"Communication / Speech" Essays

12345. . .
X Filters 

Corporations Send Out Messages Dissertation

Dissertation  |  38 pages (10,552 words)
Bibliography Sources: 42


Corporations send out messages constantly -- through ads, commercials, websites, quarterly and annual reports, job postings on Monster.com, memos tacked up on lunchroom bulletin boards. The audiences for these different messages are different from each other, which is one of the major reasons that traditionally companies have not worried about whether they are presenting a consistent message on all of… [read more]

Communicating in Today's Workplace Communication Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (3,166 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


This type of gathering is ideal for breaking down barriers between departments and building better communication in the workplace (In-Tuition, 2011).

A company can establish Open House days, a novel way for employees to see what goes on in other parts of the business, as well as giving them the chance to invite family and friends. Another possibility is creating… [read more]

Gender Issue in Communication Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (861 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Gender-Based Communication Differences

In her article,"Talk in the Intimate Relationship: His and Hers," Deborah Tannen argues that men and women have fundamentally different approaches to interpersonal communication. According to Tannen, women use conversational communication primarily to establish intimacy and interpersonal interconnectedness whereas men typically use conversation mainly to establish status in relation to others. The author details the ways that gender-based socialization differences account for the fact that men rely on verbal conversation to communicate information while women emphasize the more subtle elements of interpersonal communication, such as indirect "metamessages" that consist of a much wider range of non-verbal signals in addition to the informational content of conversations. Tannen presents a very cohesive explanation that does seem to account very well for the communications mannerisms and habits typically exhibited by the respective genders.


Virtually any observation of members of the respective genders in public seems to corroborate Tanner's characterizations. First, when males enter a public place, they most often stake out a piece of territory that is in the direct view of others and they position themselves toward others. Females are more likely to seek the least conspicuous territory and to face one another directly when they talk. Males also tend to maintain much louder conversations than women in public. Whereas men generally project their voices so that others in their vicinity can hear their conversations, women usually do the exact opposite, keeping their voices low and also shielding their conversation with body language and deliberate use of their hands to cover their mouths. Meanwhile, men often seem to be talking more for the benefit of others around them, especially to the extent the content of their conversation is flattering to them in their minds. Likewise, whereas women are usually largely oblivious to who else might be around them, men seem to be constantly looking around while they are talking. Two women engaged in conversation in public are most likely to be very surprised if someone walks up to them and interrupts with a question or to introduce himself to them, precisely because the women focus so directly on their private conversation. By contrast, if the same person were to approach two men engaged in conversation in identical circumstances, chances are that both men would be aware of the individual's presence in advance because men seem to notice everybody else in the room even during one-on-one conversations.

In terms of the substantive content of conversations, Tannen's observations would seem to be equally accurate. Typically, men focus on communicating facts and other types of objective information about things. Most commonly,…… [read more]

People Use Threatening Language Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  3 pages (977 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Violence in itself is some sort of act that causes harm to another person or to property (Miller & Flores, 2007). The harm can be physical, psychological, emotional, or structural. The person who commits the violent act does not have physically touch their intended victim to induce harm. Much as the Supreme Court has stated, if a reasonable person believes that the act caused damage to them or their property, then it constitutes a violent act (Rothman, 2001).

Language as a Precursor to Violence

Of course language does not have to be spoken or acted. It can also be written or conveyed through some other form of media. Communication can originate through many different types of devices, but how does the reasonable person determine if the threat, no matter how it is delivered, will result in violence on the part of the communicator (Rothman, 2001). The actual question of the study has to do more with the person communicating the threat, than the person receiving the communication. Many communications are a bluff. No actual intent is behind the words. However, if the words are received in a nonchalant manner, the communicator may escalate to a previously unintended violence. From the words, it may not be able to determine the individuals intent, but the person who receives the threat may have a lot to do with whether the threatener will commit violence (Erbert & Floyd).

A person being threatened can use any number of methods to decrease the possibility of a threat becoming an actual act (Jameson, 2004). The person can return the threatening communication with a polite rejoinder and completely diffuse the situation. Therefore, a threatener's risk for violence is reduced by the reaction of the intended victim.

The escalation or de-escalation of the original communication is generally what determines whether the threatener will carry out any violence (Kahn & Schelling, 2009). Threatening communication often does not end in violence (Jameson, 2004) because the threatened entity decides that they are not going to be a party to the escalation (Kahn & Schelling, 2009). Therefore, the original language may not be as much the precursor to violence as the first communication from the victim of the communication (Miller & Flores, 2007). Threatening language can be assuaged an negated by the reasoned reply of the intended victim of the threat (Jameson, 2004).


Erbert, L.A., & Floyd, K. (2004). Affectionate expressions as face-threatening acts: Receiver assessments. Communication Studies, 55(2). 254-267.

Gunn, J. (2010). On speech and public release. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 13(2). 1-16.

Jameson, J.K. (2004). Negotiating autonomy and connection through politeness: A dialectical approach to organizational conflict management. Western Journal of Communication, 68(3). 257-271.

Kahn, H., & Schelling, T. (2009). On Escalation: Metaphors and Scenarios. New Brunswick, ME: Transaction Publishers.

Miller, M.K., & Flores, D.M.…… [read more]

Public Speaking Is a Form Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (591 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Kennedy, Bill Clinton, and Barack Obama have spent most of their career to advance their public speaking skills.


As it was mentioned before the techniques used to train effective public speakers are well-established and there are accredited organizations for public speaker training. The main aim of the training is creating a confident speaker building natural gestures, and voice tones. The vocabulary, humor, speech notes and developing an interactive relationship with the audience are taught in these schools. These schools also provide media tools like video, and DVD for training. Nowadays, these services make the public speakers education very reachable and convenient. The statistical records show that people, who attend trainings or request the media tools, are writers, politicians, entertainers and sports icons. Surprisingly, scientists and academics are less open to public speeches and meetings. They teach and train their students and peers in classrooms but the difference between public speeches and the classroom speeches is the audience. The audience, frequently students, is focused on the topic to learn and understand. In academic speaking, the speaker is only obligated to cover the material in a certain time whereas the public speakers have to impose their topic and idea keeping the audience actively attended. Sometimes, the classroom communication changes the form, the computer to student communication, where the method used is not verbal anymore. At this point, the communication would be classified into different subgroups such as organizational communication, mutual communication, media communication and public communication. However, the public communication (i.e., public speaker) is unique in the aspect of providing information to the different interest groups and changing the mood and emotions of the audience.… [read more]

Non-Verbal Listening Behavior Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,353 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Non-Verbal Listening Behavior

Two interpersonal interactions: Friend vs. supervisor

Analyzing my personal and professional nonverbal interactions can enhance my ability to effectively transmit my message in a variety of contexts. When I recently met with my friend, A, I wanted to show my sense of sympathy with her, and to demonstrate the depth of my empathy for her romantic plight. In the case of my work colleague, Supervisor B, I wished to maintain a cordial relationship with him, yet still voice my concerns about the behavior of certain individuals within my department. There is always a certain amount of tension in any interaction between superiors and subordinates: a bad performance review from Supervisor B. could mean a loss of my job or other negative consequences, so I always must be careful in terms of how I present myself. The problem is that with people with whom I am friends I take it for granted that my nonverbal communication says what I want it to say, while with work superiors, I am often inhibited and uncomfortable, and do not adequately advance my interests and position.


I spoke to my friend A recently, after she broke up with her boyfriend of more than a year. The two of us went to an evening movie, then out for coffee afterwards. When we were having coffee, A did not make much eye contact with me and tended to play with her coffee creamers and sugar packets. She talked about her boyfriend, and how sorry she was the relationship had ended. I alternated between looking at A, often at the top of her head, and looking away, either at another table or at the ground. When someone does not make eye contact with you, there is always a great deal of uncertainty as where to focus your own eye gaze, especially if the topic is emotional in nature. At the beginning and at the end of our meeting I gave her a hug, to show her how I much I cared about her as a friend. However, other than the hug, I did not sit too close to her, because she seemed somewhat reserved and not desirous of seeking out greater physical intimacy.

In the case of Supervisor B, I had to address some complaints about the behavior of some of the workers at the office. Some people were coming in late and not pulling their weight on various work projects. This was an uncomfortable subject. I did not want to seem as if I was being a 'tattletale' about my colleague's behavior. At times, I found myself avoiding eye contact with B, shifting my weight, and wanting to have something to do with my hands. Because this meeting took place in Supervisor B's closed office in the early morning before many people had arrived in the office, there were few distractions other than our one-on-one interaction. This heightened the intensity of our communication, and I wanted to have something to do to break… [read more]

Call of the Wild Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (609 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Wild -- Vocabulary Exercise

Context Clue Passage -- Gaunt

The patient looked much sicker than he had the week before. He was so gaunt that his shoulder blades poked through his pajama top like two sharp mounds sticking out of his back. His cheeks were equally gaunt leaving a sharp outline showing his entire jaw line that made him look like a living skeleton. We were concerned that he could not possibly live much longer in that condition.

Personal Identification Passage -- Eloquent

I have always greatly admired people who are eloquent speakers and writers for several reasons. First, eloquent speakers are often better received by their audiences simply because they sound more credible in their delivery. More specifically, speaking grammatically correct English and constructing clear sentences increase the speaker's ability to connect with an audience. Second, eloquent speeches are better remembered by their audience. Eloquent speech has the ability to become memorable for its melody (so to speak) as well as for its lyrics. Third, eloquent writing can be the most effective method of formal communication and greatly enhance the ability of the writer to establish a positive rapport in business matters. Eloquent writing sets a tone of respect and high expectations. Because I consider eloquent communication to be so important, I try to emphasize the improvement of my written and spoken English at every opportunity.

Personification Passage -- Peril

Charles once had a very routine situation suddenly turn potentially deadly. Luckily, he did not panic and he took the best possible course of action under the circumstances. Nevertheless, a look at his face during the event would have left no doubt how much danger his friends and he were in. From his perspective, Charles was so scared that he had something like tunnel vision about not making a mistake; at…… [read more]

Australia vs. US Business Culture Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,879 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Australia vs. U.S. Business Culture

Discuss the differences in verbal communication between Australia and the U.S.

and Australia are similar in that both speak English as the common form of language. This may seem like both countries would have close cultural ties because of the common language that they share. Yet, when you look a little closer, it is clear… [read more]

Deaf Culture and Communities Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (3,960 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Deaf Cultures and Communities

Many people are unaware of how deaf culture can be complex. There are a number of things that make deaf culture what it is. Deaf culture is a culture that is unique to the deaf or people who are hard of hearing. They produce plays, books, artwork, magazines and movies that are targeted at the deaf… [read more]

Communication for Managers Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,716 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … business abroad, there is significant risk of miscommunication or communication breakdown as the result of intercultural differences. Managers traveling abroad must not only be aware of this risk, but they must also take steps to reduce this risk. Three strategies that can be used to reduce the risk of miscommunication in an intercultural business setting are to gather… [read more]

Small Group Communication Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (3,392 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Small Group Communication

The issue of group interaction and dynamics is one that has many variables and depends on the particular situation and stresses and strains that the group experiences. The study of group behavior is also a subject that has become the focus of contemporary socio-psychological theory. The trajectory in modern theory is to find ways to improve and… [read more]

Interpersonal Communication Non-Verbal Communication in Social Interactions Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (697 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Interpersonal Communication

Non-Verbal Communication in Social Interactions

The first interaction among couples I encountered was between a receptionist and patient in a dental clinic. As the man approached the receptionist's desk, she smiled at him with a smile that did not reach her eyes and said "Good morning! How can I help you?" In a monotonous, almost robotic, tone. In this scenario, verbal and non-verbal communication is not consistent with each other. While she was saying "Good morning!," which usually indicates pleasantries, the tone she used and the manner in which she said it indicated that she was bored and uninterested. He then said "I'm here for my 10 am appointment with Dr. Lopez." with an expressionless face. Because she greeted him the way she did, he responded by also being unengaged in the conversation. It could have been different had she used a different tone. "Kindly sign this form and wait over there." she answered as she reached for the form and passed it without looking at him. He said "Thank you." while examining the form and quickly moved away. That ended the interaction between these two complete strangers. The tones that they used seemed to be the main factor that defined the conversation.

The second is between a man and woman, seemingly on their mid-twenties, who appear to be on a date in a coffee shop. The man entered the shop and when he saw the woman he was meeting with, his face lit up into a wide smile as he approached her. She smiled, stood up and touched cheeks with the man as an initial greeting. He then touched her on the elbow as they both sat down. "So, how long have you been here?" he said, still wearing a wide smile. "Oh, I just got here." The woman said shrugging her shoulders "Let's go grab something?" she offered still smiling with a quick point of her thumb and jerk of her head towards the counter. He just nodded his head and they both stood up. Here, the non-verbals strongly indicated that these two people…… [read more]

Individual and Group Skills Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (966 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 6



Individual and Group Skills

Nonverbal communication involves those nonverbal things that are in a communication setting that are generated by both the source- the speaker and his or her use of the environment and that have potential message value for the source or receiver -the listener. Basically it consists of sending and receiving messages in a variety of ways without the use of verbal words. It can be both intentional and unintentional (Non-Verbal Communication Modes n.d).

Two aspects that are included in nonverbal communication are eye contact and posture. In the U.S.A., eye contact indicates: a degree of attention or interest, influences attitude change or persuasion, regulates interaction, communicates emotion, defines power and status, and has a central role in managing impressions of others.

Western cultures see direct eye-to-eye contact as a positive thing; while within the U.S. African-Americans often use more eye contact when talking and less when listening with reverse true for Anglo Americans. This is often thought of as a possible cause for some sense of unease between races in U.S.

Arabic cultures make prolonged eye-contact because they believe it shows interest and helps them understand truthfulness of the other person.

Japan, Africa, Latin American, and Caribbean cultures avoid eye contact to show respect (Non-Verbal Communication Modes n.d).

When talking about posture or how a person holds themselves it is important to consider the following things while taking into account cultural differences. Bowing while not done and even criticized in the U.S., shows rank in Japan. Slouching is considered rude in most Northern European countries. Placing ones hands in their pockets is seen as disrespectful in Turkey. Sitting with ones legs crossed is considered offensive in Ghana and Turkey while showing the soles of ones feet is offensive in Thailand and Saudi Arabia (Non-Verbal Communication Modes n.d).

Task 2

Humans have evolved to fear anything that's different from them. Without this fear, there would be no instinct to run, hide, guard or fight. Unfortunately, this evolution went awry somewhere along the way. Not only do most humans have an innate aversion or fear of wild animals, but also of their own species. This is why, say evolutionary biologists, racism is so prevalent. The inborn drive to stick with those who look just like you take over, and the primitive response of distancing one's self from that which looks different, often overrides reasoning and logic (Horton 2008).

A lot of the social analysis that focuses on the injustices and inequalities in U.S. has been influenced by the theory of Karl Marx and the Marxist tradition. Vital to Marxism is the understanding that capitalism is an economic system with two major classes. The capitalist class is known to own and control the means of production, capital, and is always trying to increase its profits. The working class, which is the biggest part of the population, sells their labor power, their capacity…… [read more]

Stuttering Is an Impaired Condition Affecting Speech Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (2,583 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Stuttering is an impaired condition affecting speech fluency. The definition given by WHO is "impairment of the rhythm of speech wherein the person is exactly aware what is required to be said but 'suffers' from a problem in spelling it out due to an involuntary repetition, prolongation and abrupt stoppage of sound." (Lawrence; Barclay, 1998) Stuttering may be classified into… [read more]

Speech Effective Business Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (694 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Effective business is not something you are born with - you must work at mastering each of the characteristics. There are many facets of effective speaking and the best speakers are expert in all them. The characteristics of an effective business speaker can be broken down by category. There are key written elements and then there are key vocal elements. There is also body language, which we will address as part of the vocal elements because it is incorporated with the physical act of speaking. An effective business speaker will master all of these traits. For evidence, we shall analyze the Inauguration Speech by President Barack Obama.

In terms of the written speech, it must have a strong introduction that immediately engages the audience. It must be written with a keen understanding of the audience so that the speaker can better relate to their needs and concerns. The speech should incorporate clear, unequivocal wording. The message should be made relevant to the audience. Lastly, the speech should have a strong conclusion that ties together and reinforces the salient points.

In terms of the speaking, there are several elements to master. Eye contact must be held with the audience at all times. Work your eyes around the room, to engage all of the audience members. The speech should exude confidence. This will flow in part from having strong written material, but a great speaker can make weak material sound strong simply with confidence and diction.

The speech should have steady, even pacing. Make judicious use of vocal inflection. Flatness is never recommended, but fire and brimstone theatrics are often equally undesirable. The speaker should control the mood of the room. If the topic demands cool confidence, the speaker should display that; if the topic demands anger and a call to action, the speaker should reflect that fire in their body language and diction.

Lastly - and it is often overlooked - do not forget to stand up straight and tall. Posture is important!

When we analyze the Inauguration speech of President Barack Obama, we can see how…… [read more]

Effective Personal Skills in Business and Professional Communication Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (1,957 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Personal Skills in Business and Professional Communication

The objective of this work is to demonstrate an understanding of communication at work and interpersonal skills and to integrate both of these and demonstrate how they are applicable to both the personal and organizational life. Finally this work will show how the concepts described can be effectively applied in the… [read more]

How to Better Communicator as a Leader Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,336 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Leadership Communication

Leadership doesn't just depend on communication; leadership is communication. The essence of leadership is transmitting knowledge, information, ideas, and emotions to others. Any leader in the workforce, no matter what industry or department, must practice effective communication skills. Communication is "exchange and flow," meaning that leaders need to develop listening skills as sound as their speaking skills. Effective communication prevents and resolves conflict by bringing underlying concerns to the surface and nipping problems in the bud. Communication also helps coworkers work together harmoniously and therefore increases productivity immensely. Leaders communicate not just with language but also with their behaviors. Therefore, leaders must continually set an example of ethical behavior and ethical verbal communication for all members of the organization.

Strategies of communication range from those that transmit knowledge and power to those that promote camaraderie and creativity. The best way to maximize communication skills is to first understand the needs of the organization: its mission, its philosophy, and its goals. Second, leaders need to adapt their communications skills to serve the needs of the specific team and project. Third, leaders can practice effective communication by drawing upon simple truths including honesty, openness, and good listening skills.

Effective communication breeds productivity and increases organizational health. Blalock (2006) notes that effective communication is essential for a company's fiscal health. Miscommunication, on the other hand, creates costly conflict in any organization. Effective communication helps leaders solve problems quickly by drawing on the knowledge and insight of all members of the team. Being a good communicator benefits a leader's organization by improving productivity and workplace morale.

The Benefits of Being an Effective Communicator

Leaders benefit by being effective communicator in the following ways. First, they set an example and help other members of the team or organization to communicate more effectively too. Thus, leaders who communicate effectively increase morale among team members and create a more harmonious workplace environment. Second, being an effective communicator increases productivity in the workplace by minimizing costly conflict and confusion. Finally, good communications skills means leaders can represent their organization effectively to outside parties including clients, stakeholders, the public, and the media.

Leaders act as trendsetters in their organization, and their behavior and communication style is a model for coworkers. Communication is not just about words but also about body language, eye contact, and composure. Therefore, leaders benefit the future of the organization by introducing the importance of communication in fostering a healthy workplace environment.

Especially in a diverse workplace environment, leaders must mediate conflicts that arose because of miscommunications. Cultural differences and gender differences, as well as other issues related to individuals' backgrounds all affect communication styles. Leaders are responsible for understanding a diversity of communication styles so that each member of the organization is able to communicate effectively. The leader therefore becomes the role model for the rest of the team. If necessary, leaders can hold informal seminars with a group to introduce core concepts of communication, foster amicable relations among coworkers, and minimize confusion.… [read more]

Mental Health Issues for the Deaf Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,636 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Mental Health Issues for the Deaf

Trapped: A Review of Problems Among the Deaf Needing Psychological Intervention and Solutions

Victor and Helen: Synthesizing Disabilities

In both the world and the United States, the history of care for the deaf, mentally handicapped, and those suffering from psychological maladies have been remarkably similar. A montage of confusion and misunderstanding, institutions and education,… [read more]

Body Language: Nonverbal Communication Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,194 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Body Language as Nonverbal Human Communication

Like other animals, human beings have evolved patterns of body language to help them communicate with others. Because we rely so heavily on verbal communication, we tend not to notice it as consciously as spoken language except in more extreme circumstances such as fear or outright aggression. Nevertheless, human body language and other forms of nonverbal communication patterns provide considerable amounts of information about others (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).

Many aspects of human body language are universal in different cultures and easily recognizable to others from any other society. Other parts of human body language are unique to specific cultures and less recognizable to those outside their culture of origin (Hogg & Reid 2006). In addition to communicating information, human body language is also a means of evaluating the intentions and honesty of other people because it often provides clues to dishonesty and concealed intentions.

Similarly, human body language also provides important clues about relationships, such as who is the most dominant person within a group of people and what their relative rank is to others within their group. This type of communication actually transmits information across distances too great to communicate via verbal language and may have evolved when the earliest human ancestors needed to size up other clans from across the distance (Poole 2007). Finally, human body language is also a very important part of social courting behavior between available single individuals socializing for the purpose of finding a potential mate.

Universal Human Body Language:

Many parts of human body language are so common that people from very distant cultures recognize their meaning from a very early age. The most common elements of human body language have to do with strong reactions or emotions such as fear, anger, and disgust. Even very young children are able to look at cartoon drawings of common facial expressions and identify figures who are "afraid" or "angry." Likewise, many human gestures are also very common to all human cultures, such as a fist raised up in anger or open hands facing up in front to communicate confusion (Poole 2007).

Other evidence that human body language evolved during the pre-human period comes from the similarity between so much of human body language and certain types of nonverbal communication used by the other higher primate species. A visitor to any zoo will recognize some body language and nonverbal communication used by chimpanzees, for example, that is similar to certain parts of human body language.

Male chimpanzees who want to communicate to everyone around them that they are dominant typically make a lot of noise and move (or throw) things around while "claiming" the space around them. They may also make mock attacks (and sometimes real ones) on other members of the group, especially other less dominant males (Poole 2007). Whether in the United States or other parts of the world, human males often show very similar behavior, such as by the way they are purposely loud in groups… [read more]

Public Speaking Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,861 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Public Speaking

The objective of this work is to discuss public speaking including the purpose of the speech, the use of audience analysis including how to perform such analyses in various venues and how this information affects the speaker's preparation and methods. Further examined will be the methods of collection and organization of the material effectively including effective speech structure,… [read more]

Corporate Risk Management Emergency and Contingency Planning Communication Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (626 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Corporate Risk Management: Emergency & Contingency Planning

Communication is one of the most important elements of running a business. It plays a crucial role in daily operations and teamwork, while also being of utmost importance during unusual circumstances such as times of emergency and crisis. In fact, it is particularly during emergency and crisis situations that communication plays an especially important role. Regular communication establishes interpersonal trust. This trust is vital during all stages of a crisis situation, including contingency planning prior to the event, the event itself, and the recovery period after the crisis event. It is only by establishing trust that crises can be handled, mitigated and planned for with optimal success.

Specifically, pre-crisis communication entails not only spoken, but also written language. Risks are identified, analyzed and controlled first by means of oral communication. The culmination of such planning is then to create written contingency plans. Each personnel members should be fully versed in these prior to any crisis incidents. The establishment of a contingency plan and its importance in the minds of employees depends upon the quality of communication used to establish this.

Once a crisis situation does occur, communication is of even greater importance. Once again, both written and oral communication occur. Personnel are expected to act according to the established contingency plan. To do this, they need to be organized according to the written contingency plan. This needs to occur firstly by oral communication. In order to achieve optimal results, persons in leadership positions should be in charge of such an operation. These persons should handle communication with a calm air in order to inspire confidence in their followers during the crisis situation.

During a crisis situation, it is unlikely that personnel members will take the time to read through a written contingency plan. It is therefore imperative that personnel be encouraged and trained in familiarizing themselves…… [read more]

Nonverbal Communication Last Saturday I Met Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (763 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Nonverbal Communication

Last Saturday I met with my sister Bob and the following day I met with my good friend Karen. I am close with both Bob and Karen, who I have known since elementary school. Bob and I met for lunch at her house, where we talked at length for about an hour after eating Karen and I went shopping together, spending several hours together that Sunday. I told both Bob and Karen that I was learning about nonverbal communication but I don't think that influenced what we talked about or how they conducted themselves. Both conversations varied and we did not focus on one specific subject. However, Bob and I spoke at some length about her boyfriend and our brother. Karen and I spoke a lot about our career goals.

I have always felt comfortable talking to my sister. When I listen to her I tend to offer a lot of reassurances like nodding or saying "uh-huh" or "I understand." Sometimes I would punctuate the conversation by saying things like "Really?" Or "My god, that's awful," or "That's great!" I usually maintain eye contact with my sister when she speaks because I believe eye contact is the most significant sign that a person is listening. When my sister talks I sometimes touch her for extra reassurance if she shares some sensitive information. I will lean in to let her know I am listening and try my best to remain attentive and to not get distracted by any other thoughts or what is going on in the environment. To let my sister enjoy center-stage when she talked I also made sure not to interrupt her or to speak low so that I wasn't trying to compete with what she was trying to tell me. Similarly, if Bob were letting me talk or was asking me questions she would maintain eye contact and not raise her voice over mine. In general our communication styles are similar and work well because we have had so many years of experience listening to one another.

Conversations with Karen follow similar patterns of mutual respect. In the mall setting, however, our conversation was less private than the one I had with my sister Bob. Karen and I walked while we talked for half the afternoon…… [read more]

Gender Communications Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,198 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Gender Communications

For many years there have studies on how men and women communicate. There is always the question of why he/she doesn't listen or doesn't understand what the other is saying. Research is always trying to find way to bridge that gender gap.

In most cases it is said that the way men and women communicate so differently from one another that they must come from another planet.

Even though the communication styles are so different and the barrier seems quite large, both genders are sentimental, caring, aggressive, they think, they have emotions and intellect, they are after all human.

One of the most important factors is based on the way men and women perceive the same message to have a different meaning.

Women are known to be more sensitive to the meanings and they "read between the lines." (Gender Issues: Communication Differences in Interpersonal Relationships)

This often makes women responsible for initiating intimacy or how close they will allow a person to become to them. For this reason it is argued that women pay more attention as to what men are saying and what is being implied. Women tend to focus on the similarities among themselves and others and try to make everyone happy. Women are more in tune to relationships and being in touch with their emotions and the emotions of others making them more consensus. They are the "rapport talkers," which refers to the types of communications that build, maintain and strengthen relationships. (Gender

Issues: Communication Differences in Interpersonal Relationships) This type of "rapport talk" reflects the skills of talking, nurturing, empathy and support. When making decisions women tend to look at all the options, weighing the pros and the cons of the situation before acting.

In a nonverbal sense women tend to use body language and "read" body language to show that they are listening and acknowledging what is being said. During verbal conversations women will maintain eye contact to create a connection to whomever they are talking to. Women will also approach a man from the front, walking or talking directly in front of them and is the same gesture when they sit or stand while talking to another.

In the differences with communications between men and women, men tend to be more "status bound." Men are more "who's who by society" or " I am man" (Gender

Issues: Communication Differences in Interpersonal Relationships). Instead of "reading between the lines" as women do, men are "between the lines meaning." Men expect relationships to be based on independence and competition. Men will focus on the difference between themselves and others and make their decisions on their needs and desires. Men see themselves as tasks specialists. (Gender Issues: Communication

Differences in Interpersonal Relationships)

Men are more focused on accomplishing tasks and addressing questions about facts. They are "report talkers," unlike women when stated earlier, being "rapport talkers." Report talk refers to the types of communication that analyzes the issues and solves problems. Report talk reflects skills… [read more]

Smiling (Non-Verbal Communication) Study of Relevant Literature Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,007 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Smiling (Non-Verbal communication)

Study of Relevant Literature on Smiling as a Non-Verbal Form of Communication: Typologies, Comparisons, and Situations

Among the various forms of non-verbal communication extant and utilized, it is the smile or the act of smiling that is considered universal and used by all communicating individuals, whatever social context or cultural background they have been exposed to. Smile… [read more]

Communication the Color and Style Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (391 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Communication

The color and style of a person's clothing can reveal much about their lifestyle, profession, or personality. For example, a man wearing a business suit would not be mistaken for a construction worker. Someone with a blue Mohawk declares his or her taste in music and attitudes toward authority.

Clothing is often event-specific. For example, the same woman might wear a jogging suit while at the gym but then changes into a skirt suit when she goes to the office. When in her jogging suit the woman sends nonverbal cues such as, "I care about my health so I exercise." If her jogging suit is from an expensive designer then she also sends a nonverbal message about her income level or what she values in general.

Regardless of what a person wears, their overall appearance also sends nonverbal communication cues. For example, a person's hair style and color can send nonverbal messages. Generally, grooming tends to send more cues than actual style. For example, a person with long hair can look unkempt and therefore signals a lack of self-respect or confidence; or a person with long hair that is beautifully brushed and…… [read more]

Communicating for Results Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (688 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Breakdowns in Communication

The purpose of this paper is to introduce, discuss, and analyze types of communication breakdown. Specifically it will discuss three personal interactions where communication breakdown was experienced. Communication breakdown is quite common in society today. These three breakdowns occurred fairly recently, and indicate the importance of good communication skills and the ability to give meaningful feedback.

The first communication breakdown occurred in a retail shop where I was shopping for clothing. I attempted to describe a certain pair of jeans to the clerk, who did not understand what I was trying to describe. She kept showing me jeans that did not match my description, and it was extremely frustrating. As she showed me more and more jeans that were not what I wanted, I finally gave up and simply walked out of the store. I was certain this store carried the jeans I wanted, but I could not find them myself, and I could not get the clerk to understand what I was specifically looking for.

Now I realize there were several things I could have done to create a better experience. I could have given more feedback about exactly what I was looking for, rather than giving up and walking away. I could have drawn a picture of the jeans, or tried to find someone wearing something similar. On the other hand, the clerk could have asked me more probing questions about the style of the jeans, which would have created more feedback and information for her to follow. Neither one of us used feedback effectively, and that helped lead to the breakdown in communication.

Another breakdown came in a discussion with my mother when I was still in high school. My mother wanted me home by a certain time after a party, and I wanted to stay out later, because many of my friends were staying out later. My mother got angry, and insisted I follow her rules. I got angry and told her she was being unfair, and didn't trust me. We got into a shouting match,…… [read more]

Channel Noise Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (412 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Channel Noise

Noise, to put it simply, interference in the path of sending or receiving the message. Channel Noise, is not that different, it can be described as the path that interferes with the delivery of either sending the message to the intended target or the understanding of that message. We can differentiate between the different channel noises and categorize them into two main sections: a) Semantic Channel Noise and b) Mechanical Channel Noise. The latter can further be divided into physical and technical.

Semantic channel noise is an intangible interference and usually deals with language barriers; it is typically when the receiver fails to understand or decode the information sent to him through the message. In face-to-face communication the sender of the information can and does promptly respond to the problem at hand while in messaging through certain channels other then face-to-face, such as emails, the feedback of the receiver determines the promptness of the solution. Personally, I go to the trouble of making sure that even if there are language barriers I use internationally accepted terms and keep my vocabulary simple so that the receiver can interpret the information sent easily.

Mechanical Channel noise is, unlike semantic noise, tangible and needs to be fixed…… [read more]

Communication Problems in the Workplace Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,203 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Communication problems in the workplace are bound to arise and businesses and employees must understand how to handle these problems. These problems often include such things as poor listening skills, poor oral communication, the inability to understand nonverbal cues, and communication problems as it relates to workplace diversity. The outcome of these problems is work related stress, which leads to… [read more]

Intercultural Communication Managing Conflict Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (538 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


One of the important concepts in handling intercultural communication conflict is identifying the context or situation in which the communication or interaction takes place. People are expected to communicate formally when the communication context is formal, and this is also applied to informal communication situations. Language use is often categorized into formal and informal (vernacular or colloquial); one must be able to distinguish one from the other and appropriately use them at the right context (formal language for formal interaction and the vernacular for informal ones).

Apart from the social interaction context, a communicator must also be aware the kind of conflict s/he deals with, so that s/he may use the appropriate strategy to ensure that the conflict will become productive, cooperative, and constructive. A positive kind of conflict is one that is able to produce beneficial results for both individuals (or groups) communicating. The business environment is a good example of a productive, cooperative, and constructive conflict: business groups often engage in conflicts in order to formulate the best solution or plan for the company. What emerges from this conflict or competition is a healthy and positive conflict, where each member exerts his/her best effort to contribute to the group, and in effect, contribute to the company's improvement. Though each member of a group may have different cultural backgrounds (in terms of race, gender, age, socio-economic class, among others), these cultural differences allows a business group to work efficiently if these differences will be used to complement each member with the other, and not hinder the progress of the group's task.… [read more]

Nonvrbl Comm Nonverbal Communication Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (590 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


This can be attributed to body language containing the real message of how the person really feels. Therefore it is important for one to take in the full message and not interpret one behavior over the other. This makes understanding intercultural differences in nonverbal communication very important.

First of all, one must take into consideration not only the reaction but also what is causing the reaction. One must then consider the causes of nonverbal behavior may vary from culture to culture. There are also variations to the rules of nonverbal communication and the contexts in which it takes place. In order to understand these variations in the rules, one must first consider the notion of personal space and how that can vary from culture to culture. Personal space is the bubble around each of us that marks the territory between others and ourselves. How many people read nonverbal communication depends on if they are a contact or noncontact person. Contact people are people who stand closer together while noncontact people do not. Culturally, Americans are seen as noncontact type people along with European and Asian countries. This distinction reinforces cultural identity. Facial expression express emotion universally but one must also consider the variations involved. For instance smiling displays one's happiness while a frown signifies sadness. In America, it is not uncommon for someone to smile upon first meeting while in other cultures it is better to look serious. Europeans often remark that Americans are not serious because they smile too much.


This paper briefly explored the concept of nonverbal communication. The paragraphs above explored these topics and what they mean to the new global culture emerging as a result of new…… [read more]

Communication Practice the Following Extract Is Taken Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,217 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Communication Practice

the following extract is taken in the middle of a conversation between two female students. they have been talking about social plans for the future.

everyone wants to go to Prague for new year (3)do you think it would be good to go to Prague

who's going

so farMaddy (.) Eleanor (.)Anna (.)dunno

do you want to go to Prague

i'd like to but I only want to go if everyone's going cos it's like new year you want all your friends to come

is everyone going (4) oh we're all going to see Judge Jewels aren't we on the Thursday second November obviously

when's that'd: Thursday second of November

when'e that'd: Thursday

when's that (.) you know what I mean

S: Thursday we get back to college


S: I think anyway (3)and we're all going to dress up totally

A:wait you tell me the price

S: dunno (1) probably just a tenner which is excellent (2) it'll probably be a: On Thursday where'd: it'll be so much fun cos everyone wo goes there's really serious and about their clubbing and stuff and they all face the (1) dj box and they're like a: they do that at shindig


A: they do that at shindig

S:and um they just it's excellent it was brilliant last time

Professional communication practice is the ability to write and speak in a competent manner, so that one is able to enter and compete in a fast-paced and ever-changing marketplace. The emphasis is also on developing the skills needed to deal with a wide variety of different communications environments.

In dialogues or role-playing sessions as that above, it is possible to demonstrate the correct and incorrect forms of communication practice. In dialogues, or the communication between two individuals, one person sends a message, the other listens and responds, and so on. If this back-and-forth process has any roadblocks, then communication in general or the dialogue in general is not successful. Roger Gregoire, a dialogue specialist and a practitioner with National Coalition for Dialogue and Deliberation (http://thataway.org/resources/understand/quotes.html) makes a number of suggestions on strategic tools and processes on how to improve conversations. These include:

1. Speak from your own experience, from who you are and what you believe. Say 'I' first and avoid you, we, they or them in describing an event or set of circumstances. Speak authentically about who you are from your own sense of self. Avoid hearsay or rumor. Whenever possible, rely on personal experience.

Speaking honestly from your own perspective guarantees the integrity of the dialogue. It allows the collective consciousness to be comprised of the honest identities of the participants because that consciousness can only be as valid and honest as the people responsible for its existence. Perhaps most important, however, is that a major part of the dialogue is the discovery of our authentic selves.

2. Listen carefully with all your heart to what is being said. Listening is the most difficult aspect of participating in… [read more]

American Sign Language Interpreters Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,748 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


American Sign Language Interpreters

The objective in this research in focus upon American Sign Language Interpreters in educational settings.

The issue of deafness in today's schools is being addressed by society and most specifically "special education. Alexander Bell wrote that he was not clearly "definite in his beliefs as language supposed. " in his work Bell does not state that… [read more]

Color of Power Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (3,939 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Color Semiotics of Power

Communication is the most studied science in the world. Whether through writing, speaking, presenting, sign language, music, painting, sculpture and even synchronized swimming, communication is the one science necessary for the comprehension of all other sciences. For instance, what good is Einstein's theory of photoelectricity if it is not communicated properly? Surely, he does… [read more]

Yes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,177 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Yes

Do you agree with the process outlined in the text? If so, why?

Regarding the text "Getting to Yes" I must say that I do agree with many of the plans and principles put forward about styles and factors to do with negotiation. The text gives a step-by-step method for formulating and carrying through on negotiation tactics.… [read more]

Personal Statement "Daddy's Home Admission Essay

Admission Essay  |  2 pages (584 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Developmental delays in speech often have a combined physical and cognitive component, and a delicate balance of hands-on therapy and speech adjustment must be struck, on an individual basis with every child, for the therapy to be completely effective. It is this level of individual attention lavished upon every child that attracts me to the field of speech pathology. I hope to eventually deploy a similarly individualized approach in my own practice.

One autistic child who I met at the beginning of the summer could initially communicate only through sign language. She was, as a result of the efforts of this trained professional, and also, I hope, some of my aid as well, able to sing "Old McDonald had a Farm," by the end of the program. I never knew such a simple, silly song could sound so beautiful to my ears.

I cannot provide answers to the greater questions of life and death. But sometimes that is not necessary. Sometimes a song or a sign is all that is needed to convey love and convey meaning. The gift of communication, to express one's self in one's own unique terms, I believe is the greatest gift, perhaps as great as life itself, that one can convey to another human being. I cannot hope to speak for Justin and the special kind of grief he feels at the death of his father. I am glad of that -- I do not wish to speak for any of the future students I envision myself aiding in my future practice. I merely hope to give them the ability to speak and to give their own answers, to life's great questions.… [read more]

Education Situations Observing Nonverbal Communication Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (385 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The child was bored. Eventually, his teacher did notice this nonverbal communication, and she did understand that it meant he was bored. Unfortunately, instead of offering a more challenging assignment to the child, she told him he had to learn to be patient while other people tried to catch up with him.

In a thirteen-year-old girl, the nonverbal communication observed was facial expressions. She was having a conversation with a friend in a group setting. Her friend began to talk about a personal situation, and the observed girl widened her eyes, pinched her lips, and very slightly shook her head. She did not, apparently, want her friend to bring up this personal subject in front of other people. Her friend understood the communication, and changed subjects immediately.

The sixteen-year-old secondary school student observed had a nonverbal communication exchange with his girlfriend. During a conversation, he leaned closer and closer to her as they spoke, bringing his face very close to hers. After a few minutes, she got the communication that he wanted to kiss. She responded nonverbally, by turning her face away slightly, shyly, and blushing.… [read more]

Group Communication Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (530 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


(1995). Fundamentals of Business Communication. Chicago: Richard D. Irwin, Inc.

The organizational strategy that I use in communicating with the other department members in the workplace influence the way I think or construct ideas and information when it comes to processing and using them in decision-making processes with the organization. This belief that written communication (or any form communication, for that matter) has influences and affects the way we think is based on the principle that "All Messages Have a Content and a Relational Dimension" (Adler, 1998:19). This principle is divided into two components: the content and relational dimension of the message given to another communicator/s.

The content of a communication message includes the written message itself (in my case, the content of the minutes of the meeting document). However, the content of the message may be affected by its relational dimension, perhaps considered the most important element of a non-verbal message. This relational dimension is manifested by the kind of tone and style used by the communicator. Combining these two components: the recipient of the communication message can formulate or structure the 'mood' of the document, which, in turn, affects his/her impression of the source of the communication message. Thus, in my case, using a formal tone and organized writing style in composing business documents allows me to evoke a business-like and professional image to other people (communicators). This example shows the power that communication, particularly writing, plays in creating images and handling impression management in a diverse workplace environment.

Adler, R. (1998). Interplay: The Process of Interpersonal Communication. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace…… [read more]

Real and Perceived Gender Differences Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,179 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The subjects will be the students in two, second or third level psychology courses, such that the number of students in each class will be at least one hundred and fifty. Because this experiment will involve deception (see explanation below), the same group of students cannot be used as the subjects for both the male and female speaker. To maintain the internal validity of the experiment, the two classes will be selected based upon similar size and demographic makeup.

The device used to measure our dependent variable will be surveys completed by the students after they hear their respective lecture.


To investigate the real and perceived gender differences in nonverbal communications, two college classes (as defined above - separate but equivalent samples) will be chosen and the students will be introduced to a guest speaker. The speaker will be described as a doctoral psychology candidate doing his/her thesis on the lecture topic and seeking experience lecturing in front of a large audience. The lecture content will be the same in both cases, the only difference (our independent variable) will be that one class will have a lecture delivered by a female "doctoral candidate" and the other will have a male lecturer. After the lecture, the students will evaluate the presentation and presenter by filling out a survey. Once the surveys have been collected, the subjects will be debriefed by informing them that the true purpose of the study was to look at effect of gender and nonverbal communication on an audience. Gender effects will be apparent by examining the differences between classes. These gender differences will consist of real differences in nonverbal communication as well as confounding subject perceptions.

Results believe that the above study will indicate that students who hear the same lecture delivered by a man and a woman will put more faith in the speaker if the lecturer is a man. This greater faith will translate into a more favorable assessment on matters of expertise and authority. Part of the more favorable scores that I anticipate the male lecturer will receive will be based on the confounding variable of pre-existing stereotypes. The other part of the equation will be the different interpretation of nonverbal communication according to gender. I believe that differences in eye contact, posture, gestures and other elements of nonverbal communication will lead to the male being perceived as more knowledgeable and the woman as more agreeable. These interpretations are in keeping with prior research into gender differences in nonverbal communication.


Whether the less favorable rating for the woman lecturer is due to stereotypes, or due to a different communication style, there are still disturbing implications for women who rely on effective communication as a central component of their job. Theoretically, this could indicate obstacles in terms of equity and advancement in the workplace. Additionally, in practical terms, it will mean a woman will have to prove herself to an audience on grounds that would be taken for granted by a male colleague;… [read more]

Communication Abilities Comparison Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,328 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Listening to my Class Lecture now realize that I carry the same bad listening habits to my classroom. Although the kind of communication process while attending a class lecture is different from listening in a social situation that was described above. The class lecture situation is a one-way process in which the lecturer is speaking while the students listen. Hence… [read more]

Public Speaking Class Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,278 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


For example, engineering schools are teaching public speaking at both an undergraduate and graduate level. In example, one specific engineering program has a program called CASE which stands for Career Acquisition Skills Enhancement. The objective of the program is to improve the public speaking skills of its students and its mission statement reads as follows:

One important aspect of career development for an engineer that is often over-looked is the importance of communication. Public speaking is a communication skill that can prove extremely beneficial for an engineer in the workforce today. An effective presentation can set the stage for a speaker to introduce and sell products, information and new ideas.

Most people rank public speaking high on the list of things they don't like to do. However, making presentations is an unavoidable part of corporate life. Why not make the best of it? To be successful, a speaker must gain the attention, interest and confidence of the audience. The talk must be interesting, informative, and persuasive.

The CASE program effectively summarizes what I have been trying to say about the importance of public speaking in both ones education and career field.

While doing research on the topic of public speaking I came across an interesting article by Dr. Morton Orman entitled "How to Conquer Public Speaking Fear." He said the following about the audiences one may be speaking to: "Most of them are scared to death of public speaking, just like you. They know the risk of embarrassment, humiliation, and failure you take every time you present yourself in public. They feel for you. They will admire your courage." As a result of this, it is easy not to be intimidated by an audience. I am giving them the gifts of speech and information and if they choose not to accept it- that's okay too. Because I am not intimidated by speaking to an entire audience, the idea of speaking to a solitary person no longer intimidates me. When I first started taking this public speaking class, I would get offended if I saw someone in the audience falling asleep, not paying attention, or talking to the person next to them. The more confident I became, the more I realized that this was not a reflection on me and the quality of my speech, but more a reflection of the person in the audience. If someone is going to be tired or desperately want to make a comment to their neighbor, they are going to do it regardless of the quality of the speaker. I have also learned to not be afraid of speaking to a supervisor or other person in power, if I can effectively and intelligently talk to a whole room of people.

The art of public speaking has put things in perspective for me. The Bill Grove Speech Workshop asserts that the "The Pro [public speaker] Will Change The World." Although this is a little farfetched, I am confident in saying that learning the art of rhetoric… [read more]

Communication in a Nursing Environment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,106 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Deintensification is just the opposite. If a nurse gives a patient bad news, the patient may downplay their disappointed look. The danger here is that the nurse believes everything is fine when it is not.

Neutralization is when one eliminates all expression from their face, this may be to not give away how one is feeling.

Masking is when an… [read more]

Learning Success in a Group Environment Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (729 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Perhaps several board members should be allowed to attend a seminar or training session on communication in leadership, so they have an idea of how to be more effective. If you're asking board members to come out on a week night and slog through a boring agenda that is not well thought out, then you need training. "When you speak, know what you're talking about," Myatt explains: "If you don't possess subject matter expertise," no one is going to listen, Myatt continues, and this goes for the current board president.

Improving communication within the group: Myatt suggests that a leader should speak to a group as individuals. What do great communicators do when speaking to ten people or to one thousand people? They make each individual feel as though the speaker is "speaking directly to each one of them as individuals" (Myatt). Leigh Richards writes in the Houston Chronicle that effective teams work well together when there is "cohesiveness," which is achieved by the development of strong relationships between the team members (Richards, 2013). Good communication can result from a cohesive team, and perhaps this board should plan a retreat for a weekend, and hire a trainer to help them learn to work together through better communication.

Establishing greater trust and interdependence: By planning a retreat and really learning to listen to each other, and getting to know each other, it is possible this board could become far more effective. People trust those they know well, and developing trust is vitally important for this board. Moreover, no one wants to be criticized for their opinions, but some team members might be shy or intimidated, and Richards suggests "professional development" training, to help every member of the group to feel that they are a part of the solution and not a part of the problem.

Works Cited

Microsoft Business. (2013). How to work together effectively as a team. Retrieved September 19, 2014, from http://www.microsoft.com.

Myatt, M. (2012). 10 Communication Secrets of Great Leaders. Forbes. Retrieved September 19, 2014, from http://www.forbes.com.

Richards, L. (2013). Importance of Team Communication Skills. Houston Chronicle.

Retrieved September 19,…… [read more]

Things Learned Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (794 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



The course provided a good background and a methodological approach to why communication is important and why effective communication is crucial for interacting. This semester also showed that it is not enough to simply transmit a message, as the mere process does not ensure success. Rather, it is crucial and one should strive to convey that message in an effective manner so that message reaches its target. Effective communication I believe is put to good use.

Two more important skills I have learned this semester; one is listening to the people I am communicating to and the other is to use my body language to further stress my communication. Communication is a two way street in which an exchange of information needs to happen which defines that process. Without listening to the other party, that exchange is not successful. Success in the communication process can be measured by the ability of the speaker to convey the message and also by the shape in which the other party receives that information / message. If one does not listen to the other party, then the exchange of information is not effective as the issues that are being conveyed are not being addressed or listened to. This semester I learned that listening and in particular developing the patience to listen to the other side is my way of improving my capacity to store the information the other side is communicating to me and thus I have a better position to answer him. The other skill I improved this semester is my non-verbal communication thru body language. Although this was not a new concept for me, the complexities of the issues and the possible interpretations or misinterpretations of body language in a conversation made me give more attention to this aspect of the communication.

I think that at this point my best skill as a communicator is the ability to manage non-verbal communication. The use of body language, facial expression, eye contact, gestures, all these allow for the other party to have a better understanding of the message I am trying to convey. This semester has allowed me to further improve this skill and I believe this is a very important one particularly because it complements the way in which one addresses the issue of communication. Bad body language can trigger misunderstandings although maybe the spoken communication is trying to…… [read more]

Body Language Nonverbal Signs Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (618 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Memes refer to the symbols or archetypes that can be culturally specific. The film delves into the cultural contexts of certain gestures and qualia, too. For example, the segment showing a Camp David talk with Arafat and Barach revealed an important meme that might have otherwise gone unnoticed to the American public. In the United States, there is not as much emphasis placed on who enters the door first. The power struggle that ensues between Arafat and Barach was one that had subjective meanings for the participants. The semiology of entering a door first is related to power, which is evident also in patriarchal norms when men open doors for women and let them pass. Called "chivalrous" in common parlance, such behavior is actually emblematic of patriarchal power. The person who enters the door first is the submissive person; which is why neither Barach nor Arafat wanted to enter first. All eyes and cameras were on them, and each leader wanted to promote a vision of themselves as being powerful and stronger than the other.

Likewise, there is a cultural dimension to touching, patting, and other ways of using the hands and touch. Self-touch is also important to notice, as the film shows. Self-touch gestures usually denote the assuaging of anxiety, in all cultures. However, not all cultures have the same norms regarding the appropriateness of touching other people. Patting someone can be construed as an insult, as a person might pat a dog or a child but not an equal or a superior. This film shows how even a handshake can speak volumes about the relationship between two people, which is why politicians conscious of their body language make sure to craft their photo opportunities depicting them as literally having the "upper…… [read more]

Kellogg Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (934 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


However, formal communication alone can seem too preprogrammed and not generate enough goodwill. Thus Kellogg's also used informal methods of communication through face-to-face interactions with students at breakfast clubs and also interfacing with 'mommy bloggers,' encouraging them to give the program positive press and to raise funding for the program (Kellogg's 4). Informal communication is less controlled and does run the risk of giving rise to innuendos or rumors but it is also faster, more direct, and sometimes more trusted by consumers.

Q6. Explain, with examples, the different communications channels a business might use to reach consumers. .

Written communication includes press releases, letters to public officials, and advertising in print magazines and newspapers. Television and radio communication channels include standard advertisements but also appearances on talk shows. Internet and social media includes using the corporate blog and website; interacting through Facebook and Twitter with customers; and using independent bloggers to promote the product. Face-to-face interactions involve actually interfacing with customers (such as meeting them at stores) (Kellogg's 5).

Q7. Choose two audiences of Kellogg's campaign shown in the case study and identify which media you think would be particularly effective for getting the messages across to them, explaining why.

Audiences such as schools are best reached through face-to-face communication. Schools must be made aware of the existence of the program and their eligibility. School officials might not be aware of the other types of media disseminated by Kellogg's and the message for this group needed to be very specific. In contrast, the public at large needed to be made aware of the general existence of the program and using mass television advertising and appearances on popular talk shows would be more useful to reach this general audience (Kellogg's 4).

Q8. Explain why Kellogg's needed to use different methods in its communications plan. .

Kellogg's had different aims in communicating with the various components of the target audience. While it wished to secure more funding for the program via members of parliament and encourage school participation (which required more personal forms of communication with school administrators), face-to-face interactions were not feasible to simply raise general awareness amongst members of the public.

9. Analyze why it is important for businesses like Kellogg's to evaluate their communications. (5)

Kellogg's is a company that depends upon public goodwill and trust. Millions of parents all over the world feed their children its products for breakfast. It also is dependent upon all consumers finding the product nutritious, appealing, and comforting. The types of staple foods produced by Kellogg's are sold at high volume and are dependent upon a razor-slim profit margin. Without positive 'buzz' about the company, consumers can easily switch to other brands. The industry is highly competitive so Kellogg's must always be evaluating how…… [read more]

Fear of Public Speaking Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (680 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Then, he or she could critically evaluate the speaker and use this to inform his or her own speech. In this way, the person could learn from what others have done, including their mistakes and small mishaps. Great encouragement can also be drawn from the fact that absolutely nobody is absolutely perfect in public speaking at all times. The small mistakes and mishaps during a speech is what makes each person a human being. This can also endear a speaker to his or her audience. Hence, this is another element that can serve to calm a person delivering a public speech for the first time.

Finally, perhaps the most important component of public speaking is researching the topic. It is vital that the speaker appears knowledgeable about his or her topic. If all else fails, this is the one component the individual can control. Not appearing knowledgeable about one's topic would be to the detriment of one's speaking ability and credibility with the audience. Not having an audience's trust would then also result in a mutual sense of disconnectedness and impact on the ability of the speaker to remain calm and project clearly articulated words. On the other hand, a speaker who appears knowledgeable about a topic will command the respect of the audience. Such respect will be evident during the speech and can serve as a powerfully calming influence on the speaker.

Public speaking can be a nerve-racking experience. Anybody who delivers a speech for the first time will necessarily experience a sense of nerves. Most of these nerves can be curbed by investigating those who deliver good speeches, studying public speaking itself, and appearing knowledgeable about one's subject matter. With these strategies, anybody delivering a speech for the first time can lay the foundation for a successful first attempt and many successful attempts in the future.… [read more]

OB &amp PM Virtual Project Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (879 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


How to best communicate and coordinate your virtual project team

First and foremost it is vital to create a system of rules for the team: when it must meet, how it must communicate, the roles of various participants and the vision of the project. The leader must set ground rules early on, including "Modeling the organization's values and members' ground rules in all communications; choosing a method of communication that best fits the mutual needs of members and the situation; [and] applying a communication technology that best fits the needs of the situation" (Thompsen 2000). The right mix of synchronous and asynchronous communication will depend on the needs of the team. However, all team members should be assured of their roles and the expectations of the project's time line, their duties, and how their contributions fit into the larger whole. Because the team is geographically fragmented, it is all the more vital that the team members have a holistic sense of what they are working towards when they make their individual contribution.

However, some email communication is necessary to create consistent, easy communication and build bonds of trust and deploying a form of teleconferencing of videoconferencing is vital so team members feel intimately associated with the persons with whom they are working. Regular communication in general is essential so team members feel a sense of investment and responsibility to their fellow workers and icebreaking activities and social activities (which can be as simple as having people talk a bit about themselves at first or share jokes) helps develop a sense of a 'team' versus a collection of individuals.

Problems with teams

The most common problems with teams such as low levels of trust; the formation of cliques; a lack of group identity or clear structure; and a failure to share information are all critically related to the problem of a lack of communication and a lack of clarity of mission (Meredith & Mantel 232). Once again this underlines the need to define the roles and the terms of the project early on. If this is not accomplished, then team members will set their own personal agendas instead. They may also try to find an 'enemy' at which to direct their frustration, which may include other team members.


Meredith & Mantel. 2013. Laureate text.

Thompsen, J. 2000. Leading virtual teams. Quality Digest. Available:


(19 Oct 2013)… [read more]

Vocal Organs Work Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (570 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Disruptions to any component of the hearing organs can impact the ability of a person to hear. The human ear "is made up of a conductive pathway which includes the outer and middle ear and the neural nerve pathway that includes the inner ear and auditory nerve" (How do we hear, 2013, Australian Hearing). The outer ear serves to 'funnel' sounds and consists of an external flap of skin (pinna) and cartilage which leads to the ear canal. The inner ear houses more critical organs involved in hearing: the eardrum, an "air-filled cavity that includes three middle ear bones" in the form of what are called the anvil and stirrup because of their shapes; "oval and round window membranes" and the "Eustachian tube" which allows for the adjustment of air pressure in the ear (How do we hear, 2013, Australian Hearing).

Finally, in the inner ear, the cochlea, "a tiny spiral-shaped structure, about the size of a pea and filled with fluid" consists of an extremely thin membrane with many thin hairs, all "tuned to a particular sound or frequency" and "the tiny hair cells connect to the cochlea nerve that sends messages to the brain" (How do we hear, 2013, Australian Hearing). Within the inner ear there are also "semicircular canals are mainly responsible for the sense of balance" another important sense not strictly related to hearing but which is still governed by the ear (How do we hear, 2013, Australian Hearing).


How do we hear? (2013). Australian Hearing. Retrieved:


Hurley, P. (1996). Vocal organs for speech production. Ling 102. Retrieved:

http://emedia.leeward.hawaii.edu/hurley/Ling102web/mod3_speaking/3mod3.2_vocalorgans.htm… [read more]

Diversity Consciousness Personal Growth Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,563 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Whereas these two goals have more of a personal impact than a global impact, I do have other actions to take that will make more of a difference in the community and possibly beyond. For example, I would like to write about my own background. Sharing my personal experiences with others will contribute to diversity awareness and promote understanding.

The resources I need for this last action are very few -- just my computer. Once I write the material, I will need to network with people who can help me share the biography through public speaking or publishing. However, for the other two actions (travel and learning languages), I will require resources such as financing for the language classes. My employer, who recognizes the value of diversity, might be able to provide me with these resources to improve the quality of her own workforce.


"Benefits of a Diverse Workplace," (n.d.). One Workplace Equal Rights. Retrieved online: http://www.oneworkplace.org.uk/controller6e39.html?p_service

Green, K.A., Lopez, M., Wysocki, A. & Kepner, K. (2012). Diversity in the workplace. EDIS. Retrieved online: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hr022

Mayhew, R. (n.d.). Communication and diversity in the workplace. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved online: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/communication-diversity-workplace-11389.html

Phillips, K. (2009). Diversity helps your business: But not the way you think. Forbes. Retrieved online: http://www.forbes.com/2009/06/02/diversity-collaboration-teams-leadership-managing-creativity.html

Ribbink, K. (2003). Seven ways to better communicate in today's diverse workplace. Harvard Business School Working Knoweldge. Retrieved online: http://hbswk.hbs.edu/archive/3266.html… [read more]

Homeland Security Intelligence Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,376 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Reward provisions, when included in the policy framework may encourage officials to stay more alert than their usual level and do something good for homeland.

It is assumed that all officials belonging to various institutes will be performing their duty and may come across the disturbing news with certain delay if it is not communicated by the officials of other authority. There can be coercive measures to force the officials report the issue which does not belong to their domain. The coercive measures can be based on certain parameters, like presence of officials in the area or witness to suspected activity. However, it is more likely that this initiative will discourage officials from focusing on their own functions and they will be more inclined towards staying alert for any activity that may not belong to their domain. An example in this regard is; airport security force members who are present at airport while immigration officers catch the passengers tempering with security laws.

Keeping in view both types of enforcement behaviour, it is interesting to mention that the policy makers who approve these provisions must equip the forces with certain communication tools which help them communicate effectively. The officials must know the contact details of each other and these contact details must be direct so that prompt information communication can be ensured (Zegart 2005). The communication devices must be high-tech, though easy to operate and fault tolerant.

The need of communication between local, state level and federal institutes emerges from the mentioned provisions. It is because, there may be certain activities in which various authorities are involved and the level of threat is so high that it calls for the attention of higher authorities as well. It is, therefore, important to bridge communication gap between these three levels, if there is any and equip all levels with the most efficient communication infrastructure.

The hierarchy of homeland security officials does not stop there. There is another force of military which enjoys more powers that any other force present in the country. Certain cases may be referred to military based on their sensitivity, criticality and need to involve the high experts who have the decision making as well as implementing authorities.

It is important to mention that all policies prevailing in the country and enforced by the authorities must be coherently joined with each other (NWC 2006) so that all officials have clear picture of their functions as well as goals. It is also important from the perspective of giving the officials a state of peaceful mind in which they are allowed to perform their duties for security of their homeland. It is possible that there are certain policies which allow the officials to take certain decision, but on the other hand, certain other provisions deprive them from these authorities and they can be taken to task to perform a particular action. Alignment among the policies is very important and must be taken care of while devising a new policy memorandum.

As information… [read more]

College Internship Proposal Business Proposal

Business Proposal  |  2 pages (590 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


College Internship Proposal

The learning experience I have designed is an internship at the Firehouse Bar and Grill. This establishment is located in Scottsdale, Arizona. I will be working under and in direct conjunction with Michael Alexander, who both owns and operates this facility. As such, I will be involved in a number of tasks that directly relate to my Interdisciplinary Studies major at Arizona State University. I will be actively involved in the marketing and promotions for weekly events taking place at the establishment and in its surrounding community. This responsibility will place me in charge of both coordinating and directing all of the photo shoots and other publicity related events that involve the Firehouse Girls. I will also play an integral role in recruiting new talent for this particular group, as well as for other employees looking to work in different areas of this organization. Finally, I will also operate as the office manager's assistant, and be responsible for a number of administrative duties such as filing.

II Communication

COM225: PUBLIC SPEAKING -- in this course I learned the fundamental skills essential to become a public speaker. My proposed internship will allow me to function as a representative for Firehouse Bar and Grill during its public functions that involve the Firehouse Girls. This experience will give me sufficient opportunity to work on my oratory ability and to utilize various techniques I learned to get and keep an audience's attention, particularly due to the fact that many of the events I will be representing this organization at will involve a number of members of the surrounding community.

COM230: SMALL GROUP COMMUNICATION -- This class taught me various aspects of nuances related to communicating with people in a relatively small environment. My intra-office communication with…… [read more]

Human Resources Questionnaire the Relationships Questionnaire

Questionnaire  |  6 pages (1,643 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Human Resources Questionnaire

The relationships that take place between different departments of the company rely on negotiation. Negotiations occur because individuals must agree on how to share or divide a limited resource. Negotiations also occur because the parties involved must develop something that they cannot develop on their own. In addition to this, negotiations take place in order to resolve… [read more]

Hall vs. Goffman ) Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,199 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


From Goffman's viewpoint blacks would not act in a certain manner dependent on their audience. For instance, performing for a white audience a black may act in a more subservient manner, even though the person did not view themselves as such, whereas with one's peers the same person might act in a more extroverted and assertive manner, again, even though one may or may not view these actions as being real. For Hall this would create a state of confusion such that a search for the real identity outside of performances would occur. Hall views the message (performance) as being effective in its ability to establish a meaningful dialogue with the audience and its ability to be decoded. The message is not produced simply to allow a role ply, but to make a statement about the true nature of the sender. Thus, there need be some form of genuine and truthful attempt to display reality. One gets a sense that according to Hall the message (or performance in Goffman's terms) has more meat in it. The performance is not something fixed or determined by the person sending the message and the audience it is meant for, but instead an exchange between the person and those whom the person is trying to communicate. The "audience" is not a passive receptor of the "performance." It is here where Hall emphasizes language and culture as important influences on identity. Hall appears to place more emphasis on how the person encodes and decodes descriptions of oneself, one's intentions, and one's goals. Because the experiences of blacks were socially constructed by whites and blacks in the past, Hall views identity as a forging of oneself with different contexts such as historical, cultural, and personal. Hall purports more of a view of identity in as the interplay of multiple variables. Because of this Hall places more emphasis on language and the how people decode messages sent by others. The goal of the sender is to send a message that reflects reality, but can be decoded by the receiver. Identity can be a social construction, but is also defined in opposition to historical social constructions based on messages that were decoded improperly or miscommunications from the sender. Such distortions appear to be a part of the process. By continually retelling the story a culturally specific interpretation becomes reality (e.g., the identity of blacks).

Hall assigns more autonomy to a person or group to be able to define themselves outside of the cultural distortions that can define identity. Identity is not a finished product defined by social media or by historical events. Hall's discourse may on the surface apply more to the cultural identity of blacks as shaped by the media and by films. But there is also a sense that the individual can define themselves apart from the reactions of the audience. In this sense everything is not socially constructed, because if that were the case then blacks would still be adhering to the social construction of… [read more]

Learning Techniques My Classmates Had Lots Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (685 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Learning Techniques

My classmates had lots of really insightful things to say about learning techniques and methods, many of which I'd feel very comfortable using in the classroom or when working with other students. For example, Mika brought up the importance and benefits of non-verbal communication; Mika cites the work of Jandt in explaining how non-verbal communication, when used correctly, can be an enabler of communication. One needs to simply familiarize oneself with these standards as they vary from culture to culture in order to make communication more fluid. For example, as Mika points out, most people in the United States are aware of the use of a handshake and strong eye contact as a facilitator of greeting and thus a beginning of the point of contact. However, Mika points out that, "In Arab countries, gender plays a large role in greetings. Males embrace and kiss each other on both cheeks after a light and lingering handshake. Women may also kiss each other, but men and women do not kiss." These are important differences to be aware of when communicating multiculturally.

Elliot also makes an important point about learning methods, when he highlights the general use of symbols. Elliot aptly points out, "A popular symbol that is used and recognized very well in the U.S. And Africa is the red ribbon that recognizes the fight against AIDS. The red ribbon, created by Jeremy Irons, and telecast in the 1992 Tony Awards allowed the world see that AIDS was not just a disease only specific to the gay community (a common belief at the beginning of this crisis) but that affects the whole world, with particular emphasis on people in Africa." People can harness such symbols to show solidarity and communicate without words. Taking advantage of such powerful symbols can establish a sense of camaraderie and rapport almost instantly if used wisely.

Perhaps most interestingly enough, Barbara mentions how one's shoes can inform acquaintances about one's personality, and how people often use cues such as the way a person is dressed as a…… [read more]

Letter of Advice Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,432 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Letter of Advice

Dear Jeff and Stephanie

Many congratulations from my side on your engagement and for choosing each other as life partner. Choosing a life partner is not simple because it is a relationship, which continues forever. You are not buying a house or a car, that you can change if it did not fulfill your needs or satisfy… [read more]

Interpersonal Conflict in Film Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (560 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


When Jenna finally confronted him for the first time, Michael, instead of effectively communicating the issue with Jenna and letting her know how he felt about the whole issue, refuses to answer her questions and avoids communicating with her and clearing out her doubts about him. This is the point that, I feel, was not handled effectively.

At this point, what should have been done by Michael was that, instead of seeking out Kim again, he should have communicated with Jenna and answered her questions about his commitment to the relationship and his honesty. Rather than taking refuge and hiding his emotional fears behind Kim, Michael should have communicated with Jenna making it clear to her about exactly what he feels and fears about the pregnancy, at the time when Jenna first confronted him about the whole issue. Michael's decision at that moment to avoid the conflict gave way to bigger issues that followed afterwards. Instead of shying away from a confrontational conversation and underestimating its value, Michael increased doubts in Jenna's mind.

This is the situation that explains the importance of communication and conversation, through which we can share facts and information as well as our ideas, thoughts, and feelings with other people. Instead of ignoring the problem, we can converse clearly with the individual we have a conflict with and find out that the situation can easily be resolved through effective communicating of the point-of-views of both parties.


Satir, V. (1998). The New Peoplemaking, Mountain View, CA: Science and Behavior Books.

Wilmot, W.W., & Hocker, J.L. (2007). Interpersonal…… [read more]

Conflict Management Case Studies Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (762 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Conflict Management Case Studies

Conflict management is a very important subject that captures many people's attention since it is inevitable. For people to coexist in harmony there, has to be a system where their differences are solved amicably. One of the ways people can resolve their conflicts is through simple talking, which most people shy away from. Conflict normally arises because of the huge division in our present society; the current generations are brought up and never given the opportunity to interact with others socially, therefore, in their adult life they develop problems trying to cope with different ethnics, racial or religious groups. Conflict also can arise from any environment; many situations have led to development of conflicts among people Abigail & Cahn, 2010.

For instance, there is political divide (conservatives vs. liberals), gender gaps, social classes, and age barriers among others. These entire situations do not create a conducive environment for harmony to exist. Therefore, there is a need to embrace communication at all levels since it is one of the best ways of solving conflicts.

Conflict situation 1

The conflict theory discussed in this situation is Social exchange theory Abigail & Cahn, 2010.

The cause of the conflict is the contribution of one of the partners in this relationship does not satisfy the other partner. The partner who's working to make ends meet feels more drained as the rewards in the relationship are less than the cost incurred. Weighing the efforts put into the relationship, the working partner is in conflict because the partner had not adhered to their agreement when they were getting married as they were supposed to contribute to satisfy each other's needs.

The conflict can be resolved by both partners working to satisfy each other's needs and expectations. Both partners must hold onto their end of the deal and show commitment. Communication between the partners plays a big role in ensuring mutual understanding and agreement. Yes, I have ever been in such a situation where my girlfriend was used to being provided for by me without bringing in any resourceful support into the relationship. I felt drained, and we broke up.

Conflict situation 2

The conflict theory in question is the Psychodynamic theory- Displaced conflict. In this situation, the real cause of the conflict is…… [read more]

Social Studies Lesson Planner Course Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


III. Teaching Strategies and Connection to Standards:

IV. Do Now / Motivation / Attention-Getter:

During class discussion, define and explain how people make decisions based on what they see and hear. Explain that sometimes we have to use skills to convince others about our positions. Have the students recall and list their own experiences trying to convince their friends about something, and then ask them to share these with the class.

V. Procedure: Learning Activities/Tasks:

Have the students pick a proposition that not everyone would agree with such as: "nuclear power plants are superior energy sources." Have them write a 6 to 8 -- minute speech in outline form to persuade the class. Each student will then deliver this speech in front of the class while the rest of the students take notes and prepare to give the speaker feedback on the speech.

VI. Content:

The Lesson: The Voice and Body are the Best Tools

Every student is a natural persuader! They have done it all their lives. Every time someone enters a conversation, he or she engages in elementary persuasion techniques. It is true, that any time students make a statement of fact, they are asserting its validity and assuming that their listener agrees.

This speech goes further than a normal conversational assertion: now students have to assume that not everyone will agree with them from the start, and it is their job to make them see things their way. The goal of this speech is to change someone's mind or way of thinking about a topic. This is not a speech to sell, as students do not ask that the listener do anything… [read more]

Social Justice Just Get Started Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,163 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


If you are a leader who isn't committed to truly listening to the people managing your teams, at best, you may be perceived as knowledgeable and authoritative. At worst (which is more often the case), leaders who don't listen come across as self-important, impatient, long-winded, arrogant and even aggressive. And if you're not listening to them -- chances are they're not listening to you, either. That is why real, profound listening is a "radical" act in the best, truest sense of the word (Heneghan, 2005).

Radical listening is an extinct part of communication. The word "Radical" means relating to the roots. Therefore, radical listening relates to what is not being said and what is being meant. A person is a good radical listener if:

If one is aware of inner dialogue and listens beyond it

This means that the person ignores his inner thoughts while listening and perceives what is being actually communicated

Listens for what one can't hear, and for what people won't normally tell him.

This explains that the person is reading between the lines, ignoring the words and trying to understand the unsaid notions during any sort of communication

Listen for possibility and commitment

Consider that when someone is speaking, commitment to the exchange is either present or missing. If you are listening for it, and it's present, you can draw on it. In fact, it can even lead to a change -- and improvement -- in your thinking or approach.

Radical listening is an art of catching the ball, not throwing it back. It intents on understanding what is being actually said rather than what is being worded e.g. when a new girl at school tells you that she doesn't want to come over to school new year part, what she might be telling you is she is facing difficulty fitting in and doesn't want to feel left out.

Question# 04:

Resistance is one of the strongest skills required to survive in every field of life. Theoretically speaking, it is a force which tends to oppose the existing state of an object and psychologically speaking it is our defense mechanism.

Resistance is usually considered as a general trait of involuntary clients of social work where individuals have been forced legitimately to solve their issues. In fact, there is a possibility that the agreement to social therapy is shown only at conscious level whereas the client shows resistance unconsciously since they are enjoying their comfort zone as explained by Carter. Culturally speaking, history has shown resistance as a major survival skill. It was the resistance shown by an ethnic group in subcontinent which resulted in division of subcontinent of Asia into three different countries-Pakistan, India & Bangladesh. Similarly, it was a resistance used as survival skill which granted the Black people their fundamental rights.

Respecting this resistance is part and parcel of a social work practice. It is important for a social worker to understand the causes of resistance, whether they are just and how to handle… [read more]

Deaf Culture Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,052 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Special Education

Deaf Culture

Deaf culture has many different meanings depending on who you are talking to. According to some it is a social, shared, and creative force of, by, and for Deaf people founded on American Sign Language (ASL). It includes communication, social process, art, entertainment, recreation like sports, travel, and Deaf clubs and worship. It's also an attitude which is sometimes seen as a weapon of unfairness. Overall Deaf culture is a positive term, indicative of pride and a communal identity (Defining Deaf Culture, 2011).

Then there are some who are adamant there is no such thing as Deaf culture. Some people will dispute that deafness is nothing more than a disability, a disability that must be fixed. Getting this disability fixed may entail frequent visits to an audiologist, getting fitted for hearing aids, attending many speech therapy sessions, or even going through surgery to get a cochlear implant. This is what's called the pathological advance to deafness. It centers on what's wrong and uses numerous technological and therapeutic plans to resolve the problem. The accomplishment of this approach varies from person to person (What is Deaf Culture, 2011).

The cultural features of the Deaf world are fundamental in supplying a healthy sense of happiness. It centers on what Deaf people can do, as opposed to the pathological approach of centering on what's wrong. There's a sense of fitting in, and of justification. While it's feasible to do well with a pathological approach on the exterior it can be quite exhausting. It's not unusual for Deaf people to go to hearing family gatherings and come home completely exhausted from the effort it took to communicate. In the meantime, at Deaf social gatherings everywhere, it could be very late and nobody wants to leave. Club owners and proprietors in reality have to turn the lights out and herd everyone out the door. A lot of a conversation continues outside under a street light or in a coffee shop. Communication in ASL is fluid and effortless, which is why one will see these gatherings lasting until the wee hours of the morning (What is Deaf Culture, 2011).

The vital connection to Deaf Culture among the American deaf community is American Sign Language. This community shares a universal sense of pride in their Culture and language. There exists a rich heritage and pride in the ability to conquer difficulty as individuals and as a group. "Deaf power hit the World in 1988 at Gallaudet University, an event known as the "Deaf President Now" (DPN) Movement. The protest has made a mark in history and proves that Deaf Culture is Pride and that Pride is Power" (What is Deaf Culture, 2011).

Mastery of ASL and competent storytelling are tremendously valued in Deaf Culture. Through ASL Literature, one generation passes on to the next its knowledge, standards, and its pride and therefore strengthens the bonds that tie the younger generation. Another feature of this culture is the institution of marriage. It is estimated… [read more]

Communications Issues Report Analysis Lessons Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (529 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Usefulness of this Report

This report is obviously most useful to communicators charged with the responsibility of communicating concepts in the same field as that which the report concerned directly. Individuals and entities planning any communications initiatives in the field of environmental issues or urban planning would be able to use this report as a blueprint for constructing a message that is likely to be highly effective. More generally, all individuals and entities with the responsibility of constructing communications initiatives would be able to use this report to help identify potential areas of concern in relation to their choice of language. If they have the resources to do it, they would use this report as a model for how to employ the focus-group process in tailoring their substantive messages to specific audiences.

Importance of Findings

Generally, the findings of this report are important to the concept of effective communications strategy. In principle, it suggests that even the most carefully constructed substantive ideas cannot necessarily be relied upon to achieve their objective in and of themselves. It is important because it demonstrates that substantive aspects of communications messages are only part of the overall communications process. To be effective, communications initiatives must combine substantive elements with a sensitivity to the proverbial ear of the audience. It demonstrates that the same terminology that might be effective with one audience could be much less effective with another audience, even when both audiences are equally receptive to receiving the actual substance of the message.


Locker, K.O. (2006). Business and Administrative Communication. Boston, MA:…… [read more]

Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (756 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Verbal and Non-Verbal Skills in Therapeutic Relationships Verbal and Non-Verbal Skills

What you have learned about verbal and non-verbal skills in therapeutic relationships

I have learned a considerable amount from my experience with non- verbal and verbal forms of communication. This knowledge has been gleaned from my studies and research as well as from personal experience.

One of the aspects that stand out in my mind with regard to these forms of communication is the wide range of non-verbal types of communication and their importance in the therapeutic situation. The importance of these non-verbal actions is mainly due to the extent to which they can substitute for verbal intentions and meaning. I have also come to the conclusion that in many instances non-verbal forms of communication are more subtle and effective in the therapeutic situation.

One of the most important verbal as well as non-verbal forms of communication, in my opinion, is known as attending or warmth. Verbally this can be expressed by agreeing or showing interest in the other person or client and by suggesting through words that one is supportive and "on the same page." This form of communication is important in the therapeutic situation as it tends to break down barriers and awkward conformities between therapist and patient.

There are many non- verbal ways of expressing warmth - such as nodding the head slightly in a sign of understanding and by the attitude or positioning of one's body. This should not be aggressive or cold but open and inviting. There are many examples of this type of non-verbal cue. This type of bodily attitude is the opposite of a confrontational or aggressive stance; for instance, the crossing of one's arms. This may be construed by the observer as a defensive sign. A body attitude that is considered to be "warm" and far more conducive to open expression and interaction could be expressed through facing the observer with open hands and with the palms of the hands facing outward.

Among the many other verbal and non-verbal skills that are of importance to know about in terms of therapeutic relationships are the more assertive and engaging cues and use of language; such as questioning, self-disclosure, genuineness, immediacy and caring confrontation. A particularly difficult but very…… [read more]

Fear Public Speaking the Attack of the Butterflies Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,763 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Attack of the Butterflies

Mark Twain did it. So did John F. Kennedy, Winston Churchill, and Elvis Presley. Bono claims he's done it regularly for years. Thomas Jefferson was rather famous for it and even George Washington, the father of our country, was known to do it too. It's not just the purview of men. Notable women such as Margaret… [read more]

Therapeutic Relationships in Mental Health Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,396 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The patient was having anxiety issues but I believe I handled the situation with immediate care.



A fellow co worker violated policy.

"I am not going to do this procedure anymore"

-resolute disdain

"I would encourage you to follow the guidelines otherwise everyone will be hurt."

-pleading posture

The coworkers was in a moment of weakness and through my confrontation it resolved the situation.

c) Identify areas of your growth and learning for EACH communication skill presented in the Manual.

d) Identify ways you would like to develop your communication skills. (Evaluate areas of desired change).




My Growth & Learning

Focus on your strengths & how you have improved your skills here

What to Work On

Focus on what you want to improve here

My Plan

Indicate how you will continue to develop your therapeutic relationship skills



-listening. taking time to really understand regardless of my personal opinions

-aware of the healing power of touch. understand that it is important in the communication and healing processes.

-I can always be a nicer person, and help those out in a kind manner.

-Continue practicing self-awareness exercises to realize how helping out others is really helping out myself.


I've learned that all people have individual struggles that should be respected.

Often I disrespect those who do not think in the same manner as I do.

Learning more about the things I don't understand will help develop this respect for all opinions.


The golden rule of treating others the way you would like to be treated has proved its worth to me.

Those who do not have as much material wealth as I do often do not receive enough of my empathy.

Keeping a balanced lifestyle and avoiding disagreements will help with this skill.



I have become much more curious over the recent course of time. I realize the importance of understanding root issues and questioning the things I do not understand.

When a new subject comes up at work, I tend to ignore it, even though I know it will affect my day .

Developing more courage to confront my own fear of knowledge.


Specific words and actions are helpful in being concrete.

I need to follow through on some of my promises to myself.

Sticking to my plan is the plan itself.


Self-awareness and understanding personal motivations are helpful in fully explaining yourself and being honest towards others in self-disclosure.

The most painful things to self disclose are often the most important.

Knowing that self-disclosure helps and not hurt will help in developing this skill.


Honesty is an important principle when caring for others. The truth, although painful at times, is the best way to care for some most of the time.

Hiding bad news is easy for me even though it is not a very good practice.

I will work on this by continuing my journal and self-reflection… [read more]

Sign Language in Public Settings Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (1,635 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In addition, a random sampling of members of organizations for the deaf will form a second group who will also be interviewed and respond to surveys about their receptivity to use technology to facilitate interpretation in complex communication settings.

Sampling. The sampling technique employed for this study is purposive. A panel of private service providers who have clients who are deaf and employers who have a number of employees who are deaf will be selected for the study sample.

Data collection and analysis. Both interviews and surveys will be used. Surveys will have both open ended sections which will be analyzed using quantitative methods and multiple choice sections, which will be analyzed using cross-tabs. Qualitative methods like constant comparative will be used for data reduction and to identify emerging themes in the interview data and in the open ended survey item data.

Anticipated findings. Cultural differences between countries are sometimes unexpectedly large, and certainly specialists in various service fields exhibit distinct cultures. Further, the culture shared by people who are deaf has very distinct and enduring attributes. Each of these cultural orientations can impact receptivity to innovation, particularly when use of an innovation may be viewed as an accommodation. This study will extend the findings of the Websourd project in public settings in France, of which Francois Goudenove is principal investigator and director, measuring the attitudes and perceptions regarding application of the sign language avatar on mobile digital devices in private service settings.


Emmorey, K., Borinstein, H.B., and Thompson, R. (n.d.). Bimodal bilingualism: Code-blending between spoken English and American Sign Language, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies and University of California, San Diego. Retrieval http://emmoreylab.sdsu.edu/pdf-bilingual/bilingual1.pdf

Teplin, E. (2008, August 26). Representing deaf and hard of hearing people: Legal requirements & practical suggestions. The Hennepin Lawyer. Retrieved http://hennepin.timerlakepublishing.com/article.asp?article=1246

Internet sources accessed http://www.signofthetimes.us/Medical.htm


http://www.ehow.com/how_6902400_treat-deaf-patient-dental-office.html#ixzz1LQhpYIpx… [read more]

Veterinary Tech That Everyone Here Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,341 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


In this case the group offered advice to Ericka that she could received anywhere and did not consider how she felt about the group, which was the real concern for Ericka. Ericka, let her emotions get the best of her and instead of trying to communicate her real feelings again left the room offering no opportunity for anyone to resolve the issue.

Ericka's preconceived perceptions helped create a self-fulfilling prophecy for her in this situation. She expected no assistance or respect from the group and acted in a manner that helped extract this attitude from the group; however, the focus group was also at fault by failing to address Ericka's concerns about being "looked down" upon by them. The group leader, concentrating only on the emotional expression of Ericka asked a question that Ericka had already answered previously when at the end of the exchange she asked Ericka to tell the group what was really bothering her. Emotions, nonverbal expressions, and perceptions by both the group and Ericka led to a breakdown in this communication.

Ericka could have gotten her message across better by changing her body language and by recognizing that the group leader did not hear her message originally. Instead of sending conflicting messages (was she concerned that no one would accept her or was she concerned about her living situation?) she could have reiterated her original statement and asked for feedback regarding it before asking for further advice. When sending a message or asking a question it is crucial that the sender to be clear as to the message's intent and to understand their own preconceived expectations that could interfere with the message being understood by the receiver. Ericka could have repeated her first statement, perhaps giving examples of why she felt as he did, and asked for feedback from the group. This could have led to a discussion of the real issues.

Both parties (Ericka and especially the group members) could benefit from utilizing active, critical, empathetic listening strategies. This requires that the receiver first listen to the message, then reflect it back to the sender to make sure that the intent and meaning of the message has been relayed or understood properly. The group members did not seem to listen to Ericka's first statement. If just one person in the group listened and used reflection to clarify Ericka's original concerns perhaps the interaction would have turned out differently. Rogers (1959), a psychotherapist who made successful use of reflection, strongly recommended trying to hear people from their own perspective (empathetic listening). By reflecting Ericka's original concern back at her like, "You feel that because we are doctors and nurses that we don't respect you or your feelings" or something along those lines the situation could have been defused. Reflection would allow for the group to acknowledge Erick's concern while at the letting Ericka know they understand her distress. If the reflection is off Ericka could clarify what she meant and again the group could reflect the… [read more]

Deaf Ears: An Exercise Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (770 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Though I am not elderly, perhaps I can relate to this experience because I, like those studied, was faced with suddenly having to adjust to an unfamiliar world, not unlike many who develop a hearing loss during their life (rather than being born with one).

Hearing with only one ear also proved difficult, in that even though sounds were amplified, it was often difficult to tell where background noises were coming from and how close or far away they were. This is because "localization is affected [in] individuals with UHL [(Unilateral Hearing Loss)] ... when sound approaches from one direction, the interaural time difference between ears allows one to determine from which direction the sound is coming. With UHL, one may not be able to hear those time differences ... and, thus, can have difficulty localizing (McKay, 2006). As with my bilateral impairment experience, with the unilateral hearing my own voice still sounded as far away as everyone else's making me strangely disconnected from what I was saying.

I am fortunate to have intact hearing, but it is conceivable that during my life I will experience some hearing loss, as any of us might. Consequently it is a valuable practice to deprive oneself of what feels like a necessity (i.e. hearing) in order to fully appreciate it.


M Backenroth-Ohsako, G.A., Wennberg, P., & Klinteberg, B.A. (2003). Personality and Work Life: a Comparison between Hearing-impaired Persons and a Normal-hearing Population. Social Behavior and Personality, 31(2), 191+. Retrieved March 6, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035372814

McKay, S. (2006). Management of Young Children with Unilateral Hearing Loss. The Volta Review, 106(3), 299+. Retrieved March 6, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5044769123

Most, T., Weisel, A., & Tur-Kaspa, H. (1999). Contact with Students with Hearing Impairments and the Evaluation of Speech Intelligibility and Personal Qualities. Journal of Special Education, 33(2), 103. Retrieved March 6, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001868253

Tideiksaar, R. (2003). Sensory Impairment and Fall Risk. Generations, 26(4), 22+. Retrieved March 6, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5045059262… [read more]

Expectancy Violations Theory Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,844 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Expectancy Violations Theory (EVT) begun by Judee K. Burgoon, concerns the way in which people interact with each other in a non-verbal way. Initially, the theory was known as "Nonverbal Expectancy Violations Theory." Burgoon later dropped the word "nonverbal," as the theory concerned somewhat more than simply nonverbal clues. Indeed, it also concerned the way in which people interacted as… [read more]

Oral Presentation Seminar Paper

Seminar Paper  |  2 pages (750 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Oral Presentation

I come from a very large family who did not always communicate well. I have three sisters and four brothers and very loud parents who did more yelling than communicating when we were growing up. As a result, this is how I learned to communicate. In my household if you didn't jump in and interrupt someone while they were speaking to get your point across, then you didn't get heard. Talking was always a battle in my household and for my siblings, my parents and I that was normal. My aunts, uncles and cousins are all pretty much the same way. This is how I thought people were supposed to communicate. You out talk someone or constantly talk over them until you had the floor.

When I went away to college all of this changed. I slowly but surely alienated my roommates, classmates and any other person who tried to befriend me. I would never let them have their say on an issue without interrupting them. It wasn't until one of my professors got tired of me interrupting another classmate who was speaking in class. My original intention was to major in business, but my professor kept me after class one day only to tell me that I was the worst communicator he had ever known. He suggested I take an introductory course in the Communications Department to improve my skills. He warned me that I would never make it in the business world with the poor communication skills I possessed.

I ignored him. My feelings were hurt and so was my pride. It wasn't until the semester was over and I saw my grade that I took what he said into consideration. I was expecting no less than an a- and I received a B+. When I spoke to him about it, he said that my grade was lowered a few points because class participation was part of the grading and my communication skills were awful. He suggested again that I take an introductory course in communications and this time I listened. I signed up and as they say, the rest is history.

After the first course, I discovered that I know longer wanted to major in business and changed my major…… [read more]

Headshot Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,817 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Headshot

He has this way of looking at me like I've said the wrong thing -- if I'm lucky. If he looks at me like I've said something wrong, it means he at least heard what I said. Most of the time he looks at me with a passive smile, artificial nod of the head, and eyes that… [read more]

Teacher Perceptions of Student Achievement Based on Student Appearance Research Paper

Research Paper  |  16 pages (4,946 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Teacher Perceptions of Student Achievement Based on Appearance

Perception is around us at all times; it was integral in our evolutionary behavior from ape to man; it allowed us to make judgments based on values, prior knowledge, and cultural norms. Perception is really two types of consciousness: phenomenal (observable) and psychological. However, the reality is that both types are often… [read more]

Decoding Facial Expressions in Situations Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,587 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Decoding Facial Expressions in Situations:

It is a tendency for human beings to observe other often and communicate their opinions of the situation. Apart from behavior, the facial expressions of others are one of the ways of evaluating another human being. Through the use of facial expressions, people tend to decide a situation without necessarily reading in between the lines… [read more]

Group Behavior Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (888 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Group Behavior

The group in question is a company that my cousin works for. This company is a small advertising firm where the different employees each work closely together on projects. Each member of the team has set responsibilities and must work both independently and in concert with one another to ensure that the project is completed to the customer's satisfaction.

Communication in the group takes two forms -- verbal and non-verbal. The verbal component includes both written communication and spoken. The written communication is typically computer-mediated, especially when members of the team work remotely, which is frequent in this group. It has been shown that computer-mediated communication can decrease communication effectiveness, increase the time required to meet tasks and results in decreased team member satisfaction when compared to face-to-face communication (Baltes, et al., 2002). This is in part because much of the non-verbal element of communication is lost, and there are fewer opportunities for clarification of ideas with computer-mediated communication.

One of the reasons why this team is successful is because it blends computer-mediated communication with face-to-face communication. This allows for the infusion of non-verbal communication. In situations of disagreement or conflict where one member is working remotely, the situation is typically remedied with face-to-face communication, which is possible since remote work typically means from a home office. With this organization, communication is viewed as the most essential component to success, and in order to minimize the problems and delays caused by computer-mediated communication, all staff members working on a given project must meet at least once a week and often when the project reaches a critical point in its development, the amount of work done remotely is reduced.

The group began with a strict leader-follower dynamic, but over time it has developed into something with a more complex dynamic. Many members of the group have developed their own degrees of informal power, some from the expertise that they have demonstrated and others from their ability to cultivate that power within the group dynamic. Indeed, the leader of the organization may have seen his power diminish over time, as others have excelled.

The roles within the team are, for the most part, strictly defined. Some of the roles are primarily creative, which is essentially a task role. The creatives provide significant guidance to the people in the maintenance roles. There are, however, some roles that overlap between task and maintenance. These roles are often for copywriters or graphic artists, who begin the task by taking instruction from the creatives and others who interface directly with the customer. Within these roles, however, there is room for some creativity as well. They then play the…… [read more]

Conversational Analysis of Oprah Interview Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,740 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Conversational Analysis of Oprah Interview

Conversation Analysis of Oprah CBS Interview

The first adjacency pair of the opening sequence has B. saying in a deliberate tone, "Speaking of spending money." This new speech unit initiated by B. In line 1 does not introduce a new topic but signals movement to a new conversational unit through reference to a prior sequence… [read more]

Tech for the Deaf Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (3,084 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Technology for the Deaf

His Enduring Passion

But a passion for science, his father's inspiration to help the less fortunate and his own desire to improve the quality of life of the hearing impaired drove him to nothing less than work a miracle. The failed attempts of Alessandro Volta in 1790, Duchess of Boulogne in 1855, the French-Algerian partners Andre… [read more]

Personality Snap Judgements Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (3,568 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Personality

Snap Judgements. (174)

Sometimes one of the more troubling characteristics about the reality of human nature is that we often remember the worst things and gloss over the good things about others. This can apply to situations as well, but is certainly at the heart of inappropriate snap judgements when it comes to evaluating another human being.… [read more]

12345. . .
NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.