Study "Copyright / Trademark / Patent" Essays 111-129

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Practice of Downloading Term Paper

… ¶ … Downloading

With the full and complete embracing of the information age there are many issues of intellectual property rights that are becoming increasingly cloudy.

Boucher 102-105) the information super highway, offers options for electronic information that can be easily and quickly distributed between users with little effort and usually little if any money. Sharerers of things like full length feature films, and copyrighted print and music files profess that the proliferation of information is essential to growth. This work will argue that despite the growth of technology that will eventually ensure that such downloads are as clear as they would be if obtained through legitimate means the proliferation of free information, online should remain available wherever it is legal and that to ensure a market share in such growth industries should embrace low fee or free self proliferation to help improve access and availability through legitimate means on the internet.

For example many music aficionados seek obscure and new artists' materials online, they either cannot get elsewhere or through the claim that the infectiousness of spreading music this way builds growth of traditional markets through awareness that would otherwise not be there. Many industries seek to stop such information swapping as a result of perceived or real financial loss, and the awareness that allowing such free sharing in an area where technology continues to improve its quality will lead to many future revenue losses. Intellectual property rights are therefore, frequently sought to ensure these real and potential profits are reaching the proper hands.

Boucher 102-105) in a sense the appropriate cliche to describe this rapid industry change is, you snooze you lose. Industry must be vigilant in the manner in which they offer options to viewers and listeners, and grow legitimate resources for such access. In this manner, watching the lead from television, with many networks offering web versions of programming so individuals can catch up on their favorite programs and even watch an entire season of programming in…… [read more]


Market Follower Strategy Term Paper

… Market Follower Strategies

The four broad categories of market follower strategies include counterfeiting, cloning, imitating and adapting. The competitive dynamics of an industry, the strengths and weaknesses of a company itself, its ability to compete on price, innovation or service, and its distribution strategies and even its supply chains have a direct influence on which market strategy is chosen. The first strategy mentioned (Kotler 2005), counterfeiting, is the practice of creating an exact replica of a product, often in violation of copyrights. Counterfeiting has become one of the major contention points in American-Chinese trade due to copyright infringements, and is a strategy relied on in those nations whose laws are not as rigorous in prosecuting companies who engage in this strategy. Yet it is one many competitors face as they become more successful selling globally. Cloning strategies are the second type mentioned (Kotler 2005) and involve taking the most common features and characteristics of a product and…… [read more]


Digital Rights Management Term Paper

… Digital Rights Management (DRM)

A major battle is under way over the issue of digital rights management (DRM), a technological fix imposed by major corporations to protect their software. The development of the Internet and all computer technology has altered… [read more]


Design Culture Term Paper

… ¶ … Culture

Lyons, Kevin. "Cease and Desist, Issues of Cultural Reappropriation in Urban Street Design." Design Culture. Ed. Stephen Heller, Marie Finamore. New York: Allworth Press, 1997, p. 13-15. This article largely consists of the authors' interview material with four of the most prominent and successful urban designers: Eric "Haze," James Jebbia, Ssur Russ, and Joseph Melendez. Although brief, the article allows a glimpse into the mindsets surrounding reappropriation of imagery, or "biting," as it is called on the street. Biting is more commonly known in the musical world, in which small sound bites known as samples are reappropriated and synthesized into an entirely new creative project. If there is indeed nothing new under the sun then design reappropriation is simply an extension of all other creative processes. Reappropriation in the realm of the visual arts may entail biting a portion of a corporate logo or product design as a springboard for something new. Lyons shows, through his interview material and commentary around it, that reappropriation is one way oppressed social groups and minorities create subcultures and engender pride within their communities. Occasionally the justification behind reappropriation of corporate symbols is a simple tit for tat: as James Jebbia notes, corporations regularly reappropriate urban designs and ideas at huge profit margins. Reappropriation of corporate design thus serves also as a metaphor for the triumph of the underdog. Urban street culture is inescapably hostile and competitive and urban design is one of the key ways artists establish personal and collective identities in the midst of otherwise painful economic realities. In his interviews, Lyons also touches upon intellectual property rights and potential sources of misappropriation: especially in cases where an ethnic or racial minority might feel offended by the method by which its symbols were "bitten off." This article, while altogether too brief for any in-depth analysis, nevertheless offers a good springboard for discussion.

Coombo, Rosemary J. "Is there Legal Protection for Cultural Imagery?" Design Culture. Ed. Stephen Heller, Marie Finamore. New York: Allworth Press, 1997, p. 16-18. In this article, the author criticizes the limitations of copyright law for not protecting cultural emblems or expressions. Intellectual property law arises from a Euro-centric worldview, one that champions individualism and therefore one that protects individual creative expressions more than collective ones. As a result, minority groups, which do not hold individualism in such high esteem as a cultural value, are at risk for the misappropriation of their ideas, symbols, and creative art forms. Furthermore, many creative forms are not legally defined as "art" in a Western European context, such as food preparation or ritual tattoos. While Coombo's argument is enlightening and offers insight into the limitations of intellectual property and copyright laws, her article is devoid of real substance. Lacking in solid examples save for the one about Crazy Horse, the article cannot adequately illustrate why appropriation of cultural symbols is wrong, when such appropriation might be tolerated, and how the legal system can adapt to include collective cultural expressions…… [read more]


Watermarking Has Become a Widely Used Technology Term Paper

… WATERMARKING has become a widely used technology in the emerging field of copyright protection (Kalker, 562). According to Bloom (et al.), watermarking can be thought of as a technique for hiding information within a video that is difficult to see, and even more difficult to remove (1269). Further, Evgueni and Mendoza point out that watermarking can be applied to any media, including still images, audio clips, video clips, or any other media (2).

Miller states that watermarking is a way for the copyright owner to "mark" media, which allows identification by that owner. This identification is embedded within the media, and thus, will be transferred along with the media if it is transformed (1496).

Watermarking technology is based on three main principles. First, the watermark must be invisible to the user of the media (Hartung, 81). This generally means the watermarking scheme should be random and noise like. Since most media contains noise, this method allows the watermark to go unnoticed (Hartung, 81). Additionally, the watermark should be secure, in that only those parties authorized should be able to access the watermark (Hartung, 81). According to Mendoza, this security is best achieved by placing the watermarks using informed embedding, a process which allows the embedder to examine the original content of the media prior to placing the watermarks (2). This allows for the most secure placement of the mark (Mendoza, 2).

Finally, watermarks should be robust enough to withstand manipulation (Hartung, 81). On one hand, since the…… [read more]


Taking Sides Term Paper

… Downloading Music

The music industry reports that the problem of people sharing copyrighted music files via the Internet, circumventing payment for the product, continues in spite of the Digital Millenium Copyright Act. They report that this illegal activity accounts for 31% of the drop in sales for the music industry (Editorial staff, 2003). Acquiring recorded music without paying for it when it shoud be paid for shortchanges not only the artists but all the people who work in the background to produce recorded music, and is unethical behavior. People who download copyrighted music should therefore be prosecuted for this illegal behavior to the fullest extent of the law.

However, in spite of the fact that sharing copyrighted music and DVD's via the Internet is clearly illegal, many people find ways to rationalize doing exactly that. The industry has played an unintended role in that behavior by encrypting their data to the point that people cannot fast-forward through a DVD or skip previews of coming movies that have already been viewed (Barlas, 2003). Once that encryption has been broken, the illegally downloaded CD or DVD is actually more usable. Although we think of this as a United States problem, these illegal exchanges of digital files occur all over the world: in Brazil, the use of…… [read more]


Life After Napster Term Paper

… In a ruling completely unexpected by lawyers representing recording studios, U.S. District Judge Marilyn Hall Patel ruled that the claimed copyright holders had to demonstrate that they did in fact own the copyrights to the songs in question before they… [read more]


Emotional Development of Young Children Research Paper

… Emotional Development of Children in Middle Childhood

The emotional development and well-being of children in middle childhood depends on a number of factors that are related to biological as well as social aspects of the child's life. Freud contended that children in the middle childhood stage were in a latency phase of growth, in which sexuality was still a part of the unconscious and psychological development focused on the intellect, curiosity about oneself, others, and the world, and the improvement of social/cultural awareness. Erikson describes this stage as being characterized by a dichotomy of feelings, namely those expressed by industry vs. inferiority: the child in this stage is learning to master both thinking and acting skills, which gives them a sense of their own competency (industry); but if children are having trouble developing these skills, they may experience feelings of inferiority (Berk, 2014).

At the same time there is the tendency for self-esteem to develop in adolescence. Positive self-images are developed in children whose familial relations include parents who show involvement in the child's life, loving relations, and who are capable of erecting parameters, boundaries and restrictions, which help give the child direction and support. Peers are just as essential in this formation of the child's emotional well-being at this stage, as they reflect actions that the child will mirror and mimic as the child engages in social development. According to the CDC (2015), the best ways in which parents can help to provide a stable foundation for emotional development and well-being for children in this stage is to spend ample time with their children, talk to them, discuss their accomplishments, skills, their friends and whatever obstacles they may face or be facing. The key is to be emotionally connected to the child, which helps the child to foster a sense of anchoring and stability. Establishing goals for the children is also an important developmental process that gives the child an objective to strive toward and something to set focus on.

Issues like bullying can be negatively impactful on children during this stage and can lead to challenges of self-esteem, physicality, friendship, peer pressure, assertiveness, and insecurity/inferiority. Emotionally-adjusted children will also be supported by cognitive directives that allow children to seek out assistance if bullying is a problem or to face the challenge independently (as independence also becomes a variable in determining a child's actions at this time). The sense of self-worth that a child has is defined by the values instilled in the child at home by parents and family as well as by peers, with whom the child interacts. Emotional development is not something that is programmed but something which evolves over time and in which the child's sense of self is tested, refined, molded and shaped by experience and the child's response to the world around him/her.

Collins and Russell (1991) point out that…… [read more]


What Intervention Is Approproate for Childhood Obesity Research Paper

… Childhood Obesity

The problems related to childhood obesity are extensive and troubling to healthcare officials, educators, parents and civic leaders. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) the percentage of obese children aged 6-11 years of age in the U.S. in 1980 was 7%. By 2012 that percentage rose to 18%. For adolescents ages 12-19, in 1980 some 5% were obese but by 2012 that percentage skyrocketed to 21% (CDC). The reason these data are worrisome is that obese young people are at risk for cardiovascular diseases (high cholesterol, high blood pressure), for diabetes, and for "bone and joint problems, sleep apnea," and psychological problems (such as stigmatization and poor self-esteem) (CDC). The World Health Organization counts " ... 42 million children under the age of 5 were overweight or obese" in 2014 (WHO, 2015).

Treatment Initiaves - Interventions

A study in the journal BMC Public Health reports that he problem of childhood obesity is particularly serious among " ... socio-economically disadvantages Latino and Black children" (Cloutier, et al., 2015). Hence, the goals of the Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Program (ECHO) are to zero in on the first year of a child's life and have mothers become "agents of change" in order to "modify their own behavior and their infant's behavior" (Cloutier, 1).

This particular intervention involved six family-support centers in disadvantaged neighborhoods in Hartford, CT; fifty-seven mothers were recruited to participate in this research. They were mothers that had recently given birth, or were about to give birth, and they were brought into the Nurturing Families Network. Twenty-seven of the fifty-five received the "standard home visitation program," and thirty were part of an intervention that received both "standard home visitation program and the ECHO intervention (Cloutier, 1).

The ECHO intervention "increases maternal skills" through setting goals and solving programs, and links mothers with training vis-a-vis " ... breastfeeding, solids, juice and sugar-sweetened beverages," best sleep methods for children and how to respond to "infant cues, television/screen time, and maternal diet and physical activity" (Cloutier, 3). The results (based on data from this intervention) presented by the authors include: a) when infants are breastfed "longer and exclusively;" b) when there is a "delayed introduction of solids and juices" for at least 6…… [read more]


Information Security: Thumb Drive Shipping Case Study

… ¶ … package the thumb drive for shipment to the lab? Be specific as to what materials you would use, and why?

The very first thing to do is make sure that the copy of the information we received was not tampered with prior to receiving it. This will be critical from a legislative and investigation perspective. For this instance, the contents of the thumb drive contain essential elements for the case. As a former product engineer, contents on this thumb drive can be seamlessly and effortless integrated into the new employers system. Therefore, it is imperative to ship the contents in the thumb drive in a manner that does compromise the actual integrity of the unit. Small break cracks or moisture can potentially destroy evidence located on the thumb drive.

The materials I would use would repel many of the more common elements that harm electronics. Moisture is particular can be detrimental to a thumb drive. I would therefore insulate the device with moisture wicking material. Common packing materials like bubble wrap conduct static which can be harmful to electronic devices. In this instance, the static could harm the needed contents within the thumb drive. To avoid this, I would use 'pink' bubble wrap that has anti-static qualities. This item provides the much needed protection and cushion for the thumb drive without harming its. In addition, I would place the thumb drive in a sturdy box that is both fire proof, and water proof. Particular with boxes being shipped, the environment that the box is in may contain elements that create moisture. I would want to prevent this from occurring within the box. Although rare, fires can occur through human error, and handling mistakes. By taking the necessary caution to protect the contents of the box, the thumb drive will be better protected (Crowley, 2009).

What would you ask the lab to look for on the submitted thumb drive, and why?

I would ask the lab to look for an outright copy of the sou-rce code used by the original employer. When a program is developed for commercial use, it is usually written in a high level language from C. This computed language can be very complex and convoluted. In many instances, it is unique to the company designing the software. When it is compiled, the compiler converts the source code into assembly language. An assembler converts the assembly language into object code which is machine language. This is the serious of 1s and 0s that appear on screen. This series is very unique. If it were copies outright, it would…… [read more]


Systems Threats 3D SWOT

… Another threat is that as 3D Systems expands their market share that they do so at a rate that is unsustainable. They must develop at a rate in which they can control quality as well as service. If they expand too quickly then they could lose some of their current clientele if there service levels are not adequate. Thus they should work to balance growth with their internal capabilities and their ability to control their intellectual property. Controlling intellectual property is also a threat because in many Asia Pacific areas intellectual property theft is commonplace manufactures commonly steal designs (University of Oregon Investment Group, 2011).

Works Cited

Ash, F. (N.d.). Product Life Cycle (PLC): Stages, Development, & Process. Retrieved from Write and Writing: http://www.writeawriting.com/business/product-life-cycle-plc-stages-development-process/

University of Oregon Investment Group. (2011, May). 3D Systems Corporation. Retrieved from University of Oregon Investment Group: http://uoinvestmentgroup.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/DDD-2.pdf… [read more]


People Buy Counterfeit Goods the Dilemma Research Paper

… ¶ … People Buy Counterfeit Goods

The Dilemma of Counterfeit Goods

Counterfeit goods production and sale has in recent times grown to become a multibillion dollar concern. Indeed, as McIntyre points out, it has been claimed by several economists that the sale of counterfeit products accounts for approximately eight percent of the GDP of China. According to the author, most of these counterfeit products end up in America. It is however important to note that the problem of counterfeit goods has also been an issue in many other parts of the world. Recently, police in France dismantled an international counterfeiting ring that was raking in huge sums of money from the sale of counterfeit versions of Birkin bags (Huffington Post). Based on the findings of the survey I undertook, there seems to be a positive relationship between the likelihood of an individual purchasing a counterfeit good and the cost difference between counterfeit and genuine goods. The fact that counterfeit goods are cheaper than genuine goods motivates most people to go for counterfeit goods. This is an assertion further supported by the existing literature on the subject. It is also important to note that based on my review of literature and the survey findings, consumer purchases are to some extent influenced by society norms.

In regard to counterfeit goods, Howie points out that "while shoppers are happy with the price, they are often nagging doubts about the items' quality, their legality and who ends up profiting." Away from the legality and quality of counterfeit goods and questions about who actually benefits from their sale, the market for counterfeit goods can only be described as booming. According to a recent study funded by the EU, the number of those who buy counterfeit goods carrying the labels of top designers stands at three million (Howie). This is the clearest indicator yet that there is a good number of people who would rather go for a counterfeit product as opposed to the real thing. According to the survey that I conducted, 59.6% of participants claimed they knew someone who had in the past purchased a counterfeit product. Non-deceptive purchases should in this case be contrasted with deceptive purchases. In the latter, consumers are duped into purchasing fake products in the belief that they are original (Ali). Although one could indeed argue that maybe some consumers are duped into purchasing counterfeit goods in the belief that they are purchasing the "real thing," Howie notes that according to a professor from the University of Durham, "consumers are rarely duped by the black market manufacturers, instead welcoming the choice offered by fakes."

American consumers according to McIntyre are bargain hunters. Indeed, as the author further points out, it is this characteristic of American shoppers that has seen a significant increase in the number of counterfeiters -- mostly from China. In the words of Ali, "the most obvious factor motivating customer purchase of counterfeit products is their relatively low price…" According to Ali, one category of those likely… [read more]


Ethical Influence on Consumer Behavior Research Paper

… Ethical Situations That Influence Consumer Behavior

Counterfeiting expensive merchandise and making it available at significantly lower prices without regard for the legal or ethical implications of this practice cost the apparel, accessory and merchandise industry nearly $200B a year in… [read more]


China IP China's Intellectual Property Essay

… Given the positive outcomes associated with stronger intellectual property rights, however, it is more likely that Western standards will prevail and China would be better off to adopt full Western standards sooner rather than later.

A third criticism of the criticism of China's IP protection regime is that Chinese culture is different. The West's concerns with Chinese intellectual property rights protections are overblown because Western firms apply their own standards and do not take the time to understand the Chinese perspective (Chaudhry, Zimmerman, Peters & Cordell, 2009). However, if Chinese firms wish to attract Western foreign direct investment and knowledge transfer, they will need to make their country attractive to Western investors, and that means adopting Western intellectual property rights protection standards.

By taking improving the IP protection laws on the books and the mechanisms to enforce those laws, China would gain valuable foreign direct investment. This would include high value FDI that would result in technology and knowledge transfer. Such transfer would benefit domestic firms. The barriers that restrict inbound foreign direct investment, therefore, not only harm foreign firms but Chinese domestic firms as well by restricting their access to crucial knowledge and technology. Instead of the current restrictive regime, China should take a lead role in developing intellectual property rights protections that not only work in its own domestic interests but set an example for other emerging markets. In order to do this, China must not only strengthen the laws that are on the books, but it must strengthen the enforcement of these laws significantly, to bring the up to Western standards. If it does so, China can continue to grow at a rapid pace by encouraging more foreign investment, especially in the key knowledge industries of the future.

References

Awokuse, T. & Yin, H. (2010). Intellectual property rights protection and the surge in FDI in China. Journal of Comparative Economics. Vol. 38 (2) 217-224.

Chaudhry, P.,Zimmerman, A., Peters, J. & Cordell, V. (2009). Preserving intellectual property rights: Managerial insight into the escalating counterfeit market quandary. Business Horizons. Vol. 52 (2009) 57-66.

Hu, R., Pray, C., Huang, J., Rozelle, S., Fan, C. & Zhang, C. (2009). Reforming intellectual property rights and the Bt cotton seed industry in China: Who benefits from policy reform? Research Policy. Vol 38 (2009) 793-801.

Keupp, M.; Beckenbauer, A. & Gassmann, O. (2009). How managers protect intellectual property rights in China using de facto strategies. R&D Management. Vol. 39 (2) 211-224.

Kshetri, N. (2009). Institutionalization of intellectual property rights in China. European Management Journal. Vol. 27 (3) 155-164.

Quan, X. & Chesbrough, H. (2010)

Hierarchical segmentation of R&D processes and intellectual property protection: Evidence from multinational R&D laboratories in China. Engineering Management. Vol. 57 (1) 9-21

Sepetys, K. & Cox, A. (2009). Intellectual property rights protection in China: Trends in litigation and economic damages. NERA Economic Consulting. Retrieved November 25,…… [read more]


Managers Protect Intellectual Property Rights Term Paper

… Other companies adopted the strategy of secrecy, by never putting important information in writing. Often, this involves keeping a specific key bit of knowledge secret, without which the product will not function.

A third strategy is what the authors call "internal guangxi," which refers to Chinese social networks that govern societal behavior. By building strong relationships with key Chinese workers, Western managers can exert social pressure on them to obey Western standards of IP protocols. In part, this strategy involves educating the workers about the importance of IP protections. A fourth strategy is "external guangxi," which requires building relationships with external bodies and institutions. Official bodies in China have significant power, and can exert influence over Chinese managers. Developing relationships with customs managers, for example, can help keep counterfeited goods from reaching export markets by blocking off transportation links outside of the country. The fifth strategy is to educate the customer, for example getting the message out that low-quality counterfeits do not meet customer needs. Customers then recognize that the official brand is the best one to purchase.

The authors note that these strategies have varying degrees of success, but that they are adopted widely among Western firms operating in China. The authors also hypothesize that these techniques will be valuable outside of China as well, even in developed markets.

Works Cited:

Keupp, M.; Beckenbauer, A. & Gassmann, O. (2009). How managers protect intellectual property rights in China using de facto strategies. R&D Management. Vol. 39 (2) 211-224.… [read more]


China and IP My Research Essay

… Awokuse and Yin (2010) study the relationship between the degree of intellectual property rights protections in China and foreign direct investment. This linkage forms a key part of the argument. There are many other studies that can be cited, and it is well worth stepping outside the library to gather primary source data as well.

There are three main points of argument that I expect to develop. The first is the premise that intellectual property rights form an integral part of the framework of global commerce. The second point is that China's intellectual property rights protections are below the standards of other major trading nations. The third point is that these substandard protections are having an adverse effect on China's economy. A variety of economic statistics can be used to support this line of logic.

There may be some objections to my position. One potential objection is that China's growth has been robust without good intellectual property protections, and it is mere speculation to argue that its economy could have performed better with stronger protections.

I believe that I am on target to have an outline by November 16th.

Works Cited:

Awokuse, T. & Yin, H. (2010). Intellectual property rights protection and the surge in FDI in China. Journal of Comparative Economics. Vol. 38 (2) 217-224.

Keupp, M.; Beckenbauer, A. & Gassmann, O. (2009). How managers protect intellectual property rights in China using de facto strategies.…… [read more]


Ethics Essay

… This paper examined the issues raised by the theft of proprietary computer code from Goldman Sachs by its former employee. The theft, the resulting trial, and sentencing also raise other significant ethical issues, including standards of professional conduct, cybercrime, security, and privacy. Examining the events from the differing perspectives of the Doing Ethics Technique provides different insights than those that come from using the ACS Code of Ethics; likewise using different classical ethical theories.

What is noteworthy about analysis from the differing perspectives is that each technique is useful for different purposes. Doing Ethics Techniques yields the broadest perspectives and a higher likelihood of developing group consensus; it fills the need to "sift through issues to determine appropriate courses of action" (Simpson, 2003). The ACS Code of Ethics is most valuable for its presentation of behaviors to avoid or engage; it is not intended to promote discussion or analysis per se or guarantee ethical behavior (Code of Ethics, section 4.4) . Classical ethical theories provide a means of explaining and predicting human behavior.

Having considered each approach, this paper recommends a solution that the Doing Ethics Technique suggests earlier, arriving at a compromise that allows both parties to win. Such a compromise would leave both Aleynikov's and Goldman Sachs' belief systems intact, as well as support the larger contractual framework for pursuing society's greater good.

Reference List

Australian Computer Society Code of Ethics. University of Western Australia website. Retrieved April 28, 2011 from http://undergraduate.csse.uwa.edu.au/units/CITS3200/ethics/acs-ethics.htm

Mastin, L. (2011). Basics of Philosophy. Retrieved April 28., 2011 from http://www.philosophybasics.com/branch_contractarianism.html

Sevenoaks School Philosophy Department. (2011). Ethics. Retrieved April 28, 2011 from http://www.sevenoaksphilosophy.org/ethics/egoism.html

Simpson, C. (2003). Doing Ethics: A universal technique in an accessibility contest. Retrieved April 29, 2011 from http://dl.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/159/141

Weidner, D. (2011). Whatever you do, just don't steal from Goldman Sachs. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 28, 2011 from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703362904576219372483989688.html… [read more]


Technological Pragmatism Essay

… Technological Pragmatism -- Conflict Hypotheses and Outline

The evolution of digital technology increases the vulnerability of certain populations to criminal exploitation through the digital medium.

Children are tremendously vulnerable to digital exploitation.

The poor and elderly have less access to computers.

Digital crimes targeting vulnerable populations skyrocketed in the digital age.

Cyber crime is a tremendous problem in the U.S.

King, C. "Protecting Children: Speech That Crosses the Line." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin Vol. 78, No. 6; (2009): 22-28.

Digital media have developed beyond the scope of Intellectual Property laws designed to protect proprietary ownership of intellectual originality.

Intellectual Property laws never anticipated a digital medium.

Current Intellectual Property laws are inadequate for the digital age.

Significant legal reforms are necessary in the digital age.

Reference

U.S. International Trade Commission. (2003). PROTECTING U.S. INTELLECTUAL

PROPERTY RIGHTS and the CHALLENGES of DIGITAL PIRACY.

Retrieved July 10, 2010 from:

http://www.usitc.gov/publications/332/working_papers/wp_id_05.pdf

Hypothesis # 3

Contemporary generations of American students are at a high risk of personal harm and of damaging their reputations and future employment prospects…… [read more]


Social Capital and Intellectual Property Rights: Ethical Term Paper

… Social Capital and Intellectual Property Rights: Ethical Standards of Downloading Music From Free Web Sites

The prevalence of the influx of free information through the new media, the Internet, has provided opportunities for people to gain access to almost every idea or commodity distributed and produced under the capitalist economy of the 21st century. In today's information age, the most sought-after commodity is information; yet, this information is produced not without a price or appropriate cost or price. Indeed, protests against "piracy" or the illegal use of commercially-available goods, commodities, and information is now an issue that affects the business and civil sectors of the society.

In this paper, the researcher argues that piracy is a social issue that must be dealt with the full force of the law. This means that piracy is illegal, and its offenders must be punished from stealing information and commodity that other people would pay to gain access or ownership to. This unfair distribution of information as a commodity is argued based on two important concepts that every individual must become aware of: first, the concept of intellectual property, and second, the concept that information is a social capital.

The researcher argues that information, being both products of intellectual property and social capital of individuals that are also members of human society in general, must be exchanged for what the creator considers as its worth in the arena of the free market of goods and services. Hence, piracy should be enforced in order not to disrupt the smooth flow of exchange of goods, services, and/or ideas in the capitalist economy.

The concept of intellectual rights is an old argument used in this debate about piracy. However, as in the case of free information retrieved or obtained through free downloading sites like the Kazaa, it is vital that Internet users consider the right of the…… [read more]

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