"Communication / Speech" Essays

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American Sign Language Interpreters Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,748 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


American Sign Language Interpreters

The objective in this research in focus upon American Sign Language Interpreters in educational settings.

The issue of deafness in today's schools is being addressed by society and most specifically "special education. Alexander Bell wrote that he was not clearly "definite in his beliefs as language supposed. " in his work Bell does not state that… [read more]

Communication Practice the Following Extract Is Taken Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,217 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Communication Practice

the following extract is taken in the middle of a conversation between two female students. they have been talking about social plans for the future.

everyone wants to go to Prague for new year (3)do you think it would be good to go to Prague

who's going

so farMaddy (.) Eleanor (.)Anna (.)dunno

do you want to go to Prague

i'd like to but I only want to go if everyone's going cos it's like new year you want all your friends to come

is everyone going (4) oh we're all going to see Judge Jewels aren't we on the Thursday second November obviously

when's that'd: Thursday second of November

when'e that'd: Thursday

when's that (.) you know what I mean

S: Thursday we get back to college


S: I think anyway (3)and we're all going to dress up totally

A:wait you tell me the price

S: dunno (1) probably just a tenner which is excellent (2) it'll probably be a: On Thursday where'd: it'll be so much fun cos everyone wo goes there's really serious and about their clubbing and stuff and they all face the (1) dj box and they're like a: they do that at shindig


A: they do that at shindig

S:and um they just it's excellent it was brilliant last time

Professional communication practice is the ability to write and speak in a competent manner, so that one is able to enter and compete in a fast-paced and ever-changing marketplace. The emphasis is also on developing the skills needed to deal with a wide variety of different communications environments.

In dialogues or role-playing sessions as that above, it is possible to demonstrate the correct and incorrect forms of communication practice. In dialogues, or the communication between two individuals, one person sends a message, the other listens and responds, and so on. If this back-and-forth process has any roadblocks, then communication in general or the dialogue in general is not successful. Roger Gregoire, a dialogue specialist and a practitioner with National Coalition for Dialogue and Deliberation (http://thataway.org/resources/understand/quotes.html) makes a number of suggestions on strategic tools and processes on how to improve conversations. These include:

1. Speak from your own experience, from who you are and what you believe. Say 'I' first and avoid you, we, they or them in describing an event or set of circumstances. Speak authentically about who you are from your own sense of self. Avoid hearsay or rumor. Whenever possible, rely on personal experience.

Speaking honestly from your own perspective guarantees the integrity of the dialogue. It allows the collective consciousness to be comprised of the honest identities of the participants because that consciousness can only be as valid and honest as the people responsible for its existence. Perhaps most important, however, is that a major part of the dialogue is the discovery of our authentic selves.

2. Listen carefully with all your heart to what is being said. Listening is the most difficult aspect of participating in… [read more]

Nonvrbl Comm Nonverbal Communication Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (590 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


This can be attributed to body language containing the real message of how the person really feels. Therefore it is important for one to take in the full message and not interpret one behavior over the other. This makes understanding intercultural differences in nonverbal communication very important.

First of all, one must take into consideration not only the reaction but also what is causing the reaction. One must then consider the causes of nonverbal behavior may vary from culture to culture. There are also variations to the rules of nonverbal communication and the contexts in which it takes place. In order to understand these variations in the rules, one must first consider the notion of personal space and how that can vary from culture to culture. Personal space is the bubble around each of us that marks the territory between others and ourselves. How many people read nonverbal communication depends on if they are a contact or noncontact person. Contact people are people who stand closer together while noncontact people do not. Culturally, Americans are seen as noncontact type people along with European and Asian countries. This distinction reinforces cultural identity. Facial expression express emotion universally but one must also consider the variations involved. For instance smiling displays one's happiness while a frown signifies sadness. In America, it is not uncommon for someone to smile upon first meeting while in other cultures it is better to look serious. Europeans often remark that Americans are not serious because they smile too much.


This paper briefly explored the concept of nonverbal communication. The paragraphs above explored these topics and what they mean to the new global culture emerging as a result of new…… [read more]

Intercultural Communication Managing Conflict Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (538 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


One of the important concepts in handling intercultural communication conflict is identifying the context or situation in which the communication or interaction takes place. People are expected to communicate formally when the communication context is formal, and this is also applied to informal communication situations. Language use is often categorized into formal and informal (vernacular or colloquial); one must be able to distinguish one from the other and appropriately use them at the right context (formal language for formal interaction and the vernacular for informal ones).

Apart from the social interaction context, a communicator must also be aware the kind of conflict s/he deals with, so that s/he may use the appropriate strategy to ensure that the conflict will become productive, cooperative, and constructive. A positive kind of conflict is one that is able to produce beneficial results for both individuals (or groups) communicating. The business environment is a good example of a productive, cooperative, and constructive conflict: business groups often engage in conflicts in order to formulate the best solution or plan for the company. What emerges from this conflict or competition is a healthy and positive conflict, where each member exerts his/her best effort to contribute to the group, and in effect, contribute to the company's improvement. Though each member of a group may have different cultural backgrounds (in terms of race, gender, age, socio-economic class, among others), these cultural differences allows a business group to work efficiently if these differences will be used to complement each member with the other, and not hinder the progress of the group's task.… [read more]

Communication Problems in the Workplace Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,203 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Communication problems in the workplace are bound to arise and businesses and employees must understand how to handle these problems. These problems often include such things as poor listening skills, poor oral communication, the inability to understand nonverbal cues, and communication problems as it relates to workplace diversity. The outcome of these problems is work related stress, which leads to… [read more]

Channel Noise Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (412 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Channel Noise

Noise, to put it simply, interference in the path of sending or receiving the message. Channel Noise, is not that different, it can be described as the path that interferes with the delivery of either sending the message to the intended target or the understanding of that message. We can differentiate between the different channel noises and categorize them into two main sections: a) Semantic Channel Noise and b) Mechanical Channel Noise. The latter can further be divided into physical and technical.

Semantic channel noise is an intangible interference and usually deals with language barriers; it is typically when the receiver fails to understand or decode the information sent to him through the message. In face-to-face communication the sender of the information can and does promptly respond to the problem at hand while in messaging through certain channels other then face-to-face, such as emails, the feedback of the receiver determines the promptness of the solution. Personally, I go to the trouble of making sure that even if there are language barriers I use internationally accepted terms and keep my vocabulary simple so that the receiver can interpret the information sent easily.

Mechanical Channel noise is, unlike semantic noise, tangible and needs to be fixed…… [read more]

Communicating for Results Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (688 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Breakdowns in Communication

The purpose of this paper is to introduce, discuss, and analyze types of communication breakdown. Specifically it will discuss three personal interactions where communication breakdown was experienced. Communication breakdown is quite common in society today. These three breakdowns occurred fairly recently, and indicate the importance of good communication skills and the ability to give meaningful feedback.

The first communication breakdown occurred in a retail shop where I was shopping for clothing. I attempted to describe a certain pair of jeans to the clerk, who did not understand what I was trying to describe. She kept showing me jeans that did not match my description, and it was extremely frustrating. As she showed me more and more jeans that were not what I wanted, I finally gave up and simply walked out of the store. I was certain this store carried the jeans I wanted, but I could not find them myself, and I could not get the clerk to understand what I was specifically looking for.

Now I realize there were several things I could have done to create a better experience. I could have given more feedback about exactly what I was looking for, rather than giving up and walking away. I could have drawn a picture of the jeans, or tried to find someone wearing something similar. On the other hand, the clerk could have asked me more probing questions about the style of the jeans, which would have created more feedback and information for her to follow. Neither one of us used feedback effectively, and that helped lead to the breakdown in communication.

Another breakdown came in a discussion with my mother when I was still in high school. My mother wanted me home by a certain time after a party, and I wanted to stay out later, because many of my friends were staying out later. My mother got angry, and insisted I follow her rules. I got angry and told her she was being unfair, and didn't trust me. We got into a shouting match,…… [read more]

Communication the Color and Style Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (391 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Communication

The color and style of a person's clothing can reveal much about their lifestyle, profession, or personality. For example, a man wearing a business suit would not be mistaken for a construction worker. Someone with a blue Mohawk declares his or her taste in music and attitudes toward authority.

Clothing is often event-specific. For example, the same woman might wear a jogging suit while at the gym but then changes into a skirt suit when she goes to the office. When in her jogging suit the woman sends nonverbal cues such as, "I care about my health so I exercise." If her jogging suit is from an expensive designer then she also sends a nonverbal message about her income level or what she values in general.

Regardless of what a person wears, their overall appearance also sends nonverbal communication cues. For example, a person's hair style and color can send nonverbal messages. Generally, grooming tends to send more cues than actual style. For example, a person with long hair can look unkempt and therefore signals a lack of self-respect or confidence; or a person with long hair that is beautifully brushed and…… [read more]

Annual Report Within the Context Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,139 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


These aspects, among others ultimately help contribute the concept of rudeness. This rudeness occurs by simply having a particular employee working more hours that he or she can physically perform. Rudeness becomes particularly profound when the individual is distressed and incurs feelings of fatigue. Job rudeness is due primarily to the continuing sense of frustration and tiredness. This often occurs when a person is dedicated to a career or cause and does not receive the rewards he or she expected. One cause of such rudeness is the time constraints embedded in the work environment. Employees have too much to do and too little time to do it. This, combined with an unpredictable day can contribute heavily to employee rudeness. In regards to age, gender, or socioeconomic status, this concept is true as well. Due to many of the aspects mentioned above, it is imperative for these groups to prevent rudeness by utilizing concepts that create balance and fulfillment within the work environment. Otherwise, the tendency for society to become consumed by their daily work duties will ultimately contribute heavily to their potential for rudeness (Cohen, 2006).

In regards to the effects of rudeness, there are some basic underlying principles that affect the recipient of it. Rudeness is unique as it can potentially destroy or erode strong and otherwise impenetrable relationships. This concept of destruction in regards to communication is very profound. Rudeness will create a sense of animosity and ill will on the part of the recipient of it. This ill will can manifest itself in many ways. Typically, these individuals simply act in a likewise manner back towards the original rude individual. This reciprocation theory only worsens the situation as two individuals develop animosity towards one another. Even more important is the psychological components of rudeness. Those perceived as being rude as all perceived as being elitist in nature. Society perceives these individuals as those who believe they are superior to society and therefore have a personal mandate to be rude to others. These self righteous individuals are therefore, through their own personal mandate, rude to those they believe are inferior or of lesser quality. This self righteous mentality only denigrates the nature of communication. Communication is intended to be a two way method in which to exchange ideas and concepts. However, through rudeness, it becomes merely a tool in which an individual can showcase his self-righteous and self proclaimed status.

In conclusion the causes and effects of rudeness are very profound. On the cause side, many unintended consequences arise simply from the misinterpretation of meaning. These misinterpretations often elude the perception of rudeness even when the original sender did not intend to be so. Work environment and to a lesser extent, the economy are also causes of rudeness as individuals are working in undesirable positions. In regards to effects, the main effect is the determination of the relationships between both parties. This effect often leads to broken relationship and broken channels of communication. All in all, rudeness has… [read more]

Business Skills -- Personal Evaluation Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  3 pages (870 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Typically, lay audiences require more extensive introductory sections than expert audiences.

• The objective evidence available to support these conclusions includes my successful completion of Tab C-1, English 101 Essay and of Tab C-2, U.S. Army Contracting Recommendation Slides.

Outcome 2 -- Demonstrate introductory college-level proficiency in one or more of the subject areas in mathematics and/or natural sciences.

• I have learned how to use the scientific method to engage in problem-solving in a process that can deduce logical answers to questions about the natural world. For example, in the scientific disciplines, I have learned how to apply the scientific method to formulate testable hypotheses consisting of multiple variables in a systematic problem-solving process. That includes understanding the difference between independent and dependent variables. I have learned how to distinguish testable hypotheses from un-testable (i.e. non-scientific) hypotheses and to use the process of scientific experimentation to construct relevant experiments using dependant and independent variables for the purpose of testing to confirm or to disprove specific hypotheses. This skill has proven useful in non-academic areas as well, because the scientific method actually provides an effective means of answering questions and of excluding illogical conclusions from any given set of factual circumstances.

• I have learned to search online databases to identify relevant literature within legitimate, peer-reviewed journal articles with relevant information to scientific inquiries. That includes learning fundamentally different ways of communicating about scientific subjects depending on whether my audience consists of laypeople or scientific colleagues. When communicating with expert audiences, I know that I can delve into the details and finer points of the topic, whereas with less-knowledgeable audiences, I know that I must present a much more gradual transition from the forest to the leaves. That is important because I have discovered that preparing to deliver communications to audiences of different levels of understanding requires an entirely different process of information gathering, organizing, and presenting.

• The objective evidence available to support these conclusions includes my successful completion of Tab C-2, Geology Lab Project.

Outcome 3 -- Demonstrate introductory college-level proficiency in one or more of the social sciences.

• I have learned to engage in a critical assessment process to distinguish reliable, objective, and credible news sources from unreliable, subjective, and biased sources of news. I have learned how to identify potential inaccuracies and sources of bias in unfamiliar news and information sources. That enables me to examine and cross-reference a wide range of information sources in print and online and to review them critically to determine whether they are… [read more]

English Outcome Learning Outcomes Participation Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  2 pages (536 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Accurate summarizations, conversational references, and critical writing of these complex texts are all practiced and honed through this course, and through development of the knowledge and skills necessary to communicate an understanding of these texts greater conceptual understanding is reached. The major practical outcome of this capability is the increased ability to communicate complex information both verbally and in writing in a manner that is understandable and analytical. This has many practical benefits in the military, as concise yet detailed reporting accomplished rapidly through various communication media is required in almost all positions.

The development of persuasive strategies targeting different audiences with varying levels of knowledge and understanding in a given area is also an important learning outcome of this course. Persuasion is much more easily achieved when the arguments and language used are specific to the target audience, such that times is not wasted in explanation for those with a developed understanding of a topic while laypersons receive communication that is informative enough to support understanding. The outlining process is one practical tool that helps to develop this skill for written texts as well as those that will be delivered in a speech or public speaking setting, and the course provides familiarity with different outlining methods to assist in the creation of target-specific language and overall text structures. Persuasion is a useful skill in any setting, and the ability to communicate in a way that presents information in an effective manner can lead to advancement in any career.… [read more]

Starting Point Carol Delaney's Dictum That Anthropology Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,872 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … starting point Carol Delaney's dictum that anthropology is an experiential venture, set out to be an anthropologist for a short time. Take one (or more) of the themes we discussed in class so far: time, space, language. Choose an appropriate subject for observation and analysis (an object, a place, a person, a group, a sound, a text) available… [read more]

Letter of Recommendation Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,493 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


This enhances one's capability to begin and handle transformation. Within the collaborative team, acquiring an optimistic attitude including the influence change seems to have on other people plays a role in efficient conflict management as well as handling of arguments; i.e., having the ability to negotiate, meet half way, and looking for the very best options that yield good results… [read more]

Interpersonal Rel in the Preface Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,727 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Listening is often a biased process. We select that which we want to hear, discarding the rest. Some of us do this to favor our self-concept, as when a person offers criticism and we refuse to listen or acknowledge what they are saying. Sometimes, though, the opposite occurs. We only hear the negative aspects of what the person is saying and we may react accordingly. It is important to keep in mind the toxic emotions that come up when we hear things that we do not want to hear, and it is critical to get clarity.

Interpersonal communication is integral to personal and professional life, and is an inescapable area of study. Whether encountered in a formal way, as through research, or in an informal way, as through learning via my culture, interpersonal communication studies will be an ongoing life issue for me. As I travel more and learn about different cultures, I will apply my knowledge of the issues that facilitate good communication vs. The issues that can impede communication. Research is revealing ways that human beings can contend with the most challenging interpersonal issues, as better communication will make the world a better place.


King, D. (2000). Four principles of interpersonal communication. Retrieved online: http://www.pstcc.edu/facstaff/dking/interpr.htm

McCornack, S. (2010). Reflect and Relate. Bedford/St. Martin's.… [read more]

Relational Discourse in a Film Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,622 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Meta communication

Based on DeVito, metacommunication has been "communication which describes many other communications" (2001, p. 136). Quite simply, metacommunication has been making reference to communication. For instance, if two couples sit back to speak about a disagreement they just experienced, they have been metacommunicating due to the fact they have been referring to the conversation that occurred within the… [read more]

Law Enforcement Communications Interoperability Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (621 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


A federally led mandate of communication equipment standards may be the best path to achieving greater inoperability amongst services, as well as ensuring a sufficient market for industry to deliver a customized solution.

The solution to the problem of one piece of an equipment able to cover all the varied wavelengths could be solved by standardizing to a single wavelength for emergencies that require collaboration. Localized responses should enable officers to switch frequencies to a reserved band for large-scale emergencies, while still retaining the more commonly used channels for more routine communication. A single use channel for large-scale emergencies ensures that communication clutter and overload does not erode effectiveness.

Although no solution is readily available, a five or ten-year mandate for communication upgrade, as well as a grant program, would ensure that departments begin upgrading and converting to tools that are capable of dealing with the threats to safety encountered today. The video notes that outfitting an ambulance with as many as seven radios can exceed the cost of the vehicle itself (U.S. Dept. Of Justice). While the aggregate cost of upgrading to a standardized set of communication equipment may be daunting, the potential savings may offset much of the cost. Upgrading through attrition also allows the private sector to deliver solutions that may mitigate costs, as well as soften the burden on local emergency services. All equipment eventually wears out, therefore a federal mandate with a time frame for full implementation would go a long way in addressing the communication bottleneck that may cost lives and loss of property.

Works Cited

U.S. Dept. Of Justice. (n.d.). Why Can't We Talk? When Lives Are At Stake. Retrieved 26 Oct., 2012, from Google Videos Web site: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-6455322945171664950&hl=en… [read more]

Sensation and Perception What Experiment A-Level Coursework

A-Level Coursework  |  3 pages (1,111 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


A poll by the Harris Interactive revealed that 47% of teens say their social lives would "deteriorate" or "simply end" without a phone to text with. So the point is teens think they don't need to have face-to-face conversations as long as they can punch the letters on their phone and get a quick response on the screen of the phone.

Psychologist Sherry Turkle's book (Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other) reflects the author's fear that "electronic communication for some can compromise the ability of having a real conversation and to reflect when you're alone" (Turkle, 2011). Moreover, the younger generation in particular is giving human qualities to digital devices and as a result, we're treating other humans as "things," Turkle writes (Goldsborough, 2012). It is also disconcerting for adults that are in the psychology field studying communication when they discover what teens are texting back and forth include "wat's up" and "hangin'" -- about as mindless as a child lashing out at the air with fists when frustrated. What might the future hold? The teen dream is to have cell phones in the shape of sunglasses with software that will let them text without disturbing their ability to "hang out."

THREE: Can we trust our eyes and ears? Can visual perception be fooled?

Certainly people can be fooled by what they think they see, and moreover, when it comes to eye witnesses for a crime, each person is known to see something a little different than what others see. When a courtroom is in the midst of a trial and eyewitnesses are giving testimony, there can be sharp differences between what one person believes he saw and what another person saw. Indeed many people experience what is called "inattention blindness," and this is also what happens when drivers are on cell phones; people driving and talking on the phone have their eyes fixed on an object ahead and yet they don't see the child's tricycle in the road in front of the car. There are some people with the ability to focus attention on the road and all its hazards -- and still be on an important long distance phone call relating to their business investments -- but psychologists have researched this issue and found that conversations distract many people and they should not be on the phone while driving. A red light suddenly turning green can be easily missed by the driver on the phone who is experiencing inattention blindness.

The answer to the question is no, we cannot trust our eyes and our ears, especially when we are engaged in digital communication while attempting to multitask. Trying to solve a math problem while attempting to remember what you were supposed to get at the grocery store may be a lost moment. In conclusion, people who are living busy lives and feel they need to do several things at once should slow down, take one task at a time, and be… [read more]

Disaster Communication Safety International Disasters Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (860 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The agencies that are in place to offer support will not have important details regarding the precise nature of the disaster, the types of effects, the severity of the dangers, and other information necessary to properly prioritize and execute a rescue plan for those who need it.

Moreover, during disasters, a general reaction of the people affected is to panic. Panic hampers communication as well. People frozen with fear may have trouble calling out for help or responding when help arrives. People who have witnesses graphic events as a result of the disaster may be frozen with shock, unable to communicate their own injuries or the general situation their in for rescue workers and other forms of support. These are examples of ways that communication is impeded during disaster crises. These are also examples impeded communication has upon the rescue efforts during and after the disaster event.

After and in-between disasters are good times for communication among international disaster agencies. Most disasters are not predictable and some that do show signs of impending danger do not always provide adequate time for adequate disaster preparations such as relocation, evacuation, acquisition & distribution of disaster event supplies. Strong, multifaceted, and clearly defined communication channels within an agency and among agencies are critical to the provision of timely and appropriate disaster relief. In the 21st century, technology is an asset to exploit in this regard.

There are substantial and diverse challenges to the development and use of information and communication systems (ICS) in support of effective delivery of humanitarian relief during complex emergencies. These challenges generally go far beyond technology considerations and often relate to core organizational issues of mission, culture, environment, and communication…In order to reduce human suffering in the face of natural disasters and man-made emergencies, organizations need established communication channels, infrastructures, strategies, agreements, education, and training in place in order to adequately respond. The technology component is usually the easiest part. (Maiers et al., 2005,-Page 82)

Developing effective communication is not a matter of technology or matter of knowing the right language. It is a combination of factors that work together as a system. Focusing on communication should improve it such that the consequences of disasters can be mitigated as much as possible because of strong and clear communication among international disaster agencies.


Horsley, PhD, J.S. (2012). Planning for Spontaneity: The Challenges of Disaster Communication Fieldwork. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 11(3), 180 -- 194.

Maiers, C., Reynolds, M., & Haselhorn, M. (2005). Challenges to Effective Information and Communication Systems in Humanitarian Relief Organizations. IEEE…… [read more]

Communicating in Today's Workplace Communication Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (3,166 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


This type of gathering is ideal for breaking down barriers between departments and building better communication in the workplace (In-Tuition, 2011).

A company can establish Open House days, a novel way for employees to see what goes on in other parts of the business, as well as giving them the chance to invite family and friends. Another possibility is creating… [read more]

People Use Threatening Language Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  3 pages (977 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Violence in itself is some sort of act that causes harm to another person or to property (Miller & Flores, 2007). The harm can be physical, psychological, emotional, or structural. The person who commits the violent act does not have physically touch their intended victim to induce harm. Much as the Supreme Court has stated, if a reasonable person believes that the act caused damage to them or their property, then it constitutes a violent act (Rothman, 2001).

Language as a Precursor to Violence

Of course language does not have to be spoken or acted. It can also be written or conveyed through some other form of media. Communication can originate through many different types of devices, but how does the reasonable person determine if the threat, no matter how it is delivered, will result in violence on the part of the communicator (Rothman, 2001). The actual question of the study has to do more with the person communicating the threat, than the person receiving the communication. Many communications are a bluff. No actual intent is behind the words. However, if the words are received in a nonchalant manner, the communicator may escalate to a previously unintended violence. From the words, it may not be able to determine the individuals intent, but the person who receives the threat may have a lot to do with whether the threatener will commit violence (Erbert & Floyd).

A person being threatened can use any number of methods to decrease the possibility of a threat becoming an actual act (Jameson, 2004). The person can return the threatening communication with a polite rejoinder and completely diffuse the situation. Therefore, a threatener's risk for violence is reduced by the reaction of the intended victim.

The escalation or de-escalation of the original communication is generally what determines whether the threatener will carry out any violence (Kahn & Schelling, 2009). Threatening communication often does not end in violence (Jameson, 2004) because the threatened entity decides that they are not going to be a party to the escalation (Kahn & Schelling, 2009). Therefore, the original language may not be as much the precursor to violence as the first communication from the victim of the communication (Miller & Flores, 2007). Threatening language can be assuaged an negated by the reasoned reply of the intended victim of the threat (Jameson, 2004).


Erbert, L.A., & Floyd, K. (2004). Affectionate expressions as face-threatening acts: Receiver assessments. Communication Studies, 55(2). 254-267.

Gunn, J. (2010). On speech and public release. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 13(2). 1-16.

Jameson, J.K. (2004). Negotiating autonomy and connection through politeness: A dialectical approach to organizational conflict management. Western Journal of Communication, 68(3). 257-271.

Kahn, H., & Schelling, T. (2009). On Escalation: Metaphors and Scenarios. New Brunswick, ME: Transaction Publishers.

Miller, M.K., & Flores, D.M.…… [read more]

Public Speaking Is a Form Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (591 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Kennedy, Bill Clinton, and Barack Obama have spent most of their career to advance their public speaking skills.


As it was mentioned before the techniques used to train effective public speakers are well-established and there are accredited organizations for public speaker training. The main aim of the training is creating a confident speaker building natural gestures, and voice tones. The vocabulary, humor, speech notes and developing an interactive relationship with the audience are taught in these schools. These schools also provide media tools like video, and DVD for training. Nowadays, these services make the public speakers education very reachable and convenient. The statistical records show that people, who attend trainings or request the media tools, are writers, politicians, entertainers and sports icons. Surprisingly, scientists and academics are less open to public speeches and meetings. They teach and train their students and peers in classrooms but the difference between public speeches and the classroom speeches is the audience. The audience, frequently students, is focused on the topic to learn and understand. In academic speaking, the speaker is only obligated to cover the material in a certain time whereas the public speakers have to impose their topic and idea keeping the audience actively attended. Sometimes, the classroom communication changes the form, the computer to student communication, where the method used is not verbal anymore. At this point, the communication would be classified into different subgroups such as organizational communication, mutual communication, media communication and public communication. However, the public communication (i.e., public speaker) is unique in the aspect of providing information to the different interest groups and changing the mood and emotions of the audience.… [read more]

Excellence in the Workplace Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (621 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Any communication of course entails messages sent and messages received. The actual sending of a message involved "encoding" that message with both verbal and non-verbal cues; and the receipt of a message requires the receiver to decode the message. When a person is sending his or her message, and the receiver looks at a wrist watch, for example, that is a classic non-verbal cue that the communication isn't being received anymore (or the receiver is distracted), Quintanilla continues. Indeed, body language sends strong signals (feedback). That non-verbal cue (looking at a wrist watch) is called "feedback," and the message in this case (verbal) is the "channel" through which the communication was launched. In other words, feedback isn't always given using spoken language; a frown denotes disinterest or disapproval of the message, and when the receiver is fidgeting with a pen, that's a sign the communication is not being reciprocated.

Other channels are of course an email, a snail-mail letter, a text message, and it is up to the sender to determine which channel is the most appropriate for any given attempt at communication. "Vocalics" refers to how people use their voices in communication, the authors explain, and they are basically alluding to the "tone of voice" used. An angry teacher will certainly use a stronger tone of voice when he or she senses the class is out of control. The space between the sender and the receiver is known as "proxemics"; for example, in a business environment the sender could offend the potential receiver if he or she stands too close during the communication, Quintanilla explains. Also, "haptics" in the communication milieu refers to "touch"; a good, firm handshake in a business environment is essential to "making a good first impression," the authors…… [read more]

Improving a Personal Relationship Identifying Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,510 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


13). Better (confirming) communication climates arise from better understanding, and appreciation of dialectics. This is so because our attitude towards dialectics determines the type of communication we use, which in turn, determines the communication climate in our interactions. Therefore, the type (form) of communication chosen is a fundamental determinant of the overall communication climate. I will limit myself to three… [read more]

Communication in a Nursing Environment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,106 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Deintensification is just the opposite. If a nurse gives a patient bad news, the patient may downplay their disappointed look. The danger here is that the nurse believes everything is fine when it is not.

Neutralization is when one eliminates all expression from their face, this may be to not give away how one is feeling.

Masking is when an… [read more]

Public Speaking Class Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,278 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


For example, engineering schools are teaching public speaking at both an undergraduate and graduate level. In example, one specific engineering program has a program called CASE which stands for Career Acquisition Skills Enhancement. The objective of the program is to improve the public speaking skills of its students and its mission statement reads as follows:

One important aspect of career development for an engineer that is often over-looked is the importance of communication. Public speaking is a communication skill that can prove extremely beneficial for an engineer in the workforce today. An effective presentation can set the stage for a speaker to introduce and sell products, information and new ideas.

Most people rank public speaking high on the list of things they don't like to do. However, making presentations is an unavoidable part of corporate life. Why not make the best of it? To be successful, a speaker must gain the attention, interest and confidence of the audience. The talk must be interesting, informative, and persuasive.

The CASE program effectively summarizes what I have been trying to say about the importance of public speaking in both ones education and career field.

While doing research on the topic of public speaking I came across an interesting article by Dr. Morton Orman entitled "How to Conquer Public Speaking Fear." He said the following about the audiences one may be speaking to: "Most of them are scared to death of public speaking, just like you. They know the risk of embarrassment, humiliation, and failure you take every time you present yourself in public. They feel for you. They will admire your courage." As a result of this, it is easy not to be intimidated by an audience. I am giving them the gifts of speech and information and if they choose not to accept it- that's okay too. Because I am not intimidated by speaking to an entire audience, the idea of speaking to a solitary person no longer intimidates me. When I first started taking this public speaking class, I would get offended if I saw someone in the audience falling asleep, not paying attention, or talking to the person next to them. The more confident I became, the more I realized that this was not a reflection on me and the quality of my speech, but more a reflection of the person in the audience. If someone is going to be tired or desperately want to make a comment to their neighbor, they are going to do it regardless of the quality of the speaker. I have also learned to not be afraid of speaking to a supervisor or other person in power, if I can effectively and intelligently talk to a whole room of people.

The art of public speaking has put things in perspective for me. The Bill Grove Speech Workshop asserts that the "The Pro [public speaker] Will Change The World." Although this is a little farfetched, I am confident in saying that learning the art of rhetoric… [read more]

Communication Abilities Comparison Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,328 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Listening to my Class Lecture now realize that I carry the same bad listening habits to my classroom. Although the kind of communication process while attending a class lecture is different from listening in a social situation that was described above. The class lecture situation is a one-way process in which the lecturer is speaking while the students listen. Hence… [read more]

Group Communication Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (530 words)
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(1995). Fundamentals of Business Communication. Chicago: Richard D. Irwin, Inc.

The organizational strategy that I use in communicating with the other department members in the workplace influence the way I think or construct ideas and information when it comes to processing and using them in decision-making processes with the organization. This belief that written communication (or any form communication, for that matter) has influences and affects the way we think is based on the principle that "All Messages Have a Content and a Relational Dimension" (Adler, 1998:19). This principle is divided into two components: the content and relational dimension of the message given to another communicator/s.

The content of a communication message includes the written message itself (in my case, the content of the minutes of the meeting document). However, the content of the message may be affected by its relational dimension, perhaps considered the most important element of a non-verbal message. This relational dimension is manifested by the kind of tone and style used by the communicator. Combining these two components: the recipient of the communication message can formulate or structure the 'mood' of the document, which, in turn, affects his/her impression of the source of the communication message. Thus, in my case, using a formal tone and organized writing style in composing business documents allows me to evoke a business-like and professional image to other people (communicators). This example shows the power that communication, particularly writing, plays in creating images and handling impression management in a diverse workplace environment.

Adler, R. (1998). Interplay: The Process of Interpersonal Communication. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace…… [read more]

Real and Perceived Gender Differences Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,179 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The subjects will be the students in two, second or third level psychology courses, such that the number of students in each class will be at least one hundred and fifty. Because this experiment will involve deception (see explanation below), the same group of students cannot be used as the subjects for both the male and female speaker. To maintain the internal validity of the experiment, the two classes will be selected based upon similar size and demographic makeup.

The device used to measure our dependent variable will be surveys completed by the students after they hear their respective lecture.


To investigate the real and perceived gender differences in nonverbal communications, two college classes (as defined above - separate but equivalent samples) will be chosen and the students will be introduced to a guest speaker. The speaker will be described as a doctoral psychology candidate doing his/her thesis on the lecture topic and seeking experience lecturing in front of a large audience. The lecture content will be the same in both cases, the only difference (our independent variable) will be that one class will have a lecture delivered by a female "doctoral candidate" and the other will have a male lecturer. After the lecture, the students will evaluate the presentation and presenter by filling out a survey. Once the surveys have been collected, the subjects will be debriefed by informing them that the true purpose of the study was to look at effect of gender and nonverbal communication on an audience. Gender effects will be apparent by examining the differences between classes. These gender differences will consist of real differences in nonverbal communication as well as confounding subject perceptions.

Results believe that the above study will indicate that students who hear the same lecture delivered by a man and a woman will put more faith in the speaker if the lecturer is a man. This greater faith will translate into a more favorable assessment on matters of expertise and authority. Part of the more favorable scores that I anticipate the male lecturer will receive will be based on the confounding variable of pre-existing stereotypes. The other part of the equation will be the different interpretation of nonverbal communication according to gender. I believe that differences in eye contact, posture, gestures and other elements of nonverbal communication will lead to the male being perceived as more knowledgeable and the woman as more agreeable. These interpretations are in keeping with prior research into gender differences in nonverbal communication.


Whether the less favorable rating for the woman lecturer is due to stereotypes, or due to a different communication style, there are still disturbing implications for women who rely on effective communication as a central component of their job. Theoretically, this could indicate obstacles in terms of equity and advancement in the workplace. Additionally, in practical terms, it will mean a woman will have to prove herself to an audience on grounds that would be taken for granted by a male colleague;… [read more]

Education Situations Observing Nonverbal Communication Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (385 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The child was bored. Eventually, his teacher did notice this nonverbal communication, and she did understand that it meant he was bored. Unfortunately, instead of offering a more challenging assignment to the child, she told him he had to learn to be patient while other people tried to catch up with him.

In a thirteen-year-old girl, the nonverbal communication observed was facial expressions. She was having a conversation with a friend in a group setting. Her friend began to talk about a personal situation, and the observed girl widened her eyes, pinched her lips, and very slightly shook her head. She did not, apparently, want her friend to bring up this personal subject in front of other people. Her friend understood the communication, and changed subjects immediately.

The sixteen-year-old secondary school student observed had a nonverbal communication exchange with his girlfriend. During a conversation, he leaned closer and closer to her as they spoke, bringing his face very close to hers. After a few minutes, she got the communication that he wanted to kiss. She responded nonverbally, by turning her face away slightly, shyly, and blushing.… [read more]

External Communications, Internal Book Review

Book Review  |  2 pages (416 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



Memoranda and other communications are increasingly being replaced or supplemented by e-mail. Like memoranda, the length of emails also varies depending on the nature of the content, and can range from a brief paragraph or two to several pages. The same principles that apply to effective memorandum writing also apply to e-mail, with some additional factors that should be taken into account, including the following:

1. Write a strong subject line;

2. Put important ideas first;

3. Use conventional grammar and mechanics;

4. Address messages carefully;

5. Compose the message as if it will be read by everyone;

6. Remember that there are no "off-the-record" e-mails;

7. Avoid sending junk e-mails; and,

8. Some kinds of messages are better delivered in person.

Text Messaging

Despite its increasing popularity, text messaging remains of limited application to most business settings but when it is used, practitioners should follow the same principles as with e-mails to ensure that unintended communications are not included and the content is appropriate for the intended purpose. An important point made in this chapter was that like e-mails, text messages are stored and can be retrieved at a later…… [read more]

Proj Management 7.2A Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (942 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


There is no time to start instilling this honest communication than the present -- don't guess why Randy did that, ask him.

II. I do not entirely agree with this. First, catered affairs are loaded -- if you are going to do it, do it right. Make sure the food is high quality, because serving lousy food is a great way to disengage the employees. Serve the good stuff and get their attention. But I actually do not think that such meetings encourage honest communication. They encourage many things -- sycophantic communication, and all other sorts of positive communication, but there are few employees who feel that a public setting is the time and place to challenge their bosses, especially in front of other C-suiters. Most executives can't handle the ego shot that comes from being challenged in front of their peers, and most employees are risk averse with respect to communication with senior managers. There are ways to encourage honest communication with the higher-ups, but this is not one of them.

III. As I said earlier, I cannot agree with speculating about Randy's motives for increasing the specs to 32 hours. I would ask Randy, rather than guessing about what he was thinking. We are trying to build a culture of honest communication, and putting words into other people's mouths is not a good way to start with that. In this case, I agree that there is a communication problem and there is probably also a problem with workload for some members. Programming requires a lot of focus, so juggling multiple tasks is clearly slowing people down. If Sid or Randy has a backlog, then that is something where, yes, there can be collaboration between the workers to help ease one worker's backlog. However, the issue could also be skill sets, where Randy or Sid or whoever is overworked because he/she has unique skills. Thus the backlog might not be related to communication but rather related to skills and training. The backlog is only a symptom, and at this point we can only speculate as to the actual root problem. The role of Judy here is not to speculate but to investigate and find out for herself what the real problems are. She is just now learning that there are problems, so before solving them she should take the time to properly understand the problems at their root level, not just the symptom level. Communication is clearly lacking, and Judy needs to spearhead the resolution of the communication problem by engaging in much more communication herself, speaking to the team members individually and then as a group to bring these issues to the fore and get to the root(s) of the problem.… [read more]

Oral Communications (Chapter Summary) Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (961 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Communicators are also advised to underline the important information. All the information presented must be documented by making copies and preparing the pages by clipping them (May & May 2012).

Presentation and body contact

The extract further specifies the necessity of being acquainted with the presentation strategy. In this case, the communicator is obliged to practice the speech thoroughly. In order to accomplish this, the extract specifies the necessity of re-reading the speech loudly but privately. This can be achieved if the communicator specifies private secessions for speech practicing. The communicator should also be familiar with time management, and the equipments / devices to be applied in the presentation. This is always done before the presentation (May & May 2012).

As advised, the extract specifies that a good communicator should not attempt to memorize a speech.

The authors have also emphasized on the importance of pre-presentation preparation. In any case, the communicator must make a prior arrangement of the room and check whether all equipments are in place. The room must be prepared earlier before the actual speech day. Secondly, the communicator must ensure that personal appearance appeals to the audience. Dressing in this case must always present a professional corporate outlook. Besides, the communicator must have superior communication skills. Proper eye contact, voice, and body movements are collective considerations that explain the professional level of the communicator. The extract also specifies that the communicator should develop fear management techniques. Therefore, the communicators must ensure the proper orientation of emotional energy. Emotional energy should be directed to ensure that the communicator is energetic, enthusiastic, and convincing. Stage management can be achieved when communicators appreciate their oratory skills, preparing well in advance, and acquainting themselves the materials present.

Special Considerations in Presentations of Financial Information and a Final Word

This part is integral because it explains the clarity of data. The communicator must ensure that presentation that encompasses numbers and tabular data is appropriately presented. Firstly, it is necessary to ensure that the numbers are consistent. Efficiency in communication is achieved by avoiding several revisions and data degeneration. Secondly, the communicators must also ensure that the numbers add up together. This is accomplished via proper development of financial statements. It is also important to ensure that the audience can read the chart and other statistical information. The authors have emphasized that the audience may read data from a computer aided system like Microsoft PowerPoint and projected to a visible platform. Besides, the communicator must research widely regarding positive communication methods (May & May 2012).


This analysis has attempted to establish the imperativeness of planning for a presentation. In this description, planning appropriately for a presentation is essential. Besides, the role played by body language and increased confidence levels minimizes fright incidences during a presentation.


May, C, & May, G.S. (2012). Effective Writing: A Handbook…… [read more]

Public School Leadership Begins With Good Communication Skills Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (668 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


My strength has always been in my ability to listen to others, to research important points of the upcoming discussion before I get into it, and communicate my thoughts and values based on what I see needs to be done or changed in a public school.

When it comes to goal-setting for a school, who should decide what goals the school will pursue? The answer is that every human being on that campus, including custodians (because when they feel like they are actually a part of the school community, they will perform better), should be in on the process.

When the administration -- in collaboration with faculty, students and parents -- decides to set goals for a school in the fall, good communication will help to establish the value of setting goals. Administrators should meet with students in every classroom and fully explain the value a high quality school brings to families and to the community, and that vision, once communicated, inspires students to arrive at their own ideas about what they want to accomplish.

My philosophy is that learning is a shared responsibility and when good communication is practiced and taught by the principal and his administrative staff, the administration in that context become more than leaders, they become role models.

A lot of deep theories and philosophical essays have been written about communication, but there really is nothing new under the sun when it comes to practicing worthy, powerful communication in a public school setting. It works, if it's done correctly.… [read more]

Communication Friendship Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (685 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


From this premise, he would sometimes attempt to encourage me to talk about any negativity I am experiencing. I experience this as pressure, which would drive me further into my thoughts rather than the intended effect, which is to get me to talk about my issues and remove the negativity. This would sometimes cause friction and a negative communication climate in our relationship.

After the reading, I have decided to improve these cases of negativity by engaging in more self-disclosure. According to the social penetration theory, self-disclosure is an aspect of communication that especially contributes to relationship development. To ensure both our current and future communications, I will therefore make a conscious attempt to suspend some of my tendency towards privacy in the interest of a more trusting relationship with Andrew.

This will form part of my strategies to ensure closeness for me and Andrew. One of the current strategies I use to ensure closeness between me and Andrew is spending a large amount of time together. During these times, I make sure that I suggest activities I know we both enjoy, such as films or video games.

After reading the chapter, one of the strategies I will use to ensure future closeness between me and Andrew will be to confide in him more. As mentioned, I am not naturally trusting in nature, and I prefer to keep my personal life as private as possible. However, in a close relationship like the one I have with Andrew, I will have to be more self-disclosing to ensure that Andrew and I have the same level of trust towards each other.

In conclusion, the reading has made me fully aware of the potential for growth in my friendship with Andrew. I will have to make some modifications to my behavior if I am to ensure that Andrew and I remain close as friends. If I can manage this, our connection and relationship will evolve in the future to become one of the most permanent and fulfilling relationships I have.… [read more]

Nonverbal Behavior Has James Made? Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (725 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


As James enters the office, Bob does not give him time, instead he quickly approaches him that he was late and therefore, the order had already been placed with his competitor. I think this response comes too quickly and so does not give James a chance of defending himself to tell Bob why he was late.

Touch-People communicate a great deal through touch. In this case, when James enters Bobs' office, he finds Bob sited with his arms and legs crossed. Bob did not bother standing up to give James a handshake, instead James walked around Bob's desk to extend his hand. I think this was not appropriate because it made James to feel uncomfortable and so there was something wrong.

Rewrite the dialogue to show how you think James should have handled matters

When told by Bob that an order had been placed with another competitor, James would have not overreacted about it; instead he should have just understood everything. Crossing his arms and legs along with increasing his voice in pitch showed that he was pissed off, and therefore he thinks he was the right person to be given that tender. James tells Bob that they have lowered Appleton's prices by 10 to 20%, although he did not give Bob time to comment about it, and so he starts buttoning his coat ah he rise up to leave.

Include at least 3 new nonverbal behaviors from either James or Bob

Use of gestures- Both James and Bob use gestures in their conversations.

Paralinguistic- the use of tone voice is only identified with James. For instance, James' voice changes in speed and pitch after he was told that an order had already been placed.

Body Language and Posture- Posture and movement can convey a great deal on information (Hallett, 2014). For instance, both James and Bob cross their arms and legs while talking to one another.


Cherry, K. (2014). Types of Nonverbal Communication. Major Nonverbal Beahviors. Retrieved July 20, 2014, from http://psychology.about.com/od/nonverbalcommunication/a/nonverbaltypes.htmFind a website by URL or keyword...

Hallett, T. (2014). Body Language: Understanding Non-Verbal Communication. Body Language. Retrieved July 20, 2014, from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/Body_Language.htm… [read more]

Putting Your Best Voice Forward Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (677 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Be sure to limit your research to the most salient points of the talk as your focus is to compress the information while retaining information that is both factual and interesting. You should be on the lookout for stories that capture the essence of your topic and that are sufficiently relevant to enable your audience to relate to your message in a positive or poignant way.

Preparing And Organizing The Speech

It is always a good idea to have notes or notecards to which you can refer during your talk. You will want to avoid memorizing your speech, but it is helpful to practice the transitions between the major points as these are often difficult to accomplish smoothly without some rehearsal. Timing your speech is crucial. The best way to do this is to set a stopwatch or a timer for the designated number of minutes that you anticipate your speech will take, or for the time that you have actually been allotted. Practice your speech aloud. You can practice your speech privately, but you will benefit more from rehearsing the speech aloud in front of a supportive person, preferably someone who has the same or similar degree of knowledge about your topic as your eventual audience is likely to possess. Your practice audience can provide feedback that may help you strengthen your speech, so be sure to invite them to make comments.

Making It Interesting

Select or develop interesting visual aids that can enhance your presentation. If you include visuals in your speech, chances are you will be more interested in your own talk, and so will be more enthusiastic and dynamic in your presentation. Enthusiasm for a topic is contagious and will go along ways toward getting the audience on your side.


Bovee, C.L. (2003). Contemporary Public Speaking (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Collegiate Press.

Gardner, J.N. And Jewler, A.J. (2002). Your College Experience. Boston, MA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.… [read more]

Effective Communication Strategies Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (774 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The experience was life changing as it was conducted professionally, and the interview panel was too rigid. The panelists can give the candidate a feeling of uneasiness, which reduces the candidate's confidence (Macan & Merritt, 2011). I had positive energy, it was hard to remain positive all the time, and the panelists did not affect my confidence level.

The positives of the interview process were the fact that the principal was part of the panel and they continuously reassured me in regards to my answers. The panelists focused mainly on my character as well as on my qualifications, which allowed me to not only demonstrate my education, but also my character. However, the panelists were not clear in their questions, and I had to seek clarification many times. The panelists seemed unprepared for the interview process. This is because they kept shuffling through papers for them to get my CV and certificate copies. The interview was conducted in a hall, which made it hard to communicate with the panelists. There were constant interruptions, which would break a candidate's concentration.

As the principal, the first thing I would change is the location for the interview. This would ensure that the location is secluded, and there are no interruptions. The questions asked by the interview panel should be clear and concise (Guion, Diehl, & McDonald, 2011), which would allow a candidate to answer each question without seeking clarification. Early preparation of the panelists to ensure that they are prepared for the process. If the panelists are prepared, they will have all the documents they need in front of them, and they will not have to keep searching for them amongst their files. As the principal, I would try to make the candidate as calm as possible by giving them reassuring messages during the process.


Conrad, C., & Poole, M.S. (2011). Strategic organizational communication: in a global economy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Guion, L.A., Diehl, D.C., & McDonald, D. (2011). Conducting an in-depth interview.

Macan, T., & Merritt, S. (2011). Actions speak too: Uncovering possible implicit and explicit discrimination in the employment interview process. International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology 2011, Volume 26, 293-337.

Ord, T.J., Charles, G.K., & Hofer, R.K. (2011). The evolution of alternative adaptive strategies for effective communication in noisy…… [read more]

Use of AAC to Enhance Communication Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,737 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Augmentative and Alternative Therapy

Calculator, S.N. (2014). Parents' Perceptions of Communication Patterns and Effectiveness of Use of Augmentative and Alternative Communication Systems by Their Children with Angelman Syndrome. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 23(4), 562-573. Doi: 10.1044/2014


Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurogenetic syndrome that emanates from deficient manifestation of the UBE3A gene; as a result, there are different… [read more]

Customer Service, Communication Theory Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,887 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


Interpersonal Communication

Communication consists of the following elements: sender, message, feedback, channel, encoding, decoding and receiver (Chand, 2015). Interpersonal communication refers to communication that takes place between two or more people, using implying communication in person, without media. Each of these elements plays a critical role in successful communication. Each communication has a specific message that the sender intends the… [read more]

Conversational Analysis of Oprah Interview Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,740 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Conversational Analysis of Oprah Interview

Conversation Analysis of Oprah CBS Interview

The first adjacency pair of the opening sequence has B. saying in a deliberate tone, "Speaking of spending money." This new speech unit initiated by B. In line 1 does not introduce a new topic but signals movement to a new conversational unit through reference to a prior sequence… [read more]

Expectancy Violations Theory Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,844 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Expectancy Violations Theory (EVT) begun by Judee K. Burgoon, concerns the way in which people interact with each other in a non-verbal way. Initially, the theory was known as "Nonverbal Expectancy Violations Theory." Burgoon later dropped the word "nonverbal," as the theory concerned somewhat more than simply nonverbal clues. Indeed, it also concerned the way in which people interacted as… [read more]

Oral Presentation Seminar Paper

Seminar Paper  |  2 pages (750 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Oral Presentation

I come from a very large family who did not always communicate well. I have three sisters and four brothers and very loud parents who did more yelling than communicating when we were growing up. As a result, this is how I learned to communicate. In my household if you didn't jump in and interrupt someone while they were speaking to get your point across, then you didn't get heard. Talking was always a battle in my household and for my siblings, my parents and I that was normal. My aunts, uncles and cousins are all pretty much the same way. This is how I thought people were supposed to communicate. You out talk someone or constantly talk over them until you had the floor.

When I went away to college all of this changed. I slowly but surely alienated my roommates, classmates and any other person who tried to befriend me. I would never let them have their say on an issue without interrupting them. It wasn't until one of my professors got tired of me interrupting another classmate who was speaking in class. My original intention was to major in business, but my professor kept me after class one day only to tell me that I was the worst communicator he had ever known. He suggested I take an introductory course in the Communications Department to improve my skills. He warned me that I would never make it in the business world with the poor communication skills I possessed.

I ignored him. My feelings were hurt and so was my pride. It wasn't until the semester was over and I saw my grade that I took what he said into consideration. I was expecting no less than an a- and I received a B+. When I spoke to him about it, he said that my grade was lowered a few points because class participation was part of the grading and my communication skills were awful. He suggested again that I take an introductory course in communications and this time I listened. I signed up and as they say, the rest is history.

After the first course, I discovered that I know longer wanted to major in business and changed my major…… [read more]

Headshot Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,817 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Headshot

He has this way of looking at me like I've said the wrong thing -- if I'm lucky. If he looks at me like I've said something wrong, it means he at least heard what I said. Most of the time he looks at me with a passive smile, artificial nod of the head, and eyes that… [read more]

Teacher Perceptions of Student Achievement Based on Student Appearance Research Paper

Research Paper  |  16 pages (4,946 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Teacher Perceptions of Student Achievement Based on Appearance

Perception is around us at all times; it was integral in our evolutionary behavior from ape to man; it allowed us to make judgments based on values, prior knowledge, and cultural norms. Perception is really two types of consciousness: phenomenal (observable) and psychological. However, the reality is that both types are often… [read more]

Decoding Facial Expressions in Situations Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,587 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Decoding Facial Expressions in Situations:

It is a tendency for human beings to observe other often and communicate their opinions of the situation. Apart from behavior, the facial expressions of others are one of the ways of evaluating another human being. Through the use of facial expressions, people tend to decide a situation without necessarily reading in between the lines… [read more]

Group Behavior Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (888 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Group Behavior

The group in question is a company that my cousin works for. This company is a small advertising firm where the different employees each work closely together on projects. Each member of the team has set responsibilities and must work both independently and in concert with one another to ensure that the project is completed to the customer's satisfaction.

Communication in the group takes two forms -- verbal and non-verbal. The verbal component includes both written communication and spoken. The written communication is typically computer-mediated, especially when members of the team work remotely, which is frequent in this group. It has been shown that computer-mediated communication can decrease communication effectiveness, increase the time required to meet tasks and results in decreased team member satisfaction when compared to face-to-face communication (Baltes, et al., 2002). This is in part because much of the non-verbal element of communication is lost, and there are fewer opportunities for clarification of ideas with computer-mediated communication.

One of the reasons why this team is successful is because it blends computer-mediated communication with face-to-face communication. This allows for the infusion of non-verbal communication. In situations of disagreement or conflict where one member is working remotely, the situation is typically remedied with face-to-face communication, which is possible since remote work typically means from a home office. With this organization, communication is viewed as the most essential component to success, and in order to minimize the problems and delays caused by computer-mediated communication, all staff members working on a given project must meet at least once a week and often when the project reaches a critical point in its development, the amount of work done remotely is reduced.

The group began with a strict leader-follower dynamic, but over time it has developed into something with a more complex dynamic. Many members of the group have developed their own degrees of informal power, some from the expertise that they have demonstrated and others from their ability to cultivate that power within the group dynamic. Indeed, the leader of the organization may have seen his power diminish over time, as others have excelled.

The roles within the team are, for the most part, strictly defined. Some of the roles are primarily creative, which is essentially a task role. The creatives provide significant guidance to the people in the maintenance roles. There are, however, some roles that overlap between task and maintenance. These roles are often for copywriters or graphic artists, who begin the task by taking instruction from the creatives and others who interface directly with the customer. Within these roles, however, there is room for some creativity as well. They then play the…… [read more]

Tech for the Deaf Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (3,084 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Technology for the Deaf

His Enduring Passion

But a passion for science, his father's inspiration to help the less fortunate and his own desire to improve the quality of life of the hearing impaired drove him to nothing less than work a miracle. The failed attempts of Alessandro Volta in 1790, Duchess of Boulogne in 1855, the French-Algerian partners Andre… [read more]

Personality Snap Judgements Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (3,568 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Personality

Snap Judgements. (174)

Sometimes one of the more troubling characteristics about the reality of human nature is that we often remember the worst things and gloss over the good things about others. This can apply to situations as well, but is certainly at the heart of inappropriate snap judgements when it comes to evaluating another human being.… [read more]

Christian Family Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (2,894 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Christian Family

Building a Strong Relationship


No relationship is ever perfect, and there are always issues that marriage partners have with each other and with the relationship and family as a whole. Expecting everything to be perfect, and for all foibles and idiosyncrasies to be ignored and even enjoyed is simply setting the relationship up for failure -- when… [read more]

Restroom Icon Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (899 words)
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Restroom Icon

Icons of Elimination

Interpersonal communication would be completely impossible without the use of symbols. A simple examination of the most common forms of communication shows the truth of this assertion: speech consists of nothing more than agreed-upon auditory symbols (i.e. spoken words) that stand for the multitude of objects, actions, and concepts of a given language. The sound of A-P-P-L-E bears no actual relationship to the red or green fruit that grows on trees, is crisp and juicy when ripe, and has seeds in the middle, but by general (and largely unconscious) consensus of English speakers the world over, these sounds have when combined are known to refer to this fruit. The same is true of written language; the constituent letters of the word "apple" bears as little resemblance to the fruit as their auditory components, yet a word so spelled creates the meaning -- through the same consensus -- of that particular fruit.

Icons are a different and far more simplistic, though no less profound, form of visual communication. Though the term originally referred to religious pictures and objects, the word "icon" has come to refer to any visual representation that the consensus of a culture or other group of people has bestowed with symbolic and/or communicative value. Any reduction of meaning necessarily creates some loss in the clarity of the communication, and generally speaking the simpler the means of communication are, the less clarity exists. Think, for instance, of the language employed by a toddler and that used by the average college student -- a college student is (one would hope) capable of far more subtlety, shading, and complexity in their communication. Just so, words are the most complex and clear forms of visual communication, whereas icons tend to be far more simplistic and far more general in their meaning. But though they seem to limit meaning, icons can also be seen to reflect a great deal of culture.

An examination of the various restroom icons included in the text bears this out. In general, each of these icons serves the same function -- to identify a place where one can relieve oneself, usually as segregated by gender (or, in the case of at least one of the icons, by species). That is, most of these photographs in the book contains one culture's method of denoting "Men's" and "Women's" on a restroom door. All of the representations are pictorial, though some also include words or letters (such as "WC" for "water closet"), and its here that the breakdown of clarity can be observed. The icons from Thailand, for instance, might be taken as rather humorous and somewhat naught pictures by outsiders, rather than being immediately…… [read more]

Deaf Marlee Matlin Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (952 words)
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Marlee Matlin is one of the most recognizable faces in the deaf community. An Oscar-winning actress, Matlin has also appeared on numerous television shows including the West Wing and Dancing with the Stars. Matlin has become a remarkable emblem for the deaf community: living proof that deaf stars can shine every bit as brightly as their hearing counterparts. However, Matlin's childhood was relatively uneventful. Her supportive parents enabled Matlin to feel comfortable in the mainstream world and in a variety of social situations. Matlin went to a mainstream summer camp and did not attend a deaf-only school. Her education was integrated and so was her social world, illustrating the importance of inclusion. Acording to Putz (2005), "Marlee's childhood world was unlimited." Marlee Matlin's family should therefore be credited for their role in helping shape her self-confidence and self-esteem. Family members and friends of deaf individuals can learn a lot from reading about Matlin, a role model for the deaf community.

Putz (2005) also notes that Marlee's family cultivated a sense of humor and a positive attitude. That sense of humor and lightheartedness tremendously helped Matlin feel confident enough to sign and sing aloud at a summer camp attended by mainly hearing kids. The experience was her first with performance, and Matlin said, "The more I signed, the more they smiled and clapped. It felt great! I wanted to do more of this stuff." The camp experience encouraged Marlee and her mom to pursue after-school programs at the Center on Deafness, (now known as ICODA, the International Center for Deafness and the Arts) (Putz 2005). At age 7, Matlin was cast as Dorothy in the center's production of the Wizard of Oz, and thus her acting career began in earnest. She started touring as a performer. A run-in with Henry Winkler inspired her further, even though Hollywood had yet to embrace deaf actors as a part of their community (Putz 2005).

Matlin won an Oscar for Best Actress in her performance in Children of a Lesser God. The award was meaningful on many levels: for Matlin personally as a sign of her success in the career of her choice, and also for the deaf community. Success in the hearing world -- and especially in an industry saturated with sound and verbal dialogue -- symbolized a transformation of ideals and ambitions. Aspiring deaf actors finally had a role model. Matlin's success also signified the progress made by deaf culture. Deaf culture could be recognized as part of American cultural discourse.

Matlin was invited to deliver an Oscar at the following year's Academy Awards ceremony. She signed the whole time, proudly using the primary language of the deaf community. However, Matlin then spoke out loud the names of the three nominees. Her speaking was perceived as a political faux pas by some parts of the deaf community: especially…… [read more]

Team Dynamics in and Adult Educational Environment Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,883 words)
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Team Dynamics is an interesting and complex issue, precisely because it involves more than one person. Each human being is different in terms of psychological make-up and the abilities that they bring to team work. These abilities extend significantly beyond the basic leader and follower paradigms. In addition to primarily being leader or follower, team members also function with others… [read more]

Discourse Analysis of Call Center Conversation Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  20 pages (5,588 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 20


¶ … Conversation

Along the past recent decades, economic entities have suffered numerous mutations in the way they approach business partners, satisfy the customer, increase corporate profits or treat the employees. In the same time, their expectations have significantly increased. Most of the employers strive to offer an increased employee on the job satisfaction, but in return, they demand that… [read more]

College Application Have Always Been Fascinated Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (559 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


College Application have always been fascinated with the way language and speech work for us. My interest in the field of linguistics and speech pathology led to me to acquire skills in three languages. While I am a mother and have the added responsibility of two young children, I still find myself highly motivated to work with people with special needs. In fact I would say that having my own children has made me even more determined to make a difference in the lives of young children with disabilities.

The decision to receive a degree in speech pathology did not come at random. I was exposed to the field when I was working as supervisor of services at mental retardation agency and then as office manager for a multi-practice doctor's office (Speech therapy, Occupational therapy, neurology, physical therapy, and internal medicine, psychology). But even then, I wouldn't say that the decision was made in a hurry or that I haven't thought about it.

I had been working for a degree in business administration when it occurred to me that my true commitment lies with the field of children with special needs. I realized that I would rather work with people who need me then for those that I need for my career advancement. This decision has prompted me to apply for a degree because even though I have a wealth of experience in the field, I feel that a degree is essential to open new doors of opportunities and will also broaden my horizons.

A may still lack some essential skills required for dealing with people of special needs. With a degree I expect to gain new skills and…… [read more]

Group Observation and Facilitation Critique Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,410 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Meeting Facilitation

Instilling information and sharing ideas is essential in organizations in order to continue to improve, enhance job satisfaction and emphasize a team culture. It is expected that something will be accomplished through these meetings, whether it is comparing information or making decisions. Meetings may be positive, negative or indifferent.

Positive meetings have commonly understood goals, a straightforward process… [read more]

Instant Messaging and Interpersonal Relationships Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,226 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


Instant Messaging and Interpersonal Relationships

The popular growth of Instant messaging technology on the Internet has become a fact of life. The ease of use and the immediacy that instant messaging offers has resulted in it's almost wholesale adoption for communication, particularly among adolescents and the 18 to 25 age group. There are many reasons for the popularity of this… [read more]

Sago Mining Crisis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,122 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Sago Mining Crisis began with when a coal mine explosion occurred on January 2, 2006 in the Sago Mine of Sago, West Virginia. The blast and resulting cave-in of the mine trapped thirteen miners for two days. In the end, only one miner survived. It was one of the worst mining-related crisis in United States history.

However, the tragedy of… [read more]

Assistive Medical Devices Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (661 words)
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Assistive Medical Devices

Computerized assistive device for Cerebral Palsy sufferers

Cerebral Palsy can be an extremely debilitating disease. This disease is described as a ".... non-progressive disorder of movement resulting from damage to the brain before the age of three years..." (Jones P.E.). The term cerebral palsy refers in fact to a palsy or weakness of muscle control which is a result of damage to the brain. There are varying degrees of this brain damage and levels of severity in the impairment to muscular and movement coordination in patients. The effects of Cerebral Palsy can range therefore from relatively mild impediments to total incapacity of the body. The causes of these diseases have been attributed to various factors including viruses to more physical constraints on the development of the brain. (Jones E.P.) central problem that many sufferers of this disease experience is the inability to communicate coherently. Healthy social relationships and related issues of self-esteem and self-image are largely based on the ability to communicate correctly with others. In severe cases of Cerebral Palsy the patients are often nonverbal or have severe speech impediments making communication with others extremely difficult.

Augmentative communication devices as well as assistive devices have therefore been developed to help Cerebral Palsy patients and sufferers of other diseases that retard communication skills. The most useful and effective of these devices are those that are computer operated.

In this regard speech synthesis devices are the most well-known of the computer assisted applications that are available. An example of speech synthesis is the device that the famous physicist Stephen Hawking, who has Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, uses to communicate.

He is able to hold lectures and answer questions from students by crafting his responses with his device. It then speaks his words aloud for him. There is a delay involved in this communication, but that seems a small price to pay to be able to tell the world just what you are thinking..."


This is an example of…… [read more]

Emergency Management -- Risk Perception Identify Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (439 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Emergency Management -- Risk Perception

Identify some avenues of risk perception and communication. Also, identify potential impediments to effective risk perception and communication, and how they may be overcome.

One person's risk may be another person's adrenaline high, as is evidenced by the popularity of skydiving, smoking, and also the variability of fears in any given society. Thus risk analysis cannot be based in personal emotion alone, as the emotional perceptions of risk vary greatly from individual to individual. Broadly defined, risk is the possibility of adverse consequences. Risk is predicted in terms "of the likelihood that an event of a given magnitude will occur at a given location within a given time period" and describes the expected consequences that the event will inflict on persons, property, and social functioning" (83).

Some risks happen suddenly, others only over time. An effort addressing the imminent threat of an extreme event is referred to as a warning and designed to produce an emergency response, like evacuating before a hurricane. A risk communication program raises hazard awareness about long-term risks that may not be immediately obvious, like the dangers of eating transfats or global warming (86)

To persuade people of the need to guard their lives against risk, the classical persuasion model dispenses information from an authoritative source, with a clear message,…… [read more]

Walk Down the Busy City Street Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,438 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … walk down the busy city street. It is a beautiful day, 70 degrees, clear, blue sky. The early morning sun is beginning to shine down for warmth and comfort. The jackets will come off. The shorts will be put on. The sidewalks team with hundreds, thousands of people rushing, rushing....Do they know where? Do they know why?

How… [read more]

Adult Male Stutterer Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,442 words)
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Adult Male Stutterer

An Analysis of the Incidence, Treatment and Implications of Stuttering for the Adult Male

Stuttering is virtually universal in all societies, but it remains fairly rare with only about one percent of the world's population suffering from this condition. The growing body of evidence on the causes and incidence of stuttering has pointed to various genetic, cultural… [read more]

How Do You Communicate With Others? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (963 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Communication is a deceptively simple element of human life. When considering the definition of the word, people often associate it with simply talking to one another. However, according to Sarah Fenson, it is not that simple. Indeed, communication is more than just a verbal exchange. Effective communication is also about a mutual understanding of the meaning behind words. In addition, there are non-verbal cues that need to be interpreted and understood to ensure that message is carried across effectively.

Further complicating effective communication, according to Fenson, is negative emotions such as fear, anger, or frustration. These emotions make it difficult to communicate ideas or be understood accurately, because they make a person less skillful in the art of communication. Furthermore, these emotions are often hidden, and as such, others perceive angry, frustrated or fearful people simply as difficult to communicate with.

To eradicate this problem, Fenson suggests emotional self-management. If a person is difficult to communicate with because of one of the above-mentioned negative emotions, it is likely that he or she will want to lash out before communicating the deeper issue at hand. In this event, Fenson recommends remaining calm, counting to ten, and letting the person vent until the underlying issue is reached. Once this occurs, the issue can be handled in a more appropriate manner. The secret is not to let one's own emotions become involved with the negativity of the other person. In such a case, emotional management is the key to successful communication. A further way of communicating calmly with such a person is to respond rather than react to irritating utterances. Ms. Fenson suggests asking questions or sympathetic responses rather than defensive reactions.

Another very effective way of breaking down the barriers built up by persons who make communication difficult, is asking questions. According to Jamie Walters, the skill of effective questioning is extremely important in the communication exercise, as it demonstrates effective listening. Only by listening skillfully can the conversation move forward to levels that help the participants reach their goals. According to Fenson, it is interesting to note that people find it more important to feel that they are heard and understood than to feel that listeners agree with them. Questioning is a very good way to communicate this sense of understanding. In short, a good listener asks good questions. According to Walters, questioning not only demonstrates that the hearer is actually listening, but conversely also helps the hearer to listen more closely to what is said. As such, Walters suggests making the decision to ask questions before the conversation takes place. This prepares the conversationalist to ask effective questions and, to listen more closely and to lead the person who is difficult to communicate with to a concomitantly more effective way of communicating their own ideas. As such, the conversation can prove beneficial to both participants.

Both Fenson and Walters emphasize the…… [read more]

Fear Public Speaking the Attack of the Butterflies Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,763 words)
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Attack of the Butterflies

Mark Twain did it. So did John F. Kennedy, Winston Churchill, and Elvis Presley. Bono claims he's done it regularly for years. Thomas Jefferson was rather famous for it and even George Washington, the father of our country, was known to do it too. It's not just the purview of men. Notable women such as Margaret… [read more]

Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (756 words)
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¶ … Verbal and Non-Verbal Skills in Therapeutic Relationships Verbal and Non-Verbal Skills

What you have learned about verbal and non-verbal skills in therapeutic relationships

I have learned a considerable amount from my experience with non- verbal and verbal forms of communication. This knowledge has been gleaned from my studies and research as well as from personal experience.

One of the aspects that stand out in my mind with regard to these forms of communication is the wide range of non-verbal types of communication and their importance in the therapeutic situation. The importance of these non-verbal actions is mainly due to the extent to which they can substitute for verbal intentions and meaning. I have also come to the conclusion that in many instances non-verbal forms of communication are more subtle and effective in the therapeutic situation.

One of the most important verbal as well as non-verbal forms of communication, in my opinion, is known as attending or warmth. Verbally this can be expressed by agreeing or showing interest in the other person or client and by suggesting through words that one is supportive and "on the same page." This form of communication is important in the therapeutic situation as it tends to break down barriers and awkward conformities between therapist and patient.

There are many non- verbal ways of expressing warmth - such as nodding the head slightly in a sign of understanding and by the attitude or positioning of one's body. This should not be aggressive or cold but open and inviting. There are many examples of this type of non-verbal cue. This type of bodily attitude is the opposite of a confrontational or aggressive stance; for instance, the crossing of one's arms. This may be construed by the observer as a defensive sign. A body attitude that is considered to be "warm" and far more conducive to open expression and interaction could be expressed through facing the observer with open hands and with the palms of the hands facing outward.

Among the many other verbal and non-verbal skills that are of importance to know about in terms of therapeutic relationships are the more assertive and engaging cues and use of language; such as questioning, self-disclosure, genuineness, immediacy and caring confrontation. A particularly difficult but very…… [read more]

Communications Issues Report Analysis Lessons Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (529 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Usefulness of this Report

This report is obviously most useful to communicators charged with the responsibility of communicating concepts in the same field as that which the report concerned directly. Individuals and entities planning any communications initiatives in the field of environmental issues or urban planning would be able to use this report as a blueprint for constructing a message that is likely to be highly effective. More generally, all individuals and entities with the responsibility of constructing communications initiatives would be able to use this report to help identify potential areas of concern in relation to their choice of language. If they have the resources to do it, they would use this report as a model for how to employ the focus-group process in tailoring their substantive messages to specific audiences.

Importance of Findings

Generally, the findings of this report are important to the concept of effective communications strategy. In principle, it suggests that even the most carefully constructed substantive ideas cannot necessarily be relied upon to achieve their objective in and of themselves. It is important because it demonstrates that substantive aspects of communications messages are only part of the overall communications process. To be effective, communications initiatives must combine substantive elements with a sensitivity to the proverbial ear of the audience. It demonstrates that the same terminology that might be effective with one audience could be much less effective with another audience, even when both audiences are equally receptive to receiving the actual substance of the message.


Locker, K.O. (2006). Business and Administrative Communication. Boston, MA:…… [read more]

Deaf Culture Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,052 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Special Education

Deaf Culture

Deaf culture has many different meanings depending on who you are talking to. According to some it is a social, shared, and creative force of, by, and for Deaf people founded on American Sign Language (ASL). It includes communication, social process, art, entertainment, recreation like sports, travel, and Deaf clubs and worship. It's also an attitude which is sometimes seen as a weapon of unfairness. Overall Deaf culture is a positive term, indicative of pride and a communal identity (Defining Deaf Culture, 2011).

Then there are some who are adamant there is no such thing as Deaf culture. Some people will dispute that deafness is nothing more than a disability, a disability that must be fixed. Getting this disability fixed may entail frequent visits to an audiologist, getting fitted for hearing aids, attending many speech therapy sessions, or even going through surgery to get a cochlear implant. This is what's called the pathological advance to deafness. It centers on what's wrong and uses numerous technological and therapeutic plans to resolve the problem. The accomplishment of this approach varies from person to person (What is Deaf Culture, 2011).

The cultural features of the Deaf world are fundamental in supplying a healthy sense of happiness. It centers on what Deaf people can do, as opposed to the pathological approach of centering on what's wrong. There's a sense of fitting in, and of justification. While it's feasible to do well with a pathological approach on the exterior it can be quite exhausting. It's not unusual for Deaf people to go to hearing family gatherings and come home completely exhausted from the effort it took to communicate. In the meantime, at Deaf social gatherings everywhere, it could be very late and nobody wants to leave. Club owners and proprietors in reality have to turn the lights out and herd everyone out the door. A lot of a conversation continues outside under a street light or in a coffee shop. Communication in ASL is fluid and effortless, which is why one will see these gatherings lasting until the wee hours of the morning (What is Deaf Culture, 2011).

The vital connection to Deaf Culture among the American deaf community is American Sign Language. This community shares a universal sense of pride in their Culture and language. There exists a rich heritage and pride in the ability to conquer difficulty as individuals and as a group. "Deaf power hit the World in 1988 at Gallaudet University, an event known as the "Deaf President Now" (DPN) Movement. The protest has made a mark in history and proves that Deaf Culture is Pride and that Pride is Power" (What is Deaf Culture, 2011).

Mastery of ASL and competent storytelling are tremendously valued in Deaf Culture. Through ASL Literature, one generation passes on to the next its knowledge, standards, and its pride and therefore strengthens the bonds that tie the younger generation. Another feature of this culture is the institution of marriage. It is estimated… [read more]

Deaf Ears: An Exercise Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (770 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Though I am not elderly, perhaps I can relate to this experience because I, like those studied, was faced with suddenly having to adjust to an unfamiliar world, not unlike many who develop a hearing loss during their life (rather than being born with one).

Hearing with only one ear also proved difficult, in that even though sounds were amplified, it was often difficult to tell where background noises were coming from and how close or far away they were. This is because "localization is affected [in] individuals with UHL [(Unilateral Hearing Loss)] ... when sound approaches from one direction, the interaural time difference between ears allows one to determine from which direction the sound is coming. With UHL, one may not be able to hear those time differences ... and, thus, can have difficulty localizing (McKay, 2006). As with my bilateral impairment experience, with the unilateral hearing my own voice still sounded as far away as everyone else's making me strangely disconnected from what I was saying.

I am fortunate to have intact hearing, but it is conceivable that during my life I will experience some hearing loss, as any of us might. Consequently it is a valuable practice to deprive oneself of what feels like a necessity (i.e. hearing) in order to fully appreciate it.


M Backenroth-Ohsako, G.A., Wennberg, P., & Klinteberg, B.A. (2003). Personality and Work Life: a Comparison between Hearing-impaired Persons and a Normal-hearing Population. Social Behavior and Personality, 31(2), 191+. Retrieved March 6, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035372814

McKay, S. (2006). Management of Young Children with Unilateral Hearing Loss. The Volta Review, 106(3), 299+. Retrieved March 6, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5044769123

Most, T., Weisel, A., & Tur-Kaspa, H. (1999). Contact with Students with Hearing Impairments and the Evaluation of Speech Intelligibility and Personal Qualities. Journal of Special Education, 33(2), 103. Retrieved March 6, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001868253

Tideiksaar, R. (2003). Sensory Impairment and Fall Risk. Generations, 26(4), 22+. Retrieved March 6, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5045059262… [read more]

Communicative Processes of Humans Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (480 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Humans also have other ways of communicating other than the use of words, by the development of writing man has been able to put this thoughts and ideas onto paper, therefore forming a secondary and for some a primary form of communication.

Man also has the ability and the cognitive approaches to set other style of communicative processes through his mind, such as the ability to dream.

However this is not to say that primates do not have the same cognitive abilities to dream and think, their abilities although have not fully been tested in a comparison to humans yet still primates have a unique sense and keenness too learn and function in similar method to mimics. It must be asked that if chimpanzees are left in a human environment without any formal or scientific teaching would they actually become humanlike.

Animals and humans are unique creatures, the euphemism "dumb animal" should never be used when discussing any form of animal for all have their own unique way of communication, even a cat when it rubs itself up against the leg of its owner is communicating its pleasure or desire for comfort, therefore in a contrast and comparison between human and non-human communication it is fare to say that although there are no formal words that humans understand, animals do speak and communicate in their…… [read more]

Social Justice Just Get Started Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,163 words)
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If you are a leader who isn't committed to truly listening to the people managing your teams, at best, you may be perceived as knowledgeable and authoritative. At worst (which is more often the case), leaders who don't listen come across as self-important, impatient, long-winded, arrogant and even aggressive. And if you're not listening to them -- chances are they're not listening to you, either. That is why real, profound listening is a "radical" act in the best, truest sense of the word (Heneghan, 2005).

Radical listening is an extinct part of communication. The word "Radical" means relating to the roots. Therefore, radical listening relates to what is not being said and what is being meant. A person is a good radical listener if:

If one is aware of inner dialogue and listens beyond it

This means that the person ignores his inner thoughts while listening and perceives what is being actually communicated

Listens for what one can't hear, and for what people won't normally tell him.

This explains that the person is reading between the lines, ignoring the words and trying to understand the unsaid notions during any sort of communication

Listen for possibility and commitment

Consider that when someone is speaking, commitment to the exchange is either present or missing. If you are listening for it, and it's present, you can draw on it. In fact, it can even lead to a change -- and improvement -- in your thinking or approach.

Radical listening is an art of catching the ball, not throwing it back. It intents on understanding what is being actually said rather than what is being worded e.g. when a new girl at school tells you that she doesn't want to come over to school new year part, what she might be telling you is she is facing difficulty fitting in and doesn't want to feel left out.

Question# 04:

Resistance is one of the strongest skills required to survive in every field of life. Theoretically speaking, it is a force which tends to oppose the existing state of an object and psychologically speaking it is our defense mechanism.

Resistance is usually considered as a general trait of involuntary clients of social work where individuals have been forced legitimately to solve their issues. In fact, there is a possibility that the agreement to social therapy is shown only at conscious level whereas the client shows resistance unconsciously since they are enjoying their comfort zone as explained by Carter. Culturally speaking, history has shown resistance as a major survival skill. It was the resistance shown by an ethnic group in subcontinent which resulted in division of subcontinent of Asia into three different countries-Pakistan, India & Bangladesh. Similarly, it was a resistance used as survival skill which granted the Black people their fundamental rights.

Respecting this resistance is part and parcel of a social work practice. It is important for a social worker to understand the causes of resistance, whether they are just and how to handle… [read more]

Conflict Management Case Studies Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (762 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Conflict Management Case Studies

Conflict management is a very important subject that captures many people's attention since it is inevitable. For people to coexist in harmony there, has to be a system where their differences are solved amicably. One of the ways people can resolve their conflicts is through simple talking, which most people shy away from. Conflict normally arises because of the huge division in our present society; the current generations are brought up and never given the opportunity to interact with others socially, therefore, in their adult life they develop problems trying to cope with different ethnics, racial or religious groups. Conflict also can arise from any environment; many situations have led to development of conflicts among people Abigail & Cahn, 2010.

For instance, there is political divide (conservatives vs. liberals), gender gaps, social classes, and age barriers among others. These entire situations do not create a conducive environment for harmony to exist. Therefore, there is a need to embrace communication at all levels since it is one of the best ways of solving conflicts.

Conflict situation 1

The conflict theory discussed in this situation is Social exchange theory Abigail & Cahn, 2010.

The cause of the conflict is the contribution of one of the partners in this relationship does not satisfy the other partner. The partner who's working to make ends meet feels more drained as the rewards in the relationship are less than the cost incurred. Weighing the efforts put into the relationship, the working partner is in conflict because the partner had not adhered to their agreement when they were getting married as they were supposed to contribute to satisfy each other's needs.

The conflict can be resolved by both partners working to satisfy each other's needs and expectations. Both partners must hold onto their end of the deal and show commitment. Communication between the partners plays a big role in ensuring mutual understanding and agreement. Yes, I have ever been in such a situation where my girlfriend was used to being provided for by me without bringing in any resourceful support into the relationship. I felt drained, and we broke up.

Conflict situation 2

The conflict theory in question is the Psychodynamic theory- Displaced conflict. In this situation, the real cause of the conflict is…… [read more]

Body Language Analysis Found the Quiz Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (888 words)
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Body Language Analysis found the quiz to be very enlightening. While I managed to answer many of the first few questions correctly, my accuracy level faded for the last few. It was easy to discern that wearing a plain shirt would be less distracting than a patterned one during the course of communication. It was interesting to find out how people lie. I had always assumed that many people tell white lies in the course of communication but was not aware the level with which lying could influence body language. It would be interesting to conduct a study to see just how accurately an ordinary person could predict lying just by observing body language cues.

I was surprised to find that smell was the most directly emotional of senses. I had no idea that smell could serve to relax or excite a person. I was also somewhat surprised to find that side by side communication is more conducive to friendly banter than face-to-face communication. It seems that in modern day society more and more people communicate by speaking face-to-face rather than by speaking side by side. The quiz truly enlightened my perspective however and caused me to think about the manner in which I communicate with others.

Understanding body language can be an essential component of a business environment and relationship. When you are working with other people it is important to acknowledge not only what they say with words but also what they say with their body. It would be interesting to observe people's body language cues for a day to attempt to discern which individuals were engaged in successful communication vs. those that were either distracted, disinterested or even lying.

A business person that is able to interpret body language can excel in communication. They would have the ability to discern when their audience is generally interested in what they have to say or whether they are feeling some other emotion related to the information being shared.

One aspect of the business environment where interpretation of body language is critical is during a presentation. A speaker has many opportunities to share a message with his/her audience by using body language. Likewise a speaker can interpret the audiences reception of his/her message by paying attention to certain body language cues the audience gives off. A presentation may be in the form of a formal speech to an audience of peers or may be in the form of a management communication to employees. Regardless of the forum that a presentation occurs in, it is critical that the presenter consider the audience's body language as well as their own during the communication process. This quiz…… [read more]

Commonplace: "You Always Admire Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,999 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Further, communicating through the written word also means allowing for a time lapse in any expected response even if it is through the more instantaneous channels of email and mobile text messages. Thus, it is evident that speaking is, by far, the easier method of communication. The question that must be asked, however, is whether it is also the better… [read more]

Physical Anthropology Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (742 words)
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Cochlear Implants

To many hearing people, the controversy surrounding cochlear implants seems odd. After all, the implants can enable an otherwise deaf person to function in the hearing world. The implants might not be a cure and they do not help all deaf persons, but they do restore a considerable amount of the lost sense. Nevertheless, many deaf persons "deem the implants unnecessary, oppressive, and emotionally risky," (Nevala). In fact, for many deaf people, cochlear implants a "death knell for deaf culture," and even view them as "genocide," (Nevala). These strong sentiments stem from the fact that deaf culture thrives because it provides a strong, vibrant community from which a deaf person derives considerable social support and psychological strength. The implants, according to some deaf persons, threaten to undermine the integrity of the deaf community. However, far from being a death knell for the deaf community, cochlear implants can offer improved communications, safety, and functioning in the hearing world; rather than undermine deaf culture, the implants can enhance it and increase its diversity.

The implant, which is surgically inserted into the ear, bypasses the malfunctioning portion of the inner ear and creates the electrical impulses necessary for hearing. Many parents of deaf children are opting to implant their children at a young age, one of the reasons the implants are causing such a stir. Opponents to the technology believe that these children will never be exposed or introduced into deaf culture, and that their parents are stealing away an essential part of their identities. Opponents to the implants also believe that being deaf is not a disability so much as it is an identity.

However, for many deaf persons, the implants are a boon; they will contribute to, not detract from deaf culture. Michael L. Pierschalla noticed that the implant not only helped him to hear; it also helped him to listen. When he was totally deaf, he would actually talk more; his inability to hear caused the man to pay attention less to his friends and loved ones when they spoke. The implant enriched his relationships, both those with hearing and hearing-impaired persons. Moreover, he remarks how the implant greatly contributes to the safety and well-being of the deaf, who…… [read more]

Formatting Choices Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (314 words)
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¶ … efficient mode of communication because in just a few seconds, a recipient can receive what is sent to him.

Flow Chart - this is useful because it helps in explaining processes in a step-by-step method.

Powerpoint Presentations - this is useful for presentation because it allows interaction with the presentor. Moreover, the ability of Powerpoint to provide graphics and colors can promote interest to the audience.

this is useful in delivering both detailed and general information.

Specifications - allows the delivery of efficient and quality tasks

Quick Reference Docs - allows a quick delivery of information

Gantt Charts - allows proper scheduling of tasks and promotes discipline

Manuals - this is useful because it can answer questions that users may have

Usability Test and Report - eliminates errors (i.e. In UAT of system) and allows the delivery of quality products

Schematic Diagram - this is useful because it delivers information in an organized manner (i.e.…… [read more]

Compare and Contrast Adolescents 16 19 to Senior Adults Over the Age 60 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,612 words)
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Young adults have stronger, more flexible and enduring bodies that can perceive more sharply and process more information for quicker response even in a complicated environment than senior adults. These young ones are also more easily won by external rewards and more conscious about their looks and behavior in public than older people. But they fare equally in performing tasks… [read more]

Letter of Advice Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,432 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Letter of Advice

Dear Jeff and Stephanie

Many congratulations from my side on your engagement and for choosing each other as life partner. Choosing a life partner is not simple because it is a relationship, which continues forever. You are not buying a house or a car, that you can change if it did not fulfill your needs or satisfy… [read more]

Clt Comm Identity and Intercultural Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (606 words)
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These forces relate to intercultural communication because they establish the foundation from which the communication happens in the first place. These forces also evolve over time. For instance the role of women in the workplace and at home has changed do to equal rights and equal pay legislation in the United States. Today woman are professionals as well as wives and mothers.

As one explores the notion of identity, one must also keep in mind the concept of identity development varies from culture to culture. In fact, each culture creates its own foundation and value system regardless of society. For instance, the Hispanic culture is family centered and traditional with respect to the roles of women. It is also a very religious culture. It is important to remember that in order for an intercultural communication to place, each person participating must be respectful of the other's culture. By having knowledge of culture and any differences that may exist, only then can the parties truly open the dialogue. Much of the unrest that exists in today's world has resulted from a lack of true respect and inability to talk on equal ground. Still it is difficult to erase the preconceived notions that defined identity before birth. Only by recognizing factors can one move into a state open communication with another culture.


This paper briefly explored the concept of identity as it relates to intercultural communication. Factors like age, gender, race, religion, class and culture that help determine one's point-of-view when communicating. The paragraphs above explored how these factors influence communication across cultures. Study of these factors is important as the world becomes a smaller place for business due to new technologies and a global culture is invented.… [read more]

Gregory Bateson, Second-Order Cybernetics, and Metacommunication: Human Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,926 words)
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Gregory Bateson, Second-order Cybernetics, And Metacommunication: Human Communication Analysis Based on Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, And Group Interaction

The development of communication studies in the latter part of 20th century brought into fore important concepts and discoveries about the nature of human relations and interactions. The history of social science research had witnessed the shifting trends of human communication studies from quantitative… [read more]

Metacommunication in Gregory Bates' "A Theory Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (593 words)
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In Gregory Bates' "A theory of play and fantasy," he emphasized the importance of the concept "metacommunication" in studying interactions and their meanings between or among communicators within a specific social context. Bates explicated in his essay how metacommunication occurs in an interaction, which he identified and termed as "play." He defined metacommunication as "exchanging of signals which would carry the message 'this is play'," which meant that it is the understanding of meanings implicit within each communication act or play. In effect, metacommunication is present when the communicators are able to understand the meaning of a play or communication act in a particular social context. Inability to distinguish the true meaning of this communication act -- that is, failure to achieve understanding and generate the meaning of the play -- means that metacommunication is absent and was not achieved by the communicators.

Metacommunication is vital because it allows observers and communicators participating in a communication act distinguish the kind of play or interaction taking place. Observers can only understand whether communicators are arguing or joking only if they are aware of the context or situation from which the interaction took place. If an argument ensued as a result of a misunderstanding from a communicator's joke, then clearly, there had been a lack of metacommunication between them: the recipient of the joke clearly took it from an altogether different context, offending the other communicator, thereby eliciting feelings of anger from him/her. What this example illustrates is that it is important for communicators and observers to identify the "rules" or the communication styles of each communicator in order to determine whether they are still joking or embarking towards a heated argument due to a misunderstanding.

Utilizing Bates' discussion on metacommunication, this concept is better explained when…… [read more]

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