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Overcoming Communication Barriers

Autism: Overcoming Communication Barriers a) Background: Autism What is Autism? History of Autism, including research done in an effort to understand Autistic. Characteristics of a child with Autism b) Background: Communication Communication definition, methods, history. Importance of communication to human life. A c) Analysis of the effects of Autism on communication. Development of a?€ normal?€ child with regard to communication.…

Pages: 8  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 4


Dysarthria Correcting a Speech Disorder This Study

Dysarthria CORRECTING a SPEECH DISORDER This study used the descriptive-normative type of research in recording, describing, interpreting, analyzing and comparing data on dysarthria. It introduces communication disorders, specifically dysarthria and its causes, symptoms, assessment and treatments. The role of the speech language pathologist is outlined along with the methods he uses in every phase of diagnosis and treatment. Issues, however, still remain concerning some modes of treatment of the disorder and research continues on intervention. Disorder or impairment in a person's ability to communication can be distressing if not recognized and adequately treated (Melfi et al., 2011). If one's voice quality, pitch or volume is different from others of the same age, culture or location, he may have a voice disorder. One type if called dysarthria. It refers to a group of motor speech disorders, which develops from a disturbance in the neuromuscular control of speech. That disturbance may be a stroke, brain injury, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS, multiple sclerosis, Huntington's disease, cerebral palsy or tumors (Ashley, 2006). The most common symptoms include slurred speech or imprecise articulation, abnormal rate of speech, low volume, and impaired voice quality. Causes include paralysis, weakness or a lack of coordination of the muscles involved in speech. The five types are flaccid, ataxic, spastic, hyperkinetic and hypokinetic. Flaccid dysarthria is associated with brain stem stroke or progressive bulbar palsy; ataxic disarthria with multiple sclerosis; spastic disarthria with stroke; hyperkinetic disarthria with Huntington's chorea; and hypokinetic disarthria with Parkinson's Disease (Ashley). Assessment and Treatment: the Role of the Speech Language Pathologist Assessment consists of a complete oral-peripheral examination of the speech muscles both at rest and when moving (Ashley, 2006). The speech language pathologist evaluates facial muscles and muscles used in chewing in structure, symmetry, strength, precision, and speed. He asks the patient to imitate his demonstrated labial and lingual movements in speaking and non-speaking posts. By making the patient perform diadochokinetic tasks, the pathologist can detect the speed, precision, and rhythm control of the respiratory, phonatory, and articulatory structures. He observes respiration both at rest and when speaking. Speech instruments are also used as objective measurements in combination with standard tests of intelligibility. Among those are the Assessment of Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech and French Dysarthria Assessment (Ashley). The use of acoustic methods can identify any of the three classes of subclinical manifestations of dysarthria (Ganty et al., 2012). These characteristics…

Pages: 5  |  Research Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 5


Computers and Alternative Communication Just

¶ … Computers and Alternative Communication Just as technology has been able to make life easier and open up to more opportunities than ever before, technology has also enabled people with speech disorders to be able to communicate in ways that they ordinarily might not have been capable of. One's ability to communicate has an undeniable impact on one's ability…

Pages: 5  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 5


Interpretation Across Culture in on Line Communication

Cross Cultural Communication Interpretation across Culture in online communication Effective communication goes beyond the words that are used and encompasses a broader range of communicative skills, such as body language and gestures. Like, words, these gestures can have a different connotative meaning depending on cultural and contextual clues that surround them. These cultural and contextual clues are the basis for…

Pages: 12  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 31


Communication Sciences and Disorders

Communications Our voice is how we introduce ourselves to the world, how we impart our personality, our feelings, and our state of mind. When impaired, our speech prevents us from communicating accurately. A speech disorder can have a profound and deleterious impact on a young person's social life, on personal identity formation, and on self-esteem. Speech and language pathologists stand poised to use new technologies and techniques to help people of all ages work with their innate talents and abilities to improve their communication skills. No matter what the cause of a speech or communication disability, it can and should be treated as early as possible. Helping parents recognize speech, language, and communication impairments in their toddlers and young children is one way that we can help minimize the pain and suffering endured by the family. Moreover, speech and language pathologists are able to change the way the world views speech and communication to reduce or hopefully eliminate stigmas associated with audible problems. Awareness……

Pages: 1  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 0


Speech and Language Characteristics of Deaf Blind Children

Curtiss-Wright Symbolic Communication and Deaf-Blindness: How Children Communicate Children who are deaf-blind have diverse communication abilities and educational needs. Many have some residual vision and hearing or can use speech. Others are nonverbal or inconsistent in their ability to verbalize (Bennett et al., 1995). Others do not use their sight or hearing to communicate, relying instead on signs and gestures…

Pages: 5  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 4


Non Verbal Communication the Impact of Nonverbal

Non Verbal Communication The Impact of Nonverbal Communication on Presentation Delivery When giving a presentation non-verbal communication can make the difference between a successful communication and a failed one. The written word is a powerful tool that is important to a presentation. The non-written word or nonverbal use of communication however will result in the most lasting impression on the audience. There are several elements of nonverbal communication that impact a presentation's outcome and presenter's impact on the audience. Presentation effectiveness according to the article may result in career advancement. Poor presentation skills may also result in stagnation, thus it is important to examine the critical elements of presentation effectiveness. In the article reviewed, the authors present many ideas regarding nonverbal communication. First, they acknowledge that the key to successful and effective communication may rely on proper training. The authors suggest that presentation effectiveness is related to nonverbal elements as well as the actual content of the presentation. Nonverbal elements discussed by the author that specifically impact the audience may include the manner in which people dress, their use of vocal intonations, visuals and even body language. Among the nonverbal communication elements that are most important according to the authors include eye contact, posture and gestures. The authors suggest that eye contact is the most essential element of nonverbal communication, in part because eye contact is what draws the audience in and makes a presentation seem personable rather than foreign. Eye contact allows the speaker to connect with the audience. Eye contact can be combined with smiling and nodding. Generally an audience that feels included according to the article will maintain eye contact with the speaker and smile or nod in agreement back to the person delivering speech. This acknowledgement acts as a reinforcement and may provide the speaker with positive feedback. According to the article during a presentation the use of direct eye contact may enable the speaker to appear more confident and self assured, a quality most audiences are in tune to and looking for when analyzing a speaker's message and effectiveness. The authors further suggest that when the speaker smiles and directs eye contact toward specific members of the audience, the message of contentment and happiness is sent to the audience. Generally according to the article speakers who prepare their speech ahead of time are more able to maintain eye contact with the audience and thus have…

Pages: 4  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Listened to a Speech in

Was the pace suitable to impart the information? The pace was too fast, possibly due to anxiety of speaker and discomfort with subject. The speech would have benefited from pauses, certainly from a pause and smile in the beginning and at the end. Was the vocal quality varied and pleasant? The vocal quality was monotone. There were no pauses nor…

Pages: 4  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Demonstrative Communication

Communication is basically described as the process with which messages are sent and received and involves the exchange of messages, information, and thoughts through the use of speech, writing, signals, and behavior. Therefore, this process of transferring information and messages can be either through verbal or non-verbal means. Since it entails sending and receiving wordless messages, demonstrative is basically centered on non-verbal and unwritten communications. While it can act and convey messages alone, demonstrative communication is normally used to reinforce verbal communication. This method of communication involves several aspects like body language, tone of voice, and body language. Effectiveness and Ineffectiveness of Demonstrative Communication: In addition to reinforcing verbal communication, demonstrative communication permits self-expression of the sender. In most cases, people tend to use demonstrative communication on a daily basis even without their knowledge that they are doing so. The effectiveness and ineffectiveness of demonstrative communication by the sender and the receiver requires critical consideration because of the huge likelihood for it to be imprecise and easily misunderstood. The use of body language can either be restrained or more demonstrative based on the situation, the communication partner, and the style of sending messages ("Nonverbal Communication," n.d.). Similar to other elements of communication, the enhancement of demonstrative communication is through making it a natural part of an individual's verbal messages. Therefore, the silent or demonstrative communication should be aligned with the sender's verbal messages to promote its effectiveness. Without the alignment of body language as an ordinary part of a person's communication, there is a higher possibility of demonstrative communication to be misinterpreted. While some individuals have ease in doing, other finds it a difficult and challenging task to align their body language with their verbal messages. When people present minimal or non-engaging demonstrative communication, it's usually interpreted as lack of interest in the interaction or transmission of messages and information. Even though the perception may not be precisely accurate to the specific situation, it's likely to be interpreted as ineffective demonstrative communication. Some of the most important elements that are needed to enhance the effectiveness of demonstrative communication include understanding its importance and awareness of the various meanings and behaviors during interactions. The effectiveness of demonstrative communication is also enhanced when the listener or receiver of the message understands the information conveyed by the sender. Therefore, it has become an essential element for success in all relationships and interactions at…

Pages: 3  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Communication and How it Is Best to

¶ … communication and how it is best to define, classify and relate it to other fields, disciplines and definitions. Overall, it shows that communication is just too broad and complex to easily pigeon hole and define. Paradigms of Speech -- Bruce Gronbeck Gronbeck talks about the import of studying speech as a discipline, because of how rhetoric has become…

Pages: 8  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Golden Rule of Cross-Cultural Communications Anyone Who

Golden Rule of Cross-Cultural Communications Anyone who has attended school, held a job, or formed a relationship, which is to say everyone, can readily testify that communicating with others can be a challenging enterprise at times. Even when people hear what is being said, they may not understand it properly because of a wide range of factors that can adversely…

Pages: 5  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 10


Communication Theories the Unique Part

Question 5 Although ritual and habits do provide some sort of communication transmission in their practice, these two terms need to be distinguished from each other in order to understand the finer aspects of their usage within communication. When ordering a meal through a drive thru window at a fast food restaurant that type of communication appears to be an applied use or transmission. There is a ritual aspect of this transmission however, that is rooted in the ritual aspects of food, digestion and regeneration of new cells. A ritualistic aspect of communication would be the common greetings we speak to another. While greetings such as "hello" and " see you later" are rather empty in real meaning, have a ritualistic aspects that demonstrates the emotional attitude of the speaker towards the receiver. Question 7 Donath & Boyd would welcome the social media aspect towards forming relationships and communication because it presents a novel and new way to learn and evolve, aligning with their interpretation on the subject. Facebook is no longer a tool per se, but more of an institution that does not need to be abided by in order to navigate through society despite pressures from the mainstream and media. It appears, at some level that Facebook itself is a weaponized tool to exploit the young and ignorant on their willingness to share and learn. Facebook consists mostly of fake people claiming to do fake things so its value is limited to disinformation and propaganda techniques in most cases. Littlejohn and Foss would describe could describe this trend as an attempt to describe the Uncertainty Reduction Theory, suggesting we like to dress people down as we meet them and find out all there is……

Pages: 2  |  A2 Coursework  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Communication: Beyond Verbal Communication the

23). Take, for example, the same work situation. Individual A tells Individual B. that he is happy with B's work and expresses this verbally. As A takes this message in, he is pleased. Until A sees B. rolling his eyes while continuing to work on the project. B catches A looking and attempts to explain. In an instance such as this, B's verbal communication to A cannot cover up his intent and true emotions. In this capacity, demonstrative communication has outshone verbal communication in terms of effectiveness. Perhaps more so than verbal communication, demonstrative communication rests its success in a far greater capacity in terms of listening and responding. Just as verbal communication involves a high standard of listening and responding, demonstrative communication does so, but on a greater level. With nonverbal communication, it is essential for the receiver to pay attention to the sum of the parts rather than the parts themselves. Through the extending of verbal cues, the receiver must listen with his or her eyes rather than their ears, which takes far more time and intuition to understand fully. This type of rapport involves "cultivating an interest in both the sender and the message" in order to take in the message being put forth as well as to respect and understand the sender in his or her message as well as in his or her self (Cheesbro, O'Connor and Rios, 2010, pp.1). With this type of communication, one must essentially listen and interpret with both the eyes and the ears. Noises, tones, and other heard facets mean much on their own, but mean far greater when combined with a look or a gesture. With this combination of sensory communication, both the sender and the receiver are able to project and take in the context of their communication in a way that is far better-rounded than an interpretation that verbal communication sans any other nonverbal cues would have to offer. While many individuals learning about the facets of communication may note the complexities and subjective nature of understanding demonstrative social cues on paper, it is easy to find that in real life, subjectivity often gives way to truth. A friend or acquaintance's warm smile has the capacity to mean more than a verbal greeting. A hand on a shoulder has the ability to comfort on an equal if not greater scale than words alone. While demonstrative communication eliminates…

Pages: 3  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


Swallowing Difficulty and Speech Difficulty

Conclusion It is easy for clinicians to focus on clinical outcomes, as can be demonstrated by previous research on the effectiveness of the NGT vs. PEG feeding tube systems. The administration of a feeding tube is surrounded by a variety of contradictory clinical evidence regarding its effectiveness in improving outcomes for the patients. A patient's outlook on life can often be a factor that determines the outcome of therapy to regain their ability to function normally. For this reason, it is important to consider the effects of the treatments performed on a patient's perception of their quality of life. The ability to eat normally and communicate with other human beings is a factor in this determination. This research will investigate the effects of the two most prevalent feeding methods for dysphagic stroke patients on their satisfaction with the quality of their life in regards to the ability to undergo therapy to regain communication and swallowing functions. This study will directly compare the satisfaction levels of patients using these two methods. It will be administered via a survey and analyzed using comparative techniques. There are several factors which may confound the results of this study which are beyond the scope of the current study. One factor is that there are many factors that may effect the satisfaction of the patients with their quality of life and these factors may be reflected in the answers. Factors such as the level of family support and any predisposing conditions such as depression may have an effect on the survey. There is no baseline survey with which to compare these survey results. A longitudinal study would be useful in determining if the satisfaction of the two groups show more or less improvement over time. Many confounding factors exist in individual patients, such as a history of alcohol or substance abuse, the severity of the stroke and the area of the begin effected by the stroke. All of these factors may have an effect on the survey results. Demographic data and cross tabulation may help to eliminate some of these confounding variables. It is still expected that even with these in consideration of these confounding variables the statistical significance of these variables will be in support of the thesis that the PEG method of feeding will give patients a significantly better satisfaction with the quality of their life as far as their ability to communicate an…

Pages: 7  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


John F. Kennedy Moon Speech

John F. Kennedy Moon Speech - Rice Stadium, rhetorical analysis of John F. Kennedy's September 12, 1962, Moon Speech - Rice Stadium, Houston, Texas There is a strong connection between John F. Kennedy, the 35th American President, and the space race occurring throughout the Cold War. Kennedy largely believed that having the upper hand in the space race was a…

Pages: 10  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 10


Business Communication the Business Environment Is Analyzed

Business Communication The business environment is analyzed by numerous research studies that intend to understand the rules that determine business behavior, its factors of influence, and some of the most important effects of these factors. Communication is one of the elements that are intensely addressed by the literature in the field. The importance of communication in the business environment relies…

Pages: 12  |  "Literature Review" Chapter  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 30


Bill Clinton and Effective Style of Speech

Speech Bill Clinton and His Power of Speech While many former presidents have hit the speaking circuit as a way to stay in the public eye and make some extra cash, none have succeeded as much as Clinton, who has earned more money -- and more criticism -- than any of his predecessors. Bill Clinton is really the biggest presidential…

Pages: 10  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 5


Roles of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication in Interpersonal Interactions

Verbal/Nonverbal Communication VERBAL and NONVERBAL INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS Interpersonal communications consist primarily of conscious verbal conversation, but nonverbal cues also play an equally important role. Nonverbal communication includes both conscious and unconscious elements of body language and patterns of eye contact, as well as completely involuntary physiological reactions. Under routine interpersonal situations, verbal and nonverbal communications components are synchronous. However, under…

Pages: 8  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 5


Proposal Eliminating Communication Barriers in IT Development With the Rest of the Departments

¶ … eliminating communication barriers in it/Development with the rest of the departments Communication barriers between it/Development and the rest of an organization's departments This paper is aimed at making the company's management aware of the communication's implications to the well-going of the overall activity, productivity and career advance. The research proposal attempts to reach its goal by briefly depicting…

Pages: 6  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 5


Speech Pathology Some of My

Speech therapy is crucial for many oral and throat cancer patients. First, speech therapy provides the best opportunity for the least invasive solutions to restoring normal thoracic controls such as swallowing. My immediate hope is to have the opportunity to complete the Communication Sciences and Disorders Post-baccalaureate Certificate Program at Chapman University. After that, I hope to remain at the university and apply for the master's degree program in Communication Sciences and Disorders (CSD). My general intention afterwards is to become a state-licensed professional therapist in speech and language therapy and to practice within the same Orange County community that I served in my previous professional capacity with the LAPD. As a licensed speech therapist, I would be interested in working in schools, hospitals, and in with developmentally challenged children in private settings. My bi-racial (Chinese-Mexican) background and my personal experience growing up as member of the ethnic minority community have allowed me to communicate very successfully with a wide range of ethnically and culturally diverse individuals in various capacities. Naturally, I expect that will also be a valuable advantage in the field of speech therapy. In the much longer term, a career in speech therapy also opens up possible professional opportunities such as in corporate speech, language, and communications training. As a practical matter, I believe that a career in speech therapy will allow me to practice in a wide variety of different possible vocational settings and in almost any community in the United States. The fact that the average age of Americans is rising so fast (largely because of the post-World War II "Baby Boom") means that there will be increasing numbers of patients who will require speech pathology services to overcome the disabilities associated with neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. In addition to being able to help members of this growing patient population, that unfortunate statistic means that speech pathologists will be able to expand their vocational experiences and work with members of the community spanning a wide age range. Likewise, the field offers an attractive pay scale for individuals entering the field and that is a natural concern for me, especially today when more and more college graduates who study the traditional types of academic areas find themselves unable to secure meaningful or challenging employment of any kind, let alone employment that is rewarding and also within their field of professional interests. I…

Pages: 4  |  Admission Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Communication and Gender in

Social penetration theory essentially details the process from which a person goes from shedding the layers of his or her public persona to revealing his or her own, true personality. The process of achieving this goal, of course, is through the gradual giving away of personal details about one's life outside of the public sphere (Altman & Taylor, 1987, p.…

Pages: 5  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Communication Management: Communication in the Workplace When

Communication Management: Communication in the Workplace When people in an organization conduct a meeting, share stories in the cafeteria, or deliver presentations, they are making efforts to communicate. To understand why communication efforts sometimes break down and find ways to improve your communication skills, it helps to identify the elements of the communication process. Communication is the transmission of information…

Pages: 4  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 4


Management Written Communication: An Essential Element of

Management Written Communication: An Essential Element of Successful Business Interaction Written communication when used effectively can be one of the most powerful ways to connect with an audience (Morgan, 2003). When used incorrectly however the written word can also result in conflict, confusion, chaos and dispute. It is critical that employees understand the key elements of solid academic writing if…

Pages: 5  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Interpersonal Communications Communication Is Very Important in

Interpersonal Communications Communication is very important in all types of relationships so that people can connect with one another to find out how to make things n peace. In order to communicate properly, people must use interpersonal communication skill to move things forward especially in the workplace. For example, I work at a local pub as dish/glass picker, and the…

Pages: 6  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 10


Nonverbal Communication Skill Although There

For example, a number of research studies indicate that there is a significant gender difference in the nonverbal encoding decoding skills among humans, with women being far more competent than men in both nonverbal skills . This is, perhaps, the reason behind the common complaint among women about the supposed "insensitivity" of their spouses. Nonverbal sensitivity is also believed to…

Pages: 8  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Management Communication One Situation That Can Be

Management Communication One situation that can be cited regarding communication in workplace is the instances within the hospital staff and patient relationship. This kind of communication is apparent in many inpatient and outpatient care service (Gordon). When a medical staff is in direct contact with patients, they are provided with communication opportunities with the patients. Such relationship, using verbal communications, similarly provides them with chances of using human speech in a greater degree. This is especially useful when solving problems. Aside from verbal communications, there are also instances where nonverbal type of communication used for exchanging ideas or expressions. In our example of medical staff and patient relationship, signs are generally used especially during instances when there is a need to immediately communicate a simple thought (i.e. such as telling a medical staff of an emergency situation by moving his arms). The literature of Pierce (1961) mentioned that signs are widely used as they possess meanings, which are closest to the of the sentence implications." This situation proves advantageous as the medical staff can minimize time element in dealing with a number of patients (Rosen, George). There is no longer the need to express words in giving instructions to the patients or in situations that patients respond to the medical staff. One effective learning technique that I learned is in the form of a linear model. This happens when information are conveyed to a receiver in linear order. This type of learning technique can be similarly useful in managing medical staff and patients during frequent contact and communication with them. As implied by Gordon (1969) the linear model is containing all these elements contribution to an effective listening technique." Another common situation where nonverbal communication is used is between the relationship of a doctor and the family of a patient. Sometimes,……

Pages: 2  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Personality and Communication Affect on Supervision

PERSONALITY & COMMUNICATION: AFFECT ON SUPERVISION Imagine that you are sitting in a room with three other people: a convicted serial killer, an eccentric scientist, and a four-year-old child. If you had to choose one, which one would you pick? Which qualities would you automatically associate with each individual? Which one do you think you most closely identify with? If…

Pages: 20  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Communication Apprehension

Communication Apprehension Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA) The difference between state CA and trait CA Culture Gender Future directions The conceptualization and study of communicative anxiety has been an area of interest to communication scholars and researchers for decades. This phenomenon has been referred to using a variety of different terms including reticence, shyness, social-communicative anxiety, communication avoidance, and…

Pages: 9  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication Among

A Japanese person points a finger to his face in referring to himself while a Chinese, to his nose, and a North American to his chest. A person of a given culture looks at the eyes or face of the person spoken to. Another person only gazes while another does not even gaze at all. One hugs a friend or family member when greeting according to his culture. But others of a different culture avoid touching when speaking (Ciubatoru). Keeping a distance from the person spoken with differs among cultures too (Ciubatoru 2012). Increasing the space from the other person can be construed as coldness, condescension or interest. That person who wants distance is likely to interpret the effort of the other person to get closer as pushiness, disrespect or aggression. This is proxemics (Ciubatoru). The speaker's vocal cues used when speaking all constitute paralanguage (Ciubatoru 2012). These cues include pitch, speed, volume, pauses and silences. They contribute to or heighten the emotional and intellectual message. The Chinese give more importance to silence than to speech. They believe in the power of silence to produce inner peace and wisdom. But North Americans see a lack of communication in silence. They see it as a sign of uncertainty in the silent person (Ciubatoru). Chronemics refers to the time valuation among cultures in the way they do things. Western cultures quantify time and measure it in the pursuit of progress (Ciubatoru 2012). They deal with it logically, sequentially and moving away from the past and the present towards the future. In Eastern cultures, time is something continuous and unlimited. India sees time as going in circles of becoming and vanishing. It goes beyond human lifetime (Ciubatoru). . Non-verbal communication occupies a key position in high-context cultures (Ciubatoru 2012). It performs many functions complementary to verbal communication. It repeats, emphasizes, complements and contradicts what is verbal. At the same time, it regulates interactions, such as signaling when someone should speak or stop speaking. Lastly, non-verbal communication can even take the place of a verbal message when the speakers do not share a common language. Each of the foregoing possesses characteristics, which influence intercultural communication. They either enhance the communication or create conflict and misinterpretation, which often lead to poor communication (Ciubatoru). Cultural Difference in Non-Verbal Communication Nonverbal communication can be as loud and clear or louder and clearer than verbal communication (JanetB 2012).…

Pages: 6  |  Research Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 5


Communication in Organization Intercultural Communication

Communication in Organizations The case study is based on PTB company that decided to take the better percentage of their employees to Sydney Australia for a two day conference that was to focus on the new sales and marketing skills as well as to enable the employees from both countries under the PTB company get a chance to network. The…

Pages: 4  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Non-Verbal Communication Since Time Immemorial Has Remained

Non-Verbal Communication Communication since time immemorial has remained one of the most substantial and crucial process on a constant basis that refers to transferring of the information from one person to another. Indeed, people communicate with each other so that they can understand the meaning and information that the other person is trying to commune (Shepherd & Rothenbuhler 2000). Since…

Pages: 9  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 8


Communication Protocols in Order for

A good instance is a head nod, the same head nod may mean yes among an American audience and yet among an Indian audience the same head nod may mean refusal or disagreement. Still on verbal communication the Americans may use some metaphors with sports terms like "all the bases are covered" or "we want a level playing field" these are not understood by those who are non-native English speakers. The use of phrases that are culturally-based is seen to pose challenges during communication in collective cultures. Another example is some cultures are high context and the communication requires awareness of facial expressions, tone of voice and eye contact. On the other hand U.S. is a low culture context, where people depend more on words than other external expressions for meaning. The difference in how the low and high culture context will bring a misunderstanding in communication. Another cause of misunderstanding can also be seen in silence which is a communication style in a high context culture like the Asians which indicates thoughtfulness in decision making. While in the U.S. The silence is an uncomfortable gesture and tends to fill the void with small talk like comments about the weather. In Islamic culture also women do not shake hands with male this can be viewed as rude or offensive in the U.S. And hence will bring about misunderstandings. Recommendations for decreasing misunderstanding in communication Different cultures and how communication is undertaken can pose challenges in communication among people and therefore measures have to be taken to reduce these differences. Some of the measures include; understanding of the different communication modes in different cultures and learning them or understanding them (Martin, 2012). For instance before sending people for a business to people of a different culture there should be cultural informants who have multicultural expertise who will offer support and guide. There should also be emphasis on an open mind when interacting with people from different cultures. There should be no rigidity and have room for accommodating other cultures and their modes of communication. There should also be the use of a communication mode that is easily understandable by the majority of the people within an organization. This will reduce apathy every time a message is sent out and enable quick communication within an organization. References Callaway, C. (2000). Business Communication Protocol. Retrieved October 6, 2012, from http://www.ehow.com/about_6710290_business-communication-protocol.html Martin, M.J. (2012).…

Pages: 3  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Communication Theory

Communication Theory (attribution Theory in Communication) Communication process involves exchange of information between the sender and the receiver. The sender transmits a message while the receiver decodes the message sent. The key elements of myriad communication models are: the sender, the receiver, the message, the channel or the medium through which the message is conveyed, the context, noise/interference, and feedback (Dimbleby & Burton, 1998). Communication will be considered effective when the receiver fully understands the sender's message. Otherwise the noise that is found along the way shall be deemed to be distractive enough to hinder the effective passing of the message intended from the source to the receiver of the message. The sender or the source traditionally initiates communication process in a business communication setting. The audience becomes the receiver. The sender and the receiver engage in turn-taking (Heath & Bryant, 2000). This kind of interaction implies that whatever message the sender transmits can affect the sender and vice-versa. Scenario for the theory I have in several instances used this kind of approach to judge and condemn colleagues in the office and in the process allowing the attribution of traits hinder my communication at the workplace. For instance there was a time when I needed to leave the office two hours earlier than usual time, yet there was still work to be done. I had to leave since there was something urgent elsewhere I had to attend to. Upon asking my closest workstation colleague to help me clear the remaining task of inventory taking, she was unable to. My presumption was that it was because she felt jealous that by helping me on that particular day, I would still meet my set target for the day yet am out of office many hours before time, while she has to sit extra hours in the office. What this situation boiled down to was that the following few days, she asked me for the same favor, though her situation was that she was sick, I turned down the request with the reason that she 'never' helps me when I need the help. This situation made me not even to listen to the reasons why she needed my help. This situation escalated further that when we had projects to be done in collaboration, we never had mutual understanding on the sections to be carried out jointly as indicated in the secular but apportioned…

Pages: 4  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 4


Managing an Interpersonal Communication Environment

In negotiation, the couple would start by identifying and defining the conflict between them then they would generate the possible solutions to the conflict. The third solution is to evaluate the alternative solutions to find if they are going to work. The last thing is to decide which the best solution is for them after which this decision is followed Adler et al., 2011() The second way to manage the interpersonal communication environment is through finding the credibility of the source of information. The lady in this case should have evaluated the credibility of the source of information. It is important not to stereotype by making the assumption that the person giving the information is correct. At the same time, it is important not to let emotions interfere with reason. By letting tempers fly high, they interfere with an individual's ability to reason which also prevents the sender from passing the information in the correct way and at the same time, the recipient is unable to interpret the message as it is needed Floyd, 2009() The interpersonal communication environment can also be managed through effective listening and feedback which ensures that the sender is able to pass the message across effectively and that the recipient is able to acknowledge that the message has come across and that they are able to interpret it as the sender desired Floyd, 2009() It is also important to manage agreement in the communication environment. This means that there needs to be synergy in the team which is achieved by getting people the communicators to work together in a collaborative fashion to make the right decision in the right attitude. This involves the people in the conversation opening up their minds to new ideas and also giving and receiving feedback that creates a discussion that fosters a good interpersonal understanding and resolves the conflict to bring about a consensus Floyd, 2009() Expected outcome When the communication environment is managed effectively, there is a positive outcome that is expected from the communication itself. First is that there is the confirmation or disconfirmation of messages. This means that the communicators are able to confirm that they have passed the message and that the message has been understood. This is done so for both the verbal and the nonverbal messages. This creates a positive climate for communication which helps to grow the communication environment. The second outcome is…

Pages: 4  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 1


Intercultural Communication Refers to the Connection and

Intercultural communication refers to the connection and interaction among people of different countries and cultures and their behaviors (Scribd 2013). It is now common experience that people of diverse cultures link up or are brought together by common interests like business and education. They bring their respective cultures, beliefs, lifestyles, economic resources and faiths into that link. The basic elements and root words are culture and communication. These and two others form what are called the building blocks of intercultural communication. The two others are context and power (Scribd). The core concept in intercultural communication is culture (Scribd 2013). It is a system of information, beliefs and values used by society to relate with one another and with the world. That system or mechanism of existence is passed on from one generation to another through social learning. Culture includes and assumes multiple races, groups and nationalities. Culture is learned, shared and expressed in the form of behavior. Communication is a process whereby meaning is transmitted, received and negotiated among the members. It includes words, gestures and other verbal and non-verbal meanings, postures, eye expressions and other facial expressions, which convey meaning. Context refers to the physical and social environment where communication takes place. It may be a physical place, such as an office, a town or any structure. And power is something that accompanies communication in society and occurs consciously or unconsciously (Scribd). A number of benefits can be derived from the relationships that result from intercultural communication (Scribd 2013). One learns about the world from it. It eliminates stereotypes. It fosters new skills. Intercultural communication creates a sense of connection with others and bridges differences with other cultures (Scribd). Guideposts and Strategies Differences among cultures can be successfully bridged by observing the so-called 10 commandments of intercultural communication (Hahn 2013). These commandments enumerate the things that one should be aware of. These are differing social values; differing status symbols and how they are to be demonstrated; decision-making customs; concepts of time; personal space; cultural context; body language; social etiquettes or manners; legal and ethical behavior; and language barriers (Hahn). Intercultural communication is especially important and critical in the workplace where diversity has become a concrete reality in our time (Brown 2010). Business organizations are now aware that their capacity to communicate both internally and externally is to a huge extent affected by culture. The effective manager or intercultural communicator…

Pages: 4  |  Essay  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 3


Organizational Communication: Success and Failure

They failed to use them since they could not retain the information on how to operate the equipment as they had read (Ruquet, 2010). Another factor that led to communication failure in this scenario was completeness. The information sent through the email was not complete. Due to the short nature of emails there was a lot of important information that…

Pages: 7  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 10


Strategic Communication Leading Through Strategic Communication: Hurricane

Strategic Communication Leading Through Strategic Communication: Hurricane Sandy Superstorm Guidance and Assistance for FHA Insured Recipients In Class Goal Setting The goal of the program is to ensure strategic communication to inform FHA insured recipients of assistance they are eligible for following Hurricane Sandy. Audience Goal Behavior/Action Emergency/Government Agencies Service Provision Strategic communication to public FHA Homeowners and Renters Receipt of Service Receipt of viable information on receiving services and aid These actions are feasible for each agency listed. The barriers to action for each agency are reaching the appropriate people with the appropriate communication and information. Description of Audience Government Agency If this agency provides optimum communication rather than inferior communication then our agency will be able to effectively provide services to those impacted by disaster. B. Those affected by the disaster If I receive carry out the necessary communication with the agencies listed then I will be in receipt of needed services, however, if I fail to communicate with the agencies listed then I will not receive services. The image of the action requested by the agencies is that the agencies are trying to make provision of services and ultimately provide disaster relief. Openings that are efficient and effective include advertising on local radio stations, televisions and online via social media websites. Focus groups are also a great method of understanding what is needed following the occurrence of a disaster. III. Focus Group Studies Focus group studies would include those who have been affected by disaster and who have a viewpoint of what was done correctly and what could have been done more optimally. IV. Brief Topic Guide A. Strategic communications Strategic communications means "using corporate or institutional communications to create, strengthen or preserve, among key audiences, opinion favorable to the attainment of institutional/corporate goals" with the goal being the promotion of the public policy outcome which is favorable and reduction in the cost of doing business as well as providing support to marketing and operational effectiveness. (O'Malley, 2006, paraphrased) Strategic communications planning may be a master plan or specific event or announcement-specific plan. (O'Malley, 2006) the key planning concept is actionable meaning that it has the support of decision-makers and key implementers as well the plan can be implemented "given the resources, and the culture of the organization." (O'Malley, 2006) the products of an effective process for planning is such that should "embody an integrative, orderly decision-making…

Pages: 5  |  A-Level Coursework  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 6


Communications as a Discipline by

For example, whenever two people interact, the basis of sociology, that interaction involves communication. And no matter how that communication takes place, there are always going to be psychological aspects such as shared experiences, etc., or physiological ones like sweating, flushing, eye dilation, and other physical aspects that are caused by the psychological feelings involved. Communications is not only its own discipline, it is the overarching discipline that is made up of all the others. But because communications involves so many other disciplines, it is difficult to establish one, core communication theory. There is one set of basic components to the definition of communication, and there really should be one core theory of communication. It is true that what theory a person decides to use in their study of communications depends upon what aspect of communications one is studying. For example, when one's studies involve the rhetorical theory, speech and sounds are the most important aspect. However, when studying the phenomenological theory, or the aspect of communication that involves experience, one must involve psychology. ("SPC 3210, Chapter 2") The same can be said for any of the other communication theories like semiotic, cybernetic, socio-cultural, or critical tradition. ("SPC 3210, Chapter 2") However, because communication is itself dependent upon the circumstances, experiences, psychology and situation of those involved, communication is a process; and that process that can provide the core component of a single all encompassing theory. While social, symbolic, meaning, and environmental aspects of communication may be dependent upon the type of communication theory one is studying, the fact that it is a process is the one thing that all studies have and will have in common. It is because communication involves so many other fields, the process of communication can be the starting point to the development of a theory that can then be applied to any aspect of communications. References "SPC 3210: Contemporary Human Communication." McGraw Hill/Florida……

Pages: 2  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 1


Public Address the Ceo of

The body of Mr. Seidenberg's lecture was aimed at discussing the potential of the next generation of technology to create growth and how the services of Verizon Communications could be most profitably delivered to potential and current customers. He also stressed that his vision of the industry must be based on a specific paradigm, one centered around competition, investment and innovation in order to expand the market and benefit everyone involved. By far, Mr. Seidenberg's closing comments illustrated his talent for providing a very powerful lecture. He obviously put a great amount of time and thought into what he was going to say at the conclusion of his speech, for it was very motivationally directed, challenging and well developed. It also strongly influenced the audience, for I remember hearing many people talk about it as they were getting ready to leave the lecture. Once again, the highlight of Mr. Seidenberg's closing was his use of humor which left the audience laughing and applauding. This obviously helped to give everyone in attendance an extremely positive impression about Mr. Seidenberg and allowed every member of the lecture to leave feeling upbeat and confident about themselves: "The decisions that all employees of Verizon make this year about how we service our customers will influence the flow of billions of dollars' worth of capital, the security of thousands of jobs, the speed of the economic recovery, and the legacy of Verizon's technological leadership." The closing was appropriately followed by an hour's worth of questions from a very inquisitive audience. Mr. Seidenberg made it a point to limit one's question to no more than thirty seconds or so in order for everyone to have a chance. In regard to Mr. Seidenberg's speaking and delivery techniques, his voice was clear and strong and he always strived to pronounce and accentuate his well-chosen words. Since this was meeting of company executives and other employees of Verizon Communications, I thought it was a wise decision to allow the audience to know what was going to be discussed during the lecture via the copy of the speech handed out prior to its commencement. As to Mr. Seidenberg's delivery, if the audience expected intensity, then they surely were not disappointed. Mr. Seidenberg exhibited much emotion, expressed his message with great meaning and developed a sense of comradeship with his audience. His speech patterns ebbed and flowed and varied in pace…

Pages: 4  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Communications in a Business Setting

Cooper noted that formal training programs are helpful, but cited another researcher (Hall, 19976) who argued that most "real" training happens during peer-assisted, self-directed learning through such activities as project teams, task forces, electronic relationships, personal networks, customer relationships, and relationships with co-workers. But there was a caveat: The organization will need to provide supervisory and technological support as well…

Pages: 10  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0

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