"Communication / Speech" Essays

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Overcoming Communication Barriers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,326 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Autism: Overcoming Communication Barriers

a) Background: Autism

What is Autism?

History of Autism, including research done in an effort to understand Autistic.

Characteristics of a child with Autism b) Background: Communication

Communication definition, methods, history.

Importance of communication to human life.

A c) Analysis of the effects of Autism on communication.

Development of a?€ normal?€ child with regard to communication.… [read more]

Dysarthria Correcting a Speech Disorder Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,288 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5




This study used the descriptive-normative type of research in recording, describing, interpreting, analyzing and comparing data on dysarthria. It introduces communication disorders, specifically dysarthria and its causes, symptoms, assessment and treatments. The role of the speech language pathologist is outlined along with the methods he uses in every phase of diagnosis and treatment. Issues, however, still remain concerning some modes of treatment of the disorder and research continues on intervention.

Disorder or impairment in a person's ability to communication can be distressing if not recognized and adequately treated (Melfi et al., 2011). If one's voice quality, pitch or volume is different from others of the same age, culture or location, he may have a voice disorder. One type if called dysarthria. It refers to a group of motor speech disorders, which develops from a disturbance in the neuromuscular control of speech. That disturbance may be a stroke, brain injury, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS, multiple sclerosis, Huntington's disease, cerebral palsy or tumors (Ashley, 2006). The most common symptoms include slurred speech or imprecise articulation, abnormal rate of speech, low volume, and impaired voice quality. Causes include paralysis, weakness or a lack of coordination of the muscles involved in speech. The five types are flaccid, ataxic, spastic, hyperkinetic and hypokinetic. Flaccid dysarthria is associated with brain stem stroke or progressive bulbar palsy; ataxic disarthria with multiple sclerosis; spastic disarthria with stroke; hyperkinetic disarthria with Huntington's chorea; and hypokinetic disarthria with Parkinson's Disease (Ashley).

Assessment and Treatment: the Role of the Speech Language Pathologist

Assessment consists of a complete oral-peripheral examination of the speech muscles both at rest and when moving (Ashley, 2006). The speech language pathologist evaluates facial muscles and muscles used in chewing in structure, symmetry, strength, precision, and speed. He asks the patient to imitate his demonstrated labial and lingual movements in speaking and non-speaking posts. By making the patient perform diadochokinetic tasks, the pathologist can detect the speed, precision, and rhythm control of the respiratory, phonatory, and articulatory structures. He observes respiration both at rest and when speaking. Speech instruments are also used as objective measurements in combination with standard tests of intelligibility. Among those are the Assessment of Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech and French Dysarthria Assessment (Ashley). The use of acoustic methods can identify any of the three classes of subclinical manifestations of dysarthria (Ganty et al., 2012). These characteristics may be temporal, spectral, or phonatory (Ganty et al.).

Treatment varies according to the cause, type, severity of symptoms, and communication needs of the patient (Ashley, 2006). Changing the patient's speech or speaking conditions can bring overall improvement. The intention is usually to improve articulation by increasing lip, tongue movement and strength in order to achieve speech clarity. Other goals are to reduce the rate of speech and increase breath support. Management strategies include increasing volume by increasing phonatory effort or improving intelligibility through rate reduction and increased volume of the voice (Ashley). The pathologist will instruct the patient to… [read more]

Computers and Alternative Communication Just Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,530 words)
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¶ … Computers and Alternative Communication

Just as technology has been able to make life easier and open up to more opportunities than ever before, technology has also enabled people with speech disorders to be able to communicate in ways that they ordinarily might not have been capable of. One's ability to communicate has an undeniable impact on one's ability… [read more]

John F. Kennedy Moon Speech Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,151 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


John F. Kennedy Moon Speech - Rice Stadium, rhetorical analysis of John F. Kennedy's September 12, 1962, Moon Speech - Rice Stadium, Houston, Texas

There is a strong connection between John F. Kennedy, the 35th American President, and the space race occurring throughout the Cold War. Kennedy largely believed that having the upper hand in the space race was a… [read more]

Communication Theories the Unique A2 Coursework

A2 Coursework  |  2 pages (591 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Question 5

Although ritual and habits do provide some sort of communication transmission in their practice, these two terms need to be distinguished from each other in order to understand the finer aspects of their usage within communication. When ordering a meal through a drive thru window at a fast food restaurant that type of communication appears to be an applied use or transmission. There is a ritual aspect of this transmission however, that is rooted in the ritual aspects of food, digestion and regeneration of new cells. A ritualistic aspect of communication would be the common greetings we speak to another. While greetings such as "hello" and " see you later" are rather empty in real meaning, have a ritualistic aspects that demonstrates the emotional attitude of the speaker towards the receiver.

Question 7

Donath & Boyd would welcome the social media aspect towards forming relationships and communication because it presents a novel and new way to learn and evolve, aligning with their interpretation on the subject. Facebook is no longer a tool per se, but more of an institution that does not need to be abided by in order to navigate through society despite pressures from the mainstream and media. It appears, at some level that Facebook itself is a weaponized tool to exploit the young and ignorant on their willingness to share and learn. Facebook consists mostly of fake people claiming to do fake things so its value is limited to disinformation and propaganda techniques in most cases. Littlejohn and Foss would describe could describe this trend as an attempt to describe the Uncertainty Reduction Theory, suggesting we like to dress people down as we meet them and find out all there is…… [read more]

Communication: Beyond Verbal Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,033 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


23). Take, for example, the same work situation. Individual A tells Individual B. that he is happy with B's work and expresses this verbally. As A takes this message in, he is pleased. Until A sees B. rolling his eyes while continuing to work on the project. B catches A looking and attempts to explain. In an instance such as this, B's verbal communication to A cannot cover up his intent and true emotions. In this capacity, demonstrative communication has outshone verbal communication in terms of effectiveness.

Perhaps more so than verbal communication, demonstrative communication rests its success in a far greater capacity in terms of listening and responding. Just as verbal communication involves a high standard of listening and responding, demonstrative communication does so, but on a greater level. With nonverbal communication, it is essential for the receiver to pay attention to the sum of the parts rather than the parts themselves. Through the extending of verbal cues, the receiver must listen with his or her eyes rather than their ears, which takes far more time and intuition to understand fully. This type of rapport involves "cultivating an interest in both the sender and the message" in order to take in the message being put forth as well as to respect and understand the sender in his or her message as well as in his or her self (Cheesbro, O'Connor and Rios, 2010, pp.1).

With this type of communication, one must essentially listen and interpret with both the eyes and the ears. Noises, tones, and other heard facets mean much on their own, but mean far greater when combined with a look or a gesture. With this combination of sensory communication, both the sender and the receiver are able to project and take in the context of their communication in a way that is far better-rounded than an interpretation that verbal communication sans any other nonverbal cues would have to offer. While many individuals learning about the facets of communication may note the complexities and subjective nature of understanding demonstrative social cues on paper, it is easy to find that in real life, subjectivity often gives way to truth. A friend or acquaintance's warm smile has the capacity to mean more than a verbal greeting. A hand on a shoulder has the ability to comfort on an equal if not greater scale than words alone. While demonstrative communication eliminates the intricacies of speech and verbal eloquence, its ability to reach out on a human level cannot be ignored. In coming to understand the significance of demonstrative communication and its ability to allow us as communicators to better tune in and understand one another, it becomes clear after minimal research that this nonverbal communication cannot be overlooked in terms of effectiveness.


Cheesebro, T., O'Connor, L., and Rios, F. (2010). Communicating in the workplace. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Print.

Sutton, N. (2011 March 26). "Pros and cons of nonverbal communication." eHow. Web.

Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/info_8117087_pros-cons-nonverbal-communication.html. [Accessed on4…… [read more]

Golden Rule of Cross-Cultural Communications Anyone Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,659 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Golden Rule of Cross-Cultural Communications

Anyone who has attended school, held a job, or formed a relationship, which is to say everyone, can readily testify that communicating with others can be a challenging enterprise at times. Even when people hear what is being said, they may not understand it properly because of a wide range of factors that can adversely… [read more]

Demonstrative Communication Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (890 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Communication is basically described as the process with which messages are sent and received and involves the exchange of messages, information, and thoughts through the use of speech, writing, signals, and behavior. Therefore, this process of transferring information and messages can be either through verbal or non-verbal means. Since it entails sending and receiving wordless messages, demonstrative is basically centered on non-verbal and unwritten communications. While it can act and convey messages alone, demonstrative communication is normally used to reinforce verbal communication. This method of communication involves several aspects like body language, tone of voice, and body language.

Effectiveness and Ineffectiveness of Demonstrative Communication:

In addition to reinforcing verbal communication, demonstrative communication permits self-expression of the sender. In most cases, people tend to use demonstrative communication on a daily basis even without their knowledge that they are doing so. The effectiveness and ineffectiveness of demonstrative communication by the sender and the receiver requires critical consideration because of the huge likelihood for it to be imprecise and easily misunderstood. The use of body language can either be restrained or more demonstrative based on the situation, the communication partner, and the style of sending messages ("Nonverbal Communication," n.d.). Similar to other elements of communication, the enhancement of demonstrative communication is through making it a natural part of an individual's verbal messages. Therefore, the silent or demonstrative communication should be aligned with the sender's verbal messages to promote its effectiveness.

Without the alignment of body language as an ordinary part of a person's communication, there is a higher possibility of demonstrative communication to be misinterpreted. While some individuals have ease in doing, other finds it a difficult and challenging task to align their body language with their verbal messages. When people present minimal or non-engaging demonstrative communication, it's usually interpreted as lack of interest in the interaction or transmission of messages and information. Even though the perception may not be precisely accurate to the specific situation, it's likely to be interpreted as ineffective demonstrative communication. Some of the most important elements that are needed to enhance the effectiveness of demonstrative communication include understanding its importance and awareness of the various meanings and behaviors during interactions.

The effectiveness of demonstrative communication is also enhanced when the listener or receiver of the message understands the information conveyed by the sender. Therefore, it has become an essential element for success in all relationships and interactions at work, play, and general life. One of the major ways of enhancing the effectiveness of this type of communication is by maintaining eye contact in order to ensure alertness and forcefulness and emphasize the message. For instance an individual can receive what other people think…… [read more]

Listened to a Speech Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,455 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Was the pace suitable to impart the information?

The pace was too fast, possibly due to anxiety of speaker and discomfort with subject. The speech would have benefited from pauses, certainly from a pause and smile in the beginning and at the end.

Was the vocal quality varied and pleasant?

The vocal quality was monotone. There were no pauses nor… [read more]

Speech and Language Characteristics of Deaf Blind Children Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,618 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



Symbolic Communication and Deaf-Blindness: How Children Communicate

Children who are deaf-blind have diverse communication abilities and educational needs. Many have some residual vision and hearing or can use speech. Others are nonverbal or inconsistent in their ability to verbalize (Bennett et al., 1995). Others do not use their sight or hearing to communicate, relying instead on signs and gestures… [read more]

Interpretation Across Culture in on Line Communication Research Paper

Research Paper  |  12 pages (4,205 words)
Bibliography Sources: 31


Cross Cultural Communication

Interpretation across Culture in online communication

Effective communication goes beyond the words that are used and encompasses a broader range of communicative skills, such as body language and gestures. Like, words, these gestures can have a different connotative meaning depending on cultural and contextual clues that surround them. These cultural and contextual clues are the basis for… [read more]

Communication Sciences and Disorders Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (329 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0



Our voice is how we introduce ourselves to the world, how we impart our personality, our feelings, and our state of mind. When impaired, our speech prevents us from communicating accurately. A speech disorder can have a profound and deleterious impact on a young person's social life, on personal identity formation, and on self-esteem. Speech and language pathologists stand poised to use new technologies and techniques to help people of all ages work with their innate talents and abilities to improve their communication skills.

No matter what the cause of a speech or communication disability, it can and should be treated as early as possible. Helping parents recognize speech, language, and communication impairments in their toddlers and young children is one way that we can help minimize the pain and suffering endured by the family. Moreover, speech and language pathologists are able to change the way the world views speech and communication to reduce or hopefully eliminate stigmas associated with audible problems. Awareness…… [read more]

Communication Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,320 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … communication and how it is best to define, classify and relate it to other fields, disciplines and definitions. Overall, it shows that communication is just too broad and complex to easily pigeon hole and define.

Paradigms of Speech -- Bruce Gronbeck

Gronbeck talks about the import of studying speech as a discipline, because of how rhetoric has become… [read more]

Non Verbal Communication the Impact of Nonverbal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,136 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Non Verbal Communication

The Impact of Nonverbal Communication on Presentation Delivery

When giving a presentation non-verbal communication can make the difference between a successful communication and a failed one. The written word is a powerful tool that is important to a presentation. The non-written word or nonverbal use of communication however will result in the most lasting impression on the audience. There are several elements of nonverbal communication that impact a presentation's outcome and presenter's impact on the audience. Presentation effectiveness according to the article may result in career advancement. Poor presentation skills may also result in stagnation, thus it is important to examine the critical elements of presentation effectiveness.

In the article reviewed, the authors present many ideas regarding nonverbal communication. First, they acknowledge that the key to successful and effective communication may rely on proper training.

The authors suggest that presentation effectiveness is related to nonverbal elements as well as the actual content of the presentation. Nonverbal elements discussed by the author that specifically impact the audience may include the manner in which people dress, their use of vocal intonations, visuals and even body language.

Among the nonverbal communication elements that are most important according to the authors include eye contact, posture and gestures. The authors suggest that eye contact is the most essential element of nonverbal communication, in part because eye contact is what draws the audience in and makes a presentation seem personable rather than foreign.

Eye contact allows the speaker to connect with the audience. Eye contact can be combined with smiling and nodding. Generally an audience that feels included according to the article will maintain eye contact with the speaker and smile or nod in agreement back to the person delivering speech. This acknowledgement acts as a reinforcement and may provide the speaker with positive feedback.

According to the article during a presentation the use of direct eye contact may enable the speaker to appear more confident and self assured, a quality most audiences are in tune to and looking for when analyzing a speaker's message and effectiveness.

The authors further suggest that when the speaker smiles and directs eye contact toward specific members of the audience, the message of contentment and happiness is sent to the audience. Generally according to the article speakers who prepare their speech ahead of time are more able to maintain eye contact with the audience and thus have an effective presentation than those who are not.

It is possible according to the article that nonverbal communication can work toward ones dis-advantage. Being overly expressive or extreme may send the message to the audience that a speaker is actually rigid or stiff. The speaker may also come across of careless if he/she is not adequately prepared ahead of time and fails to deliver directed gestures and eye contact during the course of the presentation.

The authors suggest that posture is another critical component of nonverbal communication in a presentation setting. Posture can portray an image of self-confidence or low… [read more]

Swallowing Difficulty and Speech Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,077 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



It is easy for clinicians to focus on clinical outcomes, as can be demonstrated by previous research on the effectiveness of the NGT vs. PEG feeding tube systems. The administration of a feeding tube is surrounded by a variety of contradictory clinical evidence regarding its effectiveness in improving outcomes for the patients. A patient's outlook on life can often be a factor that determines the outcome of therapy to regain their ability to function normally. For this reason, it is important to consider the effects of the treatments performed on a patient's perception of their quality of life. The ability to eat normally and communicate with other human beings is a factor in this determination. This research will investigate the effects of the two most prevalent feeding methods for dysphagic stroke patients on their satisfaction with the quality of their life in regards to the ability to undergo therapy to regain communication and swallowing functions.

This study will directly compare the satisfaction levels of patients using these two methods. It will be administered via a survey and analyzed using comparative techniques. There are several factors which may confound the results of this study which are beyond the scope of the current study. One factor is that there are many factors that may effect the satisfaction of the patients with their quality of life and these factors may be reflected in the answers. Factors such as the level of family support and any predisposing conditions such as depression may have an effect on the survey. There is no baseline survey with which to compare these survey results. A longitudinal study would be useful in determining if the satisfaction of the two groups show more or less improvement over time. Many confounding factors exist in individual patients, such as a history of alcohol or substance abuse, the severity of the stroke and the area of the begin effected by the stroke. All of these factors may have an effect on the survey results.

Demographic data and cross tabulation may help to eliminate some of these confounding variables. It is still expected that even with these in consideration of these confounding variables the statistical significance of these variables will be in support of the thesis that the PEG method of feeding will give patients a significantly better satisfaction with the quality of their life as far as their ability to communicate an swallow food normally.

It is hoped that the data obtained in this study will dysphagic stroke patients make better decisions regarding their quality of life and determine the best treatment options for them. If the medical profession wishes to become more consumer conscience in the future, they will need to pay more attention to the effects that their interventions will have on the patients. Clinical results are important, but there is more to a patient than clinical results. We must remember that behind the numbers are real people and that it is these real people that count in the end.… [read more]

Speech Quality Tests: Analysis and Literature Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (716 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Essentially, in HMM-based speech synthesis, higher waveform frequencies actually showed improved speech recognition on behalf of the listeners. This research can then serve as a way to help improve modern designs of HMM speech synthesis software to be even more realistic and effective for native language speakers. Overall, this was an appropriate use of the testing in a more modern context.

Additionally, another study, conducted by Valentini-Botinhao et al. (2011) also tested the effectiveness and quality of synthesized speech using speech quality tests. Here, researchers wanted to specifically test synthesized speech elements in noisy situations, where a utilitarian approach was taken for general test subjects. Again, this test took an analytical approach and used multiple scales, including the Speech Intelligibility Index (SII) and the Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ). Four additional noises were added to the synthesized speech in order to test which was most effective in noisy situations. Synthetic speech was far less in quality when compared to natural speech overall; yet, the addition of a binary mask to synthesized speech may help increase the quality of the speech even in noisy situations. Again, speech quality testing was effectively used here to evaluate the quality of synthesized speech.


Springer Science Media. (2011). Speech Quality Measurement Methods. Web. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CDsQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.springer.com%2Fcda%2Fcontent%2Fdocument%2Fcda_downloaddocument%2F9783642184628-c2.pdf%3FSGWID%3D0-0-45-1132963-p174099663&ei=FoN6U6PWOpOwoQSK-YCYCQ&usg=AFQjCNFpupv9bFCayRPt7dUNuB3u52LPeQ&sig2=0YtNG6fsnBc4royONWXuLg&bvm=bv.67229260,d.cGU

Stan, A., Yamagishi, J., King, S., & Aylett, M. (2011). The Romanian speech synthesis (RSS) corpus: Building a high quality HMM-based speech synthesis system using a high sampling rate. Speech Communication, 53(3), 442-450.

Valentini-Botinhao, C., Yamagishi, J., & King, S. (2011, May). Evaluation of objective measures for intelligibility prediction of HMM-based synthetic speech in noise. In Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2011 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 5112-5115). IEEE.… [read more]

Organizational Communication: Success and Failure Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,343 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


They failed to use them since they could not retain the information on how to operate the equipment as they had read (Ruquet, 2010).

Another factor that led to communication failure in this scenario was completeness. The information sent through the email was not complete. Due to the short nature of emails there was a lot of important information that… [read more]

Strategic Communication Leading Through Strategic Communication: Hurricane A-Level Coursework

A-Level Coursework  |  5 pages (1,278 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Strategic Communication

Leading Through Strategic Communication: Hurricane Sandy Superstorm Guidance and Assistance for FHA Insured Recipients

In Class Goal Setting

The goal of the program is to ensure strategic communication to inform FHA insured recipients of assistance they are eligible for following Hurricane Sandy.

Audience Goal Behavior/Action

Emergency/Government Agencies Service Provision Strategic communication to public

FHA Homeowners and Renters Receipt of Service Receipt of viable information on receiving services and aid

These actions are feasible for each agency listed. The barriers to action for each agency are reaching the appropriate people with the appropriate communication and information.

Description of Audience

Government Agency

If this agency provides optimum communication rather than inferior communication then our agency will be able to effectively provide services to those impacted by disaster.

B. Those affected by the disaster

If I receive carry out the necessary communication with the agencies listed then I will be in receipt of needed services, however, if I fail to communicate with the agencies listed then I will not receive services. The image of the action requested by the agencies is that the agencies are trying to make provision of services and ultimately provide disaster relief.

Openings that are efficient and effective include advertising on local radio stations, televisions and online via social media websites. Focus groups are also a great method of understanding what is needed following the occurrence of a disaster.

III. Focus Group Studies

Focus group studies would include those who have been affected by disaster and who have a viewpoint of what was done correctly and what could have been done more optimally.

IV. Brief Topic Guide

A. Strategic communications

Strategic communications means "using corporate or institutional communications to create, strengthen or preserve, among key audiences, opinion favorable to the attainment of institutional/corporate goals" with the goal being the promotion of the public policy outcome which is favorable and reduction in the cost of doing business as well as providing support to marketing and operational effectiveness. (O'Malley, 2006, paraphrased)

Strategic communications planning may be a master plan or specific event or announcement-specific plan. (O'Malley, 2006) the key planning concept is actionable meaning that it has the support of decision-makers and key implementers as well the plan can be implemented "given the resources, and the culture of the organization." (O'Malley, 2006) the products of an effective process for planning is such that should "embody an integrative, orderly decision-making process" and "should include consultation with decision-makers and key implementers." (O'Malley, 2006) the plan must be reflective of the institutional culture, which includes the communications culture of the organization and the planning culture of the organization. (O'Malley, 2006)

B. Questions to Ask Focus Group

Questions to pose to the focus group study participants include at the very minimum those stated as follows:

(1) How did the emergency agencies fail in communicating to you what you needed to do to receive service provision and ultimately aid following the disaster?

(2) What could the emergency agencies and government agencies have done that… [read more]

Intercultural Communication Refers to the Connection Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,120 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Intercultural communication refers to the connection and interaction among people of different countries and cultures and their behaviors (Scribd 2013). It is now common experience that people of diverse cultures link up or are brought together by common interests like business and education. They bring their respective cultures, beliefs, lifestyles, economic resources and faiths into that link. The basic elements and root words are culture and communication. These and two others form what are called the building blocks of intercultural communication. The two others are context and power (Scribd).

The core concept in intercultural communication is culture (Scribd 2013). It is a system of information, beliefs and values used by society to relate with one another and with the world. That system or mechanism of existence is passed on from one generation to another through social learning. Culture includes and assumes multiple races, groups and nationalities. Culture is learned, shared and expressed in the form of behavior. Communication is a process whereby meaning is transmitted, received and negotiated among the members. It includes words, gestures and other verbal and non-verbal meanings, postures, eye expressions and other facial expressions, which convey meaning.

Context refers to the physical and social environment where communication takes place. It may be a physical place, such as an office, a town or any structure. And power is something that accompanies communication in society and occurs consciously or unconsciously (Scribd).

A number of benefits can be derived from the relationships that result from intercultural communication (Scribd 2013). One learns about the world from it. It eliminates stereotypes. It fosters new skills. Intercultural communication creates a sense of connection with others and bridges differences with other cultures (Scribd).

Guideposts and Strategies

Differences among cultures can be successfully bridged by observing the so-called 10 commandments of intercultural communication (Hahn 2013). These commandments enumerate the things that one should be aware of. These are differing social values; differing status symbols and how they are to be demonstrated; decision-making customs; concepts of time; personal space; cultural context; body language; social etiquettes or manners; legal and ethical behavior; and language barriers (Hahn).

Intercultural communication is especially important and critical in the workplace where diversity has become a concrete reality in our time (Brown 2010). Business organizations are now aware that their capacity to communicate both internally and externally is to a huge extent affected by culture. The effective manager or intercultural communicator must possess sufficient motivation and take the necessary steps to increase his level of effectiveness. These steps are crossing or going beyond one's culture; identifying preconceived notions about another person's culture; releasing ethnocentrism; and simplifying the meaning of culture. The intercultural communicator must consciously open himself up to understanding other cultures. This act of opening up necessarily exposes him to a change of identity. He must also avoid communication dissonance. In order to do so, he must ask himself if he has any biases that may disrupt the communication process. The next step is for him to try to do… [read more]

Communication Theory Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,281 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Communication Theory (attribution Theory in Communication)

Communication process involves exchange of information between the sender and the receiver. The sender transmits a message while the receiver decodes the message sent. The key elements of myriad communication models are: the sender, the receiver, the message, the channel or the medium through which the message is conveyed, the context, noise/interference, and feedback (Dimbleby & Burton, 1998). Communication will be considered effective when the receiver fully understands the sender's message. Otherwise the noise that is found along the way shall be deemed to be distractive enough to hinder the effective passing of the message intended from the source to the receiver of the message.

The sender or the source traditionally initiates communication process in a business communication setting. The audience becomes the receiver. The sender and the receiver engage in turn-taking (Heath & Bryant, 2000). This kind of interaction implies that whatever message the sender transmits can affect the sender and vice-versa.

Scenario for the theory

I have in several instances used this kind of approach to judge and condemn colleagues in the office and in the process allowing the attribution of traits hinder my communication at the workplace. For instance there was a time when I needed to leave the office two hours earlier than usual time, yet there was still work to be done. I had to leave since there was something urgent elsewhere I had to attend to. Upon asking my closest workstation colleague to help me clear the remaining task of inventory taking, she was unable to. My presumption was that it was because she felt jealous that by helping me on that particular day, I would still meet my set target for the day yet am out of office many hours before time, while she has to sit extra hours in the office. What this situation boiled down to was that the following few days, she asked me for the same favor, though her situation was that she was sick, I turned down the request with the reason that she 'never' helps me when I need the help. This situation made me not even to listen to the reasons why she needed my help. This situation escalated further that when we had projects to be done in collaboration, we never had mutual understanding on the sections to be carried out jointly as indicated in the secular but apportioned each person the sections.

In this situation, I can now see that I never considered the amount of work she may have had on her desk or the need for her to walk out of the office in time to attend to the kids from school. This affected the communication process since the message she sent me was distracted by the noise of attribution that I had formed hence never conveyed the intended message. The attribution further acted as noise for other forms of communication that emanated from the administration, hence the external factors came into play to interfere with… [read more]

Communication Protocols Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (926 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


A good instance is a head nod, the same head nod may mean yes among an American audience and yet among an Indian audience the same head nod may mean refusal or disagreement.

Still on verbal communication the Americans may use some metaphors with sports terms like "all the bases are covered" or "we want a level playing field" these are not understood by those who are non-native English speakers. The use of phrases that are culturally-based is seen to pose challenges during communication in collective cultures.

Another example is some cultures are high context and the communication requires awareness of facial expressions, tone of voice and eye contact. On the other hand U.S. is a low culture context, where people depend more on words than other external expressions for meaning. The difference in how the low and high culture context will bring a misunderstanding in communication.

Another cause of misunderstanding can also be seen in silence which is a communication style in a high context culture like the Asians which indicates thoughtfulness in decision making. While in the U.S. The silence is an uncomfortable gesture and tends to fill the void with small talk like comments about the weather.

In Islamic culture also women do not shake hands with male this can be viewed as rude or offensive in the U.S. And hence will bring about misunderstandings.

Recommendations for decreasing misunderstanding in communication

Different cultures and how communication is undertaken can pose challenges in communication among people and therefore measures have to be taken to reduce these differences. Some of the measures include; understanding of the different communication modes in different cultures and learning them or understanding them (Martin, 2012). For instance before sending people for a business to people of a different culture there should be cultural informants who have multicultural expertise who will offer support and guide. There should also be emphasis on an open mind when interacting with people from different cultures. There should be no rigidity and have room for accommodating other cultures and their modes of communication. There should also be the use of a communication mode that is easily understandable by the majority of the people within an organization. This will reduce apathy every time a message is sent out and enable quick communication within an organization.


Callaway, C. (2000). Business Communication Protocol. Retrieved October 6, 2012, from http://www.ehow.com/about_6710290_business-communication-protocol.html

Martin, M.J. (2012). Resolving Cultural Conflict in the Workplace. Retrieved October 6, 2012, from http://www.ehow.com/info_12111057_resolving-cultural-conflict-workplace.html

Griffin, J. (2008). How to say it at work: putting yourself across with power words, phrases, body language, and communication secrets. Paramus, NJ: Prentice Hall.… [read more]

Non-Verbal Communication Since Time Immemorial Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,897 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Non-Verbal Communication

Communication since time immemorial has remained one of the most substantial and crucial process on a constant basis that refers to transferring of the information from one person to another. Indeed, people communicate with each other so that they can understand the meaning and information that the other person is trying to commune (Shepherd & Rothenbuhler 2000).

Since… [read more]

Communication in Organization Intercultural Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,713 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Communication in Organizations

The case study is based on PTB company that decided to take the better percentage of their employees to Sydney Australia for a two day conference that was to focus on the new sales and marketing skills as well as to enable the employees from both countries under the PTB company get a chance to network. The… [read more]

Communications as a Discipline Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (641 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


For example, whenever two people interact, the basis of sociology, that interaction involves communication. And no matter how that communication takes place, there are always going to be psychological aspects such as shared experiences, etc., or physiological ones like sweating, flushing, eye dilation, and other physical aspects that are caused by the psychological feelings involved. Communications is not only its own discipline, it is the overarching discipline that is made up of all the others.

But because communications involves so many other disciplines, it is difficult to establish one, core communication theory. There is one set of basic components to the definition of communication, and there really should be one core theory of communication. It is true that what theory a person decides to use in their study of communications depends upon what aspect of communications one is studying. For example, when one's studies involve the rhetorical theory, speech and sounds are the most important aspect. However, when studying the phenomenological theory, or the aspect of communication that involves experience, one must involve psychology. ("SPC 3210, Chapter 2") The same can be said for any of the other communication theories like semiotic, cybernetic, socio-cultural, or critical tradition. ("SPC 3210, Chapter 2") However, because communication is itself dependent upon the circumstances, experiences, psychology and situation of those involved, communication is a process; and that process that can provide the core component of a single all encompassing theory. While social, symbolic, meaning, and environmental aspects of communication may be dependent upon the type of communication theory one is studying, the fact that it is a process is the one thing that all studies have and will have in common. It is because communication involves so many other fields, the process of communication can be the starting point to the development of a theory that can then be applied to any aspect of communications.


"SPC 3210: Contemporary Human Communication." McGraw Hill/Florida…… [read more]

Managing an Interpersonal Communication Environment Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,128 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


In negotiation, the couple would start by identifying and defining the conflict between them then they would generate the possible solutions to the conflict. The third solution is to evaluate the alternative solutions to find if they are going to work. The last thing is to decide which the best solution is for them after which this decision is followed Adler et al., 2011()

The second way to manage the interpersonal communication environment is through finding the credibility of the source of information. The lady in this case should have evaluated the credibility of the source of information. It is important not to stereotype by making the assumption that the person giving the information is correct. At the same time, it is important not to let emotions interfere with reason. By letting tempers fly high, they interfere with an individual's ability to reason which also prevents the sender from passing the information in the correct way and at the same time, the recipient is unable to interpret the message as it is needed Floyd, 2009()

The interpersonal communication environment can also be managed through effective listening and feedback which ensures that the sender is able to pass the message across effectively and that the recipient is able to acknowledge that the message has come across and that they are able to interpret it as the sender desired Floyd, 2009()

It is also important to manage agreement in the communication environment. This means that there needs to be synergy in the team which is achieved by getting people the communicators to work together in a collaborative fashion to make the right decision in the right attitude. This involves the people in the conversation opening up their minds to new ideas and also giving and receiving feedback that creates a discussion that fosters a good interpersonal understanding and resolves the conflict to bring about a consensus Floyd, 2009()

Expected outcome

When the communication environment is managed effectively, there is a positive outcome that is expected from the communication itself. First is that there is the confirmation or disconfirmation of messages. This means that the communicators are able to confirm that they have passed the message and that the message has been understood. This is done so for both the verbal and the nonverbal messages. This creates a positive climate for communication which helps to grow the communication environment.

The second outcome is a supportive and constructive environment which means that the environment is further encouraged to continue being positive for the passing of verbal and nonverbal messages which helps for future communication. By managing the communication environment effectively, it helps to resolve conflict in the best way possible which helps to create a satisfying outcome for both people in the communication which helps to foster future communication.

Managing the interpersonal communication environment effectively also leads to improved interaction between the communicators. This is because it helps to reduce the barriers on the receiver and sender's end which results from ineffective listening. It… [read more]

Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,173 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


A Japanese person points a finger to his face in referring to himself while a Chinese, to his nose, and a North American to his chest. A person of a given culture looks at the eyes or face of the person spoken to. Another person only gazes while another does not even gaze at all. One hugs a friend or family member when greeting according to his culture. But others of a different culture avoid touching when speaking (Ciubatoru).

Keeping a distance from the person spoken with differs among cultures too (Ciubatoru 2012). Increasing the space from the other person can be construed as coldness, condescension or interest. That person who wants distance is likely to interpret the effort of the other person to get closer as pushiness, disrespect or aggression. This is proxemics (Ciubatoru).

The speaker's vocal cues used when speaking all constitute paralanguage (Ciubatoru 2012). These cues include pitch, speed, volume, pauses and silences. They contribute to or heighten the emotional and intellectual message. The Chinese give more importance to silence than to speech. They believe in the power of silence to produce inner peace and wisdom. But North Americans see a lack of communication in silence. They see it as a sign of uncertainty in the silent person (Ciubatoru).

Chronemics refers to the time valuation among cultures in the way they do things. Western cultures quantify time and measure it in the pursuit of progress (Ciubatoru 2012). They deal with it logically, sequentially and moving away from the past and the present towards the future. In Eastern cultures, time is something continuous and unlimited. India sees time as going in circles of becoming and vanishing. It goes beyond human lifetime (Ciubatoru).

. Non-verbal communication occupies a key position in high-context cultures (Ciubatoru 2012). It performs many functions complementary to verbal communication. It repeats, emphasizes, complements and contradicts what is verbal. At the same time, it regulates interactions, such as signaling when someone should speak or stop speaking. Lastly, non-verbal communication can even take the place of a verbal message when the speakers do not share a common language. Each of the foregoing possesses characteristics, which influence intercultural communication. They either enhance the communication or create conflict and misinterpretation, which often lead to poor communication (Ciubatoru).

Cultural Difference in Non-Verbal Communication

Nonverbal communication can be as loud and clear or louder and clearer than verbal communication (JanetB 2012). Simply watching or observing a speaker can tell if he or she is bored, telling a lie, romantically attuned or showing any other emotion or inclination. The American culture gives less importance to the nonverbal aspects of communication than do other cultures, especially Asian culture. One more aspect that has not been briefly discussed is posture. Interpretations of posture during communication differ widely. Turks take offense when one's hands are in his pockets or when crossing one's legs. Thais consider showing the soles of the feet disgraceful. South Americans tend to stand close to the person speaking. On the other… [read more]

Interpersonal Communications Communication Is Very Important Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,977 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Interpersonal Communications

Communication is very important in all types of relationships so that people can connect with one another to find out how to make things n peace. In order to communicate properly, people must use interpersonal communication skill to move things forward especially in the workplace. For example, I work at a local pub as dish/glass picker, and the… [read more]

Communication Management: Communication in the Workplace Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,464 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



Management: Communication in the Workplace

When people in an organization conduct a meeting, share stories in the cafeteria, or deliver presentations, they are making efforts to communicate. To understand why communication efforts sometimes break down and find ways to improve your communication skills, it helps to identify the elements of the communication process. Communication is the transmission of information… [read more]

Communication and Gender Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Social penetration theory essentially details the process from which a person goes from shedding the layers of his or her public persona to revealing his or her own, true personality. The process of achieving this goal, of course, is through the gradual giving away of personal details about one's life outside of the public sphere (Altman & Taylor, 1987, p.… [read more]

Speech Pathology Admission Essay

Admission Essay  |  4 pages (1,115 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Speech therapy is crucial for many oral and throat cancer patients. First, speech therapy provides the best opportunity for the least invasive solutions to restoring normal thoracic controls such as swallowing.

My immediate hope is to have the opportunity to complete the Communication Sciences and Disorders Post-baccalaureate Certificate Program at Chapman University. After that, I hope to remain at the university and apply for the master's degree program in Communication Sciences and Disorders (CSD). My general intention afterwards is to become a state-licensed professional therapist in speech and language therapy and to practice within the same Orange County community that I served in my previous professional capacity with the LAPD.

As a licensed speech therapist, I would be interested in working in schools, hospitals, and in with developmentally challenged children in private settings. My bi-racial (Chinese-Mexican) background and my personal experience growing up as member of the ethnic minority community have allowed me to communicate very successfully with a wide range of ethnically and culturally diverse individuals in various capacities. Naturally, I expect that will also be a valuable advantage in the field of speech therapy. In the much longer term, a career in speech therapy also opens up possible professional opportunities such as in corporate speech, language, and communications training.

As a practical matter, I believe that a career in speech therapy will allow me to practice in a wide variety of different possible vocational settings and in almost any community in the United States. The fact that the average age of Americans is rising so fast (largely because of the post-World War II "Baby Boom") means that there will be increasing numbers of patients who will require speech pathology services to overcome the disabilities associated with neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. In addition to being able to help members of this growing patient population, that unfortunate statistic means that speech pathologists will be able to expand their vocational experiences and work with members of the community spanning a wide age range.

Likewise, the field offers an attractive pay scale for individuals entering the field and that is a natural concern for me, especially today when more and more college graduates who study the traditional types of academic areas find themselves unable to secure meaningful or challenging employment of any kind, let alone employment that is rewarding and also within their field of professional interests. I have known several people who encountered those types of difficulties and I have seen the way that their disappointment in that regard has changed their lives for the worse. Frankly, I know that the last position that I would ever want to be in would be to graduate with an advanced academic degree and then fail to find employment that was directly related to that field, all while having to start paying back my student loan obligations.

Therefore, I am tremendously hopeful that my candidacy to the Communication Sciences and Disorders Post-baccalaureate Certificate Program at Chapman University will be successful… [read more]

Business Communication the Business Environment Is Analyzed Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  12 pages (3,383 words)
Bibliography Sources: 30


Business Communication

The business environment is analyzed by numerous research studies that intend to understand the rules that determine business behavior, its factors of influence, and some of the most important effects of these factors. Communication is one of the elements that are intensely addressed by the literature in the field. The importance of communication in the business environment relies… [read more]

Bill Clinton and Effective Style of Speech Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (2,514 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5



Bill Clinton and His Power of Speech

While many former presidents have hit the speaking circuit as a way to stay in the public eye and make some extra cash, none have succeeded as much as Clinton, who has earned more money -- and more criticism -- than any of his predecessors.

Bill Clinton is really the biggest presidential… [read more]

Roles of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication in Interpersonal Interactions Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,175 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Verbal/Nonverbal Communication


Interpersonal communications consist primarily of conscious verbal conversation, but nonverbal cues also play an equally important role. Nonverbal communication includes both conscious and unconscious elements of body language and patterns of eye contact, as well as completely involuntary physiological reactions. Under routine interpersonal situations, verbal and nonverbal communications components are synchronous. However, under… [read more]

Proposal Eliminating Communication Barriers in IT Development With the Rest of the Departments Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,825 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … eliminating communication barriers in it/Development with the rest of the departments

Communication barriers between it/Development and the rest of an organization's departments

This paper is aimed at making the company's management aware of the communication's implications to the well-going of the overall activity, productivity and career advance. The research proposal attempts to reach its goal by briefly depicting… [read more]

Communication Apprehension Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,230 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Communication Apprehension

Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA)

The difference between state CA and trait CA



Future directions

The conceptualization and study of communicative anxiety has been an area of interest to communication scholars and researchers for decades. This phenomenon has been referred to using a variety of different terms including reticence, shyness, social-communicative anxiety, communication avoidance, and… [read more]

Personality and Communication Affect on Supervision Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (5,219 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Imagine that you are sitting in a room with three other people: a convicted serial killer, an eccentric scientist, and a four-year-old child. If you had to choose one, which one would you pick? Which qualities would you automatically associate with each individual? Which one do you think you most closely identify with? If… [read more]

Management Communication One Situation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (603 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Management Communication

One situation that can be cited regarding communication in workplace is the instances within the hospital staff and patient relationship. This kind of communication is apparent in many inpatient and outpatient care service (Gordon). When a medical staff is in direct contact with patients, they are provided with communication opportunities with the patients. Such relationship, using verbal communications, similarly provides them with chances of using human speech in a greater degree. This is especially useful when solving problems.

Aside from verbal communications, there are also instances where nonverbal type of communication used for exchanging ideas or expressions. In our example of medical staff and patient relationship, signs are generally used especially during instances when there is a need to immediately communicate a simple thought (i.e. such as telling a medical staff of an emergency situation by moving his arms). The literature of Pierce (1961) mentioned that signs are widely used as they possess meanings, which are closest to the of the sentence implications."

This situation proves advantageous as the medical staff can minimize time element in dealing with a number of patients (Rosen, George). There is no longer the need to express words in giving instructions to the patients or in situations that patients respond to the medical staff.

One effective learning technique that I learned is in the form of a linear model. This happens when information are conveyed to a receiver in linear order. This type of learning technique can be similarly useful in managing medical staff and patients during frequent contact and communication with them. As implied by Gordon (1969) the linear model is containing all these elements contribution to an effective listening technique."

Another common situation where nonverbal communication is used is between the relationship of a doctor and the family of a patient. Sometimes,…… [read more]

Management Written Communication: An Essential Element Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,472 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Written Communication: An Essential Element of Successful Business Interaction

Written communication when used effectively can be one of the most powerful ways to connect with an audience (Morgan, 2003). When used incorrectly however the written word can also result in conflict, confusion, chaos and dispute. It is critical that employees understand the key elements of solid academic writing if… [read more]

Nonverbal Communication Skill Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,560 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


For example, a number of research studies indicate that there is a significant gender difference in the nonverbal encoding decoding skills among humans, with women being far more competent than men in both nonverbal skills

. This is, perhaps, the reason behind the common complaint among women about the supposed "insensitivity" of their spouses. Nonverbal sensitivity is also believed to… [read more]

Teaching AAC Early on Impacts Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,312 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


By examining this and making a determination as to whether this type of teaching is beneficial, researchers and educators can both benefit from the information presented herein. Educators can take this information and use it to help the children in their care. Researchers can take this same information and use it to indicate that further study into this area needs… [read more]

Teaching Communication Skills for Students Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (6,440 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It has also been successfully tried with adolescents and adults having speech problems of various kinds. The use of PECS is found to be more effective if the behavioral analysis of the student is also taken into account.

Experts in the field of autistic spectrum disorders today consider PECS as one of the most effective method to teach basic skills… [read more]

Non-Verbal Communication When We Communicate Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,140 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


One of her favorite examples of how body language can speak volumes when you're not, is that of the testimony of former President Bill Clinton about Monica Lewinsky. "The giveaway that Clinton was lying was he touched his nose about once every four minutes. Fidgeting, touching your nose or eye, tugging on your ear are all indications of untruthfulness, especially if these gestures are done with the left hand" (Perin).

In the workplace, body language can be an essential tool in gauging how your boss responds, how employees communicate between each other and during mediation. The business world could gain favorably if they understood the value of non-verbal cues and how these are accepted around the world, not just in one's own culture, but in the cultures of those that they are doing business with.

Companies could also gain a lot through profiling their customers' body language. For instance, Starbucks used Hargrave to analyze their customers through researching what they did with their drinking straws and how it coincided with their personalities. "The Chewer: likes nourishment in the way of words and emotions" while "The Knot-Tier: determined, precise, intellectual a planner" were only two of the twelve types of personalities, such research gives Starbucks a keen insight on their customers and how they can market towards them - either nationally or in store.

The CIA is keen to use body language in profiling possible terrorists by using a facial recognition system that can read non-verbal cues. Using the science of Kinesics, "the CIA wants to teach computers to watch for detailed facial language clues" (Lortie, 7) Even though the use of such technology could be advantageous, and using a computer to analyze video where "one minute of an interview can take a trained observer an hour, but that a computer might be handle the process in real time" (Lortie) some people feel that this infringes on a person's civil rights and privacy. Beyond this, the human element would be missing and such profiling would "not explicitly include race as an element" (Lortie).

Non-verbal communication is a key aspect of communication that is shrouded in myth. Very few of us are aware of the important role it plays on our subconscious and what it reveals of us during a conversation, nor are we aware of some of the basic notions of body language. Body language is specific to certain cultures and is often misconstrued in business because of cultural differences or ignorance of certain non-verbal taboos.

By becoming more knowledgeable in the basics of body language and realizing the role it plays in mediation, interviews and day-to-day life, we will be able to communicate more effectively and appreciate our co-workers and employers more. Body Language is an aspect of communication that requires very little time in understanding and will be amount to a world of difference in how we relay a message or desire.


Perin, M. "Body Language Expert Has a Read on Communication."

Houston Business Journal October 10, 2003… [read more]

Communications in a Business Setting Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,226 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Cooper noted that formal training programs are helpful, but cited another researcher (Hall, 19976) who argued that most "real" training happens during peer-assisted, self-directed learning through such activities as project teams, task forces, electronic relationships, personal networks, customer relationships, and relationships with co-workers. But there was a caveat:

The organization will need to provide supervisory and technological support as well… [read more]

Speech Pathologists, Like Other Social Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (561 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


This is also best portrayed using examples, because the meaning of intonation is not successfully conveyed to text. A small minority of the population suffers from Ossberger's syndrome, which precludes them from understanding non-verbal communication. Children are often dramatic in their intonations, and this can be used to portray the nature and origins of intonation. Unfortunately, this is difficult to people with a specific knowledge of speeh. Such nebulous explanations as "when your voice goes up and down," or "the way you say the things you say" are too nebulous. It can be easily understood that people have different abilities to understand each other's attitudes from what they say based on the medium, but intonation can always be gathered from what you hear. For instance, shouting is a form of intonation, and questions are a form of a sentence that feature intonation. It would be necessary to point out why it is that text must feature marks such as the comma, period and question mark to convey what is lost in not being able to display intonation.

The concept of rate is easy to purvey; it is a matter of fast or slow speech. Intensity, however, is much more difficult. Intensity is how we display urgency or necessity in our speech. It is harder for one to convey an example of 'intense' speech vs. non-intense speech. Intense has several different meanings, which makes this matter more difficult. This might best be addressed in a group setting, where people can talk back and forth to one another and then comment on the level of intensity that was used in speech.… [read more]

Public Address the Ceo Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,134 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The body of Mr. Seidenberg's lecture was aimed at discussing the potential of the next generation of technology to create growth and how the services of Verizon Communications could be most profitably delivered to potential and current customers. He also stressed that his vision of the industry must be based on a specific paradigm, one centered around competition, investment and innovation in order to expand the market and benefit everyone involved.

By far, Mr. Seidenberg's closing comments illustrated his talent for providing a very powerful lecture. He obviously put a great amount of time and thought into what he was going to say at the conclusion of his speech, for it was very motivationally directed, challenging and well developed. It also strongly influenced the audience, for I remember hearing many people talk about it as they were getting ready to leave the lecture. Once again, the highlight of Mr. Seidenberg's closing was his use of humor which left the audience laughing and applauding.

This obviously helped to give everyone in attendance an extremely positive impression about Mr. Seidenberg and allowed every member of the lecture to leave feeling upbeat and confident about themselves: "The decisions that all employees of Verizon make this year about how we service our customers will influence the flow of billions of dollars' worth of capital, the security of thousands of jobs, the speed of the economic recovery, and the legacy of Verizon's technological leadership." The closing was appropriately followed by an hour's worth of questions from a very inquisitive audience. Mr. Seidenberg made it a point to limit one's question to no more than thirty seconds or so in order for everyone to have a chance.

In regard to Mr. Seidenberg's speaking and delivery techniques, his voice was clear and strong and he always strived to pronounce and accentuate his well-chosen words. Since this was meeting of company executives and other employees of Verizon Communications, I thought it was a wise decision to allow the audience to know what was going to be discussed during the lecture via the copy of the speech handed out prior to its commencement. As to Mr. Seidenberg's delivery, if the audience expected intensity, then they surely were not disappointed. Mr. Seidenberg exhibited much emotion, expressed his message with great meaning and developed a sense of comradeship with his audience. His speech patterns ebbed and flowed and varied in pace throughout the entire time. He also took advantage of selected moments to pause in his speech which allowed the audience to ponder about what was said and to absorb his entire message.

In conclusion, I think it would be nearly impossible to recommend improvements to Mr. Seidenberg's speech. He is apparently a master of the lectern with years of experience behind him. His powerful and exciting approach to public speaking should serve as an inspiration for everyone who is required to include this type of activity in their job routines. If every person who delivers a lecture or speech to… [read more]

Ethical Interpersonal Communication Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,242 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Moreover, each one of them should take the advantages of the opportunity when each one of them appears to open up a dialogue relationship. Both parties should indulge in the following communication competencies to develop a productive communication:


Effective listening,


Emotional intelligence,

Trust building, and Moral argument.

Both Reid and Boeher should indulge the concept of mindfulness in the communication. The mindfulness involves in simultaneously indulging in a complete attention by focusing on our thought as well as the thought of the opposing party. Moreover, a mindfulness is the process of devoting a complete attention to issue at hand. The benefit of mindfulness is that both parties are likely to experience positive mood during a communication process, and less likely to suffer from anxiety and depression. More importantly, mindfulness will promote relationships between both parties, because a mindful communication assists a partner in the argument to welcome new information from the other partner while focusing on his behavior during the communication process. Moreover, mindfulness relationship will assist the partners to allow a room for different point-of-view.

Johnson, (2012) argues that listening is key aspect of dialogue. Essentially, both Reid and Boeher should understand each other perspective in other to arrive at a shared solution. Both the Reid and Boeher should adopt the HURIER model in the communication strategy. The HURIER model consists of:





Evaluating, and Responding.

Both Reid and Boeher should integrate the model to develop effective listening skills. For example, each of them should have patient to listen to the message of the other partner. When the other partner is putting forward his own argument, the other partner should take a note of the important points for further understanding. The strategy will assist each one of them to remember, interpret and evaluate the information received. The information collected will assist each one of them to deliver appropriate response to convince the other party on the appropriate course of action.

Developing an emotional intelligence skill is another strategy in achieving a productive communication. Both the Reid and Boeher should employ emotional intelligence technique in the communication system. Johnson, (2012) argues that "emotional sensitive individual get along better with people in general" (p 127). "Emotional intelligence is the capacity to identify and influence the emotion in the other and in the self." (Johnson 2012, p 128). In other word, emotional intelligence is the strategy by which an individual process information. Typically, emotional intelligence assists in processing sophisticated information of others and one owns.

Reid or Boeher should identify the emotion of the other party during the communication process by recognize their feelings. Each of them should be able to pick up a clue of the other emotion through the body language, voice, and facial expression. They should be able to capitalize on the emotion of the other party during the argument. Moreover, all of them should avoid engaging in argument when they are in negative mood. They should only engage in argument when they are… [read more]

Process Communication Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (840 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


For example the same word said in different tones may be interpreted to mean different moods or intentions (Rosengren, 1999). Cultures can also impact on the meaning of words, likewise with physical gesture; the OK sign in U.S. culture is an insult in Italian culture. Body language and non-verbal clues need to match with the message, if they appear to create a conflict the recipient is likely to pick up on the conflict, and the message will be undermined, creating cognitive dissonance, and loss credibility (Rosengren, 1999).

The second stage is the sending of the message; this may be though different mediums, such as verbally face-to-face, over the telephone, or television (Thompson, 2011). Another common medium is the written medium which may include letter emails, printed adverts, books and manuals. The mediums may also be used to send a message on a one to one, many to one, or one to many basis, and may be sent vertically, such as from a superior to a subordinate, horizontally between peers, it can also be undertaken formally though official channels, such as an employee memos, or informally, such as through gossip (Thompson, 2011). The choice of an appropriate channel is essential to meeting the communication aims; mass marketing would be ineffective if undertaken on a many to one basis, or on a face-to-face basis, the use of a mass communication medium that reaches many people is likely to be more cost effective (Rosengren, 1999). Another example may be the communications of technical information, which may be best communicated in writing in a memo or manual, rather than verbally, where information may be lost (Rosengren, 1999).

The last stage of the communication process is the decoding of the message, the receipt, hears or sees the message and then interprets it according to the different influences, such as the recipients own interpretation of the word, their own values and experiences (Thompson, 2011). Influence that impact on the reception may also include the credibility of the sender and the message, the higher the level of credibility, the greater the potential influence (Thompson, 2011).

Effective communication requires careful consideration of all these elements, including what is to be achieved, how the message may be formed, sent and received, and the influences that impact on the interpretation of that message.


Rosengren, Karl…… [read more]

Communication Skills Are Critical in Any Business Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (640 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Communication skills are critical in any business or profession. However, the type of communication skills necessary will depend on the organizational culture, the job description and roles, and other contextual factors. Some jobs will require greater written communication skills than others; and some jobs demand astute oral or verbal communications skills. When analyzing my own communications skills, it may be helpful to review both the Baack (2012) text as well as scholarly resources. Without scholarly resources, I may not be able to assess my communication skills effectively enough. This paper will describe the assessment methods that I used to analyze my own communication skills. Then, I will discuss the observed or measured gaps in communication skills and identify training that can be used to address those gaps. Finally, I will discuss how I can improve my current communication skills to prepare me for advancement in my profession.

To assess my communications skills, I used a combination of methods. As Arnold & Boggs (2013) point out, assessments can be both subjective and objective in nature, as well as qualitative or quantitative. In this case, I used a subjective and qualitative assessment measure based on self-reports. Self-reports are not the most reliable types of assessment methods because of the probability of bias. Therefore, I also included an assessment method that was objective in nature, but also qualitative. This involved interviewing my supervisor at work about my communication skills. To include a quantitative assessment measure to bolster the efficacy of my analysis, I prepared a survey for my coworkers too. This survey included several questions related to my communications skills, and I asked my colleagues to fill out the form. Using these three methods, my communications skills assessment was nearly infallible.

My assessment results revealed some critical information. My core strengths include listening skills, empathy, and affability. I have what Burns (2002) calls an "other-oriented approach," which was described as "good" by my…… [read more]

Free Speech and Sexual Harassment Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,436 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Sexual Harassment and Freedom of Speech

The freedom of speech is considered, by many, to be the most fundamental freedoms. Without free speech it is impossible to transmit ideas, to learn, to educate. In fact, in many ways speech that is regulated impairs the functioning of a democracy by impairing the open exchange of ideas. However, the fact that speech… [read more]

Channel Signaling Systems Are Communications Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,217 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


However, the systems only function when terminal equipment and applications are connected properly, which is a relatively complex process to achieve.

Voice Processing Systems for Businesses:

The modern business environment is communication intensive to an extent that businesses are increasingly facing the need for a reliable strategy for managing communication issues. Today's businesses require dependable systems and means of handling messages and meeting the demands of customers for readily available information. This need has contributed to the development of a wide range of reliable voice processing systems and solutions that businesses can choose from. Some of the major examples of voice processing systems for businesses include Toshiba Stratagy family of voice processing systems and Panasonic voice processing systems.

Toshiba Stratagy family of voice processing systems range from voice mail to unified messaging in attempts to match the varying needs and budgets of voice processing in small and medium-sized businesses ("Stratagy Voice Processing," 2002). These voice processing system models or designs enable businesses to add voice processing applications as needs change without major hardware upgrades. The ability to add voice processing applications when necessary is a major advantage of this set of voice processing systems. Secondly, the use of Stratagy component in these voice processing systems makes them one of the most flexible business telephone systems. The other advantages of these systems is that they promote enhanced efficiency in internal and external communications, management of calls, and service to customers while improving the business' bottom line. While these systems provide numerous advantages to businesses with regards to improved productivity and efficiency, they contain relatively expensive hardware and software requirements. During the installation of the systems, a business may be required to buy costly hardware and software, which is a major disadvantage.

Similar to Toshiba Stratagy family of voice processing systems, Panasonic provide a set of voice processing systems that support more than voice mail and computerized attendant service. Panasonic KX-TVA voice processing systems are suitable for businesses because they contain various features including bilingual capability and email integration. The bilingual capability implies that the systems can be tailor-made to meet the specific needs of the business ("Voice Processing Systems," n.d.). One of the advantages of these systems is that they are designed to handle all calls in an efficient and courteous way by allowing businesses to add an important human voice touch when responding to customer calls. Secondly, these systems are flexible, versatile, provide affordable voice messaging, and offer automated attendant service. Their disadvantage is that they require combination with other Panasonic voice processing systems to support digital integration.


Voice communication and processing is generally a multi-faceted process that requires appropriate systems to handle. Generally, these processes require channel signaling systems for transmission of voice frequency and voice processing systems to handle some communication needs. In the past few years, several channel signaling systems and voice processing systems have been developed to help meet communication needs. Each of these systems has advantages and disadvantages that determine their effectiveness in today's… [read more]

Slang and Communication in Clueless Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (792 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The use and interplay of these terms allows the adolescents to feel that they are a special group; and using these terms means that often they are able to converse without their parents and teachers having any idea about the entire meaning of the conversation. For example, the language is not always debased and sometimes even has roots in a classical education, yet it is shortened and has deeper meanings for the teens:

Tai: Do you think she's pretty?

Cher: No, she's a full-on Monet.

Tai: What's a monet?

Cher: It's like a painting, see? From far away, it's OK, but up close, it's a big old mess. Let's ask a guy. Christian, what do you think of Amber?

Christian: Hagsville.

Cher: See? (Quotes from Clueless, 1995)

This discussion essentially brings up the idea of the famous French Impressionist Monet, who worked in dabs of color that when viewed from a distance established a beautiful sense of imagery, but when viewed close up -- in other words when one gets to know the person, it is like a television screen -- pixilated and not understandable. The term hagsville refers to the crone or hag term of a very old, ugly woman, sometimes even in Shakespearean terms, a witch.

This small scene gives us a great deal of information about the speakers -- they at least know something about French impressionism, even if it is but a name; and they are able to extrapolate means in metaphors and similes, higher level thinking. This exchange would not be appropriate outside their age or clique, and separates them much like ethnic terms separate racial identity. The only way these types of terms could be used in formal or public speaking would be to illustrate slang or speaking because they are specific to a group; and public or formal speaking must be more elevated in order to establish credibility.

Works Cited

Chandler, D. (2010, June). The Transmission Model of Communication. Retrieved September 2013, from aber.ac.uk: http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/short/trans.html

Patel, A. (2012, December 19). Slang Words: What Are Young People Saying These Days. Retrieved September 30, 2013, from The Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2012/12/19/slang-words-2012_n_2322664.html

Quotes from Cluless. (1995, April). Retrieved September 2013, from IMDb: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0112697/quotes… [read more]

Talking Styles Article Critique

Article Critique  |  3 pages (820 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Albeit, in that context, you are likely listening so intently to the conversation in order to hear things you disagree with so that you have more ammunition to fight against their verbal opponent.

On the "Language Style Matching" website, the report retrieved indicates that there is indeed a correlation between the level of language similarity of individuals and the quality and potential success of their relationship (Pennebaker). A lasting romantic relationship is indicated by the following characteristics: matching conversational style, emotional tone, and the pitch of voice and speech used within conversations with that person. Although my own relationships may not be of the same epic quality as the ones listed in the article, Elizabeth and Robert Browning and Sylvia Plath and Ted Hughes, but the same principles underscore my relationships. If we do agree that language style matching is an important property of relationships, then it can be stated that language style matching is a way to predict the quality of interpersonal communication between those two individuals.

There are couples who find that it is of the utmost importance to communicate with one another and these pairings are the ones which will likely indicate stronger relationships. For a long time, psychologists and sociologists have determined that communication is the key to a successful relationship. In a romantic pairing, communication usually begins when a man and a woman share time together. Many things will initially attract a male and female, such as appearance, personality, or charisma. For example, when I first met my husband, we were immediately attracted to one another. Our attraction preceded our first conversation; it played a highly influential role in our eventual coupling. As we progressed in our relationship, I found out that we had a communication problem as many couples do.

Historically, "Language-style matching diminished as each relationship soured" (Bower 2010). When relationships disintegrate, so does their level of communication. Instead of comprehensive discourse on a variety of issues, the conversations usually involve a range of topics limited to the ways in which the two parties disagree. Conversely, when people have proper communication skills, there is a greater likelihood that they can overcome the issues which present themselves in any relationship.

Works Cited

Bower, B. (2010). Shared talking styles herald new and lasting romance. Science News.

Pennebaker. (n.d.). Retrieved from…… [read more]

Addressing Barriers to Effective Communication Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (521 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … ineffective communication within a specific health care organization in order to identify barriers and challenges that contributed to the incident. This essay will describe an incident where a mistake was made due to faulty communication practices.

Recently I accompanied my friend to the emergency room at the local hospital after he had accidently cut most of his thumb off while preparing a salad for dinner. After registering with the nurse at the ER we were told to wait in a screening room until the doctor could examine my friend. My friend was bleeding pretty bad and was quite scared even though this injury was not life threatening and would most likely heal without any problem.

As time went by waiting we soon began to realize that some sort of miscommunication had occurred because it had been nearly one hour and no doctor had come to visit. The room itself was out of the main hallway and was hidden out of sight. At this time I had gone back to the front desk and a new nurse was there as a new shift had begun. I had asked her when my friend would receive some treatment and this nurse did not know what I was talking about. After several minutes of discussion we both realized that the nurse who had just got off shift did not communicate to her our situation.

While this incident is minor, it demonstrates the importance of communication. While me friend only had cut off part of his thumb, no one in the ER knew…… [read more]

Communication Personal Account Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (631 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Regular staff meetings and really, constant daily communication among the staff is a great way to locate barriers in communication. It is additionally important to check for communication barriers between nursing home staff and the residents. Productivity is a usual demonstration that communication is working and there are few barriers. A pleasant work atmosphere is also a demonstration that communication is working. It is not that there will not be problems or that work will be perfect, but it will be better than average and there will be clear structures in place to support strong, clear communication.

Confidentiality is basically not revealing personal information to irrelevant parties. There is sensitive information that nursing staff come across and must know in order to do their jobs well. This is the kind of information that could put the residents at risk for credit fraud and other dangers. Confidentiality includes understanding what information is sensitive and private, in addition to having the respect and self-discipline to not disclose confidential information to parties that truly do not need to know. For me, I immediately think of drugs that nursing residents take and what procedures to take when they fall ill (who has power of attorney, do not resuscitate, etc.)


Colon-Emeric, C.S., Ammarell, N., Bailey, D., Corazzini, K., Lekan-Rutledge, D., Piven, M.L., Utley-Smith, Q., & Anderson, R.A. Patterns of Medical and Nursing Staff Communication in Nursing Homes: Implications and Insights From Complexity Science. Qualitative Health Research, 16(2), 173 -- 188, 2006.

Pillember, PhD, K., Suitor, PhD, J., Henderson, Jr., C.R., Meador, R., Schultz, L., Robison, PhD, J., & Hegeman, C. A Cooperative Communication Intervention for Nursing Home Staff and Family Members of Residents. The Gerontologist, 43, Special Issue II,…… [read more]

Reading Analysis Communication Assessment

Assessment  |  3 pages (1,149 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Communication

The author defines communication as "the transmission of meaningful information from on person or group of persons to another person or group of persons." These messages generate "shared attitudes, values, beliefs, feelings, or behaviors between the sender and recipient" (p.8). The main strength of this definition is that it creates a very clear definition of a concept that can have very wide implications. This kind of focus, however, can also be a weakness. I think that claiming communication to be exclusively "personal," i.e. relating only to people, is somewhat narrow. Animals also communicate, both among themselves and with human beings. I do, however, agree that there needs to be both a sender and receiver for communication to occur.


I once had a communication breakdown with a South African friend on Facebook. She told me that she would be "holding thumbs" for me. I did not understand why she would want to do that, but ignored it and carried on with the conversation. She cut off the conversation a little more quickly than I would have expected, and even seemed a little angry. When we connected next, I asked her if I had done something to offend her, and she explained that she was a little hurt that I simply ignored her wishing me luck. As it happened, "holding thumbs" in South African English is an idiomatic expression to wish a person the best or good luck on a venture.


I must agree with the author on his assessment of the statement that "no people can see the same thing." The global nature of the statement makes it impossible to prove in any way. However, I also agree with the author that, even within a common understanding of a concept, idea, or vision, there are many different perspectives. So, if the statement were modified a little to acknowledge the existence of some commonality among human beings, it would not only be far more palatable, but also more realistic. In one sense, I agree that no two people see things in precisely the same way. However, meaningful and coherent communication would have been impossible without at least a few main common concepts.



Words are powerful indeed. We see this in both the grand scales of politics and the economy as well as in smaller-scale personal life. In politics, for example, a lie by a president can sweep an entire country into war in which millions die, many of whom are women and children. A lie by an investor can cause thousands of people to lose millions of dollars. In my own personal life, I have experienced the power of words in both positive and negative ways. A friend who says something simple like "you look nice today" elevated my mood for that entire day. On the other hand, hearing the word "unfortunately" at the start of any conversation makes me feel cold and anxious all over. James is right, although many do not seem… [read more]

Non-Verbal Communication Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,536 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … non-verbal communication, which is one of the fields of social psychology. Social psychology is the branch of psychology that deals with the human behavior and actions in a social situation. However, nonverbal communication facilitates the experts of the field to better understand the human behavior and nature when interacting socially. The dissertation has included aspects on a broad… [read more]

Communication Apprehension Some People Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (668 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Since I really try to avoid public speaking and talking in groups, I expected to see these kinds of numbers. Actually, I was a bit surprised that these were not higher, because there have been so many times where I have been fearful. These problems are most obvious during public speaking, where I have stammered, blushed, panicked, dropped note cards, and actually had to leave the room once. Naturally, this is not a healthy way to handle things and I realize that work needs to be done in order to help me be more successful at public speaking instead of being so afraid of the issue. Many people speak in public and survive without a problem, so there is no reason that I cannot use information found in the writings of DeFleur, Kearney, Plax, & DeFleur (2005) in order to make my life more comfortable and learn to speak bravely in public.

Meetings are also a problem, but they are not as much of an issue as being in front of a group of people. At least in meetings I am more likely to be able to hide away and not say as much, and all eyes are not on me. During times where everyone has given me their full attention during a meeting, I have had the same kind of issue arise as I have when I must speak in public in front of a group. I generally find a quick way to deflect the attention, but this does not always prove to be effective. When it is not effective, it becomes more awkward. Now that I am aware of the fact that my communication apprehension has been confirmed, I can focus on ways it can be lessened.


DeFleur, M.H., Kearney P., Plax, T., & DeFleur, M.L. (2005). Fundamentals of human communication (3rd ed). NY: McGraw-Hill.

McCroskey, J.C. (1982). An introduction to rhetorical…… [read more]

Life in College Throws Communication Challenges Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,849 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Life in college throws communication challenges in my face the whole time. I have to learn how to deal with my classmates -- and some of them are a mixed bag. I have to learn how to communicate with my parents, particularly when topics become sticky; and I have to learn how to effectively communicate with my teachers so as… [read more]

Communication Mental Health Nursing Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (709 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


For instance, a nurse should communicate with the patient in a way that he will feel being valued by her.


It refers to an act by a person of being kind.

For instance, doctors should communicate with their patients in a way that reflects their kindness.


Prejudice refers to a judgment made in advance without having complete knowledge. Such type of judgments can easily be removed through communication.


It refers to a feeling of being sensitive or a situation when decisions need to be made carefully because people may react emotionally due to the results.

In communication, it is essential to consider the sensitivity of the situation in order to achieve the final goal.

Social exclusion:

This term refers to detaching the individuals of a society from their rights. For instance, education, housing, employment opportunities, training etc.


It refers to developing a prejudice due to a particular characteristic of a person, without having complete knowledge. This occurs when a person puts the other person in some category due to the common characteristic.

Nonverbal and verbal communication:

It is a type of communication in which words are not used as a tool for communication. Instead of this, nonverbal tools are used such as body language, gestures and postures, eye contact etc. In contrast to this, verbal communication refers to the use of language and sounds for communicating (Grimshaw & Hussain, pg. 101, 1997)

Para verbal communication:

Use of pitch and tone is referred as Para verbal communication. For example stressing on one specific word to clarify the meaning.


It refers to the difference in characteristics such as race, color, religion etc.

Managing to communicate with sensitivity and accuracy is not difficult and it can be done if a person understands the receiver from every perspective and then develops his idea of delivering the message accordingly. Communicating the right thing at the right time may also result in communicating with sensitivity (Grimshaw & Hussain, pg. 106, 1997).


Grimshaw, C., & Hussain, I. 1997. Communication. Chicago: World Book in association…… [read more]

Communication: Arguments Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (964 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


S. based on their community values, usages, and the way the community perceives communication in the U.S. Thus communities develop languages based on their levels of growth. The important fact is that while the U.S. is a developed economy, Brazil is yet a developing unstable nation. (Bailey, 1996)

One of the most important factor is the method of communication, inside the community and with another community that may or may not share the same language, and we can see the dichotomy if the colonial languages are analyzed. It can be seen that the language development is based on change. Even old English was created by the merger of French and many other languages. Languages often give way to new words, languages and usages partly because of absorption, political and historical changes and changes in the social context. In some cases the persons of a region may not be able to learn multiple languages may develop new vocabularies and communication. (Bailey, 1996)

This often differentiates communication. Official and business communication of ten tends to be more direct and thus the greater state of education and cultural integration of Brazil changes the communication paradigm. A research by Nelson, et al. (2010) shows that there is no traditional employment that has caused a vacuum in the organizational cultures of the Brazilian industry. Industries also produce certain subcultures based on work with relations and these are quite different in their base from the U.S. industries and the varying organizational cultures can affect understanding, communication and the way industries react in the international economy. (Nelson, et al., 2010) There are thus various aspects to the communication problem.


Primarily communication is based on culture and messages will be interpreted as per the recipient's orientation. Thus communication development as seen from the U.S. angle may not match those that are at the receiving end in Brazil. Secondly the undeveloped nature of Brazil which largely depends on the radio and TV restricts the effective communication to these media. The problem of communication is accentuated on account of the language barrier and the ensuing cultural differences and understanding. The custom of Brazil thus creates a barrier even in visual and oral communication for American along with the different nonverbal communication and poor communication strategies between the groups.


Bailey, James N. (1996) "Essays on Time-Based Linguistic Analysis." Clarendon Press:


Nelson, Reed E; Vasconcellos, Eduardo; Ponc, Vera M. L; Pasqualini, Dinei A. (2010) "A

Subcultural Analysis of the Brazilian Knowledge Industry: When Nation, Industry, and Organizational Cultures Collide" Latin American Business Review, vol. 11, no. 1, pp: 317 -- 337.

Palka, Liz. (2006) "Cultural Differences Between Brazil and the United States" Brazil

Magazine, p. 7-9.

Portch, Stephen R. (1985) "Literature's Silent Language: Nonverbal Communication." Peter

Lang: New York.

Pretto, Nelson De Luca; Bailey, Lga Guedes. (2010) "Digital culture in Brazil: Building

'peeracy'?" International Journal of…… [read more]

Communication Competency Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (626 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Higher SPCC scores generally refer to a higher level of self-perceived communication competence in a range of settings and with a range of receivers: for example, people with high communication competency scores are able to communicate effectively with both friends and complete strangers.

My personal score for the Communication Competence Scale ranged at just around a 72, which I feel was accurate. I have a high level of communication competence with friends and acquaintances, but with strangers, my level of effectiveness and comfort when communicating can truly vary. I believe it's this lack of consistency which lowered more score. I think the respondents could also tell that when talking to strangers I have a markedly lower level of comfort and ease, something which no doubt was reflected in my score.

However, a colleague of mine score near 98 on the communication competence scale, and this colleague is nearly famous for his ability to communicate not just with friends, coworkers, bosses and superiors, but with foreigners, the elderly, children of all ages -- even reticent teenagers. This particular colleague of mine has a remarkably strong knack for communicating and it's one that is strongly envied by all of our friends and co-workers. There is no situation that makes him uncomfortable -- at least he doesn't display any of the signs that people typically display when they're uncomfortable. He has an innate warmth for people, that even strangers comment on and attributes his knack for communication to his Canadian upbringing. The intriguing aspect about this colleague's style of communication is that he has no apparent weaknesses; all the people who engage with him in conversation alike find his style of dialogue and relaying information to be extremely charming and lucid.


DeFleur, M., Kearney, P., Plax, T., & DeFleur, M. (2004). Fundamentals of Human

Communication. Columbus: McGraw Hill.

McCroskey, J. (1988). Self-Perceived Communication…… [read more]

Communication Competency Analysis Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (628 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The scale consists of 36 items to which the individual rates on a scale of 1-5, ranging from strong disagreement to strong agreement. The "possible range of scores for the CCS [is]: 36 to 180...The absolute mean is 108" (Reis n.d). Items include "3. I treat people as individuals" and "10. I won't argue with someone just to prove I am right." However, just to ensure that the test taker does not automatically check of strong agreement with all of the statements, items 4, 8, 11, 12, and 28 indicate bad communication behaviors, such as "28. I don't follow the conversation very well" (Reis n.d). These responses are scored separately and are subtracted from the points accumulated from the good conversational behaviors.

Overall, my score was 112, slightly above the mean. This indicates that I am a good communicator, although I still have room to improve. "Individuals high in CCS (above 108) are generally more sensitive, flexible and assertive communicators than those lower in CCS" (Reis n.d). I scored high, I believe, because of my strong agreement with such statements as "22. I am supportive of others" and "24. I can easily put myself in another person's shoes

(Reis n.d). I believe I am an empathetic person, and this is an asset to me as a communicator even though I do not consider myself to be a charismatic speaker. When I showed my score to a friend of mine, he said he was not surprised. I am the 'go to' person in my group of friends when people have problems. I speak my mind, but I am also willing to what other people have to say and I genuinely care about other people's issues.


Lane, Derek R. (2000). Communication competence defined. Communication Capstone.

Retrieved: http://www.uky.edu/~drlane/capstone/commcomp.htm

Reis, Jane Lister. (n.d.). Communication Competence Scale. CMN 150. Retrieved:

http://facweb.northseattle.edu/jreis/cmn165/communication_competence_scale.htm… [read more]

Communication Skills Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (615 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Communications Skills for Students

As college students, we must be able to communicate effectively at various different levels and via numerous different formats and media. Naturally, success in higher education depends substantially on the ability to communicate ideas in formal writing. In college, the primary value of good written communications skills is that they enable us to demonstrate our understanding of substantive course material on examinations and in written assignments. In that respect, there is an element of good academic performance that is very directly a function of communications. In the longer term, the writing skills that we develop as college students are essential to our ability to produce various types of written reports and both internal and external communications in the ordinary course of business. Typically, our ability to express ideas effectively in writing also becomes a factor in establishing the first impression that we hope to make on others.

College also allows us to practice our verbal communications skills, particularly in connection with speaking in public and speaking in front of large audiences. Just as writing skills play an important role in our ability to express ideas clearly in formal communications, our verbal communications skills determine how well we express ourselves in real time and in impromptu situations. In college, fluency of verbal expression is important in classroom discussion situations. In the longer term, it allows us to develop the necessary skills to communicate effectively with coworkers, business associates, customers, and with a wide range of individuals in the normal course of professional and commercial business relationships.

Useful Sources of Information

One useful source of advice about communications skills is an online article titled "Troubleshooting Human Communications Tips" authored by information technology (it) professional, Lenny Zeltser (2012). The author provides helpful strategies and tools for improving the ability of technical experts to communicate…… [read more]

Communications an Interesting Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (831 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The problems created by the President's message included the fact that he acknowledged the company was undergoing some difficult times. Instead of calming employee nerves, his message seemed to exacerbate the situation. Now the rumors are more substantiated based upon the President's message, so further rumors sprang up overnight. Needless to say, rumors fueled more rumors which continually fed even more rumors. Morale sagged for almost all employees which also affected the company's productivity levels.

Improvements in the communication process could begin right at the top. The President's message was delivered in a concise posted message that detailed only the bare minimum of facts. He could have been much more upbeat, offered much more in the way of details and been much more forthright in possible ramifications. Additional communications could have also offered a lot more in the way of a calming and dispelling influence.

3. In a specific situation that I recall when I failed to communicate effectively, I now realize that I was saying one thing verbally and another thing altogether in a non-verbal manner.

From the stance of my body, to the shaking of my head in a classic 'no' manner, to the folded arms, everything about my physical persona radiated negativity, whereas the language I was using was comprised of some of the most positive wording and phrases I could create.

I was trying to communicate the idea that the club that we owned was going to move to a bigger, better and more affluent area of town in order to provide amenities that were not currently being offered. The verbal communications included rosy projections for the future, and positive growth ideas for the club. In retrospect, my body language (much like my personal beliefs) portrayed the idea that the club was in deep financial trouble and that if we were extremely lucky in gathering additional investors we might have the opportunity to bring to fruition some of the ideas that might save the club.

Because of the fact that my body portrayed my true beliefs about the situation, not one single prospective investor took the plunge to invest in the club. Without the additional investors, the club failed. Changing my body language at that presentation could have garnered much different results. I could have opened my arms, looked potential investors in the eye, walked around the room to be closer to the investors, and nodded my head up and down to make positive contact rather…… [read more]

Effective Communication Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,835 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Body Language and Paramedics

Among the various way humans communicate -- through the use of the voice, the written word, sign language (for the hearing impaired) or through body language -- the one communication style that is perhaps least recognized by the layperson is body language. Body language is also likely the least understood, albeit scholars and researchers assert that… [read more]

Enhance Satellite Communication Research Paper

Research Paper  |  13 pages (3,595 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Components of Satellite Communications

Use of Satellite Communications

Advantages of Satellite Communications

Disadvantages of Satellite Communications

How Satellites Work

Enhancing Satellite Communication

Satellite Communication:

Satellite communication can be described as the use of artificial satellites to offer communication connections in different points on Earth. This type of communication plays a crucial role in the telecommunications systems across the globe since… [read more]

Monological Model Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,519 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Jabri, Adrain, and Boje (2008) on alternatives to the monological model is fascinating in that it causes us not only to think about communication in an alternate way but also reverses paradigms in other factors too. Jabri, Adrain, and Boje (2008) submit that Western culture emphasizes the monological model due to its tendency of viewing the recipient of… [read more]

Nonverbal Communication: Journal Entry Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (742 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


For some of my friends, standing close to someone is a sign of friendship, while when someone stands extremely close to me, I tend to feel intimidated by, rather than befriended by the person looming near me. Even when taking public transportation, I may feel as if my territory is being invaded when someone sits next to me in an otherwise empty bus or subway car. I think I may be overly sensitive in this regard, although I have noticed that some people will use their 'territory' to mark out their dominance over me by encroaching upon my personal space. But perhaps the most sensitive issue is one of time -- my friends who are European often say they are on 'European time,' which they use as an excuse for being late, versus 'English time,' which means that a person should come 'on time,' as agreed-upon beforehand.

Perhaps nothing is more context-dependent than paralanguage, or subtle, nonverbal communication. Paralanguage (pitch, intonation, and other aspects of vocal language that add subtlety to meaning) is very important when I am talking to people, particularly my friends. I often find that when I am talking to strangers and they do not seem to 'get' my sense of humor; it is partially because they do not understand my subtle paralanguage which indicates when I am joking or not joking.

In all, I would consider myself to be 'average' as a nonverbal communicator. For my task, I admit that I was not very daring when I selected to 'violate' a taboo -- I decided to wear a very nice interview suit to one of my classes, versus the acceptable uniform of a t-shirt, jeans, and hoodie. The response of my classmates was mainly positive -- they asked me where I was going after class, or if I had plans with someone. This confirms my suspicion that often 'dressing up,' even when slightly inappropriate, is viewed in a more positive light than dressing down. I considered myself to be violating a rule, given that I had 'learned' from many years in school to dress in a similarly formal or informal manner as my classmates.… [read more]

Communication Skills What I Intend Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (625 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Communication Skills

What I Intend to Do to Improve My Communication Skills

In basic terms, communication involves the transmission of messages from one person to another using a wide range of methods. The ability to communicate in a concise, clear and effective way is critical when it comes to building lasting relationships both in the workplace and within a familial setting. Hence the development of effective communication skills should be a priority for any individual seeking to scale both the corporate and social ladder. Personally, I do not happen to be an effective communicator. However, I intend to undertake a number of steps in an attempt to enhance my communication skills.

To begin with, I plan to be making more eye contact when communicating with others. I am convinced that this will enable me to maintain their attention so that I may be able to pass my message across. Similarly, I also plan to work on my body language when holding conversations. From my readings on effective communication, both an approachable stance and an appropriate posture play a significant role in enhancing the smooth flow of conversations. For instance, occasional gestures during a conversation could help keep the audience attentive and interested in what is being said. With that in mind, I will seek to incorporate more gestures in addition to eye contact during my engagement with others.

Next, I also intend to read a number of self-help books addressing the subject of effective communication. Some of the books I have identified in this case include but are not limited to Effective Communication by James S. O'Rourke and 101 Ways to Improve Your Communication Skills Instantly by Jo Condrill and Bennie Bough. Reading the books will enable me to become well acquainted with the various strategies individuals use to become better communicators. I could supplement this exercise by closely watching successful public…… [read more]

Integrated Corporate Communication (ICC) Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  25 pages (7,925 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 25


Those ways could be (Gray and Balmer, 1998):

Cognitive: it means to request for more information than required.

Affective: it means to inspect the message with comprehension point-of-view.

Behavioural: it means to determine that how far the collected data is true or not with every subjective point-of-view (Gray and Balmer, 1998).

Outer, Inner along with Co-Maker stakeholders

Corporations are comprised… [read more]

Communication Accommodation Theory Application Essay

Application Essay  |  4 pages (1,384 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



A friend went to Australia for two weeks and one of the things she brought back was a partial Aussie accent. We all sort of snickered at her and rolled our eyes for the first week or so, but after she persisted in calling us 'mate' and using 'crikey' as an expletive a month later, we eventually stopped inviting her out, until she just sort of drifted away. On the other hand, when my family was traveling through the South on vacation, people my age called my parents 'ma'am' and 'sir,' which was not the custom in our family. I tried it out and found it felt kind of good to be respectful to people I'd never met before. But when I got home and said, "Go ahead, ma'am" to a woman getting on the bus, she replied in affront, "Ma'am! What am I, your grandmother? Get on the d-mn bus." Embarrassed, I had to comply.

These are examples of people using communication to move toward or away from each other, in social groups they want to identify with or separate themselves from. People, including myself, have been using various strategies like these all my life, but it wasn't until I saw them through the lens of Communication Accommodation Theory that I realized how much these intentional or unconscious strategies revealed about speakers' motivations. Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT) includes all manner of communication including gesture; posture; diction (word choice), phonetic variation ('accent') and virtually a limitless possible series of utterances that can be included under the heading 'speech' or 'speech act' for convenience. Speech here refers to any attempt to communicate with a target, or 'interlocutor.' My self-proclaimed Australian friend was using her new, adopted, affected accent to separate herself from the rest of us here back home for some reason, which we all took to be her self-superiority because we had never been to Australia. On the other hand the woman who got mad at me for 'ma'am'-ing her on the bus used CAT to identify herself with me as younger than senior age, even when she was admonishing me in outrage. These examples illustrate the breadth of scope and intent various speakers employ CAT to accomplish, whether they know it or not.

Now that I have a formal theory through which to interpret this phenomenon, I realize how often this takes place around me, enough to be nearly ubiquitous. I see peers alter their speech styles when a professor walks into a class, and then see the same people use slang to act 'street' in front of other friends off campus. This has allowed me to realize that I am no different, which has a dual effect, allowing me to pay attention to my own communication from a clinical or detached standpoint in order to better control accommodation I want to continue or stop using, and this realization has also helped me stop judging others harshly the way we ostracized my friend for her affected accent. While… [read more]

Communication Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (985 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It is determined by social scientists that verbal communication only accounts for "7% of the communication process" (Stewart, 2005) while demonstrative communication makes up for the rest of the 93%, specifically in the form of listening. Listening is the most significant kind of communication without being vocal, which involves "five elements: hearing, attending, understanding, responding, and remembering" (Stewart, 2005). Hearing is the physiology of listening once sound waves hit the ear at various intervals of frequency. Attending is the act of filtering out certain things and focusing on other messages, and understanding means comprehending such messages. Responding is giving feedback to the receiver, not necessarily in the form of words but through facial expression and eye contact. Remembering is being able to recollect information or messages that were previously communicated.

Listening is effective and positive when the sender conveys to the receiver what they wanted to in a clear and clarified manner. Success in listening is achieved when the receiver listens intently, and at the end, has an input or reaction. An example of triumph of such non-verbal communication is when a girl is telling her girlfriend what a horrible day she had at the work place. It was a positive experience because the receiver sympathized and empathized with the speaker, and tried to look at her perspective. As well, the receiver of the conversation was not distracted and did not detract her attention from the speaker. As well, the listener was able to stop talking and knew when to be quiet to given the speaker space and time to just talk about what she needs to at her own pace. Furthermore, it was a positive demonstrative communication when the receiver would repeat and encourage the speaker through this sounding back method. In addition, non-verbally, the receiver's facial expressions were significant by looking interested and making eye contact but not overwhelmingly so while at the same time see friendly and open to what the speaker had to say. The posture to show the receiver was paying attention is a relaxed manner along with the nodding of the head, and a relaxed body mannerism.

Non-verbal communication is saying something without vocally voicing it out. Such form of demonstrative communication is visible in the form of facial expressions like smiling or frowning, body language like being close to somebody, appearing like wearing a power outfit, and gestures like a hand hold or huge are all used to display a certain feeling and notion to the other party. The aforementioned are all forms of communication to convey how an individual feels without the use of words.


Stewart, G. (n.d.). Types of nonverbal communication: Listening Skills. Better business communication results. Retrieved November 6, 2011, from http://www.leehopkins.com/types-of-nonverbal-communication-listening-skills.html

Sutton, N. (n.d.). Pros & Cons of Nonverbal Communication | eHow.com. eHow | How to Videos, Articles & More - Discover the expert in you. | eHow.com. Retrieved November 6, 2011, from http://www.ehow.com/info_8117087_pros-cons-nonverbal-communication.html… [read more]

Interpersonal Communication the Art Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (801 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


When listening it is important to pay attention and provide feedback to ensure the person who is talking that you are listening. Before learning the importance of mindful listening, I was sometimes quick to cut someone off when I disagreed with what they were saying. But after learning the importance and the positive impact that it can have, I started being a mindful listener and have realized that is helps in communicating. When everyone gets a turn to say what is on their mind, healthy communication is established and similar to being a clear and accurate communicator, being a mindful listener also helps in building a strong interpersonal relationship with others.

Finally, another aspect of the interpersonal communication class that helped me grow as a person includes learning how to communicate effectively in a conflict situation. Often times, arguments can get heated and when conflict arises, both parties are on the defence; but, this does not help communication or the conflict to diffuse. I learned from this class how to effectively communicate in a conflict situation- calmly, using words and language that will not further add fuel to the fire so to speak and speak constructively not harshly or critically. All of these different components will help diffuse situations before it escalates to a point that it can no longer be diffused. Learning this type of communication is extremely important because of the different people and thing that people, including myself, come in conflict with. Conflict is inevitable but how one deal with it is absolutely up to us.

Over the course of the semester, I have learned a lot of things that have truly helped me appreciate the value of effective interpersonal communication. I hope to utilize the lessons learned and the wisdom that has been imparted on me by this education immediately and hope that it will facilitate the growth of strong interpersonal relationships with my friends and family. Eventually, when I graduate, these skills will help me be an effective member of the workforce. The skills learned here have the ability to help me live a happier, calmer and healthier life and help grow closer to people instead of more distant.

Works Cited

Trauernicht, Nathan. "The Importance of Interpersonal Communication." Firehouse.com, 14 Jun 2007. Web. 11 Aug 2011. .… [read more]

Communication Transaction Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (691 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Communication Transaction Analysis

When considering communication transactions, there are two dominant perspectives one may approach the transaction from in order to determine the nature of the interaction. In short, the situational perspective categorizes communication transactions according to certain situation-specific variables, while the developmental perspective begins with the assumption that any two people communicating necessarily begin from a position of relative impersonality, interacting on the level of social role rather than as people, and only developing towards an interpersonal communication after certain conditions are met. In order to better understand and explicate these concepts, it will be useful to examine a communication transaction between two characters in the television show Parks and Recreation in order to demonstrate the two perspectives' different understanding of interpersonal communications and how these may be practically applied.

Near the beginning of the Parks and Recreation episode called "The Fight," Leslie Knope, the assistant director of the parks department of a fictional Indiana town, is talking to her best friend Ann Perkins, a nurse at the local hospital. Leslie is extremely excited because she has just secured a job interview for Ann as a part time employee of the public health department, and in typical Leslie fashion she has enthusiastically prepared all public health records and literature that Ann might need to familiarize herself with before the interview, which is scheduled for nine a.m. The following morning. Understandably, Ann is not thrilled by the prospect of an early morning job interview (with the city manager who also happens to be her ex-friend) after an all night public health study session on the heals of a sixteen hour shift at the hospital. Needless to say, this conversation between best friends is not as exciting for Ann as it is for the ecstatic Leslie, who in her defense, is just really excited that the two could soon be working in the same building.

According to the criteria of the situational perspective, Leslie and Ann's conversation is certainly an example of interpersonal communication. The conversation is dyadic, or taking place between two people, and the…… [read more]

Communication Competence- Online Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,437 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The 'belonging' component, in effect, demonstrates how individuals and groups become integrated or marginalized in their immediate online community depending on the level of their access and participation to online (mass) media.

The process generally explained by the theory of communicative action and its supplementary theories show that perceived competence or incompetence and integration or marginalization in the public sphere,… [read more]

Learning About Empathic Communication Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (626 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


And appropriately, the medical profession is acknowledging how a failure to diagnose then prescribe affects their profession. Dr. Hardee argues that empathetic communication is a teachable, learnable skill that benefits both the clinician and patient. As he summarizes it, "Appropriate use of empathy as a communication tool facilitates the clinical interview, increases the efficiency of gathering information, and honors the patient." (2003).

I found Covey's discussion regarding the Greek philosophy of ethos, pathos, and logos enlightening. As he explains, the three words contain the essence of seeking first to understand before moving on to make effective presentations. Ethos represents one's character, pathos one's relationships, and logos the reasoning component of a presentation.

I am pleased to report that I did grasp the connection between character and communication prior to reading Covey's discussion, and it has shaped my communication skills. Because listening can sometimes turn manipulative, I have known that it was important for the other person to believe they can trust me and open up. If my character does not radiate trust and honesty, it follows that my co-workers, friends and family will not feel safe enough to open up and expose their feelings to me.

When I consider the rest of my managerial team, I find we all typically suffer from the same shortcomings when it comes to effective communication. But now that I understand what it means to listen with empathy, I can model the behavior we all need to get better at. By practicing empathic listening, we can change our interactions from being merely transactional to being transformational.


Covey, S. (2004). The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People: Powerful Lessons in Personal Change (2nd ed.). New York: Simon and Schuster.

Hardee, J.T. MD. (2003). An Overview of Empathy. The Permanente Journal, 7(4). Retrieved from http://xnet.kp.org/permanentejournal/fall03/cpc.html… [read more]

Group Communication Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (487 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Power is the ability to influence others, and there several different kids. Two major different types are power over and power to: "power over" is the ability to help or harm someone else, whereas "power to" helps other people in meeting their own goals. The power structure itself refers to the distribution of power in the group, which affects how people communicate with each other as well.

I notice power structure coming into play in my communication with my nuclear family. We have a hierarchical power structure, with my father wielding the most power, and my mother having more hidden kinds of power, and often the grown children will act sycophantic in order to gain power from them. It is not necessarily done obviously or consciously, but we are all vying for his approval.

In conclusion, close monitoring of my own communication has yielded the realization that I too fit into patterns described by these theories. However, awareness does help me to have insight into why people are saying different things in groups. In time, I think I could even use these insights to my advantage, by, for example, emphasizing cohesion in a group where I notice that it is falling apart, or suggesting a more equal power structure if I think that is damaging the group.


Myers, Scott A., & Anderson, Carolyn M. Fundamentals of Group Communication. New York: Sage, 2008. Print.

Wood, Julia. Communication in Our Lives. Beverly, MA:…… [read more]

Communication Process and Provide Examples Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (905 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Speaker-related is where we take a look at idiom obstacle occurring between the orator and the receiver, poor training ways and minimal understanding within the organization. Lastly we get to Interior receiver related whereby issues like minimal ability of the receiver and predetermined thoughts of the receiver.

Planning for any communication is therefore important and these is uncomplicated procedure that can help one overcome these obstacles and be sure that proficient and efficient communication will be in the organization.

Many People every now and then be unsuccessful in sharing information and this is because they don't have a clear understanding on how the information will be of help to others when in real sense it can. Engagement and motivation factors appear to be of importance as lack of these can makes them not to listen to others. Feedback is very important and many tend to ignore them not knowing that they affect their communication


There is a need for employees to be trained on communication for it is important and it involves illumination or clearly making employees understand what is expected of them, hence going extra mile to solving communication tribulations among them. On the other hand, employees should be inspired as this will always boost there moral and will effect communication, because lack of inspiration will jeopardize the attempt to communicate appropriately. Where such cases, arise it is therefore significant to embark upon organization self-esteem issues. As we all know that not all know that all people are not the same in that others are just naturaly poor in communication and nothing can change there ability to do this, hence it is of great impotence to test peoples ability before hiring them. Angelene O'Reilley (2011)

Work cired

Angelene O'Reilley: (2011) Poor Communication: How It Affects Your Business, Inc.

Debbie Zmorenski closeAuthor: Debbie Zmorenski Name: Debbie Zmorenski


Site: http://www.globallsa.com

About: Deborah K. Zmorenski, MBA, is the co-owner and senior partner of Leader's Strategic Advantage Inc., an Orlando, Fla.-based consulting firm. During her 34-year career with the Walt Disney World Company, Debbie held leadership positions in restaurant management, human resources, training and development, customer service, production manufacturing and resort operations. She is a recipient of "Partners In Excellence," Disney's most prestigious corporate award. For more than five years, she was a senior facilitator and content specialist with the Disney Institute. Today, with LSA, she travels the globe providing executive coaching and strategic partnering, enabling organizations to implement and maintain organizational change.See Authors Posts (23)(2009) Effective communication: Turn this weakness into a strength, Inc.… [read more]

Interpersonal Communication Skills Essay

Essay  |  9 pages (2,258 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Gender-based differences

Males and females, of all ages, communicate in fundamentally, and at times, frustratingly different, ways. Interestingly, men and women even listen differently (Hybels & Weaver, 2007). Also, gender influences the language style men and women utilize. As Hybels & Weaver (2007, pg. 124) note "Men are more likely to use report-talk, a language that maintains their status, demonstrates… [read more]

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