Study "Communication / Speech" Essays 56-110

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Reading Analysis Communication Assessment

… ¶ … Communication

The author defines communication as "the transmission of meaningful information from on person or group of persons to another person or group of persons." These messages generate "shared attitudes, values, beliefs, feelings, or behaviors between the sender and recipient" (p.8). The main strength of this definition is that it creates a very clear definition of a concept that can have very wide implications. This kind of focus, however, can also be a weakness. I think that claiming communication to be exclusively "personal," i.e. relating only to people, is somewhat narrow. Animals also communicate, both among themselves and with human beings. I do, however, agree that there needs to be both a sender and receiver for communication to occur.

2.

I once had a communication breakdown with a South African friend on Facebook. She told me that she would be "holding thumbs" for me. I did not understand why she would want to do that, but ignored it and carried on with the conversation. She cut off the conversation a little more quickly than I would have expected, and even seemed a little angry. When we connected next, I asked her if I had done something to offend her, and she explained that she was a little hurt that I simply ignored her wishing me luck. As it happened, "holding thumbs" in South African English is an idiomatic expression to wish a person the best or good luck on a venture.

3.

I must agree with the author on his assessment of the statement that "no people can see the same thing." The global nature of the statement makes it impossible to prove in any way. However, I also agree with the author that, even within a common understanding of a concept, idea, or vision, there are many different perspectives. So, if the statement were modified a little to acknowledge the existence of some commonality among human beings, it would not only be far more palatable, but also more realistic. In one sense, I agree that no two people see things in precisely the same way. However, meaningful and coherent communication would have been impossible without at least a few main common concepts.

CHAPTER 2

1.

Words are powerful indeed. We see this in both the grand scales of politics and the economy as well as in smaller-scale personal life. In politics, for example, a lie by a president can sweep an entire country into war in which millions die, many of whom are women and children. A lie by an investor can cause thousands of people to lose millions of dollars. In my own personal life, I have experienced the power of words in both positive and negative ways. A friend who says something simple like "you look nice today" elevated my mood for that entire day. On the other hand, hearing the word "unfortunately" at the start of any conversation makes me feel cold and anxious all over. James is right, although many do not seem… [read more]


Non-Verbal Communication Term Paper

… ¶ … non-verbal communication, which is one of the fields of social psychology. Social psychology is the branch of psychology that deals with the human behavior and actions in a social situation. However, nonverbal communication facilitates the experts of the… [read more]


Communication Apprehension Some People Essay

… Since I really try to avoid public speaking and talking in groups, I expected to see these kinds of numbers. Actually, I was a bit surprised that these were not higher, because there have been so many times where I have been fearful. These problems are most obvious during public speaking, where I have stammered, blushed, panicked, dropped note cards, and actually had to leave the room once. Naturally, this is not a healthy way to handle things and I realize that work needs to be done in order to help me be more successful at public speaking instead of being so afraid of the issue. Many people speak in public and survive without a problem, so there is no reason that I cannot use information found in the writings of DeFleur, Kearney, Plax, & DeFleur (2005) in order to make my life more comfortable and learn to speak bravely in public.

Meetings are also a problem, but they are not as much of an issue as being in front of a group of people. At least in meetings I am more likely to be able to hide away and not say as much, and all eyes are not on me. During times where everyone has given me their full attention during a meeting, I have had the same kind of issue arise as I have when I must speak in public in front of a group. I generally find a quick way to deflect the attention, but this does not always prove to be effective. When it is not effective, it becomes more awkward. Now that I am aware of the fact that my communication apprehension has been confirmed, I can focus on ways it can be lessened.

References

DeFleur, M.H., Kearney P., Plax, T., & DeFleur, M.L. (2005). Fundamentals of human communication (3rd ed). NY: McGraw-Hill.

McCroskey, J.C. (1982). An introduction to rhetorical…… [read more]


Life in College Throws Communication Challenges Essay

… Life in college throws communication challenges in my face the whole time. I have to learn how to deal with my classmates -- and some of them are a mixed bag. I have to learn how to communicate with my… [read more]


Communication Mental Health Nursing Essay

… For instance, a nurse should communicate with the patient in a way that he will feel being valued by her.

Kindness:

It refers to an act by a person of being kind.

For instance, doctors should communicate with their patients in a way that reflects their kindness.

Prejudice:

Prejudice refers to a judgment made in advance without having complete knowledge. Such type of judgments can easily be removed through communication.

Sensitivity:

It refers to a feeling of being sensitive or a situation when decisions need to be made carefully because people may react emotionally due to the results.

In communication, it is essential to consider the sensitivity of the situation in order to achieve the final goal.

Social exclusion:

This term refers to detaching the individuals of a society from their rights. For instance, education, housing, employment opportunities, training etc.

Stereotyping:

It refers to developing a prejudice due to a particular characteristic of a person, without having complete knowledge. This occurs when a person puts the other person in some category due to the common characteristic.

Nonverbal and verbal communication:

It is a type of communication in which words are not used as a tool for communication. Instead of this, nonverbal tools are used such as body language, gestures and postures, eye contact etc. In contrast to this, verbal communication refers to the use of language and sounds for communicating (Grimshaw & Hussain, pg. 101, 1997)

Para verbal communication:

Use of pitch and tone is referred as Para verbal communication. For example stressing on one specific word to clarify the meaning.

Diversity:

It refers to the difference in characteristics such as race, color, religion etc.

Managing to communicate with sensitivity and accuracy is not difficult and it can be done if a person understands the receiver from every perspective and then develops his idea of delivering the message accordingly. Communicating the right thing at the right time may also result in communicating with sensitivity (Grimshaw & Hussain, pg. 106, 1997).

References

Grimshaw, C., & Hussain, I. 1997. Communication. Chicago: World Book in association…… [read more]


Communication: Arguments Essay

… S. based on their community values, usages, and the way the community perceives communication in the U.S. Thus communities develop languages based on their levels of growth. The important fact is that while the U.S. is a developed economy, Brazil is yet a developing unstable nation. (Bailey, 1996)

One of the most important factor is the method of communication, inside the community and with another community that may or may not share the same language, and we can see the dichotomy if the colonial languages are analyzed. It can be seen that the language development is based on change. Even old English was created by the merger of French and many other languages. Languages often give way to new words, languages and usages partly because of absorption, political and historical changes and changes in the social context. In some cases the persons of a region may not be able to learn multiple languages may develop new vocabularies and communication. (Bailey, 1996)

This often differentiates communication. Official and business communication of ten tends to be more direct and thus the greater state of education and cultural integration of Brazil changes the communication paradigm. A research by Nelson, et al. (2010) shows that there is no traditional employment that has caused a vacuum in the organizational cultures of the Brazilian industry. Industries also produce certain subcultures based on work with relations and these are quite different in their base from the U.S. industries and the varying organizational cultures can affect understanding, communication and the way industries react in the international economy. (Nelson, et al., 2010) There are thus various aspects to the communication problem.

Conclusion

Primarily communication is based on culture and messages will be interpreted as per the recipient's orientation. Thus communication development as seen from the U.S. angle may not match those that are at the receiving end in Brazil. Secondly the undeveloped nature of Brazil which largely depends on the radio and TV restricts the effective communication to these media. The problem of communication is accentuated on account of the language barrier and the ensuing cultural differences and understanding. The custom of Brazil thus creates a barrier even in visual and oral communication for American along with the different nonverbal communication and poor communication strategies between the groups.

References

Bailey, James N. (1996) "Essays on Time-Based Linguistic Analysis." Clarendon Press:

Oxford.

Nelson, Reed E; Vasconcellos, Eduardo; Ponc, Vera M. L; Pasqualini, Dinei A. (2010) "A

Subcultural Analysis of the Brazilian Knowledge Industry: When Nation, Industry, and Organizational Cultures Collide" Latin American Business Review, vol. 11, no. 1, pp: 317 -- 337.

Palka, Liz. (2006) "Cultural Differences Between Brazil and the United States" Brazil

Magazine, p. 7-9.

Portch, Stephen R. (1985) "Literature's Silent Language: Nonverbal Communication." Peter

Lang: New York.

Pretto, Nelson De Luca; Bailey, Lga Guedes. (2010) "Digital culture in Brazil: Building

'peeracy'?" International Journal of…… [read more]


Communication Competency Essay

… Higher SPCC scores generally refer to a higher level of self-perceived communication competence in a range of settings and with a range of receivers: for example, people with high communication competency scores are able to communicate effectively with both friends and complete strangers.

My personal score for the Communication Competence Scale ranged at just around a 72, which I feel was accurate. I have a high level of communication competence with friends and acquaintances, but with strangers, my level of effectiveness and comfort when communicating can truly vary. I believe it's this lack of consistency which lowered more score. I think the respondents could also tell that when talking to strangers I have a markedly lower level of comfort and ease, something which no doubt was reflected in my score.

However, a colleague of mine score near 98 on the communication competence scale, and this colleague is nearly famous for his ability to communicate not just with friends, coworkers, bosses and superiors, but with foreigners, the elderly, children of all ages -- even reticent teenagers. This particular colleague of mine has a remarkably strong knack for communicating and it's one that is strongly envied by all of our friends and co-workers. There is no situation that makes him uncomfortable -- at least he doesn't display any of the signs that people typically display when they're uncomfortable. He has an innate warmth for people, that even strangers comment on and attributes his knack for communication to his Canadian upbringing. The intriguing aspect about this colleague's style of communication is that he has no apparent weaknesses; all the people who engage with him in conversation alike find his style of dialogue and relaying information to be extremely charming and lucid.

References

DeFleur, M., Kearney, P., Plax, T., & DeFleur, M. (2004). Fundamentals of Human

Communication. Columbus: McGraw Hill.

McCroskey, J. (1988). Self-Perceived Communication…… [read more]


Communication Competency Analysis Essay

… The scale consists of 36 items to which the individual rates on a scale of 1-5, ranging from strong disagreement to strong agreement. The "possible range of scores for the CCS [is]: 36 to 180...The absolute mean is 108" (Reis n.d). Items include "3. I treat people as individuals" and "10. I won't argue with someone just to prove I am right." However, just to ensure that the test taker does not automatically check of strong agreement with all of the statements, items 4, 8, 11, 12, and 28 indicate bad communication behaviors, such as "28. I don't follow the conversation very well" (Reis n.d). These responses are scored separately and are subtracted from the points accumulated from the good conversational behaviors.

Overall, my score was 112, slightly above the mean. This indicates that I am a good communicator, although I still have room to improve. "Individuals high in CCS (above 108) are generally more sensitive, flexible and assertive communicators than those lower in CCS" (Reis n.d). I scored high, I believe, because of my strong agreement with such statements as "22. I am supportive of others" and "24. I can easily put myself in another person's shoes

(Reis n.d). I believe I am an empathetic person, and this is an asset to me as a communicator even though I do not consider myself to be a charismatic speaker. When I showed my score to a friend of mine, he said he was not surprised. I am the 'go to' person in my group of friends when people have problems. I speak my mind, but I am also willing to what other people have to say and I genuinely care about other people's issues.

Reference

Lane, Derek R. (2000). Communication competence defined. Communication Capstone.

Retrieved: http://www.uky.edu/~drlane/capstone/commcomp.htm

Reis, Jane Lister. (n.d.). Communication Competence Scale. CMN 150. Retrieved:

http://facweb.northseattle.edu/jreis/cmn165/communication_competence_scale.htm… [read more]


Communication Skills Term Paper

… ¶ … Communications Skills for Students

As college students, we must be able to communicate effectively at various different levels and via numerous different formats and media. Naturally, success in higher education depends substantially on the ability to communicate ideas in formal writing. In college, the primary value of good written communications skills is that they enable us to demonstrate our understanding of substantive course material on examinations and in written assignments. In that respect, there is an element of good academic performance that is very directly a function of communications. In the longer term, the writing skills that we develop as college students are essential to our ability to produce various types of written reports and both internal and external communications in the ordinary course of business. Typically, our ability to express ideas effectively in writing also becomes a factor in establishing the first impression that we hope to make on others.

College also allows us to practice our verbal communications skills, particularly in connection with speaking in public and speaking in front of large audiences. Just as writing skills play an important role in our ability to express ideas clearly in formal communications, our verbal communications skills determine how well we express ourselves in real time and in impromptu situations. In college, fluency of verbal expression is important in classroom discussion situations. In the longer term, it allows us to develop the necessary skills to communicate effectively with coworkers, business associates, customers, and with a wide range of individuals in the normal course of professional and commercial business relationships.

Useful Sources of Information

One useful source of advice about communications skills is an online article titled "Troubleshooting Human Communications Tips" authored by information technology (it) professional, Lenny Zeltser (2012). The author provides helpful strategies and tools for improving the ability of technical experts to communicate…… [read more]


Communications an Interesting Essay

… The problems created by the President's message included the fact that he acknowledged the company was undergoing some difficult times. Instead of calming employee nerves, his message seemed to exacerbate the situation. Now the rumors are more substantiated based upon the President's message, so further rumors sprang up overnight. Needless to say, rumors fueled more rumors which continually fed even more rumors. Morale sagged for almost all employees which also affected the company's productivity levels.

Improvements in the communication process could begin right at the top. The President's message was delivered in a concise posted message that detailed only the bare minimum of facts. He could have been much more upbeat, offered much more in the way of details and been much more forthright in possible ramifications. Additional communications could have also offered a lot more in the way of a calming and dispelling influence.

3. In a specific situation that I recall when I failed to communicate effectively, I now realize that I was saying one thing verbally and another thing altogether in a non-verbal manner.

From the stance of my body, to the shaking of my head in a classic 'no' manner, to the folded arms, everything about my physical persona radiated negativity, whereas the language I was using was comprised of some of the most positive wording and phrases I could create.

I was trying to communicate the idea that the club that we owned was going to move to a bigger, better and more affluent area of town in order to provide amenities that were not currently being offered. The verbal communications included rosy projections for the future, and positive growth ideas for the club. In retrospect, my body language (much like my personal beliefs) portrayed the idea that the club was in deep financial trouble and that if we were extremely lucky in gathering additional investors we might have the opportunity to bring to fruition some of the ideas that might save the club.

Because of the fact that my body portrayed my true beliefs about the situation, not one single prospective investor took the plunge to invest in the club. Without the additional investors, the club failed. Changing my body language at that presentation could have garnered much different results. I could have opened my arms, looked potential investors in the eye, walked around the room to be closer to the investors, and nodded my head up and down to make positive contact rather…… [read more]


Effective Communication Essay

… Body Language and Paramedics

Among the various way humans communicate -- through the use of the voice, the written word, sign language (for the hearing impaired) or through body language -- the one communication style that is perhaps least recognized… [read more]


Enhance Satellite Communication Research Paper

… Components of Satellite Communications

Use of Satellite Communications

Advantages of Satellite Communications

Disadvantages of Satellite Communications

How Satellites Work

Enhancing Satellite Communication

Satellite Communication:

Satellite communication can be described as the use of artificial satellites to offer communication connections in… [read more]


Monological Model Term Paper

… ¶ … Jabri, Adrain, and Boje (2008) on alternatives to the monological model is fascinating in that it causes us not only to think about communication in an alternate way but also reverses paradigms in other factors too. Jabri, Adrain,… [read more]


Nonverbal Communication: Journal Entry Essay

… For some of my friends, standing close to someone is a sign of friendship, while when someone stands extremely close to me, I tend to feel intimidated by, rather than befriended by the person looming near me. Even when taking public transportation, I may feel as if my territory is being invaded when someone sits next to me in an otherwise empty bus or subway car. I think I may be overly sensitive in this regard, although I have noticed that some people will use their 'territory' to mark out their dominance over me by encroaching upon my personal space. But perhaps the most sensitive issue is one of time -- my friends who are European often say they are on 'European time,' which they use as an excuse for being late, versus 'English time,' which means that a person should come 'on time,' as agreed-upon beforehand.

Perhaps nothing is more context-dependent than paralanguage, or subtle, nonverbal communication. Paralanguage (pitch, intonation, and other aspects of vocal language that add subtlety to meaning) is very important when I am talking to people, particularly my friends. I often find that when I am talking to strangers and they do not seem to 'get' my sense of humor; it is partially because they do not understand my subtle paralanguage which indicates when I am joking or not joking.

In all, I would consider myself to be 'average' as a nonverbal communicator. For my task, I admit that I was not very daring when I selected to 'violate' a taboo -- I decided to wear a very nice interview suit to one of my classes, versus the acceptable uniform of a t-shirt, jeans, and hoodie. The response of my classmates was mainly positive -- they asked me where I was going after class, or if I had plans with someone. This confirms my suspicion that often 'dressing up,' even when slightly inappropriate, is viewed in a more positive light than dressing down. I considered myself to be violating a rule, given that I had 'learned' from many years in school to dress in a similarly formal or informal manner as my classmates.… [read more]


Communication Skills What I Intend Term Paper

… Communication Skills

What I Intend to Do to Improve My Communication Skills

In basic terms, communication involves the transmission of messages from one person to another using a wide range of methods. The ability to communicate in a concise, clear and effective way is critical when it comes to building lasting relationships both in the workplace and within a familial setting. Hence the development of effective communication skills should be a priority for any individual seeking to scale both the corporate and social ladder. Personally, I do not happen to be an effective communicator. However, I intend to undertake a number of steps in an attempt to enhance my communication skills.

To begin with, I plan to be making more eye contact when communicating with others. I am convinced that this will enable me to maintain their attention so that I may be able to pass my message across. Similarly, I also plan to work on my body language when holding conversations. From my readings on effective communication, both an approachable stance and an appropriate posture play a significant role in enhancing the smooth flow of conversations. For instance, occasional gestures during a conversation could help keep the audience attentive and interested in what is being said. With that in mind, I will seek to incorporate more gestures in addition to eye contact during my engagement with others.

Next, I also intend to read a number of self-help books addressing the subject of effective communication. Some of the books I have identified in this case include but are not limited to Effective Communication by James S. O'Rourke and 101 Ways to Improve Your Communication Skills Instantly by Jo Condrill and Bennie Bough. Reading the books will enable me to become well acquainted with the various strategies individuals use to become better communicators. I could supplement this exercise by closely watching successful public…… [read more]


Integrated Corporate Communication (ICC) Chapter

… Those ways could be (Gray and Balmer, 1998):

Cognitive: it means to request for more information than required.

Affective: it means to inspect the message with comprehension point-of-view.

Behavioural: it means to determine that how far the collected data is… [read more]


Communication Accommodation Theory Application Essay

… CAT

A friend went to Australia for two weeks and one of the things she brought back was a partial Aussie accent. We all sort of snickered at her and rolled our eyes for the first week or so, but after she persisted in calling us 'mate' and using 'crikey' as an expletive a month later, we eventually stopped inviting her out, until she just sort of drifted away. On the other hand, when my family was traveling through the South on vacation, people my age called my parents 'ma'am' and 'sir,' which was not the custom in our family. I tried it out and found it felt kind of good to be respectful to people I'd never met before. But when I got home and said, "Go ahead, ma'am" to a woman getting on the bus, she replied in affront, "Ma'am! What am I, your grandmother? Get on the d-mn bus." Embarrassed, I had to comply.

These are examples of people using communication to move toward or away from each other, in social groups they want to identify with or separate themselves from. People, including myself, have been using various strategies like these all my life, but it wasn't until I saw them through the lens of Communication Accommodation Theory that I realized how much these intentional or unconscious strategies revealed about speakers' motivations. Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT) includes all manner of communication including gesture; posture; diction (word choice), phonetic variation ('accent') and virtually a limitless possible series of utterances that can be included under the heading 'speech' or 'speech act' for convenience. Speech here refers to any attempt to communicate with a target, or 'interlocutor.' My self-proclaimed Australian friend was using her new, adopted, affected accent to separate herself from the rest of us here back home for some reason, which we all took to be her self-superiority because we had never been to Australia. On the other hand the woman who got mad at me for 'ma'am'-ing her on the bus used CAT to identify herself with me as younger than senior age, even when she was admonishing me in outrage. These examples illustrate the breadth of scope and intent various speakers employ CAT to accomplish, whether they know it or not.

Now that I have a formal theory through which to interpret this phenomenon, I realize how often this takes place around me, enough to be nearly ubiquitous. I see peers alter their speech styles when a professor walks into a class, and then see the same people use slang to act 'street' in front of other friends off campus. This has allowed me to realize that I am no different, which has a dual effect, allowing me to pay attention to my own communication from a clinical or detached standpoint in order to better control accommodation I want to continue or stop using, and this realization has also helped me stop judging others harshly the way we ostracized my friend for her affected accent. While… [read more]


Communication Essay

… It is determined by social scientists that verbal communication only accounts for "7% of the communication process" (Stewart, 2005) while demonstrative communication makes up for the rest of the 93%, specifically in the form of listening. Listening is the most significant kind of communication without being vocal, which involves "five elements: hearing, attending, understanding, responding, and remembering" (Stewart, 2005). Hearing is the physiology of listening once sound waves hit the ear at various intervals of frequency. Attending is the act of filtering out certain things and focusing on other messages, and understanding means comprehending such messages. Responding is giving feedback to the receiver, not necessarily in the form of words but through facial expression and eye contact. Remembering is being able to recollect information or messages that were previously communicated.

Listening is effective and positive when the sender conveys to the receiver what they wanted to in a clear and clarified manner. Success in listening is achieved when the receiver listens intently, and at the end, has an input or reaction. An example of triumph of such non-verbal communication is when a girl is telling her girlfriend what a horrible day she had at the work place. It was a positive experience because the receiver sympathized and empathized with the speaker, and tried to look at her perspective. As well, the receiver of the conversation was not distracted and did not detract her attention from the speaker. As well, the listener was able to stop talking and knew when to be quiet to given the speaker space and time to just talk about what she needs to at her own pace. Furthermore, it was a positive demonstrative communication when the receiver would repeat and encourage the speaker through this sounding back method. In addition, non-verbally, the receiver's facial expressions were significant by looking interested and making eye contact but not overwhelmingly so while at the same time see friendly and open to what the speaker had to say. The posture to show the receiver was paying attention is a relaxed manner along with the nodding of the head, and a relaxed body mannerism.

Non-verbal communication is saying something without vocally voicing it out. Such form of demonstrative communication is visible in the form of facial expressions like smiling or frowning, body language like being close to somebody, appearing like wearing a power outfit, and gestures like a hand hold or huge are all used to display a certain feeling and notion to the other party. The aforementioned are all forms of communication to convey how an individual feels without the use of words.

References

Stewart, G. (n.d.). Types of nonverbal communication: Listening Skills. Better business communication results. Retrieved November 6, 2011, from http://www.leehopkins.com/types-of-nonverbal-communication-listening-skills.html

Sutton, N. (n.d.). Pros & Cons of Nonverbal Communication | eHow.com. eHow | How to Videos, Articles & More - Discover the expert in you. | eHow.com. Retrieved November 6, 2011, from http://www.ehow.com/info_8117087_pros-cons-nonverbal-communication.html… [read more]


Interpersonal Communication the Art Essay

… When listening it is important to pay attention and provide feedback to ensure the person who is talking that you are listening. Before learning the importance of mindful listening, I was sometimes quick to cut someone off when I disagreed with what they were saying. But after learning the importance and the positive impact that it can have, I started being a mindful listener and have realized that is helps in communicating. When everyone gets a turn to say what is on their mind, healthy communication is established and similar to being a clear and accurate communicator, being a mindful listener also helps in building a strong interpersonal relationship with others.

Finally, another aspect of the interpersonal communication class that helped me grow as a person includes learning how to communicate effectively in a conflict situation. Often times, arguments can get heated and when conflict arises, both parties are on the defence; but, this does not help communication or the conflict to diffuse. I learned from this class how to effectively communicate in a conflict situation- calmly, using words and language that will not further add fuel to the fire so to speak and speak constructively not harshly or critically. All of these different components will help diffuse situations before it escalates to a point that it can no longer be diffused. Learning this type of communication is extremely important because of the different people and thing that people, including myself, come in conflict with. Conflict is inevitable but how one deal with it is absolutely up to us.

Over the course of the semester, I have learned a lot of things that have truly helped me appreciate the value of effective interpersonal communication. I hope to utilize the lessons learned and the wisdom that has been imparted on me by this education immediately and hope that it will facilitate the growth of strong interpersonal relationships with my friends and family. Eventually, when I graduate, these skills will help me be an effective member of the workforce. The skills learned here have the ability to help me live a happier, calmer and healthier life and help grow closer to people instead of more distant.

Works Cited

Trauernicht, Nathan. "The Importance of Interpersonal Communication." Firehouse.com, 14 Jun 2007. Web. 11 Aug 2011. .… [read more]


Communication Transaction Essay

… Communication Transaction Analysis

When considering communication transactions, there are two dominant perspectives one may approach the transaction from in order to determine the nature of the interaction. In short, the situational perspective categorizes communication transactions according to certain situation-specific variables, while the developmental perspective begins with the assumption that any two people communicating necessarily begin from a position of relative impersonality, interacting on the level of social role rather than as people, and only developing towards an interpersonal communication after certain conditions are met. In order to better understand and explicate these concepts, it will be useful to examine a communication transaction between two characters in the television show Parks and Recreation in order to demonstrate the two perspectives' different understanding of interpersonal communications and how these may be practically applied.

Near the beginning of the Parks and Recreation episode called "The Fight," Leslie Knope, the assistant director of the parks department of a fictional Indiana town, is talking to her best friend Ann Perkins, a nurse at the local hospital. Leslie is extremely excited because she has just secured a job interview for Ann as a part time employee of the public health department, and in typical Leslie fashion she has enthusiastically prepared all public health records and literature that Ann might need to familiarize herself with before the interview, which is scheduled for nine a.m. The following morning. Understandably, Ann is not thrilled by the prospect of an early morning job interview (with the city manager who also happens to be her ex-friend) after an all night public health study session on the heals of a sixteen hour shift at the hospital. Needless to say, this conversation between best friends is not as exciting for Ann as it is for the ecstatic Leslie, who in her defense, is just really excited that the two could soon be working in the same building.

According to the criteria of the situational perspective, Leslie and Ann's conversation is certainly an example of interpersonal communication. The conversation is dyadic, or taking place between two people, and the…… [read more]


Communication Competence- Online Research Paper

… The 'belonging' component, in effect, demonstrates how individuals and groups become integrated or marginalized in their immediate online community depending on the level of their access and participation to online (mass) media.

The process generally explained by the theory of… [read more]


Learning About Empathic Communication Essay

… And appropriately, the medical profession is acknowledging how a failure to diagnose then prescribe affects their profession. Dr. Hardee argues that empathetic communication is a teachable, learnable skill that benefits both the clinician and patient. As he summarizes it, "Appropriate use of empathy as a communication tool facilitates the clinical interview, increases the efficiency of gathering information, and honors the patient." (2003).

I found Covey's discussion regarding the Greek philosophy of ethos, pathos, and logos enlightening. As he explains, the three words contain the essence of seeking first to understand before moving on to make effective presentations. Ethos represents one's character, pathos one's relationships, and logos the reasoning component of a presentation.

I am pleased to report that I did grasp the connection between character and communication prior to reading Covey's discussion, and it has shaped my communication skills. Because listening can sometimes turn manipulative, I have known that it was important for the other person to believe they can trust me and open up. If my character does not radiate trust and honesty, it follows that my co-workers, friends and family will not feel safe enough to open up and expose their feelings to me.

When I consider the rest of my managerial team, I find we all typically suffer from the same shortcomings when it comes to effective communication. But now that I understand what it means to listen with empathy, I can model the behavior we all need to get better at. By practicing empathic listening, we can change our interactions from being merely transactional to being transformational.

References

Covey, S. (2004). The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People: Powerful Lessons in Personal Change (2nd ed.). New York: Simon and Schuster.

Hardee, J.T. MD. (2003). An Overview of Empathy. The Permanente Journal, 7(4). Retrieved from http://xnet.kp.org/permanentejournal/fall03/cpc.html… [read more]


Group Communication Essay

… Power is the ability to influence others, and there several different kids. Two major different types are power over and power to: "power over" is the ability to help or harm someone else, whereas "power to" helps other people in meeting their own goals. The power structure itself refers to the distribution of power in the group, which affects how people communicate with each other as well.

I notice power structure coming into play in my communication with my nuclear family. We have a hierarchical power structure, with my father wielding the most power, and my mother having more hidden kinds of power, and often the grown children will act sycophantic in order to gain power from them. It is not necessarily done obviously or consciously, but we are all vying for his approval.

In conclusion, close monitoring of my own communication has yielded the realization that I too fit into patterns described by these theories. However, awareness does help me to have insight into why people are saying different things in groups. In time, I think I could even use these insights to my advantage, by, for example, emphasizing cohesion in a group where I notice that it is falling apart, or suggesting a more equal power structure if I think that is damaging the group.

References

Myers, Scott A., & Anderson, Carolyn M. Fundamentals of Group Communication. New York: Sage, 2008. Print.

Wood, Julia. Communication in Our Lives. Beverly, MA:…… [read more]


Communication Process and Provide Examples Term Paper

… Speaker-related is where we take a look at idiom obstacle occurring between the orator and the receiver, poor training ways and minimal understanding within the organization. Lastly we get to Interior receiver related whereby issues like minimal ability of the receiver and predetermined thoughts of the receiver.

Planning for any communication is therefore important and these is uncomplicated procedure that can help one overcome these obstacles and be sure that proficient and efficient communication will be in the organization.

Many People every now and then be unsuccessful in sharing information and this is because they don't have a clear understanding on how the information will be of help to others when in real sense it can. Engagement and motivation factors appear to be of importance as lack of these can makes them not to listen to others. Feedback is very important and many tend to ignore them not knowing that they affect their communication

Conclusion

There is a need for employees to be trained on communication for it is important and it involves illumination or clearly making employees understand what is expected of them, hence going extra mile to solving communication tribulations among them. On the other hand, employees should be inspired as this will always boost there moral and will effect communication, because lack of inspiration will jeopardize the attempt to communicate appropriately. Where such cases, arise it is therefore significant to embark upon organization self-esteem issues. As we all know that not all know that all people are not the same in that others are just naturaly poor in communication and nothing can change there ability to do this, hence it is of great impotence to test peoples ability before hiring them. Angelene O'Reilley (2011)

Work cired

Angelene O'Reilley: (2011) Poor Communication: How It Affects Your Business, Inc.

Debbie Zmorenski closeAuthor: Debbie Zmorenski Name: Debbie Zmorenski

Email:

Site: http://www.globallsa.com

About: Deborah K. Zmorenski, MBA, is the co-owner and senior partner of Leader's Strategic Advantage Inc., an Orlando, Fla.-based consulting firm. During her 34-year career with the Walt Disney World Company, Debbie held leadership positions in restaurant management, human resources, training and development, customer service, production manufacturing and resort operations. She is a recipient of "Partners In Excellence," Disney's most prestigious corporate award. For more than five years, she was a senior facilitator and content specialist with the Disney Institute. Today, with LSA, she travels the globe providing executive coaching and strategic partnering, enabling organizations to implement and maintain organizational change.See Authors Posts (23)(2009) Effective communication: Turn this weakness into a strength, Inc.… [read more]


Interpersonal Communication Skills Essay

… Gender-based differences

Males and females, of all ages, communicate in fundamentally, and at times, frustratingly different, ways. Interestingly, men and women even listen differently (Hybels & Weaver, 2007). Also, gender influences the language style men and women utilize. As Hybels… [read more]


Interpersonal Communications Project Term Paper

… Communication Techniques

Interpersonal Communications Project

How Personal Behavioral Trends Need to be Assimilated in an Oral Communication to Make it Truly Effective

Oral communication is an integral part of our existence as socially gregarious individuals. Indeed much of our daily chore involves oral communication and that may take any form depending on the situation and circumstances. Thus, it might never be overemphasized that effective oral communication surely goes a long way in determining whether we have actually been able to lead our lives as effective and positively contributing members of the society we belong to. If we, for a brief moment, digress a bit from the personal aspect of oral communication and let our perspective be a bit broader we would surely realize the importance of oral communication in business and commerce, especially in this age of information where interaction and communication has come to hold the centre stage in any form of business activity. Thus, knowing the content is though important but not the only issue. One must have the capability to infuse a sense of life and conviction in the acquired knowledge that one intends to pass on to others, and, herein lays the importance of effective oral communication. (Murphy, Hildebrandt, & Thomas, 1997) It would perhaps not be out of context to mention the old adage about making an oral communication "Tell them what you're going to tell them, tell them, and tell them what you told them."

An unavoidable corollary to this requirement is to maintain a clear disconnect between one's mood and personal emotions while emanating a positive body language as the conversation progresses. Much has been written about positivity that should emanate while communicating and what needs to be emphasized at this juncture is the ability to effectively communicate with the recipients of the communication. The speaker should be careful about the pitch they use so as to effortlessly attract attention of the audience without getting too harsh or shrill which might alienate the audience because of the overbearing or propagandist overtones that almost always tend creep in if one tends to become overenthusiastic while trying to put a point or two across.

Therefore, it is amply apparent that one needs to sincerely and conscientiously practice the art of good communication while ensuring that personal behavioral traits and moods do not adversely impact the quality and tenor of interpersonal communication as that would frustrate the very purpose of initiating a conversation.

Personal Behavioral Traits

Dr. Carbonell, named four personality types: Active/Task-oriented, Active/People-oriented, Passive/Task-oriented, and Passive/People-oriented and went on to demonstrate how each personality type perceives a given context and reacts to external stimuli in different ways while engaging in a conversation. (Carbonell, 2005)

On the personal front I guess while people expect me to be of the "S/I" type, I basically belong to the "C/S/I" category. Thus, while I present an impressive picture to both crowds and individuals, people take special note of my caring attitude and the warmth and emotional bridge that I… [read more]


Tactile Communication Essay

… ¶ … tactile communication in everyday life. Tactile communication is the use of non-verbal communication, specifically touch. Many believe it to be the most basic form of communication developed over time, especially because it is used with infants in our initial communication with them.

People may not think about it, but touching and not touching, or tactile communication, is an important part of everyday life. We give a co-worker a hug when they are having a bad day, shake the hand of a business associate, and touch the hand of our spouse when they come home from a long day. One writer notes, "Touch is a critical aspect of relationships, from the initial handshake between strangers to the embrace of close friends to sexual intimacy" (Andersen, 2005, p. 57). Therefore, we use tactile communication throughout every day, whether we are aware of it or not. Two other writers continue, "Perhaps no mode of human interaction has the same potential to communicate love, warmth, and intimacy as actual body contact" (Andersen & Guerrero, 2005, p. 83). Everyday life is filled with many forms of tactile communication, and it is the first type of communication we learn, so we become accustomed to it before we become accustomed to any other form of communication.

There are many norms associated with tactile communication, and they are established early in life. They also change throughout life. Some of these norms are based on society, while others are based on age and gender. Young children learn by touching things, they are extremely tactile. That is one reason young children often put everything they touch into their mouths. They not only want to touch it to learn about it, they want to see what it tastes like, and whether they should remember it in the future. Until they can talk, touch is the only way children can communicate, so we learn our tactile skills very early. As children mature, they continue to be very tactile, and they like to touch each other and those around them. This is another norm for tactile communication. However, in adults there are very different norms, often…… [read more]


Interpersonal Communication This Classic Axiom Essay

… Interpersonal Communication

This classic axiom, by the communications theorist Paul Watzlawick, is very important to understanding how we communicate. The axiom stating "one cannot not communicate" is important because it emphasizes that we are always affecting other individual's perceptions, despite… [read more]


Communication Interpersonal Essay

… Communication

Interpersonal communication is one of the most important aspects of human life. It creates relationships, employment opportunities, pleasant or unpleasant conditions. Hence it is important to take the appropriate approach to communication in order to optimize its beneficial effects and minimize possible misunderstanding.

Interpersonal communication has various characteristics. These include the fact that interpersonal communication generally occurs in face-to-face situations, without any mediating devices, apart from real-time communication devices such as the telephone. Such communication occurs in dialogic form; information and meaning are shared among the parties in the conversation. This is where the process approach becomes useful.

Interpersonal communication is transactional in nature, with parties negotiating content and meaning. The flow of this content and meaning is a process whereby participants influence each other. Although not all participants necessarily speak, the information is processed and contributes to the development of though and opinion in the group involved in communication.

Conversations are therefore reciprocal in their influence. Each participant in the conversation influences the others and is influenced by the others. In interpersonal conversation among equal parties, this process occurs in a symbiotic and simultaneous way.

Taking a process approach is then useful in a variety of situations. In a group situation, for example, parties may communicate regarding certain goals. These goals can be related to tangible objectives, action, social endeavors, emotional purposes, and so on. A process approach means that all parties in the conversation is open to the fact that communication is dynamic and influential. Each person is then open to being influenced, as well as being willing to influence the other parties.

When the conversation participants have divergent goals, the process of conversation is aimed…… [read more]


Communications Failure to Communicate Effectively Can Lead Essay

… Communications

Failure to communicate effectively can lead to poor performance and organizational failure. The personality cult is a real problem within the context of business communications because there are times when the individual that has the devotion of the people… [read more]


Conflict and Communication Essay

… Communicating in Conflict Resolution

The discussion on Communication and Conflict by Robert M. Krauss and Ezequiel Morsella (2000) is as thought provoking as it is interesting. It is not just another discussion on communicating our way through conflict because that… [read more]


Communication Is an Interactive Process Essay

… Communication Process of a Class Held Online

Taking a course online vs. In a classroom is going to require an exceptionally more focused and deliberate approach to communicating with peers, team members on projects, and with the instructor. While collaboration in person is easy to accomplish, the use of the communications tools online will need to be scheduled with more accuracy and also with a clear expectations of what will be accomplished. In addition it's going to be very important to figure out which communication tool works best for each specific project or need. The use of e-mail or online chat sessions is going to be fine for immediate questions and answers, yet for reviewing complex documents and for collaborating, there is going to need to be more expanded online forums and approaches to getting work done. Traditionally the technologies used for online courses has assumed a one-to-many broadcast strategy where the…… [read more]


Group Communication at a Stakeholder Meeting Essay

… Group Communication at a Stakeholder Meeting

Communication is a key element of any endeavor involving more than one person, meaning communication is necessary for almost every worthwhile human endeavor. This is arguably even more true in the business world than in many other circumstances, as the many complexities of business groups and the individuals that make them up can require different methods of communication and different modes of expression in order to obtain the same basic understanding. Presenting sales information to a diverse group of company stakeholders, including managers, salespeople, customers, and possibly others is an issue that requires a great deal of consideration along several avenues in order to ensure that the communication process is effective for everyone at the meeting. Understanding these aspects of the group's dynamics and communications needs leads to increased potential.

One of the primary elements that must be considered in a scenario where information is being presented to stakeholders with diverse relationships to the company is that of the roles everyone at the meeting plays. For the speaker, taking on the role of the informational leader in this scenario means analyzing and evaluating the information in a way that is made applicable and understandable to everyone in the room (Locker-Kienzler 2008). This means understanding the knowledge base that the different stakeholders in the meeting have, as well as their general expertise and understanding of the issues at hand. It is also very likely tat there will be some cultural diversity in the meeting, so care should be taken to present the information in a manner that is accessible and relevant to everyone (Locker-Kienzler 2008). There are specific ways to accomplish this that will be examined further on.

Another consideration that must be made is the use of specific communication channels in the meeting. The use of both written and spoken communication in the meeting can help to ensure that everyone is able to follow and understand the information being presented, with writing serving as a more direct and less-inflected (and thus less easily misinterpreted) form of communication (Locker-Kienzler 2008). In a direct group meeting, however, verbal communication should be the primary form of communication as it allows for differences in the group's atmosphere and understanding; though the flexibilities of verbal communication can be detrimental if used inappropriately or ignorantly, these flexibilities can also…… [read more]


Gender-Based Differences in Communication Styles Essay

… Gender-Based Differences in Communication Styles

In her essay,"Talk in the Intimate Relationship: His and Hers," Deborah Tannen explains the reasons that men and women often have such difficulty communicating with one another. According to Tannen, men characteristically communicate very directly using words whereas women tend to communicate much more indirectly through what Tannen calls metamessages. By metamessages, Tannen means that women communicate through a much broader range of communication tools such as facial expressions and indirect communication strategies. Men communicate much more directly and literally and are often somewhat deaf (and blind) to the way that women try to communicate.

Tannen explains that men and women begin being socialized to communicate very differently in childhood. Whereas little girls tend to play in intimate pairs with one best friend of in small groups, little boys play in larger groups. Girls generally socialize very directly and share extensive verbal exchanges about their feelings and personal matters; boys generally socialize in much larger groups and indirectly in the context of sports or other activities. Their conversations tend to relate to one another only indirectly because most of their direct communication has to do with sports or other external activities and very little to do with their personal feelings and other personal matters.

Men continue that behavior into adulthood and tend to communicate very directly with words but their discussions are more about external things and events such as sports, business, politics, and current events. Even close male friends may avoid communicating anything more meaningful about their innermost feelings and personal matters. This presents a potential conflict in intimate relationships between men and women because they have fundamentally different communication styles…… [read more]


Cross-Cultural Communications Thesis

… Cross cultural Communication (International Business)

Nowadays, with almost every country going global, cross-cultural communication has become an integral part of business. Rosenbloom and Larsen pointed out the growing need for interaction among different countries worldwide, "globalization in the sense of… [read more]


Lack of Communication in a Relationship Thesis

… Communication

Not speaking clearly, not listening properly, and not appreciating differences in communication styles can all lead to a relationship breakdown.

Communication defines a relationship.

Good communication creates long-lasting healthy partnerships, whereas poor communication leads to relationship breakdown.

Poor communication includes the following faults:

Not speaking clearly

Not listening properly

Not appreciating differences in communication styles

Not speaking clearly, not listening properly, and not appreciating differences in communication styles can all cause a relationship breakdown.

The first sign of miscommunication is usually the inability of one of the individuals to express himself or herself properly.

Speaking clearly does not mean how loud a voice is, but how well the person has articulated his or her thoughts.

Think before speaking; formulate thoughts well.

Ask for what you want; don't beat around the bush

Use logic, and even express emotions as objectively as possible

B. Speaking clearly means addressing the matter at hand, and nothing else.

1. Avoid talking about the past or future and focus on immediate issues.

2. Avoid insults and generalizations that put the other person on the defensive.

C. Speaking clearly also means speaking with confidence.

1. Look the other person in the eye.

2. Be respectful, and if anger arises, take a break.

III. The second sign of miscommunication is not listening properly.

A. Listening is more than just hearing.

1. Listening means paying close attention to the other person's body language and other nonverbal cues.

2. Listening requires concentration; if you can't concentrate then ask for a break.

B. Listen with compassion, not judgment

1. Reflect back what the other person says, to avoid misunderstanding (Duerksen).

2.…… [read more]


Effective Communication in the Criminal Term Paper

… They have to communicate issues, write reports, and interact publicly. In the judicial system, judges, and lawyers have to interview suspects and witnesses, write complicated judgments, orally interview, write cases, and follow up reports. Every aspect of the criminal justice system involves often complex communication, both verbal and nonverbal, so it is essential to have effective communication in all branches of the criminal justice system.

There are any number of instances where ineffective communication could lead to a threat to public safety. For example, a police officer interviews a witness, and the witness describes a suspect as a white male, about 6-foot 2, with a scar on his left arm and a tattoo of an eagle on his right arm. He is wearing dark jeans and a hooded sweatshirt, and carrying a knife. When the officer writes down the description in his report, he neglects to mention the tattoo, or the knife. Now, the suspect is misidentified, and may not be apprehended, leading to additional criminal activity and more victims, and this could erode public safety in a particular neighborhood or area.

Another example would be in the interrogation of a suspect. Officers have to have a deep understanding of nonverbal communication to interrogate effectively. For example, suspects will often rapidly blink their eyes or cross their arms over their chests when they are not telling the truth, and officers should be aware of that. One expert states, "Body movements, personal distance, facial color, facial expressions, and paralanguage offer insight into a subject's truthfulness" (Shadow, 2008). If the interrogator is not effective, the suspect may not give any useful information, and again, justice would not be served, the criminal might go free, and the public might be in danger, especially if the suspect was extremely dangerous. Good communication is essential in all aspects of criminal justice, at each and every level of the system.

In conclusion, it is essential that criminal justice professionals be communication professionals, as well. How they communicate verbally and nonverbally can affect public safety, and it can affect their own safety, as well. Criminal justice professionals interact with each other and the public on a daily basis, so they need to have basic communication skills, and be able to share those skills effectively with others. Communication is important in just about any business or profession, but in criminal justice it is crucial, so it should be a major portion of criminal justice education.

References

Heilman, K., & Lawson, K.M. (2000, December). Facilitating communication. Corrections Today, 62, 84.

Shadow, M. (2008). Improving nonverbal communication in criminal justice. Retrieved 1 Oct. 2009 from the…… [read more]


Queendom Communication Assessment Research Proposal

… Business

Queendom Communication Assessment

Communication is something that all living creatures have innately in them in order to interact with one another and so that they can understand each another. Human beings communicate by conveying thoughts and ideas. Some people have better communication skills than other people do. Communication skills involve the use of auditory or spoken words and sounds, non-verbal cues which involve the use of body or sign language and paralanguage which involves touch or eye contact (Communication Skills, 2007).

Communication happens when information is exchanged. This can be between two or more people. An interaction is understood when people all recognize the same symbols, signs and behavior so they know what is going on. People that have good communication abilities are usually very effective as a communicator. In order to have good communication skills the process of communication must be understood along with how to effectively use it (Communication Skills, 2007).

Communication is essential for any relationship to be successful, whether it is at home, with friends, or at work. Research has consistently shown that a deficiency in communication skills can absolutely ruin relationships. The foundation of solid interpersonal skills is not just making one be heard but also involves an understanding of where other people are coming from. After taking the assessment I found that overall I have pretty good communication skills. The results showed that I am extremely adept at interpreting other people's words and actions and seeing things from other points-of-view. I realize that empathy is an essential part of good interpersonal skills and do my best to place myself in other people's shoes in order to better understand where they are coming from. I can generally get a good sense of what others are thinking and try to adjust accordingly if the people I'm conversing with seem confused or perhaps uncomfortable (Communication Skills Test, 2009).

One who uses their communication skills well can make their message understood by everyone who is present. They can understand the feed back of the message they gave out and have control of the flow of communication. Good communication skills involve being able to listen as well as to speak. When one listens and understands what is being said they can respond appropriately. This is another good communication skill. When people make the most of good communication skills people will want to hear what they have to say. It helps to engage people into action. When people have poor communication skills it tends to alienate people. Effective communication skills enable one to keep it simple and to the point. Short and to the point is the first rule of making one's communication skills effectively heard (Communication Skills, 2007).

Communication that is done in the business world involves communicating business information both inside and outside the organization. Internal communication in business includes the corporate vision and strategy, goals, plans, corporate…… [read more]


Communication Differences Develop a Two-Page Paper Term Paper

… Communication Differences

Develop a two-page paper in which you examine the conclusions you have found from your research and answer the following questions. Do men and women communicate differently? Does it make a difference in the workplace?

Do men and women communicate differently? Does it make a difference in the workplace?

The question if men and women communicate differently cannot be settled with an easy answer of 'yes' or 'no.' For example, according to the research of Palomares (2009), the assumption that women are more tentative in their use of language than their male colleagues at work was only true regarding stereotypically masculine topics in male-female but not all-female groupings. A comparative analysis of email revealed both males and females were more tentative on stereotypical topics germane to the opposite gender in mixed but not same-gender interactions. This suggests that what may be more relevant are not male and female communication styles, specifically, but perceptions of appropriate gender roles which affect the way men and women discuss certain topics with the opposite gender, or with mixed gender groups.

Additionally, Youngquist (2009), discovered that when women interrupted males in female dyads they were perceived as the most dominant of all subjects studied, while male interrupters in a male/female dyad were consistently perceived as the least dominant. This was true in the perceptions of both male and female observers, suggesting that both men and women can be affected by social gender norms. However, some studies have found measurable differences between the genders regarding communication. A study of accounting chairs by Schmidt & Madison (2008) found a higher awareness of the importance of communication and listening skills amongst female chairs as opposed to their male counterparts. Women tended to believe that it was more valuable to devote a greater percentage of class time to honing these skills than did their male colleagues. This suggests that there is a different perceived priority accorded to communication amongst males vs. females.

Gender, of course is not the only barrier to communication. Cultural references we take for granted can also prove to be communication obstacles. One human resources journal suggested that when speaking to a diverse audience the speaker should make the address as culturally neutral as possible: "1. Use clear language. 2. Use handouts for people to take away. 3. Avoid pop culture references. 4. Resist the jokes. 5. Use clear slides and language (Bond 2007, p.27). However, Frase (2007) disputes such an approach, stating: "Successful intercultural communication involves much more than eliminating colloquialisms and cultural references. It must also recognize deeper cultural differences." There is no 'culturally neutral' way of speaking, only culturally sensitive ways of attempting to broach differences. These differences can be far greater than those between men and women of the same nationality. In fact, it could be argued that men…… [read more]


Oral Communication Essay

… ¶ … Politically Speaking... And Reacting follows. Lastly a discussion of the article and how it relates to oral communication is presented.

Oral Communication

Oral communication is defined as "communication by word of mouth" ("WordNet," n.d.). Synonyms include: speech and spoken language.

Polkosky's (2009) article, Politically Speaking... And Reacting, recounts a personal episode the author had with a politically motivated robocall. Polkosky is a social-cognitive psychologist and speech language pathologist. Currently working as a human factors psychologist, she "has researched and designed speech, graphic, and multimedia user experiences for more than 12 years" (p. 7). Playing at home with her daughter, her sunny October day was interrupted by a phone call. At first, unsure of what the caller wanted, Polkosky merely caught the angry tone of the caller and a few key buzzwords, including: Pentagon, killed Americans, and leftist agenda. The call ended with a short notation that the preceding message had been paid for by the McCain/Palin campaign. Angry at the interuption and the message, the author uses the opportunity to bring to light key points at how this communication could have been much more effective.

Discussion:

I have been on the receiving end of automated calls like Polkosky describes in her article. Each time, my response was similar to hers in that I was far more irritated than motivated to consider the message that was being given. Reading Polkosky's evaluation of her own reaction, and her suggestions for eliciting a more positive response, I agree with some of her assessment of why she (and I) were so angry after receiving the call. However, I'm not certain her suggestions on the improvement of the communication would truly have created the more positive experience she thinks it will.

First, I agree that the interruption of my personal time alone, for…… [read more]


Therapeutic Communication the Communication O Be Evaluated Thesis

… Therapeutic Communication

The communication o be evaluated took place on February 24, 2009 in the early afternoon. The setting was a residential care facility for the elderly. The conversation took place between me and a patient named Helen. Helen is… [read more]


Communication Nonverbal Communication Can Be Simply Essay

… Communication

Nonverbal communication can be simply defined as communication without the usage of words. This ability is both innate, but it can also be improved through study. The importance of nonverbal communication is increasing more and more as the importance and levels of communication increase. NVC is best revealed through body language, such as grimaces, gesticulation or voice intonations. Alongside with dances, moves, the food we eat or serve, the clothes we wear (uniform for instance make a statement of authority) they make up forms of nonverbal communication (Exploring Nonverbal Communication).

A homogenous community generally uses the same forms of NVC, but when entering a new community, it may be difficult for one to grasp at first the features of their body language. This situation then raises the necessity to understand the concept of nonverbal communication across different cultures. Most of the differences are determined by the cultural background. The most relevant example may be the expression of emotions in the Middle East and in Asia. While the people in the first region will mourn openly, enjoy loudly or feel pain to its maximum, the Asian cultures impose restrictions…… [read more]


Cross Cultural Communication in Bennett's Interview Research Proposal

… ¶ … Cross Cultural Communication

In Bennett's interview with O'Bryan, the latter explained that cross cultural communication between two groups of designers was difficult, not only because the two groups spoke different languages, but also because the designers were located in two different spatial locations, and had to communicate through interactive media. O'Bryan describes how two groups of designers -- one from the U.S. And one from Cuba -- were able to work together collaboratively on a project regarding their dreams, the importance of their dreams, and what influenced their dreams. The intercultural aspect posed some problems, like the ones above, while also providing for some achievements, such as a product that reflected the unique cultural contributions of both groups. Viewed in light of Baldwin and Robert's chapter regarding shared meaning and the efficiency of communication, one can understand how the cross-cultural designers faced some problems. Because Baldwin and Robert discuss one theory, Semiotics, which suggests that a thing has no inherent meaning, that meaning must be given to a thing, it is easy to understand that the Cubans and the Americans did not share meaning. What induced certain…… [read more]


Interpersonal Communication the Advancement of Technology Essay

… Interpersonal Communication

The advancement of technology as well as the interdependence of the people on technology has created a world where many essential interpersonal communications occur via the telephone or other electronic means. As a result of this phenomenon many… [read more]


Personal Statement Research Proposal

… Personal Statement

For the past five years I have had a strong interest in Communications Sciences and Disorders. It began when I met a small boy named David who lived next door to me. I watched his speech therapist work with him and became fascinated. I talked to her afterwards, and it was then that I knew this was the career for me. Her responses were so insightful, and I could see in her eye the joy she felt.

Ever since that day, I have pursued speech pathology as a career. Before college, I had the opportunity to observe speech therapists at my mother's day care. The effect this had on me was to strengthen my resolve to pursue speech therapy. I was especially taken by the care these therapists took to help the children, and was moved by the profound impact that they had on their lives. It occurred to me that it was this ability to help people in such a simple yet powerful way was the reason speech therapy attracted me so much.

Once I entered college, I was fortunate enough to have taken classes with some truly exceptional professors. The knowledge and passion that they gave me reinforced how wonderful this calling is. Towards the end of the program, that point was driven home to me. We, the SLP students, had the opportunity to observe speech pathologists at work. We watched them work with their clients, and wrote logs about what we saw. I studied the way that they were able to devote such acute attention to all sorts of patients. They worked with stroke victims, stutterers and laryngectomy patients. The work that they did was phenomenal. I knew then that this was the perfect choice for me. Nothing would make me prouder than to be one of them, and be able to reach people in this…… [read more]


Communication Is Integral Term Paper

… Communication is integral and essential to any human relationship and especially between health care workers and their patients. Even when a language barrier is present, patients and their doctors can try to communicate issues related to symptoms, pain, treatment options, and concerns. However, language barriers do pose a major obstacle in all human communications. Doctors and their patients who speak different languages must be highly sensitive. When translators are unavailable, we must rely on non-verbal communication including facial expressions and gestures. Therefore, the most important aspect of communication is not necessarily the language itself. In fact, what a person says and what that person means are often two entirely different things. Tone of voice, body language, and other non-verbal cues signal what is in many cases far more information than words themselves.

One of the most important aspects of communication if not the most important is clarity. A person should always aim to convey a message clearly, with cues that match the receiver's level of expertise, expectations,…… [read more]


Team Communication Term Paper

… ¶ … team communication.

Specifically it will address both the benefits and challenges of working in teams in relationship to team communication, and examine how teams can enhance their performance in the team communication topic. Team communication is critical to ensure that each team member understand the goals of the organization and are working toward those goals. In addition, good team communication means that if there are questions or concerns about the goal, they are addressed before the team moves forward.

It is clear the benefits of good team communication are many. The team is on the same page, but understanding and sharing common goals also can make the team stronger and more effective in reaching those goals, because it makes all the team members feel valued and necessary to the final outcome. The benefits to working in teams and using team communication are boundless, but as with any activity, there are also challenges when developing team communication in teams.

First, it may be helpful to define teamwork. Three authors note, "A team has been defined as 'a distinguishable set of two or more people who interact, dynamically, interdependently and adaptively toward a common and valued goal/objective/mission'" (Schraagen, Chipman, & Shalin, 2000, p. 404). Thus, any team communication should be open and feel safe to the team members, and this could be a challenge in developing honest communication that includes disagreement and discussion. It should also be designed so the team members can interact effectively and work toward that common goal the team knows and shares.

Good team communication can be extremely valuable in any team environment, but much of the communication depends on how team members perceive their team leader, and what kind of communication tactics the team leader uses. An overly aggressive team leader may hinder communication and discussion by commanding the team members, rather than listening or working with them. On the other hand, a meek team leader may also hinder communication in that they do not encourage communication or discussion because they are afraid of feedback or negative criticism. Either way, the team will be negatively affected. Thus, a vital element of team communication is the team leader's communication style and techniques, so any team development must consider the team leader's communication style when the team is formed.

There are several different characteristics of open communication in teams. The communication should be honest, specific, accurate, logical, concise, complete, and relevant. Communication that contains all these elements consistently will result in cleared and better communication throughout the team, and should lead to the long-term achievement of goals and objectives. Open communication must always allow for feedback, as well, so that all the team members know what communication and goals are working, and what are not. Without feedback, the communication chain is incomplete, and eventually it will break down ("Team communication," 2008).

Team members share responsibility in team communication, as well. They must be open-minded, they must listen effectively, they should make sure everyone is heard, and they… [read more]


Nonverbal Communications of Celebrities George W. Bush Term Paper

… Nonverbal Communications of Celebrities

George W. Bush:

President George W. Bush is not a particularly skilled verbal communicator.

Consequently, he has apparently learned to make the most of nonverbal communication skills to augment his spoken words. Whether or not the… [read more]


Exceptional Children Term Paper

… Treating Language Disorders in Adults and Children

There are many differences between treating language disorders between adults and children. For children, the use of language intervention activities is very common, these exercises use a specialized language specialist to interact with the child through play. Therapists use repetition exercise that depend on books, pictures and ongoing series of events to stimulate the child's language development. In addition, children who have not had a long time to develop articulation will be engaged in articulation therapy which includes exercises where the therapist can model correct sounds and syllables. Adults with language disorders are typically neurological in nature and can not use the same methods. Instead, they require specific treatment steps such as RHD or Wernicke's aphasia.

Augmentative and assistive devices are ways to help improve communication abilities. Describe how these alternative communication techniques can be chosen and used effectively.

Augmentative and alternative communication devices can be very helpful, but AAC needs to be carefully selected to be helpful. AAC should be chosen to fit the degree of language disorders. The more sophisticated the machinery, the greater the learning curve and the expense of the AAC. Some individuals only need very…… [read more]


Communication Between Different Cultures Term Paper

… Communication Differences Between Cultures

The American culture is a culture that is very diverse in nature. There are some people living within the American culture that feel more strongly they are part of their ethnic heritage than they are part of the greater "American" culture (Samovar, Porter & McDaniel, 2006a). I believe people who think they are "American" tend to believe they can communicate openly and freely, without emphasizing too much in the way of "formality" when it comes to communicating with others.

Much of what I understand of the American culture is a product of my educational upbringing, and the way my family raised me. School, especially during the early years, influences ones attitudes and beliefs, creating a culture of its own. Interestingly, people also have the opportunity to learn more about other cultures, and the way people of other cultures communicate, when attending school. I also learned about our "open-style" as I would describe it "culture" from my peers. Within every culture, including the American culture, there are "subcultures" (Samovar, Porter & McDaniel, 2006a, p.3). These are people that tend to hold strongly to a belief system, or tend to communicate somewhat differently than one might expect from the mainstream culture. Consider for example, an African-American, who may live in America and adopt the American cultural lifestyle, but also pay homage to their ethnic culture. This may require they communicate more formally when speaking with their elders for example.

What is most difficult to understand about the American culture is its diversity. In most other cultures, there is a "set," standard, or practice when it comes to communication. This is not the case in America, because there are people of so many different ethnicities and belief systems that live within this culture. The combination of these beliefs and ethnic groundings forms the basis of our culture.

Samovar, Porter & McDaniel (2006) note in their work, Intercultural Communication: A Reader, that communication with people of diverse cultures is no longer something to ponder, it is, "a fact of life" (p. 2). There are many ways intercultural communication can affect one's personal and professional life, especially depending on what the emphasis of communication is (Samovar, Porter & McDaniel, 2006b). I think the more I embrace diversity and make an effort to learn about different cultures, including the way members of other cultures communicate and interact with one another, I will have an easier time establishing rapport and friendship with diverse people (Samovar, Porter & McDaniel, 2006a).

If my professional life requires that I travel abroad or work…… [read more]


Intercultural Communication Is an Academic Field Term Paper

… Intercultural Communication is an academic field of study which aims to look at how people from different cultures interact with each other. Various other fields also contribute to the body of knowledge of intercultural communication, namely Anthropology, psychology, communication and… [read more]


Cross-Cultural Communications for Managers Term Paper

… ¶ … Cross-Cultural Communications for Managers

It is essential for business managers to be aware of the importance behind cross-cultural communication. The consequences of not being aware can be costly for American corporations. Munter (1993, p. 10) states that the cost of failed overseas assignments for American corporations exceeds $2 billion dollars per year. Due to such high costs it is necessary for American businesses to consider training their managers in cross-cultural communication.

In order to be effective cross-cultural communicators, American managers must perform the following seven activities: they must set communication objectives, choose a communication style, improve their credibility, select and motivate their audiences, decide upon an appropriate message strategy, overcome language difficulties, and become familiar with the proper nonverbal behaviors. As far as setting communication objectives, managers must become aware of how different cultures view time frames and the achievement of objectives. This means that some cultures may view future events and destinies as being under one's control while others may believe that these things are predetermined and thus uncontrollable.

As far as choosing a communication style, managers have to choose based on discovering whether the society they are in is democratic or not. This is important to know because certain styles are better suited for democratic societies while other styles are more appropriate for autocratic societies. Another way of choosing is for managers to discover whether a culture values individualism or collectivism because individualistic cultures require styles different from those required by collectivist cultures.

As far as improving one's credibility, this means managers have to know how their hierarchical power, personal goodwill, expertise, image, and values will affect their audience. Different cultures emphasize on different facets of credibility over others; for example one's hierarchical power may be important to one culture while one's level of expertise may be more important to another. In terms of selecting and motivating one's audience, certain factors are involved.…… [read more]


Gender Communications Verbal and Non Term Paper

… Gender Communication

Most people are aware of the potential personal and social conflicts associated with communications between genders. Many would say that the issue of gender communication, or in some cases miscommunication occurs because of the perceived power conflicts between… [read more]


Oral Communication Courage Is Resistance to Fear Term Paper

… Oral Communication

Courage is resistance to fear, mastery of fear -- not absence of fear.

Except a creature be part coward it is not a compliment to say it is brave; it is merely a loose application of the word.… [read more]


Interpersonal Communication Here Culture Term Paper

… Interpersonal Communication

Here

Culture in interpersonal communication

Interpersonal communication lies at the junction of our cultural understanding and construction and consequently, each of these components influences one another in more ways we can imagine. Language is perhaps the most pertinent… [read more]

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