Study "Computers / IT / Internet" Essays 661-715

X Filters 

Justifying Research Methods and Design Research Paper

… The approaches in this mixed methods research are as follows: (a) The qualitative component of the proposed research will use a Delphi survey to obtain deep and broad information about the potential for cyberattacks occurrence; and (b) the quantitative component… [read more]


Microsoft Antitrust Case Antitrust Practices Research Paper

… Critics, however allege that the settlement still did little to erode Microsoft's monopoly in a meaningful fashion.

It should be noted that Microsoft had many defenders, who alleged that having such a large company that could operate on an economy of scale enabled prices to be lower for consumers: in the pre-Microsoft era, PCs were an expensive luxury item but that is no longer the case. However, the problem remains that Windows still has a monopoly as an operating system. Even though Apple has 'bested' Microsoft in the music and phone categories, it cannot unseat Windows. In fact, Apple transitioned to Intel processors in 2006 primarily to enable Mac users to run Windows. Mac users were 'out of step' with the rest of the computing world (which is still dominated by PCs) until they were able to do this (Good to know, 2012, Apple).

Fundamentally, Microsoft is not a beneficial, controlled monopoly, such as the highly regulated government monopolies over natural gas, in which the economies of scale and the scarcity of resources make such monopolies advantageous for consumers. Pre-Microsoft (and pre-Apple), the computer market was highly diverse and innovative. But because systems need to be compatible, major companies like Microsoft now dominate the market and despite all of the problems Windows users may have, the need to be able to operate Windows ensures that Microsoft has a captive audience of consumers. The only answer may be additional regulation, since it seems impossible to put the Windows 'genie' back in the bottle and create a perfectly competitive marketplace.

References

Good to know: Windows on a Mac. (2012). Apple. Retrieved:

http://store.apple.com/us/browse/guide/windows

Lohr, Steve. (1998). Ruling on Microsoft shows a fault line in antitrust theory. The New York

Times. Retrieved: http://www.lexisnexis.com.proxy.devry.edu/hottopics/lnacademic/

Lohr, Steve. (1998). U.S. v. Microsoft: The case. Ruling on Microsoft shows a fault line in antitrust theory. The New York Times. Retrieved:

http://www.lexisnexis.com.proxy.devry.edu/hottopics/lnacademic/

Romano, Benjamin J. (2007). Reports clash on Microsoft's antitrust settlement. Seattle Times.

Retrieved: http://seattletimes.com/html/microsoft/2003861478_microsoft31.html… [read more]


Scientific Method Scenario Term Paper

… Experiments must be designed to test only the question on which the hypothesis is based otherwise it is not an appropriate experiment (Popper 2003). They must also be designed to minimize errors so that the data received from the test is accurate. Also be aware of potential biases in the tests which could influence the results.

To test this hypothesis, a person could go to the neighbors and try to see if their power as also out.

Step 5: Analyze Your Data and Draw a Conclusion:

During an experiment, the researchers look for both qualitative and quantitative data. Analysis requires the scientist examining the results of the test and figuring out what they mean. The hypothesis that was formed before the test is compared to the final results. From there, the hypothesis is thus proven false or proven to be true. If the original hypothesis is shown to be untrue, then a new hypothesis must be formed.

If it appears that none of the houses have power, the hypothesis is likely correct and the person should wait for the problem to be repaired. If some of the houses do not appear to have power but others do, then there is likely something wrong with the individual person's property.

Step 6: Communicate Your Results:

Use some means of reporting the information that has been learned through the scientific experiment.

If the lights are not on in other houses, then no action is necessary. If the problem is only in the person's house, then they should call the power company to report the problem and see what is going on.

Scenario 2: Trouble with an appliance, car, or electronic devise

Devise a Problem:

A person goes to turn on their laptop computer, presses the button, but the computer does not turn on. They try again and find that it will still not turn on. No power is going on in the laptop computer and the computer might be broken.

Ask a Question:

Why will the laptop computer not turn on?

Do Background Research:

Read the manual that came with the laptop computer and make sure you understand all of the instructions.

Construct a Hypothesis:

The laptop computer is not turning on because it is unplugged and the battery has drained.

Test with an Experiment:

Check the plug and plug it in to the wall socket, then press the power button on the laptop computer again.

Analyze Your Data:

The laptop computer is now on and the icon in the lower right-hand corner shows that the battery is now charging and was at 0% before, proving the hypothesis correct.

Communicate Your Results:

The person calls a friend and tells them the story of how they thought their computer might have been broken only to realize that it was not plugged in the entire time and that the battery had died.

Works Cited:

Harris, W. (2012). How the scientific method works. Retrieved from http://science.howstuffworks.com/innovation/scientific-experiments/scientific-method.htm

Helmenstine, A. (2012). Scientific method steps: learn the steps of… [read more]


Product or Services Promotion Research Paper

… Product Promotion

The computer tablet industry uses two main approaches to promoting the product. The first is by focusing on the benefits of the product and the second is through price competition. The tablet industry is huge, so there is extensive marketing through a number of different channels. A variety of media outlets with conventional advertising are utilized, including television commercials. This form of promotion typically focuses on the utility that the consumer gets from the tablet. Spots usually have users performing a wide variety of tasks -- all done effortlessly -- in an attempt to communicate the benefits of the tablet. Other media ads, for example in print, will focus on a combination of features and pricing.

In communicating the benefits of the tablet, manufacturers need to take care to differentiate them from other personal electronic devices. For example, a tablet is similar to a smartphone, but the company needs to differentiate between the two in terms of functionality in order to convince the customer to buy both (O'Reilly, 2012). Most companies also want to differentiate their tablets from their laptops as well, again by illustrating the unique features of the tablet relative to these other devices.

Distribution channels are a key factor in the promotion of tablets. Generally, tablets come with some sort of data plan. The manufacturers of the tablets work with the telecommunications companies to market the tablets, because the customer must purchase a data plan to go with the tablet. This approach to marketing helps the manufacturers of the tablets increase the number of points-of-sale dramatically. In addition, customers may have loyalty to a certain provider. Samsung, for example, has made a point to work will all major telecoms in the U.S. On smartphones, whereas Apple started with just at&T. Samsung has a greater market share than Apple today.

The promotional objectives of the tablet companies are to build market share. At present, the industry is…… [read more]


Technologies That Are Readily Available Essay

… It does this by utilizing frequencies that are not used by a voice telephone call. A splitter, or DSL filter, allows a single telephone connection to be used for both ADSL service and voice calls at the same time. ADSL can generally only be distributed over short distances from the central office, typically less than 4 kilometres (2 mi) but has been known to exceed 8 kilometres (5 mi) if the originally laid wire gauge allows for farther distribution.

At the telephone exchange the line generally terminates at a Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM) where another frequency splitter separates the voice band signal for the conventional phone network. Data carried by the ADSL are typically routed over the telephone company's data network and eventually reach a conventional Internet Protocol network.

Currently, most ADSL communication is full-duplex. Full-duplex ADSL communication is usually achieved on a wire pair by either frequency-division duplex (FDD), echo-cancelling duplex (ECD), or time-division duplex (TDD). FDD uses two separate frequency bands, referred to as the upstream and downstream bands. The upstream band is used for communication from the end user to the telephone central office. The downstream band is used for communicating from the central office to the end user. -- [5] [6]

ITU-T Spec

Description

G.998.1

ATM-based multi-pair bonding: A method for bonding of multiple DSL lines to transport an ATM payload beyond the rate/reach capability of a single DSL loop. This protocol allows the bonding of 2 to 32 pairs and supports dynamic removal and restoration of pairs without human intervention.

G.998.2

Ethernet-based multi-pair bonding: Provides a method for bonding of multiple DSL lines for Ethernet transport. This recommendation builds on the IEEE 802.3ah-2004 methods and extends Ethernet transport over other xDSL technologies, including ADSL.

G.998.3

Multi-pair bonding using time-division inverse multiplexing: Details a method for bonding DSL lines using time-division inverse multiplexing (TDIM). This recommendation uses IEEE 802.3ah handshake for pair discovery, parameter negotiation, and setup. It also allows the hitless addition and removal of pairs an the fast removal of a pair upon pair failure.

There many other ISP's in telecommunication industry who provide DSL Internet connections mainly as, [i] Verizon high speed internet - http://www22.verizon.com/Residential/HighSpeedInternet#plans [ii] Qwest DSL - http://www.qwest.com/residential/internet/broadbandlanding/

References:

1. http://www.*****/viewpaper/93331.html

2. http://itknowledgeexchange.techtarget.com/itanswers/what-is-the-difference-between-atm-and-frame-relay-networks/

3. http://www.*****/viewpaper/43194.html

4. http://som.csudh.edu/cis/lpress/471/hout/telecomhistory/

5. http://webopedia.internet.com/TERM/A/ADSL.html

6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asymmetric_Digital_Subscriber_Line

7. http://www22.verizon.com/Residential/HighSpeedInternet#plans

8. http://www.qwest.com/residential/internet/broadbandlanding/

Page 2 of 5… [read more]


Can a Machine Be Conscious or Sentient Term Paper

… Artificial Intelligence

Machine Sentience

The differences between thinking, intelligence, and consciousness are difficult to determine, but are important to understand when one wishes to study the subject of Artificial Intelligence. Thinking is simply the action of gathering information and processing thoughts in order to reach a reasoned conclusion. This is an action that is seen from small animals to large, in humans, as well as computers. Intelligence, on the other hand, is the ability to make self-aware decisions in order to advance one's own knowledge. Only human beings hold intelligence at this moment in time. Intelligence is, however, something that many believe will be achievable by machines in the future. Finally, Consciousness is the state of being 'aware', which means understanding one's own place amongst one's surroundings. Animals and humans can be conscious, but computers cannot, as of yet.

Machines will indeed gain conscious awareness in the future, and may even be capable of near-human-like thought. (Lohr, 2012) Machines will never think in the same way as humans, however, and will have a completely different way of thinking that may be difficult to understand in the present time. For example, how does a computer's lack of a need of sleep, food, sensation, or death affect its thoughts? This will be an intriguing question to answer once artificial intelligence becomes more advanced in the coming years. Estimation for the first true signs of an artificial intelligence are about 20 years from now, or around 2030. (Bonn, 2012) by this time, computers will have grown more intelligent and AI software will be more advanced, although many new discoveries will have to be made in order to actually have intelligence rather than simply stronger processing power.

Cleverbot or another chatbot being able to fool human beings into believing they are interacting with real humans Is…… [read more]


Jose Y Gasset Essay

… He was withdrawing from the vaunted secluded, contemplative life those philosophers such as Aristotle called the height of happiness. And he was losing himself into conformity; into becoming one of the herd.

This, I think, may be one of the key differences between computer / technology and books. One that I received an inkling of during Hurricane Sandy. The internet brings us into collusion with Others. The web, e-mail, chatgroups, social media, and so forth -- the definition of the Internet is one where we are interacting with the 'world wide web'. Books, on the other hand, serve as an encounter with another mind, but it is a patient, more solitary, more reflective encounter where we can turn to and turn away at our will, read, close the book, pencil it, and write words in the margin. We can voluntarily close our computer too, but it may be the physical involvement with the book -- underlining words, writing on the pages, feeling the pages, not being distracted by flickering images and the pressure of time that is inherent in the Internet that enables us to better absorb the book.

Media theorist Mark Crispin Miller observed that we cannot see the role that television plays in our lives since it has, by sheer omnipresence, dwarfed our existence and woven itself into our reality: The only way that we can gain an encounter with reality I s by disassociation from virtual reality. Take its term: 'virtual reality' already tells you that this is no true reality and that its outcome, at worst, will simply turn you into a person severed from life. Genuine encounter with true life can be literally life-transforming.

This is what happened to me. For the first time last week, I was able to curl on the floor and, by candlelight, browse a book. It was peaceful. It was clam. Somehow, I felt like a monk of the middle Ages. And I liked the idea.

Source

Bikerts, S. Into the Electronic Millennium . Boston Review

http://bostonreview.net/BR16.5/birkerts.html… [read more]


Web Analysis of the David Essay

… This is imperative because it gives the user the powers of downloading as well as printing the finding aid using dissimilar formats such as PDF or XML. The finding aid used by Rubenstein has seven sections including the descriptive summary, administrative information, bibliographical note, collection overview, subject headings, related materials and the contents of the collections. This paper evaluates the finding aid called inventory of the bill and it contains nineteen items. The finding aid is essential to researchers because it offers related materials to the information, which enables the researcher to know where to search next. After analyzing Rubenstein Library finding aid, it will be helpful for the library to consider setting up more user-oriented feeling within the finding aid (Duke University Libraries 2011).

Does the website clearly explain the methods of contacting the institution for additional information about the collection, even if a researcher does not come to the website through the "front" page?

It is essential for the library to offer an area from which the user can contact them while accessing the online material. On the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book and Manuscript Library website, the contact part is on the far right of the website, below the listed hours. The section offers the postal address, email, phone number and fax. Furthermore, the section provides information concerning the administrative office, and ways of locating information regarding the staff members. This is important because conducted research indicates that in modern society, researchers sent their questions using fax and telephone.

How might a user find these tools? Are these finding aids in an institutional database? On the other hand, are they findable on the open web?

In this analysis, conduction of the research was by using both Google and Bing search. Placing photographs of Richard S. Buswell in the search engine gives out the location of dissimilar finding aids for the library. For example, in Google search, results were 636000 items and the appearances showed three links. On the other side, placing the same information in the Bing search required some modifications to the question and the results for appearance was zero. The results obtained after using Google and Bing search implies that outside users can access the finding aids of the library by using general search engines (Duke University Libraries 2011).

Question in the analysis

After analyzing the library website, the user can realize that the notable section of virtual exhibits is extremely beneficial. This is so because they are accessible through exhibits link or narrowing it down to the virtual exhibits. Even the online exhibits are always at the bottom of the list, the library enhanced their accessibility by offering links to use. Furthermore, it provided relevant information on the topic (Duke University Libraries 2011).

Conclusion

The analysis revealed that Rubenstein library contains a massive quantity of collections implying some possibilities for the library not have finding aids for all collections. This is so because it requires time and money to catalogue the massive number of… [read more]


Databases and Regulatory Compliance Research Paper

… As it has been mentioned before, the management and utilization of databases is regulated by several laws. Nevertheless, these laws had initially been created to regulate other aspects of organizational affairs. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act for instance has been created to… [read more]


Social Networking Does Not Require Essay

… Wellman (1996) argues that online and offline social networks do not exist as such but that they are useful analytic constructs for understanding social dynamics…" and that a social network will appear differently depending upon how it is measured. (2007)… [read more]


Qualities of a Successful Person Essay

… These contributions to humanity's technological progress have indeed been very profitable for Jobs, whose marketing savvy far exceeded his inventive spirit, but the reason I consider him to be a representation of success is not that he became a multimillionaire, but that he did so by doing what he loved most. As Paola Antonelli, an Apple aficionado who currently works as the senior curator of architecture and design at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, recently observed about Jobs and his renowned line of Apple products, he "had an exceptional eye for design, and not just an eye, but an intelligence for design & #8230; this is what Steve cared passionately about."1 The life that Jobs led was one defined by his innovative spirit and his relentless desire to improve the lives of others by making technology intuitive and easily accessible for everyone, and in my estimation, this is the true measure of what it means to be a successful person. Jobs himself confirmed this during his rousing 2005 Commencement Speech delivered to Stanford University graduates, when he reflected on the nature of his own success, by saying simply that "I didn't see it then, but it turned out that getting fired from Apple was the best thing that could have ever happened to me. The heaviness of being successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again, less sure about everything. It freed me to enter one of the most creative periods of my life."

1. Stewart, 3

Bibliography

Stewart, James B. "How Jobs Put Passion Into Products." The New York Times, sec. Business, October 07, 2011. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/08/business/how-steve-jobs-infused-passion-into-a-commodity.html?pagewanted=all (accessed October 21,…… [read more]


Ontological and Epistemological Issues in Watson Essay

… Watson

The Philosophy of Watson: Can Machines have a Mind of Their Own?

Watson, the computer that played Jeopardy! against human contestants and beat them very badly, is not only a subject of great scientific curiosity but also raises many important philosophical questions. Appearing to be a major step forward in artificial intelligence and perhaps a form of true artificial intelligence himself, one might be tempted to say that Watson has a mind of his own, and that this entity is more than simply a computer but is a form of sentient being, though being one that is created by humans. Several issues arise when trying to discuss and determine the nature of Watson as a thinking being or as nothing more or less than a very sophisticated computer with some surprising and engaging applications, and each of these must be examined in order to answer the central question of whether or not Watson is true artificial intelligence and has a "mind of his own." Examination from both an ontological and an epistemological perspective will show that while it might be possible for an artificial intelligence to one day emerge from research, Watson does not represent this step in the evolution of computers.

A Mind is in the Mind of the Beholder

As William James would say, there needs to first be a discussion of what the practical differences are between something that is a mind and is not a mind, or something that is artificial intelligence or that is not artificial intelligence. This is an epistemological problem concerning what can actually be known about the working of a computer like Watson and how it can be investigated using other concepts in language and philosophy. In other words, James points out in his lecture "What Pragmatism Means" that there has to be a determination made regarding "what difference would it practically make to any one if this notion rather than that notion were true?" There must be a practical meaning behind the term "artificial intelligence," and only then can there be a practical discussion of whether or not Watson fits this category and what the truth of the situation is -- what knowledge can be obtained.

Computers have existed for quite some time and have long been used as some form of apparent intelligence, conducting calculations and running through other "thinking" tasks much faster and more efficiently than humans. This type of computational work is not considered artificial intelligence, though, and there must be something else that creates a practical division between an advanced computer and a true artificial intelligence. If the criteria of creativity is use to determine when something is intelligent in the manner meant here, meaning that a computer would need to be able to creatively approach and solve its own problems in order to be considered an artificial intelligence, then in must be said that Watson is not truly an artificial intelligence. It is true that Watson can learn and can get better at solving problems,… [read more]


Market and Innovation Research Proposal

… S. average. Fort Worth area's cost index is 91 while the average cost index for the United States is 100 (Moody,2010).

Conclusion

A review of the information technology jobs across the five Texas cities indicates that the job types are also the same. There are not many programmer jobs. Most jobs are in IT support divisions and system administrators and security analysis.The median salary is average $65,000 across all the cities.The cost of doing business is however highest in Houston followed by Austin, Dallas, Fort Worth and is lowest in San Antonio. Basically employers look for The recruiters are looking for a Bachelors degree in the relevant field with some training or related expertise in lieu with one's education

References

Barry, B., (2011). For Texas 'Miracle,' Cut the Cost of Doing Business

Glassdoor (2012). Information Technology Salaries in Houston, TX Area.Available online at http://www.glassdoor.com/Salaries/houston-information-technology-salary-SRCH_IL.0,7_IM394_KO8,30.htm

Glassdoor (2012). Information Technology Salaries in San Antonio, TX Area.Available online at http://www.glassdoor.com/Salaries/san-antonio-information-technology-salary-SRCH_IL.0,11_IM757_KO12,34.htm

McKinney, D (2012). Top of the list: Houston Technology Employers. Houston Business Journal.Available online at http://www.bizjournals.com/houston/news/2011/10/14/top-of-the-list-houston-technology.html

McKinsey Global Institute. (2009). Changing the fortunes of America's workforce: A human capital challenge. McKinsey Global Institute

Moody's (2010).Cost of Doing Business. Moody's North American Business Cost Review, 2010.Available online at http://www.dallaschamber.org/files/Fact%20Sheets/2012DFWFactSheets/TheBusinessCommunity%20-%20Cost%20of%20Doing%20Business%20-%20092-093.pdf… [read more]


Organizational Information Systems Essay

… Organizational Information System

Information system facilitates direct communication between the firm and suppliers, the manufacturers, and marketers. The emergence of the global economy and digital firms has made the information systems to be essential in business today. Most organization today uses information systems to improve efficiency in operation to achieve higher profit. Other organizations use the information system as a major tool for the firm so as to create the new products and services. The paper will summarize the components of information system and how five component models can be used in guiding my learning and thinking about the information system. The paper will also analyze my role of a knowledge worker or an expert of information systems in organization giving an example of what I want to know about IS and how it can help me do my job.

The components of information system includes; the hardware, software, data or information, people and communication Networks. Hardware are the physical components found within the computer system, these involves the input, storage and output devices such as keyboards, hard disks, printers and speakers. The software as the component of IS are the set of instructions written in codes to control operation of the computer and the way it communicates with other different computers. Communication Networks involves communication of the information over distance. Communication can take place over the phone or via the internet such as use of e-mails. Data or information on the other hand combines all the hardware, software as well as the communication equipments to make it possible for the people in organizations in analyzing effective data. The above component models can be used to guide my learning and thinking about information system in different ways. Firstly, it makes me learn on how the component of the system interrelates and work with others within a context of…… [read more]


Client Server Model Term Paper

… Client/Server Model

Client Server Model

The database client and server transfer information between other computer networks using communication protocol. Protocols are the header of message packets that fly around an internet at a given instant not only containing the data on destination addresses and port, but they also carry protocols. When the database server process is started, one network name has to be published that will distinguish it from other networks, the server therefore listens to the network using the provided network name that consists communication channel as well as the name of the server.

In order to establish a complete connection or communication between the server and client, both the two should use the communication protocol, ensuring that the client knows the network name and location of the server in that network. The client process on the other hand uses the network name which is provided in specifying the specific server it will connect to. It is therefore necessary for internet communications to be accomplished by the agreements among the database client and server to ensure an effective communication. This paper will analyze the basic principles of the client server communication and the nature of the sockets. The paper will also provide the fundamental descriptions of the client/server model.

Principles of client server communications and nature of "sockets"

The principle of client server communication involves use of routers, ports, Internet protocol address, protocols, domain names source and Universal resource locators (URLs).All these allows effective communication between the client and the server within the database. Routers have various wires converged and routes the message packets onto the right wires. Routers combine the signals on the network cables which are connectedinto the wires going out to the other internets. Servers use ports to listen for the requests. The ports are agreed upon by different vendors which may be hundreds or thousands. The message packet that travels on each internet cablinghave labels on the header to specify the destination the computer is headed for as well as the port it goes to when it gets in. The client server communication also involves the use of IP addresses. Every computer should be connected to the internet to enable communication; the internet has…… [read more]


Theoretical Perspective it Is a Fact Dissertation

… Theoretical Perspective

It is a fact that computer technology and its advances have brought with it many benefits for companies, in addition to threats. One of the most insidious of these is the threat from insider parties. The nature of this threat means that it is difficult to identify the precise nature of the threat before it has actually occurred, and when, in other words, it is too late to obtain any remedy for the situation. From a theoretical perspective, researching and creating theories in terms of psychological, social, financial, and technological viewpoints are a vital function of ensuring the present and future of cloud computing in both business and personal operations.

Form the psychological perspective, Ho and Lee (n.d., p. 82) focus the way in which employees' language can be analyzed to determine a potential insider security threat. The reason for this suggestion is that the only element of traditional determinations of human emotion in the online world has become language, since other elements, such as facial expressions and gestures, have become obsolete in online communication.

To create a theoretical platform for assessing insider threats, Ho and Lee (n.d., p. 83) cite Parker and the model known as SKRAM. This model offers five dimensions of detection regarding insider computer threats. These are focused on identifying the most likely threat sources. They include skill, knowledge, resource, authority, and motive. The authors emphasize that the model is somewhat limited in its failure to take into account the technology of the modern age. Furthermore, the authors are also concerned with creating a predictive rather than a retrospective model. This is where the element of online language is used.

The authors provide a useful guide for the theoretical assessment of language nuances where these are not highlighted by facial expressions, intonation, or gesture. By analyzing online language, managers can develop a theory by which to predict potential insider threats to their companies.

Hori, Claycomb, and Yim (n.d., p.1) also emphasize the need to investigate the socio-technical aspects of technology in order to determine and prevent potential threats. Before the environment can be secured, however, an…… [read more]


Microsoft Monopoly Essay

… Microsoft Monopoly

Part of modern capitalism is, of course, the idea that there is competition in the marketplace. Within any economic system, there are a number of different types of agreements and templates that may be implemented. Some, of course, are legal and encouraged, others illegal and discouraged. For example, in a given marketplace there are ways industries and businesses can approach business competition. Collusion is an agreement that occurs between two entities to limit open competition by deceit or fraud. Within that same market, if one business or entity dominates the market, a monopoly is reached. This monopoly can be geographic (structured based on geographic criteria -- easier to produce and ship to a given area); a natural monopoly (a firm experiencing increasing returns due to scale relevant to output; technological (technology creates barriers to entry) or even coercive (e.g. A cartel in which the maintenance of the monopoly is done through force) (Schenk, 2010).

The purpose of a monopoly is to define and regulate market competition. In economics, imperfect competition is a situation in a given market where the conditions for perfect competition (equal market power) do not exist. A monopoly implies one major seller of a good or service; an economic/market condition in which there is typically only one large player who "owns" the market. Inside of the individual market there might be small organizations that offer a similar product or service, but the majority of market share is captured by one entity. This makes it quite difficult for newer businesses to enter (Monopoly, 2005). Microsoft, for instance, was sued in 1998 by the U.S. Government under the Sherman Antitrust Act. The government alleged that Microsoft abused power over Intel-based computers as a monopoly regarding the Operating System and Web Browser. By bundling Internet Explorer with Windows the company virtually owned the PC market. Microsoft contended it was innovation, not monopolization. The Judge found that Microsoft was a monopoly and they had taken robust action to crush Apple, Java, Netscape and others. Microsoft, of course, appealed, hoping the U.S. Supreme Court would act, but they declined to hear the case. By November 2001 the Department of Justice reached a settlement with Microsoft in which it had…… [read more]


Fundamentals of Database Systems Discussion Chapter

… ¶ … Database Systems

In describe theoretically how an SQL retrieval query will be executed by specifying the conceptual order of executing each of the six clauses, it must be first understood that it is best starting with simple queries,… [read more]


Private IP Term Paper

… The innovation behind this addressing is in the size, 128 bits! By 128 bits. This means the availability of 2128 addresses estimated at 1038 addresses or greater. These addresses are unique and the company can benefit by assigning them. The management of this addressing is outlined by RFC 1881 which specifying the management of IPv6 addressing space in the interest of in the Internet community and that is the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) (Network Working Group, 1995). The IANA bases the management of IPv6 addressing space on recommendation from the Internet Architecture Board (IAB) as well as the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). The company therefore will acquire addresses from either regional or local registries that have the responsibility of allocating address allocations to network service providers, sub-regional registries, individuals and organizations.

The company can benefit from this addressing by easily managing the network. IPv6 networks can be auto configured because they are simpler and most suited for large installations. They provide back to back connective integrity. This completely reduces the need for network address translation devices because of the vast address space. In addition, there is unrestricted abundance of address, making available more than "670 quadrillion addresses per square millimeter of the Earth's surface" (IPv6 Now Pty Ltd., 2007 ). Nonetheless, the potential for the addressing to initiate innovation and help in partnerships is enormous given the numbers and the scalability. This addressing gives interoperability and mobility functions commonly embedded in most network devices.

References

Cisco Systems. (2004, August 27). CCNP 1: Advanced IP Addressing Management. Retrieved August 31, 2012, from www.ciscopress.com.

IPv6 Now Pty Ltd. . (2007 ).…… [read more]


Network Design Process Term Paper

… Technology

Network Design Process

The internet involves a number of autonomous networks that are intertwined together. This provides users end-to-end reach ability and connection (Oppenheimer, 1998). Depending on the network that is designed, they have different functions and objectives. These objectives depend on the needs of the user. A proper evaluation of needs has to be conducted before anything is created (Farr, 1988). It is best to remember that networks have to intersect and co-exist with each other. Planning and designing a network structure is a process that is seen as iterative. It involves a number of layers and before the design is realized, it is important to understand the needs of the subscriber and the capabilities of the operator. The existing structure has to be understood before a better infrastructure can be designed. This network needs to fit within the internet ecosystem.

There are new networks created every day. The ecosystem of the internet is very dynamic and versatile. As much as there are new networks, old ones die or get refurbished to fit in with new technology. The health of networks can also depend on external or environmental factors. Things such as the global economy and popularity of certain applications all play a role in the health of a network (Farr, 1988). All changes have a dynamic impact on each network that exists. The future of the internet relies on the people that are presently using applications.

Businesses rely on networks in order for the organization to be able to flow in an orderly way. The design of the network depends on the needs of the business or organization (Farr, 1988). Small businesses do not need overly complicated network infrastructure designs. It is best to keep true to the nature of the organization and create features that are needed. Characterizing the network infrastructure would involve creating or developing a network map. This includes learning the locations of different internetworking devices and pieces. All names, addresses and information should be documented and labeled. There are a number of different methods to do this. Some people would prefer doing documentation through the physical locations of cabling. This helps understand the network architecture and some constraints that the environment poses.

The design engineer needs to understand the location of major hosts and their reach ability (Penttinen, 1999). The interconnection devices should be strategically placed in order for intermittence to be eliminated, as much as possible. Learning about the network segments in an important way to understand the nature of traffic flow and how it can affect the health of a network.

When there is a need to characterize the existing network, it is best to examine the existing uses and functions the network offers. Things such as expectations, scalability, availability and performance are key factors to keep in mind. To be able to understand the structure, the uses should be scrutinized (Farr, 1988). The behavior of the network will be able to tell you if your future…… [read more]


Virtualization Technologies Research Paper

… ¶ … Virtualization Technologies

Virtualization refers to a methodology of partitioning the resources of a computer into different implementation environments particularly within data centers. This is achieved through application of one or more technologies such as software and hardware partitioning,… [read more]


History of Search Engines Evolution Research Paper

… The ease of research through search engines has in fact, raised the bar for scholarly research, which means that search engines like Google and Bing may be the first source of reference for academic research. As stated by Hinman (2008):

"Search engines play a crucial role in controlling access to information, and as such they in fact contribute significantly to the social construction of knowledge."

Search engines are developing unique ways of helping researchers sharpen their search criteria and thus arrive at the most relevant results. One example is Google's advanced search options that allow search criteria to be identified by region, language and file type. Search engines also provide a vast database that cannot be offered by large libraries. Search engines also offer convenient referencing and indexing of information, which makes it easily accessible compared to information stored in libraries and other online databases.

Search engines also offer an effective medium of advertising for businesses. The traditional revenue model of search engines is based on advertising revenue, which has carried well into the present. Small businesses with limited marketing resources can afford banner advertisements or other dedicated spots on the search engine. Search engines have also developed sophisticated means so that advertisements relevant to the search item are displayed on the screen.

Using search engines is also beneficial because it provides an opportunity to earn revenue to many people. Search engine optimization is a rapidly developing area where companies develop unique content that uses methods "that are approved by search engines in order to make the pages more readable and to be found at appropriate keywords at a favorable position (Lieberam-Schmidt, 2010)."

Looking Towards the Future

Search engines are likely to evolve in the future as competition among the large companies intensifies. Google had developed plans to introduce Google Desktop, integrating desktop applications with the search engine feature to enter into the market territory of rival Microsoft. Although this did not materialize, it reflects the intention of search engine companies to diversify their services into the future. Yahoo and Google also offer their search engine services on mobile phones. A variety of data is also expected to be available through search engines. In the coming days, users may enter audio data, barcodes and other new forms of data. The presentation of search engines could also be modified for smaller screens on the smartphone (Greenfield, 2011).

References

Greenfield, R. (2011, August 05). The future of the search engine. Retrieved from http://www.theatlanticwire.com/technology/2011/08/future-search-engine/40857/

Van Couvering, E. (2008). The history of the Internet search engine: navigational media. In A. Spink & M. Zimmer (Eds.), Web search: Multidisciplinary perspectives (p. 186). Springer.

Hinman, L.M. (2008). Searching ethics: The role of search engines in the construction and distribution of knowledge. In A. Spink & M. Zimmer (Eds.), Web search: Multidisciplinary perspectives (p. 67). Springer.

Lieberam-Schmidt, S. (2010). Analyzing and influencing search engine results: Business and technology impacts on web information retrieval. (pp. 7, 21). Springer.

Wall, A. (n.a.). Search Engine History. Retrieved from http://www.searchenginehistory.com

Wells,… [read more]


Cyber Warfare, a Term Essay

… The Framework is what is used in attacking a given system. The framework works by collecting information about a given network using scanning and vulnerability assessment tools like Nessus and nmap. The framework then selects a given exploit which matches the given system on the basis of the collected information. The Framework then selects a given payload to accompany the given exploit (usually a shell). The exploit and the payload are then executed by the framework (Andress & Winterfeld,2011,p.102).

The MetaSploit Framework is compatible with Windows, Linux and Unix systems

Merits

The MetaSploit framework appears to be far more superior to the rest of the attack tools since it has more functionality like network scanning, exploitation, smart brute forcing, social engineering as well as VPN and proxy pivoting with a stealth functionality that allows for a deeper penetration and attack of the target network.

Defense

Defense tools are used for guiding a given network against attacks. They defend the given network against access as well as escalation tools such as MetaSploit and CANVASS. These tools revolve around the principles of well written as well as implemented network password policy, system hardening as well as patching (Andress & Winterfeld,2011,p.105). Examples of defense tools include firewalls, network hardening software, antivirus and anti-spam software among other. Example are Solarwinds and Kaspersky Antivirus/Internet Security. In this case we chose Kaspersky Antivirus and Internet Security Software due to its integrated nature.

Kaspersky offers an integrated solution comprising of File Antivirus, Mail Antivirus, IM Antivirus, Web Antivirus, Fire Wall, Proactive Defense, Ant-Spam, Network Attack Blocker, Anti-Phishing, Anti-Banner among others.

Merit

The main advantage of choosing Kaspersky is that in offers an integrated network defense solution thereby leading to more secure defense of the target network.

References

Andress, J., Winterfeld, S (2011). Cyber Warfare, Techniques, Tactics and Tools for Security Practitioners. 1st Ed. Elsevier

Clarke, R A. (2010).Cyber War, Harper Collins.

SecTool (2012). SecTools.Org: Top 125 Network Security Tools. Available online at http://sectools.org/tag/sploits/

Tenable (2012a).Tenable Network Security. Available online at http://www.tenable.com/products/nessus

Tenable (2012b).Nessus 5.0:Installation and Configuration Guide. Available online at http://static.tenable.com/documentation/nessus_5.0_installation_guide.pdf… [read more]


Quality of Tourist Attraction Website Term Paper

… ¶ … Quality of a Tourist Attraction Website

Just down the road about 20 miles from the only skyscraper designed by Frank Lloyd Wright in Bartlesville, Oklahoma is Woolaroc, the rustic but plush home of Frank Phillips, founder of Phillips… [read more]


Ethical Issues at Apple Inc Research Paper

… 4. Impact of violations

The employment of under-aged laborers in Apple's Chinese plants could create numerous impacts upon some of its stakeholder categories, as revealed below:

The children found to be working in the Apple facilities were let go from the company and they were no longer able to gain incomes, which might further impact their families and financial stability

The children were nevertheless reintegrated in the educational system and would stand better chances of education and a better life. Also, they were protected from exploiting working conditions

The mature employees could have also been subjected to moral questioning as they were forced to accept the immoral and illegal practice of child labor and their morale and performance would have decreased

The Apple investors, business partners and the general public would have been scandalized by the issue and would have revealed a diminished interest in the Apple products, services and the company.

At the level of the organization however, the effects of the ethical and legal violation were unsettled and it is yet unknown what was the financial effect of the situation. It could nevertheless be speculated that the company had invested some financial resources in the management of the problem.

6. Prevention

Apple's problem with child labor is becoming more severe in the global context and fight for human rights. At this level, a question is being raised regarding the actions which could still be taken in order to limit the issue of child labor in the company's foreign plants. As an immediate response to the media stories, Apple conducted an internal audit on the hiring practices in its foreign factories. In China, it has identified that the manufacturing facilities seldom verify the actual age of the employee, or conduct a thorough verification of the candidate's identification. The company has as such demanded that superior verification systems be instated and that the plant managers followed specific training programs, and then "follow up with one-on-one consulting" (Apple Supplier Responsibility, 2011 Progress Report).

Still, aside from the practical and technical measures taken, it must also be noted that under-aged employment is only possible in the circumstances of it being permitted by the managers. In such a setting then, it is recommended for Apple Inc. To take more drastic measures against the plants and managers which permit -- or even encourage -- under-aged employment. A measure in this sense could be represented by the sanctioning of the manager or the human resource staffs, which could even be extended to the firing of the person responsible for the hiring and exploitation of a child. In a more severe situation, a drastic solution would be represented by the company's rupture from the plant in the meaning that the corporation would no longer collaborate with the respective plant. Finally, the American IT organization should always report these situations to the authorities and fully support the legal resolution of the issue.

7. Conclusions

Apple Inc. is a leading firm, yet its position must be consolidated not… [read more]


How Social Media Has Changed the Way We Communicate Term Paper

… ¶ … Social Media has Changed the Way We Communicate

Social media has changed the way I communicate, and I am not the only person who has found that social media has affected their lives when it comes to how… [read more]


Systems Computer Science Computer Forensic Research Paper

… The first evaluation is carried out to determine the inconsistent directory trees to determine whether it will be possible to view an image within the two inconsistent directory trees. The evaluation provides which of the two files will be revealed.… [read more]


Private v. Public in Social Networking Research Paper

… Public vs. Private Social Networking

What do the words, private and public mean in terms of information?

Public information is defined as being suitable for use across a very broad range of segments, audiences and interest groups of a given… [read more]


Computer Science as the Database Capstone Project

… One of the security systems built into the software is that it will flag an log-on that has a mismatch between the person's entered job title and their actual title. This system of flagging (and following up on) such discrepancies is something that is badly lacking from the current system. Even if there is no malfeasance that arises from the current structure of the offices' communication systems (including IT), placing well-designed safeguards into the system will help ensure that the staff are able to demonstrate that they are in fact acting responsibly and ethically should they ever need to do so.

The database will also include information on the association between each patient and his/her medical providers. It may be the case that there will be a fully integrated system among all of the doctors for sharing all of the information about all patients so that any one of the physicians can step in to treat any of the other doctor's patients. This option falls within the standard of ethical care. However, it seems more likely (given the details with which we are provided in the background to the case study) that there will continue to be unique relationships between each patient and a care team -- unless an individual is referred to a specialist.

Under the second scenario, each patient's complete records should be available only to his/her doctor and that doctor's staff. Thus the treating physician's name must be linked in the database to each of his/her patients so that the confidentiality (as required by HIPPA) is maintained. Simply because an individual is a physician does not give her/him the legal right to look at the records of a person who is not his/her patient.

Another part of the database will be dedicated to the relevant information on each patient. "Relevant" in this case should be defined rather broadly -- as anyone who has spent time in a doctor's office filling out page after page of forms can testify -- because it is more efficient (and leads to greater accuracy) if the majority of information on a patient is entered initially. Thus, for example, while a patient may come in to get a flu shot (a simple, straightforward procedure in almost every case) it would be good practice for the office staff to acquire information about the patient's familial medical history at the same time. The database will include prompts for what each physician considers to be the relevant information that s/he would like to gather on every patient.

In addition to this general information that each patient provides and that is stored in a uniform and easily (and orderly) accessible manner from the database, there will be a field that specifies each procedure that the patient has undergone. This will include information (time and date and any other vital information such as whether the patient needs to be fasting) about future appointments. It will also include information from all past procedures: For example the results of blood… [read more]


Social Anxiety, Loneliness, and Divergent Preferences Term Paper

… ¶ … Social Anxiety, Loneliness, and Divergent Preferences for Cell Phone Use

The advent of communication technologies powered by computers and the Internet is creating a profound effect on the way people socially interact with other people. With the development of online modes of interaction, there are also different ways from which the self can be expressed and interactions are changed among people. In Reid and Reid's research on cell phone use among Internet users, they explored the role that calling and texting using mobile phones play for people identified to have high levels of loneliness or social anxiety. In the study, they hypothesized and proved that texting is a preferred mode of communication and interaction for socially anxious individuals and dispreferred by lonely users. Conversely, calling is the preferred mode of communication of lonely users and dispreffered by socially anxious users (433). The survey was administered online, and N=158 online users participated and answered the online questionnaire (426).

The online questionnaire itself is composed of three (3) major sections, comprising of Likert-type scales measuring the primary variables in the study. These adapted scales are the following: (1) 15-item interaction anxiousness subscale of the Leary Social Anxiousness scale, (2) 10-item abbreviated version of the UCLA Loneliness scale, and (3) 26 items Leung's online chat survey exploring different dimensions of online chat engagement (426-7). Each scale and section in the survey questionnaire provided different functions and generated different kinds of data, all for the purpose of establishing a significant relationship between cell phone usage and social anxiety and loneliness.

The usage of tested (for validity and reliability) scales in the survey ensures the researchers and end-users of the research that indeed,…… [read more]


Web Sources Websites Assessment

… The webpage covers its topic well. It navigates to the relevant details about the authors, reviews of this novel, its purchase websites and all the other relevant details. The concerned webpage provides all these details about a particular fictitious character named as "Boilerplate" brought to life by Guinan and Bennet. The webpage, however, appears to be too overwhelming and is not easy to navigate. Rather than that, many web links are given and no return to homepage is possible. Similarly, navigation on the webpage itself is quite difficult. The websites related to literature are expected to provide all the necessary details related to reading materials should be mentioned and also it should offer user-friendliness which lacks in this particular webpage.

The webpage appears to serve its purpose. It completely publicizes the subject matter and provokes the user to purchase it. Furthermore, it provides necessary reviews about the book as well. The webpage doesn't offer any bias. The main agenda of the webpage is to persuade general public to procure this book which is rather evident in every activity on the webpage.

The webpage also contains an advertisement about the other ventures of the same authors and also about other media which support the purchase of this book. The information appears to be reliable as many authentic reviews from credible websites are mentioned. Furthermore, reviews of other eminent authors make the information highly credible.

This extensive review of three entirely different website helped us understand how the face of a website varies with its purpose. Furthermore, what can be the necessary features required to be added in the website which can make the reader analyze that the information mentioned is credible, verifiable and serves its intended purpose. The three websites visited had an opposite dimension in terms of their objective. One was education, second one was an archival scientific document and the third one was a promotional website of a fictitious novel. We had criteria in hand, to understand how these websites can be considered effective and our analysis helped us strengthen our understanding of effectual websites.… [read more]


Windows Migration From XP Capstone Project

… Windows XP to Windows 7 Migration

Submittal Cover Sheet

Four Digit Assessment/Project Code: TWA1

Mentor Name: Janet Bringhurst

For Revisions Only Indicate Previous Grader:

Submissions received with an altered, incomplete or missing cover sheet will be returned for resubmission.

Submit… [read more]


Securing the Host and Data Loss Prevention Research Paper

… Securing the Host and Data Loss Prevention

As with any important corporate asset, the hardware at work is well protected to ensure absolutely no theft or vandalism. The company has two buildings, a corporate office and a call center. Both utilize the same security measures to ensure that all hardware components remain safe in the building. This is especially important as much of the information is confidential.

The first security measure used starts at the door of the building. To even enter the building, employees must use an access badge to open the magnetic lock doors. These badges can be activated and deactivated as needed, so employees who are walked out of the building cannot come back in. The last employee to leave for the night is responsible for setting the second security measure, a monitored alarm with motion sensors. Should anyone enter the building after hours that does not know the deactivation code, the alarm will activate and police will be sent to the site. The final measure to simply secure the building is security cameras positioned around the entire building. Given that one of the buildings is against a wild life preserve, this component is essential to ensure unauthorized public access to the property.

Once inside the building, the direct security of the hardware can be seen. Servers are in a locked room that requires a key that only authorized employees possess. However, the primary weakness within the company exists with the server room. During business hours, this room often remains unlocked and is accessible to any employee within the building. In addition to the server room, the more valuable servers are also bolted or…… [read more]


Routine Emails and Persuasive Essay

… Sincerely,

Mary Williams.

Brief summary

The routine e-mail has a subject that is brief and clear. The subject summarizes the central idea and gives the reader the overall view of what the email is about. The opening statement amplifies and expands the central idea. The statement is direct so as to save the reader time. The body explains the background information. The information in the body should enhance readability and avoid misunderstandings. The body should be arranged logically and in short sentences so that readers can find the email easy to read

Closing remarks on the routine email include dates, deadlines and a closing thought. This is relevant so as to enable the reader to know when and where a meeting will occur so that they can avail themselves on that day. The closing remarks are meant to encourage the workers to attend the training. The email is polite so that there should not be a feeling of force by the employees to attend the training.

The goodwill email serves as an opportunity to build a good relation between the management and employees. It helps boost the workers morale. When writing a goodwill email, one should be selfless. This means that the email should discuss the receiver. The email shows gratitude to employees for the good work they have done to the company. Specificity of the email is shown by including special details such as telling the workers that their marketing and sales strategy proved to be successful. The message in the email is sincere since the company shows their honest feelings about their workers hard work. The message is direct and short so as to save the reader time and to drive the message clearly to the employees. The main purpose of the message is mainly to spread goodwill to the workers so as to encourage…… [read more]


Ethics at Apple Essay

… In fact, Gary Marshall writing in the Tech Radar Computer website says Apple is "more secretive than the CIA and more paranoid than the Pentagon," which may be an exaggeration but according to the available literature, it's not far off. Being secretive about their products is a reasonable goal for a company like Apple, but it is clear that employees' privacy and their right to communication on social media sites is closely watched by Apple researchers.

For example, an employee has a right to a private website but no mention of Apple will be tolerated. Even mentioning on a Facebook page or Twitter that the person works at Apple can get that person fired, according to Marshall (2011). An Apple employee was fired in December, 2011, according to Mark Gurman writing in 9to5mac.com, for a "Facebook rant" that Apple employees -- hired to search for those who may break Apple's guidelines -- discovered. "Remember there may be consequences to what you post or publish online including discipline if you engage in conduct Apple deems inappropriate or violates Apple policies" (quoted from the Apple employee handbook) (Gurman, 2012). As to the privacy that a Facebook user who also happens to be an Apple employee presumes to have, if the word Apple appears in any posts on a worker's pages, any thought of privacy goes out the window.

As for Apple retail employees, there are guidelines that must be adhered to, and some are borderline bizarre. For example, in the training material for Apple Store workers, obtained by The Wall Street Journal, an employee is not supposed to use the word "unfortunately" at any time for any reason. If an employee can't solve a technical or retail issue, they're supposes to say, "as it turns out" rather than "unfortunately" (unfortunately is negative, a no-no for Apple Store workers) (Mac Observer). If a customer becomes emotional, the employee is required to "Listen and limit your responses to simple reassurances that you are doing so"; say "Uh-huh," or "I understand," the training manual explains.

"Any employee caught writing about Apple" in Facebook or Twitter or elsewhere "is fired," Mac Observer explains, based on a review of The Wall Street Journal.

In conclusion, Apple has a perfect right to lay out its restrictive guidelines, and anyone applying for a position with the company should be well briefed and informed so there is a clear understanding going in. Given that Apple has had unprecedented and spectacular success with its amazingly innovative and technologically advanced products, the company must be doing something right, notwithstanding the heavy hand it applies to workers' rights.

Works Cited

Gurman, Mark. (2011). Revealed: Apple's internal policies on employee social networking, speculating on rumors, leaking, blogging, and more. 9to5Mac. Retrieved May 27, 2012,

from http://9to5mac.com.

Mac Observer. (2011). Revealed: 10 big Apple Store secrets. Retrieved May 27, 2012, from http://theweek.com.

Marshall, Gary. (2011). Inside Apple: Cupertino's secrets revealed. Tech Radar. Retrieved May

26, 2012, from http://www.techradar.com.

Seanet. (2011). Apple Values. Retrieved May 26,… [read more]


Economic Development Agency Essay

… With respect to the activities of the organization, such measure would include; putting into place appropriate mechanisms for the implementation of the program, involving enough resources into their activities, advocating for the formulation and implementation of laws that would aid… [read more]


Social Network Sites on Relationships Research Paper

… People that have experienced romantic love over the internet will give the most appropriate information on how to handle relationships on the internet (Levy & Pescosolido, 2002). The study conducted when mature people volunteer to give more details concerning the experiences of their own lives. The information from the people recorded and presented for future references to advise the young generation. The method of extracting information from the adults with experience can be using the recording devices.

The information retrieved from people saved as in cassettes in video format to ensure that it will be accessible later. The best way to retrieve information is through asking questions and obtaining direct answers from the specified candidates. According to the information retrieved from the personal experience, the love relationship over the social sites is only evident if the couples are both in the same social sites (Su, 2002). The people still using the social networks and in romantic relationships suggest that the relationship will only apply if both partners are using the same social sites. This will assist in the security and surveillance of the love partners.

References

Lovett, J.N. (2011). Social media metrics secrets: Do what you never thought possible with social media metrics. Indianapolis: Wiley Publishing

Su, K.L. (2002). Analog filters. Norwell: Kluwer Academic Publishers

Levy, J.A., & Pescosolido, B.A. (2002). Social networks and health. Oxford: JAI an imprint of Elsevier Science Ltd.

Davies, G. (1996). Psychology, law, and criminal justice: International developments in research and practice; [collection of papers from the Third European Conference of Law and Psychology]. Berlin: De Gruyter.

Glanz, K., Rimer, B.K., Viswanath, K., & Orleans, C.T. (2008). Health behavior and health education: Theory, research, and practice. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Aleman, A., Wartman, K. (2009). Online Social Networking on Campus: Understanding What Matters in Student Culture, New York: Taylor & Francis, 2009

Bartkus, V.O., & Davis, J. (2007). Social capital. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar

Wasserman, S., & Faust, K. (1998). Social network analysis: Methods and applications. Cambridge [u.a.: Cambridge Univ. Press Lubkin, I.M., & Larsen, P.D. (2012). Chronic illness: Impact and intervention. Burlington, Mass: Jones & Bartlett Learning

Easley, D., & Kleinberg,…… [read more]


Medical Information System Upgrade Proposal Research Proposal

… The outdated hard-copy-dependent system upon which this practice currently relies is completely incapable of providing adequate information assurance and business continuity and both of those capabilities are necessary in the modern age (Haddow, Bullock, & Coppola, 2010). In the event of any major emergency that threatened the physical security of essential information, this practice would be entirely unable to access copies of any information lost or destroyed unexpectedly. Moreover, the dependence on hard-copy files would all but prevent any timely restoration of business function in an alternate location if necessitated by major emergency or natural disasters.

Finally, the failure to make the transition to a modern information management system will only end up costing this practice more in the long run. In the worst case scenario, it could also expose the practice to significant legal liability to patients in connection with information security breaches (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008) and it could result in substantial monetary penalties for violations of provisions of HIPAA that are applicable to ensuring information security in connection with protected health information (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008; Kizza, 2009). Conversely, there is absolutely no conceivable advantage to further delaying the eventual transition to digital information systems. The longer we wait the more difficulty and loss of productivity we will suffer and the more difficult the eventual transition will be.

References

Boyce, J. (2008). Information Assurance: Managing Organizational IT Risks. St. Louis,

MO: Elsevier.

Haddow, G.D., Bullock, J.A., and Coppola, D.P. (2010). Introduction to Emergency

Management. Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Halbert, T. And Ingulli, E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati:

West Legal Studies.

Kizza, J.M. (2009). Computer Network Security. New York: Springer.

Personick, S.D. And Patterson, C.A. (2007). Critical Information Infrastructure

Protection and the Law: An Overview of…… [read more]


Linux Security Strategies Comparing Research Paper

… SELinux can also be configured to the role-based and user levels to ensure all access points by user account are protected from inbound attacks across ports that may be opened by individual applications. It is also a very useful tool for managing the coordination of services across the entire Linux kernel, both before and after re-compile of specific sections and functional areas. The SELinux command has increasingly been relied on for managing the ports active on smartphones and portable laptops that also have compatible Linux kernels installed on them (Greenemeier, 2005). All of these factors are often combined in an enterprise-wide strategy that supports access control protocols and the continual monitoring of ports and programs across an entire Linux-based network running TCP/IP for example.

Analysis of the iptables Command

The impetus of this command was the insight of Rusty Russell, a programmer who today works at IBM that the existing Linux kernel-based commands had significant security shortcomings. He observed that the firewall software in previous generation Linux operating systems had significant shortcomings, including support for just a handful of protocols including TCP/IP, UDP and ICMP, in addition to just having support for 32-bit operating system modules

(MacVittie, 2005). In 1998 Mr. Russell initiated the netfilter/iptables project and by 2000 this command was merged into Linux 2.3. The basis of this command is the allocation of space within memory-based tables residing in Linux firewall code. Using the many options in this command, Linux system administrators can quickly tailor the Netfilter modules and chains for use across a wide variety of protocols including IPv4, IPv6, arptables to ARP and ebtables to Ethernet frames. This command was specifically designed to ensure that internet firewalls would have state-base engines (MacVittie, 2005). It was also designed to specifically block NAT-based inbound traffic that imitates or emulates IP addresses and also to sense and block unauthorized access across iproute2 system and QoS commands across policy routers. In short this command is used for the complete configuration of software-based firewalls in Linux environments blocking the very simple to most complex inbound threats.

References

Forristal, J. (2001). Fireproofing against DoS attacks. Network Computing, 12(25), 65-74.

Greenemeier, L. (2005). More-secure Linux still needs to win users. InformationWeek, (1029), 28-28.

MacVittie, L. (2005). Linux models…… [read more]


Online Collaborative Tools Collaboration Case Study

… Tasks of the collaborative team are more effectual if they are thorough and concise. Use of podcasts is an example of such a tool.

Place

Collaboration team cannot work in different time zones; otherwise the collaboration tool would end up problematic in collaboration tool making (Duarte & Snyder, 2006). Choosing a specific place will make decision making easier and fast feedback on the collaborating tool since they focus on the same ethnic culture, methods, language and technological level making collaboration technologies effective. Example employees from more functional areas like human resources always work with a set of processes that are more technical. They cannot be carried around everywhere. Identifying a place to create a technological tool will be effective and will cost less on travel costs which will not an addition in the budget. Wikis is an appropriate example.

Richness

When selecting an appropriate collaboration tool, richness may be considered for capital of the team processes and procedures that form the team budget. With enough monetary elements, collaboration teams have the potential for innovative products and quality methods that give concise reports. Some tools require more concentration and undergo through unique phases that take up money time and resources that are not available and require to be bought or made anew. Richness also makes the collaborative product consumable by highly developed organizations and businesses globally because they are expensively made which distinguishes the target audience (Zeus & Hamilton, 2004).

Collaboration Technology of Web Conferencing

Web conferencing is electronically collaborated. This technology has enabled organizations, companies and project teams to conduct online conference meetings on the internet (Violino, 2007). Web conferencing simply involves communication or dissemination of information at the same time live and other people can also get this information at different times despite their location. Business partners can hold business meetings with their clients in any part of the world. This shows that it is flexible in terms of place (Violino, 2007). Collaborating team can also give reports in any areas they are at while working on a collaborating tool and by these methods, the team can separate for separate research, which attains more information about the end product. Training courses can be done with web conferencing whether it's a company's training or collaboration team training. Web conferencing may lack an element of communication that is felt in the face-to-face meetings, but it's economically effective, fast and productive. It saves on time because it does not take long to get in touch with the respondent. Many of such collaboration online products are blogs and instant messaging like chats. It is commonly used by businesses by collaboration (Violino, 2007). Web conferencing will save on travel costs and will be an advantage in cases of emergency meetings where people cannot be late or unavailable.

Conclusion

Collaborative tools assist in faster decision making in an organization, depending on the appropriate tool that is used. For instance, documents and services can be shared or exchanged in a matter of minutes. These encourage fast… [read more]


Webmonkey Contemplating Term Paper

… 130).

The strategies are to document and discuss the goals and objectives before actually attempting to create the website. Goals that allow the user to navigate with ease through the various website pages was a goal that was cited numerous times during discussions. The biggest complaint seemed to come from users who were frustrated over the complexity (or inaccessibility) of 'bad' websites. Second in complaints concerning websites was the clear explanations. The goal to provide the desired explanations in a clear fashion is one that the designer should keep in mind. It seems that many websites try to portray just how intelligent or sophisticated the designer is, when in reality, most users just want to get to where they are going in as little time as needed. Clear instructions on how to navigate, and then the ability to navigate make perfect sense.

The third goal was to ensure that the website contains graphics that are pleasing and do not detract from the overall design, or the message, of the website.

This objective goes hand-in-hand with the next goal which is to have an overall pleasing design to the website.

There are plenty of bad designs present in today's media, the goal is to have a website that does not accost the viewer's eyes, ears or other senses. Finally the fifth goal is to ensure the page continuity of the website, which complements the designer's first goal of navigational ease. Website users say that they want to navigate through websites not only forwards, but backwards as well. Page continuity allows this to happen. Page continuity also refers to the overall website design, and it would be well remembered by the website creator that most users would rather see a continual design to a website, not have to search page by page, for the information they are seeking.

References

Hopkins, M.E.; Summers-Ables, J.E.; Clifton, S.C.; Coffman, M.A.; (2011) Website creation and resource management: Developing collaborative strategies for asynchronous interaction with library users" Health Information and Libraries Journal, Vol. 28, Issue 2, pp. 130 -- 136

Webmonkey Staff (2012) Information Architecture Tutorial, accessed on…… [read more]


Communication Technologies Term Paper

… Communication Technologies

Rapid advancements in the field of Information Technologies have completely shaped the way we communicate and interact with the people in our society, social circle, workplace, and the outside world (Ruff). Through a variety of modern communication mediums,… [read more]


Informative Presentation Term Paper

… ¶ … Government's Proposed Investigation into Google

Google, the world's largest search engine, has recently come under the investigation of government authorities in both the United States and the European Union for possible violations of the privacy of users. This announcement was made in March of 2012, and it involves people who have used Google with the Apple-based Safari browser. U.S. And EU authorities maintain that Google violated privacy laws by intentionally circumventing the firewalls on the Safari browser that are meant to prevent companies adding cookies to the browser. By circumventing the Safari firewall and installing cookies, Google was able to track the browsing habits of Safari users in violation of the privacy those users were assured when they began to use Safari.

Google has claimed it was unaware of the privacy breach and that it was not intentional. The company stopped the practice of circumventing the Safari firewall in February of 2012 after the Wall Street Journal informed the company of the violations. Google has claimed that any breach of the Safari browser was done to simply install a code on its ads that allowed for a "Google +1" icon to be installed on those ads so users could share ads with friends. The company has said it did not intend to track the browsing habits of Safari users and that this was unintentional on their part. The privacy violations have affected anyone who uses a Safari browser, including Mac computer users, as well as people who browse the Internet using iPhones or iPads. In particular, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in the United States is looking into whether Google's actions violate an agreement the company made with the FTC last year to avoid misrepresenting its privacy practices to consumers. If Google is found to be in violation of this prior agreement, or of any existing U.S. Or EU privacy laws, it could face billions in fines.

As this issue is being discussed today, all of Google's top company executives are present, as well as a number of shareholders of Google stock, and Google's team of lawyers. This is a very important issue for the company, because if fines are levied against Google for the Safari browser breach, it could result in crippling fines that could bankrupt the company. The FTC mandates a fine of $16,000 per day per violation. Because millions of people were affected by the Safari breach over the course of an as yet indeterminate period of time, this could result in hundreds of billions of dollars in fines. Though Google is a large, financially stable, and wealthy company with…… [read more]


Information Security and Assurance Term Paper

… ¶ … policy for accessing a system you can use a closed or open approach. Decide which policy you would select for a system that has access to confidential data (such as student records, not online). Explain why your policy will be effective and how it will minimize an attacker's access to the records.

Policy is defined within the concept of information assurance as a written rule and principle used to guide the process of decision making (Blyth & Kovacich,2006.p.103).Policies are an important element of information assurance a field whose basic tenets are confidentially, integrity and availability (DoD,1999). In developing a policy for accessing a system, one can use a closed or open approach. The best system for designing system that has access to confidential data (such as student records, not online) is the closed access approach.

How the policy will be effective

The closed access policy is therefore the best solution to this scenario since it is the one that deliver the much needed service of dedicating all of the system resources to just a specific number of users who must be pre-registered to access the s system.

How it will minimize an attacker's access to the records.

This type of information access policy therefore effectively restricts the access to confidential data to just a handful of subscribers who must be pre-registered (Khanafer, Saa, Baser & Debbah,2012).The policy therefore minimizes a given attacker's access to the confidential information by the application of access control mechanisms such as usernames and passwords, key cards, public and private keys (encryption and decryption algorithms) as well as any other suitable access control mechanisms.

3. Explain Steganography and two circumstances where Steganography would be appropriate.

Johnson (1995) defined steganography as the art of effectively concealing information within carriers that are innocuous. The concept of steganography is closely related to that of cryptography. This is due to the fact that both techniques can be employed in the protection of information. The two can converge in usage but their objectives are completely different. This is because cryptography is used in the "scrambling" of messages so that in cases of interception of the communication, the message may not make any sense. Steganography on the other hand is used in "camouflaging " the message in order to effectively hid its existence altogether. Markus Kahn however defined steganography as the art as well as science of effectively communicating in a manner that hides the very existence of the communication.AS opposed to cryptography which can allow for the detection of the communication, steganography's aim is to hide the message or communication inside other forms of harmless messages in a manner that does not give the enemy a chance of detecting its presence as a second message. Both cryptography and steganography are excellent techniques of protecting information from the unwanted or unintended parties. The sad fact is that both can be broken easily. It is therefore advisable for both to be used concurrently in the addition of multiple layers of security… [read more]


Network Security Opening to the World Case Study

… Web Conferencing Security

Analyzing the Variations in Security

of Internet-based Conferencing vs. Face-to-Face Meetings

As many companies face increasingly tighter travel and entertainment budgets, face-to-face meetings are not as viable as they have been in the past. The ability to still accomplish the same results from remote locations, often uniting experts globally, has continued to show significant potential to reduce costs while also increasing productivity and accuracy of communications. The ongoing developments and improvements in Web conferencing have also led to greater levels of trust in Web conferencing relative to previous generations of these technologies. The economics of using Web teleconferencing have become too strong to ignore, with many of these secured systems capable of paying for themselves in two years or less (Suduc, Bizoi, Filip, 2009). Nearly all companies who produce Web conferencing systems are continually investing heavily in the core technologies of authentication, security and single sign-on technologies to ensure the security of their platforms (Xirasagar, Mojtahed, 2010). Security has clearly emerged as a key success factor for the adoption of Web conferencing systems, as the economics of these systems can show positive ROI with just 15% adoption through a global enterprise (Baker, Hanson, Myhill, 2009).

Analysis of Web Conference Security

All secured Internet or web conferencing systems share a common series of attributes include entrance or I/O requirements, data protection and storage, and information access workflows (Baez, 2011). These are the core building blocks of an effective Web teleconferencing system that is capable of scaling across the many roles and requirements of as broader enterprise (Xirasagar, Mojtahed, 2010). The need for greater role-based access across the enterprises who are standardizing on these systems globally is also reflected in how the U.S. Department of Defense, the Office of the President and other highly secured branches of government are using Web conferencing today (Baez, 2011). The security systems and strategies and their options are also available to any company at a reasonable price as well. Companies can get the same level of security that the Office of the President of the United States has with a reasonably priced Web conferencing system today.

All of these factors are making the growth of Web conferencing systems skyrocket today as exemplified by the forecasts completed by Ernst & Young, who designs Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) and large-scale secured networks for companies globally (Xirasagar, Mojtahed, 2010). A Virtual Private Network creates…… [read more]


Network Plan for ABC Corporation Essay

… Network Plan for ABC Corp

Scenario

ABC Corporation has just recently installed new routers onto the network and intends to design the appropriate network security to prevent the malicious and unwanted activities from occurring. Since there are several malicious attacks… [read more]


Wireless Networks and Pervasive Computing Term Paper

… Wireless Networks and Pervasive Computing

The potential for Metropolitan-based Wi-Fi and WiMAX to transform entire communities and the companies who operate within them is very significant. With the IEEE 802.16 standard being backward-compatible to the very successfully and commercially popular 802.11 standard, the potential exists for entire communities to become more efficient in how they collaborate, communicate, create and operate businesses to complete globally (O'Shea, 2006). While there have been many debates as to the economic viability of having metropolitan Wi-Fi and WiMAX networks, the hard reality is that any communications platform that can streamline commerce and lead to innovations in business models needs to be seriously considered.

WiMax is a technology platform that often relies on a consortium of services providers to create a broad enough coverage area for signal aggregation and transmission (Zhang, Schiffman, Gibbs, Kunjithapatham, Jeong, 2009). How a WiMAX consortium is structured and the economics of how the capital investment is managed has a direct impact on the long-term value of the system to everyone who has the potential to benefit from it. From the public to small businesses to larger enterprises, a WiMAX system can become a catalyst of increased economic activity by removing the barrier of Internet access and increasing the speed of communication throughout an entire community. WiMAX systems have also shown…… [read more]


Snort Author's Note With Contact Research Paper

… They demand universal access and incredible speeds. The media and film industry demonstrates the axiom "time is money" quite well. Networks in this environment need to be strong, need to be secure, as well as reliable. This may be the case in any industry, yet there are some industries that can handle a reasonable delay; media/film/video production is not one of those fields. Threats to networks in this environment could be to the finance department, the creative department (intellectual property, etc.), and to departments that conduct vast quantities of research, which are nearly all departments in production.

If I were a part of this production company and was considering using Snort, I would first review the company's objectives. Production companies thrive on a smooth work process. This is an area upon which I would want Snort to enhance or improve. Production companies keep meticulous track of everything. I would use Snort to track the number of visits and views of the production website and which items Internet users viewed the most. This information could assist in future project development for the company. Snort in this context could also be used to help the company monitor any fundraising activities through the company website. This would be good for understanding marketing efficacy, tracing finances, and again, by seeing which projects funds were raised for first or the most quickly, that information helps the executive management team make more educated guess or choices regarding which projects the company develops.

Snort may be able to monitor suspicious traffic or threats to network security. There are those who would hack into the company's networks to access financial information and perhaps steal funds from the budget. Others may also attempt to recover exclusive footage to sell and/or release to the press about an actress, director, or the film itself. Snort may prove invaluable in the long and short-term. In the short-term, Snort increases network security and efficiency. This increases the likelihood of stable networks in the long-term. Long-term network security can contribute to the company's reputation in the professional and creative realms assisting the company to generate income and produce additional projects. As the popularity of the production company grows, the increased network security provided by Snort helps keep the networks stable as traffic increases exponentially both in quantity and kinds of traffic. Snort would work well for a growing production company as the needs of the company change with time and Snort can change along with the company being modifiable and rewritable.

References:

Cox, K.J., & Gerg, C. (2004) Managing Security with Snort and IDS Tools. O'Reilly Media, Inc., Sebastopol, CA.

Murauer, C. (2011) Building Snort for Mac OS X Lion 10.7. Available from http://www.snort.org/assets/188/Building_Snort_for_Mac_OS_X.pdf. 2012 March 02.

Orebaugh, A., Biles, S., & Babbin, J. (2005) Snort Cookbook. O'Reilly Media, Inc., Sebastopol, CA.

Patton, S., Yurcik, W., & Doss, D. (2001) An Achilles' Heel in Signature-Based IDS: Squealing False Positives in SNORT. 4th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Intrusion Detection, University of California-Davis. Available… [read more]


Capacity Planning and Performance Modeling Term Paper

… Capacity Planning and Performance Monitoring

In Shared-Memory Multiprocessor Systems -- Hierarchical Task Queue (Serrazi, 2007) a series of simulations are completed on shared-memory multiprocessors that replicate the performance of parallel processing systems. The series of simulations look to replicate the results of computing resource allocation to the memory and processor level in a central, distributed and hierarchically-derived application and memory usage architecture (Serrazi, 2007). The study concludes that the hierarchical approach is the best choice, given shared memory performance, compensating for load imbalance of task queues. Overall, the simulation achieves its stated purpose and accurately fulfills the simulation objectives.

Suggested Improvements To the Study

The methodology of the simulation nearly guarantees that hierarchal-driven performance will be the best possible outcome given the share memory multiprocessor configuration to load balancing and tasks queues. A hierarchical organizational structure also allows for a specifically greater level of precision on load balancing across a wide variety of options.

Second, the variation in processor speeds and cache levels, bus speeds and command statements needs to be more varied to effectively test the conclusions to a greater level. This first simulation result indicates that the shared memory processor configuration is effectively defining distributed and central workflows or organizational structures are not as optimal. Yet upon closer analysis of the results, the tests appear one-dimensional and need greater levels of clarity and more testing of what would be considered exogenous variables. All of these factors taken together show that another series of simulations needs to be run in order to draw the conclusion of hierarchical performance is…… [read more]


Computer Security a Second Discussion Chapter

… Computer Security

A Second Look at the Usability of Click-Based Graphical Passwords

Authentication techniques have ranged from the anachronistic and difficult-to-use to those entirely customized by users, with the aid of visual imager. In the award-winning analysis a Second Look at the Usability of Click-Based Graphical Passwords, researchers Chiasson, Biddle and Oorschot have completed a thorough field and lab-based analysis of graphical passwords. Included in their methodology have been the options respondents have for creating their own passwords from a combination of images, in any order they choose, delivered in specific sequences as well. The study results showed statistical significance at the .001 level for preference when lab vs. field studies were compared. Easy to create and speed (.01 level of statistical significance) were the second and third most differentiating elements of visually-based passwords. Uniqueness had a .05 level of statistical significance. The results indicate that passwords that are created in lab-based testing have a significantly greater effectiveness level from a personalization and remembrance standpoint. Field test show that the conclusions aren't as clear or obvious, with exogenous, uncontrolled factors impacting the perfect of that specific study. The conclusion of the study is that visually-oriented passwords, when created by users on their own, taking into their preferences, ease of creation and speed of use, are highly effective. The study concludes that there is still a threat of visually-oriented passwords being hacked by intruders guessing the sequence of images to choose to gain access to accounts. There is also the challenge of taking the statistically significant findings of the lab test and making them valid in and open environment.

Part II: The study, completed at Indiana University in April, 2005 successfully shows how contextual phishing strategies are made relative easy to accomplish by the abundance…… [read more]


Monopoly Oligopoly Essay

… Monopoly and Oligopoly

Pattern Changes in Industry: The Case of Microsoft

Technology seems to be evolving at a rate that is inconceivable. Much of what we take advantage of in our daily lives is the result of scrutiny and hard work in computer programming. Computer processing and operating systems industries is a complicated genre that has recently undergone dramatic changes in the Microsoft was judged to have broken antitrust laws by a U.S. federal court. In the 1990s, Microsoft clearly dominated the computer operating systems industry (Wilcox 1999). It held the most prominent position within the OS market, and was connected to every new product being launched. Microsoft was one of the first companies to produce an effective and cost-efficient OS system that was incredibly popular within the consumer and business marketplace (Fisher 2000). According to the research "It set about creating nonexclusive standards that allowed anyone to get into the computer hardware business, and fill every market niche. So, Microsoft products were able to be in every market niche," (Fisher 2000). The software products being produced by Microsoft were so universal it became a standard for many desktops being sold at the time. The company dominated the industry by continuously hoarding creative capital and practicing threatening techniques to keep competition low.

Being the first in line, Microsoft has long enjoyed a prominence over the marketplace. According to the research, Microsoft took this top position to an extreme and often used aggressive practices to under the efforts of the competition. Here the research states that "Microsoft has demonstrated that it will use its prodigious market power and immense profits to harm any firm that insist on pursuing initiatives that could intensify competition against one of Microsoft's core products," (Wilcox 1999). Eventually, Microsoft's aggressive practices caught up with the company and U.S. government agencies began investigation accusing Microsoft of violating antitrust regulations.

There has since been removed from a monopoly in computer operating production to marketplace where entry barriers are much lower, and Microsoft has lost the monopoly. The United States government had begun an investigation against Microsoft in 1998 based on its monopolistic practices. Formal charges were eventually filed, and the trial lasted several years. Eventually, the judge presiding over the trial presented his position where Microsoft was guilty of taking action purposely damage competition in protection of its own monopoly. Competitors like Apple, Java, Netscape, and many others had been maliciously denied access into the OS market. In this, Microsoft was ordered to break into two separate entities, one which took care of software programming, and the other to produce operating systems of future computers. In a way, it was important for Microsoft to step away from his powerful vision of the monopoly. Research shows that when organizations are allowed to do this within the context of a monopoly, quality can often suffer. Thus, there was the potential that because "Microsoft no longer has an…… [read more]


IRB Proposal Research Proposal

… ¶ … Institutional Review Board

PROPOSAL FORM

Do not change the text in the shaded areas of the form. Your responses to each question/section should be written where it says <>; please keep your response in the same blue… [read more]


Routers as Security Mechanisms Term Paper

… Router Security

Understanding Network Security

In this day and age, sending confidential data over the Internet is becoming more commonplace. Some people and organizations, e.g. commercial banks, are completely dependent on electronic transmission of confidential data. Hackers mostly target networks… [read more]


Management Strategy Apple Inc Term Paper

… For example, Foxconn has recently installed nets that are in result to the mass suicides that resulted from employees jumping from the tops of their production facilities (Mick, 2010). These nets are supposed to prevent or deter any further suicides… [read more]


Social Work Informatics USES, Merits and Demerits Research Paper

… Social Work Informatics

USES, MERITS and DEMERITS

Social Work Informatics and Its Use in Child Protection

Social informatics refers to a large, varied and expanding research, which looks into the social and organizational aspects of computerization (Sawyer & Tapia, 2002).… [read more]

NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.