Study "Communication / Speech" Essays 221-270

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Conflict Management Case Studies Case Study

… Conflict Management Case Studies

Conflict management is a very important subject that captures many people's attention since it is inevitable. For people to coexist in harmony there, has to be a system where their differences are solved amicably. One of the ways people can resolve their conflicts is through simple talking, which most people shy away from. Conflict normally arises because of the huge division in our present society; the current generations are brought up and never given the opportunity to interact with others socially, therefore, in their adult life they develop problems trying to cope with different ethnics, racial or religious groups. Conflict also can arise from any environment; many situations have led to development of conflicts among people Abigail & Cahn, 2010.

For instance, there is political divide (conservatives vs. liberals), gender gaps, social classes, and age barriers among others. These entire situations do not create a conducive environment for harmony to exist. Therefore, there is a need to embrace communication at all levels since it is one of the best ways of solving conflicts.

Conflict situation 1

The conflict theory discussed in this situation is Social exchange theory Abigail & Cahn, 2010.

The cause of the conflict is the contribution of one of the partners in this relationship does not satisfy the other partner. The partner who's working to make ends meet feels more drained as the rewards in the relationship are less than the cost incurred. Weighing the efforts put into the relationship, the working partner is in conflict because the partner had not adhered to their agreement when they were getting married as they were supposed to contribute to satisfy each other's needs.

The conflict can be resolved by both partners working to satisfy each other's needs and expectations. Both partners must hold onto their end of the deal and show commitment. Communication between the partners plays a big role in ensuring mutual understanding and agreement. Yes, I have ever been in such a situation where my girlfriend was used to being provided for by me without bringing in any resourceful support into the relationship. I felt drained, and we broke up.

Conflict situation 2

The conflict theory in question is the Psychodynamic theory- Displaced conflict. In this situation, the real cause of the conflict is…… [read more]

Social Studies Lesson Planner Course Essay

… III. Teaching Strategies and Connection to Standards:

IV. Do Now / Motivation / Attention-Getter:

During class discussion, define and explain how people make decisions based on what they see and hear. Explain that sometimes we have to use skills to convince others about our positions. Have the students recall and list their own experiences trying to convince their friends about something, and then ask them to share these with the class.

V. Procedure: Learning Activities/Tasks:

Have the students pick a proposition that not everyone would agree with such as: "nuclear power plants are superior energy sources." Have them write a 6 to 8 -- minute speech in outline form to persuade the class. Each student will then deliver this speech in front of the class while the rest of the students take notes and prepare to give the speaker feedback on the speech.

VI. Content:

The Lesson: The Voice and Body are the Best Tools

Every student is a natural persuader! They have done it all their lives. Every time someone enters a conversation, he or she engages in elementary persuasion techniques. It is true, that any time students make a statement of fact, they are asserting its validity and assuming that their listener agrees.

This speech goes further than a normal conversational assertion: now students have to assume that not everyone will agree with them from the start, and it is their job to make them see things their way. The goal of this speech is to change someone's mind or way of thinking about a topic. This is not a speech to sell, as students do not ask that the listener do anything… [read more]

Social Justice Just Get Started Term Paper

… If you are a leader who isn't committed to truly listening to the people managing your teams, at best, you may be perceived as knowledgeable and authoritative. At worst (which is more often the case), leaders who don't listen come across as self-important, impatient, long-winded, arrogant and even aggressive. And if you're not listening to them -- chances are they're not listening to you, either. That is why real, profound listening is a "radical" act in the best, truest sense of the word (Heneghan, 2005).

Radical listening is an extinct part of communication. The word "Radical" means relating to the roots. Therefore, radical listening relates to what is not being said and what is being meant. A person is a good radical listener if:

If one is aware of inner dialogue and listens beyond it

This means that the person ignores his inner thoughts while listening and perceives what is being actually communicated

Listens for what one can't hear, and for what people won't normally tell him.

This explains that the person is reading between the lines, ignoring the words and trying to understand the unsaid notions during any sort of communication

Listen for possibility and commitment

Consider that when someone is speaking, commitment to the exchange is either present or missing. If you are listening for it, and it's present, you can draw on it. In fact, it can even lead to a change -- and improvement -- in your thinking or approach.

Radical listening is an art of catching the ball, not throwing it back. It intents on understanding what is being actually said rather than what is being worded e.g. when a new girl at school tells you that she doesn't want to come over to school new year part, what she might be telling you is she is facing difficulty fitting in and doesn't want to feel left out.

Question# 04:

Resistance is one of the strongest skills required to survive in every field of life. Theoretically speaking, it is a force which tends to oppose the existing state of an object and psychologically speaking it is our defense mechanism.

Resistance is usually considered as a general trait of involuntary clients of social work where individuals have been forced legitimately to solve their issues. In fact, there is a possibility that the agreement to social therapy is shown only at conscious level whereas the client shows resistance unconsciously since they are enjoying their comfort zone as explained by Carter. Culturally speaking, history has shown resistance as a major survival skill. It was the resistance shown by an ethnic group in subcontinent which resulted in division of subcontinent of Asia into three different countries-Pakistan, India & Bangladesh. Similarly, it was a resistance used as survival skill which granted the Black people their fundamental rights.

Respecting this resistance is part and parcel of a social work practice. It is important for a social worker to understand the causes of resistance, whether they are just and how to handle… [read more]

Deaf Culture Research Paper

… Special Education

Deaf Culture

Deaf culture has many different meanings depending on who you are talking to. According to some it is a social, shared, and creative force of, by, and for Deaf people founded on American Sign Language (ASL). It includes communication, social process, art, entertainment, recreation like sports, travel, and Deaf clubs and worship. It's also an attitude which is sometimes seen as a weapon of unfairness. Overall Deaf culture is a positive term, indicative of pride and a communal identity (Defining Deaf Culture, 2011).

Then there are some who are adamant there is no such thing as Deaf culture. Some people will dispute that deafness is nothing more than a disability, a disability that must be fixed. Getting this disability fixed may entail frequent visits to an audiologist, getting fitted for hearing aids, attending many speech therapy sessions, or even going through surgery to get a cochlear implant. This is what's called the pathological advance to deafness. It centers on what's wrong and uses numerous technological and therapeutic plans to resolve the problem. The accomplishment of this approach varies from person to person (What is Deaf Culture, 2011).

The cultural features of the Deaf world are fundamental in supplying a healthy sense of happiness. It centers on what Deaf people can do, as opposed to the pathological approach of centering on what's wrong. There's a sense of fitting in, and of justification. While it's feasible to do well with a pathological approach on the exterior it can be quite exhausting. It's not unusual for Deaf people to go to hearing family gatherings and come home completely exhausted from the effort it took to communicate. In the meantime, at Deaf social gatherings everywhere, it could be very late and nobody wants to leave. Club owners and proprietors in reality have to turn the lights out and herd everyone out the door. A lot of a conversation continues outside under a street light or in a coffee shop. Communication in ASL is fluid and effortless, which is why one will see these gatherings lasting until the wee hours of the morning (What is Deaf Culture, 2011).

The vital connection to Deaf Culture among the American deaf community is American Sign Language. This community shares a universal sense of pride in their Culture and language. There exists a rich heritage and pride in the ability to conquer difficulty as individuals and as a group. "Deaf power hit the World in 1988 at Gallaudet University, an event known as the "Deaf President Now" (DPN) Movement. The protest has made a mark in history and proves that Deaf Culture is Pride and that Pride is Power" (What is Deaf Culture, 2011).

Mastery of ASL and competent storytelling are tremendously valued in Deaf Culture. Through ASL Literature, one generation passes on to the next its knowledge, standards, and its pride and therefore strengthens the bonds that tie the younger generation. Another feature of this culture is the institution of marriage. It is estimated… [read more]

Communications Issues Report Analysis Lessons Article Review

… Usefulness of this Report

This report is obviously most useful to communicators charged with the responsibility of communicating concepts in the same field as that which the report concerned directly. Individuals and entities planning any communications initiatives in the field of environmental issues or urban planning would be able to use this report as a blueprint for constructing a message that is likely to be highly effective. More generally, all individuals and entities with the responsibility of constructing communications initiatives would be able to use this report to help identify potential areas of concern in relation to their choice of language. If they have the resources to do it, they would use this report as a model for how to employ the focus-group process in tailoring their substantive messages to specific audiences.

Importance of Findings

Generally, the findings of this report are important to the concept of effective communications strategy. In principle, it suggests that even the most carefully constructed substantive ideas cannot necessarily be relied upon to achieve their objective in and of themselves. It is important because it demonstrates that substantive aspects of communications messages are only part of the overall communications process. To be effective, communications initiatives must combine substantive elements with a sensitivity to the proverbial ear of the audience. It demonstrates that the same terminology that might be effective with one audience could be much less effective with another audience, even when both audiences are equally receptive to receiving the actual substance of the message.


Locker, K.O. (2006). Business and Administrative Communication. Boston, MA:…… [read more]

Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication Term Paper

… ¶ … Verbal and Non-Verbal Skills in Therapeutic Relationships Verbal and Non-Verbal Skills

What you have learned about verbal and non-verbal skills in therapeutic relationships

I have learned a considerable amount from my experience with non- verbal and verbal forms of communication. This knowledge has been gleaned from my studies and research as well as from personal experience.

One of the aspects that stand out in my mind with regard to these forms of communication is the wide range of non-verbal types of communication and their importance in the therapeutic situation. The importance of these non-verbal actions is mainly due to the extent to which they can substitute for verbal intentions and meaning. I have also come to the conclusion that in many instances non-verbal forms of communication are more subtle and effective in the therapeutic situation.

One of the most important verbal as well as non-verbal forms of communication, in my opinion, is known as attending or warmth. Verbally this can be expressed by agreeing or showing interest in the other person or client and by suggesting through words that one is supportive and "on the same page." This form of communication is important in the therapeutic situation as it tends to break down barriers and awkward conformities between therapist and patient.

There are many non- verbal ways of expressing warmth - such as nodding the head slightly in a sign of understanding and by the attitude or positioning of one's body. This should not be aggressive or cold but open and inviting. There are many examples of this type of non-verbal cue. This type of bodily attitude is the opposite of a confrontational or aggressive stance; for instance, the crossing of one's arms. This may be construed by the observer as a defensive sign. A body attitude that is considered to be "warm" and far more conducive to open expression and interaction could be expressed through facing the observer with open hands and with the palms of the hands facing outward.

Among the many other verbal and non-verbal skills that are of importance to know about in terms of therapeutic relationships are the more assertive and engaging cues and use of language; such as questioning, self-disclosure, genuineness, immediacy and caring confrontation. A particularly difficult but very…… [read more]

Fear Public Speaking the Attack of the Butterflies Essay

… Attack of the Butterflies

Mark Twain did it. So did John F. Kennedy, Winston Churchill, and Elvis Presley. Bono claims he's done it regularly for years. Thomas Jefferson was rather famous for it and even George Washington, the father of… [read more]

Therapeutic Relationships in Mental Health Term Paper

… The patient was having anxiety issues but I believe I handled the situation with immediate care.



A fellow co worker violated policy.

"I am not going to do this procedure anymore"

-resolute disdain

"I would encourage you to follow the guidelines otherwise everyone will be hurt."

-pleading posture

The coworkers was in a moment of weakness and through my confrontation it resolved the situation.

c) Identify areas of your growth and learning for EACH communication skill presented in the Manual.

d) Identify ways you would like to develop your communication skills. (Evaluate areas of desired change).




My Growth & Learning

Focus on your strengths & how you have improved your skills here

What to Work On

Focus on what you want to improve here

My Plan

Indicate how you will continue to develop your therapeutic relationship skills



-listening. taking time to really understand regardless of my personal opinions

-aware of the healing power of touch. understand that it is important in the communication and healing processes.

-I can always be a nicer person, and help those out in a kind manner.

-Continue practicing self-awareness exercises to realize how helping out others is really helping out myself.


I've learned that all people have individual struggles that should be respected.

Often I disrespect those who do not think in the same manner as I do.

Learning more about the things I don't understand will help develop this respect for all opinions.


The golden rule of treating others the way you would like to be treated has proved its worth to me.

Those who do not have as much material wealth as I do often do not receive enough of my empathy.

Keeping a balanced lifestyle and avoiding disagreements will help with this skill.



I have become much more curious over the recent course of time. I realize the importance of understanding root issues and questioning the things I do not understand.

When a new subject comes up at work, I tend to ignore it, even though I know it will affect my day .

Developing more courage to confront my own fear of knowledge.


Specific words and actions are helpful in being concrete.

I need to follow through on some of my promises to myself.

Sticking to my plan is the plan itself.


Self-awareness and understanding personal motivations are helpful in fully explaining yourself and being honest towards others in self-disclosure.

The most painful things to self disclose are often the most important.

Knowing that self-disclosure helps and not hurt will help in developing this skill.


Honesty is an important principle when caring for others. The truth, although painful at times, is the best way to care for some most of the time.

Hiding bad news is easy for me even though it is not a very good practice.

I will work on this by continuing my journal and self-reflection… [read more]

Sign Language in Public Settings Research Proposal

… In addition, a random sampling of members of organizations for the deaf will form a second group who will also be interviewed and respond to surveys about their receptivity to use technology to facilitate interpretation in complex communication settings.

Sampling. The sampling technique employed for this study is purposive. A panel of private service providers who have clients who are deaf and employers who have a number of employees who are deaf will be selected for the study sample.

Data collection and analysis. Both interviews and surveys will be used. Surveys will have both open ended sections which will be analyzed using quantitative methods and multiple choice sections, which will be analyzed using cross-tabs. Qualitative methods like constant comparative will be used for data reduction and to identify emerging themes in the interview data and in the open ended survey item data.

Anticipated findings. Cultural differences between countries are sometimes unexpectedly large, and certainly specialists in various service fields exhibit distinct cultures. Further, the culture shared by people who are deaf has very distinct and enduring attributes. Each of these cultural orientations can impact receptivity to innovation, particularly when use of an innovation may be viewed as an accommodation. This study will extend the findings of the Websourd project in public settings in France, of which Francois Goudenove is principal investigator and director, measuring the attitudes and perceptions regarding application of the sign language avatar on mobile digital devices in private service settings.


Emmorey, K., Borinstein, H.B., and Thompson, R. (n.d.). Bimodal bilingualism: Code-blending between spoken English and American Sign Language, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies and University of California, San Diego. Retrieval

Teplin, E. (2008, August 26). Representing deaf and hard of hearing people: Legal requirements & practical suggestions. The Hennepin Lawyer. Retrieved

Internet sources accessed… [read more]

Veterinary Tech That Everyone Here Essay

… In this case the group offered advice to Ericka that she could received anywhere and did not consider how she felt about the group, which was the real concern for Ericka. Ericka, let her emotions get the best of her and instead of trying to communicate her real feelings again left the room offering no opportunity for anyone to resolve the issue.

Ericka's preconceived perceptions helped create a self-fulfilling prophecy for her in this situation. She expected no assistance or respect from the group and acted in a manner that helped extract this attitude from the group; however, the focus group was also at fault by failing to address Ericka's concerns about being "looked down" upon by them. The group leader, concentrating only on the emotional expression of Ericka asked a question that Ericka had already answered previously when at the end of the exchange she asked Ericka to tell the group what was really bothering her. Emotions, nonverbal expressions, and perceptions by both the group and Ericka led to a breakdown in this communication.

Ericka could have gotten her message across better by changing her body language and by recognizing that the group leader did not hear her message originally. Instead of sending conflicting messages (was she concerned that no one would accept her or was she concerned about her living situation?) she could have reiterated her original statement and asked for feedback regarding it before asking for further advice. When sending a message or asking a question it is crucial that the sender to be clear as to the message's intent and to understand their own preconceived expectations that could interfere with the message being understood by the receiver. Ericka could have repeated her first statement, perhaps giving examples of why she felt as he did, and asked for feedback from the group. This could have led to a discussion of the real issues.

Both parties (Ericka and especially the group members) could benefit from utilizing active, critical, empathetic listening strategies. This requires that the receiver first listen to the message, then reflect it back to the sender to make sure that the intent and meaning of the message has been relayed or understood properly. The group members did not seem to listen to Ericka's first statement. If just one person in the group listened and used reflection to clarify Ericka's original concerns perhaps the interaction would have turned out differently. Rogers (1959), a psychotherapist who made successful use of reflection, strongly recommended trying to hear people from their own perspective (empathetic listening). By reflecting Ericka's original concern back at her like, "You feel that because we are doctors and nurses that we don't respect you or your feelings" or something along those lines the situation could have been defused. Reflection would allow for the group to acknowledge Erick's concern while at the letting Ericka know they understand her distress. If the reflection is off Ericka could clarify what she meant and again the group could reflect the… [read more]

Deaf Ears: An Exercise Essay

… Though I am not elderly, perhaps I can relate to this experience because I, like those studied, was faced with suddenly having to adjust to an unfamiliar world, not unlike many who develop a hearing loss during their life (rather than being born with one).

Hearing with only one ear also proved difficult, in that even though sounds were amplified, it was often difficult to tell where background noises were coming from and how close or far away they were. This is because "localization is affected [in] individuals with UHL [(Unilateral Hearing Loss)] ... when sound approaches from one direction, the interaural time difference between ears allows one to determine from which direction the sound is coming. With UHL, one may not be able to hear those time differences ... and, thus, can have difficulty localizing (McKay, 2006). As with my bilateral impairment experience, with the unilateral hearing my own voice still sounded as far away as everyone else's making me strangely disconnected from what I was saying.

I am fortunate to have intact hearing, but it is conceivable that during my life I will experience some hearing loss, as any of us might. Consequently it is a valuable practice to deprive oneself of what feels like a necessity (i.e. hearing) in order to fully appreciate it.


M Backenroth-Ohsako, G.A., Wennberg, P., & Klinteberg, B.A. (2003). Personality and Work Life: a Comparison between Hearing-impaired Persons and a Normal-hearing Population. Social Behavior and Personality, 31(2), 191+. Retrieved March 6, 2011, from Questia database:

McKay, S. (2006). Management of Young Children with Unilateral Hearing Loss. The Volta Review, 106(3), 299+. Retrieved March 6, 2011, from Questia database:

Most, T., Weisel, A., & Tur-Kaspa, H. (1999). Contact with Students with Hearing Impairments and the Evaluation of Speech Intelligibility and Personal Qualities. Journal of Special Education, 33(2), 103. Retrieved March 6, 2011, from Questia database:

Tideiksaar, R. (2003). Sensory Impairment and Fall Risk. Generations, 26(4), 22+. Retrieved March 6, 2011, from Questia database:… [read more]

Expectancy Violations Theory Essay

… Expectancy Violations Theory (EVT) begun by Judee K. Burgoon, concerns the way in which people interact with each other in a non-verbal way. Initially, the theory was known as "Nonverbal Expectancy Violations Theory." Burgoon later dropped the word "nonverbal," as… [read more]

Oral Presentation Seminar Paper

… Oral Presentation

I come from a very large family who did not always communicate well. I have three sisters and four brothers and very loud parents who did more yelling than communicating when we were growing up. As a result, this is how I learned to communicate. In my household if you didn't jump in and interrupt someone while they were speaking to get your point across, then you didn't get heard. Talking was always a battle in my household and for my siblings, my parents and I that was normal. My aunts, uncles and cousins are all pretty much the same way. This is how I thought people were supposed to communicate. You out talk someone or constantly talk over them until you had the floor.

When I went away to college all of this changed. I slowly but surely alienated my roommates, classmates and any other person who tried to befriend me. I would never let them have their say on an issue without interrupting them. It wasn't until one of my professors got tired of me interrupting another classmate who was speaking in class. My original intention was to major in business, but my professor kept me after class one day only to tell me that I was the worst communicator he had ever known. He suggested I take an introductory course in the Communications Department to improve my skills. He warned me that I would never make it in the business world with the poor communication skills I possessed.

I ignored him. My feelings were hurt and so was my pride. It wasn't until the semester was over and I saw my grade that I took what he said into consideration. I was expecting no less than an a- and I received a B+. When I spoke to him about it, he said that my grade was lowered a few points because class participation was part of the grading and my communication skills were awful. He suggested again that I take an introductory course in communications and this time I listened. I signed up and as they say, the rest is history.

After the first course, I discovered that I know longer wanted to major in business and changed my major…… [read more]

Headshot Essay

… ¶ … Headshot

He has this way of looking at me like I've said the wrong thing -- if I'm lucky. If he looks at me like I've said something wrong, it means he at least heard what I said.… [read more]

Teacher Perceptions of Student Achievement Based on Student Appearance Research Paper

… Teacher Perceptions of Student Achievement Based on Appearance

Perception is around us at all times; it was integral in our evolutionary behavior from ape to man; it allowed us to make judgments based on values, prior knowledge, and cultural norms.… [read more]

Decoding Facial Expressions in Situations Research Paper

… Decoding Facial Expressions in Situations:

It is a tendency for human beings to observe other often and communicate their opinions of the situation. Apart from behavior, the facial expressions of others are one of the ways of evaluating another human… [read more]

Group Behavior Term Paper

… Group Behavior

The group in question is a company that my cousin works for. This company is a small advertising firm where the different employees each work closely together on projects. Each member of the team has set responsibilities and must work both independently and in concert with one another to ensure that the project is completed to the customer's satisfaction.

Communication in the group takes two forms -- verbal and non-verbal. The verbal component includes both written communication and spoken. The written communication is typically computer-mediated, especially when members of the team work remotely, which is frequent in this group. It has been shown that computer-mediated communication can decrease communication effectiveness, increase the time required to meet tasks and results in decreased team member satisfaction when compared to face-to-face communication (Baltes, et al., 2002). This is in part because much of the non-verbal element of communication is lost, and there are fewer opportunities for clarification of ideas with computer-mediated communication.

One of the reasons why this team is successful is because it blends computer-mediated communication with face-to-face communication. This allows for the infusion of non-verbal communication. In situations of disagreement or conflict where one member is working remotely, the situation is typically remedied with face-to-face communication, which is possible since remote work typically means from a home office. With this organization, communication is viewed as the most essential component to success, and in order to minimize the problems and delays caused by computer-mediated communication, all staff members working on a given project must meet at least once a week and often when the project reaches a critical point in its development, the amount of work done remotely is reduced.

The group began with a strict leader-follower dynamic, but over time it has developed into something with a more complex dynamic. Many members of the group have developed their own degrees of informal power, some from the expertise that they have demonstrated and others from their ability to cultivate that power within the group dynamic. Indeed, the leader of the organization may have seen his power diminish over time, as others have excelled.

The roles within the team are, for the most part, strictly defined. Some of the roles are primarily creative, which is essentially a task role. The creatives provide significant guidance to the people in the maintenance roles. There are, however, some roles that overlap between task and maintenance. These roles are often for copywriters or graphic artists, who begin the task by taking instruction from the creatives and others who interface directly with the customer. Within these roles, however, there is room for some creativity as well. They then play the…… [read more]

Conversational Analysis of Oprah Interview Essay

… Conversational Analysis of Oprah Interview

Conversation Analysis of Oprah CBS Interview

The first adjacency pair of the opening sequence has B. saying in a deliberate tone, "Speaking of spending money." This new speech unit initiated by B. In line 1… [read more]

Tech for the Deaf Research Proposal

… Technology for the Deaf

His Enduring Passion

But a passion for science, his father's inspiration to help the less fortunate and his own desire to improve the quality of life of the hearing impaired drove him to nothing less than… [read more]

Personality Snap Judgements Research Proposal

… ¶ … Personality

Snap Judgements. (174)

Sometimes one of the more troubling characteristics about the reality of human nature is that we often remember the worst things and gloss over the good things about others. This can apply to situations… [read more]

Christian Family Thesis

… Christian Family

Building a Strong Relationship


No relationship is ever perfect, and there are always issues that marriage partners have with each other and with the relationship and family as a whole. Expecting everything to be perfect, and for… [read more]

Restroom Icon Essay

… Restroom Icon

Icons of Elimination

Interpersonal communication would be completely impossible without the use of symbols. A simple examination of the most common forms of communication shows the truth of this assertion: speech consists of nothing more than agreed-upon auditory symbols (i.e. spoken words) that stand for the multitude of objects, actions, and concepts of a given language. The sound of A-P-P-L-E bears no actual relationship to the red or green fruit that grows on trees, is crisp and juicy when ripe, and has seeds in the middle, but by general (and largely unconscious) consensus of English speakers the world over, these sounds have when combined are known to refer to this fruit. The same is true of written language; the constituent letters of the word "apple" bears as little resemblance to the fruit as their auditory components, yet a word so spelled creates the meaning -- through the same consensus -- of that particular fruit.

Icons are a different and far more simplistic, though no less profound, form of visual communication. Though the term originally referred to religious pictures and objects, the word "icon" has come to refer to any visual representation that the consensus of a culture or other group of people has bestowed with symbolic and/or communicative value. Any reduction of meaning necessarily creates some loss in the clarity of the communication, and generally speaking the simpler the means of communication are, the less clarity exists. Think, for instance, of the language employed by a toddler and that used by the average college student -- a college student is (one would hope) capable of far more subtlety, shading, and complexity in their communication. Just so, words are the most complex and clear forms of visual communication, whereas icons tend to be far more simplistic and far more general in their meaning. But though they seem to limit meaning, icons can also be seen to reflect a great deal of culture.

An examination of the various restroom icons included in the text bears this out. In general, each of these icons serves the same function -- to identify a place where one can relieve oneself, usually as segregated by gender (or, in the case of at least one of the icons, by species). That is, most of these photographs in the book contains one culture's method of denoting "Men's" and "Women's" on a restroom door. All of the representations are pictorial, though some also include words or letters (such as "WC" for "water closet"), and its here that the breakdown of clarity can be observed. The icons from Thailand, for instance, might be taken as rather humorous and somewhat naught pictures by outsiders, rather than being immediately…… [read more]

Deaf Marlee Matlin Research Proposal

… Deaf

Marlee Matlin is one of the most recognizable faces in the deaf community. An Oscar-winning actress, Matlin has also appeared on numerous television shows including the West Wing and Dancing with the Stars. Matlin has become a remarkable emblem for the deaf community: living proof that deaf stars can shine every bit as brightly as their hearing counterparts. However, Matlin's childhood was relatively uneventful. Her supportive parents enabled Matlin to feel comfortable in the mainstream world and in a variety of social situations. Matlin went to a mainstream summer camp and did not attend a deaf-only school. Her education was integrated and so was her social world, illustrating the importance of inclusion. Acording to Putz (2005), "Marlee's childhood world was unlimited." Marlee Matlin's family should therefore be credited for their role in helping shape her self-confidence and self-esteem. Family members and friends of deaf individuals can learn a lot from reading about Matlin, a role model for the deaf community.

Putz (2005) also notes that Marlee's family cultivated a sense of humor and a positive attitude. That sense of humor and lightheartedness tremendously helped Matlin feel confident enough to sign and sing aloud at a summer camp attended by mainly hearing kids. The experience was her first with performance, and Matlin said, "The more I signed, the more they smiled and clapped. It felt great! I wanted to do more of this stuff." The camp experience encouraged Marlee and her mom to pursue after-school programs at the Center on Deafness, (now known as ICODA, the International Center for Deafness and the Arts) (Putz 2005). At age 7, Matlin was cast as Dorothy in the center's production of the Wizard of Oz, and thus her acting career began in earnest. She started touring as a performer. A run-in with Henry Winkler inspired her further, even though Hollywood had yet to embrace deaf actors as a part of their community (Putz 2005).

Matlin won an Oscar for Best Actress in her performance in Children of a Lesser God. The award was meaningful on many levels: for Matlin personally as a sign of her success in the career of her choice, and also for the deaf community. Success in the hearing world -- and especially in an industry saturated with sound and verbal dialogue -- symbolized a transformation of ideals and ambitions. Aspiring deaf actors finally had a role model. Matlin's success also signified the progress made by deaf culture. Deaf culture could be recognized as part of American cultural discourse.

Matlin was invited to deliver an Oscar at the following year's Academy Awards ceremony. She signed the whole time, proudly using the primary language of the deaf community. However, Matlin then spoke out loud the names of the three nominees. Her speaking was perceived as a political faux pas by some parts of the deaf community: especially…… [read more]

Team Dynamics in and Adult Educational Environment Thesis

… Team Dynamics is an interesting and complex issue, precisely because it involves more than one person. Each human being is different in terms of psychological make-up and the abilities that they bring to team work. These abilities extend significantly beyond… [read more]

Discourse Analysis of Call Center Conversation Research Proposal

… ¶ … Conversation

Along the past recent decades, economic entities have suffered numerous mutations in the way they approach business partners, satisfy the customer, increase corporate profits or treat the employees. In the same time, their expectations have significantly increased.… [read more]

College Application Have Always Been Fascinated Term Paper

… College Application have always been fascinated with the way language and speech work for us. My interest in the field of linguistics and speech pathology led to me to acquire skills in three languages. While I am a mother and have the added responsibility of two young children, I still find myself highly motivated to work with people with special needs. In fact I would say that having my own children has made me even more determined to make a difference in the lives of young children with disabilities.

The decision to receive a degree in speech pathology did not come at random. I was exposed to the field when I was working as supervisor of services at mental retardation agency and then as office manager for a multi-practice doctor's office (Speech therapy, Occupational therapy, neurology, physical therapy, and internal medicine, psychology). But even then, I wouldn't say that the decision was made in a hurry or that I haven't thought about it.

I had been working for a degree in business administration when it occurred to me that my true commitment lies with the field of children with special needs. I realized that I would rather work with people who need me then for those that I need for my career advancement. This decision has prompted me to apply for a degree because even though I have a wealth of experience in the field, I feel that a degree is essential to open new doors of opportunities and will also broaden my horizons.

A may still lack some essential skills required for dealing with people of special needs. With a degree I expect to gain new skills and…… [read more]

Group Observation and Facilitation Critique Term Paper

… Meeting Facilitation

Instilling information and sharing ideas is essential in organizations in order to continue to improve, enhance job satisfaction and emphasize a team culture. It is expected that something will be accomplished through these meetings, whether it is comparing… [read more]

Instant Messaging and Interpersonal Relationships Term Paper

… Instant Messaging and Interpersonal Relationships

The popular growth of Instant messaging technology on the Internet has become a fact of life. The ease of use and the immediacy that instant messaging offers has resulted in it's almost wholesale adoption for… [read more]

Sago Mining Crisis Term Paper

… Sago Mining Crisis began with when a coal mine explosion occurred on January 2, 2006 in the Sago Mine of Sago, West Virginia. The blast and resulting cave-in of the mine trapped thirteen miners for two days. In the end,… [read more]

Assistive Medical Devices Term Paper

… Assistive Medical Devices

Computerized assistive device for Cerebral Palsy sufferers

Cerebral Palsy can be an extremely debilitating disease. This disease is described as a ".... non-progressive disorder of movement resulting from damage to the brain before the age of three years..." (Jones P.E.). The term cerebral palsy refers in fact to a palsy or weakness of muscle control which is a result of damage to the brain. There are varying degrees of this brain damage and levels of severity in the impairment to muscular and movement coordination in patients. The effects of Cerebral Palsy can range therefore from relatively mild impediments to total incapacity of the body. The causes of these diseases have been attributed to various factors including viruses to more physical constraints on the development of the brain. (Jones E.P.) central problem that many sufferers of this disease experience is the inability to communicate coherently. Healthy social relationships and related issues of self-esteem and self-image are largely based on the ability to communicate correctly with others. In severe cases of Cerebral Palsy the patients are often nonverbal or have severe speech impediments making communication with others extremely difficult.

Augmentative communication devices as well as assistive devices have therefore been developed to help Cerebral Palsy patients and sufferers of other diseases that retard communication skills. The most useful and effective of these devices are those that are computer operated.

In this regard speech synthesis devices are the most well-known of the computer assisted applications that are available. An example of speech synthesis is the device that the famous physicist Stephen Hawking, who has Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, uses to communicate.

He is able to hold lectures and answer questions from students by crafting his responses with his device. It then speaks his words aloud for him. There is a delay involved in this communication, but that seems a small price to pay to be able to tell the world just what you are thinking..."


This is an example of…… [read more]

Emergency Management -- Risk Perception Identify Term Paper

… Emergency Management -- Risk Perception

Identify some avenues of risk perception and communication. Also, identify potential impediments to effective risk perception and communication, and how they may be overcome.

One person's risk may be another person's adrenaline high, as is evidenced by the popularity of skydiving, smoking, and also the variability of fears in any given society. Thus risk analysis cannot be based in personal emotion alone, as the emotional perceptions of risk vary greatly from individual to individual. Broadly defined, risk is the possibility of adverse consequences. Risk is predicted in terms "of the likelihood that an event of a given magnitude will occur at a given location within a given time period" and describes the expected consequences that the event will inflict on persons, property, and social functioning" (83).

Some risks happen suddenly, others only over time. An effort addressing the imminent threat of an extreme event is referred to as a warning and designed to produce an emergency response, like evacuating before a hurricane. A risk communication program raises hazard awareness about long-term risks that may not be immediately obvious, like the dangers of eating transfats or global warming (86)

To persuade people of the need to guard their lives against risk, the classical persuasion model dispenses information from an authoritative source, with a clear message,…… [read more]

Walk Down the Busy City Street Essay

… ¶ … walk down the busy city street. It is a beautiful day, 70 degrees, clear, blue sky. The early morning sun is beginning to shine down for warmth and comfort. The jackets will come off. The shorts will be… [read more]

Adult Male Stutterer Term Paper

… Adult Male Stutterer

An Analysis of the Incidence, Treatment and Implications of Stuttering for the Adult Male

Stuttering is virtually universal in all societies, but it remains fairly rare with only about one percent of the world's population suffering from… [read more]

How Do You Communicate With Others? Term Paper

… Communication is a deceptively simple element of human life. When considering the definition of the word, people often associate it with simply talking to one another. However, according to Sarah Fenson, it is not that simple. Indeed, communication is more than just a verbal exchange. Effective communication is also about a mutual understanding of the meaning behind words. In addition, there are non-verbal cues that need to be interpreted and understood to ensure that message is carried across effectively.

Further complicating effective communication, according to Fenson, is negative emotions such as fear, anger, or frustration. These emotions make it difficult to communicate ideas or be understood accurately, because they make a person less skillful in the art of communication. Furthermore, these emotions are often hidden, and as such, others perceive angry, frustrated or fearful people simply as difficult to communicate with.

To eradicate this problem, Fenson suggests emotional self-management. If a person is difficult to communicate with because of one of the above-mentioned negative emotions, it is likely that he or she will want to lash out before communicating the deeper issue at hand. In this event, Fenson recommends remaining calm, counting to ten, and letting the person vent until the underlying issue is reached. Once this occurs, the issue can be handled in a more appropriate manner. The secret is not to let one's own emotions become involved with the negativity of the other person. In such a case, emotional management is the key to successful communication. A further way of communicating calmly with such a person is to respond rather than react to irritating utterances. Ms. Fenson suggests asking questions or sympathetic responses rather than defensive reactions.

Another very effective way of breaking down the barriers built up by persons who make communication difficult, is asking questions. According to Jamie Walters, the skill of effective questioning is extremely important in the communication exercise, as it demonstrates effective listening. Only by listening skillfully can the conversation move forward to levels that help the participants reach their goals. According to Fenson, it is interesting to note that people find it more important to feel that they are heard and understood than to feel that listeners agree with them. Questioning is a very good way to communicate this sense of understanding. In short, a good listener asks good questions. According to Walters, questioning not only demonstrates that the hearer is actually listening, but conversely also helps the hearer to listen more closely to what is said. As such, Walters suggests making the decision to ask questions before the conversation takes place. This prepares the conversationalist to ask effective questions and, to listen more closely and to lead the person who is difficult to communicate with to a concomitantly more effective way of communicating their own ideas. As such, the conversation can prove beneficial to both participants.

Both Fenson and Walters emphasize the…… [read more]

Scholars Such as Brown ) and Osborne Essay

… ¶ … scholars such as Brown (1992) and Osborne and Rose (1997), new disciplines develop and wane in interest due to the cultural practices and beliefs that sustain them. Therefore, psychology and sociology grew as a discipline in the 1800s because of the evolution of trends in society and culture. However, in the 20th century, many scholars and universities of learning debated about where to place communications, since this field has been steadily growing in relevance in most cultures. If it is to be studied as a discipline, should it fall under Humanities, Social Sciences, or Science and Technology and can it be held to the statistical scientific research of validity and reliability?

However, as can be seen through these essays in our book, communication is by no means unidirectional or only involved with one form of society or culture. Instead, it is a cross and interrelated discipline. The field's inherent communication can better be understood as a process or a procedure that consists of other disciplines such as psychology, politics, society, technology and economics. It also connects different disciplines, such as the technical and social, as when looking at how something such as television impacts Western society. or, for example, the influence of the media has made the field of communication be multi-dimensional, so it is not just a sociology, psychology or humanities area. It is too difficult to define it as existing by itself as an independent, isolated field of study.

This reinforces the thought of individuals such as J. Peters who stress the need to stop worrying about where communication falls within in the six social sciences and be more concerned about the need to reorganize information so it makes sense for today's world that does not have clearly defined academic boundaries. This should promote communication among the various disciplines, something that is very much needed due to the increasing complexity of the world.

With James Carey's ritual model of communication, there are specific steps that take place. First is the ceremony that occurs with the participants. It is a ceremony that is created and recreated in order to be a…… [read more]

Humans Use to Communicate Term Paper

… ¶ … humans use to communicate and how what we say, and of equal importance, what we do, as we attempt to convey our thoughts, ideas and expressions to others, is done through a variety of actions and words that are integrated simultaneously into everyday communications. The paper will also discuss how communication content and relationships (either perceived or real) effect the way we communicate.

Main Points

Comparison of content and relationship

This topic discusses how all communications have a content and relationship dimension. DeVito says; "Communications....refer to the real world or something external (content) to both speaker and hearer....communications also refer to the relationship between the parties." (DeVito 54). In many of the journal entries throughout the last few months, this researcher has discovered that communicating with others is oftentimes based not on what is said, or even how it is said, but on the perceived relationship(s) between the speaker and the listener (or vice versa).

Two - How human communications are defined by both digital and analogical information

This topic discusses how humans make use of both digital and analogical information is used in communicating. It will also discuss how analogical methods are geared towards the way we speak; inflection, etc., and how digital communicating is mostly concerned with the words and sentences we use to communicate. A recent study showed verbal communications can have different dimensions stating; "task-focused and socio-emotional dimensions of clinical communication is recognizable in the verbal communication context of prosthetic dentistry, as well as if there are other dimensions of communication in that context." (Sondell 157).

Three - How do symmetrical and complementary relationships affect how we communicate.

This topic discussed how two individuals can mirror their behaviors to communicate as well as how two individuals can exhibit different behaviors in the quest for good communications.…… [read more]

Experiential Learning Term Paper

… Body language tells me much more than words that are said.

In many cases, I agree or accept Shannon's measurable and mathematical theory of communication because many things must be objectively, clearly and simply established. But most of all, I find Berlo's therapeutic communication of the greatest value in my nursing practice. I realize the need to form healing relationships with my clients, although these relationships are limited by time, goal-oriented and unequally shared. They last only as long as the client is in the setting, the common goal is his well-being, and my input has to be much more than his or hers. Nevertheless, that is my discipline and my career itself. The relationships I form and will continue to form and the content of the relationships must always accrue to fostering a healing environment for my clients.#


1. Kelly, C. (1997). David Kolb, The Theory of Experiential Learning and ESL. The Internet TESL Journal, volume III number 9.

2. Kirby, E. (2003). Ray L. Birdwhistell. Emuseum: Minnesota State University.

3. New York University. (2005). Claude Shannon.

4. Plattsburgh. (2005). Berlo Therapeutic Theory.… [read more]

Workplace Diversity Before Speaking With John Term Paper

… Workplace Diversity

Before speaking with John I would like to gather a little more information regarding the incidents reported. What exactly did John say, and under what circumstances?

Then I would start with some working assumptions: that John has the potential to become a valued employee who can work cooperatively and effectively with all people in the police station and that John is not overtly prejudiced against groups of people.

Next, I would conduct an informal interim evaluation with John about how his transition into his new job is going. This would serve several purposes. As we proceed through the discussion, I can gauge John's overall reactions to open discussions of skills and constructive criticism. I would pick an informal setting, perhaps at lunch, so the setting would reflect my goal of two-way communication and not a top-down approach where a supervisor is talking to and not with an employee.

When discussing interpersonal communications, I would ask John how this job compares to other jobs he has had. It is possible that this is John's first experience working closely with people from other cultural backgrounds. If this is the case, he may not realize that some of the things he has said aren't…… [read more]

Gregory Bateson, Second-Order Cybernetics, and Metacommunication: Human Term Paper

… Gregory Bateson, Second-order Cybernetics, And Metacommunication: Human Communication Analysis Based on Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, And Group Interaction

The development of communication studies in the latter part of 20th century brought into fore important concepts and discoveries about the nature of human… [read more]

Metacommunication in Gregory Bates' "A Theory Essay

… Metacommunication

In Gregory Bates' "A theory of play and fantasy," he emphasized the importance of the concept "metacommunication" in studying interactions and their meanings between or among communicators within a specific social context. Bates explicated in his essay how metacommunication occurs in an interaction, which he identified and termed as "play." He defined metacommunication as "exchanging of signals which would carry the message 'this is play'," which meant that it is the understanding of meanings implicit within each communication act or play. In effect, metacommunication is present when the communicators are able to understand the meaning of a play or communication act in a particular social context. Inability to distinguish the true meaning of this communication act -- that is, failure to achieve understanding and generate the meaning of the play -- means that metacommunication is absent and was not achieved by the communicators.

Metacommunication is vital because it allows observers and communicators participating in a communication act distinguish the kind of play or interaction taking place. Observers can only understand whether communicators are arguing or joking only if they are aware of the context or situation from which the interaction took place. If an argument ensued as a result of a misunderstanding from a communicator's joke, then clearly, there had been a lack of metacommunication between them: the recipient of the joke clearly took it from an altogether different context, offending the other communicator, thereby eliciting feelings of anger from him/her. What this example illustrates is that it is important for communicators and observers to identify the "rules" or the communication styles of each communicator in order to determine whether they are still joking or embarking towards a heated argument due to a misunderstanding.

Utilizing Bates' discussion on metacommunication, this concept is better explained when…… [read more]

Clt Comm Identity and Intercultural Term Paper

… These forces relate to intercultural communication because they establish the foundation from which the communication happens in the first place. These forces also evolve over time. For instance the role of women in the workplace and at home has changed do to equal rights and equal pay legislation in the United States. Today woman are professionals as well as wives and mothers.

As one explores the notion of identity, one must also keep in mind the concept of identity development varies from culture to culture. In fact, each culture creates its own foundation and value system regardless of society. For instance, the Hispanic culture is family centered and traditional with respect to the roles of women. It is also a very religious culture. It is important to remember that in order for an intercultural communication to place, each person participating must be respectful of the other's culture. By having knowledge of culture and any differences that may exist, only then can the parties truly open the dialogue. Much of the unrest that exists in today's world has resulted from a lack of true respect and inability to talk on equal ground. Still it is difficult to erase the preconceived notions that defined identity before birth. Only by recognizing factors can one move into a state open communication with another culture.


This paper briefly explored the concept of identity as it relates to intercultural communication. Factors like age, gender, race, religion, class and culture that help determine one's point-of-view when communicating. The paragraphs above explored how these factors influence communication across cultures. Study of these factors is important as the world becomes a smaller place for business due to new technologies and a global culture is invented.… [read more]

Compare and Contrast Adolescents 16 19 to Senior Adults Over the Age 60 Term Paper

… Young adults have stronger, more flexible and enduring bodies that can perceive more sharply and process more information for quicker response even in a complicated environment than senior adults. These young ones are also more easily won by external rewards… [read more]

Formatting Choices Term Paper

… ¶ … efficient mode of communication because in just a few seconds, a recipient can receive what is sent to him.

Flow Chart - this is useful because it helps in explaining processes in a step-by-step method.

Powerpoint Presentations - this is useful for presentation because it allows interaction with the presentor. Moreover, the ability of Powerpoint to provide graphics and colors can promote interest to the audience.

this is useful in delivering both detailed and general information.

Specifications - allows the delivery of efficient and quality tasks

Quick Reference Docs - allows a quick delivery of information

Gantt Charts - allows proper scheduling of tasks and promotes discipline

Manuals - this is useful because it can answer questions that users may have

Usability Test and Report - eliminates errors (i.e. In UAT of system) and allows the delivery of quality products

Schematic Diagram - this is useful because it delivers information in an organized manner (i.e.…… [read more]

Physical Anthropology Culture Term Paper

… Cochlear Implants

To many hearing people, the controversy surrounding cochlear implants seems odd. After all, the implants can enable an otherwise deaf person to function in the hearing world. The implants might not be a cure and they do not help all deaf persons, but they do restore a considerable amount of the lost sense. Nevertheless, many deaf persons "deem the implants unnecessary, oppressive, and emotionally risky," (Nevala). In fact, for many deaf people, cochlear implants a "death knell for deaf culture," and even view them as "genocide," (Nevala). These strong sentiments stem from the fact that deaf culture thrives because it provides a strong, vibrant community from which a deaf person derives considerable social support and psychological strength. The implants, according to some deaf persons, threaten to undermine the integrity of the deaf community. However, far from being a death knell for the deaf community, cochlear implants can offer improved communications, safety, and functioning in the hearing world; rather than undermine deaf culture, the implants can enhance it and increase its diversity.

The implant, which is surgically inserted into the ear, bypasses the malfunctioning portion of the inner ear and creates the electrical impulses necessary for hearing. Many parents of deaf children are opting to implant their children at a young age, one of the reasons the implants are causing such a stir. Opponents to the technology believe that these children will never be exposed or introduced into deaf culture, and that their parents are stealing away an essential part of their identities. Opponents to the implants also believe that being deaf is not a disability so much as it is an identity.

However, for many deaf persons, the implants are a boon; they will contribute to, not detract from deaf culture. Michael L. Pierschalla noticed that the implant not only helped him to hear; it also helped him to listen. When he was totally deaf, he would actually talk more; his inability to hear caused the man to pay attention less to his friends and loved ones when they spoke. The implant enriched his relationships, both those with hearing and hearing-impaired persons. Moreover, he remarks how the implant greatly contributes to the safety and well-being of the deaf, who…… [read more]

Body Language Analysis Found the Quiz Term Paper

… Body Language Analysis found the quiz to be very enlightening. While I managed to answer many of the first few questions correctly, my accuracy level faded for the last few. It was easy to discern that wearing a plain shirt would be less distracting than a patterned one during the course of communication. It was interesting to find out how people lie. I had always assumed that many people tell white lies in the course of communication but was not aware the level with which lying could influence body language. It would be interesting to conduct a study to see just how accurately an ordinary person could predict lying just by observing body language cues.

I was surprised to find that smell was the most directly emotional of senses. I had no idea that smell could serve to relax or excite a person. I was also somewhat surprised to find that side by side communication is more conducive to friendly banter than face-to-face communication. It seems that in modern day society more and more people communicate by speaking face-to-face rather than by speaking side by side. The quiz truly enlightened my perspective however and caused me to think about the manner in which I communicate with others.

Understanding body language can be an essential component of a business environment and relationship. When you are working with other people it is important to acknowledge not only what they say with words but also what they say with their body. It would be interesting to observe people's body language cues for a day to attempt to discern which individuals were engaged in successful communication vs. those that were either distracted, disinterested or even lying.

A business person that is able to interpret body language can excel in communication. They would have the ability to discern when their audience is generally interested in what they have to say or whether they are feeling some other emotion related to the information being shared.

One aspect of the business environment where interpretation of body language is critical is during a presentation. A speaker has many opportunities to share a message with his/her audience by using body language. Likewise a speaker can interpret the audiences reception of his/her message by paying attention to certain body language cues the audience gives off. A presentation may be in the form of a formal speech to an audience of peers or may be in the form of a management communication to employees. Regardless of the forum that a presentation occurs in, it is critical that the presenter consider the audience's body language as well as their own during the communication process. This quiz…… [read more]

Commonplace: "You Always Admire Term Paper

… Further, communicating through the written word also means allowing for a time lapse in any expected response even if it is through the more instantaneous channels of email and mobile text messages. Thus, it is evident that speaking is, by… [read more]

Firefighter Oral Exam L. Jones Term Paper

… What do you know about this department?

8. What are your hobbies?

9. What are your strengths and weaknesses?

10. Are you employed? What would your current employer say about you?

11. What makes a good firefighter?

12. What do you think about drinking or drugs on the job?

13. What about stealing?

14. Are you immediately available?

15. What are your career goals within the department?

16. What are the most important aspects of a good firefighter?

17. How would you deal with conflict with another employee or firefighter?

18. How would you deal with a distraught or irate citizen?

19. How would you deal with an employee crisis during an emergency?

20. What are your views about sexual harassment?

21. What are your views about racial discrimination?

22. What do you do with conflicting orders during an emergency?

23. How would you deal with an order that could place you in great danger or is morally wrong?

24. What if you are unsure about a question?

25. Have you applied to any other departments? Which would you choose if you were called? (If more than one).

26. Have you ever been in an emergency situation before? What was it and how did you deal with it?

27. What single word would best describe you positively? What about negatively?

28. How do you deal with conflict?

29. Why should we select you? What do you possess that others might not? 30. 30.Do you have anything you might want to tell us in closing?

In Conclusion: It's About You.

Although the above questions are just guidelines to what you might expect, it is essential to remember that the questions are designed to bring out your personal qualities -- to give the panel a sense of just who you are. Practice answering these kinds of questions, and practice letting your genuine love of firefighting show.

Be genuine, enthusiastic, confident,…… [read more]

Social Psychology Smiling and Head Term Paper

… After rapport is established and grows, we might not feel the need to present ourselves in such a perfect light, and feel more comfortable, so we can give off nonverbal clues that we are more comfortable and secure in the relationship. "Nonverbal behavior, as a particularly powerful medium of affective communication, would be a key element in the mediation and emergence of feelings of rapport between participants" (Tickle-Degnen and Rosenthal 288). Many nonverbal clues signal a growing rapport between individuals and groups, including "movement among the limbs of the body, shifts in posture, fluctuations in facial expressions, and so on" (Tickle-Degnen and Rosenthal 288). As rapport grows, so does the familiarity with nonverbal communication and nonverbal clues of intimacy and knowledge.

The study concluded that nonverbal communication and rapport go hand in hand, and are extremely important in developing meaningful and lasting relationships among individuals and groups.

The third article discusses teaching nonverbal communication by using the Interpersonal Perception Task (IPT). This study acknowledges the importance of the study of nonverbal communication in psychology and sociology. "Nonverbal behavior discloses critical information about emotions and relationships. Even barely perceptible nonverbal behaviors can have interpretable meaning -- for example, we can recognize a person's facial expressions of emotion from as little as a 1/24th-s exposure" (Costanzo 223). Nonverbal communication can only occur between individuals or groups, it cannot happen in isolation, and nonverbal communication can be even more important than verbal communication in many ways.

The IPT uses photos, as the smiling study did. Participants view photos and then are asked questions about what they have seen. While the scenes contain verbal communication, they also contain nonverbal movement and clues, and there are specific answers for each scene. "The IPT challenges viewers to identify the right answer to each question by using the broad range of communication present in each scene (e.g., facial expressions, words, tones of voice, hesitations, eye movements, gestures, personal space, posture, and touching)" (Costanzo 224). The IPT is extremely useful in assessing how viewers perceive and react to nonverbal communication, and to point out the differences between verbal and nonverbal communication. Teachers can evaluate their students, discover how they react to nonverbal clues and mannerisms, and understand that everyone reacts a little differently to these clues.

Facial expressions, gestures, and other nonverbal behaviors usually occur along with words and act to change the perceived meaning of words. In many cases, however, nonverbal acts have independent meaning. It is easy to use the IPT to demonstrate the power of this "silent language." Scenes can be shown with the audio level on the TV monitor turned off. Students can use the cues they have available (e.g., facial behavior, gestures, eye contact, touching) to answer the questions (Costanzo 224).

Students do not receive their total scores, and evaluation is done by the teachers and concentrates on the behavior and interpretation, not "right" or "wrong" answers.

In conclusion, all three articles focus on different and unique forms of nonverbal communication; however, they… [read more]

International Management Is Affected Term Paper

… It can be a valuable learning experience in which all parties involved come away with a better understanding of how international communication works and what it needs to make it run more smoothly.


The need to communicate internationally is becoming a top priority as the world continues to globalize. There are current movements to adopt a universal language in the future to ease the difficulty in which communication internationally is currently struggling. Even if an international language is adopted and promoted there will still be cultural differences in the way communication takes place. It is important to the industry of international management that cultural differences as well as language barriers be taken into account when it comes to communicating effectively on an international level.


____(1997). Business communication across borders. (barriers to pan-European business)., The European, pp 41(1).

____(1999). A once-in-a-lifetime Apec opportunity., Sunday Star Times (New Zealand), pp 8.


____(2001). Daewoo Motor Staff Engrossed in English Learning., The Korea Times (Seoul, S. Korea.

____(1997). Exploring management across the world., M2 PressWIRE,.

Helgadottir, Birna (1994). Glosa gathers support to become global tongue. (international language)., The European, pp 22(1).

Leaper, Norm (1996). International communication: beyond words. (part two). Vol. 13, Communication World, pp 33(3).

Lindsay, Mark (2001). Mark Lindsay Joins Comdial as Vice President of Business Development., Business Wire.

McCormack, Mark (1996). Operating under the illusion…… [read more]

Communicative Processes of Humans Term Paper

… Humans also have other ways of communicating other than the use of words, by the development of writing man has been able to put this thoughts and ideas onto paper, therefore forming a secondary and for some a primary form of communication.

Man also has the ability and the cognitive approaches to set other style of communicative processes through his mind, such as the ability to dream.

However this is not to say that primates do not have the same cognitive abilities to dream and think, their abilities although have not fully been tested in a comparison to humans yet still primates have a unique sense and keenness too learn and function in similar method to mimics. It must be asked that if chimpanzees are left in a human environment without any formal or scientific teaching would they actually become humanlike.

Animals and humans are unique creatures, the euphemism "dumb animal" should never be used when discussing any form of animal for all have their own unique way of communication, even a cat when it rubs itself up against the leg of its owner is communicating its pleasure or desire for comfort, therefore in a contrast and comparison between human and non-human communication it is fare to say that although there are no formal words that humans understand, animals do speak and communicate in their…… [read more]

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