Study "Communication / Speech" Essays 111-163

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Communication the Application Term Paper

… At the same time, if people shared no common features, they would not be capable of communicating at all. In this theory, the purpose of communication is to increase identification with one another.

To consider this theory in practice, one can consider two individuals from different cultural backgrounds trying to resolve their difference. In this case, both language and their present place are common. That is, the two people both live in the same society at the same time. The difference between the two people is that their backgrounds have given them different cultural beliefs. The communication or rhetoric is designed to allow both people to understand the other and their differences. If this can be achieved, the two people will identify with each other more.

This concludes the consideration of the five communication theories. By showing practical examples of each theory, it has been seen that each one can be applied to real situations in everyday life. In this way, communication theories are able to increase our understanding of the processes that make up our lives.

Works Cited

Dow, B.J. & Tonn, M.B. "Feminine Style and Political Judgment in the Rhetoric of Ann Richards." Quarterly Journal of Speech, 79(1993), 286-302.

McLuhan, M. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Men. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964. [read more]

Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in Austria Interoffice Term Paper

… Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in Austria


This short memo gives a brief overview of challenges to effective verbal and nonverbal communication in Austria. This understanding of potential challenges is important in enhancing communication with Austrians.

With the advent of globalization, the world is becoming increasingly interconnected. People often interact with individuals from other countries in the course of their business and personal lives. As such, the issues that foster and can cause problems with communication between cultures become increasingly important (Countrywatch).

Verbal and nonverbal communication in Austria, as in most other countries, relies on a complex set of interactions. There are five main obstacles to intercultural communication and understanding in Austria. These are language, non-verbal cues, preconceptions and stereotypes, a tendency to evaluate or judge, and anxiety or stress (Countrywatch).

Language is the most obvious potential stumbling block for communication in Austria. The Austrian language, obviously, is much different from that of English. However, variations in connotation and context can be especially problematic, even when the dictionary meaning of a word is understood (Countrywatch).

Non-verbal cues also play an important role in potential communication difficulties. "People from different cultures inhabit non-verbal sensory world" (Countrywatch), as they interpret information in the framework of their own culture (Countrywatch). Non-verbal communications like gestures, postures, and vocalizations are often easy to learn, while status, time and spatial relations, and forms of respect are much more difficult to recognize for those outside Austrian society (Countrywatch).

Preconceptions and stereotypes about Austrian society can also be a barrier to communication (Countrywatch). For example, outsiders often equate Austrian culture with German cultural stereotypes of racism, stubbornness, and intolerance.

Similarly, the outsider's tendency to evaluate or judge, coupled with anxiety about uncertainties can trouble communication attempts (Countrywatch). To the outsider, their mother culture is correct and natural, while Austrian culture can seem foreign. Often, this leads to a tendency to judge the actions and feelings of Austrians, rather than attempting… [read more]

Communication Non-Verbal Communication the Show Was CSI Term Paper

… Communication

Non-Verbal Communication

The show was CSI: Miami, an episode featuring the shooting of a rap artist's security guard. The communication between characters in this show, both verbal and non-verbal is largely based on the job, and on the seriousness of the job. There is little banter or personal discussion between the characters; it is all based on looking for criminals and searching for clues. Some of the non-verbal situations included questioning a suspect, where the main character (David Caruso) did not even look at the suspect but instead stood with his back to him looking out a window as he asked the questions. At first, this character was quite glib and nonchalant about his involvement in the shooting, but as the questions got more probing, his face changed and he became more serious. At first, he was smiling, showing his teeth a lot, grinning, and his eyes were big, and he used his hands as he talked. When he got frightened, his manner changed, it was even more obvious when watching the show with no sound.

During this scene, it was clear how his manner changed as the questioning intensified. His eyes narrowed, he did not smile or grin, and he seemed to get "smaller" in the chair. He seemed to disappear inside himself, somewhat. It was clear he was frightened. Through it all, the two detectives doing the questioning remained impassive and direct - to the point. They did narrow in on the suspect when his manner changed, but their manner did not change that much. They seemed like one-dimensional characters that existed only to solve crimes. Their lack of interaction with each other except about the case made them uninteresting, and made most of their communication styles the same. In fact, they seemed bored or boring at times, and if they had been through so many murders, they were jaded by the entire experience. There were looks of boredom or disinterest on their faces, and they had little facial or body movement to show great interest or great involvement. They seemed stiff and wooden somehow, and their non-verbal body language, what there was of it, helped to convey this message.

The second scene involved two investigators gathering up… [read more]

Bridging the Gap (Between Communication Term Paper

… Despite the fact that women's opportunities for education, training, and advancement have opened up in recent years, women still retain their feminine communication style. It shows no signs of going away. While men in Mexico will eventually learn the American way of business, their feminine communication style is not apt to disappear either, since it, too, is based on the underlying value they place on human relationships and family, rather than on profit and materialism. As Kraus points out, American business men in Mexico can offer training courses and workshops that will help Mexicans to develop business management skills, particular practical applications and problem-solving. American businessmen can learn tact and to avoid hurt feelings. They can refrain from openly criticizing employees in front of others and allow them to save face whenever possible. They can reap the benefits of Mexican trustworthiness, loyalty, and reliability. Recognizing that family and relationships are important, they can inquire about the health and well-being of the family and take an interest. These are not such difficult things to do, merely modifications in communication style. Likewise, Mexicans can modify their communication habits too. They can learn to politely disagree with superiors, for example, and to give bad news where necessary. Although long-term planning is very difficult for Mexicans because of unstable economic and political conditions, they can learn to more accurately estimate the time when a job will be complete taking into account events that might slow things down. With understanding and effort on both sides, trust (and bigger profits) can develop between the two cultures.


Kras, E.S. (1995). Management in two cultures: Bridging the gap between U.S. And Mexican managers. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.

Tannen, D. (1995).… [read more]

Non-Verbal Communication Term Paper

… Communication between persons located in distant places can also happen like a normal "face-to-face" conversation via video cameras that can send live video feed of people online.

Aside from the material things that provide means of non-verbal form of communication, we ourselves can communicate non-verbally even without the computer or anything. Perhaps the most common form of non-verbal communication in our selves is our facial expressions, body language and gestures, and emotion. An online source indicates that 55% of communication is done through facial expressions. Everything2 online further indicates that

The face can be used very successfully to display six basic emotions: anger, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise, and disgust. When photographs are taken of people showing these expressions in their faces, experiments have shown that the emotions represented by those expressions can be easily identified by Westerners. Further research has shown that these expressions appear to apply similarly to many different culture around the world, and the emotions can be as easily identified by individuals from those cultures.

From the observations mentioned in this paper, I have learned that communication is a process that can be done in diverse formats. The important thing to consider is not on how the communication process is done but on how information can be conveyed. Either verbally or non-verbally, the information that communication contains needs to be delivered in a way that the receiving party must fully understand, and there are diverse methods of communication that I have found to attain this.


Nonverbal Communication.

Web site:

Nonverbal Communication.

Web site: [read more]

Importance of Nonverbal Communication in Management Term Paper

… ¶ … Nonverbal Communication in Management

The passing on of information from one person to other is called communication. About 75% of our hours where we are awake is used up in conveying our knowledge, feelings and dreams with others.… [read more]

Communication Letters Are Historically the Standard Term Paper

… Communication

Letters are historically the standard way for businesses to communicate, along with internal memos. Letters can be carefully written, with every word chosen. The information can be re-written and organize it in exactly the way the writer wants to communicate. However, they are slow, taking several days to reach their destinations through the Post Office, and for a large mailing are expensive because of stationery, envelope, production and postage costs.

Phone calls work well to communicate because the phone call takes place in real time. Both parties can contribute to the conversation, and any misunderstandings can be cleared up immediately. However, the caller can't maintain control of the message as he or she can with a letter, and often the person you want to talk to isn't available to come to the phone when you call. Sometimes it can take a couple of days for both people to be available at the same time. Conference calls can include more than one other person but must be scheduled to ensure that everyone will be available.

Email can be an efficient way to contact other people because the sender can choose the time to write and send it, while the recipient can choose the time to read and respond to it. Email provides nearly instant delivery. However, email often isn't written as carefully as letters are, and misunderstandings can occur because of that. In addition, while some people use email extensively, others may not read their email promptly. Security may be a problem for sensitive matters depending on how each person's computer system is configured.

Online meetings can be an effective way to bring people together when they are separated geographically. When a video feed is included, the communicants get most of the benefits of face-to-face meetings, as they can see facial expression and body language as well as the actual words. Individuals can use graphics, such as charts, to communicate their points. However, at the present time such communication systems are expensive, and setting such a meeting up requires coordination of all participants' schedules, because it takes place in real time.

Face-to-face meetings are useful for discussing delicate matters in private. They are also suitable for meetings when all the people involved… [read more]

Role of Communication in Cross Term Paper

… Instead the cross cultural communication is fostered through the promising vocalization with due emphasis on encouragement, affirmation, acknowledgement and phrasing requests clearly or advancing opinions thoughtfully. The effective cross cultural communication depends upon the elasticity, malleability and liberalism. The awareness,… [read more]

Personal Statement in Communication Studies Term Paper

… Personal Statement

Describe the communication theories, philosophies, and research areas you find compelling. What is it about these ideas that you find most interesting?

Imagine this scenario: a competent, intelligent and forcefully speaking woman stands in the hallway, engaged in a professional debate with a male colleague. This woman has learned, through the process of her undergraduate education and from various assertiveness training courses, how to comport herself in an articulate fashion, using direct statements of address, and never apologizing for her expressed opinions. She speaks, she hopes, not like a man but to a man in a way that he will take her opinions seriously. She hopes she still retains her identity as a woman without compromising her professional ethics. Yet she is filled with a creeping awareness that her colleague is not listening to her and does not take her seriously in this interpersonal scenario -- but she does not know why?

Imagine another situation. A Japanese and a Lebanese businessman are engaged in a discussion over the boardroom table during a complex series of negotiations. Their translators are competent, and the Lebanese man has been warned beforehand that quite often a Japanese 'maybe' is an emphatic 'no,' and the Japanese man has been told that quite often his Arab friend will say 'no' when he means 'yes,' as a way of traditional bargaining common to Middle Eastern and Mediterranean society. In fact, the Lebanese man may argue, even in agreement, simply as a cultural style and method of expression.

Yet despite their mutual awareness of their cultural differences, both men walk away from the table feeling dissatisfied with what has just transpired. The Lebanese man feels as if the discussion was circuitous, the Japanese man feels bombarded and imposed upon by the way that his colleague expressed himself during this round of negotiations. He was prepared to be disappointed, but not quite this bruised and battered, in terms of his ego.

These puzzles in communication show that current research regarding gender and cultural differences in communication, including different gender styles and cultural styles of expression, while compelling, leaves out a fundamental element. That element is nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication is often giving a passing reference in texts, perhaps because it is so difficult to quantify and address in print. But in modern life, conversationally and professionally, much takes place on a sub-textual level, rather than an overt, denotative, level, and what gives modern dialogue its most profound subtext is body language.

Because body language is so little regarded in academic settings and writings, and even in many verbal 'empowerment' courses, an individual can be well versed in talking the talk of the other gender or culture he or she is interacting with, but not walking the walk, so to speak.

The woman cited… [read more]

Communication Effective Term Paper

… However, Fayol's statement is still applicable in the present state of business communications. In fact, his call for effective oral communication is more vital than ever, since business communications nowadays has become the core of conducting business, with the proliferation of information -- and service-oriented businesses. Despite the convenience of communication technologies, there are still important features of oral communication that makes it an imperative in business communications.

Kreitner (1995) takes into account two (2) important features of oral communication that is not sufficiently accomplished through e-mail, instant messaging, and other forms of communication technology. He considers "personal barriers" such as non-verbal communication as an important feature to consider when conducting business with other people. The lack of physical interaction between two people or among members of the organization results to inefficient communication and decision-making, primarily because people cannot "see the expressed idea and attitude from the other person's point-of-view, to sense how it feels to him, to achieve his frame of reference in regard to the thing he is talking about" (389).

Another important feature of oral communication that cannot be effectively substituted by communication technology is semantics -- that is, the degree of understanding that the communicator has in deciphering the message given him/her by another communicator. Semantic meaning becomes complicated when messages are sent through e-mail, since communication in this medium is asynchronous, and instant messaging, wherein there is not enough interaction to make meaningful understanding of message.

Work cited:

Kreitner, R. (1995). Organizational Behavior. Chicago: Richard D.… [read more]

Organizational Behavior - Communication Term Paper

… When a choice is given, many employees worldwide would preferably talk to their computer than to their supervisor. The impersonal character of e-mail communication permits for the employees to suggest his or her opinion without instantaneous consequences like inquisitive questions… [read more]

Nonverbal Communication in 1969 Term Paper

… Words together with action can be coordinated from person-to-person. These researchers state that coordination takes place with respect to the other person's speech duration and speech rate. In brief, if somebody is speaking loud and using their hands, this is… [read more]

Communication and Interaction Term Paper

… Almost all of the doctors, nurses, assistants, and other medical staffs have shown respect to each other. They demonstrated the capability of dealing with each other courteously and professionally. Despite of the differences in their work positions and status, most of them regard each other as colleagues who have the right to be heard and respected. By carrying out an effective communication style in dealing with each other, it is obvious in the work process and work flow of the hospital that its staffs work harmoniously with each other. Thus, providing an effective performance of their respective responsibilities and delivering a valuable service to their patients.

Some regarded that to be able to communicate effectively, the ability to persuade must come with communication. Moreover, anyone who has the ability to persuade others through communication has the gift of becoming a leader. Persuasive communication must be tied with leadership to allow a leader guide and lead his members with full cooperation from them. Without persuasive communication, a leader may not be able to lead this organization into the right potential that he might have in mind. Dr. Michael Cozzens, in his Persuasive Communication for Leaders, explains this further, stating that Effective Leaders must be effective communicators. Most communication in organizational settings involves persuasion. Thus, to reach your full leadership potential in an organization you must understand and effectively engage in persuasive communication.


Clark, D. 2000. Leadership - Communication.

Retrieved on 19 October 2004, from NWLINK.COM.

Web site:

Cozzens, M. Persuasive Communication for Leaders.

Retrieved on 19 October 2004, from Biola.Edu. Web site: [read more]

Effective Communication Skills in Resolving Emotional Conflicts Term Paper

… Effective Communication Skills in Resolving Emotional Conflicts

Effective communication is very important in today's society and nowhere is this more true than in the area of resolving emotional conflicts. Is very important to develop strong communication skills in conflict management… [read more]

Personal Communication Skills, as Exemplified Term Paper

… He has had cameo appearances in a number of movies, including the Contender, Ghostbusters, and America's sweethearts (

Today, personal communication skills are more valuable than ever. We live in a world that depends upon effective communication economically, politically, personally, socially, and at almost every other way imaginable. We are connected by communications technologies that include traditional telephone lines, the Internet, fax machines, traditional one-on-one communication, radio, TV, cellular telephones.

As an individual, personal communication skills are necessary to navigate our interconnected and often complex society. Personally, we must use communication effectively to establish meaningful interpersonal relationships. Similarly, we must use our personal communication skills to build effective and profitable business relationships. These skills can help us find a position, excel in that position, and meet our personal goals and the goals of our employers.

It is through the examples of outstanding personal communicators like Larry King that we can gain insight into the most essential in effective communication skills. In King's book, How to Talk to Anyone, Anytime, Anywhere, he notes that practice is an important component of successful verbal communication. This is true, he notes, even for those with a gift for gab. It is practice, argues King, that turns a natural talent into a useful and potentially marketable skill.

Further, King notes that there are four important basics to successful conversation. These are: honesty, a good attitude, interest in another person, and openness about yourself (King). Without these skills, notes King, it will be difficult to connect in a meaningful way to your audience.

In conclusion, personal communication skills are a valuable commodity in today's connected world. Larry King provides a shining example of the effectiveness of such skills in a professional level. His example can provide us with an understanding of communication skills that are essential for both are professional and personal success.

Works Cited Larry King. 11 October 2004.

King, Larry. How to Talk to Anyone, Anytime, Anywhere: The Secrets of Good

Communication. Three Rivers Press, 1995. [read more]

Communication Experiences Nonverbal vs. Verbal Term Paper

… Communication Experiences: Nonverbal vs. Verbal

Can See What You're Thinking

Role as Employee

The communicative situation entails that I entered my employer's office in my capacity as employee. In terms of space, the office was arranged in a fixed manner,… [read more]

Interpersonal Non-Verbal Communication Observation Term Paper

… One woman, for example, came striding out of the arrival gate and without a break in her stride headed for the nearest exit, indicating that this was a familiar routine. In stark contrast, an old couple came out and immediately looked around as if they were expecting someone to meet them. Sure enough, a young woman soon came running up, waving to attract their attention. On spotting the young woman, the old couple's faces immediately lit up, wreathed in smiles, which indicated that this was a meeting of close relatives. But perhaps the most interesting observation was to watch a middle aged woman who came out and began looking around. Her face wore an obviously anxious expression and soon, it was obvious that she wasn't expecting to be met but instead was studying the signs to determine her next moves. She also kept glancing down at a piece of paper in her hand, which seemed to contain some instructions. Finally, she stopped a passerby and spoke to him, nodding every now and then at whatever he was saying, post which she began finally moving towards one of the exits.

In conclusion, undertaking the exercise of observing non-verbal communication at the airport was highly valuable as it helped raised one's consciousness of the world of expression inherent in people's body language and facial expressions.

Works Cited

Collier, G & DiCarlo, D. "Emotional Expression." Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum

Associates, 1985.

Dunn, L.J. "Nonverbal Communication: Information Conveyed Through the Use of Body language." Missouri Western State College. Accessed Apr. 29, 2004:

Harris, T.E. "Applied Organizational Communication: Perspectives,

Principles, and Pragmatics." Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1993.

Mortensen, C.D. & Sereno, K.K. "Foundations of Communication Theory." New York: Harper & Row, 1970. [read more]

Communication Discussion Discuss One Principle Term Paper

… Explain what difference, if any, the practice of that principle has made for you? For anyone else?

For myself, respecting the differences of others has been a crucial advance in my hopefully life-long communication education. I am less apt to take diverse viewpoints as gestures of negativity than I was before. It is tempting, in a self-centered fashion, to assume because another person has a different point-of-view, or even a different lifestyle than you, that this is somehow a threat or a challenge to one's own set of core values. I have come to realize, slowly, through more effective communication, that even in a state of disagreement, I can still hold my own points-of-view without having to directly challenge or change the views of the other individual I am discussing them with.

Sometimes, the most effective way to truly change someone's mind is simply an exchange, rather than contention. The practice of respecting the diversity of viewpoints can be seen, when practiced in a positive light, to be an instrument of tolerance and peace, as is evidenced by its potential to be used during conflict mediation sessions between warring peoples during treaty negotiations, as well as negotiating on a personal level, between spouses, significant others, and friends and housemates, about issues of conflict around the world and around the home.

If you could change one piece of your communication personality, what would it be?

I think I have grown more aware of the importance of learning through diversity. However, on matters of personal excellence, I admit it is difficult to avoid being thin-skinned. Sometimes it is easier to debate an objective issue of politics or values, than to receive criticism about one's writing or one's academic performance. I wish, emotionally, I were less thin-skinned. Also, although criticism can be helpful, and remains a vital tool of learning, it can be difficult not to interpret fellow classmates feedback as negative responses. [read more]

Communication Transactional Analysis Model Term Paper

… Management must try not to evoke the controlling parent or adaptive child side of their employees' in order to keep communication channel opens and to avoid conflicts.


Verbal and nonverbal communication both form important parts of overall effective communication. While we are familiar with what is meant by verbal communication, it is the nonverbal communication that puzzles us since it can be ambiguous in nature causing conflict and confusion. Verbal communication refers to communication that makes use of a language that two people understand. Nonverbal on the other hand refers to cues, symbols and signals that people may make use of in place of verbal communication but mostly to augment verbal messages. LAUREL J. DUNN (1998) defines as the "mode for conveying messages without the use of verbal language. It may enhance or detract from a verbal communication. It regulates relationships by affecting the likelihood of introduction and continued interaction. We are able to infer emotion through nonverbal communication and influence other's perception of our competence, power and vulnerability. It also plays a role in the perception of the actual message we are trying to convey."

Verbal messages can be enhanced or made more effective with the help of nonverbal communication. For example when an employee does his work well and requires positive reinforcement, it is important to mix verbal message with some nonverbal signal such as a pat on the shoulder or a thumbs-up. This gesture strengthens verbal message and makes it more effective. However when not used properly, nonverbal communication can contradict a verbal message instead of reinforcing it. These messages are usually interpreted in relation to verbal ones. In short, both verbal and nonverbal communication play important role in making organization communication effective. If we want to avoid organizational conflicts that arise from misunderstanding and misinterpreting different messages, it is important to understand the significance of both verbal and nonverbal communication and the effect one has on the other.


James, Muriel: Transactional Analysis for Moms and Dads. Addison-Wesley. Reading, 1974

Laurel J. Dunn Communication: Information Conveyed Through The Use Of Body Language, Department Of Psychology, Missouri Western… [read more]

Nonverbal Communication Interpersonal Term Paper

… There is evidence that overweight people have less of a chance of success than thinner people, who are perceived as more attractive.

According to Borrell (2003), studies suggest that colleges discriminate against overweight people. Obese high school students are less likely to be accepted into a prestigious college than normal weight students of equal intelligence. In addition, overweight people may be discriminated against on the job. In a recent study, employers rated obese employees as less desirable when compared to normal weight employees of equal ability.

Obese job applicants are often perceived as having poorer work habits, higher absences, and more likely to get ill than thinner applicants (Borrell, 2003). After watching videotaped job interviews of several applicants with equal qualifications, people rated obese applicants as: less qualified; less likely to be hired; having poorer work habits; more likely to fake an illness and stay home from work; more likely to have emotional problems; and more likely to have problems with coworkers.

According to Borrell, "44% of employers said they would not hire an obese person under some circumstances; another 16% said they would not hire an obese person under any circumstance."

The nonverbal implications associated with overweight people extend to social settings, as well as business ones. There is a discrimination against overweight people when it comes to finding a suitable husband or wife. Studies show that obese women in their 20's are 20% less likely to be married than normal weight women. Obese men of the same age were 11% less likely to be married. According to Borrell, "college students would rather marry a cocaine user, a shoplifter, and a communist before they would marry an obese person."

Due to the fact that many overweight people suffer from low self-esteem and poor body image, their body language can work against them. Body language can "speak" volumes and potentially lead to miscommunication in both social and business settings. For example, a person who is ashamed of their physical appearance may have poor posture and slouch during a job interview. This may lead potential employers to believe that the person lacks self-confidence.

Ineffective nonverbal communication presents challenges in all areas of life. After obtaining a job, overweight people who have nonverbal communication may have difficulties following instructions, staying on task, accepting feedback, planning ahead, and demonstrating socially acceptable work behaviors due to others' perceptions of them.

In addition, obese people must worry about another potent form of human nonverbal communication -- smell. Obese people may be more likely to perspire or develop foul odors, which will undoubtedly cause harm to their social and professional lives.


The human body involved in nearly all methods of communication. The body has symbolic meaning to the owners and to others who observe it. When developing body image, people create meanings for their bodies as part of the way they experience the world. People evaluate their bodies, thinking of them as obese or thin, pretty or ugly, and more. Psychological, social and cultural meanings… [read more]

Communication Term Paper

… 76). For instance, in the workplace, an employee pondering of a problem might cause a boss to say, "You do not look busy." Upon hearing this, the employee may interpret this to mean he/she is not working hard enough and get upset. This is a misconception of non-verbal messages. As a result of this, people need to watch not only the words and phrases they use, but also the tone of their voice.. An employee should consider the tone of their message, whether depending on who they are speaking to and when.. Tone is present in all communication activities. Ultimately, the tone of a message is a reflection of the speaker and it does affect how the listener will perceive the message. Tone can sometimes be difficult to consider when it is presented over a technological medium. Unarguably, however, tone can be presented via writing an e-mail message, over the phone, or through a video conference. It is still possible to express tone while using a form of technology.

Alongside tone, word choice also indicates how a message will be translated. In the working world, word choice has two objectives:

Communicating clearly and completely the specific goal of the message

Projecting the goodwill aspect of the speaker through the tone and phrasing of the chosen words

Care in word choice helps us adapt the message to the listerner and reduces the chance of miscommunication. Imporper word choice will lead to the unfornate opposite result -- miscommunication and problems within the conversation, and probably within the company itself.

Word choice can also come through when using technology. Word choice also affects writing, as well as speaking. Diction, we call it when using the written word, comes through strongly depending on what words the author uses. Hence, technology can also be used in this accoung. (

The way a listener percieves language can often depend on the listener's own previous experiences, as well as the way the speaker presents himself or herself. The listener percieves the speaker by examining word choice, verbal communication, and tone, and comes to conlcusions about the speaker and about the speaker's comments as they flow. The way in which tone, verbal communication, and word choice are presented often affect whether or not the message motivates or creates a negative message. If, for example, the speaker uses a negative tone and a pessimistic word choice, chances are that his or her message will not motivate. On the other hand, if the speaker uses a more upbeat word choice alonside an upbeat tone, he or she will be more likely to motivate. If motivation is the key goal, then one must choose his or her communication style very carefully. One ill-fated expression of tone is enough to unmotivate almost any individual.

Works Cited

Alder, J (1999). Work and Communication. New York: NYU Press 2000.

A [read more]

Customer Service, Communication Theory Research Paper

… Interpersonal Communication

Communication consists of the following elements: sender, message, feedback, channel, encoding, decoding and receiver (Chand, 2015). Interpersonal communication refers to communication that takes place between two or more people, using implying communication in person, without media. Each of… [read more]

Use of AAC to Enhance Communication Research Paper

… Augmentative and Alternative Therapy

Calculator, S.N. (2014). Parents' Perceptions of Communication Patterns and Effectiveness of Use of Augmentative and Alternative Communication Systems by Their Children with Angelman Syndrome. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 23(4), 562-573. Doi: 10.1044/2014


Angelman syndrome… [read more]

Effective Communication Strategies Essay

… The experience was life changing as it was conducted professionally, and the interview panel was too rigid. The panelists can give the candidate a feeling of uneasiness, which reduces the candidate's confidence (Macan & Merritt, 2011). I had positive energy, it was hard to remain positive all the time, and the panelists did not affect my confidence level.

The positives of the interview process were the fact that the principal was part of the panel and they continuously reassured me in regards to my answers. The panelists focused mainly on my character as well as on my qualifications, which allowed me to not only demonstrate my education, but also my character. However, the panelists were not clear in their questions, and I had to seek clarification many times. The panelists seemed unprepared for the interview process. This is because they kept shuffling through papers for them to get my CV and certificate copies. The interview was conducted in a hall, which made it hard to communicate with the panelists. There were constant interruptions, which would break a candidate's concentration.

As the principal, the first thing I would change is the location for the interview. This would ensure that the location is secluded, and there are no interruptions. The questions asked by the interview panel should be clear and concise (Guion, Diehl, & McDonald, 2011), which would allow a candidate to answer each question without seeking clarification. Early preparation of the panelists to ensure that they are prepared for the process. If the panelists are prepared, they will have all the documents they need in front of them, and they will not have to keep searching for them amongst their files. As the principal, I would try to make the candidate as calm as possible by giving them reassuring messages during the process.


Conrad, C., & Poole, M.S. (2011). Strategic organizational communication: in a global economy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Guion, L.A., Diehl, D.C., & McDonald, D. (2011). Conducting an in-depth interview.

Macan, T., & Merritt, S. (2011). Actions speak too: Uncovering possible implicit and explicit discrimination in the employment interview process. International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology 2011, Volume 26, 293-337.

Ord, T.J., Charles, G.K., & Hofer, R.K. (2011). The evolution of alternative adaptive strategies for effective communication in noisy… [read more]

Putting Your Best Voice Forward Essay

… Be sure to limit your research to the most salient points of the talk as your focus is to compress the information while retaining information that is both factual and interesting. You should be on the lookout for stories that capture the essence of your topic and that are sufficiently relevant to enable your audience to relate to your message in a positive or poignant way.

Preparing And Organizing The Speech

It is always a good idea to have notes or notecards to which you can refer during your talk. You will want to avoid memorizing your speech, but it is helpful to practice the transitions between the major points as these are often difficult to accomplish smoothly without some rehearsal. Timing your speech is crucial. The best way to do this is to set a stopwatch or a timer for the designated number of minutes that you anticipate your speech will take, or for the time that you have actually been allotted. Practice your speech aloud. You can practice your speech privately, but you will benefit more from rehearsing the speech aloud in front of a supportive person, preferably someone who has the same or similar degree of knowledge about your topic as your eventual audience is likely to possess. Your practice audience can provide feedback that may help you strengthen your speech, so be sure to invite them to make comments.

Making It Interesting

Select or develop interesting visual aids that can enhance your presentation. If you include visuals in your speech, chances are you will be more interested in your own talk, and so will be more enthusiastic and dynamic in your presentation. Enthusiasm for a topic is contagious and will go along ways toward getting the audience on your side.


Bovee, C.L. (2003). Contemporary Public Speaking (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Collegiate Press.

Gardner, J.N. And Jewler, A.J. (2002). Your College Experience. Boston, MA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning. [read more]

Nonverbal Behavior Has James Made? Essay

… As James enters the office, Bob does not give him time, instead he quickly approaches him that he was late and therefore, the order had already been placed with his competitor. I think this response comes too quickly and so does not give James a chance of defending himself to tell Bob why he was late.

Touch-People communicate a great deal through touch. In this case, when James enters Bobs' office, he finds Bob sited with his arms and legs crossed. Bob did not bother standing up to give James a handshake, instead James walked around Bob's desk to extend his hand. I think this was not appropriate because it made James to feel uncomfortable and so there was something wrong.

Rewrite the dialogue to show how you think James should have handled matters

When told by Bob that an order had been placed with another competitor, James would have not overreacted about it; instead he should have just understood everything. Crossing his arms and legs along with increasing his voice in pitch showed that he was pissed off, and therefore he thinks he was the right person to be given that tender. James tells Bob that they have lowered Appleton's prices by 10 to 20%, although he did not give Bob time to comment about it, and so he starts buttoning his coat ah he rise up to leave.

Include at least 3 new nonverbal behaviors from either James or Bob

Use of gestures- Both James and Bob use gestures in their conversations.

Paralinguistic- the use of tone voice is only identified with James. For instance, James' voice changes in speed and pitch after he was told that an order had already been placed.

Body Language and Posture- Posture and movement can convey a great deal on information (Hallett, 2014). For instance, both James and Bob cross their arms and legs while talking to one another.


Cherry, K. (2014). Types of Nonverbal Communication. Major Nonverbal Beahviors. Retrieved July 20, 2014, from a website by URL or keyword...

Hallett, T. (2014). Body Language: Understanding Non-Verbal Communication. Body Language. Retrieved July 20, 2014, from [read more]

Communication Friendship Reaction Paper

… From this premise, he would sometimes attempt to encourage me to talk about any negativity I am experiencing. I experience this as pressure, which would drive me further into my thoughts rather than the intended effect, which is to get me to talk about my issues and remove the negativity. This would sometimes cause friction and a negative communication climate in our relationship.

After the reading, I have decided to improve these cases of negativity by engaging in more self-disclosure. According to the social penetration theory, self-disclosure is an aspect of communication that especially contributes to relationship development. To ensure both our current and future communications, I will therefore make a conscious attempt to suspend some of my tendency towards privacy in the interest of a more trusting relationship with Andrew.

This will form part of my strategies to ensure closeness for me and Andrew. One of the current strategies I use to ensure closeness between me and Andrew is spending a large amount of time together. During these times, I make sure that I suggest activities I know we both enjoy, such as films or video games.

After reading the chapter, one of the strategies I will use to ensure future closeness between me and Andrew will be to confide in him more. As mentioned, I am not naturally trusting in nature, and I prefer to keep my personal life as private as possible. However, in a close relationship like the one I have with Andrew, I will have to be more self-disclosing to ensure that Andrew and I have the same level of trust towards each other.

In conclusion, the reading has made me fully aware of the potential for growth in my friendship with Andrew. I will have to make some modifications to my behavior if I am to ensure that Andrew and I remain close as friends. If I can manage this, our connection and relationship will evolve in the future to become one of the most permanent and fulfilling relationships I have. [read more]

Public School Leadership Begins With Good Communication Skills Essay

… My strength has always been in my ability to listen to others, to research important points of the upcoming discussion before I get into it, and communicate my thoughts and values based on what I see needs to be done or changed in a public school.

When it comes to goal-setting for a school, who should decide what goals the school will pursue? The answer is that every human being on that campus, including custodians (because when they feel like they are actually a part of the school community, they will perform better), should be in on the process.

When the administration -- in collaboration with faculty, students and parents -- decides to set goals for a school in the fall, good communication will help to establish the value of setting goals. Administrators should meet with students in every classroom and fully explain the value a high quality school brings to families and to the community, and that vision, once communicated, inspires students to arrive at their own ideas about what they want to accomplish.

My philosophy is that learning is a shared responsibility and when good communication is practiced and taught by the principal and his administrative staff, the administration in that context become more than leaders, they become role models.

A lot of deep theories and philosophical essays have been written about communication, but there really is nothing new under the sun when it comes to practicing worthy, powerful communication in a public school setting. It works, if it's done correctly. [read more]

Oral Communications (Chapter Summary) Professional Writing

… Communicators are also advised to underline the important information. All the information presented must be documented by making copies and preparing the pages by clipping them (May & May 2012).

Presentation and body contact

The extract further specifies the necessity of being acquainted with the presentation strategy. In this case, the communicator is obliged to practice the speech thoroughly. In order to accomplish this, the extract specifies the necessity of re-reading the speech loudly but privately. This can be achieved if the communicator specifies private secessions for speech practicing. The communicator should also be familiar with time management, and the equipments / devices to be applied in the presentation. This is always done before the presentation (May & May 2012).

As advised, the extract specifies that a good communicator should not attempt to memorize a speech.

The authors have also emphasized on the importance of pre-presentation preparation. In any case, the communicator must make a prior arrangement of the room and check whether all equipments are in place. The room must be prepared earlier before the actual speech day. Secondly, the communicator must ensure that personal appearance appeals to the audience. Dressing in this case must always present a professional corporate outlook. Besides, the communicator must have superior communication skills. Proper eye contact, voice, and body movements are collective considerations that explain the professional level of the communicator. The extract also specifies that the communicator should develop fear management techniques. Therefore, the communicators must ensure the proper orientation of emotional energy. Emotional energy should be directed to ensure that the communicator is energetic, enthusiastic, and convincing. Stage management can be achieved when communicators appreciate their oratory skills, preparing well in advance, and acquainting themselves the materials present.

Special Considerations in Presentations of Financial Information and a Final Word

This part is integral because it explains the clarity of data. The communicator must ensure that presentation that encompasses numbers and tabular data is appropriately presented. Firstly, it is necessary to ensure that the numbers are consistent. Efficiency in communication is achieved by avoiding several revisions and data degeneration. Secondly, the communicators must also ensure that the numbers add up together. This is accomplished via proper development of financial statements. It is also important to ensure that the audience can read the chart and other statistical information. The authors have emphasized that the audience may read data from a computer aided system like Microsoft PowerPoint and projected to a visible platform. Besides, the communicator must research widely regarding positive communication methods (May & May 2012).


This analysis has attempted to establish the imperativeness of planning for a presentation. In this description, planning appropriately for a presentation is essential. Besides, the role played by body language and increased confidence levels minimizes fright incidences during a presentation.


May, C, & May, G.S. (2012). Effective Writing: A Handbook… [read more]

Proj Management 7.2A Term Paper

… There is no time to start instilling this honest communication than the present -- don't guess why Randy did that, ask him.

II. I do not entirely agree with this. First, catered affairs are loaded -- if you are going to do it, do it right. Make sure the food is high quality, because serving lousy food is a great way to disengage the employees. Serve the good stuff and get their attention. But I actually do not think that such meetings encourage honest communication. They encourage many things -- sycophantic communication, and all other sorts of positive communication, but there are few employees who feel that a public setting is the time and place to challenge their bosses, especially in front of other C-suiters. Most executives can't handle the ego shot that comes from being challenged in front of their peers, and most employees are risk averse with respect to communication with senior managers. There are ways to encourage honest communication with the higher-ups, but this is not one of them.

III. As I said earlier, I cannot agree with speculating about Randy's motives for increasing the specs to 32 hours. I would ask Randy, rather than guessing about what he was thinking. We are trying to build a culture of honest communication, and putting words into other people's mouths is not a good way to start with that. In this case, I agree that there is a communication problem and there is probably also a problem with workload for some members. Programming requires a lot of focus, so juggling multiple tasks is clearly slowing people down. If Sid or Randy has a backlog, then that is something where, yes, there can be collaboration between the workers to help ease one worker's backlog. However, the issue could also be skill sets, where Randy or Sid or whoever is overworked because he/she has unique skills. Thus the backlog might not be related to communication but rather related to skills and training. The backlog is only a symptom, and at this point we can only speculate as to the actual root problem. The role of Judy here is not to speculate but to investigate and find out for herself what the real problems are. She is just now learning that there are problems, so before solving them she should take the time to properly understand the problems at their root level, not just the symptom level. Communication is clearly lacking, and Judy needs to spearhead the resolution of the communication problem by engaging in much more communication herself, speaking to the team members individually and then as a group to bring these issues to the fore and get to the root(s) of the problem. [read more]

External Communications, Internal Book Review

… E-mail

Memoranda and other communications are increasingly being replaced or supplemented by e-mail. Like memoranda, the length of emails also varies depending on the nature of the content, and can range from a brief paragraph or two to several pages. The same principles that apply to effective memorandum writing also apply to e-mail, with some additional factors that should be taken into account, including the following:

1. Write a strong subject line;

2. Put important ideas first;

3. Use conventional grammar and mechanics;

4. Address messages carefully;

5. Compose the message as if it will be read by everyone;

6. Remember that there are no "off-the-record" e-mails;

7. Avoid sending junk e-mails; and,

8. Some kinds of messages are better delivered in person.

Text Messaging

Despite its increasing popularity, text messaging remains of limited application to most business settings but when it is used, practitioners should follow the same principles as with e-mails to ensure that unintended communications are not included and the content is appropriate for the intended purpose. An important point made in this chapter was that like e-mails, text messages are stored and can be retrieved at a later… [read more]

Improving a Personal Relationship Identifying Research Paper

… 13). Better (confirming) communication climates arise from better understanding, and appreciation of dialectics. This is so because our attitude towards dialectics determines the type of communication we use, which in turn, determines the communication climate in our interactions. Therefore, the… [read more]

Excellence in the Workplace Term Paper

… Any communication of course entails messages sent and messages received. The actual sending of a message involved "encoding" that message with both verbal and non-verbal cues; and the receipt of a message requires the receiver to decode the message. When a person is sending his or her message, and the receiver looks at a wrist watch, for example, that is a classic non-verbal cue that the communication isn't being received anymore (or the receiver is distracted), Quintanilla continues. Indeed, body language sends strong signals (feedback). That non-verbal cue (looking at a wrist watch) is called "feedback," and the message in this case (verbal) is the "channel" through which the communication was launched. In other words, feedback isn't always given using spoken language; a frown denotes disinterest or disapproval of the message, and when the receiver is fidgeting with a pen, that's a sign the communication is not being reciprocated.

Other channels are of course an email, a snail-mail letter, a text message, and it is up to the sender to determine which channel is the most appropriate for any given attempt at communication. "Vocalics" refers to how people use their voices in communication, the authors explain, and they are basically alluding to the "tone of voice" used. An angry teacher will certainly use a stronger tone of voice when he or she senses the class is out of control. The space between the sender and the receiver is known as "proxemics"; for example, in a business environment the sender could offend the potential receiver if he or she stands too close during the communication, Quintanilla explains. Also, "haptics" in the communication milieu refers to "touch"; a good, firm handshake in a business environment is essential to "making a good first impression," the authors… [read more]

Letter of Recommendation Essay

… This enhances one's capability to begin and handle transformation. Within the collaborative team, acquiring an optimistic attitude including the influence change seems to have on other people plays a role in efficient conflict management as well as handling of arguments;… [read more]

Interpersonal Rel in the Preface Essay

… Listening is often a biased process. We select that which we want to hear, discarding the rest. Some of us do this to favor our self-concept, as when a person offers criticism and we refuse to listen or acknowledge what they are saying. Sometimes, though, the opposite occurs. We only hear the negative aspects of what the person is saying and we may react accordingly. It is important to keep in mind the toxic emotions that come up when we hear things that we do not want to hear, and it is critical to get clarity.

Interpersonal communication is integral to personal and professional life, and is an inescapable area of study. Whether encountered in a formal way, as through research, or in an informal way, as through learning via my culture, interpersonal communication studies will be an ongoing life issue for me. As I travel more and learn about different cultures, I will apply my knowledge of the issues that facilitate good communication vs. The issues that can impede communication. Research is revealing ways that human beings can contend with the most challenging interpersonal issues, as better communication will make the world a better place.


King, D. (2000). Four principles of interpersonal communication. Retrieved online:

McCornack, S. (2010). Reflect and Relate. Bedford/St. Martin's. [read more]

Starting Point Carol Delaney's Dictum That Anthropology Essay

… ¶ … starting point Carol Delaney's dictum that anthropology is an experiential venture, set out to be an anthropologist for a short time. Take one (or more) of the themes we discussed in class so far: time, space, language. Choose… [read more]

Relational Discourse in a Film Research Paper

… Meta communication

Based on DeVito, metacommunication has been "communication which describes many other communications" (2001, p. 136). Quite simply, metacommunication has been making reference to communication. For instance, if two couples sit back to speak about a disagreement they just… [read more]

Law Enforcement Communications Interoperability Discussion Chapter

… A federally led mandate of communication equipment standards may be the best path to achieving greater inoperability amongst services, as well as ensuring a sufficient market for industry to deliver a customized solution.

The solution to the problem of one piece of an equipment able to cover all the varied wavelengths could be solved by standardizing to a single wavelength for emergencies that require collaboration. Localized responses should enable officers to switch frequencies to a reserved band for large-scale emergencies, while still retaining the more commonly used channels for more routine communication. A single use channel for large-scale emergencies ensures that communication clutter and overload does not erode effectiveness.

Although no solution is readily available, a five or ten-year mandate for communication upgrade, as well as a grant program, would ensure that departments begin upgrading and converting to tools that are capable of dealing with the threats to safety encountered today. The video notes that outfitting an ambulance with as many as seven radios can exceed the cost of the vehicle itself (U.S. Dept. Of Justice). While the aggregate cost of upgrading to a standardized set of communication equipment may be daunting, the potential savings may offset much of the cost. Upgrading through attrition also allows the private sector to deliver solutions that may mitigate costs, as well as soften the burden on local emergency services. All equipment eventually wears out, therefore a federal mandate with a time frame for full implementation would go a long way in addressing the communication bottleneck that may cost lives and loss of property.

Works Cited

U.S. Dept. Of Justice. (n.d.). Why Can't We Talk? When Lives Are At Stake. Retrieved 26 Oct., 2012, from Google Videos Web site: [read more]

English Outcome Learning Outcomes Participation Capstone Project

… Accurate summarizations, conversational references, and critical writing of these complex texts are all practiced and honed through this course, and through development of the knowledge and skills necessary to communicate an understanding of these texts greater conceptual understanding is reached. The major practical outcome of this capability is the increased ability to communicate complex information both verbally and in writing in a manner that is understandable and analytical. This has many practical benefits in the military, as concise yet detailed reporting accomplished rapidly through various communication media is required in almost all positions.

The development of persuasive strategies targeting different audiences with varying levels of knowledge and understanding in a given area is also an important learning outcome of this course. Persuasion is much more easily achieved when the arguments and language used are specific to the target audience, such that times is not wasted in explanation for those with a developed understanding of a topic while laypersons receive communication that is informative enough to support understanding. The outlining process is one practical tool that helps to develop this skill for written texts as well as those that will be delivered in a speech or public speaking setting, and the course provides familiarity with different outlining methods to assist in the creation of target-specific language and overall text structures. Persuasion is a useful skill in any setting, and the ability to communicate in a way that presents information in an effective manner can lead to advancement in any career. [read more]

Business Skills -- Personal Evaluation Capstone Project

… Typically, lay audiences require more extensive introductory sections than expert audiences.

• The objective evidence available to support these conclusions includes my successful completion of Tab C-1, English 101 Essay and of Tab C-2, U.S. Army Contracting Recommendation Slides.

Outcome 2 -- Demonstrate introductory college-level proficiency in one or more of the subject areas in mathematics and/or natural sciences.

• I have learned how to use the scientific method to engage in problem-solving in a process that can deduce logical answers to questions about the natural world. For example, in the scientific disciplines, I have learned how to apply the scientific method to formulate testable hypotheses consisting of multiple variables in a systematic problem-solving process. That includes understanding the difference between independent and dependent variables. I have learned how to distinguish testable hypotheses from un-testable (i.e. non-scientific) hypotheses and to use the process of scientific experimentation to construct relevant experiments using dependant and independent variables for the purpose of testing to confirm or to disprove specific hypotheses. This skill has proven useful in non-academic areas as well, because the scientific method actually provides an effective means of answering questions and of excluding illogical conclusions from any given set of factual circumstances.

• I have learned to search online databases to identify relevant literature within legitimate, peer-reviewed journal articles with relevant information to scientific inquiries. That includes learning fundamentally different ways of communicating about scientific subjects depending on whether my audience consists of laypeople or scientific colleagues. When communicating with expert audiences, I know that I can delve into the details and finer points of the topic, whereas with less-knowledgeable audiences, I know that I must present a much more gradual transition from the forest to the leaves. That is important because I have discovered that preparing to deliver communications to audiences of different levels of understanding requires an entirely different process of information gathering, organizing, and presenting.

• The objective evidence available to support these conclusions includes my successful completion of Tab C-2, Geology Lab Project.

Outcome 3 -- Demonstrate introductory college-level proficiency in one or more of the social sciences.

• I have learned to engage in a critical assessment process to distinguish reliable, objective, and credible news sources from unreliable, subjective, and biased sources of news. I have learned how to identify potential inaccuracies and sources of bias in unfamiliar news and information sources. That enables me to examine and cross-reference a wide range of information sources in print and online and to review them critically to determine whether they are [read more]

Sensation and Perception What Experiment A-Level Coursework

… A poll by the Harris Interactive revealed that 47% of teens say their social lives would "deteriorate" or "simply end" without a phone to text with. So the point is teens think they don't need to have face-to-face conversations as long as they can punch the letters on their phone and get a quick response on the screen of the phone.

Psychologist Sherry Turkle's book (Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other) reflects the author's fear that "electronic communication for some can compromise the ability of having a real conversation and to reflect when you're alone" (Turkle, 2011). Moreover, the younger generation in particular is giving human qualities to digital devices and as a result, we're treating other humans as "things," Turkle writes (Goldsborough, 2012). It is also disconcerting for adults that are in the psychology field studying communication when they discover what teens are texting back and forth include "wat's up" and "hangin'" -- about as mindless as a child lashing out at the air with fists when frustrated. What might the future hold? The teen dream is to have cell phones in the shape of sunglasses with software that will let them text without disturbing their ability to "hang out."

THREE: Can we trust our eyes and ears? Can visual perception be fooled?

Certainly people can be fooled by what they think they see, and moreover, when it comes to eye witnesses for a crime, each person is known to see something a little different than what others see. When a courtroom is in the midst of a trial and eyewitnesses are giving testimony, there can be sharp differences between what one person believes he saw and what another person saw. Indeed many people experience what is called "inattention blindness," and this is also what happens when drivers are on cell phones; people driving and talking on the phone have their eyes fixed on an object ahead and yet they don't see the child's tricycle in the road in front of the car. There are some people with the ability to focus attention on the road and all its hazards -- and still be on an important long distance phone call relating to their business investments -- but psychologists have researched this issue and found that conversations distract many people and they should not be on the phone while driving. A red light suddenly turning green can be easily missed by the driver on the phone who is experiencing inattention blindness.

The answer to the question is no, we cannot trust our eyes and our ears, especially when we are engaged in digital communication while attempting to multitask. Trying to solve a math problem while attempting to remember what you were supposed to get at the grocery store may be a lost moment. In conclusion, people who are living busy lives and feel they need to do several things at once should slow down, take one task at a time, and be… [read more]

Disaster Communication Safety International Disasters Research Paper

… The agencies that are in place to offer support will not have important details regarding the precise nature of the disaster, the types of effects, the severity of the dangers, and other information necessary to properly prioritize and execute a rescue plan for those who need it.

Moreover, during disasters, a general reaction of the people affected is to panic. Panic hampers communication as well. People frozen with fear may have trouble calling out for help or responding when help arrives. People who have witnesses graphic events as a result of the disaster may be frozen with shock, unable to communicate their own injuries or the general situation their in for rescue workers and other forms of support. These are examples of ways that communication is impeded during disaster crises. These are also examples impeded communication has upon the rescue efforts during and after the disaster event.

After and in-between disasters are good times for communication among international disaster agencies. Most disasters are not predictable and some that do show signs of impending danger do not always provide adequate time for adequate disaster preparations such as relocation, evacuation, acquisition & distribution of disaster event supplies. Strong, multifaceted, and clearly defined communication channels within an agency and among agencies are critical to the provision of timely and appropriate disaster relief. In the 21st century, technology is an asset to exploit in this regard.

There are substantial and diverse challenges to the development and use of information and communication systems (ICS) in support of effective delivery of humanitarian relief during complex emergencies. These challenges generally go far beyond technology considerations and often relate to core organizational issues of mission, culture, environment, and communication…In order to reduce human suffering in the face of natural disasters and man-made emergencies, organizations need established communication channels, infrastructures, strategies, agreements, education, and training in place in order to adequately respond. The technology component is usually the easiest part. (Maiers et al., 2005,-Page 82)

Developing effective communication is not a matter of technology or matter of knowing the right language. It is a combination of factors that work together as a system. Focusing on communication should improve it such that the consequences of disasters can be mitigated as much as possible because of strong and clear communication among international disaster agencies.


Horsley, PhD, J.S. (2012). Planning for Spontaneity: The Challenges of Disaster Communication Fieldwork. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 11(3), 180 -- 194.

Maiers, C., Reynolds, M., & Haselhorn, M. (2005). Challenges to Effective Information and Communication Systems in Humanitarian Relief Organizations. IEEE… [read more]

Annual Report Within the Context Essay

… These aspects, among others ultimately help contribute the concept of rudeness. This rudeness occurs by simply having a particular employee working more hours that he or she can physically perform. Rudeness becomes particularly profound when the individual is distressed and… [read more]

Team Norms, Author Karten ) Case Study

… These communication norms will respond to the need of team members to not feel detached and isolated from their own team, considering the nature of virtual teams (Kirkman, 2002:par. 25). Technology must be optimized to include applications that would make… [read more]

Managing Conflict Through Communication Why Is Creativity Discussion Chapter

… Managing Conflict Through Communication

Why is Creativity Important in Conflict Management?

Creativity is important in conflict management for a variety of reasons. The most important of these reasons is that it helps conflicts come to equitable, mutually beneficial conclusions much more quickly when creativity is used. Most of us are conditioned to go on the defensive when handling conflicts. This always puts us in an adversarial position to the other person and them to us. If both parties in a conflict are in adversarial positions, they will have a hard time coming to a pleasant conclusion to the conflict. Each will be pushing the other to give in, which will only create feelings of resentment on both sides. Either one party will give in and feel angry about it, or neither will give in and the relationship between the two parties will be damaged or broken. Neither is a good outcome.

However, if creativity is used in conflict management, things can be much different. A creative person will look at all possible angles of… [read more]

Interpersonal Communication the Relationship Essay

… Interpersonal Communication

The relationship that I am going to discuss is my relationship with my romantic partner. We are in a long-term romantic relationship, past the first stages of falling in love, and while our relationship is, at times, intensely private, it is, at other times, somewhat akin to a business partnership. How we interact when we are with each other impact our interactions with the public at large. As a result, while I would primarily characterize our relationship as a private one, it certainly has public functions.

For example, on many levels I feel as if my partner is irreplaceable. I have never in my life met someone with the same set of characteristics who was able to consistently illicit the same feelings from me. However, that feeling has certainly fluctuated over time. I began the relationship thinking that my partner was interchangeable, not with just any substitute person, but with the attitude that there were plenty of fish in the sea if our relationship did not flourish. Moreover, having observed some serious relationship problems in the past, there are still parts of me that know my partner is, in many ways, replaceable. If we break up, I will be heartbroken, but I will find love again. That new partner will not be the same as my current partner, but I will not be alone forever. One of the skills that I have learned in my relationship is that I can appropriately value my partner as a unique human being whom I appreciate having in my life without taking the fatalistic approach that love would end without him.

In my relationship, we are both interdependent and fiercely autonomous. For example, our daily lives are very interdependent. We eat meals together and I am the cook; I fear he would starve if I were to refuse to cook for him. He changes the light bulbs, and I literally rattle around in a dark room and wait for him to change the light bulb rather than do it myself. On the other hand, both of… [read more]

Women Want Is an American Term Paper

… A second personal space violation between Alex and Nick occurred when Alex was dumped by her boyfriend at the prom. Although she invited her father to 'rescue' her while she was in the bathroom crying, she protested when he wanted to see her in the stall. She willingly invited him into the girls bathroom, which for many would be a societal violation of personal space; however, she reasserted the need for personal space when he attempted to enter the stall she was in.


As evidenced by the aforementioned the interpersonal communication characteristics of relational development, self-disclosure and personal space have been examined as they relate to the movie "What Women Want." Although the movie was a romantic comedy, the interactions between males and females and the use of humor provide some insight into human relations. The uncertainties that exist upon initial meeting as evidenced particularly by the relationship between Nick and Darcy, and articulated by the uncertainty response theory bespeak the initial impressions and assumptions made when strangers meet. The power of first impressions can truly determine if a relationship will ensue and both parties can participate in the determination of that relationship. Secondly, self-disclosure is a powerful interpersonal communication tool and reveals the most about the individual only in as much as the individual is willing to personally share in the present. Lastly, personal space in interpersonal communication is a societal determinant that provides general guidelines as to how communication between individuals should transpire. It is important to note, however, that rules regarding personal space can and do fluctuate and are contingent about the situational variables that can and do affect it.


Baxter, J. (1970). Interpersonal spacing in natural settings. Sociometry, 33, 444-456.

Berger, C., & Calabrese, R. (1975). Some exploration in initial interaction and beyond: toward a development theory of communication. Human Communication Research, 1, 99-112.

Felipe, N., & Sommer, R. (1966). Invasions of personal space. Social Problems, 14, 206-

Griffin, E. (2009). A first look at communication theory. 7th ed. New… [read more]

Business Communications Term Paper

… Once the meeting is over, is when they will go back to doing things individually. This is problematic, because it means that the team could have trouble maintaining and building any kind of momentum in achieving its different objectives. Once… [read more]

Corporations Send Out Messages Dissertation

… Corporations send out messages constantly -- through ads, commercials, websites, quarterly and annual reports, job postings on, memos tacked up on lunchroom bulletin boards. The audiences for these different messages are different from each other, which is one of… [read more]

Communicating in Today's Workplace Communication Research Paper

… This type of gathering is ideal for breaking down barriers between departments and building better communication in the workplace (In-Tuition, 2011).

A company can establish Open House days, a novel way for employees to see what goes on in other… [read more]

Gender Issue in Communication Essay

… Gender-Based Communication Differences

In her article,"Talk in the Intimate Relationship: His and Hers," Deborah Tannen argues that men and women have fundamentally different approaches to interpersonal communication. According to Tannen, women use conversational communication primarily to establish intimacy and interpersonal interconnectedness whereas men typically use conversation mainly to establish status in relation to others. The author details the ways that gender-based socialization differences account for the fact that men rely on verbal conversation to communicate information while women emphasize the more subtle elements of interpersonal communication, such as indirect "metamessages" that consist of a much wider range of non-verbal signals in addition to the informational content of conversations. Tannen presents a very cohesive explanation that does seem to account very well for the communications mannerisms and habits typically exhibited by the respective genders.


Virtually any observation of members of the respective genders in public seems to corroborate Tanner's characterizations. First, when males enter a public place, they most often stake out a piece of territory that is in the direct view of others and they position themselves toward others. Females are more likely to seek the least conspicuous territory and to face one another directly when they talk. Males also tend to maintain much louder conversations than women in public. Whereas men generally project their voices so that others in their vicinity can hear their conversations, women usually do the exact opposite, keeping their voices low and also shielding their conversation with body language and deliberate use of their hands to cover their mouths. Meanwhile, men often seem to be talking more for the benefit of others around them, especially to the extent the content of their conversation is flattering to them in their minds. Likewise, whereas women are usually largely oblivious to who else might be around them, men seem to be constantly looking around while they are talking. Two women engaged in conversation in public are most likely to be very surprised if someone walks up to them and interrupts with a question or to introduce himself to them, precisely because the women focus so directly on their private conversation. By contrast, if the same person were to approach two men engaged in conversation in identical circumstances, chances are that both men would be aware of the individual's presence in advance because men seem to notice everybody else in the room even during one-on-one conversations.

In terms of the substantive content of conversations, Tannen's observations would seem to be equally accurate. Typically, men focus on communicating facts and other types of objective information about things. Most commonly,… [read more]

People Use Threatening Language Literature Review

… Violence in itself is some sort of act that causes harm to another person or to property (Miller & Flores, 2007). The harm can be physical, psychological, emotional, or structural. The person who commits the violent act does not have physically touch their intended victim to induce harm. Much as the Supreme Court has stated, if a reasonable person believes that the act caused damage to them or their property, then it constitutes a violent act (Rothman, 2001).

Language as a Precursor to Violence

Of course language does not have to be spoken or acted. It can also be written or conveyed through some other form of media. Communication can originate through many different types of devices, but how does the reasonable person determine if the threat, no matter how it is delivered, will result in violence on the part of the communicator (Rothman, 2001). The actual question of the study has to do more with the person communicating the threat, than the person receiving the communication. Many communications are a bluff. No actual intent is behind the words. However, if the words are received in a nonchalant manner, the communicator may escalate to a previously unintended violence. From the words, it may not be able to determine the individuals intent, but the person who receives the threat may have a lot to do with whether the threatener will commit violence (Erbert & Floyd).

A person being threatened can use any number of methods to decrease the possibility of a threat becoming an actual act (Jameson, 2004). The person can return the threatening communication with a polite rejoinder and completely diffuse the situation. Therefore, a threatener's risk for violence is reduced by the reaction of the intended victim.

The escalation or de-escalation of the original communication is generally what determines whether the threatener will carry out any violence (Kahn & Schelling, 2009). Threatening communication often does not end in violence (Jameson, 2004) because the threatened entity decides that they are not going to be a party to the escalation (Kahn & Schelling, 2009). Therefore, the original language may not be as much the precursor to violence as the first communication from the victim of the communication (Miller & Flores, 2007). Threatening language can be assuaged an negated by the reasoned reply of the intended victim of the threat (Jameson, 2004).


Erbert, L.A., & Floyd, K. (2004). Affectionate expressions as face-threatening acts: Receiver assessments. Communication Studies, 55(2). 254-267.

Gunn, J. (2010). On speech and public release. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 13(2). 1-16.

Jameson, J.K. (2004). Negotiating autonomy and connection through politeness: A dialectical approach to organizational conflict management. Western Journal of Communication, 68(3). 257-271.

Kahn, H., & Schelling, T. (2009). On Escalation: Metaphors and Scenarios. New Brunswick, ME: Transaction Publishers.

Miller, M.K., & Flores, D.M.… [read more]

Public Speaking Is a Form Professional Writing

… Kennedy, Bill Clinton, and Barack Obama have spent most of their career to advance their public speaking skills.


As it was mentioned before the techniques used to train effective public speakers are well-established and there are accredited organizations for public speaker training. The main aim of the training is creating a confident speaker building natural gestures, and voice tones. The vocabulary, humor, speech notes and developing an interactive relationship with the audience are taught in these schools. These schools also provide media tools like video, and DVD for training. Nowadays, these services make the public speakers education very reachable and convenient. The statistical records show that people, who attend trainings or request the media tools, are writers, politicians, entertainers and sports icons. Surprisingly, scientists and academics are less open to public speeches and meetings. They teach and train their students and peers in classrooms but the difference between public speeches and the classroom speeches is the audience. The audience, frequently students, is focused on the topic to learn and understand. In academic speaking, the speaker is only obligated to cover the material in a certain time whereas the public speakers have to impose their topic and idea keeping the audience actively attended. Sometimes, the classroom communication changes the form, the computer to student communication, where the method used is not verbal anymore. At this point, the communication would be classified into different subgroups such as organizational communication, mutual communication, media communication and public communication. However, the public communication (i.e., public speaker) is unique in the aspect of providing information to the different interest groups and changing the mood and emotions of the audience. [read more]

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