"Communication / Speech" Essays

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Overcoming Communication Barriers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,326 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Autism: Overcoming Communication Barriers

a) Background: Autism

What is Autism?

History of Autism, including research done in an effort to understand Autistic.

Characteristics of a child with Autism b) Background: Communication

Communication definition, methods, history.

Importance of communication to human life.

A c) Analysis of the effects of Autism on communication.

Development of a?€ normal?€ child with regard to communication.… [read more]

Dysarthria Correcting a Speech Disorder Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,288 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5




This study used the descriptive-normative type of research in recording, describing, interpreting, analyzing and comparing data on dysarthria. It introduces communication disorders, specifically dysarthria and its causes, symptoms, assessment and treatments. The role of the speech language pathologist is outlined along with the methods he uses in every phase of diagnosis and treatment. Issues, however, still remain concerning some modes of treatment of the disorder and research continues on intervention.

Disorder or impairment in a person's ability to communication can be distressing if not recognized and adequately treated (Melfi et al., 2011). If one's voice quality, pitch or volume is different from others of the same age, culture or location, he may have a voice disorder. One type if called dysarthria. It refers to a group of motor speech disorders, which develops from a disturbance in the neuromuscular control of speech. That disturbance may be a stroke, brain injury, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS, multiple sclerosis, Huntington's disease, cerebral palsy or tumors (Ashley, 2006). The most common symptoms include slurred speech or imprecise articulation, abnormal rate of speech, low volume, and impaired voice quality. Causes include paralysis, weakness or a lack of coordination of the muscles involved in speech. The five types are flaccid, ataxic, spastic, hyperkinetic and hypokinetic. Flaccid dysarthria is associated with brain stem stroke or progressive bulbar palsy; ataxic disarthria with multiple sclerosis; spastic disarthria with stroke; hyperkinetic disarthria with Huntington's chorea; and hypokinetic disarthria with Parkinson's Disease (Ashley).

Assessment and Treatment: the Role of the Speech Language Pathologist

Assessment consists of a complete oral-peripheral examination of the speech muscles both at rest and when moving (Ashley, 2006). The speech language pathologist evaluates facial muscles and muscles used in chewing in structure, symmetry, strength, precision, and speed. He asks the patient to imitate his demonstrated labial and lingual movements in speaking and non-speaking posts. By making the patient perform diadochokinetic tasks, the pathologist can detect the speed, precision, and rhythm control of the respiratory, phonatory, and articulatory structures. He observes respiration both at rest and when speaking. Speech instruments are also used as objective measurements in combination with standard tests of intelligibility. Among those are the Assessment of Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech and French Dysarthria Assessment (Ashley). The use of acoustic methods can identify any of the three classes of subclinical manifestations of dysarthria (Ganty et al., 2012). These characteristics may be temporal, spectral, or phonatory (Ganty et al.).

Treatment varies according to the cause, type, severity of symptoms, and communication needs of the patient (Ashley, 2006). Changing the patient's speech or speaking conditions can bring overall improvement. The intention is usually to improve articulation by increasing lip, tongue movement and strength in order to achieve speech clarity. Other goals are to reduce the rate of speech and increase breath support. Management strategies include increasing volume by increasing phonatory effort or improving intelligibility through rate reduction and increased volume of the voice (Ashley). The pathologist will instruct the patient to… [read more]

Computers and Alternative Communication Just Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,530 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Computers and Alternative Communication

Just as technology has been able to make life easier and open up to more opportunities than ever before, technology has also enabled people with speech disorders to be able to communicate in ways that they ordinarily might not have been capable of. One's ability to communicate has an undeniable impact on one's ability… [read more]

Interpretation Across Culture in on Line Communication Research Paper

Research Paper  |  12 pages (4,205 words)
Bibliography Sources: 31


Cross Cultural Communication

Interpretation across Culture in online communication

Effective communication goes beyond the words that are used and encompasses a broader range of communicative skills, such as body language and gestures. Like, words, these gestures can have a different connotative meaning depending on cultural and contextual clues that surround them. These cultural and contextual clues are the basis for… [read more]

Communication Sciences and Disorders Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (329 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0



Our voice is how we introduce ourselves to the world, how we impart our personality, our feelings, and our state of mind. When impaired, our speech prevents us from communicating accurately. A speech disorder can have a profound and deleterious impact on a young person's social life, on personal identity formation, and on self-esteem. Speech and language pathologists stand poised to use new technologies and techniques to help people of all ages work with their innate talents and abilities to improve their communication skills.

No matter what the cause of a speech or communication disability, it can and should be treated as early as possible. Helping parents recognize speech, language, and communication impairments in their toddlers and young children is one way that we can help minimize the pain and suffering endured by the family. Moreover, speech and language pathologists are able to change the way the world views speech and communication to reduce or hopefully eliminate stigmas associated with audible problems. Awareness…… [read more]

Speech and Language Characteristics of Deaf Blind Children Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,618 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



Symbolic Communication and Deaf-Blindness: How Children Communicate

Children who are deaf-blind have diverse communication abilities and educational needs. Many have some residual vision and hearing or can use speech. Others are nonverbal or inconsistent in their ability to verbalize (Bennett et al., 1995). Others do not use their sight or hearing to communicate, relying instead on signs and gestures… [read more]

Non Verbal Communication the Impact of Nonverbal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,136 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Non Verbal Communication

The Impact of Nonverbal Communication on Presentation Delivery

When giving a presentation non-verbal communication can make the difference between a successful communication and a failed one. The written word is a powerful tool that is important to a presentation. The non-written word or nonverbal use of communication however will result in the most lasting impression on the audience. There are several elements of nonverbal communication that impact a presentation's outcome and presenter's impact on the audience. Presentation effectiveness according to the article may result in career advancement. Poor presentation skills may also result in stagnation, thus it is important to examine the critical elements of presentation effectiveness.

In the article reviewed, the authors present many ideas regarding nonverbal communication. First, they acknowledge that the key to successful and effective communication may rely on proper training.

The authors suggest that presentation effectiveness is related to nonverbal elements as well as the actual content of the presentation. Nonverbal elements discussed by the author that specifically impact the audience may include the manner in which people dress, their use of vocal intonations, visuals and even body language.

Among the nonverbal communication elements that are most important according to the authors include eye contact, posture and gestures. The authors suggest that eye contact is the most essential element of nonverbal communication, in part because eye contact is what draws the audience in and makes a presentation seem personable rather than foreign.

Eye contact allows the speaker to connect with the audience. Eye contact can be combined with smiling and nodding. Generally an audience that feels included according to the article will maintain eye contact with the speaker and smile or nod in agreement back to the person delivering speech. This acknowledgement acts as a reinforcement and may provide the speaker with positive feedback.

According to the article during a presentation the use of direct eye contact may enable the speaker to appear more confident and self assured, a quality most audiences are in tune to and looking for when analyzing a speaker's message and effectiveness.

The authors further suggest that when the speaker smiles and directs eye contact toward specific members of the audience, the message of contentment and happiness is sent to the audience. Generally according to the article speakers who prepare their speech ahead of time are more able to maintain eye contact with the audience and thus have an effective presentation than those who are not.

It is possible according to the article that nonverbal communication can work toward ones dis-advantage. Being overly expressive or extreme may send the message to the audience that a speaker is actually rigid or stiff. The speaker may also come across of careless if he/she is not adequately prepared ahead of time and fails to deliver directed gestures and eye contact during the course of the presentation.

The authors suggest that posture is another critical component of nonverbal communication in a presentation setting. Posture can portray an image of self-confidence or low… [read more]

Listened to a Speech Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,455 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Was the pace suitable to impart the information?

The pace was too fast, possibly due to anxiety of speaker and discomfort with subject. The speech would have benefited from pauses, certainly from a pause and smile in the beginning and at the end.

Was the vocal quality varied and pleasant?

The vocal quality was monotone. There were no pauses nor… [read more]

Demonstrative Communication Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (890 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Communication is basically described as the process with which messages are sent and received and involves the exchange of messages, information, and thoughts through the use of speech, writing, signals, and behavior. Therefore, this process of transferring information and messages can be either through verbal or non-verbal means. Since it entails sending and receiving wordless messages, demonstrative is basically centered on non-verbal and unwritten communications. While it can act and convey messages alone, demonstrative communication is normally used to reinforce verbal communication. This method of communication involves several aspects like body language, tone of voice, and body language.

Effectiveness and Ineffectiveness of Demonstrative Communication:

In addition to reinforcing verbal communication, demonstrative communication permits self-expression of the sender. In most cases, people tend to use demonstrative communication on a daily basis even without their knowledge that they are doing so. The effectiveness and ineffectiveness of demonstrative communication by the sender and the receiver requires critical consideration because of the huge likelihood for it to be imprecise and easily misunderstood. The use of body language can either be restrained or more demonstrative based on the situation, the communication partner, and the style of sending messages ("Nonverbal Communication," n.d.). Similar to other elements of communication, the enhancement of demonstrative communication is through making it a natural part of an individual's verbal messages. Therefore, the silent or demonstrative communication should be aligned with the sender's verbal messages to promote its effectiveness.

Without the alignment of body language as an ordinary part of a person's communication, there is a higher possibility of demonstrative communication to be misinterpreted. While some individuals have ease in doing, other finds it a difficult and challenging task to align their body language with their verbal messages. When people present minimal or non-engaging demonstrative communication, it's usually interpreted as lack of interest in the interaction or transmission of messages and information. Even though the perception may not be precisely accurate to the specific situation, it's likely to be interpreted as ineffective demonstrative communication. Some of the most important elements that are needed to enhance the effectiveness of demonstrative communication include understanding its importance and awareness of the various meanings and behaviors during interactions.

The effectiveness of demonstrative communication is also enhanced when the listener or receiver of the message understands the information conveyed by the sender. Therefore, it has become an essential element for success in all relationships and interactions at work, play, and general life. One of the major ways of enhancing the effectiveness of this type of communication is by maintaining eye contact in order to ensure alertness and forcefulness and emphasize the message. For instance an individual can receive what other people think…… [read more]

Communication Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,320 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … communication and how it is best to define, classify and relate it to other fields, disciplines and definitions. Overall, it shows that communication is just too broad and complex to easily pigeon hole and define.

Paradigms of Speech -- Bruce Gronbeck

Gronbeck talks about the import of studying speech as a discipline, because of how rhetoric has become… [read more]

Golden Rule of Cross-Cultural Communications Anyone Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,659 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Golden Rule of Cross-Cultural Communications

Anyone who has attended school, held a job, or formed a relationship, which is to say everyone, can readily testify that communicating with others can be a challenging enterprise at times. Even when people hear what is being said, they may not understand it properly because of a wide range of factors that can adversely… [read more]

Communication Theories the Unique A2 Coursework

A2 Coursework  |  2 pages (591 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Question 5

Although ritual and habits do provide some sort of communication transmission in their practice, these two terms need to be distinguished from each other in order to understand the finer aspects of their usage within communication. When ordering a meal through a drive thru window at a fast food restaurant that type of communication appears to be an applied use or transmission. There is a ritual aspect of this transmission however, that is rooted in the ritual aspects of food, digestion and regeneration of new cells. A ritualistic aspect of communication would be the common greetings we speak to another. While greetings such as "hello" and " see you later" are rather empty in real meaning, have a ritualistic aspects that demonstrates the emotional attitude of the speaker towards the receiver.

Question 7

Donath & Boyd would welcome the social media aspect towards forming relationships and communication because it presents a novel and new way to learn and evolve, aligning with their interpretation on the subject. Facebook is no longer a tool per se, but more of an institution that does not need to be abided by in order to navigate through society despite pressures from the mainstream and media. It appears, at some level that Facebook itself is a weaponized tool to exploit the young and ignorant on their willingness to share and learn. Facebook consists mostly of fake people claiming to do fake things so its value is limited to disinformation and propaganda techniques in most cases. Littlejohn and Foss would describe could describe this trend as an attempt to describe the Uncertainty Reduction Theory, suggesting we like to dress people down as we meet them and find out all there is…… [read more]

Communication: Beyond Verbal Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,033 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


23). Take, for example, the same work situation. Individual A tells Individual B. that he is happy with B's work and expresses this verbally. As A takes this message in, he is pleased. Until A sees B. rolling his eyes while continuing to work on the project. B catches A looking and attempts to explain. In an instance such as this, B's verbal communication to A cannot cover up his intent and true emotions. In this capacity, demonstrative communication has outshone verbal communication in terms of effectiveness.

Perhaps more so than verbal communication, demonstrative communication rests its success in a far greater capacity in terms of listening and responding. Just as verbal communication involves a high standard of listening and responding, demonstrative communication does so, but on a greater level. With nonverbal communication, it is essential for the receiver to pay attention to the sum of the parts rather than the parts themselves. Through the extending of verbal cues, the receiver must listen with his or her eyes rather than their ears, which takes far more time and intuition to understand fully. This type of rapport involves "cultivating an interest in both the sender and the message" in order to take in the message being put forth as well as to respect and understand the sender in his or her message as well as in his or her self (Cheesbro, O'Connor and Rios, 2010, pp.1).

With this type of communication, one must essentially listen and interpret with both the eyes and the ears. Noises, tones, and other heard facets mean much on their own, but mean far greater when combined with a look or a gesture. With this combination of sensory communication, both the sender and the receiver are able to project and take in the context of their communication in a way that is far better-rounded than an interpretation that verbal communication sans any other nonverbal cues would have to offer. While many individuals learning about the facets of communication may note the complexities and subjective nature of understanding demonstrative social cues on paper, it is easy to find that in real life, subjectivity often gives way to truth. A friend or acquaintance's warm smile has the capacity to mean more than a verbal greeting. A hand on a shoulder has the ability to comfort on an equal if not greater scale than words alone. While demonstrative communication eliminates the intricacies of speech and verbal eloquence, its ability to reach out on a human level cannot be ignored. In coming to understand the significance of demonstrative communication and its ability to allow us as communicators to better tune in and understand one another, it becomes clear after minimal research that this nonverbal communication cannot be overlooked in terms of effectiveness.


Cheesebro, T., O'Connor, L., and Rios, F. (2010). Communicating in the workplace. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Print.

Sutton, N. (2011 March 26). "Pros and cons of nonverbal communication." eHow. Web.

Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/info_8117087_pros-cons-nonverbal-communication.html. [Accessed on4…… [read more]

Swallowing Difficulty and Speech Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,077 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



It is easy for clinicians to focus on clinical outcomes, as can be demonstrated by previous research on the effectiveness of the NGT vs. PEG feeding tube systems. The administration of a feeding tube is surrounded by a variety of contradictory clinical evidence regarding its effectiveness in improving outcomes for the patients. A patient's outlook on life can often be a factor that determines the outcome of therapy to regain their ability to function normally. For this reason, it is important to consider the effects of the treatments performed on a patient's perception of their quality of life. The ability to eat normally and communicate with other human beings is a factor in this determination. This research will investigate the effects of the two most prevalent feeding methods for dysphagic stroke patients on their satisfaction with the quality of their life in regards to the ability to undergo therapy to regain communication and swallowing functions.

This study will directly compare the satisfaction levels of patients using these two methods. It will be administered via a survey and analyzed using comparative techniques. There are several factors which may confound the results of this study which are beyond the scope of the current study. One factor is that there are many factors that may effect the satisfaction of the patients with their quality of life and these factors may be reflected in the answers. Factors such as the level of family support and any predisposing conditions such as depression may have an effect on the survey. There is no baseline survey with which to compare these survey results. A longitudinal study would be useful in determining if the satisfaction of the two groups show more or less improvement over time. Many confounding factors exist in individual patients, such as a history of alcohol or substance abuse, the severity of the stroke and the area of the begin effected by the stroke. All of these factors may have an effect on the survey results.

Demographic data and cross tabulation may help to eliminate some of these confounding variables. It is still expected that even with these in consideration of these confounding variables the statistical significance of these variables will be in support of the thesis that the PEG method of feeding will give patients a significantly better satisfaction with the quality of their life as far as their ability to communicate an swallow food normally.

It is hoped that the data obtained in this study will dysphagic stroke patients make better decisions regarding their quality of life and determine the best treatment options for them. If the medical profession wishes to become more consumer conscience in the future, they will need to pay more attention to the effects that their interventions will have on the patients. Clinical results are important, but there is more to a patient than clinical results. We must remember that behind the numbers are real people and that it is these real people that count in the end.… [read more]

John F. Kennedy Moon Speech Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,151 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


John F. Kennedy Moon Speech - Rice Stadium, rhetorical analysis of John F. Kennedy's September 12, 1962, Moon Speech - Rice Stadium, Houston, Texas

There is a strong connection between John F. Kennedy, the 35th American President, and the space race occurring throughout the Cold War. Kennedy largely believed that having the upper hand in the space race was a… [read more]

Business Communication the Business Environment Is Analyzed Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  12 pages (3,383 words)
Bibliography Sources: 30


Business Communication

The business environment is analyzed by numerous research studies that intend to understand the rules that determine business behavior, its factors of influence, and some of the most important effects of these factors. Communication is one of the elements that are intensely addressed by the literature in the field. The importance of communication in the business environment relies… [read more]

Bill Clinton and Effective Style of Speech Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (2,514 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5



Bill Clinton and His Power of Speech

While many former presidents have hit the speaking circuit as a way to stay in the public eye and make some extra cash, none have succeeded as much as Clinton, who has earned more money -- and more criticism -- than any of his predecessors.

Bill Clinton is really the biggest presidential… [read more]

Roles of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication in Interpersonal Interactions Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,175 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Verbal/Nonverbal Communication


Interpersonal communications consist primarily of conscious verbal conversation, but nonverbal cues also play an equally important role. Nonverbal communication includes both conscious and unconscious elements of body language and patterns of eye contact, as well as completely involuntary physiological reactions. Under routine interpersonal situations, verbal and nonverbal communications components are synchronous. However, under… [read more]

Proposal Eliminating Communication Barriers in IT Development With the Rest of the Departments Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,825 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … eliminating communication barriers in it/Development with the rest of the departments

Communication barriers between it/Development and the rest of an organization's departments

This paper is aimed at making the company's management aware of the communication's implications to the well-going of the overall activity, productivity and career advance. The research proposal attempts to reach its goal by briefly depicting… [read more]

Speech Pathology Admission Essay

Admission Essay  |  4 pages (1,115 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Speech therapy is crucial for many oral and throat cancer patients. First, speech therapy provides the best opportunity for the least invasive solutions to restoring normal thoracic controls such as swallowing.

My immediate hope is to have the opportunity to complete the Communication Sciences and Disorders Post-baccalaureate Certificate Program at Chapman University. After that, I hope to remain at the university and apply for the master's degree program in Communication Sciences and Disorders (CSD). My general intention afterwards is to become a state-licensed professional therapist in speech and language therapy and to practice within the same Orange County community that I served in my previous professional capacity with the LAPD.

As a licensed speech therapist, I would be interested in working in schools, hospitals, and in with developmentally challenged children in private settings. My bi-racial (Chinese-Mexican) background and my personal experience growing up as member of the ethnic minority community have allowed me to communicate very successfully with a wide range of ethnically and culturally diverse individuals in various capacities. Naturally, I expect that will also be a valuable advantage in the field of speech therapy. In the much longer term, a career in speech therapy also opens up possible professional opportunities such as in corporate speech, language, and communications training.

As a practical matter, I believe that a career in speech therapy will allow me to practice in a wide variety of different possible vocational settings and in almost any community in the United States. The fact that the average age of Americans is rising so fast (largely because of the post-World War II "Baby Boom") means that there will be increasing numbers of patients who will require speech pathology services to overcome the disabilities associated with neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. In addition to being able to help members of this growing patient population, that unfortunate statistic means that speech pathologists will be able to expand their vocational experiences and work with members of the community spanning a wide age range.

Likewise, the field offers an attractive pay scale for individuals entering the field and that is a natural concern for me, especially today when more and more college graduates who study the traditional types of academic areas find themselves unable to secure meaningful or challenging employment of any kind, let alone employment that is rewarding and also within their field of professional interests. I have known several people who encountered those types of difficulties and I have seen the way that their disappointment in that regard has changed their lives for the worse. Frankly, I know that the last position that I would ever want to be in would be to graduate with an advanced academic degree and then fail to find employment that was directly related to that field, all while having to start paying back my student loan obligations.

Therefore, I am tremendously hopeful that my candidacy to the Communication Sciences and Disorders Post-baccalaureate Certificate Program at Chapman University will be successful… [read more]

Communication and Gender Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Social penetration theory essentially details the process from which a person goes from shedding the layers of his or her public persona to revealing his or her own, true personality. The process of achieving this goal, of course, is through the gradual giving away of personal details about one's life outside of the public sphere (Altman & Taylor, 1987, p.… [read more]

Communication Management: Communication in the Workplace Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,464 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



Management: Communication in the Workplace

When people in an organization conduct a meeting, share stories in the cafeteria, or deliver presentations, they are making efforts to communicate. To understand why communication efforts sometimes break down and find ways to improve your communication skills, it helps to identify the elements of the communication process. Communication is the transmission of information… [read more]

Management Written Communication: An Essential Element Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,472 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Written Communication: An Essential Element of Successful Business Interaction

Written communication when used effectively can be one of the most powerful ways to connect with an audience (Morgan, 2003). When used incorrectly however the written word can also result in conflict, confusion, chaos and dispute. It is critical that employees understand the key elements of solid academic writing if… [read more]

Interpersonal Communications Communication Is Very Important Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,977 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Interpersonal Communications

Communication is very important in all types of relationships so that people can connect with one another to find out how to make things n peace. In order to communicate properly, people must use interpersonal communication skill to move things forward especially in the workplace. For example, I work at a local pub as dish/glass picker, and the… [read more]

Nonverbal Communication Skill Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,560 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


For example, a number of research studies indicate that there is a significant gender difference in the nonverbal encoding decoding skills among humans, with women being far more competent than men in both nonverbal skills

. This is, perhaps, the reason behind the common complaint among women about the supposed "insensitivity" of their spouses. Nonverbal sensitivity is also believed to… [read more]

Management Communication One Situation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (603 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Management Communication

One situation that can be cited regarding communication in workplace is the instances within the hospital staff and patient relationship. This kind of communication is apparent in many inpatient and outpatient care service (Gordon). When a medical staff is in direct contact with patients, they are provided with communication opportunities with the patients. Such relationship, using verbal communications, similarly provides them with chances of using human speech in a greater degree. This is especially useful when solving problems.

Aside from verbal communications, there are also instances where nonverbal type of communication used for exchanging ideas or expressions. In our example of medical staff and patient relationship, signs are generally used especially during instances when there is a need to immediately communicate a simple thought (i.e. such as telling a medical staff of an emergency situation by moving his arms). The literature of Pierce (1961) mentioned that signs are widely used as they possess meanings, which are closest to the of the sentence implications."

This situation proves advantageous as the medical staff can minimize time element in dealing with a number of patients (Rosen, George). There is no longer the need to express words in giving instructions to the patients or in situations that patients respond to the medical staff.

One effective learning technique that I learned is in the form of a linear model. This happens when information are conveyed to a receiver in linear order. This type of learning technique can be similarly useful in managing medical staff and patients during frequent contact and communication with them. As implied by Gordon (1969) the linear model is containing all these elements contribution to an effective listening technique."

Another common situation where nonverbal communication is used is between the relationship of a doctor and the family of a patient. Sometimes,…… [read more]

Personality and Communication Affect on Supervision Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (5,219 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Imagine that you are sitting in a room with three other people: a convicted serial killer, an eccentric scientist, and a four-year-old child. If you had to choose one, which one would you pick? Which qualities would you automatically associate with each individual? Which one do you think you most closely identify with? If… [read more]

Communication Apprehension Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,230 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Communication Apprehension

Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA)

The difference between state CA and trait CA



Future directions

The conceptualization and study of communicative anxiety has been an area of interest to communication scholars and researchers for decades. This phenomenon has been referred to using a variety of different terms including reticence, shyness, social-communicative anxiety, communication avoidance, and… [read more]

Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,173 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


A Japanese person points a finger to his face in referring to himself while a Chinese, to his nose, and a North American to his chest. A person of a given culture looks at the eyes or face of the person spoken to. Another person only gazes while another does not even gaze at all. One hugs a friend or family member when greeting according to his culture. But others of a different culture avoid touching when speaking (Ciubatoru).

Keeping a distance from the person spoken with differs among cultures too (Ciubatoru 2012). Increasing the space from the other person can be construed as coldness, condescension or interest. That person who wants distance is likely to interpret the effort of the other person to get closer as pushiness, disrespect or aggression. This is proxemics (Ciubatoru).

The speaker's vocal cues used when speaking all constitute paralanguage (Ciubatoru 2012). These cues include pitch, speed, volume, pauses and silences. They contribute to or heighten the emotional and intellectual message. The Chinese give more importance to silence than to speech. They believe in the power of silence to produce inner peace and wisdom. But North Americans see a lack of communication in silence. They see it as a sign of uncertainty in the silent person (Ciubatoru).

Chronemics refers to the time valuation among cultures in the way they do things. Western cultures quantify time and measure it in the pursuit of progress (Ciubatoru 2012). They deal with it logically, sequentially and moving away from the past and the present towards the future. In Eastern cultures, time is something continuous and unlimited. India sees time as going in circles of becoming and vanishing. It goes beyond human lifetime (Ciubatoru).

. Non-verbal communication occupies a key position in high-context cultures (Ciubatoru 2012). It performs many functions complementary to verbal communication. It repeats, emphasizes, complements and contradicts what is verbal. At the same time, it regulates interactions, such as signaling when someone should speak or stop speaking. Lastly, non-verbal communication can even take the place of a verbal message when the speakers do not share a common language. Each of the foregoing possesses characteristics, which influence intercultural communication. They either enhance the communication or create conflict and misinterpretation, which often lead to poor communication (Ciubatoru).

Cultural Difference in Non-Verbal Communication

Nonverbal communication can be as loud and clear or louder and clearer than verbal communication (JanetB 2012). Simply watching or observing a speaker can tell if he or she is bored, telling a lie, romantically attuned or showing any other emotion or inclination. The American culture gives less importance to the nonverbal aspects of communication than do other cultures, especially Asian culture. One more aspect that has not been briefly discussed is posture. Interpretations of posture during communication differ widely. Turks take offense when one's hands are in his pockets or when crossing one's legs. Thais consider showing the soles of the feet disgraceful. South Americans tend to stand close to the person speaking. On the other… [read more]

Communication in Organization Intercultural Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,713 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Communication in Organizations

The case study is based on PTB company that decided to take the better percentage of their employees to Sydney Australia for a two day conference that was to focus on the new sales and marketing skills as well as to enable the employees from both countries under the PTB company get a chance to network. The… [read more]

Non-Verbal Communication Since Time Immemorial Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,897 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Non-Verbal Communication

Communication since time immemorial has remained one of the most substantial and crucial process on a constant basis that refers to transferring of the information from one person to another. Indeed, people communicate with each other so that they can understand the meaning and information that the other person is trying to commune (Shepherd & Rothenbuhler 2000).

Since… [read more]

Communication Protocols Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (926 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


A good instance is a head nod, the same head nod may mean yes among an American audience and yet among an Indian audience the same head nod may mean refusal or disagreement.

Still on verbal communication the Americans may use some metaphors with sports terms like "all the bases are covered" or "we want a level playing field" these are not understood by those who are non-native English speakers. The use of phrases that are culturally-based is seen to pose challenges during communication in collective cultures.

Another example is some cultures are high context and the communication requires awareness of facial expressions, tone of voice and eye contact. On the other hand U.S. is a low culture context, where people depend more on words than other external expressions for meaning. The difference in how the low and high culture context will bring a misunderstanding in communication.

Another cause of misunderstanding can also be seen in silence which is a communication style in a high context culture like the Asians which indicates thoughtfulness in decision making. While in the U.S. The silence is an uncomfortable gesture and tends to fill the void with small talk like comments about the weather.

In Islamic culture also women do not shake hands with male this can be viewed as rude or offensive in the U.S. And hence will bring about misunderstandings.

Recommendations for decreasing misunderstanding in communication

Different cultures and how communication is undertaken can pose challenges in communication among people and therefore measures have to be taken to reduce these differences. Some of the measures include; understanding of the different communication modes in different cultures and learning them or understanding them (Martin, 2012). For instance before sending people for a business to people of a different culture there should be cultural informants who have multicultural expertise who will offer support and guide. There should also be emphasis on an open mind when interacting with people from different cultures. There should be no rigidity and have room for accommodating other cultures and their modes of communication. There should also be the use of a communication mode that is easily understandable by the majority of the people within an organization. This will reduce apathy every time a message is sent out and enable quick communication within an organization.


Callaway, C. (2000). Business Communication Protocol. Retrieved October 6, 2012, from http://www.ehow.com/about_6710290_business-communication-protocol.html

Martin, M.J. (2012). Resolving Cultural Conflict in the Workplace. Retrieved October 6, 2012, from http://www.ehow.com/info_12111057_resolving-cultural-conflict-workplace.html

Griffin, J. (2008). How to say it at work: putting yourself across with power words, phrases, body language, and communication secrets. Paramus, NJ: Prentice Hall.… [read more]

Communication Theory Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,281 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Communication Theory (attribution Theory in Communication)

Communication process involves exchange of information between the sender and the receiver. The sender transmits a message while the receiver decodes the message sent. The key elements of myriad communication models are: the sender, the receiver, the message, the channel or the medium through which the message is conveyed, the context, noise/interference, and feedback (Dimbleby & Burton, 1998). Communication will be considered effective when the receiver fully understands the sender's message. Otherwise the noise that is found along the way shall be deemed to be distractive enough to hinder the effective passing of the message intended from the source to the receiver of the message.

The sender or the source traditionally initiates communication process in a business communication setting. The audience becomes the receiver. The sender and the receiver engage in turn-taking (Heath & Bryant, 2000). This kind of interaction implies that whatever message the sender transmits can affect the sender and vice-versa.

Scenario for the theory

I have in several instances used this kind of approach to judge and condemn colleagues in the office and in the process allowing the attribution of traits hinder my communication at the workplace. For instance there was a time when I needed to leave the office two hours earlier than usual time, yet there was still work to be done. I had to leave since there was something urgent elsewhere I had to attend to. Upon asking my closest workstation colleague to help me clear the remaining task of inventory taking, she was unable to. My presumption was that it was because she felt jealous that by helping me on that particular day, I would still meet my set target for the day yet am out of office many hours before time, while she has to sit extra hours in the office. What this situation boiled down to was that the following few days, she asked me for the same favor, though her situation was that she was sick, I turned down the request with the reason that she 'never' helps me when I need the help. This situation made me not even to listen to the reasons why she needed my help. This situation escalated further that when we had projects to be done in collaboration, we never had mutual understanding on the sections to be carried out jointly as indicated in the secular but apportioned each person the sections.

In this situation, I can now see that I never considered the amount of work she may have had on her desk or the need for her to walk out of the office in time to attend to the kids from school. This affected the communication process since the message she sent me was distracted by the noise of attribution that I had formed hence never conveyed the intended message. The attribution further acted as noise for other forms of communication that emanated from the administration, hence the external factors came into play to interfere with… [read more]

Managing an Interpersonal Communication Environment Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,128 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


In negotiation, the couple would start by identifying and defining the conflict between them then they would generate the possible solutions to the conflict. The third solution is to evaluate the alternative solutions to find if they are going to work. The last thing is to decide which the best solution is for them after which this decision is followed Adler et al., 2011()

The second way to manage the interpersonal communication environment is through finding the credibility of the source of information. The lady in this case should have evaluated the credibility of the source of information. It is important not to stereotype by making the assumption that the person giving the information is correct. At the same time, it is important not to let emotions interfere with reason. By letting tempers fly high, they interfere with an individual's ability to reason which also prevents the sender from passing the information in the correct way and at the same time, the recipient is unable to interpret the message as it is needed Floyd, 2009()

The interpersonal communication environment can also be managed through effective listening and feedback which ensures that the sender is able to pass the message across effectively and that the recipient is able to acknowledge that the message has come across and that they are able to interpret it as the sender desired Floyd, 2009()

It is also important to manage agreement in the communication environment. This means that there needs to be synergy in the team which is achieved by getting people the communicators to work together in a collaborative fashion to make the right decision in the right attitude. This involves the people in the conversation opening up their minds to new ideas and also giving and receiving feedback that creates a discussion that fosters a good interpersonal understanding and resolves the conflict to bring about a consensus Floyd, 2009()

Expected outcome

When the communication environment is managed effectively, there is a positive outcome that is expected from the communication itself. First is that there is the confirmation or disconfirmation of messages. This means that the communicators are able to confirm that they have passed the message and that the message has been understood. This is done so for both the verbal and the nonverbal messages. This creates a positive climate for communication which helps to grow the communication environment.

The second outcome is a supportive and constructive environment which means that the environment is further encouraged to continue being positive for the passing of verbal and nonverbal messages which helps for future communication. By managing the communication environment effectively, it helps to resolve conflict in the best way possible which helps to create a satisfying outcome for both people in the communication which helps to foster future communication.

Managing the interpersonal communication environment effectively also leads to improved interaction between the communicators. This is because it helps to reduce the barriers on the receiver and sender's end which results from ineffective listening. It… [read more]

Intercultural Communication Refers to the Connection Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,120 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Intercultural communication refers to the connection and interaction among people of different countries and cultures and their behaviors (Scribd 2013). It is now common experience that people of diverse cultures link up or are brought together by common interests like business and education. They bring their respective cultures, beliefs, lifestyles, economic resources and faiths into that link. The basic elements and root words are culture and communication. These and two others form what are called the building blocks of intercultural communication. The two others are context and power (Scribd).

The core concept in intercultural communication is culture (Scribd 2013). It is a system of information, beliefs and values used by society to relate with one another and with the world. That system or mechanism of existence is passed on from one generation to another through social learning. Culture includes and assumes multiple races, groups and nationalities. Culture is learned, shared and expressed in the form of behavior. Communication is a process whereby meaning is transmitted, received and negotiated among the members. It includes words, gestures and other verbal and non-verbal meanings, postures, eye expressions and other facial expressions, which convey meaning.

Context refers to the physical and social environment where communication takes place. It may be a physical place, such as an office, a town or any structure. And power is something that accompanies communication in society and occurs consciously or unconsciously (Scribd).

A number of benefits can be derived from the relationships that result from intercultural communication (Scribd 2013). One learns about the world from it. It eliminates stereotypes. It fosters new skills. Intercultural communication creates a sense of connection with others and bridges differences with other cultures (Scribd).

Guideposts and Strategies

Differences among cultures can be successfully bridged by observing the so-called 10 commandments of intercultural communication (Hahn 2013). These commandments enumerate the things that one should be aware of. These are differing social values; differing status symbols and how they are to be demonstrated; decision-making customs; concepts of time; personal space; cultural context; body language; social etiquettes or manners; legal and ethical behavior; and language barriers (Hahn).

Intercultural communication is especially important and critical in the workplace where diversity has become a concrete reality in our time (Brown 2010). Business organizations are now aware that their capacity to communicate both internally and externally is to a huge extent affected by culture. The effective manager or intercultural communicator must possess sufficient motivation and take the necessary steps to increase his level of effectiveness. These steps are crossing or going beyond one's culture; identifying preconceived notions about another person's culture; releasing ethnocentrism; and simplifying the meaning of culture. The intercultural communicator must consciously open himself up to understanding other cultures. This act of opening up necessarily exposes him to a change of identity. He must also avoid communication dissonance. In order to do so, he must ask himself if he has any biases that may disrupt the communication process. The next step is for him to try to do… [read more]

Organizational Communication: Success and Failure Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,343 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


They failed to use them since they could not retain the information on how to operate the equipment as they had read (Ruquet, 2010).

Another factor that led to communication failure in this scenario was completeness. The information sent through the email was not complete. Due to the short nature of emails there was a lot of important information that… [read more]

Strategic Communication Leading Through Strategic Communication: Hurricane A-Level Coursework

A-Level Coursework  |  5 pages (1,278 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Strategic Communication

Leading Through Strategic Communication: Hurricane Sandy Superstorm Guidance and Assistance for FHA Insured Recipients

In Class Goal Setting

The goal of the program is to ensure strategic communication to inform FHA insured recipients of assistance they are eligible for following Hurricane Sandy.

Audience Goal Behavior/Action

Emergency/Government Agencies Service Provision Strategic communication to public

FHA Homeowners and Renters Receipt of Service Receipt of viable information on receiving services and aid

These actions are feasible for each agency listed. The barriers to action for each agency are reaching the appropriate people with the appropriate communication and information.

Description of Audience

Government Agency

If this agency provides optimum communication rather than inferior communication then our agency will be able to effectively provide services to those impacted by disaster.

B. Those affected by the disaster

If I receive carry out the necessary communication with the agencies listed then I will be in receipt of needed services, however, if I fail to communicate with the agencies listed then I will not receive services. The image of the action requested by the agencies is that the agencies are trying to make provision of services and ultimately provide disaster relief.

Openings that are efficient and effective include advertising on local radio stations, televisions and online via social media websites. Focus groups are also a great method of understanding what is needed following the occurrence of a disaster.

III. Focus Group Studies

Focus group studies would include those who have been affected by disaster and who have a viewpoint of what was done correctly and what could have been done more optimally.

IV. Brief Topic Guide

A. Strategic communications

Strategic communications means "using corporate or institutional communications to create, strengthen or preserve, among key audiences, opinion favorable to the attainment of institutional/corporate goals" with the goal being the promotion of the public policy outcome which is favorable and reduction in the cost of doing business as well as providing support to marketing and operational effectiveness. (O'Malley, 2006, paraphrased)

Strategic communications planning may be a master plan or specific event or announcement-specific plan. (O'Malley, 2006) the key planning concept is actionable meaning that it has the support of decision-makers and key implementers as well the plan can be implemented "given the resources, and the culture of the organization." (O'Malley, 2006) the products of an effective process for planning is such that should "embody an integrative, orderly decision-making process" and "should include consultation with decision-makers and key implementers." (O'Malley, 2006) the plan must be reflective of the institutional culture, which includes the communications culture of the organization and the planning culture of the organization. (O'Malley, 2006)

B. Questions to Ask Focus Group

Questions to pose to the focus group study participants include at the very minimum those stated as follows:

(1) How did the emergency agencies fail in communicating to you what you needed to do to receive service provision and ultimately aid following the disaster?

(2) What could the emergency agencies and government agencies have done that… [read more]

Communications as a Discipline Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (641 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


For example, whenever two people interact, the basis of sociology, that interaction involves communication. And no matter how that communication takes place, there are always going to be psychological aspects such as shared experiences, etc., or physiological ones like sweating, flushing, eye dilation, and other physical aspects that are caused by the psychological feelings involved. Communications is not only its own discipline, it is the overarching discipline that is made up of all the others.

But because communications involves so many other disciplines, it is difficult to establish one, core communication theory. There is one set of basic components to the definition of communication, and there really should be one core theory of communication. It is true that what theory a person decides to use in their study of communications depends upon what aspect of communications one is studying. For example, when one's studies involve the rhetorical theory, speech and sounds are the most important aspect. However, when studying the phenomenological theory, or the aspect of communication that involves experience, one must involve psychology. ("SPC 3210, Chapter 2") The same can be said for any of the other communication theories like semiotic, cybernetic, socio-cultural, or critical tradition. ("SPC 3210, Chapter 2") However, because communication is itself dependent upon the circumstances, experiences, psychology and situation of those involved, communication is a process; and that process that can provide the core component of a single all encompassing theory. While social, symbolic, meaning, and environmental aspects of communication may be dependent upon the type of communication theory one is studying, the fact that it is a process is the one thing that all studies have and will have in common. It is because communication involves so many other fields, the process of communication can be the starting point to the development of a theory that can then be applied to any aspect of communications.


"SPC 3210: Contemporary Human Communication." McGraw Hill/Florida…… [read more]

Public Address the Ceo Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,134 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The body of Mr. Seidenberg's lecture was aimed at discussing the potential of the next generation of technology to create growth and how the services of Verizon Communications could be most profitably delivered to potential and current customers. He also stressed that his vision of the industry must be based on a specific paradigm, one centered around competition, investment and innovation in order to expand the market and benefit everyone involved.

By far, Mr. Seidenberg's closing comments illustrated his talent for providing a very powerful lecture. He obviously put a great amount of time and thought into what he was going to say at the conclusion of his speech, for it was very motivationally directed, challenging and well developed. It also strongly influenced the audience, for I remember hearing many people talk about it as they were getting ready to leave the lecture. Once again, the highlight of Mr. Seidenberg's closing was his use of humor which left the audience laughing and applauding.

This obviously helped to give everyone in attendance an extremely positive impression about Mr. Seidenberg and allowed every member of the lecture to leave feeling upbeat and confident about themselves: "The decisions that all employees of Verizon make this year about how we service our customers will influence the flow of billions of dollars' worth of capital, the security of thousands of jobs, the speed of the economic recovery, and the legacy of Verizon's technological leadership." The closing was appropriately followed by an hour's worth of questions from a very inquisitive audience. Mr. Seidenberg made it a point to limit one's question to no more than thirty seconds or so in order for everyone to have a chance.

In regard to Mr. Seidenberg's speaking and delivery techniques, his voice was clear and strong and he always strived to pronounce and accentuate his well-chosen words. Since this was meeting of company executives and other employees of Verizon Communications, I thought it was a wise decision to allow the audience to know what was going to be discussed during the lecture via the copy of the speech handed out prior to its commencement. As to Mr. Seidenberg's delivery, if the audience expected intensity, then they surely were not disappointed. Mr. Seidenberg exhibited much emotion, expressed his message with great meaning and developed a sense of comradeship with his audience. His speech patterns ebbed and flowed and varied in pace throughout the entire time. He also took advantage of selected moments to pause in his speech which allowed the audience to ponder about what was said and to absorb his entire message.

In conclusion, I think it would be nearly impossible to recommend improvements to Mr. Seidenberg's speech. He is apparently a master of the lectern with years of experience behind him. His powerful and exciting approach to public speaking should serve as an inspiration for everyone who is required to include this type of activity in their job routines. If every person who delivers a lecture or speech to… [read more]

Communications in a Business Setting Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,226 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Cooper noted that formal training programs are helpful, but cited another researcher (Hall, 19976) who argued that most "real" training happens during peer-assisted, self-directed learning through such activities as project teams, task forces, electronic relationships, personal networks, customer relationships, and relationships with co-workers. But there was a caveat:

The organization will need to provide supervisory and technological support as well… [read more]

Non-Verbal Communication When We Communicate Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,140 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


One of her favorite examples of how body language can speak volumes when you're not, is that of the testimony of former President Bill Clinton about Monica Lewinsky. "The giveaway that Clinton was lying was he touched his nose about once every four minutes. Fidgeting, touching your nose or eye, tugging on your ear are all indications of untruthfulness, especially if these gestures are done with the left hand" (Perin).

In the workplace, body language can be an essential tool in gauging how your boss responds, how employees communicate between each other and during mediation. The business world could gain favorably if they understood the value of non-verbal cues and how these are accepted around the world, not just in one's own culture, but in the cultures of those that they are doing business with.

Companies could also gain a lot through profiling their customers' body language. For instance, Starbucks used Hargrave to analyze their customers through researching what they did with their drinking straws and how it coincided with their personalities. "The Chewer: likes nourishment in the way of words and emotions" while "The Knot-Tier: determined, precise, intellectual a planner" were only two of the twelve types of personalities, such research gives Starbucks a keen insight on their customers and how they can market towards them - either nationally or in store.

The CIA is keen to use body language in profiling possible terrorists by using a facial recognition system that can read non-verbal cues. Using the science of Kinesics, "the CIA wants to teach computers to watch for detailed facial language clues" (Lortie, 7) Even though the use of such technology could be advantageous, and using a computer to analyze video where "one minute of an interview can take a trained observer an hour, but that a computer might be handle the process in real time" (Lortie) some people feel that this infringes on a person's civil rights and privacy. Beyond this, the human element would be missing and such profiling would "not explicitly include race as an element" (Lortie).

Non-verbal communication is a key aspect of communication that is shrouded in myth. Very few of us are aware of the important role it plays on our subconscious and what it reveals of us during a conversation, nor are we aware of some of the basic notions of body language. Body language is specific to certain cultures and is often misconstrued in business because of cultural differences or ignorance of certain non-verbal taboos.

By becoming more knowledgeable in the basics of body language and realizing the role it plays in mediation, interviews and day-to-day life, we will be able to communicate more effectively and appreciate our co-workers and employers more. Body Language is an aspect of communication that requires very little time in understanding and will be amount to a world of difference in how we relay a message or desire.


Perin, M. "Body Language Expert Has a Read on Communication."

Houston Business Journal October 10, 2003… [read more]

Speech Pathologists, Like Other Social Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (561 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


This is also best portrayed using examples, because the meaning of intonation is not successfully conveyed to text. A small minority of the population suffers from Ossberger's syndrome, which precludes them from understanding non-verbal communication. Children are often dramatic in their intonations, and this can be used to portray the nature and origins of intonation. Unfortunately, this is difficult to people with a specific knowledge of speeh. Such nebulous explanations as "when your voice goes up and down," or "the way you say the things you say" are too nebulous. It can be easily understood that people have different abilities to understand each other's attitudes from what they say based on the medium, but intonation can always be gathered from what you hear. For instance, shouting is a form of intonation, and questions are a form of a sentence that feature intonation. It would be necessary to point out why it is that text must feature marks such as the comma, period and question mark to convey what is lost in not being able to display intonation.

The concept of rate is easy to purvey; it is a matter of fast or slow speech. Intensity, however, is much more difficult. Intensity is how we display urgency or necessity in our speech. It is harder for one to convey an example of 'intense' speech vs. non-intense speech. Intense has several different meanings, which makes this matter more difficult. This might best be addressed in a group setting, where people can talk back and forth to one another and then comment on the level of intensity that was used in speech.… [read more]

Teaching Communication Skills for Students Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (6,440 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It has also been successfully tried with adolescents and adults having speech problems of various kinds. The use of PECS is found to be more effective if the behavioral analysis of the student is also taken into account.

Experts in the field of autistic spectrum disorders today consider PECS as one of the most effective method to teach basic skills… [read more]

Teaching AAC Early on Impacts Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,312 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


By examining this and making a determination as to whether this type of teaching is beneficial, researchers and educators can both benefit from the information presented herein. Educators can take this information and use it to help the children in their care. Researchers can take this same information and use it to indicate that further study into this area needs… [read more]

Speech Quality Tests: Analysis and Literature Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (716 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Essentially, in HMM-based speech synthesis, higher waveform frequencies actually showed improved speech recognition on behalf of the listeners. This research can then serve as a way to help improve modern designs of HMM speech synthesis software to be even more realistic and effective for native language speakers. Overall, this was an appropriate use of the testing in a more modern context.

Additionally, another study, conducted by Valentini-Botinhao et al. (2011) also tested the effectiveness and quality of synthesized speech using speech quality tests. Here, researchers wanted to specifically test synthesized speech elements in noisy situations, where a utilitarian approach was taken for general test subjects. Again, this test took an analytical approach and used multiple scales, including the Speech Intelligibility Index (SII) and the Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ). Four additional noises were added to the synthesized speech in order to test which was most effective in noisy situations. Synthetic speech was far less in quality when compared to natural speech overall; yet, the addition of a binary mask to synthesized speech may help increase the quality of the speech even in noisy situations. Again, speech quality testing was effectively used here to evaluate the quality of synthesized speech.


Springer Science Media. (2011). Speech Quality Measurement Methods. Web. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CDsQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.springer.com%2Fcda%2Fcontent%2Fdocument%2Fcda_downloaddocument%2F9783642184628-c2.pdf%3FSGWID%3D0-0-45-1132963-p174099663&ei=FoN6U6PWOpOwoQSK-YCYCQ&usg=AFQjCNFpupv9bFCayRPt7dUNuB3u52LPeQ&sig2=0YtNG6fsnBc4royONWXuLg&bvm=bv.67229260,d.cGU

Stan, A., Yamagishi, J., King, S., & Aylett, M. (2011). The Romanian speech synthesis (RSS) corpus: Building a high quality HMM-based speech synthesis system using a high sampling rate. Speech Communication, 53(3), 442-450.

Valentini-Botinhao, C., Yamagishi, J., & King, S. (2011, May). Evaluation of objective measures for intelligibility prediction of HMM-based synthetic speech in noise. In Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2011 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 5112-5115). IEEE.… [read more]

Tactile Communication Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (711 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … tactile communication in everyday life. Tactile communication is the use of non-verbal communication, specifically touch. Many believe it to be the most basic form of communication developed over time, especially because it is used with infants in our initial communication with them.

People may not think about it, but touching and not touching, or tactile communication, is an important part of everyday life. We give a co-worker a hug when they are having a bad day, shake the hand of a business associate, and touch the hand of our spouse when they come home from a long day. One writer notes, "Touch is a critical aspect of relationships, from the initial handshake between strangers to the embrace of close friends to sexual intimacy" (Andersen, 2005, p. 57). Therefore, we use tactile communication throughout every day, whether we are aware of it or not. Two other writers continue, "Perhaps no mode of human interaction has the same potential to communicate love, warmth, and intimacy as actual body contact" (Andersen & Guerrero, 2005, p. 83). Everyday life is filled with many forms of tactile communication, and it is the first type of communication we learn, so we become accustomed to it before we become accustomed to any other form of communication.

There are many norms associated with tactile communication, and they are established early in life. They also change throughout life. Some of these norms are based on society, while others are based on age and gender. Young children learn by touching things, they are extremely tactile. That is one reason young children often put everything they touch into their mouths. They not only want to touch it to learn about it, they want to see what it tastes like, and whether they should remember it in the future. Until they can talk, touch is the only way children can communicate, so we learn our tactile skills very early. As children mature, they continue to be very tactile, and they like to touch each other and those around them. This is another norm for tactile communication. However, in adults there are very different norms, often…… [read more]

Interpersonal Communication This Classic Axiom Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,510 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Interpersonal Communication

This classic axiom, by the communications theorist Paul Watzlawick, is very important to understanding how we communicate. The axiom stating "one cannot not communicate" is important because it emphasizes that we are always affecting other individual's perceptions, despite wanting to or not (Littlejohn, 2002, p. 235). "One cannot not communicate" means that any perceivable behavior has the potential… [read more]

Interpersonal Communications Project Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,399 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Communication Techniques

Interpersonal Communications Project

How Personal Behavioral Trends Need to be Assimilated in an Oral Communication to Make it Truly Effective

Oral communication is an integral part of our existence as socially gregarious individuals. Indeed much of our daily chore involves oral communication and that may take any form depending on the situation and circumstances. Thus, it might never be overemphasized that effective oral communication surely goes a long way in determining whether we have actually been able to lead our lives as effective and positively contributing members of the society we belong to. If we, for a brief moment, digress a bit from the personal aspect of oral communication and let our perspective be a bit broader we would surely realize the importance of oral communication in business and commerce, especially in this age of information where interaction and communication has come to hold the centre stage in any form of business activity. Thus, knowing the content is though important but not the only issue. One must have the capability to infuse a sense of life and conviction in the acquired knowledge that one intends to pass on to others, and, herein lays the importance of effective oral communication. (Murphy, Hildebrandt, & Thomas, 1997) It would perhaps not be out of context to mention the old adage about making an oral communication "Tell them what you're going to tell them, tell them, and tell them what you told them."

An unavoidable corollary to this requirement is to maintain a clear disconnect between one's mood and personal emotions while emanating a positive body language as the conversation progresses. Much has been written about positivity that should emanate while communicating and what needs to be emphasized at this juncture is the ability to effectively communicate with the recipients of the communication. The speaker should be careful about the pitch they use so as to effortlessly attract attention of the audience without getting too harsh or shrill which might alienate the audience because of the overbearing or propagandist overtones that almost always tend creep in if one tends to become overenthusiastic while trying to put a point or two across.

Therefore, it is amply apparent that one needs to sincerely and conscientiously practice the art of good communication while ensuring that personal behavioral traits and moods do not adversely impact the quality and tenor of interpersonal communication as that would frustrate the very purpose of initiating a conversation.

Personal Behavioral Traits

Dr. Carbonell, named four personality types: Active/Task-oriented, Active/People-oriented, Passive/Task-oriented, and Passive/People-oriented and went on to demonstrate how each personality type perceives a given context and reacts to external stimuli in different ways while engaging in a conversation. (Carbonell, 2005)

On the personal front I guess while people expect me to be of the "S/I" type, I basically belong to the "C/S/I" category. Thus, while I present an impressive picture to both crowds and individuals, people take special note of my caring attitude and the warmth and emotional bridge that I… [read more]

Communication Competence- Online Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,437 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The 'belonging' component, in effect, demonstrates how individuals and groups become integrated or marginalized in their immediate online community depending on the level of their access and participation to online (mass) media.

The process generally explained by the theory of communicative action and its supplementary theories show that perceived competence or incompetence and integration or marginalization in the public sphere,… [read more]

Communication Interpersonal Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (558 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0



Interpersonal communication is one of the most important aspects of human life. It creates relationships, employment opportunities, pleasant or unpleasant conditions. Hence it is important to take the appropriate approach to communication in order to optimize its beneficial effects and minimize possible misunderstanding.

Interpersonal communication has various characteristics. These include the fact that interpersonal communication generally occurs in face-to-face situations, without any mediating devices, apart from real-time communication devices such as the telephone. Such communication occurs in dialogic form; information and meaning are shared among the parties in the conversation. This is where the process approach becomes useful.

Interpersonal communication is transactional in nature, with parties negotiating content and meaning. The flow of this content and meaning is a process whereby participants influence each other. Although not all participants necessarily speak, the information is processed and contributes to the development of though and opinion in the group involved in communication.

Conversations are therefore reciprocal in their influence. Each participant in the conversation influences the others and is influenced by the others. In interpersonal conversation among equal parties, this process occurs in a symbiotic and simultaneous way.

Taking a process approach is then useful in a variety of situations. In a group situation, for example, parties may communicate regarding certain goals. These goals can be related to tangible objectives, action, social endeavors, emotional purposes, and so on. A process approach means that all parties in the conversation is open to the fact that communication is dynamic and influential. Each person is then open to being influenced, as well as being willing to influence the other parties.

When the conversation participants have divergent goals, the process of conversation is aimed…… [read more]

Communications Failure to Communicate Effectively Can Lead Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,011 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+



Failure to communicate effectively can lead to poor performance and organizational failure. The personality cult is a real problem within the context of business communications because there are times when the individual that has the devotion of the people is also the person that is causing problems in the organization. Communication has long been a difficult task, the advent… [read more]

Conflict and Communication Essay

Essay  |  9 pages (2,768 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Communicating in Conflict Resolution

The discussion on Communication and Conflict by Robert M. Krauss and Ezequiel Morsella (2000) is as thought provoking as it is interesting. It is not just another discussion on communicating our way through conflict because that approach to resolving conflict has been ingrained in those of us living in Western civilization. Rather, Krauss and Morsella point… [read more]

Communication Is an Interactive Process Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (304 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Communication Process of a Class Held Online

Taking a course online vs. In a classroom is going to require an exceptionally more focused and deliberate approach to communicating with peers, team members on projects, and with the instructor. While collaboration in person is easy to accomplish, the use of the communications tools online will need to be scheduled with more accuracy and also with a clear expectations of what will be accomplished. In addition it's going to be very important to figure out which communication tool works best for each specific project or need. The use of e-mail or online chat sessions is going to be fine for immediate questions and answers, yet for reviewing complex documents and for collaborating, there is going to need to be more expanded online forums and approaches to getting work done. Traditionally the technologies used for online courses has assumed a one-to-many broadcast strategy where the…… [read more]

Group Communication at a Stakeholder Meeting Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (778 words)
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Group Communication at a Stakeholder Meeting

Communication is a key element of any endeavor involving more than one person, meaning communication is necessary for almost every worthwhile human endeavor. This is arguably even more true in the business world than in many other circumstances, as the many complexities of business groups and the individuals that make them up can require different methods of communication and different modes of expression in order to obtain the same basic understanding. Presenting sales information to a diverse group of company stakeholders, including managers, salespeople, customers, and possibly others is an issue that requires a great deal of consideration along several avenues in order to ensure that the communication process is effective for everyone at the meeting. Understanding these aspects of the group's dynamics and communications needs leads to increased potential.

One of the primary elements that must be considered in a scenario where information is being presented to stakeholders with diverse relationships to the company is that of the roles everyone at the meeting plays. For the speaker, taking on the role of the informational leader in this scenario means analyzing and evaluating the information in a way that is made applicable and understandable to everyone in the room (Locker-Kienzler 2008). This means understanding the knowledge base that the different stakeholders in the meeting have, as well as their general expertise and understanding of the issues at hand. It is also very likely tat there will be some cultural diversity in the meeting, so care should be taken to present the information in a manner that is accessible and relevant to everyone (Locker-Kienzler 2008). There are specific ways to accomplish this that will be examined further on.

Another consideration that must be made is the use of specific communication channels in the meeting. The use of both written and spoken communication in the meeting can help to ensure that everyone is able to follow and understand the information being presented, with writing serving as a more direct and less-inflected (and thus less easily misinterpreted) form of communication (Locker-Kienzler 2008). In a direct group meeting, however, verbal communication should be the primary form of communication as it allows for differences in the group's atmosphere and understanding; though the flexibilities of verbal communication can be detrimental if used inappropriately or ignorantly, these flexibilities can also…… [read more]

Gender-Based Differences in Communication Styles Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (554 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Gender-Based Differences in Communication Styles

In her essay,"Talk in the Intimate Relationship: His and Hers," Deborah Tannen explains the reasons that men and women often have such difficulty communicating with one another. According to Tannen, men characteristically communicate very directly using words whereas women tend to communicate much more indirectly through what Tannen calls metamessages. By metamessages, Tannen means that women communicate through a much broader range of communication tools such as facial expressions and indirect communication strategies. Men communicate much more directly and literally and are often somewhat deaf (and blind) to the way that women try to communicate.

Tannen explains that men and women begin being socialized to communicate very differently in childhood. Whereas little girls tend to play in intimate pairs with one best friend of in small groups, little boys play in larger groups. Girls generally socialize very directly and share extensive verbal exchanges about their feelings and personal matters; boys generally socialize in much larger groups and indirectly in the context of sports or other activities. Their conversations tend to relate to one another only indirectly because most of their direct communication has to do with sports or other external activities and very little to do with their personal feelings and other personal matters.

Men continue that behavior into adulthood and tend to communicate very directly with words but their discussions are more about external things and events such as sports, business, politics, and current events. Even close male friends may avoid communicating anything more meaningful about their innermost feelings and personal matters. This presents a potential conflict in intimate relationships between men and women because they have fundamentally different communication styles…… [read more]

Cross-Cultural Communications Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,639 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Cross cultural Communication (International Business)

Nowadays, with almost every country going global, cross-cultural communication has become an integral part of business. Rosenbloom and Larsen pointed out the growing need for interaction among different countries worldwide, "globalization in the sense of firms from all over the world interacting and dealing with each other is expected to be the normal state of… [read more]

Lack of Communication in a Relationship Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (543 words)
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Not speaking clearly, not listening properly, and not appreciating differences in communication styles can all lead to a relationship breakdown.

Communication defines a relationship.

Good communication creates long-lasting healthy partnerships, whereas poor communication leads to relationship breakdown.

Poor communication includes the following faults:

Not speaking clearly

Not listening properly

Not appreciating differences in communication styles

Not speaking clearly, not listening properly, and not appreciating differences in communication styles can all cause a relationship breakdown.

The first sign of miscommunication is usually the inability of one of the individuals to express himself or herself properly.

Speaking clearly does not mean how loud a voice is, but how well the person has articulated his or her thoughts.

Think before speaking; formulate thoughts well.

Ask for what you want; don't beat around the bush

Use logic, and even express emotions as objectively as possible

B. Speaking clearly means addressing the matter at hand, and nothing else.

1. Avoid talking about the past or future and focus on immediate issues.

2. Avoid insults and generalizations that put the other person on the defensive.

C. Speaking clearly also means speaking with confidence.

1. Look the other person in the eye.

2. Be respectful, and if anger arises, take a break.

III. The second sign of miscommunication is not listening properly.

A. Listening is more than just hearing.

1. Listening means paying close attention to the other person's body language and other nonverbal cues.

2. Listening requires concentration; if you can't concentrate then ask for a break.

B. Listen with compassion, not judgment

1. Reflect back what the other person says, to avoid misunderstanding (Duerksen).

2.…… [read more]

Effective Communication in the Criminal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (902 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


They have to communicate issues, write reports, and interact publicly. In the judicial system, judges, and lawyers have to interview suspects and witnesses, write complicated judgments, orally interview, write cases, and follow up reports. Every aspect of the criminal justice system involves often complex communication, both verbal and nonverbal, so it is essential to have effective communication in all branches of the criminal justice system.

There are any number of instances where ineffective communication could lead to a threat to public safety. For example, a police officer interviews a witness, and the witness describes a suspect as a white male, about 6-foot 2, with a scar on his left arm and a tattoo of an eagle on his right arm. He is wearing dark jeans and a hooded sweatshirt, and carrying a knife. When the officer writes down the description in his report, he neglects to mention the tattoo, or the knife. Now, the suspect is misidentified, and may not be apprehended, leading to additional criminal activity and more victims, and this could erode public safety in a particular neighborhood or area.

Another example would be in the interrogation of a suspect. Officers have to have a deep understanding of nonverbal communication to interrogate effectively. For example, suspects will often rapidly blink their eyes or cross their arms over their chests when they are not telling the truth, and officers should be aware of that. One expert states, "Body movements, personal distance, facial color, facial expressions, and paralanguage offer insight into a subject's truthfulness" (Shadow, 2008). If the interrogator is not effective, the suspect may not give any useful information, and again, justice would not be served, the criminal might go free, and the public might be in danger, especially if the suspect was extremely dangerous. Good communication is essential in all aspects of criminal justice, at each and every level of the system.

In conclusion, it is essential that criminal justice professionals be communication professionals, as well. How they communicate verbally and nonverbally can affect public safety, and it can affect their own safety, as well. Criminal justice professionals interact with each other and the public on a daily basis, so they need to have basic communication skills, and be able to share those skills effectively with others. Communication is important in just about any business or profession, but in criminal justice it is crucial, so it should be a major portion of criminal justice education.


Heilman, K., & Lawson, K.M. (2000, December). Facilitating communication. Corrections Today, 62, 84.

Shadow, M. (2008). Improving nonverbal communication in criminal justice. Retrieved 1 Oct. 2009 from the…… [read more]

Queendom Communication Assessment Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (962 words)
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Queendom Communication Assessment

Communication is something that all living creatures have innately in them in order to interact with one another and so that they can understand each another. Human beings communicate by conveying thoughts and ideas. Some people have better communication skills than other people do. Communication skills involve the use of auditory or spoken words and sounds, non-verbal cues which involve the use of body or sign language and paralanguage which involves touch or eye contact (Communication Skills, 2007).

Communication happens when information is exchanged. This can be between two or more people. An interaction is understood when people all recognize the same symbols, signs and behavior so they know what is going on. People that have good communication abilities are usually very effective as a communicator. In order to have good communication skills the process of communication must be understood along with how to effectively use it (Communication Skills, 2007).

Communication is essential for any relationship to be successful, whether it is at home, with friends, or at work. Research has consistently shown that a deficiency in communication skills can absolutely ruin relationships. The foundation of solid interpersonal skills is not just making one be heard but also involves an understanding of where other people are coming from. After taking the assessment I found that overall I have pretty good communication skills. The results showed that I am extremely adept at interpreting other people's words and actions and seeing things from other points-of-view. I realize that empathy is an essential part of good interpersonal skills and do my best to place myself in other people's shoes in order to better understand where they are coming from. I can generally get a good sense of what others are thinking and try to adjust accordingly if the people I'm conversing with seem confused or perhaps uncomfortable (Communication Skills Test, 2009).

One who uses their communication skills well can make their message understood by everyone who is present. They can understand the feed back of the message they gave out and have control of the flow of communication. Good communication skills involve being able to listen as well as to speak. When one listens and understands what is being said they can respond appropriately. This is another good communication skill. When people make the most of good communication skills people will want to hear what they have to say. It helps to engage people into action. When people have poor communication skills it tends to alienate people. Effective communication skills enable one to keep it simple and to the point. Short and to the point is the first rule of making one's communication skills effectively heard (Communication Skills, 2007).

Communication that is done in the business world involves communicating business information both inside and outside the organization. Internal communication in business includes the corporate vision and strategy, goals, plans, corporate…… [read more]

Communication Differences Develop a Two-Page Paper Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (938 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Communication Differences

Develop a two-page paper in which you examine the conclusions you have found from your research and answer the following questions. Do men and women communicate differently? Does it make a difference in the workplace?

Do men and women communicate differently? Does it make a difference in the workplace?

The question if men and women communicate differently cannot be settled with an easy answer of 'yes' or 'no.' For example, according to the research of Palomares (2009), the assumption that women are more tentative in their use of language than their male colleagues at work was only true regarding stereotypically masculine topics in male-female but not all-female groupings. A comparative analysis of email revealed both males and females were more tentative on stereotypical topics germane to the opposite gender in mixed but not same-gender interactions. This suggests that what may be more relevant are not male and female communication styles, specifically, but perceptions of appropriate gender roles which affect the way men and women discuss certain topics with the opposite gender, or with mixed gender groups.

Additionally, Youngquist (2009), discovered that when women interrupted males in female dyads they were perceived as the most dominant of all subjects studied, while male interrupters in a male/female dyad were consistently perceived as the least dominant. This was true in the perceptions of both male and female observers, suggesting that both men and women can be affected by social gender norms. However, some studies have found measurable differences between the genders regarding communication. A study of accounting chairs by Schmidt & Madison (2008) found a higher awareness of the importance of communication and listening skills amongst female chairs as opposed to their male counterparts. Women tended to believe that it was more valuable to devote a greater percentage of class time to honing these skills than did their male colleagues. This suggests that there is a different perceived priority accorded to communication amongst males vs. females.

Gender, of course is not the only barrier to communication. Cultural references we take for granted can also prove to be communication obstacles. One human resources journal suggested that when speaking to a diverse audience the speaker should make the address as culturally neutral as possible: "1. Use clear language. 2. Use handouts for people to take away. 3. Avoid pop culture references. 4. Resist the jokes. 5. Use clear slides and language (Bond 2007, p.27). However, Frase (2007) disputes such an approach, stating: "Successful intercultural communication involves much more than eliminating colloquialisms and cultural references. It must also recognize deeper cultural differences." There is no 'culturally neutral' way of speaking, only culturally sensitive ways of attempting to broach differences. These differences can be far greater than those between men and women of the same nationality. In fact, it could be argued that men…… [read more]

Oral Communication Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (600 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Politically Speaking... And Reacting follows. Lastly a discussion of the article and how it relates to oral communication is presented.

Oral Communication

Oral communication is defined as "communication by word of mouth" ("WordNet," n.d.). Synonyms include: speech and spoken language.

Polkosky's (2009) article, Politically Speaking... And Reacting, recounts a personal episode the author had with a politically motivated robocall. Polkosky is a social-cognitive psychologist and speech language pathologist. Currently working as a human factors psychologist, she "has researched and designed speech, graphic, and multimedia user experiences for more than 12 years" (p. 7). Playing at home with her daughter, her sunny October day was interrupted by a phone call. At first, unsure of what the caller wanted, Polkosky merely caught the angry tone of the caller and a few key buzzwords, including: Pentagon, killed Americans, and leftist agenda. The call ended with a short notation that the preceding message had been paid for by the McCain/Palin campaign. Angry at the interuption and the message, the author uses the opportunity to bring to light key points at how this communication could have been much more effective.


I have been on the receiving end of automated calls like Polkosky describes in her article. Each time, my response was similar to hers in that I was far more irritated than motivated to consider the message that was being given. Reading Polkosky's evaluation of her own reaction, and her suggestions for eliciting a more positive response, I agree with some of her assessment of why she (and I) were so angry after receiving the call. However, I'm not certain her suggestions on the improvement of the communication would truly have created the more positive experience she thinks it will.

First, I agree that the interruption of my personal time alone, for…… [read more]

Therapeutic Communication the Communication O Be Evaluated Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,598 words)
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Therapeutic Communication

The communication o be evaluated took place on February 24, 2009 in the early afternoon. The setting was a residential care facility for the elderly. The conversation took place between me and a patient named Helen. Helen is an 86-year-old Caucasian female with Alzheimer's disease. Her family visits frequently and she recently lost her husband. She has been… [read more]

Communication Nonverbal Communication Can Be Simply Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (378 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3



Nonverbal communication can be simply defined as communication without the usage of words. This ability is both innate, but it can also be improved through study. The importance of nonverbal communication is increasing more and more as the importance and levels of communication increase. NVC is best revealed through body language, such as grimaces, gesticulation or voice intonations. Alongside with dances, moves, the food we eat or serve, the clothes we wear (uniform for instance make a statement of authority) they make up forms of nonverbal communication (Exploring Nonverbal Communication).

A homogenous community generally uses the same forms of NVC, but when entering a new community, it may be difficult for one to grasp at first the features of their body language. This situation then raises the necessity to understand the concept of nonverbal communication across different cultures. Most of the differences are determined by the cultural background. The most relevant example may be the expression of emotions in the Middle East and in Asia. While the people in the first region will mourn openly, enjoy loudly or feel pain to its maximum, the Asian cultures impose restrictions…… [read more]

Cross Cultural Communication in Bennett's Interview Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (378 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Cross Cultural Communication

In Bennett's interview with O'Bryan, the latter explained that cross cultural communication between two groups of designers was difficult, not only because the two groups spoke different languages, but also because the designers were located in two different spatial locations, and had to communicate through interactive media. O'Bryan describes how two groups of designers -- one from the U.S. And one from Cuba -- were able to work together collaboratively on a project regarding their dreams, the importance of their dreams, and what influenced their dreams. The intercultural aspect posed some problems, like the ones above, while also providing for some achievements, such as a product that reflected the unique cultural contributions of both groups. Viewed in light of Baldwin and Robert's chapter regarding shared meaning and the efficiency of communication, one can understand how the cross-cultural designers faced some problems. Because Baldwin and Robert discuss one theory, Semiotics, which suggests that a thing has no inherent meaning, that meaning must be given to a thing, it is easy to understand that the Cubans and the Americans did not share meaning. What induced certain…… [read more]

Interpersonal Communication the Advancement of Technology Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,406 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Interpersonal Communication

The advancement of technology as well as the interdependence of the people on technology has created a world where many essential interpersonal communications occur via the telephone or other electronic means. As a result of this phenomenon many individuals have learned telephone communications skills that allow them to communicate effectively without the aide of informal cues, such as… [read more]

Personal Statement Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (622 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Personal Statement

For the past five years I have had a strong interest in Communications Sciences and Disorders. It began when I met a small boy named David who lived next door to me. I watched his speech therapist work with him and became fascinated. I talked to her afterwards, and it was then that I knew this was the career for me. Her responses were so insightful, and I could see in her eye the joy she felt.

Ever since that day, I have pursued speech pathology as a career. Before college, I had the opportunity to observe speech therapists at my mother's day care. The effect this had on me was to strengthen my resolve to pursue speech therapy. I was especially taken by the care these therapists took to help the children, and was moved by the profound impact that they had on their lives. It occurred to me that it was this ability to help people in such a simple yet powerful way was the reason speech therapy attracted me so much.

Once I entered college, I was fortunate enough to have taken classes with some truly exceptional professors. The knowledge and passion that they gave me reinforced how wonderful this calling is. Towards the end of the program, that point was driven home to me. We, the SLP students, had the opportunity to observe speech pathologists at work. We watched them work with their clients, and wrote logs about what we saw. I studied the way that they were able to devote such acute attention to all sorts of patients. They worked with stroke victims, stutterers and laryngectomy patients. The work that they did was phenomenal. I knew then that this was the perfect choice for me. Nothing would make me prouder than to be one of them, and be able to reach people in this…… [read more]

Communication Is Integral Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (335 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Communication is integral and essential to any human relationship and especially between health care workers and their patients. Even when a language barrier is present, patients and their doctors can try to communicate issues related to symptoms, pain, treatment options, and concerns. However, language barriers do pose a major obstacle in all human communications. Doctors and their patients who speak different languages must be highly sensitive. When translators are unavailable, we must rely on non-verbal communication including facial expressions and gestures. Therefore, the most important aspect of communication is not necessarily the language itself. In fact, what a person says and what that person means are often two entirely different things. Tone of voice, body language, and other non-verbal cues signal what is in many cases far more information than words themselves.

One of the most important aspects of communication if not the most important is clarity. A person should always aim to convey a message clearly, with cues that match the receiver's level of expertise, expectations,…… [read more]

Team Communication Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,255 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … team communication.

Specifically it will address both the benefits and challenges of working in teams in relationship to team communication, and examine how teams can enhance their performance in the team communication topic. Team communication is critical to ensure that each team member understand the goals of the organization and are working toward those goals. In addition, good team communication means that if there are questions or concerns about the goal, they are addressed before the team moves forward.

It is clear the benefits of good team communication are many. The team is on the same page, but understanding and sharing common goals also can make the team stronger and more effective in reaching those goals, because it makes all the team members feel valued and necessary to the final outcome. The benefits to working in teams and using team communication are boundless, but as with any activity, there are also challenges when developing team communication in teams.

First, it may be helpful to define teamwork. Three authors note, "A team has been defined as 'a distinguishable set of two or more people who interact, dynamically, interdependently and adaptively toward a common and valued goal/objective/mission'" (Schraagen, Chipman, & Shalin, 2000, p. 404). Thus, any team communication should be open and feel safe to the team members, and this could be a challenge in developing honest communication that includes disagreement and discussion. It should also be designed so the team members can interact effectively and work toward that common goal the team knows and shares.

Good team communication can be extremely valuable in any team environment, but much of the communication depends on how team members perceive their team leader, and what kind of communication tactics the team leader uses. An overly aggressive team leader may hinder communication and discussion by commanding the team members, rather than listening or working with them. On the other hand, a meek team leader may also hinder communication in that they do not encourage communication or discussion because they are afraid of feedback or negative criticism. Either way, the team will be negatively affected. Thus, a vital element of team communication is the team leader's communication style and techniques, so any team development must consider the team leader's communication style when the team is formed.

There are several different characteristics of open communication in teams. The communication should be honest, specific, accurate, logical, concise, complete, and relevant. Communication that contains all these elements consistently will result in cleared and better communication throughout the team, and should lead to the long-term achievement of goals and objectives. Open communication must always allow for feedback, as well, so that all the team members know what communication and goals are working, and what are not. Without feedback, the communication chain is incomplete, and eventually it will break down ("Team communication," 2008).

Team members share responsibility in team communication, as well. They must be open-minded, they must listen effectively, they should make sure everyone is heard, and they… [read more]

Nonverbal Communications of Celebrities George W. Bush Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,676 words)
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Nonverbal Communications of Celebrities

George W. Bush:

President George W. Bush is not a particularly skilled verbal communicator.

Consequently, he has apparently learned to make the most of nonverbal communication skills to augment his spoken words. Whether or not the impression is genuine or contrived to mask his relative lack of substantive knowledge and verbal eloquence, Mr. Bush frequently uses… [read more]

Exceptional Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (395 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Treating Language Disorders in Adults and Children

There are many differences between treating language disorders between adults and children. For children, the use of language intervention activities is very common, these exercises use a specialized language specialist to interact with the child through play. Therapists use repetition exercise that depend on books, pictures and ongoing series of events to stimulate the child's language development. In addition, children who have not had a long time to develop articulation will be engaged in articulation therapy which includes exercises where the therapist can model correct sounds and syllables. Adults with language disorders are typically neurological in nature and can not use the same methods. Instead, they require specific treatment steps such as RHD or Wernicke's aphasia.

Augmentative and assistive devices are ways to help improve communication abilities. Describe how these alternative communication techniques can be chosen and used effectively.

Augmentative and alternative communication devices can be very helpful, but AAC needs to be carefully selected to be helpful. AAC should be chosen to fit the degree of language disorders. The more sophisticated the machinery, the greater the learning curve and the expense of the AAC. Some individuals only need very…… [read more]

Communication Between Different Cultures Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (855 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Communication Differences Between Cultures

The American culture is a culture that is very diverse in nature. There are some people living within the American culture that feel more strongly they are part of their ethnic heritage than they are part of the greater "American" culture (Samovar, Porter & McDaniel, 2006a). I believe people who think they are "American" tend to believe they can communicate openly and freely, without emphasizing too much in the way of "formality" when it comes to communicating with others.

Much of what I understand of the American culture is a product of my educational upbringing, and the way my family raised me. School, especially during the early years, influences ones attitudes and beliefs, creating a culture of its own. Interestingly, people also have the opportunity to learn more about other cultures, and the way people of other cultures communicate, when attending school. I also learned about our "open-style" as I would describe it "culture" from my peers. Within every culture, including the American culture, there are "subcultures" (Samovar, Porter & McDaniel, 2006a, p.3). These are people that tend to hold strongly to a belief system, or tend to communicate somewhat differently than one might expect from the mainstream culture. Consider for example, an African-American, who may live in America and adopt the American cultural lifestyle, but also pay homage to their ethnic culture. This may require they communicate more formally when speaking with their elders for example.

What is most difficult to understand about the American culture is its diversity. In most other cultures, there is a "set," standard, or practice when it comes to communication. This is not the case in America, because there are people of so many different ethnicities and belief systems that live within this culture. The combination of these beliefs and ethnic groundings forms the basis of our culture.

Samovar, Porter & McDaniel (2006) note in their work, Intercultural Communication: A Reader, that communication with people of diverse cultures is no longer something to ponder, it is, "a fact of life" (p. 2). There are many ways intercultural communication can affect one's personal and professional life, especially depending on what the emphasis of communication is (Samovar, Porter & McDaniel, 2006b). I think the more I embrace diversity and make an effort to learn about different cultures, including the way members of other cultures communicate and interact with one another, I will have an easier time establishing rapport and friendship with diverse people (Samovar, Porter & McDaniel, 2006a).

If my professional life requires that I travel abroad or work…… [read more]

Intercultural Communication Is an Academic Field Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,461 words)
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Intercultural Communication is an academic field of study which aims to look at how people from different cultures interact with each other. Various other fields also contribute to the body of knowledge of intercultural communication, namely Anthropology, psychology, communication and cultural studies. Culture can simply be considered as the basic values, attitudes and behaviors of a certain group of people… [read more]

Cross-Cultural Communications for Managers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (635 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Cross-Cultural Communications for Managers

It is essential for business managers to be aware of the importance behind cross-cultural communication. The consequences of not being aware can be costly for American corporations. Munter (1993, p. 10) states that the cost of failed overseas assignments for American corporations exceeds $2 billion dollars per year. Due to such high costs it is necessary for American businesses to consider training their managers in cross-cultural communication.

In order to be effective cross-cultural communicators, American managers must perform the following seven activities: they must set communication objectives, choose a communication style, improve their credibility, select and motivate their audiences, decide upon an appropriate message strategy, overcome language difficulties, and become familiar with the proper nonverbal behaviors. As far as setting communication objectives, managers must become aware of how different cultures view time frames and the achievement of objectives. This means that some cultures may view future events and destinies as being under one's control while others may believe that these things are predetermined and thus uncontrollable.

As far as choosing a communication style, managers have to choose based on discovering whether the society they are in is democratic or not. This is important to know because certain styles are better suited for democratic societies while other styles are more appropriate for autocratic societies. Another way of choosing is for managers to discover whether a culture values individualism or collectivism because individualistic cultures require styles different from those required by collectivist cultures.

As far as improving one's credibility, this means managers have to know how their hierarchical power, personal goodwill, expertise, image, and values will affect their audience. Different cultures emphasize on different facets of credibility over others; for example one's hierarchical power may be important to one culture while one's level of expertise may be more important to another. In terms of selecting and motivating one's audience, certain factors are involved.…… [read more]

Gender Communications Verbal and Non Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,620 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Gender Communication

Most people are aware of the potential personal and social conflicts associated with communications between genders. Many would say that the issue of gender communication, or in some cases miscommunication occurs because of the perceived power conflicts between the genders, (Kalbfleisch and Cody 6) as if one or the other member of the differing gender, has more or… [read more]

Oral Communication Courage Is Resistance to Fear Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,001 words)
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Oral Communication

Courage is resistance to fear, mastery of fear -- not absence of fear.

Except a creature be part coward it is not a compliment to say it is brave; it is merely a loose application of the word.

Consider the flea! -- incomparably the bravest of all the creatures of God, if ignorance of fear were courage. (Twain,… [read more]

Communication Transaction Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (691 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Communication Transaction Analysis

When considering communication transactions, there are two dominant perspectives one may approach the transaction from in order to determine the nature of the interaction. In short, the situational perspective categorizes communication transactions according to certain situation-specific variables, while the developmental perspective begins with the assumption that any two people communicating necessarily begin from a position of relative impersonality, interacting on the level of social role rather than as people, and only developing towards an interpersonal communication after certain conditions are met. In order to better understand and explicate these concepts, it will be useful to examine a communication transaction between two characters in the television show Parks and Recreation in order to demonstrate the two perspectives' different understanding of interpersonal communications and how these may be practically applied.

Near the beginning of the Parks and Recreation episode called "The Fight," Leslie Knope, the assistant director of the parks department of a fictional Indiana town, is talking to her best friend Ann Perkins, a nurse at the local hospital. Leslie is extremely excited because she has just secured a job interview for Ann as a part time employee of the public health department, and in typical Leslie fashion she has enthusiastically prepared all public health records and literature that Ann might need to familiarize herself with before the interview, which is scheduled for nine a.m. The following morning. Understandably, Ann is not thrilled by the prospect of an early morning job interview (with the city manager who also happens to be her ex-friend) after an all night public health study session on the heals of a sixteen hour shift at the hospital. Needless to say, this conversation between best friends is not as exciting for Ann as it is for the ecstatic Leslie, who in her defense, is just really excited that the two could soon be working in the same building.

According to the criteria of the situational perspective, Leslie and Ann's conversation is certainly an example of interpersonal communication. The conversation is dyadic, or taking place between two people, and the…… [read more]

Communication Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (985 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It is determined by social scientists that verbal communication only accounts for "7% of the communication process" (Stewart, 2005) while demonstrative communication makes up for the rest of the 93%, specifically in the form of listening. Listening is the most significant kind of communication without being vocal, which involves "five elements: hearing, attending, understanding, responding, and remembering" (Stewart, 2005). Hearing is the physiology of listening once sound waves hit the ear at various intervals of frequency. Attending is the act of filtering out certain things and focusing on other messages, and understanding means comprehending such messages. Responding is giving feedback to the receiver, not necessarily in the form of words but through facial expression and eye contact. Remembering is being able to recollect information or messages that were previously communicated.

Listening is effective and positive when the sender conveys to the receiver what they wanted to in a clear and clarified manner. Success in listening is achieved when the receiver listens intently, and at the end, has an input or reaction. An example of triumph of such non-verbal communication is when a girl is telling her girlfriend what a horrible day she had at the work place. It was a positive experience because the receiver sympathized and empathized with the speaker, and tried to look at her perspective. As well, the receiver of the conversation was not distracted and did not detract her attention from the speaker. As well, the listener was able to stop talking and knew when to be quiet to given the speaker space and time to just talk about what she needs to at her own pace. Furthermore, it was a positive demonstrative communication when the receiver would repeat and encourage the speaker through this sounding back method. In addition, non-verbally, the receiver's facial expressions were significant by looking interested and making eye contact but not overwhelmingly so while at the same time see friendly and open to what the speaker had to say. The posture to show the receiver was paying attention is a relaxed manner along with the nodding of the head, and a relaxed body mannerism.

Non-verbal communication is saying something without vocally voicing it out. Such form of demonstrative communication is visible in the form of facial expressions like smiling or frowning, body language like being close to somebody, appearing like wearing a power outfit, and gestures like a hand hold or huge are all used to display a certain feeling and notion to the other party. The aforementioned are all forms of communication to convey how an individual feels without the use of words.


Stewart, G. (n.d.). Types of nonverbal communication: Listening Skills. Better business communication results. Retrieved November 6, 2011, from http://www.leehopkins.com/types-of-nonverbal-communication-listening-skills.html

Sutton, N. (n.d.). Pros & Cons of Nonverbal Communication | eHow.com. eHow | How to Videos, Articles & More - Discover the expert in you. | eHow.com. Retrieved November 6, 2011, from http://www.ehow.com/info_8117087_pros-cons-nonverbal-communication.html… [read more]

Communication Accommodation Theory Application Essay

Application Essay  |  4 pages (1,384 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



A friend went to Australia for two weeks and one of the things she brought back was a partial Aussie accent. We all sort of snickered at her and rolled our eyes for the first week or so, but after she persisted in calling us 'mate' and using 'crikey' as an expletive a month later, we eventually stopped inviting her out, until she just sort of drifted away. On the other hand, when my family was traveling through the South on vacation, people my age called my parents 'ma'am' and 'sir,' which was not the custom in our family. I tried it out and found it felt kind of good to be respectful to people I'd never met before. But when I got home and said, "Go ahead, ma'am" to a woman getting on the bus, she replied in affront, "Ma'am! What am I, your grandmother? Get on the d-mn bus." Embarrassed, I had to comply.

These are examples of people using communication to move toward or away from each other, in social groups they want to identify with or separate themselves from. People, including myself, have been using various strategies like these all my life, but it wasn't until I saw them through the lens of Communication Accommodation Theory that I realized how much these intentional or unconscious strategies revealed about speakers' motivations. Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT) includes all manner of communication including gesture; posture; diction (word choice), phonetic variation ('accent') and virtually a limitless possible series of utterances that can be included under the heading 'speech' or 'speech act' for convenience. Speech here refers to any attempt to communicate with a target, or 'interlocutor.' My self-proclaimed Australian friend was using her new, adopted, affected accent to separate herself from the rest of us here back home for some reason, which we all took to be her self-superiority because we had never been to Australia. On the other hand the woman who got mad at me for 'ma'am'-ing her on the bus used CAT to identify herself with me as younger than senior age, even when she was admonishing me in outrage. These examples illustrate the breadth of scope and intent various speakers employ CAT to accomplish, whether they know it or not.

Now that I have a formal theory through which to interpret this phenomenon, I realize how often this takes place around me, enough to be nearly ubiquitous. I see peers alter their speech styles when a professor walks into a class, and then see the same people use slang to act 'street' in front of other friends off campus. This has allowed me to realize that I am no different, which has a dual effect, allowing me to pay attention to my own communication from a clinical or detached standpoint in order to better control accommodation I want to continue or stop using, and this realization has also helped me stop judging others harshly the way we ostracized my friend for her affected accent. While… [read more]

Communication Skills What I Intend Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (625 words)
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Communication Skills

What I Intend to Do to Improve My Communication Skills

In basic terms, communication involves the transmission of messages from one person to another using a wide range of methods. The ability to communicate in a concise, clear and effective way is critical when it comes to building lasting relationships both in the workplace and within a familial setting. Hence the development of effective communication skills should be a priority for any individual seeking to scale both the corporate and social ladder. Personally, I do not happen to be an effective communicator. However, I intend to undertake a number of steps in an attempt to enhance my communication skills.

To begin with, I plan to be making more eye contact when communicating with others. I am convinced that this will enable me to maintain their attention so that I may be able to pass my message across. Similarly, I also plan to work on my body language when holding conversations. From my readings on effective communication, both an approachable stance and an appropriate posture play a significant role in enhancing the smooth flow of conversations. For instance, occasional gestures during a conversation could help keep the audience attentive and interested in what is being said. With that in mind, I will seek to incorporate more gestures in addition to eye contact during my engagement with others.

Next, I also intend to read a number of self-help books addressing the subject of effective communication. Some of the books I have identified in this case include but are not limited to Effective Communication by James S. O'Rourke and 101 Ways to Improve Your Communication Skills Instantly by Jo Condrill and Bennie Bough. Reading the books will enable me to become well acquainted with the various strategies individuals use to become better communicators. I could supplement this exercise by closely watching successful public…… [read more]

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