"Communication / Speech" Essays

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Interpersonal Communications Project Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,399 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Communication Techniques

Interpersonal Communications Project

How Personal Behavioral Trends Need to be Assimilated in an Oral Communication to Make it Truly Effective

Oral communication is an integral part of our existence as socially gregarious individuals. Indeed much of our daily chore involves oral communication and that may take any form depending on the situation and circumstances. Thus, it might never be overemphasized that effective oral communication surely goes a long way in determining whether we have actually been able to lead our lives as effective and positively contributing members of the society we belong to. If we, for a brief moment, digress a bit from the personal aspect of oral communication and let our perspective be a bit broader we would surely realize the importance of oral communication in business and commerce, especially in this age of information where interaction and communication has come to hold the centre stage in any form of business activity. Thus, knowing the content is though important but not the only issue. One must have the capability to infuse a sense of life and conviction in the acquired knowledge that one intends to pass on to others, and, herein lays the importance of effective oral communication. (Murphy, Hildebrandt, & Thomas, 1997) It would perhaps not be out of context to mention the old adage about making an oral communication "Tell them what you're going to tell them, tell them, and tell them what you told them."

An unavoidable corollary to this requirement is to maintain a clear disconnect between one's mood and personal emotions while emanating a positive body language as the conversation progresses. Much has been written about positivity that should emanate while communicating and what needs to be emphasized at this juncture is the ability to effectively communicate with the recipients of the communication. The speaker should be careful about the pitch they use so as to effortlessly attract attention of the audience without getting too harsh or shrill which might alienate the audience because of the overbearing or propagandist overtones that almost always tend creep in if one tends to become overenthusiastic while trying to put a point or two across.

Therefore, it is amply apparent that one needs to sincerely and conscientiously practice the art of good communication while ensuring that personal behavioral traits and moods do not adversely impact the quality and tenor of interpersonal communication as that would frustrate the very purpose of initiating a conversation.

Personal Behavioral Traits

Dr. Carbonell, named four personality types: Active/Task-oriented, Active/People-oriented, Passive/Task-oriented, and Passive/People-oriented and went on to demonstrate how each personality type perceives a given context and reacts to external stimuli in different ways while engaging in a conversation. (Carbonell, 2005)

On the personal front I guess while people expect me to be of the "S/I" type, I basically belong to the "C/S/I" category. Thus, while I present an impressive picture to both crowds and individuals, people take special note of my caring attitude and the warmth and emotional bridge that I… [read more]

Tactile Communication Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (711 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … tactile communication in everyday life. Tactile communication is the use of non-verbal communication, specifically touch. Many believe it to be the most basic form of communication developed over time, especially because it is used with infants in our initial communication with them.

People may not think about it, but touching and not touching, or tactile communication, is an important part of everyday life. We give a co-worker a hug when they are having a bad day, shake the hand of a business associate, and touch the hand of our spouse when they come home from a long day. One writer notes, "Touch is a critical aspect of relationships, from the initial handshake between strangers to the embrace of close friends to sexual intimacy" (Andersen, 2005, p. 57). Therefore, we use tactile communication throughout every day, whether we are aware of it or not. Two other writers continue, "Perhaps no mode of human interaction has the same potential to communicate love, warmth, and intimacy as actual body contact" (Andersen & Guerrero, 2005, p. 83). Everyday life is filled with many forms of tactile communication, and it is the first type of communication we learn, so we become accustomed to it before we become accustomed to any other form of communication.

There are many norms associated with tactile communication, and they are established early in life. They also change throughout life. Some of these norms are based on society, while others are based on age and gender. Young children learn by touching things, they are extremely tactile. That is one reason young children often put everything they touch into their mouths. They not only want to touch it to learn about it, they want to see what it tastes like, and whether they should remember it in the future. Until they can talk, touch is the only way children can communicate, so we learn our tactile skills very early. As children mature, they continue to be very tactile, and they like to touch each other and those around them. This is another norm for tactile communication. However, in adults there are very different norms, often…… [read more]

Interpersonal Communication This Classic Axiom Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,510 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Interpersonal Communication

This classic axiom, by the communications theorist Paul Watzlawick, is very important to understanding how we communicate. The axiom stating "one cannot not communicate" is important because it emphasizes that we are always affecting other individual's perceptions, despite wanting to or not (Littlejohn, 2002, p. 235). "One cannot not communicate" means that any perceivable behavior has the potential… [read more]

Communication Interpersonal Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (558 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0



Interpersonal communication is one of the most important aspects of human life. It creates relationships, employment opportunities, pleasant or unpleasant conditions. Hence it is important to take the appropriate approach to communication in order to optimize its beneficial effects and minimize possible misunderstanding.

Interpersonal communication has various characteristics. These include the fact that interpersonal communication generally occurs in face-to-face situations, without any mediating devices, apart from real-time communication devices such as the telephone. Such communication occurs in dialogic form; information and meaning are shared among the parties in the conversation. This is where the process approach becomes useful.

Interpersonal communication is transactional in nature, with parties negotiating content and meaning. The flow of this content and meaning is a process whereby participants influence each other. Although not all participants necessarily speak, the information is processed and contributes to the development of though and opinion in the group involved in communication.

Conversations are therefore reciprocal in their influence. Each participant in the conversation influences the others and is influenced by the others. In interpersonal conversation among equal parties, this process occurs in a symbiotic and simultaneous way.

Taking a process approach is then useful in a variety of situations. In a group situation, for example, parties may communicate regarding certain goals. These goals can be related to tangible objectives, action, social endeavors, emotional purposes, and so on. A process approach means that all parties in the conversation is open to the fact that communication is dynamic and influential. Each person is then open to being influenced, as well as being willing to influence the other parties.

When the conversation participants have divergent goals, the process of conversation is aimed…… [read more]

Communications Failure to Communicate Effectively Can Lead Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,011 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+



Failure to communicate effectively can lead to poor performance and organizational failure. The personality cult is a real problem within the context of business communications because there are times when the individual that has the devotion of the people is also the person that is causing problems in the organization. Communication has long been a difficult task, the advent… [read more]

Conflict and Communication Essay

Essay  |  9 pages (2,768 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Communicating in Conflict Resolution

The discussion on Communication and Conflict by Robert M. Krauss and Ezequiel Morsella (2000) is as thought provoking as it is interesting. It is not just another discussion on communicating our way through conflict because that approach to resolving conflict has been ingrained in those of us living in Western civilization. Rather, Krauss and Morsella point… [read more]

Communication Is an Interactive Process Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (304 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Communication Process of a Class Held Online

Taking a course online vs. In a classroom is going to require an exceptionally more focused and deliberate approach to communicating with peers, team members on projects, and with the instructor. While collaboration in person is easy to accomplish, the use of the communications tools online will need to be scheduled with more accuracy and also with a clear expectations of what will be accomplished. In addition it's going to be very important to figure out which communication tool works best for each specific project or need. The use of e-mail or online chat sessions is going to be fine for immediate questions and answers, yet for reviewing complex documents and for collaborating, there is going to need to be more expanded online forums and approaches to getting work done. Traditionally the technologies used for online courses has assumed a one-to-many broadcast strategy where the…… [read more]

Group Communication at a Stakeholder Meeting Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (778 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Group Communication at a Stakeholder Meeting

Communication is a key element of any endeavor involving more than one person, meaning communication is necessary for almost every worthwhile human endeavor. This is arguably even more true in the business world than in many other circumstances, as the many complexities of business groups and the individuals that make them up can require different methods of communication and different modes of expression in order to obtain the same basic understanding. Presenting sales information to a diverse group of company stakeholders, including managers, salespeople, customers, and possibly others is an issue that requires a great deal of consideration along several avenues in order to ensure that the communication process is effective for everyone at the meeting. Understanding these aspects of the group's dynamics and communications needs leads to increased potential.

One of the primary elements that must be considered in a scenario where information is being presented to stakeholders with diverse relationships to the company is that of the roles everyone at the meeting plays. For the speaker, taking on the role of the informational leader in this scenario means analyzing and evaluating the information in a way that is made applicable and understandable to everyone in the room (Locker-Kienzler 2008). This means understanding the knowledge base that the different stakeholders in the meeting have, as well as their general expertise and understanding of the issues at hand. It is also very likely tat there will be some cultural diversity in the meeting, so care should be taken to present the information in a manner that is accessible and relevant to everyone (Locker-Kienzler 2008). There are specific ways to accomplish this that will be examined further on.

Another consideration that must be made is the use of specific communication channels in the meeting. The use of both written and spoken communication in the meeting can help to ensure that everyone is able to follow and understand the information being presented, with writing serving as a more direct and less-inflected (and thus less easily misinterpreted) form of communication (Locker-Kienzler 2008). In a direct group meeting, however, verbal communication should be the primary form of communication as it allows for differences in the group's atmosphere and understanding; though the flexibilities of verbal communication can be detrimental if used inappropriately or ignorantly, these flexibilities can also…… [read more]

Gender-Based Differences in Communication Styles Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (554 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Gender-Based Differences in Communication Styles

In her essay,"Talk in the Intimate Relationship: His and Hers," Deborah Tannen explains the reasons that men and women often have such difficulty communicating with one another. According to Tannen, men characteristically communicate very directly using words whereas women tend to communicate much more indirectly through what Tannen calls metamessages. By metamessages, Tannen means that women communicate through a much broader range of communication tools such as facial expressions and indirect communication strategies. Men communicate much more directly and literally and are often somewhat deaf (and blind) to the way that women try to communicate.

Tannen explains that men and women begin being socialized to communicate very differently in childhood. Whereas little girls tend to play in intimate pairs with one best friend of in small groups, little boys play in larger groups. Girls generally socialize very directly and share extensive verbal exchanges about their feelings and personal matters; boys generally socialize in much larger groups and indirectly in the context of sports or other activities. Their conversations tend to relate to one another only indirectly because most of their direct communication has to do with sports or other external activities and very little to do with their personal feelings and other personal matters.

Men continue that behavior into adulthood and tend to communicate very directly with words but their discussions are more about external things and events such as sports, business, politics, and current events. Even close male friends may avoid communicating anything more meaningful about their innermost feelings and personal matters. This presents a potential conflict in intimate relationships between men and women because they have fundamentally different communication styles…… [read more]

Cross-Cultural Communications Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,639 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Cross cultural Communication (International Business)

Nowadays, with almost every country going global, cross-cultural communication has become an integral part of business. Rosenbloom and Larsen pointed out the growing need for interaction among different countries worldwide, "globalization in the sense of firms from all over the world interacting and dealing with each other is expected to be the normal state of… [read more]

Lack of Communication in a Relationship Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (543 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3



Not speaking clearly, not listening properly, and not appreciating differences in communication styles can all lead to a relationship breakdown.

Communication defines a relationship.

Good communication creates long-lasting healthy partnerships, whereas poor communication leads to relationship breakdown.

Poor communication includes the following faults:

Not speaking clearly

Not listening properly

Not appreciating differences in communication styles

Not speaking clearly, not listening properly, and not appreciating differences in communication styles can all cause a relationship breakdown.

The first sign of miscommunication is usually the inability of one of the individuals to express himself or herself properly.

Speaking clearly does not mean how loud a voice is, but how well the person has articulated his or her thoughts.

Think before speaking; formulate thoughts well.

Ask for what you want; don't beat around the bush

Use logic, and even express emotions as objectively as possible

B. Speaking clearly means addressing the matter at hand, and nothing else.

1. Avoid talking about the past or future and focus on immediate issues.

2. Avoid insults and generalizations that put the other person on the defensive.

C. Speaking clearly also means speaking with confidence.

1. Look the other person in the eye.

2. Be respectful, and if anger arises, take a break.

III. The second sign of miscommunication is not listening properly.

A. Listening is more than just hearing.

1. Listening means paying close attention to the other person's body language and other nonverbal cues.

2. Listening requires concentration; if you can't concentrate then ask for a break.

B. Listen with compassion, not judgment

1. Reflect back what the other person says, to avoid misunderstanding (Duerksen).

2.…… [read more]

Effective Communication in the Criminal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (902 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


They have to communicate issues, write reports, and interact publicly. In the judicial system, judges, and lawyers have to interview suspects and witnesses, write complicated judgments, orally interview, write cases, and follow up reports. Every aspect of the criminal justice system involves often complex communication, both verbal and nonverbal, so it is essential to have effective communication in all branches of the criminal justice system.

There are any number of instances where ineffective communication could lead to a threat to public safety. For example, a police officer interviews a witness, and the witness describes a suspect as a white male, about 6-foot 2, with a scar on his left arm and a tattoo of an eagle on his right arm. He is wearing dark jeans and a hooded sweatshirt, and carrying a knife. When the officer writes down the description in his report, he neglects to mention the tattoo, or the knife. Now, the suspect is misidentified, and may not be apprehended, leading to additional criminal activity and more victims, and this could erode public safety in a particular neighborhood or area.

Another example would be in the interrogation of a suspect. Officers have to have a deep understanding of nonverbal communication to interrogate effectively. For example, suspects will often rapidly blink their eyes or cross their arms over their chests when they are not telling the truth, and officers should be aware of that. One expert states, "Body movements, personal distance, facial color, facial expressions, and paralanguage offer insight into a subject's truthfulness" (Shadow, 2008). If the interrogator is not effective, the suspect may not give any useful information, and again, justice would not be served, the criminal might go free, and the public might be in danger, especially if the suspect was extremely dangerous. Good communication is essential in all aspects of criminal justice, at each and every level of the system.

In conclusion, it is essential that criminal justice professionals be communication professionals, as well. How they communicate verbally and nonverbally can affect public safety, and it can affect their own safety, as well. Criminal justice professionals interact with each other and the public on a daily basis, so they need to have basic communication skills, and be able to share those skills effectively with others. Communication is important in just about any business or profession, but in criminal justice it is crucial, so it should be a major portion of criminal justice education.


Heilman, K., & Lawson, K.M. (2000, December). Facilitating communication. Corrections Today, 62, 84.

Shadow, M. (2008). Improving nonverbal communication in criminal justice. Retrieved 1 Oct. 2009 from the…… [read more]

Queendom Communication Assessment Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (962 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1



Queendom Communication Assessment

Communication is something that all living creatures have innately in them in order to interact with one another and so that they can understand each another. Human beings communicate by conveying thoughts and ideas. Some people have better communication skills than other people do. Communication skills involve the use of auditory or spoken words and sounds, non-verbal cues which involve the use of body or sign language and paralanguage which involves touch or eye contact (Communication Skills, 2007).

Communication happens when information is exchanged. This can be between two or more people. An interaction is understood when people all recognize the same symbols, signs and behavior so they know what is going on. People that have good communication abilities are usually very effective as a communicator. In order to have good communication skills the process of communication must be understood along with how to effectively use it (Communication Skills, 2007).

Communication is essential for any relationship to be successful, whether it is at home, with friends, or at work. Research has consistently shown that a deficiency in communication skills can absolutely ruin relationships. The foundation of solid interpersonal skills is not just making one be heard but also involves an understanding of where other people are coming from. After taking the assessment I found that overall I have pretty good communication skills. The results showed that I am extremely adept at interpreting other people's words and actions and seeing things from other points-of-view. I realize that empathy is an essential part of good interpersonal skills and do my best to place myself in other people's shoes in order to better understand where they are coming from. I can generally get a good sense of what others are thinking and try to adjust accordingly if the people I'm conversing with seem confused or perhaps uncomfortable (Communication Skills Test, 2009).

One who uses their communication skills well can make their message understood by everyone who is present. They can understand the feed back of the message they gave out and have control of the flow of communication. Good communication skills involve being able to listen as well as to speak. When one listens and understands what is being said they can respond appropriately. This is another good communication skill. When people make the most of good communication skills people will want to hear what they have to say. It helps to engage people into action. When people have poor communication skills it tends to alienate people. Effective communication skills enable one to keep it simple and to the point. Short and to the point is the first rule of making one's communication skills effectively heard (Communication Skills, 2007).

Communication that is done in the business world involves communicating business information both inside and outside the organization. Internal communication in business includes the corporate vision and strategy, goals, plans, corporate…… [read more]

Communication Differences Develop a Two-Page Paper Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (938 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Communication Differences

Develop a two-page paper in which you examine the conclusions you have found from your research and answer the following questions. Do men and women communicate differently? Does it make a difference in the workplace?

Do men and women communicate differently? Does it make a difference in the workplace?

The question if men and women communicate differently cannot be settled with an easy answer of 'yes' or 'no.' For example, according to the research of Palomares (2009), the assumption that women are more tentative in their use of language than their male colleagues at work was only true regarding stereotypically masculine topics in male-female but not all-female groupings. A comparative analysis of email revealed both males and females were more tentative on stereotypical topics germane to the opposite gender in mixed but not same-gender interactions. This suggests that what may be more relevant are not male and female communication styles, specifically, but perceptions of appropriate gender roles which affect the way men and women discuss certain topics with the opposite gender, or with mixed gender groups.

Additionally, Youngquist (2009), discovered that when women interrupted males in female dyads they were perceived as the most dominant of all subjects studied, while male interrupters in a male/female dyad were consistently perceived as the least dominant. This was true in the perceptions of both male and female observers, suggesting that both men and women can be affected by social gender norms. However, some studies have found measurable differences between the genders regarding communication. A study of accounting chairs by Schmidt & Madison (2008) found a higher awareness of the importance of communication and listening skills amongst female chairs as opposed to their male counterparts. Women tended to believe that it was more valuable to devote a greater percentage of class time to honing these skills than did their male colleagues. This suggests that there is a different perceived priority accorded to communication amongst males vs. females.

Gender, of course is not the only barrier to communication. Cultural references we take for granted can also prove to be communication obstacles. One human resources journal suggested that when speaking to a diverse audience the speaker should make the address as culturally neutral as possible: "1. Use clear language. 2. Use handouts for people to take away. 3. Avoid pop culture references. 4. Resist the jokes. 5. Use clear slides and language (Bond 2007, p.27). However, Frase (2007) disputes such an approach, stating: "Successful intercultural communication involves much more than eliminating colloquialisms and cultural references. It must also recognize deeper cultural differences." There is no 'culturally neutral' way of speaking, only culturally sensitive ways of attempting to broach differences. These differences can be far greater than those between men and women of the same nationality. In fact, it could be argued that men…… [read more]

Oral Communication Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (600 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Politically Speaking... And Reacting follows. Lastly a discussion of the article and how it relates to oral communication is presented.

Oral Communication

Oral communication is defined as "communication by word of mouth" ("WordNet," n.d.). Synonyms include: speech and spoken language.

Polkosky's (2009) article, Politically Speaking... And Reacting, recounts a personal episode the author had with a politically motivated robocall. Polkosky is a social-cognitive psychologist and speech language pathologist. Currently working as a human factors psychologist, she "has researched and designed speech, graphic, and multimedia user experiences for more than 12 years" (p. 7). Playing at home with her daughter, her sunny October day was interrupted by a phone call. At first, unsure of what the caller wanted, Polkosky merely caught the angry tone of the caller and a few key buzzwords, including: Pentagon, killed Americans, and leftist agenda. The call ended with a short notation that the preceding message had been paid for by the McCain/Palin campaign. Angry at the interuption and the message, the author uses the opportunity to bring to light key points at how this communication could have been much more effective.


I have been on the receiving end of automated calls like Polkosky describes in her article. Each time, my response was similar to hers in that I was far more irritated than motivated to consider the message that was being given. Reading Polkosky's evaluation of her own reaction, and her suggestions for eliciting a more positive response, I agree with some of her assessment of why she (and I) were so angry after receiving the call. However, I'm not certain her suggestions on the improvement of the communication would truly have created the more positive experience she thinks it will.

First, I agree that the interruption of my personal time alone, for…… [read more]

Therapeutic Communication the Communication O Be Evaluated Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,598 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Therapeutic Communication

The communication o be evaluated took place on February 24, 2009 in the early afternoon. The setting was a residential care facility for the elderly. The conversation took place between me and a patient named Helen. Helen is an 86-year-old Caucasian female with Alzheimer's disease. Her family visits frequently and she recently lost her husband. She has been… [read more]

Communication Nonverbal Communication Can Be Simply Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (378 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3



Nonverbal communication can be simply defined as communication without the usage of words. This ability is both innate, but it can also be improved through study. The importance of nonverbal communication is increasing more and more as the importance and levels of communication increase. NVC is best revealed through body language, such as grimaces, gesticulation or voice intonations. Alongside with dances, moves, the food we eat or serve, the clothes we wear (uniform for instance make a statement of authority) they make up forms of nonverbal communication (Exploring Nonverbal Communication).

A homogenous community generally uses the same forms of NVC, but when entering a new community, it may be difficult for one to grasp at first the features of their body language. This situation then raises the necessity to understand the concept of nonverbal communication across different cultures. Most of the differences are determined by the cultural background. The most relevant example may be the expression of emotions in the Middle East and in Asia. While the people in the first region will mourn openly, enjoy loudly or feel pain to its maximum, the Asian cultures impose restrictions…… [read more]

Cross Cultural Communication in Bennett's Interview Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (378 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Cross Cultural Communication

In Bennett's interview with O'Bryan, the latter explained that cross cultural communication between two groups of designers was difficult, not only because the two groups spoke different languages, but also because the designers were located in two different spatial locations, and had to communicate through interactive media. O'Bryan describes how two groups of designers -- one from the U.S. And one from Cuba -- were able to work together collaboratively on a project regarding their dreams, the importance of their dreams, and what influenced their dreams. The intercultural aspect posed some problems, like the ones above, while also providing for some achievements, such as a product that reflected the unique cultural contributions of both groups. Viewed in light of Baldwin and Robert's chapter regarding shared meaning and the efficiency of communication, one can understand how the cross-cultural designers faced some problems. Because Baldwin and Robert discuss one theory, Semiotics, which suggests that a thing has no inherent meaning, that meaning must be given to a thing, it is easy to understand that the Cubans and the Americans did not share meaning. What induced certain…… [read more]

Interpersonal Communication the Advancement of Technology Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,406 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Interpersonal Communication

The advancement of technology as well as the interdependence of the people on technology has created a world where many essential interpersonal communications occur via the telephone or other electronic means. As a result of this phenomenon many individuals have learned telephone communications skills that allow them to communicate effectively without the aide of informal cues, such as… [read more]

Personal Statement Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (622 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Personal Statement

For the past five years I have had a strong interest in Communications Sciences and Disorders. It began when I met a small boy named David who lived next door to me. I watched his speech therapist work with him and became fascinated. I talked to her afterwards, and it was then that I knew this was the career for me. Her responses were so insightful, and I could see in her eye the joy she felt.

Ever since that day, I have pursued speech pathology as a career. Before college, I had the opportunity to observe speech therapists at my mother's day care. The effect this had on me was to strengthen my resolve to pursue speech therapy. I was especially taken by the care these therapists took to help the children, and was moved by the profound impact that they had on their lives. It occurred to me that it was this ability to help people in such a simple yet powerful way was the reason speech therapy attracted me so much.

Once I entered college, I was fortunate enough to have taken classes with some truly exceptional professors. The knowledge and passion that they gave me reinforced how wonderful this calling is. Towards the end of the program, that point was driven home to me. We, the SLP students, had the opportunity to observe speech pathologists at work. We watched them work with their clients, and wrote logs about what we saw. I studied the way that they were able to devote such acute attention to all sorts of patients. They worked with stroke victims, stutterers and laryngectomy patients. The work that they did was phenomenal. I knew then that this was the perfect choice for me. Nothing would make me prouder than to be one of them, and be able to reach people in this…… [read more]

Communication Is Integral Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (335 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Communication is integral and essential to any human relationship and especially between health care workers and their patients. Even when a language barrier is present, patients and their doctors can try to communicate issues related to symptoms, pain, treatment options, and concerns. However, language barriers do pose a major obstacle in all human communications. Doctors and their patients who speak different languages must be highly sensitive. When translators are unavailable, we must rely on non-verbal communication including facial expressions and gestures. Therefore, the most important aspect of communication is not necessarily the language itself. In fact, what a person says and what that person means are often two entirely different things. Tone of voice, body language, and other non-verbal cues signal what is in many cases far more information than words themselves.

One of the most important aspects of communication if not the most important is clarity. A person should always aim to convey a message clearly, with cues that match the receiver's level of expertise, expectations,…… [read more]

Team Communication Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,255 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … team communication.

Specifically it will address both the benefits and challenges of working in teams in relationship to team communication, and examine how teams can enhance their performance in the team communication topic. Team communication is critical to ensure that each team member understand the goals of the organization and are working toward those goals. In addition, good team communication means that if there are questions or concerns about the goal, they are addressed before the team moves forward.

It is clear the benefits of good team communication are many. The team is on the same page, but understanding and sharing common goals also can make the team stronger and more effective in reaching those goals, because it makes all the team members feel valued and necessary to the final outcome. The benefits to working in teams and using team communication are boundless, but as with any activity, there are also challenges when developing team communication in teams.

First, it may be helpful to define teamwork. Three authors note, "A team has been defined as 'a distinguishable set of two or more people who interact, dynamically, interdependently and adaptively toward a common and valued goal/objective/mission'" (Schraagen, Chipman, & Shalin, 2000, p. 404). Thus, any team communication should be open and feel safe to the team members, and this could be a challenge in developing honest communication that includes disagreement and discussion. It should also be designed so the team members can interact effectively and work toward that common goal the team knows and shares.

Good team communication can be extremely valuable in any team environment, but much of the communication depends on how team members perceive their team leader, and what kind of communication tactics the team leader uses. An overly aggressive team leader may hinder communication and discussion by commanding the team members, rather than listening or working with them. On the other hand, a meek team leader may also hinder communication in that they do not encourage communication or discussion because they are afraid of feedback or negative criticism. Either way, the team will be negatively affected. Thus, a vital element of team communication is the team leader's communication style and techniques, so any team development must consider the team leader's communication style when the team is formed.

There are several different characteristics of open communication in teams. The communication should be honest, specific, accurate, logical, concise, complete, and relevant. Communication that contains all these elements consistently will result in cleared and better communication throughout the team, and should lead to the long-term achievement of goals and objectives. Open communication must always allow for feedback, as well, so that all the team members know what communication and goals are working, and what are not. Without feedback, the communication chain is incomplete, and eventually it will break down ("Team communication," 2008).

Team members share responsibility in team communication, as well. They must be open-minded, they must listen effectively, they should make sure everyone is heard, and they… [read more]

Nonverbal Communications of Celebrities George W. Bush Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,676 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Nonverbal Communications of Celebrities

George W. Bush:

President George W. Bush is not a particularly skilled verbal communicator.

Consequently, he has apparently learned to make the most of nonverbal communication skills to augment his spoken words. Whether or not the impression is genuine or contrived to mask his relative lack of substantive knowledge and verbal eloquence, Mr. Bush frequently uses… [read more]

Exceptional Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (395 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Treating Language Disorders in Adults and Children

There are many differences between treating language disorders between adults and children. For children, the use of language intervention activities is very common, these exercises use a specialized language specialist to interact with the child through play. Therapists use repetition exercise that depend on books, pictures and ongoing series of events to stimulate the child's language development. In addition, children who have not had a long time to develop articulation will be engaged in articulation therapy which includes exercises where the therapist can model correct sounds and syllables. Adults with language disorders are typically neurological in nature and can not use the same methods. Instead, they require specific treatment steps such as RHD or Wernicke's aphasia.

Augmentative and assistive devices are ways to help improve communication abilities. Describe how these alternative communication techniques can be chosen and used effectively.

Augmentative and alternative communication devices can be very helpful, but AAC needs to be carefully selected to be helpful. AAC should be chosen to fit the degree of language disorders. The more sophisticated the machinery, the greater the learning curve and the expense of the AAC. Some individuals only need very…… [read more]

Communication Between Different Cultures Term Paper

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Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Communication Differences Between Cultures

The American culture is a culture that is very diverse in nature. There are some people living within the American culture that feel more strongly they are part of their ethnic heritage than they are part of the greater "American" culture (Samovar, Porter & McDaniel, 2006a). I believe people who think they are "American" tend to believe they can communicate openly and freely, without emphasizing too much in the way of "formality" when it comes to communicating with others.

Much of what I understand of the American culture is a product of my educational upbringing, and the way my family raised me. School, especially during the early years, influences ones attitudes and beliefs, creating a culture of its own. Interestingly, people also have the opportunity to learn more about other cultures, and the way people of other cultures communicate, when attending school. I also learned about our "open-style" as I would describe it "culture" from my peers. Within every culture, including the American culture, there are "subcultures" (Samovar, Porter & McDaniel, 2006a, p.3). These are people that tend to hold strongly to a belief system, or tend to communicate somewhat differently than one might expect from the mainstream culture. Consider for example, an African-American, who may live in America and adopt the American cultural lifestyle, but also pay homage to their ethnic culture. This may require they communicate more formally when speaking with their elders for example.

What is most difficult to understand about the American culture is its diversity. In most other cultures, there is a "set," standard, or practice when it comes to communication. This is not the case in America, because there are people of so many different ethnicities and belief systems that live within this culture. The combination of these beliefs and ethnic groundings forms the basis of our culture.

Samovar, Porter & McDaniel (2006) note in their work, Intercultural Communication: A Reader, that communication with people of diverse cultures is no longer something to ponder, it is, "a fact of life" (p. 2). There are many ways intercultural communication can affect one's personal and professional life, especially depending on what the emphasis of communication is (Samovar, Porter & McDaniel, 2006b). I think the more I embrace diversity and make an effort to learn about different cultures, including the way members of other cultures communicate and interact with one another, I will have an easier time establishing rapport and friendship with diverse people (Samovar, Porter & McDaniel, 2006a).

If my professional life requires that I travel abroad or work…… [read more]

Intercultural Communication Is an Academic Field Term Paper

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Intercultural Communication is an academic field of study which aims to look at how people from different cultures interact with each other. Various other fields also contribute to the body of knowledge of intercultural communication, namely Anthropology, psychology, communication and cultural studies. Culture can simply be considered as the basic values, attitudes and behaviors of a certain group of people… [read more]

Cross-Cultural Communications for Managers Term Paper

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¶ … Cross-Cultural Communications for Managers

It is essential for business managers to be aware of the importance behind cross-cultural communication. The consequences of not being aware can be costly for American corporations. Munter (1993, p. 10) states that the cost of failed overseas assignments for American corporations exceeds $2 billion dollars per year. Due to such high costs it is necessary for American businesses to consider training their managers in cross-cultural communication.

In order to be effective cross-cultural communicators, American managers must perform the following seven activities: they must set communication objectives, choose a communication style, improve their credibility, select and motivate their audiences, decide upon an appropriate message strategy, overcome language difficulties, and become familiar with the proper nonverbal behaviors. As far as setting communication objectives, managers must become aware of how different cultures view time frames and the achievement of objectives. This means that some cultures may view future events and destinies as being under one's control while others may believe that these things are predetermined and thus uncontrollable.

As far as choosing a communication style, managers have to choose based on discovering whether the society they are in is democratic or not. This is important to know because certain styles are better suited for democratic societies while other styles are more appropriate for autocratic societies. Another way of choosing is for managers to discover whether a culture values individualism or collectivism because individualistic cultures require styles different from those required by collectivist cultures.

As far as improving one's credibility, this means managers have to know how their hierarchical power, personal goodwill, expertise, image, and values will affect their audience. Different cultures emphasize on different facets of credibility over others; for example one's hierarchical power may be important to one culture while one's level of expertise may be more important to another. In terms of selecting and motivating one's audience, certain factors are involved.…… [read more]

Gender Communications Verbal and Non Term Paper

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Gender Communication

Most people are aware of the potential personal and social conflicts associated with communications between genders. Many would say that the issue of gender communication, or in some cases miscommunication occurs because of the perceived power conflicts between the genders, (Kalbfleisch and Cody 6) as if one or the other member of the differing gender, has more or… [read more]

Oral Communication Courage Is Resistance to Fear Term Paper

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Oral Communication

Courage is resistance to fear, mastery of fear -- not absence of fear.

Except a creature be part coward it is not a compliment to say it is brave; it is merely a loose application of the word.

Consider the flea! -- incomparably the bravest of all the creatures of God, if ignorance of fear were courage. (Twain,… [read more]

Interpersonal Communication Here Culture Term Paper

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Interpersonal Communication


Culture in interpersonal communication

Interpersonal communication lies at the junction of our cultural understanding and construction and consequently, each of these components influences one another in more ways we can imagine. Language is perhaps the most pertinent tool in communications but this is neither the only nor the foremost element of importance in communication.

Each person's cultural… [read more]

Communication the Application Term Paper

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At the same time, if people shared no common features, they would not be capable of communicating at all. In this theory, the purpose of communication is to increase identification with one another.

To consider this theory in practice, one can consider two individuals from different cultural backgrounds trying to resolve their difference. In this case, both language and their present place are common. That is, the two people both live in the same society at the same time. The difference between the two people is that their backgrounds have given them different cultural beliefs. The communication or rhetoric is designed to allow both people to understand the other and their differences. If this can be achieved, the two people will identify with each other more.

This concludes the consideration of the five communication theories. By showing practical examples of each theory, it has been seen that each one can be applied to real situations in everyday life. In this way, communication theories are able to increase our understanding of the processes that make up our lives.

Works Cited

Dow, B.J. & Tonn, M.B. "Feminine Style and Political Judgment in the Rhetoric of Ann Richards." Quarterly Journal of Speech, 79(1993), 286-302.

McLuhan, M. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Men. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964.… [read more]

Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in Austria Interoffice Term Paper

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Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in Austria


This short memo gives a brief overview of challenges to effective verbal and nonverbal communication in Austria. This understanding of potential challenges is important in enhancing communication with Austrians.

With the advent of globalization, the world is becoming increasingly interconnected. People often interact with individuals from other countries in the course of their business and personal lives. As such, the issues that foster and can cause problems with communication between cultures become increasingly important (Countrywatch).

Verbal and nonverbal communication in Austria, as in most other countries, relies on a complex set of interactions. There are five main obstacles to intercultural communication and understanding in Austria. These are language, non-verbal cues, preconceptions and stereotypes, a tendency to evaluate or judge, and anxiety or stress (Countrywatch).

Language is the most obvious potential stumbling block for communication in Austria. The Austrian language, obviously, is much different from that of English. However, variations in connotation and context can be especially problematic, even when the dictionary meaning of a word is understood (Countrywatch).

Non-verbal cues also play an important role in potential communication difficulties. "People from different cultures inhabit non-verbal sensory world" (Countrywatch), as they interpret information in the framework of their own culture (Countrywatch). Non-verbal communications like gestures, postures, and vocalizations are often easy to learn, while status, time and spatial relations, and forms of respect are much more difficult to recognize for those outside Austrian society (Countrywatch).

Preconceptions and stereotypes about Austrian society can also be a barrier to communication (Countrywatch). For example, outsiders often equate Austrian culture with German cultural stereotypes of racism, stubbornness, and intolerance.

Similarly, the outsider's tendency to evaluate or judge, coupled with anxiety about uncertainties can trouble communication attempts (Countrywatch). To the outsider, their mother culture is correct and natural, while Austrian culture can seem foreign. Often, this leads to a tendency to judge the actions and feelings of Austrians, rather than attempting…… [read more]

Communication Non-Verbal Communication the Show Was CSI Term Paper

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Non-Verbal Communication

The show was CSI: Miami, an episode featuring the shooting of a rap artist's security guard. The communication between characters in this show, both verbal and non-verbal is largely based on the job, and on the seriousness of the job. There is little banter or personal discussion between the characters; it is all based on looking for criminals and searching for clues. Some of the non-verbal situations included questioning a suspect, where the main character (David Caruso) did not even look at the suspect but instead stood with his back to him looking out a window as he asked the questions. At first, this character was quite glib and nonchalant about his involvement in the shooting, but as the questions got more probing, his face changed and he became more serious. At first, he was smiling, showing his teeth a lot, grinning, and his eyes were big, and he used his hands as he talked. When he got frightened, his manner changed, it was even more obvious when watching the show with no sound.

During this scene, it was clear how his manner changed as the questioning intensified. His eyes narrowed, he did not smile or grin, and he seemed to get "smaller" in the chair. He seemed to disappear inside himself, somewhat. It was clear he was frightened. Through it all, the two detectives doing the questioning remained impassive and direct - to the point. They did narrow in on the suspect when his manner changed, but their manner did not change that much. They seemed like one-dimensional characters that existed only to solve crimes. Their lack of interaction with each other except about the case made them uninteresting, and made most of their communication styles the same. In fact, they seemed bored or boring at times, and if they had been through so many murders, they were jaded by the entire experience. There were looks of boredom or disinterest on their faces, and they had little facial or body movement to show great interest or great involvement. They seemed stiff and wooden somehow, and their non-verbal body language, what there was of it, helped to convey this message.

The second scene involved two investigators gathering up…… [read more]

Bridging the Gap (Between Communication Term Paper

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Despite the fact that women's opportunities for education, training, and advancement have opened up in recent years, women still retain their feminine communication style. It shows no signs of going away. While men in Mexico will eventually learn the American way of business, their feminine communication style is not apt to disappear either, since it, too, is based on the underlying value they place on human relationships and family, rather than on profit and materialism. As Kraus points out, American business men in Mexico can offer training courses and workshops that will help Mexicans to develop business management skills, particular practical applications and problem-solving. American businessmen can learn tact and to avoid hurt feelings. They can refrain from openly criticizing employees in front of others and allow them to save face whenever possible. They can reap the benefits of Mexican trustworthiness, loyalty, and reliability. Recognizing that family and relationships are important, they can inquire about the health and well-being of the family and take an interest. These are not such difficult things to do, merely modifications in communication style. Likewise, Mexicans can modify their communication habits too. They can learn to politely disagree with superiors, for example, and to give bad news where necessary. Although long-term planning is very difficult for Mexicans because of unstable economic and political conditions, they can learn to more accurately estimate the time when a job will be complete taking into account events that might slow things down. With understanding and effort on both sides, trust (and bigger profits) can develop between the two cultures.


Kras, E.S. (1995). Management in two cultures: Bridging the gap between U.S. And Mexican managers. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.

Tannen, D. (1995).…… [read more]

Non-Verbal Communication Term Paper

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Communication between persons located in distant places can also happen like a normal "face-to-face" conversation via video cameras that can send live video feed of people online.

Aside from the material things that provide means of non-verbal form of communication, we ourselves can communicate non-verbally even without the computer or anything. Perhaps the most common form of non-verbal communication in our selves is our facial expressions, body language and gestures, and emotion. An online source indicates that 55% of communication is done through facial expressions. Everything2 online further indicates that

The face can be used very successfully to display six basic emotions: anger, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise, and disgust. When photographs are taken of people showing these expressions in their faces, experiments have shown that the emotions represented by those expressions can be easily identified by Westerners. Further research has shown that these expressions appear to apply similarly to many different culture around the world, and the emotions can be as easily identified by individuals from those cultures.

From the observations mentioned in this paper, I have learned that communication is a process that can be done in diverse formats. The important thing to consider is not on how the communication process is done but on how information can be conveyed. Either verbally or non-verbally, the information that communication contains needs to be delivered in a way that the receiving party must fully understand, and there are diverse methods of communication that I have found to attain this.


Nonverbal Communication.

Web site: http://lynn_meade.tripod.com/id56.htm

Nonverbal Communication.

Web site: http://www.everything2.com/index.pl-node_id=484303… [read more]

Importance of Nonverbal Communication in Management Term Paper

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¶ … Nonverbal Communication in Management

The passing on of information from one person to other is called communication. About 75% of our hours where we are awake is used up in conveying our knowledge, feelings and dreams with others. but, most of us forget to realize that a great amount of our communication is of a non-verbal type as… [read more]

Communication Letters Are Historically the Standard Term Paper

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Letters are historically the standard way for businesses to communicate, along with internal memos. Letters can be carefully written, with every word chosen. The information can be re-written and organize it in exactly the way the writer wants to communicate. However, they are slow, taking several days to reach their destinations through the Post Office, and for a large mailing are expensive because of stationery, envelope, production and postage costs.

Phone calls work well to communicate because the phone call takes place in real time. Both parties can contribute to the conversation, and any misunderstandings can be cleared up immediately. However, the caller can't maintain control of the message as he or she can with a letter, and often the person you want to talk to isn't available to come to the phone when you call. Sometimes it can take a couple of days for both people to be available at the same time. Conference calls can include more than one other person but must be scheduled to ensure that everyone will be available.

Email can be an efficient way to contact other people because the sender can choose the time to write and send it, while the recipient can choose the time to read and respond to it. Email provides nearly instant delivery. However, email often isn't written as carefully as letters are, and misunderstandings can occur because of that. In addition, while some people use email extensively, others may not read their email promptly. Security may be a problem for sensitive matters depending on how each person's computer system is configured.

Online meetings can be an effective way to bring people together when they are separated geographically. When a video feed is included, the communicants get most of the benefits of face-to-face meetings, as they can see facial expression and body language as well as the actual words. Individuals can use graphics, such as charts, to communicate their points. However, at the present time such communication systems are expensive, and setting such a meeting up requires coordination of all participants' schedules, because it takes place in real time.

Face-to-face meetings are useful for discussing delicate matters in private. They are also suitable for meetings when all the people involved…… [read more]

Role of Communication in Cross Term Paper

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Instead the cross cultural communication is fostered through the promising vocalization with due emphasis on encouragement, affirmation, acknowledgement and phrasing requests clearly or advancing opinions thoughtfully. The effective cross cultural communication depends upon the elasticity, malleability and liberalism. The awareness, acceptance and dealing with cross cultural differences results in the overcoming the cultural barriers that give rise to the better… [read more]

Personal Statement in Communication Studies Term Paper

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Personal Statement

Describe the communication theories, philosophies, and research areas you find compelling. What is it about these ideas that you find most interesting?

Imagine this scenario: a competent, intelligent and forcefully speaking woman stands in the hallway, engaged in a professional debate with a male colleague. This woman has learned, through the process of her undergraduate education and from various assertiveness training courses, how to comport herself in an articulate fashion, using direct statements of address, and never apologizing for her expressed opinions. She speaks, she hopes, not like a man but to a man in a way that he will take her opinions seriously. She hopes she still retains her identity as a woman without compromising her professional ethics. Yet she is filled with a creeping awareness that her colleague is not listening to her and does not take her seriously in this interpersonal scenario -- but she does not know why?

Imagine another situation. A Japanese and a Lebanese businessman are engaged in a discussion over the boardroom table during a complex series of negotiations. Their translators are competent, and the Lebanese man has been warned beforehand that quite often a Japanese 'maybe' is an emphatic 'no,' and the Japanese man has been told that quite often his Arab friend will say 'no' when he means 'yes,' as a way of traditional bargaining common to Middle Eastern and Mediterranean society. In fact, the Lebanese man may argue, even in agreement, simply as a cultural style and method of expression.

Yet despite their mutual awareness of their cultural differences, both men walk away from the table feeling dissatisfied with what has just transpired. The Lebanese man feels as if the discussion was circuitous, the Japanese man feels bombarded and imposed upon by the way that his colleague expressed himself during this round of negotiations. He was prepared to be disappointed, but not quite this bruised and battered, in terms of his ego.

These puzzles in communication show that current research regarding gender and cultural differences in communication, including different gender styles and cultural styles of expression, while compelling, leaves out a fundamental element. That element is nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication is often giving a passing reference in texts, perhaps because it is so difficult to quantify and address in print. But in modern life, conversationally and professionally, much takes place on a sub-textual level, rather than an overt, denotative, level, and what gives modern dialogue its most profound subtext is body language.

Because body language is so little regarded in academic settings and writings, and even in many verbal 'empowerment' courses, an individual can be well versed in talking the talk of the other gender or culture he or she is interacting with, but not walking the walk, so to speak.

The woman cited…… [read more]

Communication Effective Term Paper

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However, Fayol's statement is still applicable in the present state of business communications. In fact, his call for effective oral communication is more vital than ever, since business communications nowadays has become the core of conducting business, with the proliferation of information -- and service-oriented businesses. Despite the convenience of communication technologies, there are still important features of oral communication that makes it an imperative in business communications.

Kreitner (1995) takes into account two (2) important features of oral communication that is not sufficiently accomplished through e-mail, instant messaging, and other forms of communication technology. He considers "personal barriers" such as non-verbal communication as an important feature to consider when conducting business with other people. The lack of physical interaction between two people or among members of the organization results to inefficient communication and decision-making, primarily because people cannot "see the expressed idea and attitude from the other person's point-of-view, to sense how it feels to him, to achieve his frame of reference in regard to the thing he is talking about" (389).

Another important feature of oral communication that cannot be effectively substituted by communication technology is semantics -- that is, the degree of understanding that the communicator has in deciphering the message given him/her by another communicator. Semantic meaning becomes complicated when messages are sent through e-mail, since communication in this medium is asynchronous, and instant messaging, wherein there is not enough interaction to make meaningful understanding of message.

Work cited:

Kreitner, R. (1995). Organizational Behavior. Chicago: Richard D.…… [read more]

Organizational Behavior - Communication Term Paper

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When a choice is given, many employees worldwide would preferably talk to their computer than to their supervisor. The impersonal character of e-mail communication permits for the employees to suggest his or her opinion without instantaneous consequences like inquisitive questions or fury from the superior. It is difficult to shout through e-mail. (Business Across Cultures: E-mail's Influence) Assistants can thus… [read more]

Nonverbal Communication in 1969 Term Paper

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Words together with action can be coordinated from person-to-person. These researchers state that coordination takes place with respect to the other person's speech duration and speech rate. In brief, if somebody is speaking loud and using their hands, this is a non-verbal sign to do the identical thing. One does not use this reason to fit in, but does it… [read more]

Communication and Interaction Term Paper

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Almost all of the doctors, nurses, assistants, and other medical staffs have shown respect to each other. They demonstrated the capability of dealing with each other courteously and professionally. Despite of the differences in their work positions and status, most of them regard each other as colleagues who have the right to be heard and respected. By carrying out an effective communication style in dealing with each other, it is obvious in the work process and work flow of the hospital that its staffs work harmoniously with each other. Thus, providing an effective performance of their respective responsibilities and delivering a valuable service to their patients.

Some regarded that to be able to communicate effectively, the ability to persuade must come with communication. Moreover, anyone who has the ability to persuade others through communication has the gift of becoming a leader. Persuasive communication must be tied with leadership to allow a leader guide and lead his members with full cooperation from them. Without persuasive communication, a leader may not be able to lead this organization into the right potential that he might have in mind. Dr. Michael Cozzens, in his Persuasive Communication for Leaders, explains this further, stating that Effective Leaders must be effective communicators. Most communication in organizational settings involves persuasion. Thus, to reach your full leadership potential in an organization you must understand and effectively engage in persuasive communication.


Clark, D. 2000. Leadership - Communication.

Retrieved on 19 October 2004, from NWLINK.COM.

Web site: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadcom.html

Cozzens, M. Persuasive Communication for Leaders.

Retrieved on 19 October 2004, from Biola.Edu. Web site: http://www.biola.edu/academics/scs/leadership/downloads/CSOL615SyllabusFa04.pdf… [read more]

Effective Communication Skills in Resolving Emotional Conflicts Term Paper

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Effective Communication Skills in Resolving Emotional Conflicts

Effective communication is very important in today's society and nowhere is this more true than in the area of resolving emotional conflicts. Is very important to develop strong communication skills in conflict management and by utilizing them correctly people can collaborate very effectively. Being able to collaborate is a very important value not… [read more]

Personal Communication Skills, as Exemplified Term Paper

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He has had cameo appearances in a number of movies, including the Contender, Ghostbusters, and America's sweethearts (CNN.com).

Today, personal communication skills are more valuable than ever. We live in a world that depends upon effective communication economically, politically, personally, socially, and at almost every other way imaginable. We are connected by communications technologies that include traditional telephone lines, the Internet, fax machines, traditional one-on-one communication, radio, TV, cellular telephones.

As an individual, personal communication skills are necessary to navigate our interconnected and often complex society. Personally, we must use communication effectively to establish meaningful interpersonal relationships. Similarly, we must use our personal communication skills to build effective and profitable business relationships. These skills can help us find a position, excel in that position, and meet our personal goals and the goals of our employers.

It is through the examples of outstanding personal communicators like Larry King that we can gain insight into the most essential in effective communication skills. In King's book, How to Talk to Anyone, Anytime, Anywhere, he notes that practice is an important component of successful verbal communication. This is true, he notes, even for those with a gift for gab. It is practice, argues King, that turns a natural talent into a useful and potentially marketable skill.

Further, King notes that there are four important basics to successful conversation. These are: honesty, a good attitude, interest in another person, and openness about yourself (King). Without these skills, notes King, it will be difficult to connect in a meaningful way to your audience.

In conclusion, personal communication skills are a valuable commodity in today's connected world. Larry King provides a shining example of the effectiveness of such skills in a professional level. His example can provide us with an understanding of communication skills that are essential for both are professional and personal success.

Works Cited

CNN.com. Larry King. 11 October 2004.


King, Larry. How to Talk to Anyone, Anytime, Anywhere: The Secrets of Good

Communication. Three Rivers Press, 1995.… [read more]

Communication Experiences Nonverbal vs. Verbal Term Paper

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Communication Experiences: Nonverbal vs. Verbal

Can See What You're Thinking

Role as Employee

The communicative situation entails that I entered my employer's office in my capacity as employee. In terms of space, the office was arranged in a fixed manner, with the employer's desk and chair close to the far wall, and the visitor's chairs at a fixed distance from the desk. When I entered, the employer made eye contact with me, and both of us maintained this more or less during the whole meeting. This inspired confidence in me, and thus I spoke in an even, confident voice throughout, which in turn resulted in my employer giving me his undivided attention by listening actively. The between channel redundancy (BCR) was thus complete for both of us. The result was that the employer negotiated a raise that was slightly lower than I requested, but nonetheless satisfactory to me. The communication was thus successful, as both my employer and I as employee demonstrated a correlation between our verbal and nonverbal communication, in a situation where nonverbal cues are of utmost importance.

Another situation in my workplace, where I found the communication less than satisfactory, occurred between a coworker and myself. The colleague in question was in the habit of keeping me from my work by visiting and chatting to me frequently. This would occur during work hours, and at times when my workload was particularly heavy. I tried talking to the person about this, but she refused to change this habit. I thus decided to take the problem to management. When I entered the office, I was in an agitated state. This was communicated to my employer by my tendency to avoid his eyes, rapid breathing, as well as my generally agitated posture. I however tried to convey the message of the problem in a calm, clear manner. My BCR was therefore incomplete, since my posture and my words conveyed conflicting messages. This conflict was communicated to my employer, whose willingness to listen met with a barrier. Because of my incomplete BCR, my employer was feeling defensive, and thus unwilling to listen. While he did attempt to help me, his unwillingness in turn communicated itself to me in his repeated glances at his watch. The way in which he questioned me did not convey that he took the complaint in an entirely serious manner. The outcome was unsatisfactory: My employer recommended that I repeat my request for an end to this behavior to my coworker, and to return to him if the request was not met. I found this frustrating, since I have already asked the colleague to stop her behavior, with no result.

Role as Customer

As a customer, I visited a car dealer in order to acquire a new car. When I entered, I was immediately approached by a salesman, who briefly but firmly shook my hand and retreated to a social distance. This behavior made me feel at ease, and I felt free to describe exactly the kind…… [read more]

Interpersonal Non-Verbal Communication Observation Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


One woman, for example, came striding out of the arrival gate and without a break in her stride headed for the nearest exit, indicating that this was a familiar routine. In stark contrast, an old couple came out and immediately looked around as if they were expecting someone to meet them. Sure enough, a young woman soon came running up, waving to attract their attention. On spotting the young woman, the old couple's faces immediately lit up, wreathed in smiles, which indicated that this was a meeting of close relatives. But perhaps the most interesting observation was to watch a middle aged woman who came out and began looking around. Her face wore an obviously anxious expression and soon, it was obvious that she wasn't expecting to be met but instead was studying the signs to determine her next moves. She also kept glancing down at a piece of paper in her hand, which seemed to contain some instructions. Finally, she stopped a passerby and spoke to him, nodding every now and then at whatever he was saying, post which she began finally moving towards one of the exits.

In conclusion, undertaking the exercise of observing non-verbal communication at the airport was highly valuable as it helped raised one's consciousness of the world of expression inherent in people's body language and facial expressions.

Works Cited

Collier, G & DiCarlo, D. "Emotional Expression." Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum

Associates, 1985.

Dunn, L.J. "Nonverbal Communication: Information Conveyed Through the Use of Body language." Missouri Western State College. Accessed Apr. 29, 2004: http://clearinghouse.mwsc.edu/manuscripts/70.asp

Harris, T.E. "Applied Organizational Communication: Perspectives,

Principles, and Pragmatics." Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1993.

Mortensen, C.D. & Sereno, K.K. "Foundations of Communication Theory." New York: Harper & Row, 1970.… [read more]

Communication Discussion Discuss One Principle Term Paper

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Explain what difference, if any, the practice of that principle has made for you? For anyone else?

For myself, respecting the differences of others has been a crucial advance in my hopefully life-long communication education. I am less apt to take diverse viewpoints as gestures of negativity than I was before. It is tempting, in a self-centered fashion, to assume because another person has a different point-of-view, or even a different lifestyle than you, that this is somehow a threat or a challenge to one's own set of core values. I have come to realize, slowly, through more effective communication, that even in a state of disagreement, I can still hold my own points-of-view without having to directly challenge or change the views of the other individual I am discussing them with.

Sometimes, the most effective way to truly change someone's mind is simply an exchange, rather than contention. The practice of respecting the diversity of viewpoints can be seen, when practiced in a positive light, to be an instrument of tolerance and peace, as is evidenced by its potential to be used during conflict mediation sessions between warring peoples during treaty negotiations, as well as negotiating on a personal level, between spouses, significant others, and friends and housemates, about issues of conflict around the world and around the home.

If you could change one piece of your communication personality, what would it be?

I think I have grown more aware of the importance of learning through diversity. However, on matters of personal excellence, I admit it is difficult to avoid being thin-skinned. Sometimes it is easier to debate an objective issue of politics or values, than to receive criticism about one's writing or one's academic performance. I wish, emotionally, I were less thin-skinned. Also, although criticism can be helpful, and remains a vital tool of learning, it can be difficult not to interpret fellow classmates feedback as negative responses.… [read more]

Communication Transactional Analysis Model Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (743 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Management must try not to evoke the controlling parent or adaptive child side of their employees' in order to keep communication channel opens and to avoid conflicts.


Verbal and nonverbal communication both form important parts of overall effective communication. While we are familiar with what is meant by verbal communication, it is the nonverbal communication that puzzles us since it can be ambiguous in nature causing conflict and confusion. Verbal communication refers to communication that makes use of a language that two people understand. Nonverbal on the other hand refers to cues, symbols and signals that people may make use of in place of verbal communication but mostly to augment verbal messages. LAUREL J. DUNN (1998) defines as the "mode for conveying messages without the use of verbal language. It may enhance or detract from a verbal communication. It regulates relationships by affecting the likelihood of introduction and continued interaction. We are able to infer emotion through nonverbal communication and influence other's perception of our competence, power and vulnerability. It also plays a role in the perception of the actual message we are trying to convey."

Verbal messages can be enhanced or made more effective with the help of nonverbal communication. For example when an employee does his work well and requires positive reinforcement, it is important to mix verbal message with some nonverbal signal such as a pat on the shoulder or a thumbs-up. This gesture strengthens verbal message and makes it more effective. However when not used properly, nonverbal communication can contradict a verbal message instead of reinforcing it. These messages are usually interpreted in relation to verbal ones. In short, both verbal and nonverbal communication play important role in making organization communication effective. If we want to avoid organizational conflicts that arise from misunderstanding and misinterpreting different messages, it is important to understand the significance of both verbal and nonverbal communication and the effect one has on the other.


James, Muriel: Transactional Analysis for Moms and Dads. Addison-Wesley. Reading, 1974

Laurel J. Dunn Communication: Information Conveyed Through The Use Of Body Language, Department Of Psychology, Missouri Western…… [read more]

Nonverbal Communication Interpersonal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,289 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


There is evidence that overweight people have less of a chance of success than thinner people, who are perceived as more attractive.

According to Borrell (2003), studies suggest that colleges discriminate against overweight people. Obese high school students are less likely to be accepted into a prestigious college than normal weight students of equal intelligence. In addition, overweight people may be discriminated against on the job. In a recent study, employers rated obese employees as less desirable when compared to normal weight employees of equal ability.

Obese job applicants are often perceived as having poorer work habits, higher absences, and more likely to get ill than thinner applicants (Borrell, 2003). After watching videotaped job interviews of several applicants with equal qualifications, people rated obese applicants as: less qualified; less likely to be hired; having poorer work habits; more likely to fake an illness and stay home from work; more likely to have emotional problems; and more likely to have problems with coworkers.

According to Borrell, "44% of employers said they would not hire an obese person under some circumstances; another 16% said they would not hire an obese person under any circumstance."

The nonverbal implications associated with overweight people extend to social settings, as well as business ones. There is a discrimination against overweight people when it comes to finding a suitable husband or wife. Studies show that obese women in their 20's are 20% less likely to be married than normal weight women. Obese men of the same age were 11% less likely to be married. According to Borrell, "college students would rather marry a cocaine user, a shoplifter, and a communist before they would marry an obese person."

Due to the fact that many overweight people suffer from low self-esteem and poor body image, their body language can work against them. Body language can "speak" volumes and potentially lead to miscommunication in both social and business settings. For example, a person who is ashamed of their physical appearance may have poor posture and slouch during a job interview. This may lead potential employers to believe that the person lacks self-confidence.

Ineffective nonverbal communication presents challenges in all areas of life. After obtaining a job, overweight people who have nonverbal communication may have difficulties following instructions, staying on task, accepting feedback, planning ahead, and demonstrating socially acceptable work behaviors due to others' perceptions of them.

In addition, obese people must worry about another potent form of human nonverbal communication -- smell. Obese people may be more likely to perspire or develop foul odors, which will undoubtedly cause harm to their social and professional lives.


The human body involved in nearly all methods of communication. The body has symbolic meaning to the owners and to others who observe it. When developing body image, people create meanings for their bodies as part of the way they experience the world. People evaluate their bodies, thinking of them as obese or thin, pretty or ugly, and more. Psychological, social and cultural meanings… [read more]

Communication Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,063 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


76). For instance, in the workplace, an employee pondering of a problem might cause a boss to say, "You do not look busy." Upon hearing this, the employee may interpret this to mean he/she is not working hard enough and get upset. This is a misconception of non-verbal messages. As a result of this, people need to watch not only the words and phrases they use, but also the tone of their voice.. An employee should consider the tone of their message, whether depending on who they are speaking to and when.. Tone is present in all communication activities. Ultimately, the tone of a message is a reflection of the speaker and it does affect how the listener will perceive the message. Tone can sometimes be difficult to consider when it is presented over a technological medium. Unarguably, however, tone can be presented via writing an e-mail message, over the phone, or through a video conference. It is still possible to express tone while using a form of technology.

Alongside tone, word choice also indicates how a message will be translated. In the working world, word choice has two objectives:

Communicating clearly and completely the specific goal of the message

Projecting the goodwill aspect of the speaker through the tone and phrasing of the chosen words

Care in word choice helps us adapt the message to the listerner and reduces the chance of miscommunication. Imporper word choice will lead to the unfornate opposite result -- miscommunication and problems within the conversation, and probably within the company itself.

Word choice can also come through when using technology. Word choice also affects writing, as well as speaking. Diction, we call it when using the written word, comes through strongly depending on what words the author uses. Hence, technology can also be used in this accoung. (http://carerrs.usatoday.com/service/usa/national/conetent/exper/dailygrind/2002-03-18-ge).

The way a listener percieves language can often depend on the listener's own previous experiences, as well as the way the speaker presents himself or herself. The listener percieves the speaker by examining word choice, verbal communication, and tone, and comes to conlcusions about the speaker and about the speaker's comments as they flow. The way in which tone, verbal communication, and word choice are presented often affect whether or not the message motivates or creates a negative message. If, for example, the speaker uses a negative tone and a pessimistic word choice, chances are that his or her message will not motivate. On the other hand, if the speaker uses a more upbeat word choice alonside an upbeat tone, he or she will be more likely to motivate. If motivation is the key goal, then one must choose his or her communication style very carefully. One ill-fated expression of tone is enough to unmotivate almost any individual.

Works Cited

Alder, J (1999). Work and Communication. New York: NYU Press 2000.

A http://carerrs.usatoday.com/service/usa/national/conetent/exper/dailygrind/2002-03-18-ge http://cicero.com.alma.edu/communication/303wi99/students/novak/anfp2.htm… [read more]

Customer Service, Communication Theory Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,887 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


Interpersonal Communication

Communication consists of the following elements: sender, message, feedback, channel, encoding, decoding and receiver (Chand, 2015). Interpersonal communication refers to communication that takes place between two or more people, using implying communication in person, without media. Each of these elements plays a critical role in successful communication. Each communication has a specific message that the sender intends the… [read more]

Use of AAC to Enhance Communication Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,737 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Augmentative and Alternative Therapy

Calculator, S.N. (2014). Parents' Perceptions of Communication Patterns and Effectiveness of Use of Augmentative and Alternative Communication Systems by Their Children with Angelman Syndrome. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 23(4), 562-573. Doi: 10.1044/2014


Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurogenetic syndrome that emanates from deficient manifestation of the UBE3A gene; as a result, there are different… [read more]

Effective Communication Strategies Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (774 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The experience was life changing as it was conducted professionally, and the interview panel was too rigid. The panelists can give the candidate a feeling of uneasiness, which reduces the candidate's confidence (Macan & Merritt, 2011). I had positive energy, it was hard to remain positive all the time, and the panelists did not affect my confidence level.

The positives of the interview process were the fact that the principal was part of the panel and they continuously reassured me in regards to my answers. The panelists focused mainly on my character as well as on my qualifications, which allowed me to not only demonstrate my education, but also my character. However, the panelists were not clear in their questions, and I had to seek clarification many times. The panelists seemed unprepared for the interview process. This is because they kept shuffling through papers for them to get my CV and certificate copies. The interview was conducted in a hall, which made it hard to communicate with the panelists. There were constant interruptions, which would break a candidate's concentration.

As the principal, the first thing I would change is the location for the interview. This would ensure that the location is secluded, and there are no interruptions. The questions asked by the interview panel should be clear and concise (Guion, Diehl, & McDonald, 2011), which would allow a candidate to answer each question without seeking clarification. Early preparation of the panelists to ensure that they are prepared for the process. If the panelists are prepared, they will have all the documents they need in front of them, and they will not have to keep searching for them amongst their files. As the principal, I would try to make the candidate as calm as possible by giving them reassuring messages during the process.


Conrad, C., & Poole, M.S. (2011). Strategic organizational communication: in a global economy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Guion, L.A., Diehl, D.C., & McDonald, D. (2011). Conducting an in-depth interview.

Macan, T., & Merritt, S. (2011). Actions speak too: Uncovering possible implicit and explicit discrimination in the employment interview process. International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology 2011, Volume 26, 293-337.

Ord, T.J., Charles, G.K., & Hofer, R.K. (2011). The evolution of alternative adaptive strategies for effective communication in noisy…… [read more]

Putting Your Best Voice Forward Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (677 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Be sure to limit your research to the most salient points of the talk as your focus is to compress the information while retaining information that is both factual and interesting. You should be on the lookout for stories that capture the essence of your topic and that are sufficiently relevant to enable your audience to relate to your message in a positive or poignant way.

Preparing And Organizing The Speech

It is always a good idea to have notes or notecards to which you can refer during your talk. You will want to avoid memorizing your speech, but it is helpful to practice the transitions between the major points as these are often difficult to accomplish smoothly without some rehearsal. Timing your speech is crucial. The best way to do this is to set a stopwatch or a timer for the designated number of minutes that you anticipate your speech will take, or for the time that you have actually been allotted. Practice your speech aloud. You can practice your speech privately, but you will benefit more from rehearsing the speech aloud in front of a supportive person, preferably someone who has the same or similar degree of knowledge about your topic as your eventual audience is likely to possess. Your practice audience can provide feedback that may help you strengthen your speech, so be sure to invite them to make comments.

Making It Interesting

Select or develop interesting visual aids that can enhance your presentation. If you include visuals in your speech, chances are you will be more interested in your own talk, and so will be more enthusiastic and dynamic in your presentation. Enthusiasm for a topic is contagious and will go along ways toward getting the audience on your side.


Bovee, C.L. (2003). Contemporary Public Speaking (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Collegiate Press.

Gardner, J.N. And Jewler, A.J. (2002). Your College Experience. Boston, MA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.… [read more]

Nonverbal Behavior Has James Made? Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (725 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


As James enters the office, Bob does not give him time, instead he quickly approaches him that he was late and therefore, the order had already been placed with his competitor. I think this response comes too quickly and so does not give James a chance of defending himself to tell Bob why he was late.

Touch-People communicate a great deal through touch. In this case, when James enters Bobs' office, he finds Bob sited with his arms and legs crossed. Bob did not bother standing up to give James a handshake, instead James walked around Bob's desk to extend his hand. I think this was not appropriate because it made James to feel uncomfortable and so there was something wrong.

Rewrite the dialogue to show how you think James should have handled matters

When told by Bob that an order had been placed with another competitor, James would have not overreacted about it; instead he should have just understood everything. Crossing his arms and legs along with increasing his voice in pitch showed that he was pissed off, and therefore he thinks he was the right person to be given that tender. James tells Bob that they have lowered Appleton's prices by 10 to 20%, although he did not give Bob time to comment about it, and so he starts buttoning his coat ah he rise up to leave.

Include at least 3 new nonverbal behaviors from either James or Bob

Use of gestures- Both James and Bob use gestures in their conversations.

Paralinguistic- the use of tone voice is only identified with James. For instance, James' voice changes in speed and pitch after he was told that an order had already been placed.

Body Language and Posture- Posture and movement can convey a great deal on information (Hallett, 2014). For instance, both James and Bob cross their arms and legs while talking to one another.


Cherry, K. (2014). Types of Nonverbal Communication. Major Nonverbal Beahviors. Retrieved July 20, 2014, from http://psychology.about.com/od/nonverbalcommunication/a/nonverbaltypes.htmFind a website by URL or keyword...

Hallett, T. (2014). Body Language: Understanding Non-Verbal Communication. Body Language. Retrieved July 20, 2014, from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/Body_Language.htm… [read more]

Communication Friendship Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (685 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


From this premise, he would sometimes attempt to encourage me to talk about any negativity I am experiencing. I experience this as pressure, which would drive me further into my thoughts rather than the intended effect, which is to get me to talk about my issues and remove the negativity. This would sometimes cause friction and a negative communication climate in our relationship.

After the reading, I have decided to improve these cases of negativity by engaging in more self-disclosure. According to the social penetration theory, self-disclosure is an aspect of communication that especially contributes to relationship development. To ensure both our current and future communications, I will therefore make a conscious attempt to suspend some of my tendency towards privacy in the interest of a more trusting relationship with Andrew.

This will form part of my strategies to ensure closeness for me and Andrew. One of the current strategies I use to ensure closeness between me and Andrew is spending a large amount of time together. During these times, I make sure that I suggest activities I know we both enjoy, such as films or video games.

After reading the chapter, one of the strategies I will use to ensure future closeness between me and Andrew will be to confide in him more. As mentioned, I am not naturally trusting in nature, and I prefer to keep my personal life as private as possible. However, in a close relationship like the one I have with Andrew, I will have to be more self-disclosing to ensure that Andrew and I have the same level of trust towards each other.

In conclusion, the reading has made me fully aware of the potential for growth in my friendship with Andrew. I will have to make some modifications to my behavior if I am to ensure that Andrew and I remain close as friends. If I can manage this, our connection and relationship will evolve in the future to become one of the most permanent and fulfilling relationships I have.… [read more]

Public School Leadership Begins With Good Communication Skills Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (668 words)
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My strength has always been in my ability to listen to others, to research important points of the upcoming discussion before I get into it, and communicate my thoughts and values based on what I see needs to be done or changed in a public school.

When it comes to goal-setting for a school, who should decide what goals the school will pursue? The answer is that every human being on that campus, including custodians (because when they feel like they are actually a part of the school community, they will perform better), should be in on the process.

When the administration -- in collaboration with faculty, students and parents -- decides to set goals for a school in the fall, good communication will help to establish the value of setting goals. Administrators should meet with students in every classroom and fully explain the value a high quality school brings to families and to the community, and that vision, once communicated, inspires students to arrive at their own ideas about what they want to accomplish.

My philosophy is that learning is a shared responsibility and when good communication is practiced and taught by the principal and his administrative staff, the administration in that context become more than leaders, they become role models.

A lot of deep theories and philosophical essays have been written about communication, but there really is nothing new under the sun when it comes to practicing worthy, powerful communication in a public school setting. It works, if it's done correctly.… [read more]

Oral Communications (Chapter Summary) Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (961 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Communicators are also advised to underline the important information. All the information presented must be documented by making copies and preparing the pages by clipping them (May & May 2012).

Presentation and body contact

The extract further specifies the necessity of being acquainted with the presentation strategy. In this case, the communicator is obliged to practice the speech thoroughly. In order to accomplish this, the extract specifies the necessity of re-reading the speech loudly but privately. This can be achieved if the communicator specifies private secessions for speech practicing. The communicator should also be familiar with time management, and the equipments / devices to be applied in the presentation. This is always done before the presentation (May & May 2012).

As advised, the extract specifies that a good communicator should not attempt to memorize a speech.

The authors have also emphasized on the importance of pre-presentation preparation. In any case, the communicator must make a prior arrangement of the room and check whether all equipments are in place. The room must be prepared earlier before the actual speech day. Secondly, the communicator must ensure that personal appearance appeals to the audience. Dressing in this case must always present a professional corporate outlook. Besides, the communicator must have superior communication skills. Proper eye contact, voice, and body movements are collective considerations that explain the professional level of the communicator. The extract also specifies that the communicator should develop fear management techniques. Therefore, the communicators must ensure the proper orientation of emotional energy. Emotional energy should be directed to ensure that the communicator is energetic, enthusiastic, and convincing. Stage management can be achieved when communicators appreciate their oratory skills, preparing well in advance, and acquainting themselves the materials present.

Special Considerations in Presentations of Financial Information and a Final Word

This part is integral because it explains the clarity of data. The communicator must ensure that presentation that encompasses numbers and tabular data is appropriately presented. Firstly, it is necessary to ensure that the numbers are consistent. Efficiency in communication is achieved by avoiding several revisions and data degeneration. Secondly, the communicators must also ensure that the numbers add up together. This is accomplished via proper development of financial statements. It is also important to ensure that the audience can read the chart and other statistical information. The authors have emphasized that the audience may read data from a computer aided system like Microsoft PowerPoint and projected to a visible platform. Besides, the communicator must research widely regarding positive communication methods (May & May 2012).


This analysis has attempted to establish the imperativeness of planning for a presentation. In this description, planning appropriately for a presentation is essential. Besides, the role played by body language and increased confidence levels minimizes fright incidences during a presentation.


May, C, & May, G.S. (2012). Effective Writing: A Handbook…… [read more]

Proj Management 7.2A Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (942 words)
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There is no time to start instilling this honest communication than the present -- don't guess why Randy did that, ask him.

II. I do not entirely agree with this. First, catered affairs are loaded -- if you are going to do it, do it right. Make sure the food is high quality, because serving lousy food is a great way to disengage the employees. Serve the good stuff and get their attention. But I actually do not think that such meetings encourage honest communication. They encourage many things -- sycophantic communication, and all other sorts of positive communication, but there are few employees who feel that a public setting is the time and place to challenge their bosses, especially in front of other C-suiters. Most executives can't handle the ego shot that comes from being challenged in front of their peers, and most employees are risk averse with respect to communication with senior managers. There are ways to encourage honest communication with the higher-ups, but this is not one of them.

III. As I said earlier, I cannot agree with speculating about Randy's motives for increasing the specs to 32 hours. I would ask Randy, rather than guessing about what he was thinking. We are trying to build a culture of honest communication, and putting words into other people's mouths is not a good way to start with that. In this case, I agree that there is a communication problem and there is probably also a problem with workload for some members. Programming requires a lot of focus, so juggling multiple tasks is clearly slowing people down. If Sid or Randy has a backlog, then that is something where, yes, there can be collaboration between the workers to help ease one worker's backlog. However, the issue could also be skill sets, where Randy or Sid or whoever is overworked because he/she has unique skills. Thus the backlog might not be related to communication but rather related to skills and training. The backlog is only a symptom, and at this point we can only speculate as to the actual root problem. The role of Judy here is not to speculate but to investigate and find out for herself what the real problems are. She is just now learning that there are problems, so before solving them she should take the time to properly understand the problems at their root level, not just the symptom level. Communication is clearly lacking, and Judy needs to spearhead the resolution of the communication problem by engaging in much more communication herself, speaking to the team members individually and then as a group to bring these issues to the fore and get to the root(s) of the problem.… [read more]

External Communications, Internal Book Review

Book Review  |  2 pages (416 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



Memoranda and other communications are increasingly being replaced or supplemented by e-mail. Like memoranda, the length of emails also varies depending on the nature of the content, and can range from a brief paragraph or two to several pages. The same principles that apply to effective memorandum writing also apply to e-mail, with some additional factors that should be taken into account, including the following:

1. Write a strong subject line;

2. Put important ideas first;

3. Use conventional grammar and mechanics;

4. Address messages carefully;

5. Compose the message as if it will be read by everyone;

6. Remember that there are no "off-the-record" e-mails;

7. Avoid sending junk e-mails; and,

8. Some kinds of messages are better delivered in person.

Text Messaging

Despite its increasing popularity, text messaging remains of limited application to most business settings but when it is used, practitioners should follow the same principles as with e-mails to ensure that unintended communications are not included and the content is appropriate for the intended purpose. An important point made in this chapter was that like e-mails, text messages are stored and can be retrieved at a later…… [read more]

Improving a Personal Relationship Identifying Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,510 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


13). Better (confirming) communication climates arise from better understanding, and appreciation of dialectics. This is so because our attitude towards dialectics determines the type of communication we use, which in turn, determines the communication climate in our interactions. Therefore, the type (form) of communication chosen is a fundamental determinant of the overall communication climate. I will limit myself to three… [read more]

Excellence in the Workplace Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (621 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Any communication of course entails messages sent and messages received. The actual sending of a message involved "encoding" that message with both verbal and non-verbal cues; and the receipt of a message requires the receiver to decode the message. When a person is sending his or her message, and the receiver looks at a wrist watch, for example, that is a classic non-verbal cue that the communication isn't being received anymore (or the receiver is distracted), Quintanilla continues. Indeed, body language sends strong signals (feedback). That non-verbal cue (looking at a wrist watch) is called "feedback," and the message in this case (verbal) is the "channel" through which the communication was launched. In other words, feedback isn't always given using spoken language; a frown denotes disinterest or disapproval of the message, and when the receiver is fidgeting with a pen, that's a sign the communication is not being reciprocated.

Other channels are of course an email, a snail-mail letter, a text message, and it is up to the sender to determine which channel is the most appropriate for any given attempt at communication. "Vocalics" refers to how people use their voices in communication, the authors explain, and they are basically alluding to the "tone of voice" used. An angry teacher will certainly use a stronger tone of voice when he or she senses the class is out of control. The space between the sender and the receiver is known as "proxemics"; for example, in a business environment the sender could offend the potential receiver if he or she stands too close during the communication, Quintanilla explains. Also, "haptics" in the communication milieu refers to "touch"; a good, firm handshake in a business environment is essential to "making a good first impression," the authors…… [read more]

Letter of Recommendation Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,493 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


This enhances one's capability to begin and handle transformation. Within the collaborative team, acquiring an optimistic attitude including the influence change seems to have on other people plays a role in efficient conflict management as well as handling of arguments; i.e., having the ability to negotiate, meet half way, and looking for the very best options that yield good results… [read more]

Interpersonal Rel in the Preface Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,727 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Listening is often a biased process. We select that which we want to hear, discarding the rest. Some of us do this to favor our self-concept, as when a person offers criticism and we refuse to listen or acknowledge what they are saying. Sometimes, though, the opposite occurs. We only hear the negative aspects of what the person is saying and we may react accordingly. It is important to keep in mind the toxic emotions that come up when we hear things that we do not want to hear, and it is critical to get clarity.

Interpersonal communication is integral to personal and professional life, and is an inescapable area of study. Whether encountered in a formal way, as through research, or in an informal way, as through learning via my culture, interpersonal communication studies will be an ongoing life issue for me. As I travel more and learn about different cultures, I will apply my knowledge of the issues that facilitate good communication vs. The issues that can impede communication. Research is revealing ways that human beings can contend with the most challenging interpersonal issues, as better communication will make the world a better place.


King, D. (2000). Four principles of interpersonal communication. Retrieved online: http://www.pstcc.edu/facstaff/dking/interpr.htm

McCornack, S. (2010). Reflect and Relate. Bedford/St. Martin's.… [read more]

Starting Point Carol Delaney's Dictum That Anthropology Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,872 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … starting point Carol Delaney's dictum that anthropology is an experiential venture, set out to be an anthropologist for a short time. Take one (or more) of the themes we discussed in class so far: time, space, language. Choose an appropriate subject for observation and analysis (an object, a place, a person, a group, a sound, a text) available… [read more]

Relational Discourse in a Film Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,622 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Meta communication

Based on DeVito, metacommunication has been "communication which describes many other communications" (2001, p. 136). Quite simply, metacommunication has been making reference to communication. For instance, if two couples sit back to speak about a disagreement they just experienced, they have been metacommunicating due to the fact they have been referring to the conversation that occurred within the… [read more]

Law Enforcement Communications Interoperability Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (621 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


A federally led mandate of communication equipment standards may be the best path to achieving greater inoperability amongst services, as well as ensuring a sufficient market for industry to deliver a customized solution.

The solution to the problem of one piece of an equipment able to cover all the varied wavelengths could be solved by standardizing to a single wavelength for emergencies that require collaboration. Localized responses should enable officers to switch frequencies to a reserved band for large-scale emergencies, while still retaining the more commonly used channels for more routine communication. A single use channel for large-scale emergencies ensures that communication clutter and overload does not erode effectiveness.

Although no solution is readily available, a five or ten-year mandate for communication upgrade, as well as a grant program, would ensure that departments begin upgrading and converting to tools that are capable of dealing with the threats to safety encountered today. The video notes that outfitting an ambulance with as many as seven radios can exceed the cost of the vehicle itself (U.S. Dept. Of Justice). While the aggregate cost of upgrading to a standardized set of communication equipment may be daunting, the potential savings may offset much of the cost. Upgrading through attrition also allows the private sector to deliver solutions that may mitigate costs, as well as soften the burden on local emergency services. All equipment eventually wears out, therefore a federal mandate with a time frame for full implementation would go a long way in addressing the communication bottleneck that may cost lives and loss of property.

Works Cited

U.S. Dept. Of Justice. (n.d.). Why Can't We Talk? When Lives Are At Stake. Retrieved 26 Oct., 2012, from Google Videos Web site: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-6455322945171664950&hl=en… [read more]

English Outcome Learning Outcomes Participation Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  2 pages (536 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Accurate summarizations, conversational references, and critical writing of these complex texts are all practiced and honed through this course, and through development of the knowledge and skills necessary to communicate an understanding of these texts greater conceptual understanding is reached. The major practical outcome of this capability is the increased ability to communicate complex information both verbally and in writing in a manner that is understandable and analytical. This has many practical benefits in the military, as concise yet detailed reporting accomplished rapidly through various communication media is required in almost all positions.

The development of persuasive strategies targeting different audiences with varying levels of knowledge and understanding in a given area is also an important learning outcome of this course. Persuasion is much more easily achieved when the arguments and language used are specific to the target audience, such that times is not wasted in explanation for those with a developed understanding of a topic while laypersons receive communication that is informative enough to support understanding. The outlining process is one practical tool that helps to develop this skill for written texts as well as those that will be delivered in a speech or public speaking setting, and the course provides familiarity with different outlining methods to assist in the creation of target-specific language and overall text structures. Persuasion is a useful skill in any setting, and the ability to communicate in a way that presents information in an effective manner can lead to advancement in any career.… [read more]

Business Skills -- Personal Evaluation Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  3 pages (870 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Typically, lay audiences require more extensive introductory sections than expert audiences.

• The objective evidence available to support these conclusions includes my successful completion of Tab C-1, English 101 Essay and of Tab C-2, U.S. Army Contracting Recommendation Slides.

Outcome 2 -- Demonstrate introductory college-level proficiency in one or more of the subject areas in mathematics and/or natural sciences.

• I have learned how to use the scientific method to engage in problem-solving in a process that can deduce logical answers to questions about the natural world. For example, in the scientific disciplines, I have learned how to apply the scientific method to formulate testable hypotheses consisting of multiple variables in a systematic problem-solving process. That includes understanding the difference between independent and dependent variables. I have learned how to distinguish testable hypotheses from un-testable (i.e. non-scientific) hypotheses and to use the process of scientific experimentation to construct relevant experiments using dependant and independent variables for the purpose of testing to confirm or to disprove specific hypotheses. This skill has proven useful in non-academic areas as well, because the scientific method actually provides an effective means of answering questions and of excluding illogical conclusions from any given set of factual circumstances.

• I have learned to search online databases to identify relevant literature within legitimate, peer-reviewed journal articles with relevant information to scientific inquiries. That includes learning fundamentally different ways of communicating about scientific subjects depending on whether my audience consists of laypeople or scientific colleagues. When communicating with expert audiences, I know that I can delve into the details and finer points of the topic, whereas with less-knowledgeable audiences, I know that I must present a much more gradual transition from the forest to the leaves. That is important because I have discovered that preparing to deliver communications to audiences of different levels of understanding requires an entirely different process of information gathering, organizing, and presenting.

• The objective evidence available to support these conclusions includes my successful completion of Tab C-2, Geology Lab Project.

Outcome 3 -- Demonstrate introductory college-level proficiency in one or more of the social sciences.

• I have learned to engage in a critical assessment process to distinguish reliable, objective, and credible news sources from unreliable, subjective, and biased sources of news. I have learned how to identify potential inaccuracies and sources of bias in unfamiliar news and information sources. That enables me to examine and cross-reference a wide range of information sources in print and online and to review them critically to determine whether they are… [read more]

Sensation and Perception What Experiment A-Level Coursework

A-Level Coursework  |  3 pages (1,111 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


A poll by the Harris Interactive revealed that 47% of teens say their social lives would "deteriorate" or "simply end" without a phone to text with. So the point is teens think they don't need to have face-to-face conversations as long as they can punch the letters on their phone and get a quick response on the screen of the phone.

Psychologist Sherry Turkle's book (Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other) reflects the author's fear that "electronic communication for some can compromise the ability of having a real conversation and to reflect when you're alone" (Turkle, 2011). Moreover, the younger generation in particular is giving human qualities to digital devices and as a result, we're treating other humans as "things," Turkle writes (Goldsborough, 2012). It is also disconcerting for adults that are in the psychology field studying communication when they discover what teens are texting back and forth include "wat's up" and "hangin'" -- about as mindless as a child lashing out at the air with fists when frustrated. What might the future hold? The teen dream is to have cell phones in the shape of sunglasses with software that will let them text without disturbing their ability to "hang out."

THREE: Can we trust our eyes and ears? Can visual perception be fooled?

Certainly people can be fooled by what they think they see, and moreover, when it comes to eye witnesses for a crime, each person is known to see something a little different than what others see. When a courtroom is in the midst of a trial and eyewitnesses are giving testimony, there can be sharp differences between what one person believes he saw and what another person saw. Indeed many people experience what is called "inattention blindness," and this is also what happens when drivers are on cell phones; people driving and talking on the phone have their eyes fixed on an object ahead and yet they don't see the child's tricycle in the road in front of the car. There are some people with the ability to focus attention on the road and all its hazards -- and still be on an important long distance phone call relating to their business investments -- but psychologists have researched this issue and found that conversations distract many people and they should not be on the phone while driving. A red light suddenly turning green can be easily missed by the driver on the phone who is experiencing inattention blindness.

The answer to the question is no, we cannot trust our eyes and our ears, especially when we are engaged in digital communication while attempting to multitask. Trying to solve a math problem while attempting to remember what you were supposed to get at the grocery store may be a lost moment. In conclusion, people who are living busy lives and feel they need to do several things at once should slow down, take one task at a time, and be… [read more]

Disaster Communication Safety International Disasters Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (860 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The agencies that are in place to offer support will not have important details regarding the precise nature of the disaster, the types of effects, the severity of the dangers, and other information necessary to properly prioritize and execute a rescue plan for those who need it.

Moreover, during disasters, a general reaction of the people affected is to panic. Panic hampers communication as well. People frozen with fear may have trouble calling out for help or responding when help arrives. People who have witnesses graphic events as a result of the disaster may be frozen with shock, unable to communicate their own injuries or the general situation their in for rescue workers and other forms of support. These are examples of ways that communication is impeded during disaster crises. These are also examples impeded communication has upon the rescue efforts during and after the disaster event.

After and in-between disasters are good times for communication among international disaster agencies. Most disasters are not predictable and some that do show signs of impending danger do not always provide adequate time for adequate disaster preparations such as relocation, evacuation, acquisition & distribution of disaster event supplies. Strong, multifaceted, and clearly defined communication channels within an agency and among agencies are critical to the provision of timely and appropriate disaster relief. In the 21st century, technology is an asset to exploit in this regard.

There are substantial and diverse challenges to the development and use of information and communication systems (ICS) in support of effective delivery of humanitarian relief during complex emergencies. These challenges generally go far beyond technology considerations and often relate to core organizational issues of mission, culture, environment, and communication…In order to reduce human suffering in the face of natural disasters and man-made emergencies, organizations need established communication channels, infrastructures, strategies, agreements, education, and training in place in order to adequately respond. The technology component is usually the easiest part. (Maiers et al., 2005,-Page 82)

Developing effective communication is not a matter of technology or matter of knowing the right language. It is a combination of factors that work together as a system. Focusing on communication should improve it such that the consequences of disasters can be mitigated as much as possible because of strong and clear communication among international disaster agencies.


Horsley, PhD, J.S. (2012). Planning for Spontaneity: The Challenges of Disaster Communication Fieldwork. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 11(3), 180 -- 194.

Maiers, C., Reynolds, M., & Haselhorn, M. (2005). Challenges to Effective Information and Communication Systems in Humanitarian Relief Organizations. IEEE…… [read more]

Annual Report Within the Context Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,139 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


These aspects, among others ultimately help contribute the concept of rudeness. This rudeness occurs by simply having a particular employee working more hours that he or she can physically perform. Rudeness becomes particularly profound when the individual is distressed and incurs feelings of fatigue. Job rudeness is due primarily to the continuing sense of frustration and tiredness. This often occurs when a person is dedicated to a career or cause and does not receive the rewards he or she expected. One cause of such rudeness is the time constraints embedded in the work environment. Employees have too much to do and too little time to do it. This, combined with an unpredictable day can contribute heavily to employee rudeness. In regards to age, gender, or socioeconomic status, this concept is true as well. Due to many of the aspects mentioned above, it is imperative for these groups to prevent rudeness by utilizing concepts that create balance and fulfillment within the work environment. Otherwise, the tendency for society to become consumed by their daily work duties will ultimately contribute heavily to their potential for rudeness (Cohen, 2006).

In regards to the effects of rudeness, there are some basic underlying principles that affect the recipient of it. Rudeness is unique as it can potentially destroy or erode strong and otherwise impenetrable relationships. This concept of destruction in regards to communication is very profound. Rudeness will create a sense of animosity and ill will on the part of the recipient of it. This ill will can manifest itself in many ways. Typically, these individuals simply act in a likewise manner back towards the original rude individual. This reciprocation theory only worsens the situation as two individuals develop animosity towards one another. Even more important is the psychological components of rudeness. Those perceived as being rude as all perceived as being elitist in nature. Society perceives these individuals as those who believe they are superior to society and therefore have a personal mandate to be rude to others. These self righteous individuals are therefore, through their own personal mandate, rude to those they believe are inferior or of lesser quality. This self righteous mentality only denigrates the nature of communication. Communication is intended to be a two way method in which to exchange ideas and concepts. However, through rudeness, it becomes merely a tool in which an individual can showcase his self-righteous and self proclaimed status.

In conclusion the causes and effects of rudeness are very profound. On the cause side, many unintended consequences arise simply from the misinterpretation of meaning. These misinterpretations often elude the perception of rudeness even when the original sender did not intend to be so. Work environment and to a lesser extent, the economy are also causes of rudeness as individuals are working in undesirable positions. In regards to effects, the main effect is the determination of the relationships between both parties. This effect often leads to broken relationship and broken channels of communication. All in all, rudeness has… [read more]

Team Norms, Author Karten ) Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,096 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


These communication norms will respond to the need of team members to not feel detached and isolated from their own team, considering the nature of virtual teams (Kirkman, 2002:par. 25). Technology must be optimized to include applications that would make interactions among the members of the virtual team more interactive and real-life. Managers or leaders of these virtual teams must use efficiently simulated technologies to facilitate the smooth transmission and enactment of these communication norms. Without an efficient technology running among virtual teams, communication norms that seek to recognize the team members, their performance, and their issues will be rendered weak or at times, meaningless.

Task norms must be implemented as well as a complement to the communication norms of virtual teams. Not unlike communication norms, the task norms must also mimic naturally-occurring interactions and transactions that take place in "real life." Task norms to be established should be the following: (1) taking ownership of one's role and responsibilities; (2) exertion of effort in performing one's role in the team; (3) person-job and person-team fit; (4) flexibility; and (5) sensitivity to the needs of other team members.

The first and second task norms, taking ownership and exertion of effort in job performance are norms that are commonly implemented in all organized teams, whether these teams are virtual or not virtual. Third to fifth task norms, meanwhile, are especially important in virtual team management because of their specificity to the nature of interaction among members. In a virtual team, the member's fit to the job is not the only determinant in promoting team norms; more importantly, the person's fit to the team is sometimes the major and only determinant that will help the successful establishment of a team's norms. Further, team members must exercise flexibility because of the varying nature of communication that occurs in online interaction: textual only, audio-visual, or a combination of textual-audio-visual. Lastly, sensitivity to the needs of other members is a required norm because virtual teams have a "low-touch" interaction level, therefore there is a constant need to affirm and re-affirm to the virtual team a member's feelings and issues.

Given these proposed communication and task norms in virtual teams, there is a need to develop an action plan to effectively implement these norms. It is suggested that communication norms be developed as a "credo" that members must adhere to. Similarly, task norms must be the team's work ethic principles that they must know and imbibe as they go through their daily work and interactions as virtual teams. Both strategies will help institutionalize these norms. To further encourage institutionalization of these norms, members must take part in memorizing and constantly reminding each other about these communication and task norms as part of their daily work, especially when interacting or engaging with other virtual teams.


Karten, N. (2003). "Creating team norms." StickyMinds Website. Available at: http://www.stickyminds.com/sitewide.asp?Function=edetail&ObjectType=COL&ObjectId=6736

Kirkman, B. (2002). "Five challenges to virtual team success: Lessons from Sabre, Inc." Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 16, Issue 3.… [read more]

Managing Conflict Through Communication Why Is Creativity Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  1 pages (348 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Managing Conflict Through Communication

Why is Creativity Important in Conflict Management?

Creativity is important in conflict management for a variety of reasons. The most important of these reasons is that it helps conflicts come to equitable, mutually beneficial conclusions much more quickly when creativity is used. Most of us are conditioned to go on the defensive when handling conflicts. This always puts us in an adversarial position to the other person and them to us. If both parties in a conflict are in adversarial positions, they will have a hard time coming to a pleasant conclusion to the conflict. Each will be pushing the other to give in, which will only create feelings of resentment on both sides. Either one party will give in and feel angry about it, or neither will give in and the relationship between the two parties will be damaged or broken. Neither is a good outcome.

However, if creativity is used in conflict management, things can be much different. A creative person will look at all possible angles of…… [read more]

Interpersonal Communication the Relationship Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (689 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Interpersonal Communication

The relationship that I am going to discuss is my relationship with my romantic partner. We are in a long-term romantic relationship, past the first stages of falling in love, and while our relationship is, at times, intensely private, it is, at other times, somewhat akin to a business partnership. How we interact when we are with each other impact our interactions with the public at large. As a result, while I would primarily characterize our relationship as a private one, it certainly has public functions.

For example, on many levels I feel as if my partner is irreplaceable. I have never in my life met someone with the same set of characteristics who was able to consistently illicit the same feelings from me. However, that feeling has certainly fluctuated over time. I began the relationship thinking that my partner was interchangeable, not with just any substitute person, but with the attitude that there were plenty of fish in the sea if our relationship did not flourish. Moreover, having observed some serious relationship problems in the past, there are still parts of me that know my partner is, in many ways, replaceable. If we break up, I will be heartbroken, but I will find love again. That new partner will not be the same as my current partner, but I will not be alone forever. One of the skills that I have learned in my relationship is that I can appropriately value my partner as a unique human being whom I appreciate having in my life without taking the fatalistic approach that love would end without him.

In my relationship, we are both interdependent and fiercely autonomous. For example, our daily lives are very interdependent. We eat meals together and I am the cook; I fear he would starve if I were to refuse to cook for him. He changes the light bulbs, and I literally rattle around in a dark room and wait for him to change the light bulb rather than do it myself. On the other hand, both of…… [read more]

Women Want Is an American Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,651 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


A second personal space violation between Alex and Nick occurred when Alex was dumped by her boyfriend at the prom. Although she invited her father to 'rescue' her while she was in the bathroom crying, she protested when he wanted to see her in the stall. She willingly invited him into the girls bathroom, which for many would be a societal violation of personal space; however, she reasserted the need for personal space when he attempted to enter the stall she was in.


As evidenced by the aforementioned the interpersonal communication characteristics of relational development, self-disclosure and personal space have been examined as they relate to the movie "What Women Want." Although the movie was a romantic comedy, the interactions between males and females and the use of humor provide some insight into human relations. The uncertainties that exist upon initial meeting as evidenced particularly by the relationship between Nick and Darcy, and articulated by the uncertainty response theory bespeak the initial impressions and assumptions made when strangers meet. The power of first impressions can truly determine if a relationship will ensue and both parties can participate in the determination of that relationship. Secondly, self-disclosure is a powerful interpersonal communication tool and reveals the most about the individual only in as much as the individual is willing to personally share in the present. Lastly, personal space in interpersonal communication is a societal determinant that provides general guidelines as to how communication between individuals should transpire. It is important to note, however, that rules regarding personal space can and do fluctuate and are contingent about the situational variables that can and do affect it.


Baxter, J. (1970). Interpersonal spacing in natural settings. Sociometry, 33, 444-456.

Berger, C., & Calabrese, R. (1975). Some exploration in initial interaction and beyond: toward a development theory of communication. Human Communication Research, 1, 99-112.

Felipe, N., & Sommer, R. (1966). Invasions of personal space. Social Problems, 14, 206-

Griffin, E. (2009). A first look at communication theory. 7th ed. New…… [read more]

Business Communications Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,529 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Once the meeting is over, is when they will go back to doing things individually. This is problematic, because it means that the team could have trouble maintaining and building any kind of momentum in achieving its different objectives. Once this takes place, it means that the odds will increase that there is the possibility that the team will only… [read more]

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