driving IBM Becoming a global Integrated Enterprise

Method IBM has Adapted

Skills of Global Leaders Should Possess

Important Lessons from the Case

Global forces driving IBM Becoming a global Integrated Enterprise

In April 2008, IBM 300 top leaders were drawn from 170 countries with the intent to deliberate on the strategy to make IBM becoming a globally integrated enterprise. The driving forces that make IBM becoming a global integrated enterprise is to achieve global market advantages. The company first approach was to shift its business attention to the emerging markets such as BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) to reap market advantages from these countries. Essentially, India and China are the most populous countries in the world, and the standard of livings of the residents of these countries have improved based on their business relations with the American companies. Moreover, IBM has launched its businesses in several countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America to reap global markets. Thus, IBM has moved from being solely American company to become a globally integrated enterprise to reap global market opportunities.

Moreover, IBM intends to derive more opportunities from globalization through an innovative approach. Over 100 years that the company has been operating, the IBM has "moved from international (exporting from the U.S.) to multi-national (with subsidiaries in many countries) to global.." (Kanter, 2009 p 1). Thus, IBM has adopted the global integrated supply chain that assists the company becoming one global instrument for requisitions.

1.3 Method IBM has Adapted

Several years of business experiences have made the IBM to develop different skills and capabilities to achieve competitive market advantages making the company increase its revenue. For example, IBM provides the global transformation outsourcing services to different companies across the globe. The services have assisted the company raising the revenue of $54 billion -$18 billion from GBS (Global Business Services) and $36 billion from GTS. The GTS services that the company offer made IBM recording additional revenue of $4 billion in 2007. The global services also made IBM increase its revenue from $63 billion to $82 billion with net profits of $8 billion.

IBM has used different strategies to become a global company. First, the company has used the merger and acquisition business strategies to become a global leader. "Between 2003 and 2007 IBM spent $16 billion to acquire over 50 smaller companies, mostly in software development." (Kanter, 2009 p 3).

Moreover, "IBM grouped its businesses into four main areas. Global Services included two segments - Global Technology Services (GTS), which focused on client IT infrastructure needs, and Global Business Services (GBS), which offered business consulting, systems integration, and application management expertise." ((Kanter, 2009 p 3).

Through the business transformation outsourcing services, IBM has offered services to different companies globally to trim costs and enhancing value creations. IBM also possess different capabilities that can assist the company becoming the global leader. First, IBM has transformed itself from the manufacturer of hardware… [read more]

Analyzing the Siemens Bribery Scandal Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (651 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Siemens Bribery Scandal

The high level of corruption at Siemens and its rationalization by managers

One of the main factors that sheds light on the high level of corruption at Siemens is that from the outset, bribing officials was acceptable and considered as an expense within the business. However, when the rules and regulations were altered, Siemens failed to adhere to such transformation and went on with bribery. More so, the managers engaged and took part in these corrupt activities as they went on to put into place different ways in which they could conceal their illegal activities and actions. Top management at Siemens forced concerned personnel to sign conformity agreements so as to hide their bribery actions as these were essential to sustain current profit levels (Ewing, 2008; Watson, 2013). Watson (2013) in his article asserts, "Siemens is well versed in the high cost of corruption: in 2008, following a string of high-profile bribery scandals, it agreed to a record 1.6 billion U.S. dollars with American and European authorities." With regards to the corruption involvement and rationalization of Siemen's top and middle management Watson (2013) writes, "The scandal provided the necessary sense of urgency in the company's ranks, and the new CEO set out to reorganize the top three levels of management, replacing between 40% and 80% of executives in each."

Implications for managers for taking a stand against corrupt practices?

Taking into consideration that Siemens seems to have perceived bribery as an essential part of attaining the contracts it required to remain in business, it can be concluded that a manager who took a stand against the practice would most likely have been terminated or in the least, transferred to a less important low level position. This is because corruption had become so engrained and entrenched within the business to the extent that taking a contrasting and opposite stand would be perceived hostile and therefore taken in an extremely bad way.

Distorting competition…… [read more]

Drivers of Profit in Aluminum Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (1,115 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Alcoa operates globally, and has several different business segments, including rolled products, engineered products, transportation and construction, and primary products (Alcoa.com, 2016). The primary products are those extracted from the ground, and subject to minimal processing. This paper will examine the primary products, to be known as Upstream according to information in the 2015 Annual Report, and the drivers of revenue and profit within that division. The primary metals segment contributed $5.6 billion in sales.

Commodity Prices

All upstream divisions produce goods that are primary products, with minimal processing. As such, the profit drivers are the revenue, which are tied to global commodity prices, and internal cost factors. In the 2015 Annual Report, Alcoa's CEO noted "Alcoa's common stock traded with a 95% correlation to the London Metal Exchange price (of aluminum)." The global price of aluminum dropped 28% and alumina by 43%. The company notes that the price of metal contributes $734 million out of $1.116 billion in net income. Currency fluctuations contributed $328 million, in a positive direction for the year. Energy costs are another contributor, but more for processed goods.

Underlying Forces, Generic Structure and Profitability

Primary metals are driven by the market price of the good, less the cost of getting it to market. There is minimal processing, so the market price tends to be the major revenue and profit driver of this segment. Primary metals are an undifferentiated product, a commodity that is subject to trade on global commodities markets. Alcoa's profitability is therefore dependent substantially on the market price for the good. There is some flexibility with respect to the company's cost of extraction, but the market price is fairly volatile and therefore is the most significant component of profitability, hence why the stock trades more or less like an aluminum derivative, in the CEO's words.

The aluminum market is driven by demand. Current demand drivers are changes to automobiles that require more aluminum, growth of cities and consequent demand for construction materials, and innovations that create new demand for aluminum. As demand changes, so too does the supply of aluminum. When the price of aluminum increases, more producers can be profitable, so the supply increases. The balance of supply and demand is generally held to determine the global aluminum prices (No author, 2016).


Demand is the key driver of prices in the market, and is closely tied to the overall economic growth in the economy. Alcoa has noted that the economic health of China has been a key component of recent trends in the aluminum price. Its use as a construction material is key, but aluminum demand is tied to overall consumption in an economy because of its broad array of uses. The political environment matters at times in primary metals. For example, in 2015 the price of aluminum declined 19% because China continued strong production amid a global glut. The central government was at the heart of that decision, and it affected the global aluminum market (Deaux & Elmquist, 2016). A… [read more]

Analyzing Pay and Benefits Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,264 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Pay and Benefits

A midsized company with a proven product.

Executives are looking to keep labor costs at a minimum.

Does your program include stock options, profit sharing, an employee stock ownership plan (ESOP), healthcare, etc.

Our program involves some Stock bonus arrangements-plans that allow employees to own stock in the organization. This would help employees get financial benefits from shares value appreciation and/or the income and dividends from 401(k) and stock Plans. It permits the employees to save tax amounts (2% of monthly income) as they can use a part of their salary before tax and invest the money in stock bonus plan, or fixed contribution that encourages profit-sharing. The program also provides medical insurance; similarly, the program also provisions overtime dividends which amounts to 0.5% of the monthly income.

Are your specified options provided for employees of all levels or just for certain positions?

This one option that is reserved for the fulltime employees in the ESOP case and mostly for the executives of the top-level management. The other dividends are accessible to all employees. Where regular employees receive 0% benefit from the ESOP option, top management can make profits in direct proportion the business growth in the financial year.

What are the costs to the company for each added incentive?

The only extra dividends the company pays is the pension plan or 401(1) that is usually matched to the employee's monthly pension saving, but not more than 10% of employee monthly income.

How do these incentives shape/determine the type of employee you attract?

The inclusion of the 401(k) plan will be an added attraction to gifted individuals who plan to retire with very huge retirement packages when they retire from active service.

Additionally, more knowledgeable senior staff who have plans of increasing the profitability of the business to enable them partake in the profit boom through shares will be brought in by the stock options.

How is employee performance rewarded? Include a strategy for raises and bonuses. How do your strategies differ by job level and function?

Step 1

Place your bonuses assessment and your wages in the picture of general employee policy.

Step 2

Create future earnings and sales with realistic estimations. Make use of this estimation to enable determining how much bonuses and raises your small business can possibly pay.

Step 3

Develop a new job description for every key position in your company. These job descriptions must identify each job's tasks and responsibilities quite clearly.

Step 4

Make sure the process of your performance review is well structured to enable each employee know your major expectations about performance and competencies well in advance.

Step 5

Create your new bonus program to enable employees know what qualifies them to become a beneficiary of the bonus program and what they are required to do in order to earn such benefits

Step 6

Track bonus effects and ensure you raise policies. Try to find out how any policy encourages job performance.

The strategy is quite broad, which… [read more]

Implications of Organized Labor for Retailers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,634 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Organized Labor for Retailers

In response to your request for reviewing your company's collective bargaining policies, this paper reviews the relevant literature to identify the benefits of starting a retail company both with and without organized labor and a comparison between the differences in benefits for a retail company started without unions and later after unions are introduced.… [read more]

Google Competitive Environment and International Ops Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (647 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Google's competitive environment is intense, but manageable. The company's primary business is online advertising, and Google is the dominant player in this market. Other major companies are Yahoo, Microsoft and Facebook, all doing multiple billions of dollars in this industry. The online advertising industry was worth $42.8 billion in 2013 (Nath, 2013), and in 2015 Google's advertising revenue was $67 billion (Google Form 10k, 2015). The company's success is driving the industry to its rapid pace of growth.

Google has become the dominant player in the industry because of its superior metrics. Basically, Google drives more traffic than any other website family. Because of this, it gathers more data than anybody else, and then it uses that data to deliver better advertising targeting that other companies. As a consequence, Google's ads are more effective on a dollar-for --dollar basis than anybody else's. Google has refined this business considerably over the years as well, in order to stay ahead of competitors.

The company's technical capabilities are what has driven its success to date. At present, Google also has substantial financial resources that it can plow back into its technical skills, by attracting the best talent in the world and ensuring that they have the resources they need to continue being the leaders in the world at what they do

Google has also taken steps to improve its innovation. Culturally, Google has tremendous innovative capabilities because it does not take the standard view of innovation. Two of its major projects -- Chrome and Android, are market leaders but do not contribute directly to revenue. Most companies would not encourage innovations whose impact on the bottom line is uncertain, but Google will, and this is one of the reasons why it has been such an innovative company during its history. The company is now using some of its financial resources to become an incubator, which only serves to increase the innovative capability of the company.

Google…… [read more]

Analyzing Organizational Behaviour Skills Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (891 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Organizational Behaviour Skills

In accordance to Lunenburg (2010), communication can be defined as the process of conveying information and common understanding from one individual to another. There are four main barriers to communication. These include personal barriers, process barriers, semantic barriers and physical barriers. The following paper encompasses how, I as a manager, would overcome these barriers to communication within the setting.

Semantic Barriers

Semantic barriers take place when there is a discrepancy and variance regarding the words being used in communication. Semantic barriers more often than not are present on the basis of people emanating from dissimilar cultures, hindering the involved parties to have a common understanding of the concepts and the words being employed. The main way in which I would overcome this barrier as a manager will be to select the correct and precise words that will bear the similar meaning for the employees in different contexts. It is imperative to note that not all employees will understand the same technical language. Therefore, so as to convey the message at hand to the employees past these semantic barriers, as the manager I will elucidate technical terms in order for all of them to have full comprehension. This will be done as not all employees are experts in all areas and therefore understanding of such key words will benefit from such explanations. For instance, being the finance manager of a department, I will not be able to convey the problem in question to other managers and personnel if I solely depend on the terminologies used in the field of finance (Lunenburg, 2010). In addition, as the manager, I will also be mindful of my expression, tone of voice as well as the receptiveness of how I respond to the personnel as it will have a significant influence on the individuals I plan to reach.

2. Process Barriers

The communication process takes into account one individual that sends the information and the other that receives information. In essence, communication can be delineated as the process of conveying information and common comprehension from one individual to another. There has to be a common comprehension in the exchange of information. This is what is referred to as the process of communication. However, this communication process can break down. Each phase of the process is vital for effective and good communication and therefore any phase that is blocked in the communication process can be a barrier. As a manager, one of the ways I would overcome this communication barrier would be to make sure that all stages of the process of communication are being employed effectively. This starts from the sender to the encoder, from the encoder…… [read more]

Mcdonalds Supply Chain Logistics Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,019 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Supply Chain

McDonald's is a fast food restaurant, the largest in the world and the dominant player in the U.S. market (QSR, 2014). They operate franchised locations around the world, selling fast food staples such as hamburgers and desserts. The company's supplemental menu items have varied over the years to include things like pizza and salads, though these do not always stick on the menu. Additionally, McDonalds tailors its menus to different locations around the world. Sometimes this is a single unique menu item, but in other cases nearly the entire menu would be unrecognizable to an American (Schlossberg, 2015).

One food item that is available in most countries is the McChicken. The McChicken consists of chicken, bread, vegetables and sauces. These are typically sourced in the nation of origin. Another major product is the companies fries, the primary source ingredients of which are potatoes, vegetable oil and salt.

According to the company's website, the McChicken contains chicken (breaded), mayonnaise, iceberg lettuce and a bun. There are a number of ingredients that go into this -- the breading on the chicken contains a variety of starches and seasonings. The company uses third party suppliers for these ingredients, taking delivery of pre-made buns and patties, and then preparing them at the individual restaurant level. All of the ingredients are sourced from company-authorized suppliers to ensure product consistency across the franchises. These are cooked on equipment that are sourced from company-authorized suppliers. But it is the daily deliveries of ingredients that matter most to the company. The franchises will typically receive regular deliveries of almost all key ingredients on the menu. Because the franchisees sometimes have options with respect to which authorized supplier that they will work with, this creates a situation where centralized warehouses may or may not be used in the supply chain.

Transportation Analysis

Transportation has been one of the least problematic areas of the company's supply chain. Faced with multiple different scandals, McDonalds have invested significant effort into supply chain transparency in recent years (New, 2015). The company has developed strong relationships with suppliers and redundancy throughout its supply chain. However, most suppliers of a given good are located in a similar geographic area.

What this means for transportation is that McDonalds relies heavily on trucks for moving goods. A bun supplier, for example, might cover several states. The buns are produced at a large factory bakery, and then shipped for hundreds of miles by truck. The use of trucks allows each franchisee to be reached efficiently. McDonalds restaurants have exceptional throughput by industry standards (QSR, 2014) and this means that it is relatively efficient for the restaurants to take truckload shipments. If a franchisee wishes to take delivery at a warehouse and then serve all franchises from that warehouse, this is also an option that many within the company exercise.

There is very little that McDonalds will source from another country. There are a couple of reasons for this. One is that even in today's global trade… [read more]

Strategic Analysis of Yahoo Inc Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (963 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Yahoo! Inc. is an Internet service provider company that was founded by David Filo and Jerry Yang in 1994. The founders were Electrical Engineering students at Stanford University when they started the company as a hobby. Since inception, Yahoo has experienced exponential growth to an extent that it's currently a multifaceted brand that serves individual and corporate internet users worldwide. Some of the various products and services that the firm offers on its portal include news, classifieds, horoscopes, emails, sports, maps, picture hosting, and job searches. However, the recent success and profitability of this company has been characterized by several major issues given that it lacks the innovative capabilities of its major competitors, particularly Google. Yahoo has essentially lost its popularity and productivity because of its strategic approach to doing business and factors in the external environment.

Strategic Approach to Doing Business

Yahoo! Inc.'s core business that has contributed to its initial success and growth include its web content, display advertising, and search properties. In addition to its core business, Yahoo provides a wide range of products and services. However, the company has a relatively simple corporate structure that is based on two major aspects of business (Henry, Sutorius & Thacher, 2007). The first line of business for Yahoo is provision of marketing services to businesses across its wide range of products and services. Secondly, the company generates its revenues through creating paying relationships with its premium services' users, which is categorized as fees.

The company's strategic approach to business is generating revenues through these two lines of business. In its first line of business, the firm creates revenues through charging business clients for advertisements appearing on its portal and for placing targeted advertisements on its affiliated sites. This essentially means that Yahoo earns revenues when a certain keyword is entered into its search bar, when a portal user views certain content, when users click advertisement links, and when users view impression advertisements. Yahoo! Inc. measures the profitability of these revenue-generating measures through a click-through system that is proportional to the size of its user base. Since inception, Yahoo's strategic approach to doing business has entailed generating revenues through advertising. Even though its founders and management team were not aware of the actual size of the Internet, they built the business on the model of advertising (Ocastaneda, 2008).

Long-term Objectives

Based on its business model and strategic approach to doing business, Yahoo's long-term objectives include simplifying the brand through narrowing its focus on its strengths in order to enhance growth, generate more revenue, and enhance efficiency. Secondly, the firm seeks to enhance the quality of its consumer and advertiser products while increasing the number of daily active users. The third long-term objective for Yahoo is to promote constant growth in revenue through Mavens strategy i.e. mobile, video, native, and socials (Yahoo Inc., 2016). The other long-term objectives include lessening operating expenses…… [read more]

Cross Cultural Business Management Issues A2 Coursework

A2 Coursework  |  2 pages (777 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Policy Issues and Cultural Diversity

Given the increasing diversity of the workplace, identifying opportunities to improve policy formulation has assumed new importance and relevance today. To this end, this study is about evaluating current policy issues as they regard cultural diversity in a typical workplace. An assessment concerning why this problem is worthy of study and how it will be researched is followed by a description of the author's personal and professional experience in this realm is followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.

While the value of a diversified workforce has been documented time and again, there remains a gap in the relevant literature concerning optimal policies to promote the contributions of various ethnic populations. For example, Mor Barak (2000) emphasizes that, "The problems arising from today's workforce diversity are caused not by the changing composition of the workforce itself but by the inability of work organizations to truly integrate and use a heterogeneous workforce at all levels of the organization" (p. 339). Similarly, citing the growing diversity of the American population, Fine (2008) points out that, "The challenge posed by the increasing cultural diversity of the U.S. workforce is perhaps the most pressing challenge of our times" (p. 485). These observations suggest that many business managers are failing to reap the benefits that can accrue to drawing on the talents, feedback and skills that a truly diversified workforce offers.

Although many businesses seek to apply diversity management to comply with federal and state regulations as well as a desire to ensure that employees are not discriminated on the basis of race, age, gender, disability, ethnicity, or religion, effective diversity management is clearly a complex issue (Von Bergen & Soper, 2002). In an era when cultural diversify has become the focus of critics of multiculturalism and even nationalism, these issues assume even more importance because there is little or nothing that business manager can do to reverse to tide.

Consequently, it just makes good business sense to forge the best possible scenarios that will help achieve an organization's goals as possible within these dynamic culture parameters. Despite the compelling need, far too many business managers continue to draw on age-old stereotypes and prejudices that prevent or constrain the full contributions of a fully diversified workforce (Hoffman & Stallworth, 2008). Certainly, business…… [read more]

Adapting to Different Workplaces Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (884 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Organizational Culture

There are five stages of team development. These stages include orientation, conflict, structure, work and dissolution. Each stage is critical to the overall development of a team. This development occurs over time.

Orientation is the first stage, and is that which occurs when team members are first getting together with one another. Orientation is required to inform everyone of a team's goals and some of the different ways that the team will go about achieving them. Basic roles are identified, such as leaders. During orientation people get to know one another and their jobs.

The conflict stage is when team members get to react to the information they learned during orientation. For example, certain team members may not agree with one another or with the positions that they are filling within a team. This stage is typically filled with tension and disagreements.

During the structure stage, the team is able to coalesce. Individuals get more comfortable with their roles and the way they interact with one another. An example of this stage is increased communication between team members, who know one another and how to talk to each other better through working with each other over time.

During the work stage team members become adept at working with one another. They hone in on specific goals and may even achieve them. An example of the work stage is sales team members collaborating with one another to fulfill end of the month sales objectives in the automotive industry.

The final stage is dissolution. Teams dissolve when they have accomplished their goals. At this point their roles change, and people go their own ways. A good example of this stage is during the offseason after a sports team wins a championship, and players are traded to other teams.

Both climate and culture play very important roles in organizations. Although these terms are similar, they actually refer to two different things. Climate is focused on context, and on the specific context in which actions take place. Climax is more about relationships between things, and about how people interact with each other. On the other hand, company culture is more about the meaning of certain actions, and the way that they are interpreted. Company culture is based on an organization's values. Climate is more about the environment in which people work and how they are able to relate to each other.

Company culture affects the way that people do things in a company. The best example of this fact is provided by Enron, which admittedly had an aggressive company culture. At the end of certain amount of time, the employees that produced…… [read more]

Code of Ethics Implementation Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,309 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Code of Ethics

Description of Code and Links with the Organization

The code of ethics underpins everything else. Its values are embedded in some of the most important documents for the organization, such as the vision and mission statements. The code of ethics is less about ethics, and more about behavior, so it has a lot of influence over how people interact with each other; that is the main focus of the code. The subject matter of the code -- mentorship, diversity, respect and learning, are universal values, and we should guide our behaviors in accordance with those principles.

The mission statement is in some ways a rewording of the code of ethics, which highlights how important the code of ethics is to the organization. Mentorship, respect, diversity and learning are all key elements of the mission statement, and they are all underpinned by the philosophies that are embedded in the code. Because so much of the code consists of actionable items, the organization is equipped to use the code of ethics in governing behavior. As such, it is important that the code of ethics, along with the mission statement, are effectively communicated throughout the organization

Launching the Code

In any established organization, it is necessary to formally launch a code of ethics. Kaptein and Wempe (1998) note that organizations already have an embedded code of ethics in their organizations, on the basis of organizational policy and culture. The motivation for a written code is mainly to remedy the insufficiencies of the implicit code (Ibid). In some cases, an implicit code can lack clarity, and have inherent contradictions. Developing an explicit code helps to remedy this. However, because the organization is already functioning with an implicit code, there will need to be a process of reconciliation with the new and old codes. The new code will need to be supported by senior management

The code will need to be supported by senior management, and then communicated frequently. Multiple media should be used -- it should be communicated both in writing and verbally, and frequently referenced by management at all levels. If there are known inconsistencies between the new code of ethics and the existing organizational culture, then management has to be honest about this, because those are the areas that will require the greatest effort to explain the code, how things change, and what that means for expected norms of behavior. A strong focus on the message through repetition, explanation and preferably through other icons of effective communication - slogans, acronyms and buzzwords -- can prove effective to bring about change in behaviors in a short period of time (Goodman & Truss, 2004).

The code should also have its champions, throughout the organization. These are people who believe strongly in the code and its value to the organization. They are the people who have been tasked with identifying and overcoming any resistance. Ultimately, people are creatures of habit and any change imposed from an external source can take an adjustment… [read more]

Analyzing Woolworths Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (1,092 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Woolworths

Organizations and their human resource (HR) executives face an increasingly diverse workforce, with disabled individuals accounting for a major, yet largely overlooked population. When investigating disability's impacts in the context of workplaces, researchers have given particular attention to the detection and explaining of likely differences between personnel without and with disabilities. When organizations understand and acknowledge these workplace perception disparities, they can cultivate an organizational climate that promotes fair treatment as well as effective occupational inclusion of every employee -- including employees who are disabled (Waterhouse, Kimberley, Jonas and Glover 2010). This paper will be in the form of a case study that assesses Woolworths' incorporation of workers with disabilities via organizational behavior theory.


Disabled workers face both unintentional and deliberate employment barriers, erected Inadvertently) by their employers. A number of employers acknowledge their reluctance to hire disabled individuals. However, fortunately, this reluctance mostly does not arise from prejudice about disabled individuals' disabilities/abilities, but rather, it results from uncertainty regarding their (i.e., the organizations') ability of effectively facilitating the disabled worker within the organization. In its proposal to the National Inquiry into Employment and Disability, the Australian Industry (AI) Group claimed to recognize diversity of workplace experiences among disabled individuals as well as business type. Further, it suggested that raising awareness and education, in place of threat of penalty, is vital to employer engagement. This hints at employer backing, at the very least in theory, for increasing disabled persons' participation in the nation's workforce. Glover, Waterhouse, Kimberley, and Jonas (2010) identify four key organizational fears that limit disabled persons' employment opportunities, namely, fear of hiring costs; fear of productivity loss and additional supervision; fear of being left with "damaged goods"; and fear of being coerced to hold on to an underperforming worker (Waterhouse, Kimberley, Jonas and Glover, 2010).


Woolworths is very diligent in its commitment to diversity in the workplace. Specifically, with respect to diversity in terms of disability employment, the company has had long-lasting affiliations with disability support agencies (e.g., National Disability Recruitment Coordinator and CRS Australia) and disabled-employee service providers. Woolworths was a pioneer Australian employer to hire individuals suffering from major intellectual disability. This dedication to maintaining a workforce of sustainable diversity is what enables the company to be a sought-after Australian workplace (Case 4 Woolworths: what it does take n.d).

The Issue

Further, according to the Australia's Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ACCI), risk is one among the major employer fears. The ACCI discovered that employers' greatest concerns are in relation to potential effects of Occupational Safety and Health, Equal Opportunity for Employment, Workers' Compensation, and Disability Discrimination (Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry 2008). ACCI also refers to the existence of a negative perception (especially in the retail sector) that consumers will be driven away by visibility of disabled employees. Additionally, it states that company reticence is aggravated by government non-coordination between employment, education, and training (Waterhouse, Kimberley, Jonas and Glover 2010).

Woolworth's Approach

Retailer Woolworths accepts that overall organizational… [read more]

New Product Design Reflective Statement Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,177 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … successful thus far, but not entirely without its challenges. The brainstorming process was actually a lot of fun. It was a bit daunting initially to have such an open book in front of us, as we are not accustomed to that with most of our projects, but once we began brainstorming it became much more enjoyable. We went through a few different ideas and it was interesting just to see the different influences we each brought to the project and how those came out. Ideas were presented, and the ones that resonated the most with the group were ultimately the ones that were explored in much greater detail.

We looked at certain brands that either influenced us or where we thought there was an opportunity to add to them. These were not entirely the same thing, as we started first with the brands, such as Stella McCartney and Agent Provocateur, before finally settling on Charlotte Olympia's branding and concept as holding the most promise. Through this phase the group members were quite open about where they thought there was opportunity, and the ideas flowed well. As a group, we were all well aware of some of the impediments to creativity, such as group members being dismissive of other ideas out of hand. This aspect of the group work was good -- we all seemed to understand that the brainstorming phase is a distinct phase from the idea analysis phase. That allowed everybody to get involved, which ultimately was quite useful for the group, as it meant that everybody was engaged in the process from the outset.

The next step, once we had settled on the Charlotte Olympia idea, was to set the framework for the project. For this, we envisioned that we were working for the brand and seeking out new opportunities, particularly for accessories. This required us to understand what the brand was, its missions, its image and then try to think about how we could come up with a product that fit into that. This part of the creative process was different, because of the framing. It provided us with a little bit of constraint, which was good because this part of the idea generation process should be more refined, and getting closer to having a final product. Eventually, we settled on the idea of the collar accessories. It was quite interesting to have students coming at this from the business perspective, when one might expect fashion designers to be doing this sort of thing. It was actually a lot of fun. The idea did not come like a flash of lightning, but was actually something that came about as the result of hard work, with a lot of ideas having been thought up, until something struck the group as having serious potential.

To this point, we felt that the group concept was beneficial. There was not groupthink in the negative sense of the word, but we used each other to bounce ideas off of one… [read more]

Analyzing and Identifying Issues of Ethics and Employee Fear Uncertainty Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,200 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Ethics and Employee Fear Uncertainty

Factors of diversity and types of diversity likely to be encountered in the organization.

Factors of diversity









Types of diversity

Demographic diversity: such as age, gender, ethnicity, and nationality. These are known to be attributes that are readily detectable which can be characterized easily in… [read more]

Red Wing Shoes Demand Forecasting Case Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (490 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Demand Planning & Fulfillment

The Red Wing Shoe case highlights a number of key issues from the class regarding demand planning, order fulfillment and other aspects of supply chain management. At issue was the structure of the demand forecasting process, and how this influenced fulfillment. Red Wing typically produced its own footwear, at a variety of sites around the world, but had a broad retail presence as well.

The case covered a lot of concepts from the class, starting with demand forecasting. How a company chooses to do their demand forecasting will influence a number of factors -- in the case it was demurrage charges, fulfillment rates and the amount of inventory that the company had on hand. All of these problems stemmed from a disorganized demand forecasting process that had not accountability built into the system. The following presentation outline highlights the case facts and the different elements of the case that relate to the material from the textbook on demand forecasting and fulfillment management.

Slide 1:

Red Wing Shoes was similar to many firms

At Stage 1 or 2 of the 4 stage S&OP process

Recognized the need for change

Set about designing and implementing a change program

Slide 2:

The original forecasting system did not take into account changes in forecasts

The system was complex -- 450 pages of spreadsheets

Reasons for sales deviations were not explored

Supply chain ran the sales forecasts, not marketing

No responsibility for high inventory holding costs…… [read more]

Apple Supply Chain Case Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (541 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Apple's Supply Chain

Forecasting and demand patterns is one, with Apple estimating how many phones it needs, and how fast.. This is then built into the company's demands that it puts on its suppliers for component parts. Lead time is a critical element of this case. Apple did not give its suppliers much lead time. Because of this, the companies in its supply chain, such as Flextronics, ended up using recruiters in order to fill the need for labor. With longer lead times, it may have been possible to avoid some of the recruiters, thus delivering better outcomes for the workers who were recruited to work in these factories. . Stockouts ended up as an issue, when Flextronics was not able to deliver the quantity needed with the quality demanded.

Quality control is just touched upon loosely. Dhong's job was in quality control, but the exact nature of the quality problems with the cameras was never really explained. Just that there were a lot of problems, a 70% rejection rate, and eventually that cost Flextronics its role in the Apple supply chain, to the detriment of the workers, most of whom were blameless in the QC problem. The QC issues and the short lead times might have been related to each other, but both were definitely related to the problems that the workers experienced.

2. The case reflects the reality that the desire to produce products in an ethical manner is detached from market demands. In many cases, where there is conflict between market demands and the desire to be ethical, the ethics become, at best, flexible. Apple wanted to…… [read more]

Analyzing Entrepreneurship Business Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,650 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8



History Growth and Development of Napoleon Perdis

Napoleon Perdis' early life upbringing was a direct contrast of the life he lived in the Anglo western environment. Life was tough for him in his new neighborhood. Perdis was hard working and persistent. Consequently, he became one of the leading cosmetics exporters in Australia (Sexton, 2013; Hornery, 2015). He is arguably… [read more]

Analying Ethical Considerations and Organizational Behaviour Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (842 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Ethical Considerations and Organizational Behaviour

How Do Ethics Factor into Organizational Behaviour?

The concept of ethics is wound around people's behaviour. It is the choice between doing the right thing and not doing it. When ethical leaders come to these dilemmas, they do what ought to be done on the basis of what's right. A common guideline in organizational behaviour states that values are the key drivers of people's behaviour. In other words, it is values that influence the view of things. Attitudes, in turn, influence behaviour. Therefore, values are key elements in the formation of attitudes. They are the basic influential forces on how humans react to situations and other people. Virtuous values identify with ethical conduct. There are some practices that aid organizational leadership to drive their entities towards good ethics. Leaders will usually act in line with organizational ethics when they are well grounded in their core values and inculcated in the staffs. It has been observed that written codes of conduct and clearly laid out behavioural guidelines promote virtues and values as they encourage ethical behaviour in organizations.

When organizations establish behavioural standards, they outline clear actions that are expected in specific organizational situations. The behaviour standards and the ethical codes of conduct established within such organizations can help promote ethical observance by providing staffs with a cue on what should be done through written text or signs. Such standards are the cornerstones of people's internal values and progressively gain strength with firm, but fairly administered consequences (Kerns, 2003).

When all the aspects are considered in one pool, they generate a formula such as the one shown below. This may heighten the chances of ethical organizational behaviour. Therefore, observe a trend that when virtuous values are combined with aligned action along with behavioural standards or codes of conduct, the end result is stricter observance of ethical standards.

In practice, the process involves embracing virtuous values and setting them in tandem with major managerial leadership decisions such as employee orientation, selection, and even the socialization that they get within the organization. When leaders act on the three pinnacles, they assist the staff steer towards a common ethical organizational behaviour (Kerns, 2003).

It is the right action because employees and stakeholders expect ethical treatment

It is of more economic significance to the company. There are indications that emphasizing on such aspects as ethics influences the bottom-line positively

Ethical considerations provide a long-term social mainstay that sees beyond shareholder value.

The above reasons influence organizational leaders to embrace ethics (Kerns,…… [read more]

Analyzing and Assessing a Case Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (601 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


MedImmune is devoted to assisting patients to live better lives by means of the different advances and developments in science and medicine. Several hundred thousands of patients have profited and benefited from their products, which are purposely created for the treatment or prevention of infectious illnesses, cancer and inflammatory illnesses. The comprehensive endeavors of MedImmune with regard to research and developed all place emphasis on these similar fields or areas. MedImmune attained FluMist when it acquired Aviron in the year 2002. In particular, FluMist is the leading product for Aviron in terms of development and commercialization. To be specific, it is a live virus vaccine that is rendered to the patient as a nasal mist for the purpose of preventing Influenza (Sullivan, 2002).

Key issues

The board of directors of MedImmune was of the belief that Aviron was an appropriate and fitting strategy. However, the did not know what to offer. There is a need to perceive all the benefits and downsides in order to come to a conclusion. With respect to other vaccines and products for the treatment of cancer, MedImmune purposes to attain greater market shares and grow into the leader in vaccine innovation, manufacture as well as marketing in the market and industry. As pointed out, it can be perceived that Aviron also operates as a biopharmaceutical company. FluMist, which is its prevailing product, is also a live vaccine. There is a massive overlap in their research studies, which can provide MedImmune a good scale of economy and effectiveness in cost. For instance, as indicated, Synagis, as the focal product of MedImmune, is the foremost monoclonal antibody efficaciously technologically advanced to fight communicable disease. It is designated for the inhibition of grave lower respiratory area ailment triggered by "respiratory syncytial virus" (RSV) among pediatric patients with higher…… [read more]

Real Estate Investing What No One Tells Book Report

Book Report  |  3 pages (945 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Tells You About Investing in Real Estate

Only a small percentage of those who invest in, or embrace, real estate deals rake in a fortune -- as per their projections. As a matter of fact, investing in real estate comes across as being more complicated than other more "conventional" approaches to investing -- such as investing in the stock market or, perhaps, starting a grocery store.

When it comes to investing in real estate, I must point out that after reading Robert J. Hill's book, What No One Tells You About Investing in Real Estate, I realized that I was largely clueless on how to make profitable investments on this front. Previously, I was more inclined towards what has variously been referred to as 'real estate trading'. Here, the intention is to purchase a property and flipping it over after holding it for a short period of time. The holding period is could be anything from four to six months. It is for this reason that I refer to this approach of real estate investment as the swing investing or 'wild real estate investment ride.' The trick is always to look for distressed properties or properties whose value seems to be understated. It is important to note that with this approach to investing in real estate, the risk of being 'trapped' is rather high. This is particularly the case if one is caught up in a scenario where unloading a property is an impossibility -- i.e. due to relatively steep mortgage payments, or a shift in market dynamics. For me, it took Hill's book to adjust my preferred approach to real estate investing. In addition, the book also made me revaluate some life decisions I had made in the past.

It is important to note that in addition to being easily digestible, the book is also presented in a practical and easy to comprehend format. Prior to reading the book, I had not really given much thought to owning rental properties. As I have pointed out elsewhere in this text, I was largely interested in real estate trading. Little did I know that land lording is also a viable real estate engagement that could, in the long-term, be quite be a profitable venture. As a matter of fact, I was, for some reason, convinced that all landlords needed to do was identify some property, buy the said property or further develop it and simply wait for tenants to start flowing in. Sadly, this is the same viewpoint most have when they think of buying or developing some rental property. Some of the most important tenets of successful 'land lording' are comprehensively addressed in this book. These include, but they are not limited to, tenant screening, developing a good contract, dealing with property managers, handling irrational tenants, etc.

It should be…… [read more]

Analyzing Integrated Business Communication Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,083 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Integrated Business Communication

Business Communication

As a future manager there are numerous correspondence issues one would confront as he or she sets out upon their chosen career. As the world becomes connected, with advanced technology and rapid changes and developments in the global market, administrators need to adjust to the developing change. Successful relational abilities are basic for the part of any manager (Stuart, Sarow, and Stuart, 2007, p. 375).

In any official capacity, whether a corporate official, an organization chief, or an inventive business person, your relational abilities are the major components to your prosperity. Therefore, as a manager there are numerous correspondence issues I will confront. Correspondence at any level has its unique issues and complexities. As fresh business issues develop, there will be correspondence issues emerging from change, for example, association change, innovative change, social and dialect hindrances, moral instability, and taking care of clients' expanding requests and desires. Erasing the correspondence gap that exists amongst management and staff, and that between workers and clients, is additionally of vital significance for a company's survival.

Executives should comprehend that countering tougher competition and difficult issues will require deeper and continued learning, wider and extensive strategizing, and a more responsible commitment from workers at all levels of the organization. This methodology moves staff to get committed, and empowers them to disseminate and assemble critical data for the organization. Likewise, inability to impart any vital changes or earnestness for change to staff can bring about negative impacts or severe setbacks to a company.

Confidentiality is another basic issue to confront. Relevant issues are raised on shopper security on web use and subsequent database data. For instance, with a specific end goal to monitor decisions and purchasing conduct of clients, many hotels preserve client's data from requests on bar and room requests. Additionally, real markets give clients extraordinary store rebates and remunerate cards. This is to empower store administration track the acquiring preferences of clients, however the client's security is attacked and put at danger to the general population. Confidentiality concerns likewise raise moral vulnerabilities on the online use designs. The previously stated key correspondence issues are the developing issues inching into the worldwide market that I will surely need to confront as I set out on my profession.

Will communication become more complex, or less, why

Given the way innovation has rapidly advanced throughout most of the recent decade, I am convinced that correspondence will become more dynamic. Cutting edge administration faces broad correspondence challenges as supervisors will be relied upon to energize and advance successful correspondence procedures addressing all levels, with workers, clients, suppliers and partners. Social obligation and privacy issues are additionally developing critical correspondence problems. For instance, social obligation issues in the fast-food industry, advancing from poor correspondence relationship amongst staff and clients; such distancing can damage an organization's image, diminish its net revenue, and stain the firm's image, and validity. Problems of compromised confidentiality are likewise predominant in our time particularly on identity theft, competitive advantages,… [read more]

Analyses of Lincoln S Leadership and Communication Skills Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,610 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Business -- Persuasive Communication -- Summary of Communication


Throughout his life, Lincoln learned and honed his abilities and skills for effective leadership and persuasion. According to his contemporaries, he was committed to effective communication (Phillips, 1992, p. 145). In fact, he was so renowned for these skills that when Stephen Douglas was… [read more]

Analyzing Competitors Analysis and Competitive Strategy Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,083 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Competitors Analysis and Competitive Strategy

Samsung: Competitors Analysis and Competitive Strategy

Mexico is globally well positioned in the exportation and assembling of electronics. Statistics indicate that the production level with regard to the electronic industry in Mexico was close to $56 billion in the year 2012. Samsung Electronics is one of the main sector companies that have a strong presence… [read more]

Analyzing the Business Ethics Phenomenon Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (989 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Business Ethics

Background of Scenario

The marketing Vice President of one's organization (engaged in chicken processing), where one holds the post of Chief Executive, suggests that by putting the "free range" label on their chickens, they can raise the price they charge by 20%, thereby significantly enhancing the company's profit margin. However, one discovers that the law on putting the "free range" label on processed chicken is so lenient that one only needs to let the chickens out into the open for about five minutes per day (or more precisely, "open the henhouse door for five minutes")However, in this short duration, it is highly unlikely that all chickens will step out; in fact, it has been observed that only a few will do so. Furthermore, this term (i.e., "free range") can be employed irrespective of the space one allows per chicken, time period spent outside, and the number of hens.

The Ethical Dilemma

Here, the ethical quandary boils down to upholding company integrity and that of one's product, in terms of how one exploits the word "free range." Clearly, one can very easily make one's company earn better revenues (Writer Thoughts). But this may be at the cost of one's products. As stated earlier, the label of "free range" can be employed irrespective of the space one allows per chicken, time period spent outside, and the number of hens, thus leaving ample opportunity for different ways of interpretation. It may end up leading one's organization into trouble; hence, the dilemma.


There is a strong link between organizational profits and marketing. A sound marketing plan can result in extensive brand growth, growth of customer base, and eventually, profits. For profit maximization, however, organizations are frequently seen straddling the boundary of ethically-correct marketing and unethical marketing. Some examples of debatable ethics in companies' marketing activities include broadcasting sexual advertisements for attracting customers to one's service or product offering, making use of violence for drawing consumers' attention to one's service or product, and targeting kids in advertisements (Miksen). In the scenario in question, the debatable issue is the marketing department's plan to attach the "free range" label to the company's processed chickens, when the term's definition appears not to be very ethical or accurate. One alternative would be: completely giving up this idea of tagging the "free range" label to one's offering, to ultimately maintain organizational integrity and escape ethical conflict.

Production activities linked to nearly all products have some or other environmental impact. Organizations bent on profit maximization may resort to ethically-incorrect environmental practices (like forest destruction, increasing pollution, and contamination of water supplies). Typically, it is relatively cheaper to harm our environment than to impact it positively. For instance, a small, fledgling enterprise might not have extra funds at hand and may find it far cheaper to continue its operations via a highly-polluting factory than to construct one that is safer or remodel the existing plant (Miksen). Such firms (particularly those situated in developed…… [read more]

Being Attentive to Others in Groups How to Succeed at Group Work Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (654 words)
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¶ … Group Polarization" and "What Everybody Knows" I discovered that failure in groups is extremely easy and common. But why is this? One would think that the more minds that are involved the better. Yet this is not always the case. Group work can actually have a more negative impact on a project than independent work can. One of the reasons for this is group polarization.

The idea of group polarization is fascinating and extremely relatable. Anyone who has worked in groups before knows this to be true. For example, one person in a group might share an idea that another in the group will be enthusiastic about, but two more persons might dismiss it out of hand. Suddenly, polarization is happening around this one idea and it can set a negative tone right away for the duration of the project, especially if bitterness and resentment set in on one side. One would like to avoid extremism in a group but in such cases it can be difficult to do and the risk of its happening is high once polarizing elements set in.

One way to prevent this from happening, however, is to move out of your comfort zone. Allow others to have a say and hold an opinion even if it contradicts with your own. This is part of what being in a group is all about: learning to respect the thoughts and ideas of others. This is how positivity can be maintained. On the other hand, risky behavior in a group is dangerous and imperils everyone in the group. If group members begin with some willingness to engage in risky behavior, groups will engage in more of that behavior as a result of group discussion. There is less variation when this occurs. Thus, it is important when in a group to be respectful and courteous but also to be mindful of avoiding risky behavior that could lead a group down the wrong path.

Another…… [read more]

Value Chains and Business Processes Assessment

Assessment  |  4 pages (1,345 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Business Processes

The concept of strategic alignment reflects the need of an organization to align its people and processes with its strategic objectives. A high degree of alignment means that resources and processes are oriented in the same direction, and that direction is consistent with what management feels is the best direction for the company. In essence, strategic alignment means that the entire organization is pulling in the same direction.

An example of strategic alignment would be the fourth element of business processes, which is process-based competition. In this, business processes are examined, and those that are weakest are changed to strengthen them, while the organization seeks to utilize its strengths to a greater degree (Deming Prize Application, 1998). Campbell, Kay and Avison (2005) note that all elements of the business should be aligned. They advocate aligning the information systems with the processes and with strategy. The logic behind this is that the organization must gather the right information to ensure that its processes are working effectively. This means understanding how the processes are affecting strategy so that if there is misalignment that the processes can be changed in response to the need for a new strategy.

One of the interesting dynamics with respect to strategic alignment is that, as Campbell et al. (2005) note, strategies that are developed at the highest levels of the organization are often undermined, or altered, at the lower levels. The reason for this that the processes by which the organization works at those levels has poor alignment with the overall strategy. It can be difficult to achieve this alignment. As Campbell notes, however, the closer that the CEO and CIO work, and the COO could be included in this discussion as well, the more likely it is that the systems that drive the organization can achieve a higher level of alignment. To do that, there need to be an understanding that permeates the organization with respect to what types of information, and decision-making processes, are needed in order to facilitate the organization's overall strategy. There will also need to be flexibility and willingness to implement changes to these processes, should they be found to have poor alignment.

2. The value chain is one of the main ways in which a business renders itself competitive (or uncompetitive, as the case may be). The value chain reflects the "all the activities a firm performs, and how they interact" ("Value Chain ... "). It consists of inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, marketing & sales, and service. Each of these has the potential to add value for the company, so if the company can distinguish itself from its competitors on these dimensions, then it will be more competitive.

The relationship between the competitive environment and the value chain flows two ways. First, the competitive environment influences the value chain by defining where value is added. For example, a company might start life with a competitive advantage, and gain market share by exploiting that. But if all competitors adopt… [read more]

Why Exxon Is Doomed in the 21St Century Case Study

Case Study  |  7 pages (1,843 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


SWOT and TOWS: Recommendations

Both SWOT and TOWS analyses are important tools for assessing a business's strategic matrix. The difference between the two is that the former places a focus and emphasis on internal factors (the strengths and weaknesses) while the latter emphasizes the external environment (the threats and opportunities).

For the best companies in the world, a strategic mission… [read more]

How Jack Welch Approaches Change Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  2 pages (534 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … John P. Kotter

In his book, Heart of Change (2012), John P. Kotter describes the fundamental challenges that are involved whenever changes are introduced into organizational settings. Although every organization is unique, Kotter maintains that they all go through essentially the same stages whenever a change initiative is introduced. Based on the results of interviews with about 400 people drawn from 130 organizations, Kotter provides some valuable insights concerning the constraints and obstacles that are typically encountered and what steps are required to achieve positive outcomes. This paper provides a review of the first two steps proposed by Kotter to this end, followed by a discussion concerning the major issues that are involved in organizational change.

Step No.

In his introduction to Heart of Change, Kotter makes it clear that change is inevitable in any organizational setting, but poorly managed changes can wreak havoc with an organization's performance and productivity. In sum, the larger the organization, the more pronounced the challenges are when it comes to changes. For instance, Kotter emphasizes that, "This is especially so in large -scale organizational change, where you are dealing with new technologies, mergers and acquisitions, restructurings, new strategies, cultural transformation, globalization, and e-business" (p. 1). In this section, Kotter also makes the point that all organizational changes occur in eight discrete steps, with the first step requiring a change in organizational culture that embraces the need for change and creates a "sense of urgency" among the stakeholders. The second step of the change process is described below.

Step No. 2

The second step in the change process involves creating…… [read more]

Exercises for Conflict Resolution in Teams Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (780 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … business for working in teams is taken as a given. Most significant tasks in a corporate environment in 2016 cannot be accomplished singlehandedly, and thus the ability of co-workers to be able to cooperate, collaborate, and combine efforts in the name of teamwork is paramount for successful endeavor. However, the prospect of working in teams immediately raises the prospect of conflict. Nicholas and Steyn (2012) in their guidebook for project management are straightforward in noting that "conflict is inevitable in organizations and, properly managed, beneficial" (544). The difficulty for most people in business today is their instinct to deny both of these facts. It is all too frequently pretended that conflict is problematic and should be avoided, or is a sign of failure: understanding that conflict is both ineluctable and, from the overall standpoint of a team, healthy is the best first step toward understanding how to handle the issue of conflict. Nicholas and Steyn (2012) go on to identify some of the most common causes, and observe that "the primary sources of conflict in projects are schedules, costs, priorities, manpower levels, technical opinions, administrative issues, and interpersonal conflicts, which vary in relative importance depending on the stages of the project life cycle" (544). This is a solid and comprehensive preliminary list of the most common sources of conflict, although it is worth noting that these indiviual categories could be explored in depth. For example, anyone who has ever had a job and worked alongside other people can identify any number of different ways in which "interpersonal conflicts" can arise in a team -- these can range from differing workstyles, to differences in race, religion, ethnicity, or sexuality. It is also worth noting that in many of these cases, there can be a mixed source of conflict. A difference in "technical opinions" -- to use one of these examples -- can very easily be exacerbated by an interpersonal conflict between those who hold the different technical opinion.

In terms of how conflict should be handled, let us take this particular example -- a difference in technical opinions -- as a case study to ask how a team could overcome such a conflict. Let us assume that teamwork has broken down because of difference in technical opinions: half of the team believes that one technological solution is the appropriate…… [read more]

How to Develop a Business Plan for a Car Wash Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (601 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Business Project

Organizational Definition

Company Name: Selfie's Car Wash

Type of Business: Self/Hand Car Wash Company

Mission Statement: The purpose of this organization is to provide a facility with all the necessary tools for a customer to clean his or her car by himself, using hoses, water, air blowers, vacuums, and soap provided through coin or credit card dispensaries. This allows customers to pull into a stall, clean their car quickly, and leave for a relatively cheap price, all day and all night.

To meet the needs of customers seeking a cheap and fast alternative to some of the more time-consuming and costly car wash facilities that oblige customers to sit and wait while employees wash their car.


Dispensaries must be furnished with adequate levels of soap and electricity at all times, day or night, and thus must be stocked and continually checked by a trained worker within specific time-frames determined by expected volume of customers.

Generators must be installed to provide back-up power to facilities should it be required; these should also be regularly maintenance and checked

3. The facility must be designed in order to provide easy access to individual stalls where drivers can pull right in and quickly exit their car for the dispensaries

4. Dispensaries should be at every stall slot and brightly labeled for quick identification day and night

5. The stalls should be adequately lit so that customers can see where they are and who is around

6. Directions should be clearly posted instructing customers not familiar with the car wash on how its equipment is operated

Goal 2: Customer satisfaction, day and night


1. A staffer should be on hand 24/7 in order to support the facility should something malfunction or a customer need assistance. Facilities are designed to be self-sufficient…… [read more]

How to Promote Your Own Brand Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  2 pages (602 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Sell Myself

Three personal strengths that I possess are being thoughtful, outgoing and responsible and I selected these because they are at the core of my overall purpose in my professional life: I aim to be considerate, perceptive and engaging while delivering quality results and meeting the objectives with which I am tasked as a leader. Three areas that could use improvement in my estimation are my capacity to balance work and family life, time-blocking, and networking: because I am already very busy and devoted to my work, I sometimes lose sight of familial obligations due to inadequate time-blocking, which also keeps me from networking as I would like.

An article that relates to how I could "sell myself" is entitled "Networking as an American Sport Psychology Doctoral Student: Creating and Marketing Your Personal Brand" by Scott Barnicle and Damon Burton (2013). While sports psychology is not my field, this article does offer some helpful tips on how to sell yourself in the professional field of my choice. Coupled with my own self-analysis, the article provides a framework that allows me to formulate 5 strategies that will maximize my preparedness in presenting my professional self.

The first strategy is to be aware of my personal brand. This allows me to think objectively of myself, not as being proud or boastful but as a marketer might view a product: what does this offer? How can we best present it? For myself, I know that the best qualities I offer are my sense of perception, ability to organize, and bring people together in unison. Thus, I can market myself as an organizer and concentrate on branding myself to people who appreciate organization. Part of this strategy consists of getting involved with groups that are looking for organizers. This can be non-profit, volunteer, or…… [read more]

Analyzing the Deontological Theories Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (797 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Deontological Theories

Ethical perspectives

Ethical principles and theories are the basis of ethical analysis because such perspective guides the seeker along the path to decision. Each theory lays emphasis on different points like predicting the result and following one's duties to other people to reach an ethically correct decision. Nevertheless, for an ethical theory to become useful, the theory should focus on a common set of goals (Rainbow, 2002).

According to the deontological theory, people should conform to their duties and obligations when it comes to evaluations and ethical dilemma. This shows that a person should follow his/her duties to other people or society because maintaining one's duty is considered ethically correct (Ridley, 1998). A person who goes with this theory will generate very consistent decisions since they are based on the set of duties of the individual. Deontology provides the foundation for special obligations and duties to certain people, such as, to one's family members. Although there are several positive attributes to the deontology, it equally contains its fair share of flaws. One weakness of this theory is the lack of rationale or logical basis for deciding the duties of an individual.

Deontology and Kant's Categorical Imperative

The main theories in deontology are regarding morality and conscience. On one hand, there is their longer-lasting manifestation, mostly referred to as "general deontics, Christianized conscience or deontic reasons" and on the other hand, inconsistent manifestation known as "contingent deontics, aspirational reasons or contingent deontics" (Vorster, 2013).

Kant's Categorical Imperative

According to Kant, his own version of duty-based ethics was based on what he called the categorical imperative which he hoped would be the basis of all other rules (one rule that is true in all circumstances is a categorical imperative).

Moral rules must be universalisable

The first rule lays emphasis on the need for the universalibility of moral rules. This implies that you should always behave in such a way that you would want it to become a general rule for everyone to follow when faced with the similar circumstances.

Moral rules must respect human beings

Kant believed that every human being ought to be treated as a free or equal member of a shared moral community, and this is reflected by the second version of the categorical imperatives by laying emphasis on the importance of treating people fairly. It acknowledges the importance of intention in morality in equal…… [read more]

Personality Tests and Choosing the Right Career Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  2 pages (658 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


SIGI and Myers-Briggs: Reflections

The SIGI inventory revealed that I would like a career in a leadership position, because I like to direct and be responsible for what is going on. But it also revealed that I like to help others and be creative in devising solutions to problems. For this reason a career in coordinating management is appealing and there are various business classes that I could take that will allow me to work towards the appropriate degree for this. I thought the SIGI inventory was very helpful in allowing me to apply answers to questions in a practical way centered around choosing a professional path. My values and interests in work correlate with the duties required of a coordinating manager and this is something SIGI helps me to realize as I narrow down my choices. Another good part of this was that it helps me to plan for my goals and how to build up contacts so that my network can grow and develop. I already feel ahead of the game after having participated in this inventory.

Likewise, the Myers-Briggs assessment helped me to better understand myself and my own personality according to type and to see how that would also apply and fit in with the career choice that I am now focusing on. According to the Meyers-Briggs Test I am an ESTP -- Extraversion, Sensing, Thinking, Perception. This means I am extraverted in that I am outgoing and enjoy being part of the overall discourse and involving myself in interactions with people. I am sensitive in that I listen and can hear what people are saying. I have something called Emotional Intelligence (EI) which allows me to be sensing of people's emotions and how to relate to them in a better and more effective way. Good EI skills are very helpful in management roles. I am thinking in that I know how to apply myself to problems to find solutions, which is very good for…… [read more]

Analysing the Business Strategies Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (807 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Business Strategies: FORD COMPANY

Ensuring the HR Strategy Is In Alignment With The Business Strategy

To appropriately align HR with a company's strategy, it initially requires to be organized in order for it to play a role in the strategic planning of the organization. It is imperative to note that principally, human capital influences all other departments of the company. To make the most of this advantage, the company needs to espouse a new viewpoint of HR. The proposed way in which I would ensure the HR strategy is in alignment with the business strategy is by measuring human resources from the analysis of cost and benefits. HR needs to measure is its influence on organizational strategy and its determinations to form plans to have an enhanced management of the improvement of the company's human capital. Therefore, HR will have to measure the company's proficiencies, headship, culture, placement, and knowledge. This offers a context for labeling the drivers of the company's strategy. When gauging its value added to the company, HR ought to consider these strategic drivers as their directives. In every metric, HR will be responsible for the company's promptness for each constituent and element of the strategy (Frangos, 2002).

HR job positions and the responsibilities

The HR job positions listed for the HR department include Human Resource Associate, Human Resource Generalist, and Safety Engineer. The Safety Engineer has the responsibility of consulting and advising the personnel included in programs regarding technical as well as non-technical safety matters. In addition, this person is responsible for promoting corporate and internal safety. On the other hand, the HR generalist has the responsibility of delivering HR products and services as well as providing members of staff involved in planning with direction towards organizational development. He or she is also responsible for nurturing an effective work setting. With regard to the HR associate, the position is to sustain constructive relations between the management and union. He or she is also liable for all aspects that concern the administration of employees in all aspects at all times (Ford Company, 2016).

Preferred HR positions

The jobs I would prefer are the HR Associate and HR Generalist. This is because my skills and capabilities are aligned with the requirements that those positions demand. More so, I will be able to interact and manage the employees of a company, which is what I set to do.

HRM strategies to improve…… [read more]

Leader Member Leadership and Transformational Management Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (619 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


LMX questionnaire may be helpful in improving leadership by showing how strong relationships are between leaders and followers. The questionnaire aims to open the eyes of the participant by asking questions about whether or not he or she is on the same page, so to speak, with followers or leaders, as may be the case. The questions range from such things as how well your follower/leader recognizes your potential to how helpful your leader/follower is in helping you solve problems. Essentially the questionnaire helps to gauge the authenticity of your relationship with followers and leaders. By showing the results, it can highlight strengths and weaknesses. My results, for example, showed that I have a high or strong relationship with both followers and leaders. I view this as being the result of my strong desire to cultivate clear and honest relationships with people.

I view the leader-member exchange theory as being very useful in the establishment of good, two-way relationships between superiors and inferiors or leaders and followers. Channels have to be open and for organizations to work, there has to be a two-way flow so that both sides of the structure (above and below) can communicate effectively and help each other achieve a common goal. The exchange helps boost morale all the way around and is thus very positive.

I have never been part of the "out" group but I have known others who were. I helped them move to the "in" group by accepting them on their own terms and setting a good example in this way to others so that no one felt any need to view him as different. As people in the "in" group saw that I accepted him, they were more inclined to go along with accepting him too and eventually he was organically adopted into the "in" group.

2. Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire.

The…… [read more]

Analyzing Meta Analysis Research Methodology Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (713 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Meta-Analysis Research Methodology

Draw insights from the Reading as you prepare to identify and evaluate key aspects of meta-analysis as a research methodology. What are the strengths of this research methodology and what are some limitations? What does it mean to apply an iterative approach to advance a research project?

One advantage of a meta-analytic research design is its ability to incorporate and blend present empirical studies on a specific subject matter. Another strong suit for this approach takes into account that it is an analysis of analysis. Meta-analysis not only adds up outcomes from specific studies, but can also be employed to test intricate theories encompassing several variables. One other advantage of utilizing meta-analysis is its propensity to provide guiding principles for variable collection and research design in future research. In addition, meta-analysis as an approach is advantageous in the sense that it is a method that emanates from its role in the incessant modification and development of the prevailing theory (Swanson and Holton, 2005).

One disadvantage of this approach is personal bias in deciding on and comprising prevailing studies in the analysis. Another disadvantage of meta-analysis emanates from the pronounced dissimilarity of prevailing studies. A number of research studies have censured the run through of meta-analysis for involving good and bad studies. Thirdly, the drawback of meta-analysis is its dependence on individual influences on a number of forecasters on a dependent variable. Meta-analysis methodically evaluates only individual relations between dependent and independent variables and cannot deliver a comprehensive representation. Meta-analysis researchers are not able to operationalize new hypothetical notions past the variables and study aspects that have not been encompassed in prevailing researches (Swanson and Holton, 2005).

The inference of applying an iterative approach for the advancement of a research project is to instigate changes and modifications to the research project. This practice is designed at the end of the day to enhance the quality as well as the functionality of the research project. The other application of this iterative technique is that it ensures the evolving of a research project and ascertaining that the successful and effecting versions of the research project is…… [read more]

Analyzing the Benefits of a Partner Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,026 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Partner Benefits


One of the major aspects that are largely analyzed in the contemporary job market is that of partner benefits. In particular, partner benefits are increasingly matters taken into consideration by personnel when looking for employment opportunities and also at the time of signing contracts. In the present day, more and more light is being shed on the benefits handed to the employee's partners. More so, this has grown to be not only a determining factor for success, but also one that indicates equality and impartiality of the company. The purpose of this paper is to undertake an analysis of two companies, Proctor and Gamble and Walmart, which are listed in the Fortune 500, with respect to the manner in which these institutions provide benefits to employee's partners.

How do the requirements for coverage for domestic partners, such as length of the relationship compare with requirements for benefits of married couples?

To start with, Proctor & Gamble and Walmart Corporation are companies that offer partner benefits to its workforce and make certain that there is equivalence and fairness in this dissemination. With respect to these two corporations, a very clear distinction is outlined as regards the dissemination of benefits to domestic partners in addition to married couples. Taking into consideration the married couples, once an employee is legally married, this sort of information is presented to the corporation. This is with the purpose of ensuring that their respective partners or spouses attain benefits, as the marriage is legally and officially acknowledged by the state. On the other hand, it is imperative to point out that this aspect is dissimilar as regards domestic partners. For Procter & Gamble together with Walmart, personnel who are involved in a same-sex domestic relationship or an opposite-sex domestic relationship have to go through a different procedure. In particular, these personnel have to pen a sworn statement or official declaration designating that they have been in an exclusive and ongoing relationship with such partner for at least the recent one year and plan on continuing being in such relationship (Sammer and Miller, 2013).

Do companies usually require a waiting period after dissolution of a marriage (divorce) before a new spouse can become eligible for benefits?

Walmart Corporation and Proctor & Gamble do necessitate a particular period of waiting subsequent to the dissolution of a marriage or the cessation of a domestic partnership prior to the companies considering new spouses to be eligible for any kind of partner benefits (Bell, 2012). To start with, for both of these two companies, in the event of the cessation of a domestic partnership, the personnel have to straightaway give such notice to the companies within a one-month period. In addition, the domestic partner of the terminated relationship, together with his or her dependents, have to be removed from the company's partner benefit plans (Bell, 2012). This process is applicable to a marriage that has just been dissolved. However, the distinguishing factor is that the removal of the partner… [read more]

Improving Organizational Communication at My Workplace Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (956 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Organizational Management:

Communication in the Workplace

Communication is an essential component of "maintaining and sustaining relationships" (McCroskey & McCroskey, 2005, p. 16). This includes not only verbal but also nonverbal communication. But within complex organizations, communication does not happen organically without a great deal of work. Appropriate structures must also be set up so communication takes place in an effective fashion. Even if a department is functional as an enclosed entity, it must still be able to relate effectively to other units that may be managed differently. The whole is always greater than the sum of its parts, particularly in the case of a professional organization.

At my current organization, employees have reporting obligations to two lead departments that frequently issue competing instructions and subordinates become involved in a power struggle between these units and their managers. The essential components of the communication process are that there must be a source, message, channel, and receiver (McCroskey & McCroskey 2005, p. 21). When any of these are unclear or there is interference, conflicts inevitably arise. This lack of attention to the details of the communication process also can be seen reflected in communication between different team members and rather than addressing organizational goals there is wasted time and wasted emotional energy in determining who is in charge or particular aspects of a project. "Individuals within the same unit, team, or department tend to influence one another ... creating their own ... views about the tasks to be done" (Gelfand, Leslie, Keller & Drew, 2013, p. 1131). When these views are in conflict with other aspects of the organization, there will inevitably be losses in productivity.

Communication can take place in several ways in all organizations: there is "downward communication, upward communication, horizontal communication, and diagonal communication" (Spaho 2013 103). Downward communication involves leaders communicating with employees. At my organization, frequently this results in a mixed message to subordinates, sometimes with something as simple as the deadline for a particular project or who should be the primary leader of a team. Employees must take the time to clarify this (upward communication), resulting in an unnecessary delay and uncomfortable feelings between the two managers issuing the conflicting directives. Or, in some instances, employees may be loath to bring to light such issues at all for fear of being blamed which in the long-run results in even more communication snafus. "One of the major functions of the communication process in an organization is effective coordination," which "must be complete, accurate, and timely. When decisions are made, they must be transmitted to all concerned groups within the organization" ("Communication within the organization," 2015).

The critical weak link in the chain is clearly the horizontal communication process, i.e., communication between individuals of the same levels in different departments. Subordinates have no ultimate authority to take control and to issue directives to provide clarity, they…… [read more]

Auto Manufacturing Issues Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (627 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Suzuki and Volkswagen's Sundering

There were several different factors that played a prominent role in the alliance between Suzuki and Volkswagen. The economic climate at the time (at the end of the last decade), was particularly daunting to Western automakers. The recession (which affected Western countries more than non-western ones) had resulted in decreased automotive sales. Thus, auto manufacturers were partnering with one another to reduce the negative effects of the economy while bolstering their presence. Specifically, Volkswagen was looking to utilize Suzuki's experience and technologies in the small car market. Suzuki, meanwhile, was looking to benefit from these same attributes that Volkswagen had for the market for larger cars. Volkswagen also wanted a share of Suzuki's burgeoning presence in the Asian and South Asian markets.

Culture factors considerably into transcontinental and trans-border alliances. The principal way that it does so is because it affects the values and mores for how companies do business. When doing such business within a place where there is more or less a homogenized culture, these norms and values do not factor as prominently as they do when there is a heterogeneous business environment. In the latter, there is always the possibility that those two cultures are not synonymous on the myriad points and intricacies of doing business, and that perceptions and interpretations of basic aspects of communication can be easily misconstrued. A close examination of some of the reasons for the sundering of Suzuki's partnership with Volkswagen helps to underscore this statement, and the overall value of culture in transnational alliances.

2.One of the primary reasons for the sundering of the partnership between Suzuki and Volkswagen was the incongruent cultures that were briefly shared between the two companies. Specifically, these entities had to deal with respective national cultures as well as company cultures. The most tangible demonstration of this cultural difference was that Volkswagen wanted to make…… [read more]

Gym Start Up Budget Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  2 pages (475 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



One of the key elements in zero-based budgeting is that for each period, all line items are built from scratch. This means that each item needs to be justified for each period, which differs from the incremental approach that starts with the prior budget and then makes adjustments to it. In this situation, with a new facility, the starting point is zero anyway.

This budget will be for a 24/7 fitness/wellness center. The items in the budget will largely be based on how much stuff goes into the center in terms of its facilities. Programs will determine staffing levels. Other managerial policies will also need to be in place in order to complete the budget. For example, there will need to be at least one staff member on at all times, for liability purposes as much as anything else, and to assist if somebody does hurt themselves. During busier times, staffing levels will be much higher. The other thing is some parts the facility will only be open at certain hours. The gym will be open 24/7, but there is no strategic reason why full spa services would be offered overnight.

The costs will be broken down into the following categories: weights, cardio, overhead, fixtures and spa. A note on the wages -- 6 FTEs reflects two staff during the busy stretches, one staff overnight and two part-timers that work in the morning or evening rushes.…… [read more]

TQM Concept in Ford Motors Company Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,452 words)
Bibliography Sources: 11


Ford Motor Company Implementing TQM

Ford Motor Company: Implementing Total Quality Management / TQM Concept in Ford Motors Company

Goals for Ford Motor Company

Implementation of TQM Principles


Gaining "buy-in" by the employees

Leadership/Employee Involvement in Implementation of TQM

Goals Met

Henry Ford founded the Ford Motor Company in Detroit Michigan over a hundred years ago in 1903. With… [read more]

Peru and Chile Present Fisheries Structure Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,276 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Peru/Chile Current System

The Peru/Chile Current Characteristics

The Peru/Chile current forms part of the South-Eastern Pacific's system of currents. There are several currents that makeup this system. The northward flowing currents are the Peru oceanic current and the Peru coastal currents. The counter currents in the system, which move southwards, are the Peru counter current and the Peru/Chile under currents (Peru Current, n.d). The Peru Coastal Current and the Peru/Chile Current are the two currents that compose the South Equatorial Currents.

The Currents Speed and Direction

This current mostly referred to as the Humboldt Current is very wide, measuring approximately 900 kilometres. Its speeds are relatively slow at 20cm/s. The waters of the current range between 15° and 20°C as they move to the equator from the West Wind Drift. It is considered to be a shallow current because, at any one time, it only transports 20,000,000 cu m or less of water per second (Peru Current, n.d).

Volume Transport

According to Seeliger and Kjerfve, (2001), the water current transport volumes are about 20 * 106 m3 s-1. They put the surface water temperatures at 11 degrees and higher, but not more than seventeen degrees. This is characteristic of the eastern boundary current, which flows northward and is quite cold.

The Current's Breadth and Narrowness

According to The Editors of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, (2015), the width of the Peru/Chile current is 550 miles (900 kilometres).

The Current's Shallowness and Depth

Typical of a low speed and shallow current, the Humboldt transports only up to 700,000,000 cu ft. of water per second (The Editors of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2015). Five water masses experience the Humboldt Current System located 200 nautical miles from the shore of Northern Chile (18.5-30S). These water masses include: the Subtropical Water Mass, the Superficial Sub-Antarctic Water, the Equatorial Subsurface Water, the Antarctic Intermediate Water and the Pacific Deep Water Mass. The Subtropical Water Mass approaches the coast of Northern Chile and Southern Peru at depths of between zero to fifty metres. It is warm, salty and superficial. The Superficial Sub-Antarctic Water can reach depths of 25-40m and go up to 40-80 metres. The range of the depth of the Subsurface Equatorial Water is 100-300m and 300-350metres. The last two water masses reach depths of greater than 500m, sometimes ranging between 710-750 metres on this coast (N.A, 2012).

Other Special Features:

Impact on Fisheries

One of the world's most productive fishing zones lies in the Humboldt Current System. It has a thriving marine ecosystem, which accounts for at least a fifth of the world's caught fish. The fish in this area are attracted by the nutrients brought to the surface by the coastal upwelling. This causes the area to be highly productive. Thus, as a result of this coastal upwelling, phytoplankton can be found in plenty and from them the fish that they support (N.A, 2012).

There are a large number of species that are present here due to the Humboldt Current Large Marine Ecosystem (HCLME), and these… [read more]

Conducting Measurement and Dealing With Ethical Issues in Research Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (719 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Measurement Scale)

This research involves the use of several questions that were developed as part of a questionnaire to help the department meet the significant needs of employees when considering hiring a new office manager. Since these questions are used to evaluate a concept relating to necessary characteristics for the potential candidate, using an appropriate measurement scale for each question is crucial towards enhancing reliability and validity of findings. While each question is an indicator of the concept, the question alone is not an adequate measure of the concept, which demonstrates the need for a more complete measure of the concept (Engel & Schutt, 2013, p.85).

The first question in the survey will be measured through the use of an ordinal scale, which helps in ranking data from the lowest to the highest (Garger, 2010). The second question in the survey will be evaluated using a nominal measurement scale since it requires a Yes/No answer. Generally, the nominal measurement scale in research is the lowest measurement level that involves classifying data into categories without any structure or order (Markham, n.d.). The ordinal measurement scale will be utilized in assessing questions 3, 5, 6, 8, and 9 because these questions involve ranking of data. Questions 4, 7 and 10 will be assessed using ratio measurement scale, which comprises the richest information unlike the other measurement scales. The nature of these questions requires provision of rich information relating to the concept, which can be achieved through ratio measurement scale.

In addition to using a measurement scale for each question, the researcher will also use a summated scale score for the sum or average of all scores in the survey. A summated scale score is appropriate in the study because every question will yield a numerical score, which will then be combined with the other items to demonstrate the relevance of the study to the concept being examined. In essence, the use of a summated scale score is crucial towards providing insights regarding the necessary characteristics of an officer manager based on the employees' perspectives and views.

The summated scale score is also crucial towards measuring reliability, validity, and sensitivity.…… [read more]

H&m Competitive Advantages Strategy Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,462 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


H&M Competitive Advantage

H&M has a number of resources that allow it to excel in the fast fashion business. The fast fashion industry requires that a company has the capability to design and produce fashions very quickly, and sell high volumes of those fashions at low margins. H&M's business model specifically is to sell at relatively low prices, which in… [read more]

Exxonmobil Stakeholders and Its Analysis Journal

Journal  |  2 pages (1,063 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



How does ExxonMobil Chemicals involve its stakeholders in decisions?

Discussions with communities in the initial stages of a project permits ExxonMobil to recognize opportunities as well as concerns and develop efficient measures of management in the planning stage of the project. By striving to evade or lessen as much issues as possible at the start, the company is able to prevent project interruptions, delays, minimize expenditures, and also avoid the growth of issues.

The community awareness programs and government relations are controlled by ExxonMobil's Best Practices in External Affairs (BPEA). Guaranteeing mutual understanding, respect as well as trust in the firm's stakeholder relationships, imply that interested parties are represented as contracts are developed. It also assists the company to create useful relationships with the stakeholders that can offer significant contribution into the decision-making procedure, over the long-term. Once a project begins, ExxonMobil offers local people and groups, a communication channel for airing and resolving issues without fear of vengeance.

In 2012, the firm approved and put into practice an Upstream Socioeconomic Management Standard for Projects. This particular Standard is structured to assist ExxonMobil recognize possible socioeconomic concerns and threats early in the Upstream project life cycle to create and apply suitable prevention and avoidance, control, alleviation, compensation, and supervising measures. The Standard also states various expectations, which are meant to be applied, founded on the identification of significant socioeconomic threats, such as indigenous individuals, openness and corruption, economic growth, and human rights, among others (Business & Human Rights Resource Centre, 2015).

What has been your experience?

Being a member of one of the communities that are affected by the activities of ExxonMobil, I have experienced several engagements with the company. Firstly, the company has accommodated members of my community with consideration of the varied dialects. Accommodation of different dialects has ensured that not only the company's communication to the community is effective, but also that of the representation of all community members. We have also been attending, among others, community forums, school meetings and road shows that ExxonMobil organizes to communicate to us. Through these engagements, we have learned the main messages the company communicates, such as safety and environmental conservation (ExxonMobil Corporation, 2014, p. 55).

Additionally, many members of my community successfully resettled through the settlement program that ExxonMobil undertakes. These households receive adequate company's monitoring that ensures that their standards of living are restored. One of the strategies that the company has placed to implement the livelihood restoration of the resettled families is by using local workforce. Training programs that the company has established help the newly employed people of my community to develop their technical as well as professional skills (ExxonMobil Corporation, 2014, p. 56).

ExxonMobil's benefit programs are an essential segment of a total remuneration package meant to support its long-term business aims, in addition to luring, maintaining, and also rewarding the most qualified workers. Guaranteeing access to reasonably priced health care assists workers manage health care concerns and minimize financial worries. The levels of… [read more]

Tesla Motors Competitive Advantages Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (711 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Tesla Motors is an automaker based in California. Tesla operates internationally, producing in the U.S. and then selling in several countries overseas. They are a publicly-traded company. Tesla is an open company, and they make frequent announcements concerning their business. The pace of development at the company is constant, but it only produces a small handful of products. Its approach is competitive.

Tesla produces its cars to order. There is a relatively high degree of customization available on Tesla vehicles. Thus, there is base vehicle -- a frame on which a couple of different models are produced -- and then the company offers customization on a number of other, more superficial elements. The car is ordered by the customer and then produced to spec by Tesla.

The order qualifiers for Tesla are to produce a vehicle that has a high degree of reliability and functionality -- it must run like other cars in its class. For the most part, Tesla's performance on order qualifiers is reasonable, though unexceptional. Tesla's luxury features would also be considered order qualifiers, because it competes in the luxury car business where these features are considered to be standard. Where Tesla excels is with the order winners, which are those attributes that give the company a genuine competitive advantage that would attract customers (Spring, 2015). The order winners for Tesla include having superior battery power to other electric cars, thus delivering greater distance between charges, and having a superior brand. The battery is the essence of what Tesla does better than anybody else, and for the time being appears to be a source of sustainable competitive advantage, though theoretically at some point the company could be leapfrogged. The brand is another competitive advantage -- as with any luxury product the more people want to be associated with the brand, the better the company will perform.

Tesla's business is rooted in sustainability, at least as far as energy is concerned. The company is specifically positioned with the need to reduce fossil fuel consumption in mind, as its core technology of batteries is a post fossil-fuel technology. This is not to say that…… [read more]

Literature Review Millennials and Food Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,158 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Business Research

The topic I am studying is the views of millennial towards food consumption. This general subject covers a number of issues that are relevant for companies in the food industry. Millennials are a large demographic whose consumption levels are starting to reshape industries, in particular when those consumption levels and patterns are different from those of other generations. While each new generation has its own set of values, the millennial generation is distinctly different from previous generations in a number of important ways. Probably the biggest for business is that they were raised in an Internet society, and thus are technology natives in a way that other generations can never be. There are many impacts of this, ranging from how they trust online transactions to the ways that they gather and process information. Social media is an increasingly important means by which this generation acquires information, something that can challenge businesses that are accustomed to controlling the dialogue with consumers about their products. With the food industry, this means that millennials have a much higher awareness about issues such as GMOs, and they appear to have lower levels of interest in things like fast food, and much higher levels of interest in ethnic foods, such that foods that were once obscure are now well into the mainstream in many areas (pho, for example). The following literature review will provide some background for this topic.

The current status of the literature on the topic is quite poor. For some reason, this area is unstudied, and that presents some obvious challenges. The literature that is available tends to be either background information, or tangential. So there is room to make some reasonable inferences, but this is a relatively untouched area of research. That is great for a first, exploratory study, but not much value for a study like this one that would benefit greatly from having an established body of literature from which to draw. So it is almost a matter of conducting some preliminary research and determining whether or not this is something on which research can reasonably proceed -- in this case, it might not be.

Prensky, M. (2009). H. sapiens digital: From digital immigrants to digital natives to digital wisdom. Innovate. Vol. 5 (3) 1-9.

In this article, the author outlines the underlying theories of digital nativity and what this means for society. His work is primarily sociological in nature, but that is of keen interest to marketers seeking to understand a certain demographic. The digital native is, the author posits, an advancement over the digital immigrant, in that these people are vastly superior in their familiarity, comfort and intimate knowledge of technology. Technology is an integral part of their lives. This is a difference from earlier generations. The author then looks into the future with his theory of digital wisdom, wherein he outlines how digital nativity will change the way that people think, and what that might mean for this generation and beyond. The author predicts… [read more]

Busines Research Mcdonalds Revenue Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (1,008 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Symptoms

The business decision situation is how to turn around McDonalds' sales in North America. The company's sales overall declined in 2014, but have generally flatlined for the past four years. One of the major problems is that sales in the key North American market have been declining. In 2014, U.S. sales were down 2.1%, and the number of guests declined 4.1% (2014 McDonalds Annual Report). As a result of this, net income is dropping, and in 2014 the net income was the lowest that it has been since 2009. So there are two symptoms here, declining revenues and declining profits. While they are related, there is a significant difference between the two -- expenses.

The current situation is arising for a number of reasons. First, changing consumer tastes are leading more people to healthier eating. While the company has added a number of healthier items to its menus in recent years, these have not necessarily spurred sales growth. Consumers still associated McDonalds, and the entire fast food category in general, with unhealthy eating that leads to obesity and other negative health outcomes (Stender, Dyerberg & Astrup, 2007). Demographic changes are also contributing to this. While baby boomers were avid consumers of fast food, there is some evidence that millennials are less so. Boomers, now that they are entering their senior years, are cutting back on habits perceived as unhealthy, and this slack is not being picked up by a millennial generation. Part of this is simply that the millennial generation has a greater concern about GMOs and other food issues; they are more aware and that makes them less likely to eat fast food. Further, millennials are more influenced by social media, something that has not served the fast food industry particularly well (Guidry et al., 2014).

What this means for the company is that it faces some significant changes to the external operating environment, in particular the social dimension, that are challenging it. With its market mature in North America, more challenging conditions are starting to cost the company sales and profits. Growth overseas has not been sufficient to pick up the slack, either -- McDonalds was an early mover overseas and many international markets are also mature. The company has attempted in the past to change its image, and has more or less failed to do so, meaning that it is to an extent trapped in its image.

There are other challenges looming, largely in the political and technological environments. The fast food business model is built around the idea of selling low cost food and low prices; it is important to maintain price leadership in this industry. McDonalds has been able to combine price leadership obtained through its superior bargaining power with the ability to earn respectable margins on the basis of its brand recognition and loyalty. As the latter erode, competitors are also finding ways to outperform McDonalds on the value-for-money scale. Some governments are pressuring for higher minimum wages, which puts a… [read more]

Personal Thoughts on Balenciaga and His Style Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (891 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Globalization continues to matriculate, ever so slightly, into the world economy. Its reach knows no bounds. Globalization has created a much better quality of life for millions of individuals around the world. Products, goods, and services that were once constrained by geographic boundaries now infiltrate even the most guarded societies. Clothing, and in particular Global Fashion, is no different in this regard. Many clothing lines have expanding overseas and have grown their product assortments.

Although fashion has succumbed in many circumstances to globalization, there still remains a large subset of designers who represent their respective countries of origin. In fact, many consumers think of fashion within the confines of cities or countries of origin. According to Breward and Gilbert "designers and their clients- do think of fashion in terms of specific city cultures and traditions (1)." We see this concept manifest itself in a litany of avenues.

One designer in particular that has abated the influence of globalization on his design process is that of Balenciaga. His style is very distinctive and representative of his personal influence. Due in part to this unique style and though process Balenciaga's work stood out to me. According to Breward and Gilbert, "...designers must stress the important of making objects accessible in a manner that in interpretative as well as informative." Balenciaga did just that in much of his work, particularly post World War 2.

Born in Spain in 1895, Balenciaga was a Spanish fashion designer who created one of the most well recognized fashion houses in the world. Already well-known in Spain before he moved in 1937 to Paris, he quickly established a reputation for understated, refined tailoring, counterbalanced by elaborately decorative evening gowns. He made a reputation for his very high standards of quality. Many experts remark as his excessive emphasis on perfection and quality. In fact, Balenciaga was one of the few fashion designers who could actually use his own hands to design, cut, and sew the models he used. He is most recognized for his work in the post-world war era of fashion. In particular, he gained a reputation for discreet day wear and for dramatic evening designs. For example, he reinvented the silhouette by broadening the shoulders and removing the waist. He created high waist dresses and the tunic dress which both became staples in the industry.

The object that stood out for me in the exhibit was the dress and sash made by Balenciaga in 1959. The cocktail silk satin dress has clean lines, a boat neckline and full skirt. The fabric is a chartreus green embellished with large and small black flowers, which make it one of a kind. The green background…… [read more]

Mexico and Its Trade Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (670 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Developing Nations and Mexico

Although there are certainly other nations that are more characteristic of the term 'developing nation' than Mexico is, very few people would state that Mexico is a 'first world' country. To the contrary, Mexico still must ward off perceptions that it is a part of the proverbial 'third world' or, at best, the second world. Thus, it is interesting to examine the characteristics of Mexico's trade as a developing nation. By far, Mexico's most valuable resource is its cheap labor pool. There are a number of unskilled workers in Mexico that are willing to work for exceedingly low wages -- which still has to be considered part of its potential for trade since these workers are in several manufacturing positions, due to the dearth of trade barriers imposed by NAFTA. Due to NAFTA, Mexico has a number of imports from the United States and from Canada. More importantly, this trade agreement enables both (particularly the U.S.) to utilize Mexico's cheap labor pool for their own manufacturing purposes, which is a form of importing and establishing foreign funding for Mexico. In return, Mexico is able to export goods related to aerospace and textiles/clothing, although the former is greatly helped by Canadian investments (Lanthemann, 2014).

Trade problems in Mexico pertain to its labor pool, which also functions as the source of its trade boons. However, because of the huge income disparity in this country and its great pool of cheap labor, Mexico has a dearth of skilled laborers which can fuel its own high tech industries related to exportation (Lanthemann, 2014). Additionally, crime is another barrier to Mexico's trade potential. It is not infrequent for female laborers to endure harassment, rape, and murder while simply working for low wages in manufacturing jobs due to NAFTA (Gutierrez, 2011). Moreover, there is significant organized crime in the way of lucrative and deadly drug cartels which impacts the quality of both life and business in this country.

The most notable growth strategy for Mexico pertains to…… [read more]

Analysis of Exxonmobil Chemical and Xom Journal

Journal  |  2 pages (1,163 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Exxon Mobil -- Organizational Vision

Exxon Mobil Chemical Organizational Vision

Exxon Mobil Chemical (XOM) is one of the leading petrochemical companies in the world. XOM provides the raw materials for many products including materials for packaging, plastic containers, automobile parts, synthetic materials, thinners, and other innumerable consumer products. Globally, XOM distributes fuels and lubricants using three brands i.e. Mobil, Exxon, and Esso. The corporation generally sells cured oil, natural gas and petroleum, and chemical products under short-term contracts at prevailing market prices. In some cases (e.g. natural gas), products may be sold under long-term contracts, with periodic price adjustments (Coate et al., 2014).

Exxon Mobil Corp. is an American international oil and gas company with its head office in Irving, Texas ("ExxonMobil," 2015). This is the largest enterprise from erstwhile D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company. It was created on November 30, 1999 from the merging of Exxon (former New Jersey Standard Oil Company) and Mobil (formerly the New York Standard Oil Company).

Exxon Mobil Chemical's History Development

In the past 125 years, Exxon Mobil has grown from a regional distributor of kerosene in the United States to being the largest petroleum and petrochemical publicly traded enterprise in the world. In 1972, the Jersey Standard Corporation formally changed its name to Exxon Corporation. The name change was passed by the Jersey shareholders in a special exclusive meeting. In 1974, Mobil unveiled a synthetic motor vehicle engine oil - Mobil 1. Mobil 1 is currently the top synthetic automotive lubricant.

In 2011, Exxon Mobil Corporation declared the discovery of two key oil detections and a gas finding in the deep-water Gulf of Mexico after the company had drilled the first post-moratorium deep-water exploration well. This discovery is among the biggest findings from the last decade in the Gulf of Mexico.

The advantage of its worldwide network helps Exxon Mobil Chemical to look for and capture all kinds of resources from different geological and geographical environments with the help of innovative technology and abilities ("Worldwide operations," n.d.). XOM applies superior geoscience skills and knowledge of the world's hydrocarbon endowment to pinpoint and highlight the most important resources.

With the current multinational system of manufacturing plants, technology hubs, and business organizations, the company has been able to position itself as the market leader in the big bulk and high growth petrochemical niches. Being a segment of the Exxon Mobil Corporation, the chemical company is interlinked with the company's other programs which gives it an unrivaled ability to provide for its customers as well as share information in technology and best practices ("Company profile," 2015).

Exxon Mobil Chemical's Plans for Expansion

With the worldwide demand for synthetics still very weak, it may not be the right time to start a major petrochemical establishment (Tremblay, JF. 2009). However, an oil refinery and chemical establishment owned 25% by XOM is in the steps of being initiated in Fujian, a province in China. Exxon Mobil Chemical has plans for a multi-billion-dollar polythene and ethylene expansion project intended for… [read more]

Travel Policy for Digital Signal Corporation Business Proposal

Business Proposal  |  10 pages (2,037 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Company Travel Policy

This business proposal is purposed on forming a travel policy for Digital Signal Corporation. There are a number of elements, which hinder the success of the company, and also increase the costs incurred by the company in general. The development of a travel policy for the corporation, which is in relationship with their travel budget, will make… [read more]

Gateway Report on Accomplishing Goals Through Performance Management Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,519 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


¶ … Improving Gateway's Performance / Gateway: Report On Accomplishing Goals Through Performance Management

Role of Job Analysis and Evaluation in Achieving the Organizations Strategic Direction

Ways in Which Performance Management Can Meet the Organization's Goals

Ways in Which Performance Management System Can Improve the Outcomes for the Organization

Five Recommendations That Gateway Institute Should Implement

Role of Job Analysis… [read more]

Cim and Its Cost Savings for Organizations Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  4 pages (1,095 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) has been described as the "complete automation of a manufacturing plant, with all processes functioning under computer control and digital information tying them together" ("CIM," 1999). CIM unites a wide variety of different processes including CAD/CAM (computer-aided design / computer-aided manufacture) modeling as well as automation through the use of flexible machining systems and automated storage and retrieval ("CIM," 1999). It also deploys robotics, automation, "computerized scheduling and production control, and a business system integrated by a common data base" ("CIM," 1999). CIN is designed to generate cost savings through the minimization of the need for human intervention in the production process and also minimizing the need to use physical materials to create products and orchestrate designs. For example, CAD technology has proven to be critical in reducing the time needed bring a product model to actual production: "Electronic files replace drawing rooms. CAD/CAM integrated systems provide design/drafting, planning and scheduling, and fabrication capabilities. CAD provides the electronic part images, and CAM provides the facility for toolpath cutters to take on the raw piece" ("CIM," 1999).

When CIM was first developed during the 1980s, manufacturing was viewed as a relatively standardized and rote procedure. The assembly line was still the most popular ways to approach the manufacturing process. CIM offered a way to maximize value through speeding up the methods of production and reducing labor costs. "The secret to competitive manufacturing, the new scenario goes, lies less in heavy automation and more in using computers to gather information from the factory floor and swap it with information from every other aspect of a business-from the sales department to product engineering to the shipping docks" (Morrison 1992). Generating a seamless flow of information keeps waste to near-negligible levels and improves supply chain integration. "By connecting each aspect of the manufacturing process via computer links, costly time delays and lack of communication between sales representatives and production engineers (often a problem when sales persons are not aware of their company's production potential and product capabilities) can be brought to a minimum" (Morrison 1992).

CIM is all encompassing and involves the computerization of every facet of the production process, requiring the integration of different forms of technology. This is often easier said than done. "One of the key issues regarding CIM is equipment incompatibility and difficulty of integration of protocols. Integrating different brand equipment controllers with robots, conveyors and supervisory controllers is a time-consuming task with a lot of pitfalls" ("CIM," 1999). But when successfully implemented CIM functions as a comprehensive system, including "all activities from the perception of a need for a product; through the conception, design, and development of the product; and on through production, marketing, and support of the product in use" (Cubberly, 1989, p. 1).

CIM usually begins with the generation of a prototype design through CAD purely in virtual form. This is then translated into a three-dimensional model. A computer determines the most efficient process to use for manufacturing the item. Then, further streamlining… [read more]

Case on the Multinational Corporation Global Operation Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  6 pages (1,470 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Operations of Multinational Corporation

Multinational Corporation is a concept that describes a corporation operating in two or more countries. In other words, multinational corporations distribute to consumer globally and they control a large number of network and control large number of global technology, productive resources and marketing. Firms invest in another countries because of the following reasons:

To… [read more]

Management Concept Case Report Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (2,371 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Management Concept Case Report / Report on Managerial Issue in Billabong

Issue Identification

Critical Analysis

Billabong's management issue is e-business strategy. E-business is challenging, but allows the retailer to venture into global markets efficiently, and at nominal cost (Economywatch, 2010). This is relevant in Billabong's case as the retailer was crumpling under debt, economic downturns in key markets (Europe and… [read more]

Supply Chain Management Issues and Challenges Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (995 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Operations management is the oversight/administration of organizational business practice with the goal being to effect the greatest level of efficiency within the business. The parameter of oversight essentially consists of labor and materials that can be converted into services/goods for a maximum profit to the company. This is the main objective of operations management. It is important and valuable as a role in a business because it allows the same business to plan, strategically develop, measure and reform the processes necessary for executing and reaching this profitable aim. Good knowledge of operations management is neither more important in service or in manufacturing industries -- it is equally valuable and essential in each, as both pertain to the goals that fall within the parameters of the role. Operations managers can oversee the development of both goods and services, depending on the nature of the company; its aim is to steer the development of either and/or both towards their maximum efficiency/profit producing point.

PERT/CPM techniques for managing projects is a valuable tool for operations managers. PERT stands for Program Evaluation and Review Technique. CPM stands for Critical Path Method. Both can be used to assist operations managers in planning and timing the projects with which they are involved and in which activities are pursued in a sequence. Both techniques allow managers to identify, via a chart, the times that each activity requires for completion within the overall larger scope of the project. In other words, they provide a display of the necessary steps within the project and the time that should be allotted each one.

The strengths of using PERT/CPM are that their charts can tell you just how long it will take to complete a project and the steps to get there. This is a great way to help workers and managers visualize the project and know where they should be and on what step at any given time. The weakness of the technique is that it depends upon data that has been gathered in the past, which is used as a predictor (this is how the chart with time frames is produced). If a project is new in approach or a company has no past data to draw from, the PERT/CPM technique will not be useful or possible (Ingram, 2015).

In production (a manufacturing plant), economy of scale is achieved when more product can be produced with less input costs. In other words, when a company grows and has more clients, it can produce more for less -- it is the same concept as buying in bulk for cheaper price; here, the company produces more for less cost (Heakal, 2015). Economies of scale cannot continue forever because at some point, peak demand will be reached and the law of supply and demand will come into effect. Oversupply will result in increased costs and economy of scale will no longer be achieved. A diseconomy of scale would be the result. The optimal size of a plant would therefore…… [read more]

Emotional Intelligence Its Relevance to Urban Community Association Managers Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (2,249 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


Emotional Intelligence: Relevance to Urban Community Association Managers

Daniel Goleman published "Emotional Intelligence" in 1995. It was in this book that the concept of Emotional Intelligence (EQ) was first mentioned and comprehensively discussed as a behavioral model. Emotional intelligence theory was developed by psychologists; John Mayer, Peter Salovey and Howard Gardner. The principles of emotional intelligence provide a new way… [read more]

Safety in the Workplace and the Controversy of Surveillance Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (593 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Workplace Surveillance Memo

What is currently being done at the workplace in terms of surveillance is standard for the industry: cameras are mounted on the exteriors and interiors of the building, for the sake of safety monitoring; phone emails are stored within the workplace cloud for future reference if necessary.


calls with customers are recorded for the sake of accountability practices; and intranet

The controversy surrounding workplace surveillance is situated within the context of the post-9/11 world and the simultaneous expansion of NSA policies. For the sake of safety and security, the surveillance of citizens was given approval by Congress in the passing of the Patriot Act -- however, not all citizens are happy with this bill and view the NSA's surveillance, for instance, as overreach and a violation of privacy. Privacy concerns are at the root of the controversies surrounding surveillance and in the workplace, privacy rights are balanced against the company's need to protect itself from harm. Thus, if a worker posts something on his or her private social media account or expresses himself in an email to a co-worker about a workplace policy, should this be grounds for termination? Would termination violate the worker's right to privacy or free speech? How is the company at risk if it does nothing? These are questions that must be considered. For the sake of safety and security, the company asks all employees to commit criticism of the workplace to non-digital exchanges, so as to ensure that such information is not exploited. Likewise, when on work premises it is asked that employee not engage in behavior that might be construed as bringing a bad image to the workplace.


There is no federal law that prohibits a company from monitoring its workers. However, the National Labor…… [read more]

Weaknesses Strengths and Opportunities for Workers Peer Reviewed Journal

Peer Reviewed Journal  |  4 pages (1,419 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Employee Meeting Assessment

My employee meeting was overall very positive, as I assessed the strengths, weaknesses and opportunities for growth of my employee in an objective manner, abstained from criticism, and essentially showed encouragement, appreciation, and empathy for the employee throughout the process. As Dust et al. (2014) indicate, empathy, positive reinforcement, and encouragement along with strategic use of EI… [read more]

Analyzing the Research Methods Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,158 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Seas Research offers solutions in the market research arena, in the form of syndicated studies, online panels, and custom research, to clients from more than sixty industries. The company's broad network of professional trade organizations and industry experts maximizes research accuracy and furthers company interactions with their respective target audiences. The firm believes in market research's benefits to corporate leaders in fully understanding their industry, highlighting organizational performance, fostering industry growth, and facilitating business development strategies (GreenBook, n.d.).


Quantitative and Qualitative Research

Data Analytics and

Reporting (Clear Seas Research, 2016)


Question Looping Option for Survey Editors.

Full Upload and Nested Quota.

Card Sort feature

Supports image-based Radio and Checkbox questions.

1. Security enhancement, featuring strict administrative security mode combined with dual domain support.

1. New quota system, wherein nested quota is automated

1. Batch Update with "TrueSample" feature for meta-data.

1. Supports mobile response option.

1. Easily editable, redesigned mobile and desktop themes with preset templates.

1. Single-entry Uniform Resource Locator (URL) for each survey, through auto mobile detection feature.

1. Mobile compatibility and mobile survey advisor.

1. Mobile surveys support form tables, file upload questions, and sliders.

1. Supports automated looping and lists (Mitchclear, 2015)

Clear Seas' insightful knowledge and vertical expertise makes the firm a key competitive and dependable research agency for organizations seeking to sell new products or enter new markets. The firm's market study service capably provides market data and analyses this data to give clients unprecedented intelligence helpful in making highly informed decisions pertaining to new branding strategies or new products. (Mitchclear, 2015).

Global Vox Populi

Company Description

ISO 9001:2008 Certified Company -- Global Vox Populi -- a member of the European Society for Opinion and Marketing Research (ESOMAR), Pharmaceutical Market Research Group (PMRG), Market Research Society of India (MRSI) and American Marketing Association (AMA), is one of the leading international firms in market research, data collection, data analytics and related consultancy services. The company's name itself reflects its analytical organizational philosophy and clients' belief of majority. As of last year, the firm's overseas offices expanded to China, Japan, South Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the United Arab Emirates. The top multinational agency in Asia, Global Vox Populi, has a strong researcher base (over 150 experts), and conducts quantitative and qualitative studies spanning twenty nations. Round-the-clock support and online panel facilities in 33 nations makes the firm a valuable research partner for clients. The company covers a diverse range of industries, some of which are: medical devices and pharmaceuticals; food and beverages; healthcare and hospitals; automotive industry; consumer goods or FMCG; Oil, gas, power, and energy; retail; tourism and travel; entertainment and media etc. (GreenBook, n.d.).

Propriety Tools

1. "Laiva Sthiti" or its Client Platform: The firm devised a Project Feeds tool to facilitate collaboration and more efficient work in key areas like market research, recruitment, fieldwork, consulting projects, or analytics.

1. "Sarveksana" -- the Survey Manager: This feature in the organization's Survey System facilitates performance of sophisticated surveys. The company records… [read more]

How to Conduct Research Into the European Central Bank Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (611 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Organizational Research

Organizations are complex systems, open and dynamic and thus require a great deal of focus by researchers when they are examined. One can use quantitative, qualitative or a mixed methods approach to organizational research (Swanson, 2005, p. 6). Research can be conducted using surveys, interviews, observational methods, meta-analysis, phenomenological approaches, multivariate or structural equation modeling and many other ways (Creswell, 2007). Essentially, it is up to the researcher to decide what problem or issue he wants to study and then assessing the best method that would suit the subject. For instance, if the researcher wants to investigate how employees within an organization respond to management styles of leadership, the researcher could conduct quantitative research using surveys and a Likert-scale form of analysis, or he could conduct qualitative research using interviews -- or he could do both and provide a mixed methods study. If the researcher wanted to investigate supply-chain management within an organization, he could adopt similar approaches or apply something like a factor analysis method. The options are virtually endless and depend upon where the researcher would like to apply his focus.

The company chosen for this study is the European Central Bank (ECB) led by Mario Draghi. The problem to be addressed is whether or not the ECB's policy of quantitative easing through the purchase of assets has had any positive impact on the banking sector in Europe by allowing banks to provide more loans with the available liquidity to corporations, housing or private consumers. The study could be conducted by using a survey method.

The ECB is currently trying to stimulate the economy in Europe through a number of policies such as zero-percent interest rates, negative interest rates, and quantitative easing (the purchasing of asset classes, which helps to provide market liquidity). The problem is that the economy continues to…… [read more]

Corporate Codes of Ethics Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  3 pages (929 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Code of Ethics

Modern organizations usually have a code of ethics. Such codes can contain a mix of philosophical considerations, basic overviews, and specific, actionable elements. There are a number of reasons why organizations want or need a code of ethics, and in many cases such rational is built directly into the code, or at the very least strongly influences it.

Reasons for Having a Code of Ethics

The first main reason for having a code of ethics is legitimacy. In many organizations, a code of ethics is something that distinguishes the professional organization from the unprofessional one. As organizations grow, it becomes more difficult to guide behavior throughout the organization, so formal structures are required in order to facilitate this, and a code of ethics is one of these structures. Both external and internal structures see the code of ethics, and recognize that the organization understands the value of ethics in operations, and in legitimizing itself as a trustworthy organization (Preston et al., 1995). A good example of the need for legitimacy arose in the early 2000s with a multitude of corporate scandals. These scandals typically were perpetrated at the highest levels of the organization. As such, investors could not feel confident about companies unless the people at the top of those companies showed evidence of being committed to the highest ethical standards. A code of ethics was often instituted, along with some sort of blanket statement about corporate governance.

Another reason for having a code of ethics is to specifically govern behavior within the organization. Many codes provide the justification for remedies within an organization, such as training employees, censuring those who commit ethical violations, or even just defining what an ethical violation is. The code of ethics is something that can help with organizational behavior (Trevino, Butterfield, McCabe, 1998).

How Codes of Ethics Work

Ethical policies start with a philosophical underpinning. This is typically rooted in the broader ethics of the society in which the organization has arisen, but there are instances where that might not be the case. Either the organization wishes to take a more universal approach to ethics, or in some cases companies have codes of ethics that reflect mostly the interests of shareholders. Business ethics can be quite different from the sense of right and wrong that most people have -- that disconnect often reflects in controversies, such as those about minimum wages, offshoring and sweatshops.

Once the organization has a root philosophy with respect to ethics, this needs to be explained in a general sense. From there, the ethical principles actually need to be operationalized. In many organizations this does not happen, but a code of ethics is only an useful as its training and enforcement mechanisms. The organization has to include its ethical principles in…… [read more]

Impact of Technological Advances on Organizational Evolution Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (886 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Business Theory -- Organizational Evolution and Change

How technology has affected organizational evolution in the past forty years.

Technology has evolved so rapidly and so dramatically in the past forty years that organizations must keep pace or risk perishing. In fact, the ability to adapt to new technologies has become a vital business process in itself (Ertem, 2015). For several examples, technological advances have strongly impacted real estate, telecommunications and the medical industry. In real estate, Long & Foster Real Estate, Inc. has grown by 200% and people joining the company expect their information to be delivered electronically (Agresti, 2006). In telecommunications, Comcast has seen a rapid rise in mergers and a shifting of more dollars toward the engineering aspects of its business and toward melding of merged companies' IT functions (Agresti, 2006). In the medical industry, Johns Hopkins Medicine has seen a greater need for collaboration and relationship management among its 450 Information Technology specialists on its campuses & hospitals and the 2-3 times as many Information Technology specialists scattered around campuses and divisions (Agresti, 2006).

In order to most benefit from and also cope with continual technological advances, corporate management needs to: keep technically current; attract, hire and retain very good staff in every key area of its business; take on a global mindset; and keeping abreast of what the technologically savvy consumer desires (Agresti, 2006). Technology is constantly evolving and its global usage will also evolve organizations in ways that have yet to occur to us (Montano & Dillon, 2005, p. 227). In sum, technological advances have increased effectiveness but have simultaneously placed more demands for flexibility on business, revolutionizing organizational practices.

2. The Technology:

a. Types of technology

The types of technological advances in the past forty years have been staggering in number and type. The most notable advances are in communications and computer science. The internet has moved from the ethereal, obtuse system of the 1980s to the everyday tool of 2016, allowing: e-mail; video conferencing; social media connections within a business, with other businesses and with consumers; and cloud storage allowing immediate storage of and access to important business files. Along with the speed and power of the internet come mobile devices, such as smart phones and tablets, which allow immediate, long-distance communications, remote access of work, reduced costs, greater business flexibility and scalability to handle ever-greater amounts of work (Ertem, 2015).

b. Pace of technological advancement

The pace of technological advancement is rapid, as knowledge builds on itself and global usage and refinement quickly hone technology (Montano & Dillon, 2005, p. 229). However, the pace at which technology is adapted is another matter. At least one…… [read more]

Why Milton Friedman Is Wrong About Social Responsibility Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (750 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Corporate Citizenship

Milton Friedman's 1970 worldview would be and ought to be rejected by today's corporations, many of which are embracing a Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) program in response to consumer objections to practices and principles of various entities. From Enron to Pepsi Co. to Exxon Mobile to Pacific Gas and Electric (the case that involved Erin Brokovich) -- companies are constantly in the spotlight now thanks to the Digital Age revolution, which allows users of social media to spread information across the globe in seconds and to unite and communicate in ways never before possible. Thus, what is being witnessed is a unified demand from not just consumers but from people all over the world. Indeed, when Friedman identifies the issue of "social responsibility" as a political maneuver (a "socialist" maneuver), he misses the point. It is not political, but human: corporations have a social responsibility because it is society, ultimately, that they depend upon. If the corporation puts itself first (as a "citizen"), before its workers and before its public and community, it will eventually destroy that which should nourish it.

The trade agreements known as NAFTA and GATT are perfect examples. These agreements allowed large corporations to off-shore their facilities in places like China (Apple does this, for instance) so that it can profit from cheap labor. The products they manufacture are then shipped back to the West and sold at ever-increasing margins to consumers all too happy to pay ever-increasing prices for a product that will be replaced in a year with another, newer, better model. Eventually, however, peak buying sets in. There are no more consumers. Why? Because there is simply no more money. The corporation, by going off-shore to guarantee more profits for itself, neglects the very community it wants as consumers. By not hiring the people in its own community or market and thus ensuring that they work and have disposable income for such products, the company is basically guaranteeing that it will see limited profits for a limited time.

If the company were socially responsible and put the community first, it would not go off-shore in search of better profit margins by hiring cheap labor; it would respect its own community and the fundamental concept of market…… [read more]

Alternative Strategies for Dillard Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,292 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Strategy Formulation Recommendations for Dillard's, Inc.

Today, the two main challenges facing Dillard's, Inc. (hereinafter alternatively "the company") are declining sales due to changes in consumer tastes and shopping preferences for lower-cost fashion alternatives and outdoor shopping centers as well as increased operational costs that are largely attributable to the company's reliance on the placement of its retail outlets in urban, trendy, upscale indoor malls where rents and staffing costs can be exorbitant. This double whammy has forced the company to close some of its previously high performing outlets and change others into clearance centers that are struggling to survive. In this environment, identifying opportunities to salvage this company's fortunes represents a timely and important enterprise, and these issues are discussed further below, followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning the recommended strategies to address these significant problems in the conclusion.

Alternatives and Evaluation

Based on the foregoing description, the company's business-level problems can be stated thusly:

1. Problem No. 1: Dillard's Inc. has failed to respond to changes in consumer preferences for lower-cost fashion alternatives.

2. Problem No. 2: Dillard's has failed to respond to changes in consumer preferences for shopping venues.

Two alternative strategies that address the above-listed problem statement are as follows:

1. Alternative No. 1: The company could offer a line of lower-cost fashions while maintaining its commitment to high quality.

2. Alternative No. 2: The company could open new retail outlets in high-traffic outdoor shopping centers, beginning with its least profitable current operations.

3. Alternative No. 3: The company could continue to close underperforming stores or change them into clearance centers to improve short-term profitability and allow it time to recover from the current downturn in sales.

4. Alternative No. 4: The company could close all of its brick-and-mortar retail facilities and become a strictly online enterprise, thereby reducing its operational costs drastically.

5. Alternative No. 5: The company could adopt a "Louis Vuitton" approach to marketing and refuse to reduce its prices while continuing to emphasize its unwavering commitment to high-quality merchandise and service and hope for the best.

Recommended Strategy

Many American consumers are becoming increasing cost-conscious when it comes to clothing purchases, and growing numbers of these budget-minded shoppers are turning to discount stores for their purchases. For instance, O'Donnell and Kurtz (2008) report that, ." With department store sales and discounters offering brand names for less, shoppers can find plenty of well-made clothes worth buying. And in a wobbly economy, doing so can be vital to a family budget" (p. 3). In addition, many American consumers are avoiding larger urban malls and the parking nightmares that are associated with visiting them in favor of outdoor shopping centers where they can park close to the stores they want to visit while still enjoying the variety and ambience of a traditional indoor mall. In this regard, Lamb (2009) points out that, "Convenience is the key word driving the evolution of this new retail center. Today's consumers lead busy lives,… [read more]

Business Ethics Adn the Multicultural Context Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (750 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Dimensions of ethical business cultures: comparing data from 13 Countries of Europe, Asia, and the Americas. By Ardichvilia A. et.al

In an attempt to cover as extensive as possible in a global dimension the issue of ethical business culture, the article divides the areas of study into the Anglo cluster (U.S., Canada, Australia and UK), China, Japan, continental Western and Central Europe, Latin America, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and India as the main categories within which the discussion is contextualized.

The Anglo cluster depicts business ethics as an issue that follows a given organizational structure, the policies therein and the processes of transactions as well as the trainings and development programs that one goes through. These ethics, in as much as they are embedded in the above measures and tenets, they are largely based on the behavior of the leadership of the organization hence the personal behavior of the leadership of any organization is significantly tied to and influences the ethical business behavior and perception of the same by the general public. Here, the corporate missions and values are highly held and each day the employees and leadership strive to align the organizational values with the organizational culture.

In china though, ethics in business is highly influenced by the Confucianism beliefs. They use this philosophy to develop corporate cultures that have unique Chinese characteristics. Here, there is less emphasis on the formal contracts or code of behavior to develop the business ethics, but more of the cultural values such as benevolence, harmony, loyalty, learning, humility and righteousness, all these keeping in alignment with Confucian principles.

Japanese on the other hand, though are highly influenced by the Confucian principles, have a slightly different take on the same and rely more on harmony than benevolence as their Chinese counterparts do. The Japanese are more situational in developing their corporate ethics and decisions with care to maintain harmony within the working environment. They would shy from controversy and rocking the organization, unlike the implementation of the organizational ethics in the Anglo cluster who would not shy away from controversy and conflict if the contract stated a given ethical standpoint.

The business ethics in the continental Western and Central Europe is also slightly different from the Anglo cluster with…… [read more]

Confucian Approach in Ethical Decisions Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (701 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Ethical Approaches

One of my ethical decisions was whether or not I should support a political movement for worker's rights by signing a petition. I did not have much information on the issue but everyone was signing so I thought maybe I should too so that no one viewed me not favorably. From the perspective of the five ethical approaches discussed in Chapter 1, I will assess my actions. They are the Utilitarian approach, the Categorical Imperative approach, the Justice as Fairness approach, the Confucian approach, and the Altruism approach. Each approach has its strengths and weaknesses.

The Utilitarian approach is a consequence-based approach. The option that effects the greatest good is the one that should be followed according to this approach. In my case, it would seem that I could not say because I did not have enough information about the reforms in mind and the issues, and in the small amount of time I had I could not become well informed -- so this approach could not work for me.

The Categorical Imperative approach holds that "what is right for one is right for all." However, I knew this to not be the case because what is right for some in one situation may not be right for others in another situation. For this reason I knew not to support a measure that would hold everyone to one way.

The Justice as Fairness approach is based on the rights of individuals and on justice, however, this approach did not apply in my case because while rights were in question, I did not see how the rights being called for were just, due, or legitimate. For this reason I did not take this approach.

The Confucian Approach is based on the Golden Rule because life is about society and relationships and how we must treat others the way we would like to be treated. I try to take this approach in life, so this is the one I followed in my decision about signing. I knew that I would not want someone to sign something if he was not…… [read more]

Analyzing Successful Small Business Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (884 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Successful Small Business

There are seven different individual characteristics of successful owners of small business, carefully identified by Megginson et al. (2003). This particular essay will discuss four individual characteristics, in order of their priority, starting with the most important characteristic to the least important one. In particular, the discussion will encompass an elucidation of why each of the characteristics are substantial and the manner in which each of them adds to the success of small business owners (Megginson et al., 2003).

Are dedicated to their business

What a small business owner attains out of his or her business is successfully determined by what he or she puts into the business. It is imperative to have desire and commitment towards the business. Small business owners are inclined to extremely be devoted to their companies. Being individually owned businesses, the owners are keen on making certain that their hard work, determination and effort put into the business flourishes and does not go to waste (Stephenson, 2014). This characteristic is considered to be the most important of the lot because the level of enthusiasm will be mirrored in the success of the business or failure of the business, in the lack thereof. This sort of passion and hunger for prosperity is what most of the time distinguishes small business owners from the executives of huge companies. This is because they perceive the business as a "fetus" of their own. For this reason, they are committed to undertake whatever it takes to ensure that the business runs smoothly and effectively, to guarantee their success (Stephenson, 2014).

2. Have a strong sense of initiative

In accordance to Megginson et al. (2003), the small business owners have a strong sense of initiative, a characteristic that steers them to success. In particular, this enables them to have the aspiration to make the most of their conceptions, capacities and dreams to the highest level as possible. Taking this into consideration, they have the capacity to come up with ideas, create different tactics aligned to such notions and thereafter carry them out to an effective implementation. At the end of the day, what they obtain is a successful new product. This is one aspect that serves as a competitive edge to small businesses as it is not always the case with regard to large corporate firms (Megginson et al., 2003). In addition, another point-of-view commonly perceived is the manner in which small business owners are eager and have the drive to work extremely longer hours than other larger companies in order to attain their objectives. Small business owners have a tendency of being not only capable, but also motivated and…… [read more]

Virtual Teams and Ramifications Essay

Essay  |  18 pages (6,204 words)
Bibliography Sources: 18


Leading Collaborative Work Environments

Distributed work environments can enhance social innovation in a couple of different ways. Firstly, such environments are highly dependent on communication. Thus, in some respect, distributed work environments can help to foster social innovations pertaining to communication, and even contain teams that outperform those in centralized locations (Seibdrat et al., 2009). The way that they do… [read more]

Data Sampling Methodology Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (752 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … nature for the high turnover rate is to then analyze the data collected through the surveys given to BIMS employees. A total of 78 employees were given the survey, but this is a population that is quite large and possibly too much to handle for the company. Subsequently, it is appropriate to use a sample of the main population using Stratified Random Sampling, so that the data findings can still be explored without the additional work of handling all 78 employee responses.

In order to best find the appropriate sample population to be analyzed in future statistical testing, the proper method must be utilized. Stratified Random Sampling is the most appropriate choice, given that there are characteristics within the data set that should be addressed independently of one another. Using a stratified system allows the sample to separate parts of the population into mutually exclusive sets, also known as strata (Niu, 2013). These sets are separated from one another and then random samples from within each strata can be taken based on the number of total in the population of each. Thus, the methodology first separates the data based on strata type and then commences simple random sampling. This is appropriate for this particular context because the survey was given to both managers and employees. There may be major differences between the experiences of managers and employees, and thus combining them all together could potentially skew the data based on a non-sampling error that incorporates both manager and employee when they should have been treated separately. Non-sampling errors occur within the acquisition and selection of data (Niu, 2013). Combining the two types of employees at BIMS could result in skewed results based on differing perceptions and beliefs on company values and thus the two populations should be separated through stratified sampling methods.

Ensuring Validity and Reliability

The primary threat to reliability is based on the initial entry of the data set. As stated in the primary document, Sally, the office support staff did make some adjustments on the data. When she encountered a question that was not answered, she typed in 0. This could be a potential issue for the stratification of the data population set, as there are two entries that were labeled…… [read more]

Opportunity Statements vs Problem Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (694 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Opportunity Statements

Focusing on positive energy is a good way to rally forces behind a position and lead towards the achievement of an overall goal. It is much like having a "spirit of mission" behind which all stakeholders can get in order to move the organization forward in a compelling and cohesive manner (Samaan, Verneuil, 2009). Opportunity statements allow such measures to be taken and give attention to the positive currents that an organization has running in its favor. They do not necessarily take attention away from problems, gaps or needs (items that must be addressed) -- because those can all be viewed as opportunities as well. They can be assessed as opportunities to overcome obstacles or to prove an organization's merit.

The focus on positive outcomes, however, is in and of itself a positive practice because negativity is something that can foster a poor spirit and a loss of trust or confidence in stakeholders and in an organization itself. Negativity does not allow for a prosperous position to be taken or capitalized upon. It drags down persons and obliges them to focus on what is being done wrong, where shortcomings exist, and does not give the proper incentive or framework for moving forward. By shifting away from focusing on problems, organizations and people in general can give more time to what they are doing correctly and see how this is affecting their overall system. The good things that are working can then be exploited and made all the better. They can be emphasized and expanded or developed more fully so that in time, the good qualities become perfected and the faulty qualities or the problems become insignificant as a result. This positive focus can bring out the good more than a negative focus can, which only highlights the bad, the problematic, and the obstacles in one's way.

That is why it is very important to "affirm that which is good." Without such an affirmation, the individual or the organization is simply free-floating without an anchor of support or encouragement. There is no mooring for…… [read more]

Importance of Customer Loyalty Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (600 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Customer Loyalty and E-Commerce

Evaluate the importance of customer loyalty and identify methods to increase e-loyalty.

Customer loyalty is somewhat elusive in contemporary times. The reality of this situation is that due to advances in technology, globalization, and communication methods, businesses are facing more competition in forms that are stiffer, and more specialized, than they have ever been before. Thus, customer loyalty is still desirable, yet is becoming more difficult to foster -- especially in terms of e-commerce. However, there are a few technological advancements that have emerged within the past decade or so that are specifically designed to enhance customer loyalty in an era in which competition and customer attention span is increasingly fierce and prone to wane, respectively.

One of the most viable means of facilitating customer loyalty in the age of e-commerce is through the usage of recommender engines. These engines are critical to maintaining customer interest and, by extension, fostering the sort of customer loyalty that might otherwise be hard to encounter. Through an artful combination of big data, predictive analytics, and machine learning, contemporary websites are able to increasingly keep track of and analyze customer behavior. In fact, there are even some predictive analytics options that can provide recommendations for first time visitors to their sites based on the type of clicks that they make on that site and other facets of their customer profile gleaned from sentiment analysis. The general gist of this approach is that web sites can understand and analyze a customer's previous behavior to determine future behavior, and even impact it by presenting offers in advance that could actually sway that behavior. Moreover, companies can directly foster loyalty by providing tailored marketing efforts based on analyses of current and contemporary behavior -- to ensure that customers continually return to their sites…… [read more]

Experiment Design Research Methods Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (602 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Experimental Design

A true experiment is one in which "all of the important factors that might affect the phenomena of interest are completely controlled" (Research Connections, 2015). A quasi-experiment is one that does not meet that criterion. When one looks at the further definitions of these two things, some things become apparent. First, they both measures the survey respondents against some type of treatment or condition, and they are measured for their output. The researchers will then determine whether the output is related to the treatment. The lack of strict controls is what makes a research design a quasi-experiment.

There are a number of different variables that go into determining the perceptions about food among millennials. There is education, there is geography, social status and other factors. But because people have different places from where they draw their ideas, it is impossible to control all of the different factors in this study, so this must by definition be a quasi-experiment in its design.

The hypothesis for this study is that McDonalds is losing sales because millennials' attitudes towards food are generally more negative towards fast food. There are sub-hypotheses that look at the different direction here. The first test will be that

H1: millennials have negative attitudes towards food that is not organic, or that contains GMO ingredients.

H2: The second is that millennials have negative attitudes towards industrial food in general.

H3: The third is that millennials have a high degree of knowledge and consciousness about food.

H4: The fourth is that millennials have speficially a low perception of fast food.

The independent variables are the demographic variables within the population. The dependent variables will be perceptions of food, as per the different sub-hypotheses that are being tested.

The research question is what are the attitudes that millennials…… [read more]

Explaining the Cycle of the Pygmalion Effect Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (614 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Cycle that leads to the Pygmalion effect begins with the fact that employees are given ratings by leaders. These ratings are supposed to be performance based, but because the individual leaders may be swayed by more than just performance -- in other words, by flattery -- it is possible that employees who show certain affable qualities towards their leaders (qualities such as commitment, trust, loyalty, etc.) will be given higher ratings than those who demonstrate no such affability. Thus, in effect, employees who get on the good side of the leader may be rewarded more than employees who are just as efficient performance-wise (or even more efficient) but who display no such outward signs of commitment or loyalty to the leader.

So that is how the cycle begins -- with the employee receiving a high rating that might (but also might not) be related to his or her actual ability to perform at a high level. Nonetheless, this rating stays with the employee (the follower of the leader), and in effect serves as positive support for his reputation, even going into the employee's official record, where it is noted that he or she is a worker with a high approval rating from team leaders. Thus, the employee is shown favor from the leader because the employee originally showed favor to the leader, and in return for this favored relationship, the company looks favorably on the employee without actually ever having any real sense or measure of the employee's actual value.

The cycle continues as the ratings of the employee are then used as the basis of promotion, development or selections in the future by the company heads. These decisions may be formal or informal -- the fact remains that the ratings make an impact on both the individual's career as well as the company itself (promotion of…… [read more]

Sampling Procedure for a Study Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,053 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … goal of the research is to conduct an assessment of probable issues relating to hiring a deputy director for the organization, which has operated without an actual office manager for a year. Consequently, the research objective is to identify positive qualities that an individual must possess to be considered for the vacant position of an office manager. This is an important objective for the study because of the need to lessen the negative results of change in management. The study seeks to identify positive characteristics that the potential manager must have in order to help employees become more receptive to the change in management. The findings of the study with regards to positive characteristics that the manager must possess will not only be used in the hiring process but will also be utilized in informing and guiding important change management processes.

Description of the Population

Kouzes & Posner (2012), state that the desirable important attributes of managers include forward-looking, competence, honesty, and inspirational qualities (p.35). Following the identification of these important characteristics a leader must possess, a study will be carried out on a target population to help meet the research objective. The target population for this study will include current or previous managers and new graduates in business management. These individuals will be crucial for this study because they possess relevant knowledge, skills or experience that could help in determining the best possible characteristics for a manager. Current or past managers will be utilized in the study since they already have experience in working in such positions. In contrast, new graduates in business management will be incorporated in the research because they possess knowledge, skills, and competence relating to the field of management.

The selection of this group of current or past managers and new graduates in business management requires the use of a suitable method for identifying this target population. This is an important step because of the impossibility in reaching all members of the target population, which implies that only accessible members are used. Therefore, the researcher will identify the target population through conducting a survey of local organizations and institutions of learning. The survey of these local organizations and institutions will help narrow the scope and contact individuals who could be suitable for study.

Notably, the identification of the target population for the research will entail using a sampling frame, which is a list or device utilized in defining the population of interest. Actually, sampling frame is a set of elements or characteristics that are utilized by a researcher to select a sample of the target population because of the difficulty in accessing the whole population of interest (Currivan, 2004). As previously mentioned, the sampling frame for this study is previous or current experience in management and competence in business management related course or studies.

Sampling Procedure

Once the target population is identified, a sampling procedure is utilized to select the sample for the study. There are several sampling procedures that are chosen based… [read more]

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