Study "Communication / Speech" Essays 1-54

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Overcoming Communication Barriers Term Paper

… Autism: Overcoming Communication Barriers

a) Background: Autism

What is Autism?

History of Autism, including research done in an effort to understand Autistic.

Characteristics of a child with Autism b) Background: Communication

Communication definition, methods, history.

Importance of communication to human… [read more]

Dysarthria Correcting a Speech Disorder Research Paper

… Dysarthria


This study used the descriptive-normative type of research in recording, describing, interpreting, analyzing and comparing data on dysarthria. It introduces communication disorders, specifically dysarthria and its causes, symptoms, assessment and treatments. The role of the… [read more]

Computers and Alternative Communication Just Research Proposal

… ¶ … Computers and Alternative Communication

Just as technology has been able to make life easier and open up to more opportunities than ever before, technology has also enabled people with speech disorders to be able to communicate in ways… [read more]

John F. Kennedy Moon Speech Term Paper

… John F. Kennedy Moon Speech - Rice Stadium, rhetorical analysis of John F. Kennedy's September 12, 1962, Moon Speech - Rice Stadium, Houston, Texas

There is a strong connection between John F. Kennedy, the 35th American President, and the space… [read more]

Communication Theories the Unique A2 Coursework

… Question 5

Although ritual and habits do provide some sort of communication transmission in their practice, these two terms need to be distinguished from each other in order to understand the finer aspects of their usage within communication. When ordering a meal through a drive thru window at a fast food restaurant that type of communication appears to be an applied use or transmission. There is a ritual aspect of this transmission however, that is rooted in the ritual aspects of food, digestion and regeneration of new cells. A ritualistic aspect of communication would be the common greetings we speak to another. While greetings such as "hello" and " see you later" are rather empty in real meaning, have a ritualistic aspects that demonstrates the emotional attitude of the speaker towards the receiver.

Question 7

Donath & Boyd would welcome the social media aspect towards forming relationships and communication because it presents a novel and new way to learn and evolve, aligning with their interpretation on the subject. Facebook is no longer a tool per se, but more of an institution that does not need to be abided by in order to navigate through society despite pressures from the mainstream and media. It appears, at some level that Facebook itself is a weaponized tool to exploit the young and ignorant on their willingness to share and learn. Facebook consists mostly of fake people claiming to do fake things so its value is limited to disinformation and propaganda techniques in most cases. Littlejohn and Foss would describe could describe this trend as an attempt to describe the Uncertainty Reduction Theory, suggesting we like to dress people down as we meet them and find out all there is… [read more]

Communication: Beyond Verbal Essay

… 23). Take, for example, the same work situation. Individual A tells Individual B. that he is happy with B's work and expresses this verbally. As A takes this message in, he is pleased. Until A sees B. rolling his eyes while continuing to work on the project. B catches A looking and attempts to explain. In an instance such as this, B's verbal communication to A cannot cover up his intent and true emotions. In this capacity, demonstrative communication has outshone verbal communication in terms of effectiveness.

Perhaps more so than verbal communication, demonstrative communication rests its success in a far greater capacity in terms of listening and responding. Just as verbal communication involves a high standard of listening and responding, demonstrative communication does so, but on a greater level. With nonverbal communication, it is essential for the receiver to pay attention to the sum of the parts rather than the parts themselves. Through the extending of verbal cues, the receiver must listen with his or her eyes rather than their ears, which takes far more time and intuition to understand fully. This type of rapport involves "cultivating an interest in both the sender and the message" in order to take in the message being put forth as well as to respect and understand the sender in his or her message as well as in his or her self (Cheesbro, O'Connor and Rios, 2010, pp.1).

With this type of communication, one must essentially listen and interpret with both the eyes and the ears. Noises, tones, and other heard facets mean much on their own, but mean far greater when combined with a look or a gesture. With this combination of sensory communication, both the sender and the receiver are able to project and take in the context of their communication in a way that is far better-rounded than an interpretation that verbal communication sans any other nonverbal cues would have to offer. While many individuals learning about the facets of communication may note the complexities and subjective nature of understanding demonstrative social cues on paper, it is easy to find that in real life, subjectivity often gives way to truth. A friend or acquaintance's warm smile has the capacity to mean more than a verbal greeting. A hand on a shoulder has the ability to comfort on an equal if not greater scale than words alone. While demonstrative communication eliminates the intricacies of speech and verbal eloquence, its ability to reach out on a human level cannot be ignored. In coming to understand the significance of demonstrative communication and its ability to allow us as communicators to better tune in and understand one another, it becomes clear after minimal research that this nonverbal communication cannot be overlooked in terms of effectiveness.


Cheesebro, T., O'Connor, L., and Rios, F. (2010). Communicating in the workplace. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Print.

Sutton, N. (2011 March 26). "Pros and cons of nonverbal communication." eHow. Web.

Retrieved from: [Accessed on4… [read more]

Golden Rule of Cross-Cultural Communications Anyone Research Paper

… Golden Rule of Cross-Cultural Communications

Anyone who has attended school, held a job, or formed a relationship, which is to say everyone, can readily testify that communicating with others can be a challenging enterprise at times. Even when people hear… [read more]

Demonstrative Communication Research Paper

… Communication is basically described as the process with which messages are sent and received and involves the exchange of messages, information, and thoughts through the use of speech, writing, signals, and behavior. Therefore, this process of transferring information and messages can be either through verbal or non-verbal means. Since it entails sending and receiving wordless messages, demonstrative is basically centered on non-verbal and unwritten communications. While it can act and convey messages alone, demonstrative communication is normally used to reinforce verbal communication. This method of communication involves several aspects like body language, tone of voice, and body language.

Effectiveness and Ineffectiveness of Demonstrative Communication:

In addition to reinforcing verbal communication, demonstrative communication permits self-expression of the sender. In most cases, people tend to use demonstrative communication on a daily basis even without their knowledge that they are doing so. The effectiveness and ineffectiveness of demonstrative communication by the sender and the receiver requires critical consideration because of the huge likelihood for it to be imprecise and easily misunderstood. The use of body language can either be restrained or more demonstrative based on the situation, the communication partner, and the style of sending messages ("Nonverbal Communication," n.d.). Similar to other elements of communication, the enhancement of demonstrative communication is through making it a natural part of an individual's verbal messages. Therefore, the silent or demonstrative communication should be aligned with the sender's verbal messages to promote its effectiveness.

Without the alignment of body language as an ordinary part of a person's communication, there is a higher possibility of demonstrative communication to be misinterpreted. While some individuals have ease in doing, other finds it a difficult and challenging task to align their body language with their verbal messages. When people present minimal or non-engaging demonstrative communication, it's usually interpreted as lack of interest in the interaction or transmission of messages and information. Even though the perception may not be precisely accurate to the specific situation, it's likely to be interpreted as ineffective demonstrative communication. Some of the most important elements that are needed to enhance the effectiveness of demonstrative communication include understanding its importance and awareness of the various meanings and behaviors during interactions.

The effectiveness of demonstrative communication is also enhanced when the listener or receiver of the message understands the information conveyed by the sender. Therefore, it has become an essential element for success in all relationships and interactions at work, play, and general life. One of the major ways of enhancing the effectiveness of this type of communication is by maintaining eye contact in order to ensure alertness and forcefulness and emphasize the message. For instance an individual can receive what other people think… [read more]

Listened to a Speech Research Paper

… Was the pace suitable to impart the information?

The pace was too fast, possibly due to anxiety of speaker and discomfort with subject. The speech would have benefited from pauses, certainly from a pause and smile in the beginning and… [read more]

Speech and Language Characteristics of Deaf Blind Children Research Paper

… Curtiss-Wright

Symbolic Communication and Deaf-Blindness: How Children Communicate

Children who are deaf-blind have diverse communication abilities and educational needs. Many have some residual vision and hearing or can use speech. Others are nonverbal or inconsistent in their ability to verbalize… [read more]

Interpretation Across Culture in on Line Communication Research Paper

… Cross Cultural Communication

Interpretation across Culture in online communication

Effective communication goes beyond the words that are used and encompasses a broader range of communicative skills, such as body language and gestures. Like, words, these gestures can have a different… [read more]

Communication Sciences and Disorders Term Paper

… Communications

Our voice is how we introduce ourselves to the world, how we impart our personality, our feelings, and our state of mind. When impaired, our speech prevents us from communicating accurately. A speech disorder can have a profound and deleterious impact on a young person's social life, on personal identity formation, and on self-esteem. Speech and language pathologists stand poised to use new technologies and techniques to help people of all ages work with their innate talents and abilities to improve their communication skills.

No matter what the cause of a speech or communication disability, it can and should be treated as early as possible. Helping parents recognize speech, language, and communication impairments in their toddlers and young children is one way that we can help minimize the pain and suffering endured by the family. Moreover, speech and language pathologists are able to change the way the world views speech and communication to reduce or hopefully eliminate stigmas associated with audible problems. Awareness… [read more]

Communication Term Paper

… ¶ … communication and how it is best to define, classify and relate it to other fields, disciplines and definitions. Overall, it shows that communication is just too broad and complex to easily pigeon hole and define.

Paradigms of Speech… [read more]

Non Verbal Communication the Impact of Nonverbal Term Paper

… Non Verbal Communication

The Impact of Nonverbal Communication on Presentation Delivery

When giving a presentation non-verbal communication can make the difference between a successful communication and a failed one. The written word is a powerful tool that is important to… [read more]

Swallowing Difficulty and Speech Term Paper

… Conclusion

It is easy for clinicians to focus on clinical outcomes, as can be demonstrated by previous research on the effectiveness of the NGT vs. PEG feeding tube systems. The administration of a feeding tube is surrounded by a variety of contradictory clinical evidence regarding its effectiveness in improving outcomes for the patients. A patient's outlook on life can often be a factor that determines the outcome of therapy to regain their ability to function normally. For this reason, it is important to consider the effects of the treatments performed on a patient's perception of their quality of life. The ability to eat normally and communicate with other human beings is a factor in this determination. This research will investigate the effects of the two most prevalent feeding methods for dysphagic stroke patients on their satisfaction with the quality of their life in regards to the ability to undergo therapy to regain communication and swallowing functions.

This study will directly compare the satisfaction levels of patients using these two methods. It will be administered via a survey and analyzed using comparative techniques. There are several factors which may confound the results of this study which are beyond the scope of the current study. One factor is that there are many factors that may effect the satisfaction of the patients with their quality of life and these factors may be reflected in the answers. Factors such as the level of family support and any predisposing conditions such as depression may have an effect on the survey. There is no baseline survey with which to compare these survey results. A longitudinal study would be useful in determining if the satisfaction of the two groups show more or less improvement over time. Many confounding factors exist in individual patients, such as a history of alcohol or substance abuse, the severity of the stroke and the area of the begin effected by the stroke. All of these factors may have an effect on the survey results.

Demographic data and cross tabulation may help to eliminate some of these confounding variables. It is still expected that even with these in consideration of these confounding variables the statistical significance of these variables will be in support of the thesis that the PEG method of feeding will give patients a significantly better satisfaction with the quality of their life as far as their ability to communicate an swallow food normally.

It is hoped that the data obtained in this study will dysphagic stroke patients make better decisions regarding their quality of life and determine the best treatment options for them. If the medical profession wishes to become more consumer conscience in the future, they will need to pay more attention to the effects that their interventions will have on the patients. Clinical results are important, but there is more to a patient than clinical results. We must remember that behind the numbers are real people and that it is these real people that count in the end.… [read more]

Speech Quality Tests: Analysis and Literature Research Paper

… Essentially, in HMM-based speech synthesis, higher waveform frequencies actually showed improved speech recognition on behalf of the listeners. This research can then serve as a way to help improve modern designs of HMM speech synthesis software to be even more realistic and effective for native language speakers. Overall, this was an appropriate use of the testing in a more modern context.

Additionally, another study, conducted by Valentini-Botinhao et al. (2011) also tested the effectiveness and quality of synthesized speech using speech quality tests. Here, researchers wanted to specifically test synthesized speech elements in noisy situations, where a utilitarian approach was taken for general test subjects. Again, this test took an analytical approach and used multiple scales, including the Speech Intelligibility Index (SII) and the Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ). Four additional noises were added to the synthesized speech in order to test which was most effective in noisy situations. Synthetic speech was far less in quality when compared to natural speech overall; yet, the addition of a binary mask to synthesized speech may help increase the quality of the speech even in noisy situations. Again, speech quality testing was effectively used here to evaluate the quality of synthesized speech.


Springer Science Media. (2011). Speech Quality Measurement Methods. Web.,d.cGU

Stan, A., Yamagishi, J., King, S., & Aylett, M. (2011). The Romanian speech synthesis (RSS) corpus: Building a high quality HMM-based speech synthesis system using a high sampling rate. Speech Communication, 53(3), 442-450.

Valentini-Botinhao, C., Yamagishi, J., & King, S. (2011, May). Evaluation of objective measures for intelligibility prediction of HMM-based synthetic speech in noise. In Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2011 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 5112-5115). IEEE. [read more]

Organizational Communication: Success and Failure Essay

… They failed to use them since they could not retain the information on how to operate the equipment as they had read (Ruquet, 2010).

Another factor that led to communication failure in this scenario was completeness. The information sent through… [read more]

Strategic Communication Leading Through Strategic Communication: Hurricane A-Level Coursework

… Strategic Communication

Leading Through Strategic Communication: Hurricane Sandy Superstorm Guidance and Assistance for FHA Insured Recipients

In Class Goal Setting

The goal of the program is to ensure strategic communication to inform FHA insured recipients of assistance they are eligible… [read more]

Intercultural Communication Refers to the Connection Essay

… Intercultural communication refers to the connection and interaction among people of different countries and cultures and their behaviors (Scribd 2013). It is now common experience that people of diverse cultures link up or are brought together by common interests like… [read more]

Communication Theory Research Paper

… Communication Theory (attribution Theory in Communication)

Communication process involves exchange of information between the sender and the receiver. The sender transmits a message while the receiver decodes the message sent. The key elements of myriad communication models are: the sender,… [read more]

Communication Protocols Essay

… A good instance is a head nod, the same head nod may mean yes among an American audience and yet among an Indian audience the same head nod may mean refusal or disagreement.

Still on verbal communication the Americans may use some metaphors with sports terms like "all the bases are covered" or "we want a level playing field" these are not understood by those who are non-native English speakers. The use of phrases that are culturally-based is seen to pose challenges during communication in collective cultures.

Another example is some cultures are high context and the communication requires awareness of facial expressions, tone of voice and eye contact. On the other hand U.S. is a low culture context, where people depend more on words than other external expressions for meaning. The difference in how the low and high culture context will bring a misunderstanding in communication.

Another cause of misunderstanding can also be seen in silence which is a communication style in a high context culture like the Asians which indicates thoughtfulness in decision making. While in the U.S. The silence is an uncomfortable gesture and tends to fill the void with small talk like comments about the weather.

In Islamic culture also women do not shake hands with male this can be viewed as rude or offensive in the U.S. And hence will bring about misunderstandings.

Recommendations for decreasing misunderstanding in communication

Different cultures and how communication is undertaken can pose challenges in communication among people and therefore measures have to be taken to reduce these differences. Some of the measures include; understanding of the different communication modes in different cultures and learning them or understanding them (Martin, 2012). For instance before sending people for a business to people of a different culture there should be cultural informants who have multicultural expertise who will offer support and guide. There should also be emphasis on an open mind when interacting with people from different cultures. There should be no rigidity and have room for accommodating other cultures and their modes of communication. There should also be the use of a communication mode that is easily understandable by the majority of the people within an organization. This will reduce apathy every time a message is sent out and enable quick communication within an organization.


Callaway, C. (2000). Business Communication Protocol. Retrieved October 6, 2012, from

Martin, M.J. (2012). Resolving Cultural Conflict in the Workplace. Retrieved October 6, 2012, from

Griffin, J. (2008). How to say it at work: putting yourself across with power words, phrases, body language, and communication secrets. Paramus, NJ: Prentice Hall. [read more]

Non-Verbal Communication Since Time Immemorial Research Paper

… Non-Verbal Communication

Communication since time immemorial has remained one of the most substantial and crucial process on a constant basis that refers to transferring of the information from one person to another. Indeed, people communicate with each other so that… [read more]

Communication in Organization Intercultural Essay

… Communication in Organizations

The case study is based on PTB company that decided to take the better percentage of their employees to Sydney Australia for a two day conference that was to focus on the new sales and marketing skills… [read more]

Communications as a Discipline Essay

… For example, whenever two people interact, the basis of sociology, that interaction involves communication. And no matter how that communication takes place, there are always going to be psychological aspects such as shared experiences, etc., or physiological ones like sweating, flushing, eye dilation, and other physical aspects that are caused by the psychological feelings involved. Communications is not only its own discipline, it is the overarching discipline that is made up of all the others.

But because communications involves so many other disciplines, it is difficult to establish one, core communication theory. There is one set of basic components to the definition of communication, and there really should be one core theory of communication. It is true that what theory a person decides to use in their study of communications depends upon what aspect of communications one is studying. For example, when one's studies involve the rhetorical theory, speech and sounds are the most important aspect. However, when studying the phenomenological theory, or the aspect of communication that involves experience, one must involve psychology. ("SPC 3210, Chapter 2") The same can be said for any of the other communication theories like semiotic, cybernetic, socio-cultural, or critical tradition. ("SPC 3210, Chapter 2") However, because communication is itself dependent upon the circumstances, experiences, psychology and situation of those involved, communication is a process; and that process that can provide the core component of a single all encompassing theory. While social, symbolic, meaning, and environmental aspects of communication may be dependent upon the type of communication theory one is studying, the fact that it is a process is the one thing that all studies have and will have in common. It is because communication involves so many other fields, the process of communication can be the starting point to the development of a theory that can then be applied to any aspect of communications.


"SPC 3210: Contemporary Human Communication." McGraw Hill/Florida… [read more]

Managing an Interpersonal Communication Environment Essay

… In negotiation, the couple would start by identifying and defining the conflict between them then they would generate the possible solutions to the conflict. The third solution is to evaluate the alternative solutions to find if they are going to work. The last thing is to decide which the best solution is for them after which this decision is followed Adler et al., 2011()

The second way to manage the interpersonal communication environment is through finding the credibility of the source of information. The lady in this case should have evaluated the credibility of the source of information. It is important not to stereotype by making the assumption that the person giving the information is correct. At the same time, it is important not to let emotions interfere with reason. By letting tempers fly high, they interfere with an individual's ability to reason which also prevents the sender from passing the information in the correct way and at the same time, the recipient is unable to interpret the message as it is needed Floyd, 2009()

The interpersonal communication environment can also be managed through effective listening and feedback which ensures that the sender is able to pass the message across effectively and that the recipient is able to acknowledge that the message has come across and that they are able to interpret it as the sender desired Floyd, 2009()

It is also important to manage agreement in the communication environment. This means that there needs to be synergy in the team which is achieved by getting people the communicators to work together in a collaborative fashion to make the right decision in the right attitude. This involves the people in the conversation opening up their minds to new ideas and also giving and receiving feedback that creates a discussion that fosters a good interpersonal understanding and resolves the conflict to bring about a consensus Floyd, 2009()

Expected outcome

When the communication environment is managed effectively, there is a positive outcome that is expected from the communication itself. First is that there is the confirmation or disconfirmation of messages. This means that the communicators are able to confirm that they have passed the message and that the message has been understood. This is done so for both the verbal and the nonverbal messages. This creates a positive climate for communication which helps to grow the communication environment.

The second outcome is a supportive and constructive environment which means that the environment is further encouraged to continue being positive for the passing of verbal and nonverbal messages which helps for future communication. By managing the communication environment effectively, it helps to resolve conflict in the best way possible which helps to create a satisfying outcome for both people in the communication which helps to foster future communication.

Managing the interpersonal communication environment effectively also leads to improved interaction between the communicators. This is because it helps to reduce the barriers on the receiver and sender's end which results from ineffective listening. It… [read more]

Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication Research Paper

… A Japanese person points a finger to his face in referring to himself while a Chinese, to his nose, and a North American to his chest. A person of a given culture looks at the eyes or face of the… [read more]

Interpersonal Communications Communication Is Very Important Essay

… Interpersonal Communications

Communication is very important in all types of relationships so that people can connect with one another to find out how to make things n peace. In order to communicate properly, people must use interpersonal communication skill to… [read more]

Communication Management: Communication in the Workplace Essay

… Communication

Management: Communication in the Workplace

When people in an organization conduct a meeting, share stories in the cafeteria, or deliver presentations, they are making efforts to communicate. To understand why communication efforts sometimes break down and find ways to… [read more]

Communication and Gender Term Paper

… Social penetration theory essentially details the process from which a person goes from shedding the layers of his or her public persona to revealing his or her own, true personality. The process of achieving this goal, of course, is through… [read more]

Speech Pathology Admission Essay

… Speech therapy is crucial for many oral and throat cancer patients. First, speech therapy provides the best opportunity for the least invasive solutions to restoring normal thoracic controls such as swallowing.

My immediate hope is to have the opportunity to… [read more]

Business Communication the Business Environment Is Analyzed Literature Review

… Business Communication

The business environment is analyzed by numerous research studies that intend to understand the rules that determine business behavior, its factors of influence, and some of the most important effects of these factors. Communication is one of the… [read more]

Bill Clinton and Effective Style of Speech Research Proposal

… Speech

Bill Clinton and His Power of Speech

While many former presidents have hit the speaking circuit as a way to stay in the public eye and make some extra cash, none have succeeded as much as Clinton, who has… [read more]

Roles of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication in Interpersonal Interactions Term Paper

… Verbal/Nonverbal Communication


Interpersonal communications consist primarily of conscious verbal conversation, but nonverbal cues also play an equally important role. Nonverbal communication includes both conscious and unconscious elements of body language and patterns of eye contact,… [read more]

Proposal Eliminating Communication Barriers in IT Development With the Rest of the Departments Term Paper

… ¶ … eliminating communication barriers in it/Development with the rest of the departments

Communication barriers between it/Development and the rest of an organization's departments

This paper is aimed at making the company's management aware of the communication's implications to the… [read more]

Communication Apprehension Term Paper

… Communication Apprehension

Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA)

The difference between state CA and trait CA



Future directions

The conceptualization and study of communicative anxiety has been an area of interest to communication scholars and researchers for decades.… [read more]

Personality and Communication Affect on Supervision Term Paper


Imagine that you are sitting in a room with three other people: a convicted serial killer, an eccentric scientist, and a four-year-old child. If you had to choose one, which one would you pick?… [read more]

Management Communication One Situation Term Paper

… Management Communication

One situation that can be cited regarding communication in workplace is the instances within the hospital staff and patient relationship. This kind of communication is apparent in many inpatient and outpatient care service (Gordon). When a medical staff is in direct contact with patients, they are provided with communication opportunities with the patients. Such relationship, using verbal communications, similarly provides them with chances of using human speech in a greater degree. This is especially useful when solving problems.

Aside from verbal communications, there are also instances where nonverbal type of communication used for exchanging ideas or expressions. In our example of medical staff and patient relationship, signs are generally used especially during instances when there is a need to immediately communicate a simple thought (i.e. such as telling a medical staff of an emergency situation by moving his arms). The literature of Pierce (1961) mentioned that signs are widely used as they possess meanings, which are closest to the of the sentence implications."

This situation proves advantageous as the medical staff can minimize time element in dealing with a number of patients (Rosen, George). There is no longer the need to express words in giving instructions to the patients or in situations that patients respond to the medical staff.

One effective learning technique that I learned is in the form of a linear model. This happens when information are conveyed to a receiver in linear order. This type of learning technique can be similarly useful in managing medical staff and patients during frequent contact and communication with them. As implied by Gordon (1969) the linear model is containing all these elements contribution to an effective listening technique."

Another common situation where nonverbal communication is used is between the relationship of a doctor and the family of a patient. Sometimes,… [read more]

Management Written Communication: An Essential Element Essay

… Management

Written Communication: An Essential Element of Successful Business Interaction

Written communication when used effectively can be one of the most powerful ways to connect with an audience (Morgan, 2003). When used incorrectly however the written word can also result… [read more]

Nonverbal Communication Skill Term Paper

… For example, a number of research studies indicate that there is a significant gender difference in the nonverbal encoding decoding skills among humans, with women being far more competent than men in both nonverbal skills

. This is, perhaps, the… [read more]

Teaching AAC Early on Impacts Term Paper

… By examining this and making a determination as to whether this type of teaching is beneficial, researchers and educators can both benefit from the information presented herein. Educators can take this information and use it to help the children in… [read more]

Teaching Communication Skills for Students Term Paper

… It has also been successfully tried with adolescents and adults having speech problems of various kinds. The use of PECS is found to be more effective if the behavioral analysis of the student is also taken into account.

Experts in… [read more]

Non-Verbal Communication When We Communicate Term Paper

… One of her favorite examples of how body language can speak volumes when you're not, is that of the testimony of former President Bill Clinton about Monica Lewinsky. "The giveaway that Clinton was lying was he touched his nose about once every four minutes. Fidgeting, touching your nose or eye, tugging on your ear are all indications of untruthfulness, especially if these gestures are done with the left hand" (Perin).

In the workplace, body language can be an essential tool in gauging how your boss responds, how employees communicate between each other and during mediation. The business world could gain favorably if they understood the value of non-verbal cues and how these are accepted around the world, not just in one's own culture, but in the cultures of those that they are doing business with.

Companies could also gain a lot through profiling their customers' body language. For instance, Starbucks used Hargrave to analyze their customers through researching what they did with their drinking straws and how it coincided with their personalities. "The Chewer: likes nourishment in the way of words and emotions" while "The Knot-Tier: determined, precise, intellectual a planner" were only two of the twelve types of personalities, such research gives Starbucks a keen insight on their customers and how they can market towards them - either nationally or in store.

The CIA is keen to use body language in profiling possible terrorists by using a facial recognition system that can read non-verbal cues. Using the science of Kinesics, "the CIA wants to teach computers to watch for detailed facial language clues" (Lortie, 7) Even though the use of such technology could be advantageous, and using a computer to analyze video where "one minute of an interview can take a trained observer an hour, but that a computer might be handle the process in real time" (Lortie) some people feel that this infringes on a person's civil rights and privacy. Beyond this, the human element would be missing and such profiling would "not explicitly include race as an element" (Lortie).

Non-verbal communication is a key aspect of communication that is shrouded in myth. Very few of us are aware of the important role it plays on our subconscious and what it reveals of us during a conversation, nor are we aware of some of the basic notions of body language. Body language is specific to certain cultures and is often misconstrued in business because of cultural differences or ignorance of certain non-verbal taboos.

By becoming more knowledgeable in the basics of body language and realizing the role it plays in mediation, interviews and day-to-day life, we will be able to communicate more effectively and appreciate our co-workers and employers more. Body Language is an aspect of communication that requires very little time in understanding and will be amount to a world of difference in how we relay a message or desire.


Perin, M. "Body Language Expert Has a Read on Communication."

Houston Business Journal October 10, 2003… [read more]

Communications in a Business Setting Term Paper

… Cooper noted that formal training programs are helpful, but cited another researcher (Hall, 19976) who argued that most "real" training happens during peer-assisted, self-directed learning through such activities as project teams, task forces, electronic relationships, personal networks, customer relationships, and… [read more]

Speech Pathologists, Like Other Social Term Paper

… This is also best portrayed using examples, because the meaning of intonation is not successfully conveyed to text. A small minority of the population suffers from Ossberger's syndrome, which precludes them from understanding non-verbal communication. Children are often dramatic in their intonations, and this can be used to portray the nature and origins of intonation. Unfortunately, this is difficult to people with a specific knowledge of speeh. Such nebulous explanations as "when your voice goes up and down," or "the way you say the things you say" are too nebulous. It can be easily understood that people have different abilities to understand each other's attitudes from what they say based on the medium, but intonation can always be gathered from what you hear. For instance, shouting is a form of intonation, and questions are a form of a sentence that feature intonation. It would be necessary to point out why it is that text must feature marks such as the comma, period and question mark to convey what is lost in not being able to display intonation.

The concept of rate is easy to purvey; it is a matter of fast or slow speech. Intensity, however, is much more difficult. Intensity is how we display urgency or necessity in our speech. It is harder for one to convey an example of 'intense' speech vs. non-intense speech. Intense has several different meanings, which makes this matter more difficult. This might best be addressed in a group setting, where people can talk back and forth to one another and then comment on the level of intensity that was used in speech. [read more]

Public Address the Ceo Term Paper

… The body of Mr. Seidenberg's lecture was aimed at discussing the potential of the next generation of technology to create growth and how the services of Verizon Communications could be most profitably delivered to potential and current customers. He also stressed that his vision of the industry must be based on a specific paradigm, one centered around competition, investment and innovation in order to expand the market and benefit everyone involved.

By far, Mr. Seidenberg's closing comments illustrated his talent for providing a very powerful lecture. He obviously put a great amount of time and thought into what he was going to say at the conclusion of his speech, for it was very motivationally directed, challenging and well developed. It also strongly influenced the audience, for I remember hearing many people talk about it as they were getting ready to leave the lecture. Once again, the highlight of Mr. Seidenberg's closing was his use of humor which left the audience laughing and applauding.

This obviously helped to give everyone in attendance an extremely positive impression about Mr. Seidenberg and allowed every member of the lecture to leave feeling upbeat and confident about themselves: "The decisions that all employees of Verizon make this year about how we service our customers will influence the flow of billions of dollars' worth of capital, the security of thousands of jobs, the speed of the economic recovery, and the legacy of Verizon's technological leadership." The closing was appropriately followed by an hour's worth of questions from a very inquisitive audience. Mr. Seidenberg made it a point to limit one's question to no more than thirty seconds or so in order for everyone to have a chance.

In regard to Mr. Seidenberg's speaking and delivery techniques, his voice was clear and strong and he always strived to pronounce and accentuate his well-chosen words. Since this was meeting of company executives and other employees of Verizon Communications, I thought it was a wise decision to allow the audience to know what was going to be discussed during the lecture via the copy of the speech handed out prior to its commencement. As to Mr. Seidenberg's delivery, if the audience expected intensity, then they surely were not disappointed. Mr. Seidenberg exhibited much emotion, expressed his message with great meaning and developed a sense of comradeship with his audience. His speech patterns ebbed and flowed and varied in pace throughout the entire time. He also took advantage of selected moments to pause in his speech which allowed the audience to ponder about what was said and to absorb his entire message.

In conclusion, I think it would be nearly impossible to recommend improvements to Mr. Seidenberg's speech. He is apparently a master of the lectern with years of experience behind him. His powerful and exciting approach to public speaking should serve as an inspiration for everyone who is required to include this type of activity in their job routines. If every person who delivers a lecture or speech to… [read more]

Ethical Interpersonal Communication Essay

… Moreover, each one of them should take the advantages of the opportunity when each one of them appears to open up a dialogue relationship. Both parties should indulge in the following communication competencies to develop a productive communication:


Effective listening,


Emotional intelligence,

Trust building, and Moral argument.

Both Reid and Boeher should indulge the concept of mindfulness in the communication. The mindfulness involves in simultaneously indulging in a complete attention by focusing on our thought as well as the thought of the opposing party. Moreover, a mindfulness is the process of devoting a complete attention to issue at hand. The benefit of mindfulness is that both parties are likely to experience positive mood during a communication process, and less likely to suffer from anxiety and depression. More importantly, mindfulness will promote relationships between both parties, because a mindful communication assists a partner in the argument to welcome new information from the other partner while focusing on his behavior during the communication process. Moreover, mindfulness relationship will assist the partners to allow a room for different point-of-view.

Johnson, (2012) argues that listening is key aspect of dialogue. Essentially, both Reid and Boeher should understand each other perspective in other to arrive at a shared solution. Both the Reid and Boeher should adopt the HURIER model in the communication strategy. The HURIER model consists of:





Evaluating, and Responding.

Both Reid and Boeher should integrate the model to develop effective listening skills. For example, each of them should have patient to listen to the message of the other partner. When the other partner is putting forward his own argument, the other partner should take a note of the important points for further understanding. The strategy will assist each one of them to remember, interpret and evaluate the information received. The information collected will assist each one of them to deliver appropriate response to convince the other party on the appropriate course of action.

Developing an emotional intelligence skill is another strategy in achieving a productive communication. Both the Reid and Boeher should employ emotional intelligence technique in the communication system. Johnson, (2012) argues that "emotional sensitive individual get along better with people in general" (p 127). "Emotional intelligence is the capacity to identify and influence the emotion in the other and in the self." (Johnson 2012, p 128). In other word, emotional intelligence is the strategy by which an individual process information. Typically, emotional intelligence assists in processing sophisticated information of others and one owns.

Reid or Boeher should identify the emotion of the other party during the communication process by recognize their feelings. Each of them should be able to pick up a clue of the other emotion through the body language, voice, and facial expression. They should be able to capitalize on the emotion of the other party during the argument. Moreover, all of them should avoid engaging in argument when they are in negative mood. They should only engage in argument when they are… [read more]

Process Communication Essay

… For example the same word said in different tones may be interpreted to mean different moods or intentions (Rosengren, 1999). Cultures can also impact on the meaning of words, likewise with physical gesture; the OK sign in U.S. culture is an insult in Italian culture. Body language and non-verbal clues need to match with the message, if they appear to create a conflict the recipient is likely to pick up on the conflict, and the message will be undermined, creating cognitive dissonance, and loss credibility (Rosengren, 1999).

The second stage is the sending of the message; this may be though different mediums, such as verbally face-to-face, over the telephone, or television (Thompson, 2011). Another common medium is the written medium which may include letter emails, printed adverts, books and manuals. The mediums may also be used to send a message on a one to one, many to one, or one to many basis, and may be sent vertically, such as from a superior to a subordinate, horizontally between peers, it can also be undertaken formally though official channels, such as an employee memos, or informally, such as through gossip (Thompson, 2011). The choice of an appropriate channel is essential to meeting the communication aims; mass marketing would be ineffective if undertaken on a many to one basis, or on a face-to-face basis, the use of a mass communication medium that reaches many people is likely to be more cost effective (Rosengren, 1999). Another example may be the communications of technical information, which may be best communicated in writing in a memo or manual, rather than verbally, where information may be lost (Rosengren, 1999).

The last stage of the communication process is the decoding of the message, the receipt, hears or sees the message and then interprets it according to the different influences, such as the recipients own interpretation of the word, their own values and experiences (Thompson, 2011). Influence that impact on the reception may also include the credibility of the sender and the message, the higher the level of credibility, the greater the potential influence (Thompson, 2011).

Effective communication requires careful consideration of all these elements, including what is to be achieved, how the message may be formed, sent and received, and the influences that impact on the interpretation of that message.


Rosengren, Karl… [read more]

Communication Skills Are Critical in Any Business Essay

… Communication skills are critical in any business or profession. However, the type of communication skills necessary will depend on the organizational culture, the job description and roles, and other contextual factors. Some jobs will require greater written communication skills than others; and some jobs demand astute oral or verbal communications skills. When analyzing my own communications skills, it may be helpful to review both the Baack (2012) text as well as scholarly resources. Without scholarly resources, I may not be able to assess my communication skills effectively enough. This paper will describe the assessment methods that I used to analyze my own communication skills. Then, I will discuss the observed or measured gaps in communication skills and identify training that can be used to address those gaps. Finally, I will discuss how I can improve my current communication skills to prepare me for advancement in my profession.

To assess my communications skills, I used a combination of methods. As Arnold & Boggs (2013) point out, assessments can be both subjective and objective in nature, as well as qualitative or quantitative. In this case, I used a subjective and qualitative assessment measure based on self-reports. Self-reports are not the most reliable types of assessment methods because of the probability of bias. Therefore, I also included an assessment method that was objective in nature, but also qualitative. This involved interviewing my supervisor at work about my communication skills. To include a quantitative assessment measure to bolster the efficacy of my analysis, I prepared a survey for my coworkers too. This survey included several questions related to my communications skills, and I asked my colleagues to fill out the form. Using these three methods, my communications skills assessment was nearly infallible.

My assessment results revealed some critical information. My core strengths include listening skills, empathy, and affability. I have what Burns (2002) calls an "other-oriented approach," which was described as "good" by my… [read more]

Free Speech vs. Discrimination and Harassment Essay

… Sexual Harassment and Freedom of Speech

The freedom of speech is considered, by many, to be the most fundamental freedoms. Without free speech it is impossible to transmit ideas, to learn, to educate. In fact, in many… [read more]

Channel Signaling Systems Are Communications Essay

… However, the systems only function when terminal equipment and applications are connected properly, which is a relatively complex process to achieve.

Voice Processing Systems for Businesses:

The modern business environment is communication intensive to an extent that businesses are increasingly facing the need for a reliable strategy for managing communication issues. Today's businesses require dependable systems and means of handling messages and meeting the demands of customers for readily available information. This need has contributed to the development of a wide range of reliable voice processing systems and solutions that businesses can choose from. Some of the major examples of voice processing systems for businesses include Toshiba Stratagy family of voice processing systems and Panasonic voice processing systems.

Toshiba Stratagy family of voice processing systems range from voice mail to unified messaging in attempts to match the varying needs and budgets of voice processing in small and medium-sized businesses ("Stratagy Voice Processing," 2002). These voice processing system models or designs enable businesses to add voice processing applications as needs change without major hardware upgrades. The ability to add voice processing applications when necessary is a major advantage of this set of voice processing systems. Secondly, the use of Stratagy component in these voice processing systems makes them one of the most flexible business telephone systems. The other advantages of these systems is that they promote enhanced efficiency in internal and external communications, management of calls, and service to customers while improving the business' bottom line. While these systems provide numerous advantages to businesses with regards to improved productivity and efficiency, they contain relatively expensive hardware and software requirements. During the installation of the systems, a business may be required to buy costly hardware and software, which is a major disadvantage.

Similar to Toshiba Stratagy family of voice processing systems, Panasonic provide a set of voice processing systems that support more than voice mail and computerized attendant service. Panasonic KX-TVA voice processing systems are suitable for businesses because they contain various features including bilingual capability and email integration. The bilingual capability implies that the systems can be tailor-made to meet the specific needs of the business ("Voice Processing Systems," n.d.). One of the advantages of these systems is that they are designed to handle all calls in an efficient and courteous way by allowing businesses to add an important human voice touch when responding to customer calls. Secondly, these systems are flexible, versatile, provide affordable voice messaging, and offer automated attendant service. Their disadvantage is that they require combination with other Panasonic voice processing systems to support digital integration.


Voice communication and processing is generally a multi-faceted process that requires appropriate systems to handle. Generally, these processes require channel signaling systems for transmission of voice frequency and voice processing systems to handle some communication needs. In the past few years, several channel signaling systems and voice processing systems have been developed to help meet communication needs. Each of these systems has advantages and disadvantages that determine their effectiveness in today's… [read more]

Slang and Communication in Clueless Essay

… The use and interplay of these terms allows the adolescents to feel that they are a special group; and using these terms means that often they are able to converse without their parents and teachers having any idea about the entire meaning of the conversation. For example, the language is not always debased and sometimes even has roots in a classical education, yet it is shortened and has deeper meanings for the teens:

Tai: Do you think she's pretty?

Cher: No, she's a full-on Monet.

Tai: What's a monet?

Cher: It's like a painting, see? From far away, it's OK, but up close, it's a big old mess. Let's ask a guy. Christian, what do you think of Amber?

Christian: Hagsville.

Cher: See? (Quotes from Clueless, 1995)

This discussion essentially brings up the idea of the famous French Impressionist Monet, who worked in dabs of color that when viewed from a distance established a beautiful sense of imagery, but when viewed close up -- in other words when one gets to know the person, it is like a television screen -- pixilated and not understandable. The term hagsville refers to the crone or hag term of a very old, ugly woman, sometimes even in Shakespearean terms, a witch.

This small scene gives us a great deal of information about the speakers -- they at least know something about French impressionism, even if it is but a name; and they are able to extrapolate means in metaphors and similes, higher level thinking. This exchange would not be appropriate outside their age or clique, and separates them much like ethnic terms separate racial identity. The only way these types of terms could be used in formal or public speaking would be to illustrate slang or speaking because they are specific to a group; and public or formal speaking must be more elevated in order to establish credibility.

Works Cited

Chandler, D. (2010, June). The Transmission Model of Communication. Retrieved September 2013, from

Patel, A. (2012, December 19). Slang Words: What Are Young People Saying These Days. Retrieved September 30, 2013, from The Huffington Post:

Quotes from Cluless. (1995, April). Retrieved September 2013, from IMDb: [read more]

Talking Styles Article Critique

… Albeit, in that context, you are likely listening so intently to the conversation in order to hear things you disagree with so that you have more ammunition to fight against their verbal opponent.

On the "Language Style Matching" website, the report retrieved indicates that there is indeed a correlation between the level of language similarity of individuals and the quality and potential success of their relationship (Pennebaker). A lasting romantic relationship is indicated by the following characteristics: matching conversational style, emotional tone, and the pitch of voice and speech used within conversations with that person. Although my own relationships may not be of the same epic quality as the ones listed in the article, Elizabeth and Robert Browning and Sylvia Plath and Ted Hughes, but the same principles underscore my relationships. If we do agree that language style matching is an important property of relationships, then it can be stated that language style matching is a way to predict the quality of interpersonal communication between those two individuals.

There are couples who find that it is of the utmost importance to communicate with one another and these pairings are the ones which will likely indicate stronger relationships. For a long time, psychologists and sociologists have determined that communication is the key to a successful relationship. In a romantic pairing, communication usually begins when a man and a woman share time together. Many things will initially attract a male and female, such as appearance, personality, or charisma. For example, when I first met my husband, we were immediately attracted to one another. Our attraction preceded our first conversation; it played a highly influential role in our eventual coupling. As we progressed in our relationship, I found out that we had a communication problem as many couples do.

Historically, "Language-style matching diminished as each relationship soured" (Bower 2010). When relationships disintegrate, so does their level of communication. Instead of comprehensive discourse on a variety of issues, the conversations usually involve a range of topics limited to the ways in which the two parties disagree. Conversely, when people have proper communication skills, there is a greater likelihood that they can overcome the issues which present themselves in any relationship.

Works Cited

Bower, B. (2010). Shared talking styles herald new and lasting romance. Science News.

Pennebaker. (n.d.). Retrieved from… [read more]

Addressing Barriers to Effective Communication Research Paper

… ¶ … ineffective communication within a specific health care organization in order to identify barriers and challenges that contributed to the incident. This essay will describe an incident where a mistake was made due to faulty communication practices.

Recently I accompanied my friend to the emergency room at the local hospital after he had accidently cut most of his thumb off while preparing a salad for dinner. After registering with the nurse at the ER we were told to wait in a screening room until the doctor could examine my friend. My friend was bleeding pretty bad and was quite scared even though this injury was not life threatening and would most likely heal without any problem.

As time went by waiting we soon began to realize that some sort of miscommunication had occurred because it had been nearly one hour and no doctor had come to visit. The room itself was out of the main hallway and was hidden out of sight. At this time I had gone back to the front desk and a new nurse was there as a new shift had begun. I had asked her when my friend would receive some treatment and this nurse did not know what I was talking about. After several minutes of discussion we both realized that the nurse who had just got off shift did not communicate to her our situation.

While this incident is minor, it demonstrates the importance of communication. While me friend only had cut off part of his thumb, no one in the ER knew… [read more]

Communication Personal Account Essay

… Regular staff meetings and really, constant daily communication among the staff is a great way to locate barriers in communication. It is additionally important to check for communication barriers between nursing home staff and the residents. Productivity is a usual demonstration that communication is working and there are few barriers. A pleasant work atmosphere is also a demonstration that communication is working. It is not that there will not be problems or that work will be perfect, but it will be better than average and there will be clear structures in place to support strong, clear communication.

Confidentiality is basically not revealing personal information to irrelevant parties. There is sensitive information that nursing staff come across and must know in order to do their jobs well. This is the kind of information that could put the residents at risk for credit fraud and other dangers. Confidentiality includes understanding what information is sensitive and private, in addition to having the respect and self-discipline to not disclose confidential information to parties that truly do not need to know. For me, I immediately think of drugs that nursing residents take and what procedures to take when they fall ill (who has power of attorney, do not resuscitate, etc.)


Colon-Emeric, C.S., Ammarell, N., Bailey, D., Corazzini, K., Lekan-Rutledge, D., Piven, M.L., Utley-Smith, Q., & Anderson, R.A. Patterns of Medical and Nursing Staff Communication in Nursing Homes: Implications and Insights From Complexity Science. Qualitative Health Research, 16(2), 173 -- 188, 2006.

Pillember, PhD, K., Suitor, PhD, J., Henderson, Jr., C.R., Meador, R., Schultz, L., Robison, PhD, J., & Hegeman, C. A Cooperative Communication Intervention for Nursing Home Staff and Family Members of Residents. The Gerontologist, 43, Special Issue II,… [read more]

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