Study "Computers / IT / Internet" Essays 111-165

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Telecommuting Technology Has Reached Research Paper

… In instant messaging, the parties engage in a conversation similar to what one might have on the telephone but the individual comments are typed onto the computer screen and received immediately by the receiving party.

In the area of entertainment… [read more]

New Media Essay

… New media technologies have driven technological innovation and economic change in the past couple of decades. There are, however, costs associated with adopting new media in the form of both capital and time. Some people and some regions are better… [read more]

Digital Divide Thesis

… Digital Divide

In this knowledge-based global economy, the power of information is the key to success in any sphere of activity. Having equitable access to telecommunication technologies is crucial for countries that strive to improve their economic status and life standards. Access gap is a civil rights issue with information technology finding its way into every aspect of our living. From educational institutions to job markets computer skills have become indispensable and the lack of amenities for communities to access this vital technological domain undermines the foundations of our civil rights, which promises equitable access to knowledge resources. While the cities have more penetration, rural areas are the places where the digital divide is more prominent. Government and the NGO's should make computer and Internet technology more useful to rural communities by developing technological programs that are more related to their environment and creating sustainable digital opportunities.

A classic example of bridging the digital divide is the case of Lalashan, a remote mountain place in Taiwan with an indigenous population making a living out of selling peaches. Due to the abundance in production, price of peaches fell down drastically making it an unprofitable trade for many of the indigenous families that cultivated peaches in Lalashan. The government-supported project in Lalashan helped this remote community in establishing a DOWEB (Digital Opportunity Within E-business) that enabled them to sell peaches over the Internet. This promised the native villagers annual income of atleast NT$3,000,000. By this innovative method of creating demand for information technology, the government of Taiwan succeeded in making the local farmers interested in learning about the technology. In 2000, the average income for the families was NT$2,000,000 and most of the families were computer illiterate but by 2005 80% of the households had computers with broadband connectivity and 91 families sold their peaches online and doubled their income compared to 2000. This is just one example where opportunity driven technological intervention proved to be an ideal solution for bridging the digital divide. [Liu (2006)]

One of the high priority initiatives is to develop evaluation agendas to ascertain quality of access. This aspect is grossly ignored in most of the governmental and non-governmental initiatives to tackle the digital divide. Such a feedback system would highlight the needs, and the gaps in the current system and provide positive information for the development of appropriate content that would address the real needs of the specific communities. Catering to the diverse population in a community by including multi-lingual support and content specific to different cultural groups are important… [read more]

Ten Flatteners Research Paper

… ¶ … Flatteners' in the World is Flat by Thomas Friedman

In his latest, seminal work The World is Flat (2006), author Thomas Friedman provided a "brief history of the 21st century," detailing how, as human society approached this century,… [read more]

Strategies for Information System Thesis

… ¶ … Information System Recovery

In the Age of Information, organizations of all types and sizes are increasingly relying on sophisticated information technology system to support and drive their enterprises. Although Moore's Law continues to hold true and computer processing… [read more]

Society and Technology How Technology Stratifies Essay

… Society & Technology

How Technology Stratifies Society

The modern era if often lauded as the Information Age and the Computer Age, two defining characteristics of the world we live in today. It is difficult to imagine living in a world without computers -- they are in our cars, they operate our streetlights, control the complex flow of power through an electrical grid, and myriad other things that have a minute-by-minute effect on our lives. The availability of information -- and misinformation -- is arguably even more powerful than the simple presence and use of computers. The Internet has opened communication and distribution to whole new level; it is now possible to transmit a piece of information, be it text, and audio file, or even video, almost anywhere else in the world at nearly instant speeds. Like previous technological advancements of the twentieth century -- the telephone, the automobile, the airplane -- the technology found in computers and the Internet has served to make the world effectively smaller, creating quicker and more efficient bonds between people and nations across geographic and cultural barriers and distances.

The picture is not quite so simply rosy, however. Technology certainly helps those that have access to the technology, but it doesn't do anything for those that do not. This seems obvious, of course, but the implications of this statement are far more complex than they seem on the surface, for two primary reasons. First are the actual effects of the rising levels of technology and the availability of information in the world. Though generally beneficial, there are some unforeseen consequences of the world's new interconnectedness. These problems are exacerbated by the second major complicating feature, that of exactly who has access to the new technologies and who does not. In equality is greatly increased by the rise in high technology in both simple, obvious ways and through more subtle and complex interactions.

The most important factor regarding the utilization of computers and the Internet are the direct effects these have on the people who have access to them. The pace and breadth possible in business has changed dramatically due to the technological advancements made in the past few decades. People with access to technology are generally all moving at this increased pace, and have developed skills in combination with their use of computers. As their skills and the technology increase in tandem together, those with access to technology not only ride the wave of technology but push it ever higher. New opportunities open up as technology advances further, and these in turn require new skills to be learned. None of this is a problem for those who regularly use these new technologies; these things evolve over time.

But while… [read more]

Executive Information Systems and Digital Dashboards Essay

… Executive Information Systems and Digital Dashboards: What They Are, How They Work, And How They Can Add Value

Today, computer applications are available that can help companies of all types and sizes improve their performance and profitability. Therefore, identifying appropriate… [read more]

Ethical Issues in Information Technology, by Richard Research Paper

… Ethical Issues in Information Technology, by Richard T. DeGeorge

The world we live in is continuously changing and the most commonly used explanation is the rapid pace at which technology is developing. And since these developments have had significant implications… [read more]

Identity Theft in America and the Rest Term Paper

… Identity Theft

In America and the rest of the world that uses internet regularly the emerging issue or the problem is that of identity theft. It is considered to be the fastest growing crime in America as millions of victims… [read more]

Microstat, Inc Term Paper

… Microstat, Inc. Case

Patrick McKinsey founded Microstat to work on marketing Notebook computers that he designed during his senior engineering project. To give his project commercial fruition, following some initial efforts he zeroed in on Leesung Electronics with whom he… [read more]

10 Forces Flattened the World Term Paper

… Ten Forces That Flatten the World

Three times Pulitzer Price winner Thomas L. Friedman is one of the most renowned contemporary authors. World wide, he is best acknowledged for his books and articles on technological development, globalization and war affairs,… [read more]

Protecting Children Online Like Any Forms Essay

… Protecting Children Online

Like any forms of advancement, computer and information technology are double-edged swords. On one hand, they offer new opportunities for learning and self-expression. However, the same technology also threatens the safety of children, exposing them to inappropriate content and online predators. This paper argues that given these safety concerns, special measures should be taken to protect children from these Internet predators.

Protection legislation

In 2001, the Children's Internet Protection Act (CHIPA) was signed into law. The mandate of this act is to protect children form the myriad of "inappropriate material" available on the Internet. Public institutions such as schools and libraries must ensure that "technology protection measures" are in place on all of its computers with Internet access. These protection measures include filtering software to screen out inappropriate content (Reilly 2001).

Supporters of this measure argued that the task of keeping children safe from online belongs to everyone in society, not just to parents. After all, many children are much more tech-savvy than their parents. Increasingly, they surf the Internet in public places, such as cafes and their school libraries. This makes it difficult for parents to monitor the Internet use of their children.

Furthermore, supporters of this law argue that the dangers of unsupervised Internet use are very real.

In addition to sexually-explicit content, many teenagers have reported supporting their drug habits via the Internet. Many chatrooms are full of drug dealers and pedophiles who know how to recognize potential young victims or customers ("Teens, Technology and Drugs" 2006). The goal of legislation such as CHIPA is targeted towards ensuring a safe online experience for children.

Censorship concerns

Despite these dangers and the intent of this legislation, however, such protection laws have many critics. Privacy advocates argue that law enforcement authority and court rulings regarding piracy and copyright have dealt tremendous blows to individual civil liberties regarding online and Internet activities. Most people do not realize how much personal information can already be gleaned from the Internet. People unwittingly share information about themselves when they send e-mail, visit a website or buy merchandise online. The installation of filtering software adds to these concerns (Reilly 2001).

Other critics have argued that CHIPA and steps such as the installation of filtering software constitutes censorship. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) has charged that such filtering software may be a violation of the… [read more]

Virtual Training the World Today Term Paper

… People will soon become more and more aware of this trend and I anticipate that it would affect the conventional form of training. Increasing number of people will opt for virtual training for its ease and efficiency. We will find more students using these services to learn about computers etc. At their ease and convenience. Professionals normally do not get enough time to go through formal training and thus they would also prefer to undergo virtual training where they can be trained through the phone or using webconference etc. Moreover people have noted that their ideas are more accepted in virtual group training as compared to conventional training where appearances can lead to people being judgemental about you. In virtual training programs people do not need to go through the artificiality of "dressing up" for their class. As it is its use is on the rise and without doubt I personally feel that the use of this trend will increase greatly as time passes.


(1) Ben Dean, Ph.D. -- How Therapists Can Coach Virtual Groups. [Online website] Available from: [Accessed on: 27/10/2005]

(2) Anonymous -- About Virtual Training. [Online website] Available from: [Accessed on: 27/10/2005]

(3) China Martens -- IBM to offer virtual training for startups. [Online website] Available from: info=PC+World& leveli=0 [Accessed on: 27/10/2005]

(4) Pete Thibodeau -- Virtual training for CSS soldiers. [Online website] Available from: [Accessed on: 27/10/2005]

(5) Laura L. Bierema, John W. Bing, Terry J. Carter. The Global Pendulum: In Which Direction Is Your Globalization Pendulum Swinging? The Future Search Conference Has Some Answers. Magazine Title: T& D. Volume: 56. Issue: 5. Publication Date: May 2002. Page Number: 70+.

(6) Kerry Colligan -- IT'd releases virtual training on the Web. [Online website] Available from: [Accessed on: 27/10/2005] [read more]

Operating System Analysis Report: Microsoft Windows Server Term Paper

… Operating System Analysis Report: Microsoft Windows Server 2003 vs. Red Hat Enterprise Linux as

Operating System Analysis Report: Microsoft Windows Server 2003 vs. Red Hat

Enterprise Linux as

Microsoft Windows Server 2003 is a product of the Redmond-based software giant… [read more]

Cyber Crime Enforcement Term Paper

… Cybercrime

As little as ten years ago, few people could have conceived of the Internet and its capabilities, let alone know how to illegally take advantage of this new communication vehicle. Yet today millions of people use the Web, and… [read more]

Presence of Multiple Views and Voices Term Paper

… ¶ … presence of multiple views and voices that includes mainly lay voices and to examine its interactions. (Eysenbach; Till, 2001) From a variety of resources, Marie Hoepfl tries to explain the important characteristic of qualitative research as that: Qualitative… [read more]

Ethics in Cyberspace Summary Term Paper

… Irrespective of the real influence of the industry in our thinking the cyberspace crucially has become a new centre point in consonance with the neo-classical economic program of global capitalism. The corporate interests have paramount prioritization in the sphere of… [read more]

Data Input Accuracy Term Paper

… Choosing from these two methods, the best method of data input for telephone surveys would be voice recording. This is because voice recording of the participant's answers provides enough evidence that the answers directly came from the participant. Moreover, a voice recording method would be best for telephone surveys because there are some surveys that base the accuracy and reliability of the answers from how the participant answers and from the way the participant's voice sounds. Psychology studies indicate that the naturalness in the way a person speaks can indicate the speaker's sincerity and honesty.

Bank Checks

For bank checks, the best data input method would be optical scanning. Bank checks nowadays already have bar codes that validate the check's authenticity. By scanning such bar codes, banks can determine whether the bank check is valid or not.

Retail Tags

Similar to bank checks, the best data input method would be optical scanning. Most of the retail tags nowadays have bar codes that can provide the price of an item. Such bar codes prevent the falsification of price tags, thus allowing accuracy. By scanning retail tags' bar codes, stores can accurately and automatically obtain and input the price of the item to their cash registers. Customers can ensure as well that the amount charged to them is accurate. Bar codes and scanners are two of the most common elements in today's business and trading with customers. They are used on POS (Point of Sale) systems

Long Documents

There are several data input methods that can applicable for long documents. One is optical scanning which can be used to quickly input data, wherein the scanned image of the long document, such as.PDF and.JPEG formats, is used by systems as the reference and source data. Such method is an accurate form of input data because it preserves the real appearance of the document.

Another data input method that can be used for long documents is the automated transfer or automated conversion. This can be done by programs which automatically convert a document into another format. Automated transfer and input of data is made possible by processes within a system that read converted formats and automatically transfers and input them in the system's database.


Olson, J. Data Accuracy: The Challenge.

Retrieved July 31, 2004, from DM Review Online. Web site:

Star, J. Data Input.

Retrieved July 31, 2004, from University of California Online. Web site:

Methods of Data Collection.

Retrieved July 31, 2004, from Tutor2U. Web site: [read more]

Pricing Decisions in Today's Competitive Term Paper

… For example, recently the prices of the computers have drastically gone down, so for me the choice will be to lower prices so that customers do not but from the competitors.

Technology Environment and the Price

With growing technological sophistication, it has become usual for small companies to buy computer parts, build homegrown computers and sell them at throwaway prices. Seeing that a computer can be used for meeting various needs of the people, it is not unusual that the demand of the computers is still high.

The computer services sector is rapidly expanding to meet increased demand, as growing domestic businesses need the latest information technologies, equipment, and services. More small- and medium-sized businesses are becoming computerized. The government has a need for automation of its financial and educational institutions, customs agencies, and other state agencies (Ingenbleek, Debruyne, Frambach, and Verhallen, 289).

To meet the growing demands of the computers, it has become common for consumers to look for the best offers and buy computers at cheaper price, as a number of suppliers have proliferated. Seeing that one has many options to buy computers, I presume that the price of the computers will still become lower.

Economic Environment and the Pricing

The general economic condition has a drastic impact on the sales price of the computers (Lowengart, Mizrahi, and Yosef, 201). If the general economic condition is rosy, it is not unusual that people will buy various kinds of computers: a laptop for traveling, a high-powered computer through which a child can play video, and a computer for the Internet access. However, when economic conditions are not rosy, the demands for the computers will drop down. Seeing the present economic condition, presently I do not presume that there will be a surge of growth in the demand of computers so I envision even lower price for the computers.


Ingenbleek, Paul, Debruyne, Marion, Frambach, Ruud, and Verhallen, Theo M.M. Successful New Product Pricing Practices: A Contingency Approach. Marketing Letters, Vol. 14, No. 4; (2003): 289

Lowengart, Oded, Mizrahi, Shlomo, and Yosef, Rami. Effect of consumer characteristics on optimal reference price. Journal of… [read more]

David Pogue's Column, Entitled, "Fisher Term Paper

… Thus, this new innovation deviates from the popular notion that Internet technology isolates the individual from the society; with telephony, people can create their social networks in 'cyberspace,' establishing new social ties and re-establishing old ones. Telephony technology's implication in the business of technology is that it aims towards a market that values not the product (telephony), but the service it provides (communication and interaction). As for its prospects in the industry, telephony technology is a flexible innovation that can be utilized both in the categories of business communications and home entertainment industry. Business communications are better improved by using telephony during meetings and conferences among businesspeople from all over the globe, while home-based consumers can communicate easily with their loved-ones by using telephony technology.#

The latest craze in home entertainment technology, the plasma flat screen TV, is the main topic of David Pogue's article entitled, "Prestige or Pixels?" In the January 29, 2004 edition of the New York Times (online edition). In this article, Pogue enumerates the pros and cons of buying big plasma TVs, which negates the popular 'infotech' credo that "smaller is better." Indeed, among the products in the home entertainment technology industry, television continues to evolve not only in its functions and internal features, but in its physical features as well. A bigger and flatter TV screen, which became the 'ideal TV' of most consumers nowadays, has resulted to the production of bigger plasma TVs sold commercially. Pogue especially centers his attention on popular brand companies that manufacture these plasma TVs, questioning whether the latest plasma screen TV fad is indeed a race for a better-functioning television set, or simply a case of the "They're selling prestige, not pixels" ideology. Indeed, Pogue's contention brings in the issue of consumerism by product and/or brand. In the age of information technology, consumers have become wiser at choosing products that suit their needs, and this is accomplished by looking at the functions of a particular product. The author's analysis in this article shows how consumers tend to prioritize style over substance, especially when buying aesthetically- and functionally-appealing products. Since plasma TVs are mainly catered to consumers primarily for home entertainment use only, the battle over selling 'prestige' is indeed stiffer, especially now that plasma TVs are sold at relatively cheaper prices, sold by small companies that produces these newest technology fad at low prices (as compared to major brand companies).#


Croal, N. And J. Adams. January 5, 2004. "Soon, a (Nearly) Free Way to Phone Home." Newsweek, Vol. 143, No. 1. p. 6.

Pogue, D. January 22, 2004. "Fisher's Tiny New Camcorder." New York Times Online Edition. Available at:

____. January 29, 2004. "Prestige or Pixels?"… [read more]

Breakthroughs Term Paper

… Network wires and cables are the mediums where data is transmitted during network communication. The type of these data transmission lines serves some factors in the performance speed of network communication. Two types of which are the twisted-pair cable and fiber-optic cable. In terms of the distance a data transmission can reach, fiber-optic is a better cable. Currently, however, a wireless networking has emerged in the field of network technology.

Network Interface Card (NIC) enables a computer to connect in a network. This is an internal device that processes data transmission before and after it passes through the network cables. NIC is an interface almost similar to video and sound cards. NIC, however, intends its usability in terms of network functionalities. For notebook computers, the PCMCIA is an NIC that connects to a network.

Hubs and Switches are hardware devices that control and regulate data transmission within computers in a network, as well as from and to a server. Mike Angelo, in his Some Basics for Computing and Networking Novices, defines Hubs and Switches as Hubs and Switches are special central electronic junction boxes where you plug in the network cables from the computers.

The Working Network

Networks have driving aspects that makes it work. These aspects are the network's technology, topology, and protocol. Ethernet and Token Ring are two of the many types of a network technology. TCP/IP and IPX, on the other hand, are among the popular protocols (How do Networks Work?) data packet is a network element sent to computers within a network. This packet serves as the storage data space of each computer, which it also sends to the other terminals after storing data in the packet. How data packets are sent to each computer depends on the type of a network's topology. For instance, a Ring Topology sends data packets to each computer in a circular manner (i.e one computer after another).

When a data packet containing information is sent to a computer, it compares its destination address against the computer's address. A match of address will enable the data packet to transmit the information to the computer. Otherwise, the data packet will continue searching for its destination until it is found. The process of sending, receiving, storing data, and sending back of data packets continue in a network until terminals are no longer connected.

Network applications and software make network communication possible. Such includes e-mails, Internet browsers, chat applications, etc. They are the mediums of communication between computer terminals connected in a network. Without these applications, a connected terminal will remain useless in terms of network communication.

Basically, the electronic wires, cables, network hardwares, software, and users, make a network communication possible. Without these elements, there will be no data sending and receiving.


Angelo, Mike. Some Basics for Computing and Network Novices.

Mozilla Quest. 01 July 2003.

Network Introduction.

NCI-Frederick. 01 July 2003.

How do Networks Work?

Cad.Strath. 01 July 2003.

How Network Works.

PNP Physiscs. 01 July 2003.… [read more]

Videoconferencing in Business and Education Term Paper

… Our research found that videoconferencing is often used in the academic environment to reach rural and foreign communities. We discussed certain challenges that educators face when videoconferencing is used such as using technology to incorporate visual aids. Finally we discussed current issues involving the safety of videoconferencing. We discovered that hackers can gain access and control over a video conference very easily.

Appendix and References

Appendix A- Breakeven table for converting meetings to videoconferencing


Davis, A., Weinstein, I. "The Business Case for Videoconferencing:Understanding the benefits, costs, and risks of videoconferencing over ISDN and IP." March, 2002. Publication #567. Wainhouse Research.

Delio, M. "Video-Conferencing Hole Exposed." Sep. 16, 2002. Wired News.,1282,55145,00.html

Greunen D., Wesson, J. "Synchronous Learning: Using IT to bridge the gap in Distance Education."

Schneider, Laura H.323 Protocol: Conferencing for One and All. 2002

Schneider, Laura Video Conferencing: Easy as 1,2,3. 2002.

Schneider, Laura Better Bandwidth Means Cooler Conferencing. 2002.


Davis, A., Weinstein, I. "The Business Case for Videoconferencing:Understanding the benefits, costs, and risks of videoconferencing over ISDN and IP." March, 2002. Publication #567. Wainhouse Research.

Delio, M. "Video-Conferencing Hole Exposed." Sep. 16, 2002. Wired News.,1282,55145,00.html

Greunen D., Wesson, J. "Synchronous Learning: Using IT to bridge the gap in Distance Education."

Schneider, Laura H.323 Protocol: Conferencing for One and All. 2002

Schneider, Laura Video Conferencing: Easy as 1,2,3. 2002.

Schneider, Laura Better Bandwidth Means Cooler Conferencing. 2002. [read more]

Human Interaction Discussion Chapter

… Human Interaction

If any of us in my neighborhood (my condo community) had the opportunity to change a technology to make it more user friendly, and frankly easier to navigate, certainly we would certainly do that. There is absolutely no doubt in this cutting-edge world of constant technology innovations and upgrades that there are many individuals like our neighbors who struggle to grasp the instructions and tools of technologies. People who are in their 40s, 50s, and 60s -- and even older -- do not catch on as quickly to user guidelines for new technologies.

Here's an example: O

n any Macintosh computer, it is very easy to take a screen capture. You simply do this: shift, command, and the #4 key. A little icon comes up and the user navigates the mouse and the keypad seamlessly around whatever copy or image he or she wishes to capture. There is a "click" like a camera going off (which in fact is what the computer is doing for the loser). And there on the desktop is the image that was just captured by the Mac's easy-to-use. Not so easy with an HP laptop.

My neighbor has a fairly new HP running Windows XP and she can't figure out how to get her machine take a screen capture. I showed her how simple it is on a MacBook, and we began using Google to get instructions on how to take a screen grab on her HP. One response told us to press FN + Screen Print, and that will switch it to print screen function. Nothing happened. No sound, no evidence of an image captured (of a photo she had on the desktop). Another advice column said use the "snipping tool" on a PC and it will be simple.

Snipping tool? Where? A search of the machine and no such tool was located. A third suggested instruction message said to use the "FN" (function key) and at the same time hold down the "Insert / prt sc" key at the top of the keyboard. That did nothing at all. Still another remedy was to hold down the "FN" key (by now we were certainly familiar with that key) and at the same time press "any… [read more]

Subsets of {8, 16, 27 Assessment

… Find A ? B.

A = {h, e, j, n}

B = {e, b, u, j}

A ? B = {h, e, b, u, j, n}

Sets (Part II)

Create three sets, set A, set B, and set C. By going through the items you use at work (or in your field).

Set A will be a list of all of these items.

Set A = {computer, coffee, phone, Internet, cup, printer, pencils, pens, paper, snacks}

Create Set B, from the items in Set A that you think are essential.

Set B = {computer, phone, Internet, printer, pencils, pens, paper}

Create Set C, by taking the complement of Set B. In Set A, i.e. all of the non-essential items.

Set C = {coffee, cup, snacks}

Are sets B. And C. proper subsets of set A? Explain.

Yes. An improper subset is a subset containing every element of the original set. A proper subset contains some but not all of the elements of the original set. A subset… [read more]

Jonathan Keats Essay

… John Koza's Invention Machine

The Industrial Revolution had profound effects on the human psyche and civilization as a whole. Machines began to do many of the things that human artisans and craftspeople used to do, and they did them faster and (arguably) better. Along with this advent of machinery came concerns and philosophical reflections about man's place in the world. Machines seemed to be taking over, rendering many human workers obsolete. The jobs that did exist changed in many cases from creative and engaging jobs to running and maintaining these machines, almost seeming to make humans subservient to the machines they created. Many felt that the lower-class workers were becoming nothing more than parts of the machines themselves, meaningless as individuals and useful only for how well they could accomplish repetitive tasks consistently and quickly for long stretches of time without wearing out.

Just as these effects of the Industrial Revolution called humanity's purpose and place in the world into existence, the invention and implementation of computers did the same thing, but on an even more profound level. Computers are machines that usually don't do anything physical that humans used to, but they do -- or at least appear to do -- something even more innately human -- they think. As computers developed further, concerns grew over which new class of human workers would be replaced by these new and remarkable machines. The idea of artificial intelligence was seen as a scary concept by many; it seemed to suggest that the machines we had built could eventually begin to make decisions and plans for themselves. Many science fiction writers and other social commentators and intellectuals believed that such a things was not entirely impossible. As computers grew ever more advanced, and began to be incorporated into other machines and entered new fields, these fears only grew.

In his article, "John Koza Has Built an Invention Machine," Jonathon Keats details how one man developed and built a computer with the kind of creative intelligence that has so long been feared, though (as yet) without any of the predicted disastrous results. There is one very important thing to note about Koza's creation -- though brilliant, this computer does not have any will of its own. Like any other computer, it needs to be given an initial set of instructions. After that, however, things change. The "invention machine" does not actually invent things itself, but it is able to tackle very complex problems and develop its own set of solutions without nay further input: "What Koza has done is to automate the creative process" (Keats, 2).

Koza himself calls the system that his computer uses "genetic programming." In a large part, his machine works along the same principles that have been… [read more]

Object Well-Designed Everyday Object: The Apple iMac Research Proposal

… ¶ … object well-Designed everyday object: The Apple iMac

The Apple Corporation has distinguished itself as one of the most innovative computer companies in recent memory. Although some users praise the iMac for certain technological features that are inherently user-friendly, such as its imperviousness to viruses and its ease of use when going 'wireless,' those who are honest must admit that the first attraction of the iMac is its physical design. Computers, even the most technically literate would have to admit, were ugly -- before the iMac. The iMac in its tiniest laptop form or largest desktop incarnation is sleek, with soft, curving lines that make it look more like a makeup compact or a spaceship than an ordinary computer. It is designed for young people, as young people live in a world where working on a computer is more important to them than for previous generations. The iMac laptop is an accessory, something beautiful to carry to class as well as use for work. Apple technology can be customized in a variety of colors, and the color you choose naturally 'says' something about you, as a person. Your computer becomes a vehicle of self-expression on the outside as well as on the inside.

The iMac is also a triumph of branding. Unlike PCs, where it is difficult to tell the difference between a Dell and a Compaq on first glance, Macs are instantly recognizable. Being a Mac user in and of itself is a statement. Its edginess and uniqueness 'says' something about the user, when someone sees its owner carrying the device, or sees the iMac on a desk. The wide, beautiful screen with limited interference from the window display makes it look more like a picture than a computer. Both its keyboard and screen, in its desktop and laptop incarnation are whisper-thin, pared down to the barest essence. A clutter-free mind and a clutter-free workspace are all encouraged by the iMac. The lack of waste is evident even in terms of how the product is advertised. The website for the newest incarnation of… [read more]

Functionality of the Microprocessor History Term Paper

… While 4004 was a 4-bit microprocessor, 8008 has an 8-bit architecture, twice as powerful as 4004, that accommodates alphanumeric data.

Next to 8008 of Intel was the release of 8080 microprocessor in 1974. 8080's development was considered the beginning of other milestones in the computer industry. From A Brief History of Microprocessors, Faggin stated that "The 8080 really created the microprocessor market. The 4004 and the 8008 suggested it, but the 8080 made it real." The first personal computer, Altair, used Intel 8080 for its microprocessor. This started the history of personal computer (PC). In the same year, Bill Gates and Paul Allen started Microsoft when they wrote a BASIC program for Altair (Taylor, 1997).

In 1976, another microprocessor of Intel was released - the 8086. 8086 was a 16-bit processor. Intel 8088 microprocessor came next in 1978. It was a 16-bit processor based from the 8086. Unlike 8086 however, which has a 16-bit data bus, 8088 only has an 8-bit data bus. IBM's first PC used the Intel 8088 chip.

The 16-bit 80286 of Intel was released in 1982. 80286 is six times as powerful as 8086, and can support an addressable virtual memory of 1GB and physical memory of 16MB. This chip was only used in a PC, by IBM AT, two years later after its release.

Intel's 80386, a 32-bit data bus and address bus microprocessor, was introduced in 1985. It was with 80386 that MS Windows and OS/2 commercially functioned. Intel 486, an enhancement of was released in1989.

Today, the Pentium family is the current commercially produced microprocessors of Intel. Intel Pentium was first introduced in 1993, which was followed by the Pentium Pro-in 1995, Pentium II MMX in 1997, Pentium II Xeon in 1998, Pentium III in 1999, and Pentium IV in 2002. As new designs of Intel microprocessor are released, the customer gets better computer processing performance.

Other Microprocessor Families

After Intel developed its first microprocessor chip, many companies began their business in the microprocessor market. Following are several historical dates of other microprocessor-producing companies.

1974 - Motorola released its NMOS 8-bit 6800.

1975-8-bit Zilog Z80 was launched. Zilog was established by Faggin and Shima, former Intel engineers. Z80 was said to perform better that its 8-bit counterpart of Intel.

1976-8-bit 6502 of MOS Technology was introduced.

1979 - Motorola released its 16-bit 68000 while Zilog introduced its Z8000.

1982 - While Intel released its 16-bit 80286, Motorola announced their own 68010 and 6805.

1984-32-bit 68020 of Motorala was introduced.

1987 - Z280, 16-bit version of Zilog's Z80, was released.


Taylor, Marvin. The History of Microprocessor.

1997. SIT.WISC.EDU. 31 Oct 2003.

Bellis, Mary. Inventors of the Modern Computer. 31 Oct 2003.

Woolley, Sandra. A Brief History of Microprocessors.

The University of Birmingham. 30 Oct 2003.… [read more]

Computer Addiction Research Paper

… Computer Addiction: Causes and Potential Cures

The determinants and predictors of computer addiction cannot be isolated only to a specific series of demographic, psychographic or socioeconomic variables, it is an equal opportunity disease. Empirical studies indicate that computer addiction is contrary to popular opinion, not just reserved for male teenagers who have been known to spend 48 hours straight playing games on their computers or engaging in online chat sessions (Soule, 65, 66). The determinants of computer addiction are more based on lineless and isolation, and the reliance on the computer as a means to find autonomy, mastery and purpose in life (Quinn, 175, 176). The symptoms of computer addiction include significant swings in a person's mood when they are online or off, whether they have been able to attain the level of activity on the computer they deem significant, and when denied access, conflict and feelings of anger, desperation and at times mood swings that bordered on psychosis (Soule, 72, 73). Computer addiction's best cure is to remove patients from the often extreme isolation conditions they have and create more suitable triggers of dopamine release, including accomplishing tasks in the real, not virtual, world (Quinn, 174, 175).

Analysis of Computer Addiction

It has been problematic for researchers to isolate a specific series of attributes or traits that distinguish those that are predisposed to computer addiction relative to those that aren't. This has made prediction difficult and opponents of the research, including PC hardware and software companies, able to refute these claims of their products being the basis of health problems for consumers (Neumann, 129, 130). Fortunately PC manufacturers including Apple and others have also studied the implications of computer addiction in the context of ergonomics and usability, and discovered that those that seek recursive feedback constantly, creating virtually what they need in person, are the most prone to this psychiatric condition (Neumann, 128, 129). The quick release of dopamine is at the center of the computer addictions millions of people have today (Soule, 72). The Internet acts like a dopamine accelerator for computer addict, accelerating the physiological and psychological changes their brains go through when interacting with their computer and especially the Internet (Quinn, 175, 176). The continual isolation that society today is continually creating along with the affinity that dopamine creates when it finds a source are powerful catalysts of behavioral change. The combination of these two factors are being helped along with the growing role of social media in general and Facebook specifically in people's lives. Posting on Facebook gives Internet addicts a dopamine rush that is highly addictive and lead marathon sessions of… [read more]

Computers and the Internet Term Paper

… He explained that while computers are providing good things to humans, humans may have the wrong notion that computers can do everything, thus exaggerating the definition and true purpose of computers. According to Roszak,

The loose but exuberant talk we hear on all sides these days about "the information economy," "the information society," is coming to have exactly [the] function [of] ambitious global definitions that make it all good things to all people. [T]heir very emptiness may allow them to be filled with a mezmerizing glamor. These often- repeated catchphrases and cliches are the mumbo jumbo of a widespread public cult. Like all cults, this one also has the intention of enlisting mindless allegiance and acquiescence. People who have no clear idea what they mean by information or why they should want so much of it are nonetheless prepared to believe that we live in an Information Age, which makes every computer around us what the relics of the True Cross were in the Age of Faith: emblems of salvation

Because of this, schools may be taken for granted by humans who may soon totally rely and depend on the technology of computers. As we currently have, some of this technology includes the educational software available in the market.

In response to Roszak's idea, what he's speaking about the technology that may overrule the purpose and function of schools for our literacy is possible. Nowadays, it is a trend for people to rely more on the benefits and advantages of computers. And as seen in many schools, technology is being applied as a large part of education.

Sherry Turkle's Simulation

Perhaps what Sherry Turkle means, when she says."..they also accustom us to manipulating systems whose core assumptions we may not understand..." In reference to simulation games, is that we may not be able to fully understand everything that is embedded, and that comprises, technology but we can get accustomed in using it nevertheless. As with simulation games where a computer user may not completely know everything in the game, but is able to play much of it anyhow, technology may accustom us to lose interest in exploring things as long as we are able to manipulate it. In such case, Turkle is concerned that we must challenge our built-in assumptions rather than just let rely on them. Relying on self-assumptions and intuitions is one threat of technology that may accustom us.

When Turkle says "in the real world we have never had a greater need to work our binary assumptions," she perhaps means that it is a fact that most people rely on assumptions anyway. Usually, people never explore things out. Rather, they just let their basic instincts rule them.

PowerPoint Carries Its "Own Way of Thinking" Where "Presentation Becomes Its Own Idea"

This means that the use of technology, like PowerPoint, allows the delivery of more idea to its audience.

Aside from the idea that a student may try to present in his PowerPoint presentation, the tool itself can… [read more]

Regulating and Governing the Internet Research Paper

… Regulating and Governing Internet

Regulating and Governing the Internet

Annotated Bibliography

The focus of this paper is to provide the annotated bibliography of the following articles: Nair, a. (2007). Internet Content Regulation: Is a Global Community Standard a Fallacy or the Only Way Out? International Review of Law Computers & Technology. 21 (1): 15 -- 25. The author argues that internet undoubtedly contains valuable amount of information and resources, which make the internet to become a way of life. Despite its major importance, the internet also has its dark side.

Policy makers are facing challenges to reach global consensus on the strategy to regulate the children phonographic. Typically, the borderless nature of the internet has been a major factor leading to the difficulties in regulating the content on the internet to protect the children from the phonographic content. The United States has made an effort to regulate the internet content by passing the Child Online Protection Act 1998 (COPA) and Communications Decency Act 1996 (CDA), however, these regulations failed to pass a constitutional tests in the court of law. The author suggests that internet needs to be regulated from many layers to protect children from the phonographic content.

2. Choi, C.J. Kim, S.W. & Yu, S. (2009). Global Ethics of Collective Internet Governance: Intrinsic Motivation and Open Source Software. Journal of Business Ethics. 90:523 -- 531. The authors argue that the ethical governance in the global internet is accelerating within a global phenomenon. A key paradox of a global internet is that it allows decision makers and individual to co-exist among one another making OSS (Open source software) communities to become an accelerating global phenomenon. Typically, OSS refers to a group of software assisting in code sharing among corporate users. Despite the importance of OSS, the motivation behind the OSS has generated wide debate among policy makers and researchers. Analysis of the OSS communities with the viewpoint of knowledge creation, collective internet governance and intrinsic motivation make the authors to conclude that OSS has a fundamental implication on the governance and business ethics in the 21st century.


Mansell, R. (2011). New visions, old practices: Policy and regulation in the Internet era. Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies. 25(1): 19-32. The author focuses on the interest of corporate organizations on the internet evolution and the roles of governments in regulating various services and infrastructure in the internet. The paper highlights the alliances between the neoliberal political and economic agenda in the internet regulation. Typically, neoliberal strategies alongside the private organizations are discussed to manage information diversity in the internet. However, author reveals that there is a conflict of interest in the internet regulation because the internet regulation will have an effect on the availability of the open network.

Part 2: Reflective Diary - Regulating and Governing the Internet

In the contemporary business environment, internet has become a critical tool for business communication. The growth of the internet has facilitated easy way of accessing… [read more]

Internet and Global Finance Research Paper

… From the statistics presented by the Internet World Stats, 2.4 billion people around the world were using internet in 2012, which represented 34.3% of the world population. Between 2000 and 2012, there was a tremendous growth of 566.4% of internet… [read more]

Vose, D. ). Risk Analysis Annotated Bibliography

… Section 404 has been specifically discussed that outlines the internal control assessments required of the firms. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) also requires publicly traded companies to comply with Treadway Commission's Committee of Sponsoring Organizations (COSO). The case of Motorola IT governance model is taken to demonstrate how compliance with SOX can be ensured for data and IT security by organizations. The article observes that SEC fails to provide specific guidance on IT security; rather it leaves room for interpretation by firms. There is brief mentioning of SOX acts that outline compliance related issues such as Sections 302, 404, 409, and 802 of SOX 2002. The article concludes with an observation that firms with least effective IT security made decisions related to IT governance at the level of business unit managers. Most effective firms in terms of IT governance made IT decisions by engaging three main stakeholders i.e. top management, business unit managers, and IT specialists.

Capelli, D., Moore, A. & Trzeciak, R. (2012).The CERT Guide to Insider Threats. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.

The book is written on the subject of 'insider attacks' related to abuse of information security in an organization. The book identifies and explains potential information technology (IT) system's vulnerability from insider sources of an organization such as employees, [read more]

Internet Globalization Good or Bad Research Paper

… Internet

The globalization of the Internet has spawned a rash of cyberattacks on the U.S. Department of Defense and a number of its contractors. One such example was the Poison Ivy attack on Booz Allen Hamilton, which was designed to… [read more]

Broadband Internet Service Term Paper

… The company also hopes to rent its MS Office features over the internet through the use of broadband connections. Windows Media, MSN TV, and interactive television platforms all require or will require high-speed broadband connections. So confident is Microsoft in… [read more]

Cyber Security Vulnerabilities Single Research Paper

… DDoS is an approach used to attack a victim from several undermined systems. The former are central to similar mechanisms as those of DoS attacks (Chang, 2002). However, for an attacker to accomplish an attack, they will need to execute… [read more]

Regulating Internet Privacy Research Paper

… Regulating Internet Policy

Regulating Internet Privacy

The paper provides the annotated bibliography of the three articles. The paper also provides the reflections on experience, opinions, attitudes and feelings with regard to the ethics and information technology (it).

Jacquelyn and Polito (2012) in their article titled "Ethical Considerations in Internet Use of Electronic Protected Health Information" reveal that patients, caregiver as well as family members are increasingly relying on it and social network websites for communicating, storing and referencing medical information. However, HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) Privacy Rule seeks to protect the patients' privacy by protecting their health information to assure the information is only available to people who deliver the healthcare service. In the United States, the government has made laws and policies to safeguard patients' privacy; however, the laws are inadequate to safeguard patient's privacy against the present rapid development of information technology and innovative use of electronic health websites. The authors identify the medical ethics as an effective strategy to protect patients' information against misuse of patients' information.

Lugaresi, (2010) in his article titled "Electronic privacy in the workplace: Transparency and Responsibility" argues that regulating the use of internet within the workplace has become challenging for the law enforcement agent. In spite the intervention of DPAs (data protection authorities), law, scholars and other public bodies, there are still no persuasive, and exhaustive legal responses for the enhancement of electronic privacy within the workplace. The employee's expectations of electronic privacy generally collide with employer's needs to monitor online activities. The author argues that employees' right to electronic privacy is not absolute; however, employees' right to electronic privacy must be in line with employer's electronic privacy policy to safeguard organizational data.

Falzone, (2013) in his article titled " Regulation and Technology" argues that technology development can derive a tremendously benefit from government involvement, and part of the government involvement in regulating technology is by assuming that technology is a private good similar to the private property that government should regulate. Typically, the internet is a very good example that the government should regulate. Presently, internet has become part of life of people globally. Thus, government regulation is essentially to enhance internet privacy. However, the author points out that both government and private organizations should implement internet regulatory policies to enhance ethical use of the internet.

Part II

In the contemporary business environment, the use of internet and information technology has become part of the business strategy and modern method of doing business. The internet has become part of life for both businesses and individuals. Despite the importance of internet and it foe consumers and businesses, regulating the use of internet to enhance its ethical use has become challenging. The present regulations to enhance the internet privacy are not sufficient in the face of internet hacking and other external penetrators who are using the internet technology… [read more]

Computer History Museum Virtual Trip Online Term Paper

… Cloud Computing Virtual Trip

Cloud Computing Virtual Field Trip: Computer History Museum

Description of the Event

After having taken a virtual field trip to the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, CA ( over the last week from home via the Internet, an appreciation of how interconnected and integrated the areas of mathematics, physics, electronics and the current state of computing and the Internet are today. The website is excellently designed to provide for drill-down on specific content areas and the history of technologies that support computing today, in addition to showing the unique aspects of software, the Internet and ground-breaking research by Google (Computer History Museum). The curators of the Computer History Museum have created excellent online materials for those who are taking a virtual field trip. The map to the right shows the entire museum including the specific locations of exhibits that are also provided online. After having looked at several museums online, this specific one was chosen for the virtual field trip.


Why -- How it Fit My Interests

The Computer History Museum in Mountain View, CA has exhibits and archives that align with several of my interests. Of particular interest is the initial research Dr. Metcalf undertook in defining the TCP/IP protocol, which much of the Internet runs on today (Computer History Museum). The History of the Internet online tour is among the most complete online-based tours of computer museums today. Visiting the online tour, it is apparent how challenging the initial efforts at integrating computer systems was, and how critical the parallel developments of minicomputers, ARPA-Net and software were to the initial stages of integration and complex computer networking (Computer History Museum).

Another fascinating exhibit is the Silicon Engine. This exhibit showcases the timeline of silicon technologies including circuit boards, memory chips and microprocessors. There is also a thorough analysis of the timeline of silicon-based development, profiles of the key inventors and industry leaders in this… [read more]

Computer History Museum: A Virtual Term Paper

… Once connections were enabled and the Internet became ubiquitous in the household, innovations proliferated. The Internet illustrates something very profound about communications technology, namely it is only useful and interesting when you can talk 'to' someone, and communications applications on their own, until they become common, are mere curiosities.

What I learned

The most profound thing I learned, in reviewing the grand sweep of the history of computers is the degree to which computer have become a part of daily life in a way they were not when they were first conceptualized. The earliest computers were as large as small rooms and even in supposedly futuristic scenario movies like 2001, computers were primarily entrusted to do 'heavy duty' rather than mundane tasks. Today, it is the everyday computers that have had the most profound influence upon changing the ways that human beings interact with one another.

It is interesting to see how different trends have occurred, ebbed away, and then reasserted themselves. For example, in an age in which few people typed other than secretaries, the 1980s saw the ascent and rapid decent of the 'pen' computer, a computer on which people could write notes. However, today, stylus computers were resurrected on blackberries before becoming obsolete once more with the popularity of touchscreens. Almost everyone today possesses the capacity to type, thanks to the common skill of word processing, but even this may began to once again be an obsolete skill as technology changes.

How does it apply to my main interest?

The unpredictability of technology and how it changes human life is the final message that was underlined to me by my visit to the Computer Museum. Even the inventors of the Internet's most basic technology could not have predicted the degree to which it would change everyday life and communication. Many people even prefer texting to talking, because of the comfortable distance online communication offers them.

We are 'mobile' computers today ourselves, forever carrying our 'network' baggage with us, wherever we go. In the past, this was regarded as a quaint idea, as parodied in this photo of a computer on a bicycle, but today the vision is an accepted reality.

Work Cited

"The Web." Computer History Museum. [5 Dec 2012] [read more]

Computers VPN as a Company Essay

… That outer packet guards the contents from public view and makes sure that the packet moves inside a virtual tunnel. This layering of packets is known as encapsulation. Computers or other network devices at both ends of the tunnel, known as tunnel interfaces, can encapsulate outgoing packets and reopen incoming packets. Users who are located at one end of the tunnel and IT personnel who are at one or both ends of the tunnel arrange the tunnel interfaces they're accountable for to use a tunnelling protocol. "Also called an encapsulation protocol, a tunnelling protocol is a standardized method to encapsulate packets" (Tyson & Crawford, 2012).

Using a VPN can have a key impact on a company by increasing sales, product development can be speed up, and strategic partnerships can be made stronger. Prior to VPNs the only other alternatives for generating this kind of communication were costly leased lines, Frame Relay or ATM access circuits. A high service quality VPN has prospective to be better then conventional circuits like ISDN and Frame Relay, as well as give the company considerable cost savings. "These costing savings can range for 30% to 80% depending on the type of leased line and its destination. For example a large corporation with offices all over the world can save substantial amounts of money on communication costs by introducing a VPN" (Why do Companies use VPN, 2011).

A well-designed VPN provides a business with many benefits. Some of the most significant include:

Extended connections across multiple geographic locations without using a leased line

Improved security for exchanging data

Flexibility for remote offices and employees to use the business intranet over an existing Internet connection as if they're directly connected to the network

Savings in time and expense for employees to commute if they work from virtual workplaces

Improved productivity for remote employees

A business might not require all these benefits from its VPN, but it should demand the following essential VPN features:

Security -- The VPN should protect data while it's traveling on the public network. If intruders try to capture the data, they should be incapable to read or use it.

Reliability -- Employees and remote offices should be able to connect to the VPN with no trouble at any time (unless hours are restricted), and the VPN should provide the same quality of association for each user even when it is handling its utmost number of concurrent connections.

Scalability -- As a business grows, it should be able to extend its VPN services to handle that growth without replacing the VPN technology altogether (Tyson & Crawford, 2012).


How Virtual Private Networks Work. (2008). Retrieved from


Mutrux, Z. (2008). Introduction to Virtual Private Networking (VPN). Retreived from

Tyson, J. & Crawford, S. (2012). How VPNs Work. Retrieved from

Why do Companies use VPN? (2011). Retrieved from [read more]

Is the Internet Changing the Way We Think? Research Paper

… ¶ … Internet Changing the Way We Think?

Today, the internet has become a conduit of sorts for the exchange of information from all corners of the world. In a big way, the internet continues to ease access to information… [read more]

Internet Changes Lives Research Paper

… Internet Changes Lives

How the Internet Changes People's Lives:

A Fantastic Story of a Once-in-a-Lifetime Discovery

How Internet Changes Lifestyles

The Internet technology revolution has been the single greatest story for the success of capitalism and innovation in the post-Cold… [read more]

Database Administrator Term Paper

… The number of database administrators to be working on the field is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2018. This is because the Internet and E-commerce will continue to expand massively, resulting in a continuing need to build and maintain database management systems. Also, the increasing importance that is being placed on cyber security, i.e., the protection of electronic information, will require many workers skilled in the task of information security. [5: Database Administrator." 19 March 2010. .]

The salary range for the job of Database Administrators is highly dependent upon the industry they are present in and the location of their workplace. Rates tend to be higher in the financial services and banking, investment and insurance sectors. The salaries for Database Administrators typically lie in the range from £25,000-£30,000 per year. After an experience of working as a DBA for around two to three years, the salary range tends to shoot up to a figure of around £35,000-£40,000 per year. Subsequent to gaining experience and fulfilling the role of a DBA in this field for a time period of about ten to fifteen years, the salary usually rises to a benchmark between the amounts of £40,000-£60,000 per year. Freelance work and self-employment is also possible in this work-field after a few years of experience. The working environment is mostly informal and it is possible for work to be carried out from home or from other remote locations using modems, laptops, email and access to the internet. There is an increasing trend towards working from home. [6: Staff, Yahoo! Education. "Telecommuting Careers." Yahoo! Education. March 2012 .Work CitedSpeciss College. ."Database Administrator." 19 March 2010. .Microsoft. "Database Basics." Microsoft Office. March 2012 .Prakken Publications. "Database Administrator?" (n.d.).SFIAPlus. "Database Administrators." British Computer Society (Retrieved 2012-02-06).Staff, Yahoo! Education. "Telecommuting Careers." Yahoo! Education. March 2012 .]

Nevertheless, the role of a Database Administrator is a vital one for his or her employers, as most of the functions in these organizations heavily rely on the successful performance of the duties of a DBA. Although a tough job, this makes them one of the most sought after professionals by enterprises all over the economy, rewarding them accordingly with heavy pay checks for the nature of the work they perform.

End Notes [read more]

Computer Security Briefly Support Your Own Opinion Term Paper

… Computer Security

Briefly support your own opinion about the ethical principles of the Lamers group before formation of the SecureThink Company. Briefly support your opinion about the ethics of the hiring of SecureThink by the MoneyBags record company.

The Lamers… [read more]

Social Disintegration Via Internet Term Paper

… Computers and Society

The Internet has facilitated communication, commerce, and information dissemination. However, the downside to the Internet has become the topic of recent research due to the proliferation of digital media and the ways the computer has infiltrated human… [read more]

Internet and Society Annotated Bibliography Annotated Bibliography

… Internet and Society

Annotated Bibliography

Goldsmith, JL. (2003) "Against Cyberanarchy." Who Rules the Net? Internet Governance and Jurisdiction. Ed. Adam Thierer and Clyde Wayne Crews. Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 31-70.

"Against Cyberanarchy." Who Rules the Net? Internet Governance and Jurisdiction is a group of journal articles that detail the multifaceted development of the internet and who, if anyone if in "control" of it through its inner workings. The article demonstrates both the pros and cons of internet anonymity. The foundational work demonstrates the need for both the anonymity of the net and also the specific controls and constraints that reduce the ability of individuals to utilize the net to commit crime, but also to maintain the free expression that is associated with the information technology of the internet.

Evaluation: This work, better than any others I have read details the nature of the internet and the ease of access it provides to those who have the intention of utilizing it to invalidate the historical acceptance and enforcement of intellectual properties. Copyright, regulations as well as many other issues of intellectual properties have historically been essential to the control of profitability of many intellectual pursuits, including artistic expressions associated with entertainment. Yet, this work also details the need to develop situations and circumstances, such as those found on the net that stress and support the importance of free expression and easy access to such free expression.

Mann, C.C. (Sept. 2000) "The Heavenly Jukebox." The Atlantic Monthly: 39.

Summary: "The Heavenly Jukebox," is a magazine article that deatails the need for the music industry to recognize both the risks and gains that can be obtained through the development of internet music technologies. The stress of the article is that the music industry fears the potential for piracy of intellectual properties, and yet needs to recognize that the real losses are not as great as has… [read more]

Consequences of Computer Technologies on Educators Term Paper

… Internet and Online Education


In order to fully understand the impact of online courses and to place them within their proper social context it is important to understand how the idea of online learning developed. A literature review reveals a growing body of sources related to the history of the Internet and it social relevance. The following will explore this research and will summarize it in order to gain a proper understanding of its social significance.

History of the Internet and Internet-Based Courses

The concept of educational courses where the student did not have to be physically present in the classroom began soon after the first television set was introduced. The original concept of the television was that it would be a means to educate a population in a highly efficient manner (Freed, 1999). However, corporate greed soon took over and the educational purpose of the television soon became secondary to the advertising potential.

The first telecourse began in 1959 and continued into the early 1960s. Sunrise Semester involved a teacher, standing before a class with a camera that was shooting over the heads of the students. The program was dropped due to a lack of funding (Freed, 1999). Sesame Street and other educational programs arose from these early efforts (Freed, 1999).

The first true telecourse was offered by Coastline Community College in 1976. Courses were broadcast over public television to universities and libraries in Orange County. At the same time Dallas Community College began producing video courses for export to other campuses (Freed, 1999). Considering these early forerunners it should not be surprising that online courses sprang up quickly after the invention of the Internet.

In 1991 the World Wide Web as we know it was born (Leiner, et. Al, 2000). In a search for the oldest online school on any level, the jury is still out. There were many schools on the Internet that claim to be the first. It was difficult to draw any type of conclusion on this subject. However, one thing became apparent. There are hundreds, or perhaps even thousands of online schools offering anything from preschool to MA and PHD level instruction.

Universities first began giving students access to the Internet in the early 1990s (Freed, 1999). The Internet provides many opportunities for distance learning and has many advantages over early distance learning courses and the face-to-face classroom. The Internet allows for on-demand video, audio, text, and graphics, immediate access to vast libraries of research material, and real time interaction between teachers and students (Freed, 1999). Now systems are being developed that provide these services with improved speed and quality.

Social Ramifications of Internet-Based Courses

The Internet has changed almost everything in our lives. It has changed the way we communicate, the way we do business and the way we learn. The Internet has acted as a leveling force between large and small corporations. The Internet has given customers and students more choices.… [read more]

IT Security Lang, David. A Graphic Picture Term Paper

… IT Security

Lang, David. "A Graphic Picture of Crime." ASIS. Sept 2002.

The article "A Graphic Picture of Crime" begins with a tale of an 'everyman' or 'every person' wireless Internet user named John whose computer is hacked from a distance by a criminal named Frank. Frank uses his laptop to mimic John's wireless network and the wireless router's Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), the protocol that assigns Internet protocols. Not only does the article explain how this newest twist in intellectual property theft, that of robbing a user of his or her digital footprints and using the protocol for criminal purposes, is accomplished, it also shows the legal difficulties in tracing such a crime and outlines what one can do to prevent such a crime from being committed against one's self in the first place.

The investigation of such crimes remains difficult from a legal perspective, although less so than it used to be. Traditionally, investigators of intellectual property theft had to prove that the alleged criminals had stolen, intellectual property in the form of direct observation or sworn testimony from direct witnesses. Now, for Internet crimes of intellectual property, by law, investigators need only to obtain a court order to require the Internet service provider (ISP) make subscriber information available to law enforcement so that the investigators can contact the private homeowners whose connection has been hijacked.

Then, they investigators can obtain consent for a search from the individual whose accounted was hacked into and gather information about any unauthorized computers that used the owners' wireless network via a router. A router collects data on every computer that sends information through the network, including the computer's address on the Internet and each computer's unique identifier from the factory, called the MediaAccess Controller (MAC) address. A MAC address that does not correspond to any computer in the home indicates an outside has exploited the wireless network connection.

Later, after Frank is 'captured' and the investigators can obtain a warrant search the working memory of the alleged offender's computer, the random access memory (RAM) or primary storage area where calculations and data manipulation occur. The forensic examiners are most concerned with the section of slack space known as RAM slack, swap files, and deleted information from slack space and swap files. Examiners can thus create a timeline and confirm that Frank downloaded and decrypted the instructions from the Internet before using stenography software to hide his progress. Forensic investigators use password-cracking techniques to recover encrypted instructions to be decrypted as well as the stenography tool password needed to extract Frank's report the graphic file. This gives the investigators now have probable cause to obtain search warrants for several ISPs hosting the various Web sites used by the gang for transferring information, and finally the gigabytes of logs and transaction records retrieved via the investigator's data mining and visualization software… [read more]

Computer Is it Anyway? Term Paper

… Should management be allowed to monitor all Internet use?

Management must be allowed to monitor all Internet use. Since access to the Internet is considered as among the resources of a company, it is only fitting and proper for them to have the right of knowing that their resources are not misused and abused by their employees. After all, it is the responsibility of the employees to make use of the company's Internet access for the right purpose. Otherwise, if they have other intentions in accessing the Internet, they should instead do it out of their company's facilities.

Should employees be warned if email is to be monitored?

If emails are to be monitored, it is also a good etiquette to inform the employees. This is to protect the employees' rights to privacy and confidential information. For instance, some personal emails, though not malicious, might contain confidential matters for employees. Thereby, if they are informed that their emails will be monitored, they can choose not access in the office their personal emails.

What specific reasons can you give to support an Internet crackdown by management?

The first reason why Internet crackdown is done by management is that they need to ensure that their employees make use of office hours for the company's benefit and not just for their employees personal activities. Another reason is that managements need to protect company information from malicious disclosures that employees might make.

What specific reasons can you give to oppose a crackdown?

Internet crackdown removes the right of employees to privacy and confidentiality. All that they access from the Internet can be traced and read by the management. Thereby, employees cannot even make use of their break times for… [read more]

Computers on Traditional Writing Term Paper

… Literacy is also affected, because grammar and literary "rules" are often ignored in the rush to communicate, and so, the printed word online often results in incoherent gibberish that is accepted as the norm. As the author notes, "The experience becomes fragmentary and malleable, or oral, rather than unified and stable, or literate, and information retains a fluidity in computer-mediated communication that it lacks in traditional literacy" (Ferris). Therefore, communication on the computer becomes more "oral" rather than written, and this has changed the way we communicate all through our culture. Ideas flow more fluidly and quickly, and brainstorming is easier to do with partners throughout the world.

Clearly, the written word online has altered our culture in many ways, some not always for the better. However, online communication is here to stay, and the full effects on our culture are yet to be seen.


Ferris, Sharmila Pixy. "The Effects of Computers on Traditional Writing." University of Michigan Press. August 2002. 29 Oct. 2003. [read more]

Computer Networking in Today's Society Term Paper


Kathy Ivens, Home Networking for Dummies, (John Wiley & Sons, 2002) p.20.

Jeff Tyson, "How Home Networking Works," located at

CERT Coordination Center, "Home Network Security," located at

See id.

H. Gilbert, "Introduction to TCP/IP," February 6, 1995, located at

IBM Redbook Abstract, TCP/IP Tutorial and Technical Overview, located at

Selena Sol, "Internet Protocol," August 16, 1999, located at

Computer Networking, located at, "What is an Intranet?," located at [read more]

Computer Systems Article Critique

… The realization that intrusion detection has a number of false positives is a significant one (Bace, 2000; Coit, Staniford, & McAlerney, 2001). Until that was realized, there was little advancement in the way intrusion detection worked or how it was… [read more]

History of E-Commerce Essay

… The current consensus regarding cloud computing among the academic community reveals a conflicting worldview, with much of the research on the efficacy of cloud computing lauding the advancement as revolutionary in nature, while a significant number of studies focus on… [read more]

Virtual Technology: Social Interactions Research Paper

… Virtual Technology: Social Interactions

Traditionally, people attached a significant degree of importance to social interactions. Such interactions were considered the backbone of humanity; they came in handy in decision making and ensured that relatives and friends stayed connected to each… [read more]

Incident Response and Computer Forensic Investigation Research Paper

… ¶ … Computer Forensic investigation

Making an initial assessment about the case.

Identifying the risks.

Mitigating or minimizing the risks.

Determining a preliminary design or approach to the case.

Creating a detailed checklist.

Determining the resources needed.

Establishing the Chain… [read more]

Computer Dependence the Story Essay

… Green energy solutions are feasible. Medical breakthroughs have increased life expectancy, provided cures and improved preventive care.

Our day-to-day lives are made easier by having instantaneous access to information through compatible user interfaces. Regardless of pros and cons, people continue to adapt as technology continues to advance." Although this appears to make sense, this author falsely equivocates advancement with computers and well being.


While the inherent benefits or disadvantages of computer technology are certainly subjective and relative, it cannot be argued that a certain dependence has been created. Material possessions and computer technology have made life become wrapped up in ideas and morals that do not represent the more spiritual and esoteric factions of human existence. It is clear that this is a result of a need to connect digitally and not emotionally.

Dependence is different than preference and can be distinguished by the emotional intensity that arises when dependency is denied. Evolution and change must incorporate the human ability to shed its past failures and move on to bigger and brighter things. Our dependence upon computer technology has the ability to hide or at least distort the natural and balanced ways of our more sublime features.


Bator, M. (2009). Are young people becoming too dependent on the Internet? The Chicago Tribune, 5 Feb 2009. Retrieved from

Federal Emergency Management Agency (2011). Technological Development and Dependency. Strategic Foresight Initiative, FEMA May 2011. Retrieved from

Richtel, M. (2010). Attached to Technology and Paying a Price. The New York Times, 6 June 2010. Retrieved from

Schirtzinger, J. (2012). Pros and Cons of Technology. The Guardian, 19 Oct 2012.… [read more]

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