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Corrections/Police - Criminal Justice Theories of Crime Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (743 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Corrections/Police - Criminal Justice

Theories of Crime

Distinguish the basic features of liberal and conservative ideologies and the perspectives they generated toward crime and criminals. Which would you tend to embrace and why?

Liberal and conservative attitudes towards criminals, broadly speaking, have been polarized between individuals who tend to see societal motives behind the reasons individuals commit crimes, and people that tend to blame the individual's moral conscience. Liberal theorists, because of their focus on society, believe that addressing the causes of crime, such as poverty, perceptions and realities of discrimination and prejudice, and alienated subcultures that normalize crime as a way of life, are the best methods of crime prevention. They tend to focus on social engineering and rehabilitation as a way to combat crime. Conservatives, because of their focus on the individual's ability to choose a moral or an immoral path, tend to focus on increased policing to create less of an incentive for individuals to commit crimes. They believe this will result in a decreased chance of criminals 'getting away with it' and that retribution will act as a deterrent.

Obviously, neither side is 'perfectly' correct. If social programming alone caused crime, than all individuals within certain subcultures would be deviant -- although it is persuasive that individuals within certain contexts are more apt to commit certain crimes, such as selling drugs in the inner cities during the 1980s cocaine epidemic, unethical behavior within certain corporate firms, and even petty juvenile delinquent behavior. Alleviating the circumstances that foster these crimes may be a positive crime-reduction strategy in the long-term. But in the short-term, some retribution is necessary, as society cannot wait for holistic improvement, and ignore the element of moral choice in the commission of crime.

Police corruption is common throughout the United States and around the world. Discuss different types of police corruption and deviant behaviors and offer an explanation for why it is so widespread. Do you trust the police? Why or why not?

Just like crime can be interpreted as the product of a deviant culture, the 'police mentality' can also give rise to an endorsement of corruption. This rationalization may be as simple as believing that someone is entitled to a bribe because of…… [read more]

Corrections/Police - Criminal Justice Contemporary Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (952 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Rehabilitation is good but correctional centers should not merely rely on just rehabilitating but the inmates should also be encouraged to be part of the restoration justice movement which is in place. Not all offenders are willing to transform; therefore, prisons become part of a restorative justice system to such. (Lozoff Bo, 2012)

Housing for inmates is also a matter that should be delved into such that the older and more experienced prisoners should not be mixed with young offenders since the older ones prey on the younger ones since this gives the older ones the opportunity to register the young ones into criminal jail gangs. Wardens and correctional administrators should undergo continuous inspections as well as allow public scrutiny to ensure minimal abuse against inmates.

Officer burnout comes as a result of the hectic lifestyle of an officer. Massive stress coupled with work and the constant demands to be met contribute to the burn out. I t does not occur instantly but comes on gradually and can cause physical or mental distress. Symptoms differ from one person to the other but fatigue is common to all.

Courts decisions of sentencing inmates to serve a long-term in jail leaves the wardens with carefree attitude and use this time to punish inmates (Fangmeier A. Robert, 2012). The other implication is the large population of even petty offenders being sent to prisons juts on the grounds of being repeat offenders hence the crowding.

According to the scenario given a chance to talk to the supervisor, I would immediately let him know that having established the challenges faced in the prisons, the solution would not be to run away but to help facilitating the reforms that are needed, being that he is in the highest position within the institution.

The short-term measures that I would institute would be to get to know what each officer and officials within the facility think just like the supervisor and record their feelings and observations. This will then form my basis for lobbying for state funding and implementation of changes within the institution as the long-term measures.

It's unfortunate that such cynicism exists, yet sadly it is the representation of the entire picture. Even other justice systems like the police also feel this same burnouts and cynicism toward their job. This is also a paradigm experienced even in other occupations where people constantly talk ill of their bosses and jobs and how much they want to change professions.


Oracle Education Foundation, (2012). The United States Prison System: A Glimpse Behind the Bars. Retrieved June 7, 2012 from http://library.thinkquest.org/06aug/00342/The%20Prison%20System.html

Fangmeier, A. Robert, (2012). Myths and Realities About Prisons and Jails. Retrieved June 7, 2012 from http://www.religion-online.org/showarticle.asp?title=1731

Lozoff Bo, (2012). Seven Ways to Fix the Criminal Justice System…… [read more]

Criminal Justice System Australian Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,948 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The result is that over the last two decades of the "War on Crime" we have witnessed an erosion of the principle that juvenile offenders should be treated more leniently than adults (Sallmann & Willis, 2003). The "get tough" movement has tried to include these juvenile offenders within the ambit of the adult criminal justice system. An example of this "get tough" movement is legislation from California [Proposition 21].

The populist response to crime by juveniles has consisted of an attempt to dismantle the separate system of justice that has been created for juvenile offenders. Populist politicians have used the fact that juveniles receive mitigated punishments (compared to adults) to argue that juvenile sentences are too lenient, as though the adult disposition were the norm and the youth court sentence a lenient aberration. The imposition of milder punishments on juvenile offenders has also been cited as a cause of juvenile offending, the same way that leniency throughout the criminal justice system has been described, by politicians and members of the public, as a cause of crime (Roberts & Stalans, 1997).


The syllogism that links the severity of punishments to crime rates emerges more clearly at the level of juvenile justice, where it is often argued that tougher penalties will put a stop to rising levels of juvenile violence and prevent juveniles from turning into adult offenders. The source of the frustration may be the widespread perception that young people will not behave unless the punishment for wrongdoing is severe. But as Jackson Toby noted as far back as 1957, the main factors distinguishing delinquents from non-delinquents is whether a young person has a "stake in conformity" (Toby, 1957). Giving a young person a reason not to offend is, therefore, likely to be a much more effective strategy than threatening punishment.

The claim that "a crime is a crime" and should result in the same punishment for adults and juveniles has also developed popular appeal. Thus the current criminal justice system is about as fair and effective as we can reasonably expect.


Bottoms, A.E. (1995). The philosophy and politics of punishment and sentencing. In C. Clarkson and R. Morgan, eds., The politics of sentencing reform. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Hogg, R., and D. Brown (1998). Rethinking law and order. Sydney: Pluto Press.

Toby, J. (1957). Social disorganization and stake in conformity: Complementary factors in the predatory behavior of hoodlums. Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science 48: 12 -- 17.

Sallmann, P., and J. Willis (2003). Criminal justice in Australia. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Schiraldi, V., and M. Soler (2009). Will of the people' The public's opinion of…… [read more]

DNA in Criminal Justice System Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,422 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Cole (1997) states, that FBI began DNA testing for trails in 1988. There have been 12,000 cases reported since then till 1997. However, FBI pointed out that out of these 12,000, almost a quarter of the suspects in these cases was exonerated. Till 1997, DNA examiners have testified in about 600 trials for DNA as evidence to prove the suspect… [read more]

Ethical Concerns in Criminal Justice Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (944 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Many accusations of police brutality have ultimately been found to be false and created for the betterment of the suspect's situation and these are the majority. However, there are still cases of genuine police brutality that occur throughout the United States. According to researchers, police force is reported in 24% of encounters between officers and suspects or witnesses (Krupanski 2012). Perhaps the most famous incidence of police brutality occurred in Los Angeles, California in 1991 when officers were filmed brutally beating Rodney King (Byers 2002). Cases have been reported in every state of the union about police misconduct to varying degrees including beating suspects, torture, and even murder. Lawyers for the defense will often use any and all errors in judgment of police officers to help their clients. Indeed some cases against defendants have been dismissed because of the actions of the police officers involved in the investigation.

Besides the obvious difficulty with the current case on which the officers are working, the issue of police brutality also has more far reaching negative consequences. The concept of police brutality undermines the whole concept of criminal justice and creates a negative attitude towards police officers. The role of the police in the United States is supposed to be that of protectorate and seeker of justice. When the police officers behave violently, it alters the perception of the police officer with the community. This is worsened by the perception of people that police officers will do whatever it takes to protect one another in accordance with the fraternity of the job. Statistically, incidences of police violence have been investigated and perpetrators punished but there were many cases wherein a cover up was discovered and those involved also punished.

Police brutality is a very important issue in modern criminal justice because it alters the way in which the officers of justice are perceived by the public who they are supposed to protect. Force has been used when necessary to arrest suspects and to gain information. In the modern era, the former is still employed but is always treated critically. Force in the obtaining of information is absolutely verboten in the present historical moment. It is the responsibility of those involved in criminal justice to behave appropriately and to limit force to only the times when it is absolutely necessary and also to keep an eye on other officers. The impetus needs to be on protection of the people above all things.

Works Cited:

Byers, B. (2002). Ethics and criminal justice: some observations on police misconduct. Crime and Justice International. Sam Houston University, Texas. (18:68).

Krupanski, M. (2012). Policing the police: civilian video monitoring of police activity. Global Minds.

Locke, H. (1966). Police brutality and civilian review board: a second look. 625.

Skolnick, J. (1995). Community-oriented…… [read more]

Ethics in Criminal Justice Maintaining a High Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,835 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Ethics in Criminal Justice

Maintaining a high degree of ethical behavior within the criminal justice system is essential in promoting trust within the community. Police misconduct such as raping detainees does irreparable harm to that trust. In order to eliminate instances of police misconduct, it is imperative to institute strict procedures to address the issue. Only by addressing the issue… [read more]

Australian Criminal Justice System Is Shaped Largely by Society Discuss This Statement Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,082 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Australian criminal justice system is shaped largely by society. Discuss this statement.

Social tendencies in Australia are reflected by the Australian criminal justice system, taking into account that it is the product of years of hard work performed as the authorities and the masses cooperated. One of the principal focuses of this system is related to how all people need to be treated equally, regardless of any kinds of particularities that can be associated with them. The fact that states and territories in the country have different criminal justice systems makes it possible for one to understand that the diversity in the country has had a strong influence on these legislations.

Many Australians are unable to understand the importance of having a solid criminal justice system and are generally inclined to put across hesitation regarding them getting actively involved in shaping this collection of laws. "Criminal laws are said to reflect the morals of the community and the generally accepted attitudes about what is appropriate conduct and what is not" (Heilbronn 449).

The police are in charge of enforcing the criminal justice system and the people thus need to have a complex understanding of this community and of the concept of authorities as a whole. Even with this, people have the tendency to respond differently in particular circumstances involving the police. Some feel that the police are obligated to make society a safer place and that they absolutely need to capture individuals who perform illegalities, regardless of the situation. However, the same individuals are probable to feel that their intimacy is being breached when they are questioned, fingerprinted, or when the authorities listen to their phones. Individuals thus have to understand that the police have the duty to do everything in its power in order to punish criminals and prevent crime from happening.

Many Australians consider that the police's powers are carefully controlled with the purpose of protecting "individuals from harassment and unfair investigatory practices" (Heilbronn 450). While this can be considered normal when regarding matters from the perspective of the simple individual who wants safety but is reluctant to support invasive investigatory practices, police officers typically believe that a great deal of minority groups prevent them from doing their job properly as a result of the fact that they condemn particular activities.

The Police force in New South Wales has become accustomed to using 'sniffer' dogs with the purpose of detecting individuals who are carrying illegal substances. This practice has been particularly effective and the authorities actually promote it as being one of the best anti-drug strategies that they have implemented in years. In contrast, civil liberties lawyers criticize the practice and claim that it is unfair because it indirectly says that everyone walking on the street is a suspect. From their perspective, the normal thing to do would be to allow individuals to walk without restrictions in public locations without fearing that a police officer might approach and interrogate them. It is thus difficult to evaluate the condition… [read more]

Criminal Justice: On September 18 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,446 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The reason for the suitability of this theory of punishment in this case is the fact that its central precept is that punishment should be in proportion to the harm.

Importance of Code Ethics in the Criminal Justice System:

One of the most essential and fundamental aspects in guiding practices and lessening misconduct by personnel in criminal justice is the… [read more]

Policing in Criminal Justice Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,074 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Criminal Justice - Policing


Does the exclusionary rule control police misbehavior?

The exclusionary rule controls police misbehavior, but in a manner that is more indirect than direct. Technically, it does not actually control what police officers do; rather, it imposes certain penalties after the fact that are intended to deter future misconduct. The exclusionary rule is powerless to prevent police officers from violating constitutional protections or the established rules of criminal procedure designed to guarantee constitutional rights in any specific instance.

However, by excluding evidence obtained in violation of constitutional protection, the exclusionary rule prevents improperly obtained evidence from being used at trial. In that way, the exclusionary rule provides an incentive for police to comply with established constitutional principles in general, because failure to do so undermines the underlying purpose of conducting investigations in the first place by preventing illegally obtained evidence from being used to secure convictions at trial.

Prior to the establishment of the "good faith" exception in 1984 and further revisions to that doctrine in 1995, the exclusionary rule sometimes punished police actions that involved no wrongdoing by police. Concepts like the good faith exception and the "inevitable discovery" rule narrowed the applicability of the exclusionary rule to actual police misconduct. By distinguishing the kinds of police action that violate the Constitution from honest mistakes and clerical errors, these exceptions achieve a better balance between the conflicting goals of crime control and due process by excluding only evidence seized through purposeful violations and permitting the use of evidence seized improperly, but in a manner not capable of being deterred because it is not purposeful. 2. What can/should local police do in terms of "counter terrorism" efforts?

Counterterrorism efforts comprise both strategies intended to identify and prevent terrorist threats against the local community as well as those intended to help identify and prevent terrorist threats against the American homeland. With respect to the local community, police efforts must focus on identifying potentially high-value terrorist targets for the purpose of controlling unauthorized access to sensitive facilities and infrastructure. That is achieved through the erection of physical barriers, the assignment of patrol responsibilities to monitor activity, and through the imposition of appropriate rules and policies to insulate those high-value targets from unrestricted access. At the same time, counterterrorism at the local level should also include identification of soft targets that can be hardened at minimal cost wherever possible. With respect to national counterterrorism efforts, local police should emphasize the collection and appropriate dissemination of intelligence at the local level and its communication to federal authorities situated locally. At the local level, the emphasis should be to facilitate the efforts of joint terrorism task forces (JTTF).

To assist counterterrorism at the national level, local authorities must ensure that policies and procedures result in the timely and efficient communication of intelligence to counterterrorism fusion centers designed to collect, analyze, and distribute counterterrorist intelligence provided by local authorities so that local efforts can be implemented against terrorist threats anywhere… [read more]

Criminal Justice System Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,427 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The judge's feature is generally begun at the defendant's first court visit or at a hearing if and when proof exists (Israel et al. 2003).

Five Steps of the Criminal Justice System

Entry into the System

Investigation and Arrest:

In this case discernment is made use of in lots of methods, whether it is to ease pressure of state overcrowding… [read more]

Change About the Criminal Justice System Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,999 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … change about the criminal justice system if I had the power to do so?

For the criminal justice system to be changed, it seems to me that its very basics need to be altered, and I therefore lean towards the philosophy of Restorative justice. Restorative justice in effect states that the offender will grow not be crushed by… [read more]

Criminal Justice System Today Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (882 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


It is true that prison overcrowding is one of the most urgent criminal justice issues not only in America, but all over the world. More often than not the responsible institutions have cited lack of jail space as the cause for this problem. This has led to the proposal of building more prison facilities to accommodate the soaring numbers. However, I hold a different opinion, I believe that the major cause is the lack of alternatives to incarceration which leads all offenders to prison and this is worsened by introduction of certain policies. For instance there is the mandatory minimum sentence for drug crimes in America; this has highly increased the rate of incarceration (Green, 2011). It implies that when alternatives to incarceration are adopted then the number of offenders headed for the prisons will greatly reduce eventually addressing the issue of prison overcrowding.

On the other hand the criminal justice system encourages courts to dispense with the cases that are pending to reduce the volume of cases. This pressure usually leads to either offenders walking free or the wrong people sent to prison in the process of carrying out speedy trials and this is a serious violation (Leipold, 1995). This usually happens because of the complex process involved in taking the defendants through the justice system. It involves organization of attorneys and witnesses for appearance. In some instances one officer may be required to appear in two different locations consecutively and since this is not possible a defendant could walk free. To avoid such loopholes the system usually pays the price of cases backlog. What better way would be there than exploring alternatives to incarceration and bypassing the prison system? This is a clear indication that the most significant problem facing the criminal justice system today is lack of alternatives to incarceration. The moment this is addressed then a host of other related problems will be solved eventually. The only challenge is to convince the relevant authorities that this is what should be addressed and not the related issues since most people still hold the strong view that offenders, especially violent ones or sexual offenders, should be isolated from the society to eliminate threat.


Green, B. (2011). "Criminal Justice - What's Ahead? Roadblocks and New Directions."

Criminal Justice, Volume 25, Number 4.

Leipold, A.D. (1995). Why grand juries do not (and cannot) protect the accused, 80 Cornell.

Rev. 260

Roberts, R.A. (2003). Critical…… [read more]

Criminal Justice Associates Program Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,192 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Criminal Justice Associates Program

When I entered into the criminal justice associates program, I have to admit that my thoughts were not focused on what I would learn. Instead, in many ways I viewed the program as a means to an end, a necessary step that I had to take in order to get my desired job in law enforcement. I felt that it would provide me with the stepping stone that I needed to get a job in an administrative sector of law enforcement, and possibly help me get into a police academy and reduce my course requirements while there; if that is the route I chose to explore. However, once I began my coursework, I was pleasantly surprised to discover that I was learning a substantial amount of helpful information from my coursework. My instructors and professors had a wide variety of real-life experience that provided me with an educational experience beyond what I would have received from a textbook or self-study. These experiences helped shape my perception of what it means to work in criminal justice.

One of the primary things I learned about criminal justice is that it is not a black and white field. While there are victims and perpetrators, there is also a tremendous overlap between the groups. For example, a woman may be a prostitute, who is a criminal, but she may be raped by one of her clients, which makes her a victim, or she may be the victim of human trafficking, which also makes her a victim. The idea that a person could simultaneously play two roles in the criminal justice system inspired me to really think about crimes, their detection, their solution, and their prosecution. In many ways, it appears that the easiest crimes to prove may not be the most serious crime involved in a situation. For example, a prostitute who is raped by a john should not be prosecuted for her prostitution if she comes to the police to report her rape; doing so ignores the magnitude of what occurred to her and penalizes her for seeking help from the police.

At the same time that I was learning that some aspects of the criminal justice system are not black-and-white, I was also learning that some rules are not meant to be broken or even bent. I learned a significant amount about the protections that the accused are afforded in our adversary criminal justice system. Prior to taking these courses, I believed the exclusion of evidence obtained in violation of a suspect's rights to be a way that criminals won over their victims. However, a more careful study of the ways that the law protects the rights of those accused of crimes helped me come to the realization that if the police do not protect a suspect's constitutional rights, the entire integrity of the criminal justice system is threatened. It is not enough to convict people; instead, it is essential to convict the right people. Ensuring… [read more]

MS Degree in Criminal Justice Help Admission Essay

Admission Essay  |  4 pages (1,225 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … MS degree in Criminal Justice help you achieve your personal, vocational, and/Or education goals?

As an officer in the U.S. Navy, I already have served in a demanding career, protecting U.S. interests at home and abroad. Studying criminal justice seems like a natural extension of my first occupation. There is already a great deal of overlap between the Department of Homeland Security functions and the U.S. Navy. This degree would build upon my current framework of reference. It would expand my vocational opportunities and ground my lived experiences in the history and philosophy of the enforcement of justice.

Ultimately, I would like to become a criminal justice professional, specializing in homeland security, perhaps working within the Department of Homeland Security itself to improve the security of the nation's borders. Naval security is often a neglected part of homeland security. It is just as essential to ensure that no threats encroach upon the U.S. from the sea; furthermore there is the issue of drugs funneled through the nation's ports used to fund terrorism. The need to understand the role of protecting U.S. waters with a specific focus on terrorism prevention and detection, merging both homeland security and naval philosophies, is yet another reason why I am seeking out this degree.

Making the world a safer place requires an understanding of both criminological theory and practical issues that influence the detection and prevention of crime. I have a sound understanding of how to guard against assaults, deter, and counterattack against threats. Graduate study would give me a better understanding of how and why crimes occur, and why people commit crimes and acts of terror.

Q2. What is your preparedness for, and understanding of graduate-level study in Criminal Justice?

Operating within a military context has grounded me in concepts such as Just War theory, which attempts to balance ethics with the need for security. The need to balance the duty of a military officer to protect the safety of citizens, military codes of honor, and domestic and international law is a constant challenge of the modern military. Within the field of criminal justice as within the military, the law and the rights even of the enemy must be respected, and if they are not the consequences can be grave -- evidence can be thrown out of court, or the military may lose the support of the population it is trying to aid. The same is true of a law enforcement officer, regardless of the agency for which he or she works. Communities will not respect law enforcement officials who are unnecessarily harsh or who ignore civil liberties. Profiling is always an issue of concern, both in domestic and international law enforcement. Individual rights must be balanced against the public's need for security.

Additionally, in terms of my preparation, because fighting in the modern military requires an awareness of different cultural orientations -- of friends as well as foes, I believe that my understanding of diversity and tolerance would make me a… [read more]

Poor Grammar Criminal Justice System Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (993 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Thus, law enforcement agents may apply unrestricted justice on minorities as the occurrence of minority groups increase rulers' insight of threat and fear of crime. Furthermore, the relationships between legal agents such as police officers and minorities are harsh since police nature support the well-being of the rulers (Chambliss and Seidman, 1971:53).Thus, the decisions of police in order to arrest minorities can be independent of genuine conduct and more reliant upon their subordinate group status such as favoritism based on group individuality (Chambliss and Seidman, 1971:53).

Identification of Different Perspectives of Individual Rights & Public-Order Advocates

The individual rights advocates are those who search to protect individual freedoms within the process of criminal justice. For example, legalize marijuana, ACLU, Anti-death penalty groups, NAACP.

While on the other hand public-order advocates are those who consider under particular circumstances involving the safety of public, the society interests and take priority over individual rights. For example, tougher penalties, roadblock searches, three strikes etc.

Community Policing Impact on Crime

According to the DOJ definition:

Community policing is a policing philosophy designed to reduce crime and disorder in communities by fostering trust, respect, and collaboration between police officers and citizens (Jones; 2002)."

The impact of these polices on crime can be seen where the policing leaders, experts along with government agencies and community leaders were almost unanimous and hardly have focused teams, or targeted toward eliminating particular activities. These are considered to be the most effectual means in order to combat violence and homicides in the community (Jones, 2002). These policies however, include severe or high-impact targeting of gang areas and hot spots etc. (Jones; 2002).

Works Cited

Overview of the Criminal Justice System (1998). The National Centre for Victims of Crime. http://www.ncvc.org/

Criminal Justice. Crime and Violence: Are crime and criminal justice important political issues? Social issues? Why. www. courses.ceu.edu

Chambliss, W. (1976). Functional and Conflict Theories of Crime: The Heritage of Emile

Durkheim and Karl Marx. In Whose Law? What Order?: A Conflict Approach to Criminology. W. Chambliss & Mankoff (Eds.), New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Tittle, C. (1994). The Theoretical Bases for Inequality in Formal Social Control. In Inequality, Crime, and Social Control. Bridges and Myers (Eds.), Boulder: West view Press.

Tolnay, S., & Beck E.M. (1992). Toward a Threat Model of Southern Black Lynchings.

In Social Threat and Social Control. C. Liska (Ed.), Albany: State University of New York Press. Turk, A. (1969). Criminality and Legal Order. Chicago: Rand McNally

Chambliss, W., & Seidman, R. (1971). Law, Order and Power. Massachusetts: Addison-

Wesley Publishing Company

Blalock, H. (1967). Toward a Theory of Minority-Group Relations. New York: John

Wiley and Sons, Inc. (Jones Arthur, J.D; Robin Wiseman 92002). Letter to Community Policing Friends.

Defining Community Policing. International Human Rights Law and Policy.

Jones, Arthur, and Robin Wiseman (2002). Community Policing in the Los Angeles

County Sheriff's Department: Opposition to 2002-03 Reductions…… [read more]

Graduate School: Criminal Justice Admission Essay

Admission Essay  |  3 pages (1,041 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Excelsior College has widened my scope of issues in criminal justice, which is essential in determining America's safety and economic wealth. I conducted a research on the program, and according to Little (2008), it was worth noting that about 80% of colleges in America offer consequent study programs in Homeland Security and Emergency Management Concentration. In addressing this academic importance, I have studied and engaged in module discussions with patent issues that concern the Criminal Justice system in America. Variety ideas and issues during the course sprung up that form the basis of my future goals towards addressing Homeland Security and Emergency Management Concentration. I am also professional equipped by my 20 years of experience in public service, U.S. Air Force and Kokomo Police Department.

I am academically prepared to transit into Excelsior College M. Sc in Homeland Security and Emergency Management Concentration. My comprehensive understanding of graduate level study is that it is a concentrated course that anticipates quality and intense quantity of work. It provides further and deep insights into a specific study field, unlike undergraduate level study whereby a course is tackled from several fields of study. In addition, graduate school is strictly academic and professional, whereby in the former situation, one is expected to present original research in the respective discipline and in the latter, one is expected to develop vocational skills and knowledge in the concerned profession or vocation. Excelsior has enabled me to pass in all my Associate and Bachelor's by attaining a 3.50 GPA. The previous levels of study have enabled me to devise appropriate strategies and attain intellectual resources necessary in becoming a graduate. I am ready to focus on a rigorous evaluation of Criminal Justice the assistance of my lecturers and professors to be. I am also ready to present original and unique project and research works that will be assigned to me.

Distance learning has so far been successful and I believe I will undertake the same process in ensuring that I manage to succeed in attaining my Masters degree. I greatly attributed this to the efficiency of the college's website that is always updated with the necessary information that a student needs, making it convenient to study anywhere. In addition, I do have library sessions, whereby I read the recommended books by my lecturer to facilitate quick understanding and have information diversity. I am expecting to continue applying this technique while undertaking my M.Sc degree since I have not yet encountered any challenges.

I am extremely passionate in pursuing a M. Sc in Criminal justice Administration, however, I am also equipped with managerial and business skills that have seen me occupy positions of Employment Specialist, Job Coach, Customer Service Representative and Sales and Marketing Representative. I am confident proclaiming that my journey pursuing the Masters degree will be self-driven by the intellect I obtain and my unrelenting will. I am optimistic that America needs intellectuals to deal with security surges. In addition, it is upon my determination that I… [read more]

Leadership Skills for Criminal Justice Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,061 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


As for moral agility, this entails having the talent for being able to differentiate between different shades of moral choice. That is, moral agility is based on being able to put to good use "…intelligence, maturity, flexibility, and the ability to make analytical distinctions when distinctions are hardly visible" (Souryal, 207). In other words, criminal justice leaders are expected to act wisely on every occasion. Theirs is a culture of virtue vis-a-vis "liberty and justice" and "honesty and fidelity" -- and they must lead through "decency and social righteousness" (Souryal, 207).

Professor Kevin N. Wright of the State University of New York (Binghamton) believes that part of the problem when criminal justice professionals use unethical strategies is simply due to "…the fallibility of human beings" (Wright, 1999). Moreover, the very nature of criminal justice work "may heighten the forces to act inappropriately," Wright explains. Law enforcement officers see the public "at our worst," and eventually the officers form perceptions about people and that provides the officers with "fertile ground…to overstep ethical limits" (Wright, 67).

In order for criminal justice leadership to prevent ethical lapses and focus on virtuous behaviors, Wright says the CEO (or commander) has to "talk about ethics…[and] the CEO has to be consistent" and be willing to walk the walk as well as talk the talk. In other words, leaders can't just hold staff accountable then become a heavy drinker, or philanderer, and accept gifts from parties that want to have influence within the department (Wright, 68).

Professor Julian V. Roberts of Oxford University writes that without public confidence in the ethical behavior of the criminal justice system, a crisis develops. And Roberts asserts that in the United States, there is currently a crisis of confidence in the criminal justice system. He references a survey taken in 2007 in which "…more than four out of five respondents favoured the idea of 'totally revamping the way that the [criminal justice] system works'" (Roberts, 2007, p. 154). It would be hard to present a more obvious statistic showing a lack of confidence in the ethical integrity of America's criminal justice system. Clearly there is a need for an upgrade in this system, since if the public lacks confidence in the system, they do not feel protected.

In conclusion, leadership is far more than being boss or being in charge. Leadership -- in this case, in the criminal justice system -- is based on others believing that the leader is honest and just and can be depended upon for consistency and competence. Ethical considerations are a big part of leadership, and this paper points out that ethics is not just a skill that a leader can obtain, it is a philosophy based on virtue and doing the right thing for the community that is being served.

Works Cited

Carpenter, Michael J., and Fulton, Roger. (2007). A Practical Career Guide for Criminal

Justice Professionals. Flushing, NY: Looseleaf Law Publications.

Roberts, Julian V. (2007). Public Confidence in Criminal Justice in Canada: A… [read more]

Criminology and Criminal Justice as Sciences Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,598 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Criminology and Criminal Justice as Sciences

As sciences, the study of criminology and criminal justice are at an exciting place in time and technology. Today, there is more science than ever to back up the investigation and the prosecution of crime. The use of technology must be accompanied by a strict code of ethics supporting the investigation, collection, storage, and… [read more]

Mandatory Sentencing Public Policy, Crime Research Paper

Research Paper  |  19 pages (5,732 words)
Bibliography Sources: 22


Afterwards, the constructing of the justice system aimed at criminalizing the "equal" African-American; additionally, the system also ensured that the social position of African-Americans was not equal to those of their white counterparts. From history, dating back to the era of Nixon, the president of America, this was done through the establishment of the "Drug War" as a strategy to… [read more]

Criminal Justice System Juvenile Delinquency Identify Three Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (842 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Criminal Justice System Juvenile Delinquency

Identify three components of the diversionary program and initiatives within the NCJRS website Woman & Girls in the Criminal Justice System.

Gender-Specific Assessment of Offender's Needs, Strengths, and Risk Factors in conjunction with Gender-Specific Programming

A Focus on Personal Transformation and Rehabilitation through Continuous Exposure to Positive Role Models (Probation Officers, Case Workers)

Systematic Training to Implement Uniform Assessment and Programming Practices Across Multiple Criminal Justice and Social Service Agencies.

2.Compare and contrast state and local programs as they contribute to successful reintegration and transition services.

State Programs

State institutions, due to the state's exclusive authority for most criminal offenses in the state, usually encounter juvenile offenders only after they have reached the sentencing stage. Although criminal justice institutions theoretically exist to punish criminal offenders for the sake of public safety, incapacitation is often seems premature for most juvenile offenders. Criminal Justice Institutions such as the Department of Juvenile Justice in Maryland have recognized that traditional programming options, which consisted of either short-term or long-term commitment to residential group homes, were more likely to promote than prevent recidivism because the offenders were often being placed in an unhealthy environment. These experiences only reinforced the bad habits of juvenile offenders, trapping them in an environment that they could not see past.

The Maryland Department of Juvenile Justice formed a task force to assess the programming needs of adjudicated female juvenile offenders. The task force formed what they called a Female Intervention Team composed of 13 juvenile counselors/case managers and 1 juvenile supervisor in order to help rehabilitate the female juvenile offender while she was serving out her sentence or sanction. (Juvenile Justice Journal, 1999, p. 15).

The Female Intervention Team counselors, hailing from a variety of backgrounds, were each assigned an all-female caseload. They managed the cases of female juvenile offenders, supervised probation, and organized monthly group activities. One benefit of this approach is that the girls, many of whom were physically or sexually abused by adults at some point in their lives, learned that men and women have healthy relationships which did not involve sex, violence, or drugs. (Juvenile Justice Journal, 1999, p. 16).

Local Programs

Local governmental bodies, such as counties and cities, do not have as much authority in matters of criminal law besides law enforcement. Thus, local governments usually deliver juvenile justice programs through social service agencies and other youth-facing institutions. Their value is in their counseling capabilities as fellow members of the community who are familiar with the larger familial, financial, and…… [read more]

Corrections/Police - Criminal Justice Innocents Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,661 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Primitive DNA testing before trial excluded all five as the source of semen found in the victim's body, but prosecutors relied on the confessions and the two teens who plead guilty. Taylor, sentenced to 80 years, could not understand how anyone could ignore the DNA or believe he could commit such a crime. He refused to cry or even show emotion. He and another inmate were held in a cell measuring 10 feet 7 inches by 6 feet 7 inches, a bunk bed on one side and a desk and stool on the other, metal bars on one end and a sliver of a window along the top of the other end that let in the only natural light, a narrow slant of sunshine that taunted him but also gave him hope. He dreamed often of freedom, lying on his bunk, sleep elusive, and the noise of prisoners yelling and screaming echoing through the metal galleries. He got used to the noise, so much that the quiet of home was initially unsettling. Now he is getting used to the silence. Even though he had a TV in his cell, he hardly every watched it. As an alternative, he listened to cassette tapes of rap music on an old Walkman. The headphones shut out a world he wanted desperately to get away from (Exonerated, freed and facing a new life, 2011).

This case shows how it is abundantly clear that overly aggressive police interrogation techniques can cause adults to falsely confess to serious crimes and when it comes to juveniles, it can happen at a truly alarming rate. These techniques don't only hurt those wrongfully convicted, but as was seen in this case, they allow the real perpetrators to go free and commit other crimes. Hopefully this case will lead the way for much-needed reforms; like requiring that all police interviews and interrogations all be videotaped in full and juveniles to always be in the presence of the their parents or counsel (Law School's Exoneration Project helps free wrongly convicted man, 2011).


Exonerated, freed and facing a new life. (2011).…… [read more]

Criminal Justice From a Theological Worldview Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (916 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Christian Worldview of Criminal Justice

Criminal justice as both a field of study and a vocation poses challenges to the individual who seeks to do both: practice the discipline while at the same time, putting one's beliefs and values into the work s/he does within the discipline. Achieving this balance is not easy, as criminal justice as a discipline can be viewed from different perspectives and framed from different schools of thought. Criminal justice can be thought of as a social science, wherein aspects of political science, sociology, psychology, and even law and public administration are integrated together. However, another interesting component that can be incorporated in this 'mixture' of disciplines is theology, which inevitably influences criminal justice (particularly when the concept of moral justice is factored in on the discussion).

Theology and the world's different religions have also different perspectives in understanding and discussing the issue of justice and concepts of humanity and forgiveness. One of the most salient and popular example of humanity as applied in both criminal justice and theology can be found in the Book of Genesis, wherein it said, "So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them" (Genesis 1:27). This verse is one manifestation that what is exacted to humanity is, through transference because of humanity's likeness to God, also exacted to Him. It becomes a challenge, then, for the practitioner of criminal justice to implement the principles of justice to another individual because any form of punishment given to him/her could also mean exacting the same punishment to God. Practicing the profession, then, becomes a constant practice of judgment call and careful discernment governed by the person's beliefs and values about moral justice.

Take as an example, one's view of the country's prison system as an issue that needs to careful discernment and thought even when it is just being discussed, either on a private or public forum. The prison system was built on the principle of behavior correction and the individual's social rehabilitation; however, over time, the overarching goal has become simply, punishment, and numerous forms of abuses against inmates have been committed since (USCCB, 2000). On one hand, there is a need to promote correction and rehabilitation of the deviant behavior of offenders; on the other hand, a Christian practitioner who is part of the criminal justice system also recognizes that God alone has the right to decide and judge the people who were considered deviant in laws of humanity. For the Christian practitioner, s/he must remember that everyone "are all one in Christ Jesus" (Galatians 3:28).

What results, then, is a compromise as the Christian practitioner seeks the balance needed between his/her faith and vocation/profession.…… [read more]

How Does the Australian Criminal Justice System Respond to White Collar and Corporate Crime? Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (3,213 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


¶ … Australian Criminal Justice System respond to white collar and corporate crime?

Crimes are breach of the law. Criminal law as in the common law differentiates between crimes that mala per se' that is crimes that are repugnant to humankind for example, murder, robbery and so on which forms the basis of the penal code. There are crimes that… [read more]

Criminal Justice System After Heavy Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,614 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


I would like to see the Home Secretary implement some community service - he would learn there are some really good schemes helping people to change their attitude and help the community."

Moreover Juliet Lyon (Director of the Prison Reform Trust) says

"It makes no sense to expect overcrowded jails to cut crime when the solutions lay outside, in better parental supervision, constructive alternatives for the young, mental health care, treatment for those addicted to drugs and drink, and a reduction in homelessness, poverty and unemployment."

As the British jails have been overloaded so judiciary should carefully give imprisonment punishments and less serious offenders should be given community-based punishments rather than being awarded punishments and purpose of any punishments should carefully. As the John Denham (Chairman Commons home affairs committee) says

"The central challenge is to rebuild public faith in community sentencing, with sentences that are clearer, and sentencing that more accurately shows the evidence on what reduces reoffending. There has been far too little emphasis about getting people into a work-type environment in prison, helping them make the transition into work in the outside world."


BBC. (2001, MAY 7). BBCNEWS VOTE 2001. Retrieved from BBC NEWS|VOTE 2001|FACTS: http://news.bbc.co.uk/news/vote2001/hi/e

CNN. (2012, Feb 22). Cameron hosts talks on football racism. Retrieved from CNN: http://edition.cnn.com/2012/02/22/sport/football/uk-football-racism/index.html

Community Correction Punishments. (1996, May). California Research Bureau. Retrieved from Community Correction Punishments: http://www.library.ca.gov/crb/96/08/

Press TV. (2012, May 07). UK police racism complaints doubled. Retrieved from Press TV_UK police racism complaints doubled: http://www.presstv.ir/detail/239932.html

The Guardian. (2012, march 27). Student Jailed for Racist Fabrice Muamba Tweets. UK.

The Independent. (2006, November 30). Is the criminal justice system fair?

The Independent. (2009, September). Procedures in the criminal justice system. Retrieved from The Independent: www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/crime/is-the-criminal-justice-system-fair-426383.html… [read more]

Evolution of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 Case Study

Case Study  |  7 pages (2,303 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


The office of COPS needed to monitor a number of things. First, that in line with the requirements of grant allocation, police departments retained the new officers hired under the '100,000 Cops' initiative even after the lapse of the three-year period of federal funding (Marion & Oliver, 2012). Secondly, that the beneficiary police departments only used the grants for officers… [read more]

Criminal Justice Management Reading Articles the Boys Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (943 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


CRIMINAL JUSTICE Management Reading articles

The Boys in Blue

After reading Erica Goode's article in the New York Times, "Police Chiefs Focus on Disparities in Gun Violence, With an Eye Towards Solutions," there appears to be a couple of different ways in which police management can successfully influence changes in gun laws that are necessary to reduce crime that is committed through the usage of fire arms. One of the most effective ways would be to exert as much pressure as possible on the politicians, and their supporting lobbyists, that are widely responsible for the passing of legislature that could assist to change current laws. Although police are municipal, state and federally funded, these fraternal organizations have lobbyists as well that could do a better job of working in conjunction with the needs of police officers to help reduce crime. Additionally, in attempting to actuate a political influence that could help sway both politicians and voters alike, police management can reassert the significant financial costs associated with gunplay and crimes committed with firearms, such as by telling people that a single week would exact a cost of upwards of 38 million for tax payers.

It appears that some cities have more violence than others for a couple of facts. One would is the particular legislation regarding firearms utilized in these different municipalities. For instance, it is highly significant that in a city in San Diego, in which there are stringent laws and punishments associated with firearm crimes, that there was less violence than that in other cities. However, legislation is not the only factor that plays a role in the disparity in the violence between the cities mentioned in the article. The proclivities of each municipality also influence the amount of crimes committed there. Straw running guns is immensely popular in Texas, which partly explains why Austin had nearly 40 gun related crimes in the week referenced in the article.

There are a couple of different reasons that help to account for the reasons why the rather lengthy research based on the Community Oriented Policing Services program has not stuck or been as effective as it potentially could be. John Laub's opinion that the research is not disseminated widely enough alludes to some of these reasons. However, regardless of the amount of dissemination of the research that was involved in this program, there were certain issues with the implementation of the program that were responsible for its modest degree of success. One such highly significant problem was the fact that there was commonly a delay in the deployment of MORE technology, which slowed if not outright hindered the efforts of several key tenets of the COPS program. Without the proper technology in place, it was difficult for various branches of COPS and MORE to effectively do their jobs. These delays also…… [read more]

Criminal Justice - Crime Prevention Theories Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (545 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Criminal Justice - Crime Prevention


The Nature of Crime Prevention:

Crime is a human invention that derives from the concept of societal laws; without codified laws, there is no such thing as crime, because crime is simply the violation of those established laws. Crime prevention comprises several specific function, such as police intervention, criminal investigation, apprehension, prosecution, and corrections. Collectively, the various functions of the entire criminal justice system also serves another important role as a deterrence to future criminal conduct.

In principle, crime includes everything from technical violations of misdemeanors and other even less serious levels of penal violation that are actually inconsequential in their effect to the most serious types of crimes that threaten the health, safety, and welfare of other individuals, sometimes in very large numbers. Crime prevention is purposeful effort to reduce criminal conduct by deterrence before the fact, and by investigating and punishing criminal conduct after the fact, where and to the extent it is in the reasonable interest of society to do so.

Crime prevention takes on myriad forms, including "first-line" police street patrols, detective investigation services, forensic science, and white collar crime detection and intervention. In police patrol services, crime prevention may include elements of informal policies and procedures in the street and in many facets of law enforcement, it may include baited "sting" operations. While the concept of crime prevention is very broad, virtually every aspect of law enforcement functions requires prioritizing specific categories of criminal conduct because equally strict enforcement of every type of crime is both impractical and also of dubious value, regardless.

Achieving Crime Prevention:

Quantifying crime…… [read more]

Criminal Justice Take Home Exam Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (835 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Certain theories may be more appropriate to discussing and curtailing certain crimes -- for instance, the developmental theory of subcultures seems uniquely appropriate to the drug culture, where by uprooting the organizational structures that financially reward drugs, drug networks can be circumvented. Developmental theories of drug control also stress that while the control of sellers and users through the criminal justice system is necessary, rehabilitating and social procedures must be implemented so addicts receive treatment and the social, contributing causes to drug abuse such as poverty and hopelessness are eliminated or curtailed.

Question 5: Barriers to effective policing have long occurred because of abuses of police authority and corruption within the department that is not adequately supervised by internal affair reviews. But beyond a crisis of perceptions of public honesty, it is also important that police are seen as contributing to a safer community, rather than simply enforcing the law in a cold or worse, arbitrary manner. The best way to create an atmosphere of community policing is to intensify recruitment efforts from the community, and to ensure the police have a social as well as a technical understanding of the community they are overseeing. The responsibility they owe is not simply to their fellow officers, or even to individual victims, but to society as well, and to a community.

Question 6: The police may conduct searches without warrants if made in good faith, if they fear a life may be in danger, if the accoutrements of a crime are in plain view, and other circumstances that merit that probable cause that a crime has been committed are evident. While some believe this circumvents the fourth amendment to the constitution, it is noteworthy that the burden of proof to conduct such searches is substantially smaller than to convict an individual in a criminal court of law. In the case of profiling a suspect, for instance, simply because an individual is stopped because he or she resembles a suspect or legitimately raises a policeman or woman's level of professional (not personal) suspicion, does not mean that individual will be convicted. The law has long trusted the professional eyes and standards of the police in the moment of policing -- if it did not, then no search would be…… [read more]

Criminal Justice Powell, Michael. "Bragging Article Review

Article Review  |  3 pages (920 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Yet more should be done to ensure an error-free DNA processing procedure at all stages of the criminal justice process.

Dwyer, Jim. "Rewriting the City's Record on Prisons." The New York Times. 2 Jan, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/03/nyregion/rewriting-the-citys-record-on-prisons.html

In this article, Dwyer comments on Harry Belafonte's criticism of the New York City prison system. According to the author, the city has effectively reduced its prison population and is contributing to the overall state reduction in incarceration rates. This news is promising. While the rest of the nation should follow suit, at least New York is taking steps to reduce one of the country's biggest shames: prison overcrowding and the needless imprisonment of nonviolent drug offenders. Alternative sentencing for other crimes, and more aggressive prevention programs are also absolutely critical to reducing prison overpopulation.

Fuller, Thomas. "Wave of High -- Profile Crimes Has Put Malaysians on the Defensive." 18 October, 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/20/world/asia/soaring-crime-rate-takes-a-growing-malaysia-by-surprise.html

Although we are not discussing international crime, I wanted to write about this article in a more general sense to show how rates of crime shift in response to changing demographics. This article could apply equally as well to an American city that is rapidly growing and changing. The article focuses on the sudden increasing in crimes in Malaysia, with an emphasis on the capital Kuala Lumpur. The city has always been known to be safe but recently has had a rise in crime, especially thefts and burglaries. Class conflict and strain theory are used to explain the issue, but there are clearly other issues at stake given the simultaneous rise in crimes that are violent too, such as rape and homicide.

Kelly, Heather. "Hyperlocal apps help residents fight crime." CNN Tech. 14 May, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.cnn.com/2014/05/14/tech/social-media/neighborhood-watch-apps-nextdoor/

In this article, the author discusses the use of technology to empower residents of a community in Arizona. This article shows that community residents can use a simple app on their smartphone, which they are already using, to monitor their neighborhood. It is an app that can easily transfer to other cities. The reason why I selected this article for discussion is that I believe in community policing as a viable model. Applications like this help residents feel responsible for the safety of their community, more responsive to threats, and more willing to take action. This will lead to increased citizen watch patterns, and cooperation with police. As long as this does not lead to the "stand your ground" type approach, applications like this will help make communities safer and can be applied to urban, suburban, and even rural regions.… [read more]

Criminal Justice Law Enforcement Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,827 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Most communities have a skewed view of the law enforcement professionals, which makes it difficult for professionals to operate (Barker, 2011). Secondly, the professionals face a challenge with attending to the vast population with their limited numbers. This slows the efficiency of crime prevention through patrols and other means. Additionally, there is the challenge of the societal creations that bring about the criminal acts. Reaching the agents of the crime manufacturing in the society is difficult; thus, the professional finds it hard to attend to matters concerning the crime prevention process.

In combating these challenges, the professionals can take various models of operation. These strategies to curb the issues challenging the professionals include, empowering the community, which simplifies the relation between the professional and society. The professionals can develop community-based policing in which the professionals rely on the citizens for information and intelligence of unlawful acts (Barker, 2011). The professionals can also decentralize the authority to improve the response to the neighborhood-based crime. Using the crime theories, the law enforcement agency can develop specific professionals for the role of prevention and control of crime and such acts: rather than officers generalize their training. The professionals can also establish and seek a broad belief from the public in their function. With these operations, the society will be safe.

The safety of the people is imperative for progress in all sectors, economically, socially or politically. Therefore, the law enforcement professionals have an obligation to safeguard the rights of the people in the country by maintaining law and order.


Prenzler, T. (2009). Police corruption: Preventing misconduct and maintaining integrity. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Barker, T. (2011). Police ethics: Crisis in law enforcement. Springfield, Ill: Chares C. Thomas.

Law enforcement. (2002, Credit Management,, 22-22. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/228275987?accountid=35812

Rosen, M.D. (2004). Exporting the constitution. Emory Law Journal, 53(1), 171-232. Retrieved

from http://search.proquest.com/docview/215713782?accountid=35812

Tierney, J. (2009). Criminology: Theory and context. New York: Longman.

Barker, T. (2006). Police ethics: Crisis in law…… [read more]

Criminal Procedure Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,602 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Criminal Procedure:

The criminal justice system is a process that involves various steps that start with a criminal investigation and end with the release of a convicted criminal from correctional institution. Since it involves a variety of steps, the center of the criminal justice process and criminal procedure is rules and decision making. Rules in criminal procedure involves the use… [read more]

Policy Changes in the Criminal Justice System Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 11


Policy Changes in the Criminal Justice System in America

Discuss the changes that can be made to improve three parts of the criminal justice system (Crime Prevention, Sentencing, and the prison experience) QUOTE ALL 10 RESOURCES

The criminal justice system in America which comprises of three stages i.e. crime prevention, sentencing and the prison experience has failed terribly in bringing about the necessary changes to the criminals. This is seen in the high rate of violent crimes which are higher in America than other European countries and thus suggest that the system does not work as desired. The sentencing policies that have been used have not helped either. These have just led to exponential growth of the population of inmates and it has created a vast disparity in inmates that is based on class and race. Additionally, the rate of relapse to prison is extremely high suggesting that there are no reforms taking place on the inmates. Therefore, there is need for policies to be instituted which change the criminal justice system in America.

One of the policy changes that need to take place regards the way in which the prisons are run. Mass imprisonment rakes in huge profits for companies as a result of prisons being treated as business entities by those running the prisons. Corporations which are contracted to run or own the prisons usually earn millions in profits year after year. Therefore, they find a way to keep their profits flowing in as a result of mass imprisonment. This system tends to reproduce the same conditions that lead people into prison Davis 16-17(; Schlosser)

. Therefore, the government needs to find a way to run the prisons as state entities that do not make any profits. This would bring about some seriousness to the prisons and reduce the reproduction of conditions similar to those that lead people into prison.

The second issue that arises is how the media and film industries portray prisons to those outside prisons. Prisons have been portrayed in a different image than the reality which confuses the general public into believing that they know all about what happens in the prisons. This has led to the evildoers not being scared of prison since they believe that it is a place that they are familiar with. The government should come up with policies to prevent prisons from being portrayed a lot in the films giving the public this false image Davis 17-18()

It is also important to eliminate drug abuse, sexual abuse and medical neglect for the prisoners. The government needs to come up with ways to curb these…… [read more]

Criminal Justice Management Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Criminal Justice Management

Intelligence Led Policing

Intelligence Led Policing is a growing trend in both national and local security strategies and measures. This approach to law enforcement is much more strategic approach to law enforcement which features strategies aimed at early location and understanding of potential risk factors and how to manage those problems before they become too big to control. It is essentially based on finding out intelligence and implementing more proactive strategies that are geared towards the intelligence gathered beforehand.

The Sparrow case study provides an interesting glimpse in modern implementations of intelligence led policing being used within a contemporary context. The article discussed the occurrence of a failed car bomb in the infamous Times Square in New York. The article highlights the New York Police Department's intelligence capabilities and how those capacities are being successfully used to deter future terrorist acts before they are actually set into place. Immediately, the media went into a furry in blaming the Obama administration for not being able to protect American citizens. This shows a clear misunderstanding of intelligence led policing in the eyes of the media.

Assignment 2: Kansas City

There was a preventative patrol experiment conducted in Kansas City. This experiment lasted between 1972 and 1973, later being evaluated by the Police Foundations. Essentially, the experiment tested on whether it was true that heightened numbers of police on patrol would help deter people from actually committing crimes. In this, the more police visible on the streets would essentially mean less criminal activities out of the fear of those visible police. Yet, the case clearly had major issues that made me personally believe the assumption of greater police presence was not necessarily as great of a deterrent as many would…… [read more]

Criminal Justice System Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (661 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


This helps the police in establishing probable cause and connecting other evidence that was collected during the process of the investigation. It is at this point that this information can be used to show how a crime is being committed (which could lead to a judge authorizing a search warrant). (Samaha, 2011)

The dangers involved with using these kinds of tips are that the police could be receiving false information. This is problematic, because they could potentially detain or raid a residence of someone that has committed no crime. If this were to happen it opens law enforcement up to the possibility of a civil lawsuit and a ruling against the search. Another potential danger is that many of the criminals could use this as a way to change the focus of the investigation to someone else. This is troubling, in that this kind of tactic will protect criminals from prosecution by having informants provide the police with information on their rivals and enemies. In the future, this could lead to uneven enforcement of the law by focusing on select groups while ignoring others. (Samaha, 2011)

The biggest dangers of not using tips are that law enforcement will have more difficulties in proving that a crime is being committed. This makes it easier for criminals to avoid prosecution and continue with their activities in the future. When the police are able to understand the organization better is the point that they can effectively arrest and prosecute a suspect. As a result, the type of crime and the difficultly in solving the case should matter. The reason why, is from the critical information that someone may have about a suspect. This means that any kind of tips could tie everything together.


Samaha, J.…… [read more]

Criminal Justice - Research Methods Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


News blurbs include topics of high interest, such as, a report that the overall crime rate in New York has dropped while the incidence of hate crimes has increased.

Hate Crimes in New York State Annual Report



The State of Connecticut Statistical Analysis Center (CT-SAC) is located at the OPM, which is under the Bureau of Justice Statistics. Grants are awarded on an annual basis. The Research, Analysis & Evaluation Unit applied for grant funds to support the research and administration of the Statistical Analysis Center (SAC) for the State of Connecticut. The relocation of the CT-SAC was an effort to build in-house resources for knowledge sharing, to streamline operations, and to provide agency cross-training in order to improve coordination and support for the CJPAC Research Workgroup.

Between 1970 and 2010, there were 554 incidents of terrorism in Germany. The incidents hit a definitive peak between the years 1990 and 1997. Most of the incidents targeted business, with military and police targets accruing the second and third highest numbers of incidents of terrorism, respectively. The two main types of weapons were incendiary and melee. Fatalities were rare, the intent may have been to destroy property and disrupt. The list of perpetrators is very long and very specific. It was not possible to start with the incidences and find the perpetrator. Rather, the perpetrator had to be selected and then related incidents would be shown. In August 29, 1995, the Kurdistan Worker's Party (PKK) was responsible for attacks on businesses, private citizens, and private property in Ulm in the state of Baden-Wurttemberg, injuring four people and killing two people.


Source: Framework for Program Evaluation, CDC


For a community mobilization effort against youth violence, I would begin by talking to community leaders. Who these people are is highly dependent upon the dominant cultural or ethnic groups in a community, but it is safe to say that a community mobilization effort would be "dead in the water" if it did not engage these community influencers. Initial meetings with community leaders / influencers will help to direct the first formal, organized, and visible activities in the community. Once the community leaders have agreed on the primary tenets of the program, they will act as champions of the program, telling key stakeholders about the program plans. In this way, by the time the initial meeting occurs, a group of community influencers will be ready to evangelize the program within the community.

As I could not get the website provided us to open, I did some additional online searching and found a document that references the Audits and Strategies Toolkit. The URL to that paper is http://www.leics.gov.uk/nwl_2_method.pdf Specifically, the resource that I located was an audit report from a work group conducted by the Research and Information Team of Leicestershire County Council, the focus of which was crime, disorder, and drugs. The audit workshop was conducted on February 13, 2004. From this paper, I was able to make some comparisons between the… [read more]

Contemporary Criminal Justice Issue Police Use of Deadly Force Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  20 pages (6,054 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Police Use of Deadly Force

Since time immemorial, the use of deadly force has been considered justified for self-defense, or for the defense of one's family and even property. When deadly force is used by governmental authorities to protect law enforcement authorities, citizens and property, though, the justification becomes less clear-cut and the appropriateness of such use can be highly… [read more]

Criminal Justice System Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,325 words)
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Criminal Justice System

Define the criminal justice system in your own words

The criminal justice system is the vehicle that society uses to enforce the standards of conduct that are necessary to protect individuals and the community. The criminal justice system consists of three main parts: law enforcement, courts, and the jails and prisons.

Choose a crime trend and identify this trend in Louisiana. Create a chart to illustrate the crime trend statistics you chose.

Race relations and poverty have always been a topic of concern in New Orleans, but has become ever so more talked about since hurricane Katrina. It has been reported that New Orleans has one of the highest concentrations of poverty and poor African-American residents in the U.S. In the areas just outside of New Orleans, the poverty rate in the damaged areas of the Gulf Coast (20.72%) is clearly above the national average of 12.4%. The geographic concentration of people experiencing poverty, mostly African-Americans, has contributed to a historic cycle of destruction and suffering. Katrina forced misery upon people from every segment of the social spectrum, but the poor and unemployed, African-Americans, and those who rent their homes were especially affected. "Due to this concentration of damage, the hurricane amplified preexisting disparities based on class and race. Residents in damaged areas were 45.8% African-American, compared to 26.4% in the undamaged areas of the region, 29.9% were under the poverty line, compared to 15.3% in surrounding undamaged areas and 7.6% of the residents in damaged areas were unemployed, as compared to 6% in nearby undamaged areas" (Vorhees, Vick and Perkins, 2007).

The police: Identify the roles and responsibilities of the police after a crime has been committed. What they must do and why?

A police officer's basic tasks include keeping public order and protecting lives and property. A police officer must be watchful for any number of threats, human or otherwise. Once a crime has been committed, detectives take over and engage in searching that ranges from routine questioning to DNA analysis. Sheriffs and state troopers uphold order in bigger areas. Most officers work a patrol in a specific area. As they rise in the ranks, their duties become more specialized. All police officers, because of their exclusive role in society, are responsible for maintaining the trust of the public they serve. Police work is mostly a series of routines: patrols, investigations, and paperwork (Police Officer/Manager, n.d).

The courtroom and trial: Identify a courtroom in your area or state. Identify those who work in a courtroom and describe their roles.

Juvenile Court is the court that has jurisdiction over children. It deals with matters of juvenile delinquency, families in need of services, child in need of care, adoption, juvenile traffic violations, and criminal neglect of family & child support. In the state of Louisiana the following are court personnel in the Juvenile Court: Juvenile Court Judge, Hearing Officers, Court Attorneys, Probation Officers, Case Managers, and Court Reporters (Jefferson Parish Juvenile Court, 2006). The judge is the… [read more]

History U.S. Criminal Justice Systems/Police Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (3,251 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Peel's police wore uniforms and patrolled beats." (Schmalleger Chapter 5 Summary)]

1845 America's first unified, prevention-oriented police force, patterned after the London Metropolitan Police, is established in New York City.

Vila and Morris xxxi)

It was at this point that the nation began to demonstrate expansions of professionalism as the New York City police force took the first substantial step… [read more]

Ethical Dilemmas in Criminal Justice Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,047 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


For example, they receive little remuneration that does not gather for their daily needs alongside he poor working conditions. This affects their job morale and their psychological well-being. Therefore, William should consider providing his team members with better working environment alongside motivating agents such as remuneration to ensure their mental well-being (Hudson, 2003).

The present status of the correctional facility… [read more]

Criminological and Criminal Justice Research Comparative Article Review

Article Review  |  3 pages (974 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Criminological and Criminal Justice Research

Comparative research

Comparative research is a technique in the social sciences that seeks to draw comparisons across different cultures or countries.

What led to its use in criminology?

The comparative methodology is not new to research studies in the social science field. In 1889, E.B. Taylor recognized the profits of comparative research in his presentation to the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain. Nonetheless, with a couple of prominent special cases, his call for comparative studies went unheeded by non-anthropological analysts until the mid-1950s (Bennett, 2009). At that point, scientists in psychology, political science and sociology started utilizing comparative approaches to develop and test theories in their disciplines. Not until the late 1970s and early 1980s did criminologists, start investigating crime comparatively. Since then, there has been a gradual expansion of criminological literary works, which utilizes comparative techniques.

The September 2001 events altered the way Americans viewed the world and how different the justice systems in different countries address issues of global terrorism. The mainstream media that published criminal justices practices and systems in some nations highlighted the recently discovered interest. It was once perceived as a topic of debate in annual meetings but developed into front-page headlines. Since the 9/11 terror attack, academically focused studies on these topics has grown (Winterdyk, Reichel & Dammer, 2009). For instance, the European Society of Criminology (ESC) has expanded generously every year since then. Right now, the International Division of the ASC has the biggest participation of any division across the society.

Such increased focus towards global terrorism and comparative research has never been a surprise. The terror attacks stirred European and American publics' attention and interest to something, which remains a major security concern across the world for a year.

The design of comparative research

A comparative study exists when a researcher endeavors to answer questions concerning the distinctions between two or more groups or countries. The comparative research design holds defined aspects that hold accurate over all types of comparative exploration. These qualities permit the researcher to utilize their research in a statistically valid and objective manner (Cohen, 2008).

Types of data are used in comparative research

Official Data

Most research studies about comparative crime depend on official information. This information is gathered for utilization by the criminal agencies in a jurisdiction or country. The needs and concerns of researchers concentrating on the correlates of criminal justice and crime are irrelevant. This information is then transmitted to a supra-national information center and distribution office where descriptions of crime must be uniform instead of in strict arrangement with every country's definitions based upon its punitive law (Bennett, 2009).

Survey Data

An exceptional emerging addition to a toolbox of a comparative researcher is the crime victim survey. While this approach is consistent in many countries, there is a variance in the sampling when undertaken within a country. Some countries can use nationwide samples…… [read more]

Ethics Criminal Justice Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,944 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


There are some organizational policy ethics impacting the criminal justice system, which are more generalized due to their being universal among all government agencies. For example, gender discrimination, sexual harassment, and equitable pay are all issues that play a role in criminal justice administration. Corruption in law enforcement and in the judiciary, as well as in correctional institutions, is also a managerial issue. Regulations can be in place to prevent ethical infractions, but ultimately criminal justice leaders need to be committed to preventing ethical infractions from taking place and using disciplinary procedures when they do happen. Unfortunately, criminal justice officials often do have conflicting duties, roles, and ethical frameworks to work with and within (Banks, 2012).

Ethics is one of the most fundamental aspects of the criminal justice system, which is why it is important to discuss ethics when learning about criminal justice administration and operations. Philosophical traditions of ethics including deontology vs. utilitarianism play themselves out in the criminal justice arena, and there is no one right or wrong way of tackling ethical problems. Still, consistency in the application of ethical issues is important for ensuring that equal protection is put into practice. A sociological understanding of crime helps clear up some ethical issues, such as the role of race and class, as well as gender, in criminal justice. By becoming more sensitive to issues like racial profiling and police brutality, all branches of the criminal justice system can become more accountable.


American Civil Liberties Union (2012). Racial profiling. Retrieved online: http://www.aclu.org/racial-justice/racial-profiling

Banks, C. (2012). Criminal Justice Ethics. Sage.

Block, W.E. & Obioha, V. (2012). War on black men: Arguments for the legalization of drugs. Criminal Justice Ethics 31(2): 106-120.

Harfield, C. (2012). Police informers and professional ethics. Criminal Justice Ethics 31(2): 73-95

Keteyian, A. (2011). Feds crack down on police brutality nationwide. CBS. 10 Aug 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-18563_162-20090883.html

Krugman, P. (2012). Police brutality. The New York Times. Retrieved online: http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=police%20brutality&source=web&cd=13&cad=rja&ved=0CHsQFjAM&url=http%3A%2F%2Ftopics.nytimes.com%2Ftopics%2Freference%2Ftimestopics%2Fsubjects%2Fp%2Fpolice_brutality_and_misconduct%2Findex.html&ei=W02vUL3UEdSwhAftw4CACw&usg=AFQjCNGRX15kfceTuxofyHmUq_cQX4OG3g

Lawrence, N. (n.d.). Ethical issues in criminal justice. eHow. Retrieved online: http://www.ehow.com/info_8161457_ethical-issues-correctional-systems.html

Leighton, P. & Reiman, J. (2000). Criminal Justice Ethics. Pearson.

Schmalleger, F. (1991). Criminal Justice Ethics. Greenwood.

Wooley, A. (2012). To what should lawyers be faithful? Criminal Justice Ethics 31(2): 124-136.… [read more]

Criminal Justice Ethics the Ethical Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (811 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Now that virtually everyone with a smart phone could take pictures or videos of police misconduct, the field of law enforcement is obliged to be ethical because one never knows when a phone / camera is aimed at the behavior of cops. Also, the television news industry now has several cable news channels and they compete vigorously to beat each other with revelations on misbehavior (whether real or questionable), cops included.

FIVE: Ethics is a field that is probably more significant now in the law enforcement milieu because the definitions of ethics are numerous and it can be a confusing issue. Understanding the importance of ethics is vitally important for a law enforcement officer because he or she will find that what is ethical and what is not ethical can be a fuzzy dilemma. However, the law is far more cut and dried; it's either legal or it's not legal. The statutes are very clear so officers (in most cases) are very familiar with laws. But as noted, ethics can be confusing and vague as to what is truly ethical hence I feel ethics is more important in this case.

SIX: What would I do in this situation? I would allow the young officer to go about his business and issue a citation. The fact that I know the driver who ran the red light is irrelevant to the violation he is accused of. Yes I would shake hands with the store owner because there is no reason to be in denial just because this is a real-life police / traffic situation. After all it was not a DUI issue in which the driver would need to be handcuffed and jailed. It was a simple traffic ticket and if the store owner is a reasonable person he knows he made a mistake and he also knows it is the duty of the officer to issue a citation. It would be a good lesson for the young officer to witness; no one is above the law! If the young officer is shocked that the veteran officer ticketed a man who is a friend, then indeed that is a perfect lesson for him to learn.

Works Cited

Findlaw. (2010). Police Misconduct and Civil Rights. Retrieved November 21, 2012, from http://civilrights.findlaw.com.

Gleason, Tag. (2009). Ethics Training for Police. The Police…… [read more]

TV, Movies &amp Criminal Justice Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (573 words)
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Law & Order, one of the longest running legal drama series in television today, highlights the dynamics between the police and the litigation system of the country. Each episode covers specific cases, always highlighting how sometimes police and lawyers can work together and actually strengthen a case against a criminal or an offender, or oftentimes, how lawyers' interests clashes with the police's that it is illustrated as a constant struggle on who shall prevail or who has the better judgment about the case.

These popular TV programs have different strengths and weaknesses. Ultimately, they shaped the way people think about the criminal justice system in the United States, both from the side of the legal system and forensic science. CSI, despite its strong adherence to scientific inquiry and explanation in solving crimes, do not actually reflect the real-life scenarios that forensic scientists encounter in the midst of the bigger criminal justice system. DNA processing and analysis, for example, actually takes days rather than a few hours or 24 hours to accomplish. CSI seemed to depict forensic science processing as an easy feat, when in reality, it could be slower than expected simply because not all laboratories have the complete supplies, equipment, and technology to make all these forensic science processing and analyses possible. At best, Law & Order has, over the years, almost 'mirrored' the reality of the police and legal justice system in the country. Its characters, their behavior, and even depiction of the lawyers, police, criminals, and victims have been faithful to real-life events and scenarios. Thus, Law & Order is a good reflection of the criminal justice system, particularly its nature and the…… [read more]

Criminal Justice Process Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,551 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Criminal Justice Process

A felony is a group of crimes that are commonly known as the most serious types of offenses. The major element of a felony is that being found guilty of a felony will consequence in incarceration for at least a one year period of time. In addition, the detention will be served in a prison facility rather… [read more]

Criminal Justice System Program Reducing Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,143 words)
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Selection criteria and their weights are statement of the problem at 25%, project design at 25%, capabilities and competencies at 30%, data collection plan at 10%, and budget a 10% (BJA).

Rationale of the Program

Research showed a 4.1% decline in violent crime in cities where PSN was implemented as compared with only 0.9% in cities that had no implementation (NIJ, 2009). The cities investigated were Durham, Greensboro and Winston-Salem in North Carolina, Lowell in Massachusetts, St. Louis in Missouri, Chicago, Stockton in California, and Montgomery and Mobile in Alaska. There were very significant declines in gun crime in all the police districts, which implemented PSN as compared to districts, which did not. It was found that target cities with a high level of commitment by the district attorney office also had high levels of PSN implementation. The key factors influenced PSN in reducing violent crime. These were cross-agency buy-in and flexibility. Flexibility, in turn, had five basic components, such as partnerships, strategic planning, training, outreach, and accountability. Cross-agency buy-in or distributed leadership existed among the key agency leaders, such as the chief of police, the local prosecutor, the child of probation and parole and the mayor or city manager. Flexibility meant fitting or adapting the program to the needs of the district rather than increased federal gun prosecution. This was demonstrated by partnerships, strategic planning, training, outreach and accountability. Partnerships were formed by enforcement agencies, State and federal prosecutors, parole and probation agencies and community groups. Strategic planning covered enforcement, prosecution, deterrence and prevention. More than 17,000 PSN members received training by 2005 alone. Outreach activities were conducted on nationwide basis. And accountability was conducted by means of different reporting mechanisms (NIJ).

The Place of Problem-Solving

Prevention and intervention start with problem-solving (NIJ, 2008). This two-pronged concept drives law enforcement to identify concentrations or criminal activity; determine the causes of these concentrations; and come up with responses to reduce these concentrations. An investigation on gun violence interventions in Atlanta, Los Angeles, and St. Louis found that effective partnerships demand extensive commitment in terms of time, resources and energy; local data prompt and focus local action; researchers are a significant element; and problem-solving often requires organizational change, sometimes viewed as threatening. If the commitment is not strong enough, other events may take in resources or partners may give up. Collaboration requires eliminating traditional jurisdictional control and self-interests. Hard evidence is necessary to convince residents, the police and policy makers to assign limited resources for intervention programs. Researchers are skilled persons in handling data in identifying problem causes and measuring them. They use strict and reliable methods in isolating specific factors in the success or failure of an endeavor. And problem-solving often invites resistance to the change it implies and requires. That resistance must be overcome so that it does not interfere with the program or the desired change (NIJ).


BJA (2012). Violent gang and gun crime reduction program. Project Safe

Neighborhoods, FY 2012 Competitive Grant Announcement. Bureau of Justice… [read more]

Criminal Justice and Capital Punishment Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,774 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Capital Punishment

Criminal Justice and Capital Punishment

Capital punishment has provoked heated discussion since biblical times. The debate remains as divisive as ever because it sits at the intersection of life, death and the very definition of the word justice. Whether justice requires the death penalty is strictly a matter of how one defines justice. Since the reinstatement… [read more]

Criminal Justice for Possible Outcome Essay

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When a practice or program is believed a priori to be effective, it is challenging to obtain resources or support for trails that might dilute experimental effect in the name of science.

"Evidence and Liberty: The Promise of Experimental Criminology," by Lawrence W. Sherman (University of Cambridge, UK). I found this article to be of interest because found the tension… [read more]

Changes Within Criminal Justice Organization Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 4


Changes Within Criminal Justice Organization

Changes within a criminal justice organization:

Increased police profiling of Arab-Americans after September 11, 2001

Changes within a criminal justice organization:

Increased police profiling of Arab-Americans after September 11, 2001

Accusations of racial profiling have dogged law enforcement in America since the birth of the nation. However, after the attacks upon the World Trade Center of September 11, 2001, profiling Arab-Americans by local law enforcement has become of increased concern, according to a Vera Institute of Justice study. The study "explored the changed relationship between Arab-Americans and law enforcement in the years since the 2001 terrorist attacks" (Elliott 2006, p.1). Since the attacks, Arab-Americans have viewed the police in a more adversarial fashion and are more inclined to see the police as a threat rather than a protective force in their communities. This has been due to increased perceptions that they are 'racially profiled' because of their appearance, ethnic, and religious heritage. Even though some Arabs are Christians, many report being 'profiled' as Muslims by local law enforcement officers.

The need for community policing is underlined by the study's findings. Regardless of whether profiling does occur in specific instances, Arab-Americans clearly perceive that it does take place on a wide scale. It is hoped that through increased recruitment efforts, Arab-Americans will begin to see their community reflected in the faces of law enforcement officials and they will be more apt to cooperate with authorities when necessary, regarding crimes pertaining not only to terrorist-related activities, but in regards to community safety. Yet the chasm of understanding between law enforcement and Arab-American community members remains quite wide. Interviews with the Vera study participants revealed that even more so than hate crimes by citizens, Arab-Americans feared police surveillance.

"While hate crimes against Arab-Americans spiked after Sept. 11, they have decreased in the years since, according to both law enforcement and Arab-American respondents" (Elliott, 2006, p.1).The study "focused upon the effects of a number of post-9/11 policies, including USA Patriot Act, voluntary interviews of thousands of Arab-Americans by federal agents, and an initiative known as Special Registration, in which more than 80,000 immigrant men were fingerprinted, photographed and questioned by authorities" (Elliott, 2006, p.1). These actions have communicated the message to Arab-Americans that they are perceived as the perpetrators of crime, rather than as potential victims or even as fellow citizens.

As well as statistically-based questionnaires, the study made use of focus group interviews. "During one focus group, a woman told the story of an encyclopedia salesman who came to her door and asked to use the bathroom. She worried that he might have been an agent trying to plant a listening device in her home" (Elliott, 2006, p.1). To improve community relations, actively recruiting Arab-Americans to the ranks of law enforcement is deemed essential. Individuals from within the culture can more effectively understand how to build trust between Arab-American citizens and those officers in charge of protecting community safety. Arab-Americans in law enforcement are also in a better… [read more]

Criminal Justice Field Research Paper

Research Paper  |  15 pages (4,874 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Criminal Justice Field

Define what an experiment is and how it is useful in the field of criminal justice research.

Since the beginning of the discipline, quantitative methods have supplied the primary research methods for studying the division and causes of crime. Quantitative methods provide many ways to attain data that is useful to many facets of society. The use… [read more]

Criminal Justice System as Entertainment Critique Movie Review

Movie Review  |  3 pages (930 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Criminal Justice as Portrayed in Television Entertainment

American Justice Episode #87 "Donnie Brasco" is the story of former FBI Special Agent Joe Pistone who successfully infiltrated the Bonanno crime family of the New York Mafia for six years, beginning in 1976. As a result of that long-term undercover operation, more than 200 Mafiosi were arrested, more than half of whom were eventually convicted of their crimes. To accomplish his infiltration, Special Agent Pistone exploited the friendship he established with a Bonanno family captain, Dominick "Sonny Black" Napolitano. After the operation was terminated by the FBI and the successful infiltration made public, Napolitano was killed by his former associates for having vouched for Pistone and allowing him access to the organization. The episode portrays the many criminal operations, including murders, committed by the crime family and by Napolitano, who boasted of having killed 26 people in previous years.

American Justice Episode #71 "The Amy Fisher Story" concerned the case dubbed "The Long Island Lolita" by the press. In 1992, Amy Fisher was a 17-year-old high school student who had been having an affair with a much older married man named Joseph Buttafuco, the owner of a local car repair business where Fisher's father had previously had work done on his car. In May of 1992, Fisher showed up at the Buttafuco home and shot Buttafuco's wife Mary Jo Buttafuco in the head with a handgun; she survived but is disfigured today. Fisher was charged with attempted murder but was eventually allowed to plea bargain the charges down to first degree assault. Fisher served seven years in prison and was released in 1999. Joseph Buttafuco was convicted of statutory rape and only served six months for the crime upon his conviction. There was some evidence that Buttafuco may have actually orchestrated the attempt on his wife's life but that was never established at trial.


The segment of the criminal justice system portrayed in Episode 87 is law enforcement and undercover investigations of organized crime. The Mafia "capo" is depicted both as a ruthless criminal who had murdered more than two dozen people but also as a loyal friend to Special Agent Pistone. Pistone described the sense of betrayal he felt at exploiting Napolitano's friendship on a personal level despite the fact that Napolitano was a ruthless criminal and a murder. The FBI is portrayed as a dedicated law enforcement organization whose agents often risk life and limb to conduct investigations where they associate with cold-blooded killer who would murder them on the spot if their true identity were ever discovered.

The circumstances depicted in the episode seem to illustrate the rational choice theory of crime as well as the principle of criminal association. Rational choice describes the fact that every individual makes conscious decisions to abide…… [read more]

Criminal Justice and American Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,075 words)
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However, not all the statistics point to a disparity in every area of criminal justice toward minorities. As indicated, blacks tend to spend less time on parole than whites do, and whites do outdistance blacks in some areas of crime, like sexual and other kinds of violent assaults and batteries. In addition, there may be a problem with the way the United States collects and categorizes its criminal statistics. Author Lauritsen continues, "In the U.S., data on an arrestee's race do not allow for distinctions based on country of origin or recency of arrival" (Lauritsen, 2004). Thus, many "white" immigrants from nations such as Russia or the Middle East, or "black" immigrants from the Caribbean or India are included in the data with long time residents with established criminal activity. The terms and definitions of race and nationality also changed in the Justice Department within the last 25 years, when most of the statistics were accumulated, and so, the numbers may be skewed as the definitions were refined and additional definitions were added (for Asians and Pacific Islanders, for example). Author Lauritsen also notes that the United States is one of the only countries that tracks criminal data on the basis of race, which leads to more "white" and "black" comparisons than in any other country in the world (Lauritsen, 2004).

It is interesting to note that blacks are concerned about crime more than whites are both in their own neighborhoods and in general. Two authors note, "Again, the numbers showed just how critical of an issue crime is to blacks, with some 57% of African-Americans rating crime as an 'extremely serious problem' in the United States as compared to 40% of whites" (Bobo & Thompson, 2006). They also worry more about crimes in their own communities than whites do, according to the same authors' statistics.

In conclusion, the statistics indicate that in most cases, blacks are treated differently in the American criminal justice system, from how much time they spend in jail, to how they are arrested and prosecuted. There are many reasons for this, from social conditions where many minorities live and work, to their opportunities for education, advancement, and income. There also seems to be a bias in law enforcement, which may target minorities more than white criminals. In addition, there are far fewer black lawyers and judges in the system, which may also affect legal outcomes. These things need to change to bring equality to criminal justice.


Editors. (2009). Demographic characteristics of persons convicted of felonies in State courts, by offense, 2004. Retrieved 21 May 2009 from the Bureau of Justice Statistics Web site: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/html/scscf04/tables/scs04201tab.htm.

Editors. (2009). Homicide trends in the United States. Retrieved 21 May 2009 from the Bureau of Justice Statistics Web site: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/homicide/race.htm.

Editors. (2009). Mean length of felony sentences imposed in State courts, by offense and race of felons, 2004. Retrieved 21 May 2009 from the Bureau of Justice Statistics Web site: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/html/scscf04/tables/scs04207tab.htm.

Goldman, D.S. (2004). The modern-day literacy test?: Felon… [read more]

Criminal Justice - Corrections Issues Essay

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Criminal Justice - Corrections Issues


What is the more important goal of the justice system, to control crime or to ensure justice?

No single purpose defines the appropriate role of the criminal justice system in modern American society. In that respect, both crime control and justice are fundamental goals of the criminal justice system. In fact, in the larger sense, crime control is merely one isolated component of the goal of ensuring justice rather than a competing interest.

However, to the extent crime control and ensuring justice are viewed as distinguishable objectives, the contemporary focus of American criminal justice is more focuses on crime prevention, despite the fact that controlling crime may also be one of the primary means of ensuring justice in many circumstances.

In part, contemporary societal expectations and social mores and values have emphasized the eradication of criminal activity of all types. In addition to addressing the social consequences of specific criminal conduct motivated by malice or personal gain, modern American criminal justice recognizes the role of so-called "petty crime" and "victimless crimes" in the deterioration of society. Similarly, modern trends in American criminal justice and policing recognize the degree of harm caused by so-called "benign" conduct at the lowest end of the spectrum of criminal law.

Finally, the modern trend in American criminal justice is to incorporate community values and concerns into the administration of criminal justice. Generally, community-lead (or community-inspired) criminal justice initiatives also emphasize crime control through detection, prosecution, and reduction more than ensuring justice, in principle.

2. Can we change the criminal justice system?

The American criminal justice system is a constantly-changing…… [read more]

Criminal Justice Process Essay

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Criminal Justice Process

Considerable attention has been devoted to law, both substantive and procedural on the justice process. The criminal justice system is a legal system. How does the law influence the day-to-day activities of the justice process? Be sure to cover criminal justice decisions in all major sub-components of the process.

The law influences the day-to-day activities of the… [read more]

U.S. Constitution Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,301 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



The objective of this research is to examine police procedures such as searches, arrest and interrogations, as well as criminal trials and sentencing regulated by the Constitution in the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth Amendments. Most of these provisions of these amendments apply to states through the Fourteenth Amendment. The Constitution provides general… [read more]

Criminal Justice Administration: Corrections Officers Job Satisfactions Thesis

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Criminal Justice Administration: Corrections Officers

Job satisfactions of corrections officers

According to the U.S. Department of Labor, the primary duty of corrections officers is to perform the often-stressful work of overseeing individuals who have been arrested and are awaiting trial or who have been convicted of a crime and are sentenced to serve time in a jail, reformatory, or penitentiary. Corrections officers are in charge of monitoring prisoner behavior, ensuring that prisoners do not engage in physical or verbal intimidation in their interactions with one another, or continue their criminal activities behind bars. Officers may also supervise inmates' visits with friends or family members. The satisfactions derived from the occupation, in addition to upholding the law and protecting the safety of the public (as is the case with all criminal justice administrative positions) is that the efforts of corrections officers will hopefully result the rehabilitation of inmates and that former prisoners can become law-abiding individuals. Although some of the population may not be released, most prisoners will eventually be paroled and corrections officers can play an important role in helping inmates turn their lives around by facilitating inmates' educational efforts, giving inmates appropriate work assignments, and ensuring inmates receive appropriate psychological, drug treatment, and vocational advice and counseling (Corrections officer, 2008, U.S. Department of Labor Statistics).

Job outlook

The position of a corrections officer can be extremely difficult to fill because officers must deal with constantly monitoring inmates for infringements of the rules during inmate activities, leisure and work assignments. Unlike policemen who know that they may run the risk of coming into contact with criminals, every day corrections officers know that they are facing convicted criminals when they go to work, and know that their level of physical risk and psychological stress will be high. "Sometimes, officers must search inmates and their living quarters for contraband like weapons or drugs, settle disputes between inmates, and enforce discipline. Correctional officers periodically inspect the facilities, checking cells and other areas of the institution for unsanitary conditions, contraband, fire hazards, and any evidence of infractions of rules. In addition, they routinely inspect locks, window bars, grilles, doors, and gates for signs of tampering. Finally, officers inspect mail and visitors for prohibited items" Corrections officer, 2008, U.S. Department of Labor Statistics). Even the minutest activity, like inspecting mail, requires following strict protocol, because of the need to intercept and prevent potentially criminal and/or violent behavior.

Financial issues

Demand for corrections officers is increasing because of rising rates of incarceration across the nation. However, because of current and future cutbacks on the state and federal levels, corrections officers must often balance safety, their rehabilitation efforts, and the financial limitations of an institution's budget. The effect of cash shortfalls on the workday of corrections officers is evident in Alabama. There, correctional officers used to be expected to work 8-hour days, and were paid overtime if their workday exceeded the minimum requirements. However, now "correctional officers at seven state prisons will work 12-hour shifts beginning Oct.…… [read more]

Criminal Justice and How They Impact Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,380 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … criminal justice and how they impact the United States. In addition the writer explores the three styles of policing by James Q. Wilson and explains how they apply to the criminal justice system in America. There were five sources used to complete this paper.


The models used today for enforcement as well as a discussion about policing policies throughout the nation

The constitution of the United States provides many protections for the citizens with regard to the criminal justice system. It does not allow unreasonable search and seizure, it provides for the right to face one's accuser and it mandates the right to be represented by legal counsel when being questioned or tried for a crime. Even given these protections there are issues surrounding the current criminal justice system and the way it is run. America uses two main models of criminal justice with each one having good and bad points. When they are used in conjunction with each other and combined with the decision by law enforcement officials to choose one of three policing policies, the public can be sure that victims and suspects are receiving the best possible criminal justice system possible.

The Models

The Due Process model of the criminal justice system uses the basic principle that the government and those who represent the government must respect all of each individual's legal rights (Due process http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Due_process).In addition, the attempt to prosecute someone for a crime must be met with every legal ability to protect the suspect so that if that person is convicted there is little doubt that it is the right person who has been convicted.

The Fifth Amendment contains a guarantee of due process applicable only to actions of the federal government. The Fourteenth Amendment contains virtually the same phrase, but expressly applied to the states (Due process http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Due_process)."

Part of the Due Process criminal justice model includes text from the fifth and 14th amendments to the United States Constitution.

No person shall be... deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.... " No State shall... deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.... (Due process http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Due_process)"

In basic terms Due Process means "fundamental fairness." Each person under the United States criminal justice system must be treated with the same rights and protections, regardless of their race, religion, gender or financial status.

Crime Control Model

While the Due process model of the United States tries to insure that the suspect and defendant has all of his or her constitutional rights protected the Crime Control Model works to get the criminals off of the street and keep them off.

The model works to help maintain social order through the design and implementation of laws that will allow law enforcement officials to take criminals off the street (CRIME-CONTROL MODEL (http://bitbucket.icaap.org/dict.pl?term=CRIME-CONTROL%20MODEL).It is a model that provides a foundation for using sting operations, drug sweeps and other methods for the purpose of locating, identifying, and removing… [read more]

Criminal Justice African-Americans and American Prisons Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,486 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Criminal Justice

African-Americans and American Prisons

In a time of great economic and social change, one American industry is booming: the prison-industrial complex. These prisons represent an ever-expanding apparatus of social control (Ward, 2004), one that, according to Julia Sudbury, is focused specifically on regulating, and further marginalizing the underprivileged masses in today's neo-liberal regimes (Ward, 2004).

Recent decades' "get… [read more]

Criminal Justice: Challenges and Developments Term Paper

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Furthermore family and friends not connected professionally with the department should also be enlisted in monitoring police officers for any signs of excessive stress or possible substance abuse.

Whether the problem belongs to criminals or officers of the law, it is important for the criminal justice system to employ policies of zero tolerance with alcohol and drug abuse problems. As… [read more]

Choosing Study Designs in Criminal Justice Research Term Paper

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If the ethical issues are set aside for the purpose of discussion, then an example of an experimental study design would be randomizing police responses to domestic violence calls. A comparison could be made on outcomes depending on whether a regular patrol or community policing unit responded to the call. A number of demographic variables would have to be collected for each encounter so that potential confounding factors could be controlled for. For example, the socioeconomic status of the entire neighborhood and the residents involved in a domestic violence response could be controlled for, thereby increasing the validity of the findings. In addition, experimental studies often provide findings about cause and effect relationships that can be generalized to the wider population.

Meta-Analysis Study Design

If enough cohort and experimental studies have been completed investigating the same phenomenon of interest then the findings can be analyzed and combined in a meta-analysis to provide insights otherwise unavailable (USC, 2014). A meta-analysis is only possible, however, if the studies included used similar research methods and provided enough information about the data to render it amenable to statistical analysis. For example, if five policing agencies studied the impact of community policing on domestic violence outcomes using a cohort study design then conducting a meta-analysis could be informative. The conclusions reached in a meta-analysis would be weakened if the findings from the included studies differed in significant ways, but strengthened if there was general agreement among most or all studies. The overall effect of a meta-analysis is to increase the sample size and therefore the statistical power of the analysis.

Policing in a Post-Stop-n-Frisk Era

The former and now new police commissioner of the New York Police Department, William J. Bratton, has been tasked with keeping crime rates low following federal court mandates to stop the policing practice of stop-n-frisk (Goldstein, 2014). His plan is to focus on the tried and true policing strategy of 'broken windows,' which in New York City will take the form of aggressively going after low-level offenders. This is taking place in an environment of strident and prolonged criticism of the stop-n-frisk policing practice implemented during former Mayor Mike Bloomberg's tenure. The issue of whether Commissioner Bratton's plans will improve community relations will probably receive intense scrutiny by both the current mayor and the various oversight organizations that have a vested interest in this issue.

The two study designs which could be used to study whether community relations will improve are case study and cohort, with the expectation that the findings from both would complement each other. The case study could involve detailed interviews of selected community residents concerning their views about police conduct, thereby providing insight into what changes residents have witnessed and whether their fear of police encounters has diminished significantly. The cohort study could involve the collection of data concerning the frequency and nature of police stops, in addition to the frequency and nature of police misconduct complaints. The cohort study could also compare crime rates from… [read more]

Criminal Justice and Professional Courtesy Term Paper

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Professional Courtesy in the Criminal Justice System

There are many areas of life where professional courtesy can and should be used out of respect for others. Professional courtesy generally refers to how certain professions have understandings among their members, that may also extend to the families of those members (Fuller, 2005). In the criminal justice system, professional courtesy generally relates to how some crimes and minor infractions can be engaged in without fear of tickets, fines, or arrests. The use of confidential plates, family cards, and "thin blue line" stickers on vehicles are all examples of professional courtesy used in the criminal justice system (Fuller, 2005). However, whether professional courtesy should be used in criminal justice is a question that does not have easy answers. How that question gets answered may also be affected by who is asked the question, and whether that person is part of the criminal justice system in any way. Those who are part of the system will likely not object to professional courtesy being used, but those who are not part of the system may feel it is inappropriate.

The argument could be made that professional courtesy in the criminal justice system encourages illegal behaviors. If a person knows he or she can "get away with" a particular crime or infraction, there is no need for that person to attempt to avoid that particular choice. This is worth considering, especially based on whether professional courtesy should be allowed at all or whether there should be a "line" that cannot be crossed when it comes to how much a person in the criminal justice field can do without getting into legal trouble (Fuller, 2005). Naturally, these people are not exempt from charges like rape and murder, and they cannot burn down buildings or rob people. What they can generally do without fear of legal trouble are things like speeding and other traffic infractions. There are also some arguments made that minor crimes are "allowed," but the definition of what those crimes might be can vary.

Whether a person who works in criminal justice can avoid significant traffic infractions like DUI is also debatable, and…… [read more]

Criminal Justice Administration Essay

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In addition to this, they can provide officers with the ability to learn more about an environment before actually stepping it and checking it themselves. This can be especially beneficial in cases when criminals are waiting to surprise officers.

The masses are inclined to oppose the use of unmanned aerial vehicles/systems because they fear that this would provide law enforcement agencies with the ability to interfere with their private lives and that it would thus be wrong for them to support such systems. Even with this, the reality is that the technology is already here and that it being present in the hands of police officers can play a significant role in reducing crime levels. People basically have to choose between being paranoid and living in a safer society.

The technology available in the contemporary society can have a positive effect on crime levels if law enforcement agencies acknowledge this and if they go through with purchasing AR technology and unmanned aerial vehicles/systems. While costs were previously an impediment when considering these concepts, the fact that such technologies have become much more accessible during recent years further contributes to making them particularly appealing for law enforcement agencies.


Cowper, T.J. & Buerger, M.E. "Improving Our View of the World: Police and Augmented Reality Technology." Retrieved October 27, 2013, from http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/police-augmented-reality-technology-pdf

"An Easy Explanation Of Augmented Reality and The Practical Uses For The Technology." Retrieved October 27, 2013, from http://www.examiner.com/article/an-easy-explanation-of-augmented-reality-and-the-practical-uses-for-the-technology

"Considerations in Selecting a Small UAV for Police Operations." Retrieved October 27, 2013, from http://www.aeryon.com/applications/whitepapers/224-whitepaperpolice.html… [read more]

Criminal Justice and Criminology the Chicago Alternative Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  15 pages (5,114 words)
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¶ … Criminal Justice and Criminology

The Chicago alternative policing strategy came into effect in the year 1993. The strategy initially took place in five police district then moved to include the entire city. The need of this strategy was to revise the way police departments conducted their operation in the entire city. It is a long-term strategy where now… [read more]

Criminal Justice System Corrections Term Paper

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At the sentencing, regardless of whether they were witnesses during the trial, "victims are allowed to prepare for the judge (and perhaps to read at the sentencing hearing) a victim impact statement that explains how the crime affected them. In deciding on a sentence, the judge has a range of choices, depending on the crime" (The criminal justice system, 2013, National Center for Victims of Crime). Sentences may include a suspended sentence; time served; probation; parole (if the offender has already been serving jail time); or jail time (The criminal justice system, 2013, National Center for Victims of Crime). Once the criminal is sentenced, the victim can still take an active role in the judicial process and be present at hearings for parole.

As can be seen in this step-by-step outline, the workings of the criminal justice system are fundamentally different from those of the civil court system. If the defendant is not found guilty in the criminal justice system, the victim may still have recourse through the civil court system. There, the burden of proof is less onerous: instead of 'guilty beyond a reasonable doubt,' the standard is guilt by a 'preponderance of the evidence.' "Regardless of whether a criminal prosecution was undertaken, or whether the defendant was found not guilty, crime victims may still be able to seek justice by filing a civil lawsuit against the person or persons the victim believes caused the victim harm. The civil justice system does not determine an offender's guilt or innocence, but works to determine whether the offender is liable for the harm caused to the victim" (What are the differences between the civil and criminal justice system, 2013, National Crime Victim Law Institute). Suits in civil court are not brought forth by the state, however, but by the wronged party called the 'plaintiff.'


The criminal justice system. (2013). National Center for Victims of Crime. Retrieved:


What are the differences between the civil and criminal justice system? (2013). National

Crime Victim Law Institute. Retrieved:

http://law.lclark.edu/live/news/5497-what-are-the-differences-between-the-civil-and/law/centers/national_crime_victim_law_institute/for_victims/answers/… [read more]

Criminal Justice Theory and Policy Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  3 pages (962 words)
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Criminal Justice Theory and Policy

Identification of Topic Discussed

The three websites major on a single topic, which is murder, related. Two of the websites focus their attention on people who murdered their spouses and the third one draws its attention on a case of a civilian who faces charges on mass murder. These murder cases are or the rise in the present day despite the fact that not many people are aware of such cases. A tremendous number of individuals face charges of having murdered their wives. People tend to think that they can get away with murder yet they face charges that get to the public. The media has been of great help in the process of fighting crime in the present day (Kraska & Brent, 2011). Publication of the murder cases that take place in the courts is apparently making the public aware of the crimes. This way, people are becoming mindful in terms of violence.

The websites that alert the public on the various murder crimes have differing ways in which they present their information to the public. Some websites upload the videos of the court hearing of different murder cases to have the public get first hand information concerning hearing. Other websites create articles that people can read and review at their own free time. The websites that use articles are advantageous especially to the individuals who have gadgets that have an internet access yet cannot stream live videos. The main purpose of having such websites is to help reduce the cases of murder within states (Kraska & Brent, 2011). The media has generally been effective in the process of fighting crime at individual levels.

When people get informed on such cases then it helps in the process of fighting murder crime. There is fear of publicizing ones private life and the moment one is aware of the fact that he or she will go public for such acts as murder then he or she will decide to keep off. The modest in which the media presents there cases differs depending on the target audiences.

The best policy outcome for the first story is to have it on the internet in both written articles and live videos of the court hearing. This is helpful since it will get the attention of the public through a way the public will get details concerning the progress of the case. The first case is a mass murder and the society has to be aware of people under such charges to ensure that justice prevails (Hancock, 2004). Involving the public on such matters is important since it determines how effective the judgment upon the accused will be effective.

On the second website story, there is an article with prior focus on the situation plus videos on other cases the media targets to inform the public. The charges on Oscar Pistorius…… [read more]

Criminal Justice Theory and Policy Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  7 pages (2,584 words)
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Criminal Justice Theory and Policy

The Prison Industrial Complex

The national correction-commercial complex is an institution governed by a number of participants who have the power to make certain decisions. The participants are not ordinary individual rather, they are other firms established by the government to work under and part of the criminal justice department. The participants include the federal… [read more]

Criminal Justice System Research Paper

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Pennsylvania introduced a criminal code which prevented the torture and some other cruel forms of punishment awarded to the criminals, by replacing the corporal punishments with prisons and jails. However these reforms could not last for long as right after the death of William Penn they were reverted back in 1718. The lawmakers however had to face heavy pressure from Quaker group and these reforms were then reinstated in 1880s. The changes in the policies in Pennsylvania had led to a drop in the crime rate. Henry Fielding and Patrick Colquhuom were among the most prominent figures that made significant reforms in the criminal justice system. (Justice to All: The Story of the Pennsylvania State Police, 1920)

The criminal justice system is comprised of three main functions. The first function is legislative, the main duty of this function is to create laws according to the needs and demands of the community. The second function is adjudication; the duty of this function is to provide fair and accessible justice to the community. The third and the last function of a criminal justice system is the Correction. Offenders are handed over to the correctional authorities after the criminal is accused of his crime.

Just as every other aspect of the criminal justice system has evolved, the corrective measure is the most prominent among them. Early on when the law enforcement bodies did not have enough resources to maintain prisons therefore the primary form of punishments were executions and exiles. In the modern era the most common form of punishment is prison. Prisons serve as detention centers after the criminal is accused of his crime. Criminal justice system has been evolving and will continue to evolve in future also. New issues have recently been discussed by the lawmakers and the civil society, none more so than the issue of capital punishment.


Kelling, George L., Mary A. Wycoff (2002). Evolving Strategy of Policing: Case Studies of Strategic Change. National Institute of Justice.

Mayo, K. (1920). Justice to All: The…… [read more]

Criminal Justice Theory Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  5 pages (2,044 words)
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Criminal Justice Policies

Criminal Justice and Policies

M2D1: Applying Due Process and Crime Control

Habert Packer was the core founder of due process model and crime control model that aimed at reducing the alarming rate of crime in America. Crime control model emphasizes more on human freedom and calls for the suppression of crime. The model puts human interest first… [read more]

Mandatory Minimum Sentencing Laws Research Paper

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In the past three years, there is an ongoing basic critique of these statutes, which is rapidly becoming widely accepted. The laws do not accomplish the conventional accepted goals of punishment since it does not incorporate all theories of retribution. Generally, these theories necessitate that punishment should be proportionate to the magnitude of the offense. The concept of proportionality between… [read more]

Criminal Justice Administration Research Proposal

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Criminal Justice Administration

Administration of Justice in Cases of Mentally Ill Offenders

Final Project Research Proposal

Administration of Justice in Cases of Mentally Ill Offenders

The objective of this study is to establish the administration of justice to mentality destabilized victims. The null hypothesis in the criminal justice administration states that mental destabilized people are innocent of accusations of any… [read more]

Criminal Justice Administration Essay

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Criminal Justice Administration

What should Casey's response be to the reporter (other than hanging up or telling him to call back) concerning the agency's recommendation?

Casey's response should be one that is straight forward and honest. She should tell them that her office is going to look at all the facts in the case and take everything into consideration when… [read more]

Organizational and Administrative Strategies in Criminal Justice Book Report

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¶ … Administrtive Strategies in Criminal Justice

Organizational and Admin. Strategies Organizational and Administrative Strategies in Criminal Justice

Organizational and Administrative Strategies in Criminal Justice

In his book titled, Turnaround, William Bratton gives us his version of how his leadership style helped him to become the success that he is in law enforcement. Some people are of the belief that leaders are born and some believe that leaders are made. Bratton, through his own personal story shows us that he is a combination of both schools of thought. This combination displays itself throughout the book and one of the reasons Bratton gives us a glimpse of his childhood and in particular how he and his father handled neighborhood bullies is to give us an idea that the leadership seed was planted early on in his life.

Throughout Bratton's story, he shows us that he is tenacious, forward thinking and that he persevered through many difficult times in his life and in his career when many would have gotten discouraged and given up. Early in his career when he was passed over for a promotion because of politics and because some thought that at the age of thirty-four he was too young, he didn't let that deter him. Bratton is not the type of individual to lick his wound and find a corner to sulk in. He always seemed to be thinking ahead and if plan a did not work, there was always a plan B. For him and sometimes a plan C. A perfect example of this is when he was basically demoted after believing he had a shot at becoming the police commissioner of Boston.

Bratton tells us that he was not the first cop that this happened to, but where the others gave up and accepted their fate, he worked harder. Even though this was a major setback to his career and it was discouraging, Bratton did not give up or give in. Instead he worked harder and his work ethic did not go unnoticed. As a result, he was approached about becoming chief of the police at the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). Even though this appointment was far from the police commissioner position Bratton had his heart set on, he accepted it because he knew the job would play a part in getting him closer to his goal.

When Bratton first arrived at the MBTA, he goes into detail about how the agency was mismanaged in shambles. He further explains how he was able to turn the MBTA around and make it a respectable agency. He was able to do this because he is a hands-on type of manager and did not operate with a closed door policy. He actually communicated directly with the officers and was able to make small, obvious changes that had a major impact on improvements throughout. Working for the MBTA was a major accomplishment for Bratton. Because he was in touch with his subordinates and actually cared about improving their morale… [read more]

Criminal Justice Victimization Essay

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Service providers must be mindful to serve all those in need, no matter how inconvenient (Handbook on Justice for Victims, 1999).

Those on the other side of this debate feel that victims should rely on upon private support and insurance payments in order to deal with their victimization. These are known as informal sources of assistance and include family, neighbors, friends and others. Employers sometimes offer assistance. Public and private insurance plans may be available to assist with medical and psychiatric needs, as well as property losses, and to provide counsel through legal procedures and should therefore be included if they meet the needs of victims, even if that is not their primary focus (Victims of Crime Overview, 2012).

The ideal plan is to have victim assistance programs to help victims with both formal and informal sources of aid. Each victim is different, not only in the crim of which they were a victim but also in the way in which they deal with their victimization. So each person's program should be tailored to their needs. If a victim needs the services of a government sponsored program then that option should be available to them. On the other hand if informal sources of aid work for a victim then there should sill be someone available to help these people navigate that process.

People who are victims of crimes should not be hung out to dry when it comes to getting help for what happened to them. Being a victim is not something that a person asks for, and thus they should not be a victim twice, once from the criminal and again from the criminal justice system. These people need help and they should be given it so that they can recover from happened to them and can go on with their lives.


Handbook on Justice for Victims. (1999). Retrieved from http://www.uncjin.org/Standards/9857854.pdf

Victims of Crime Overview. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.trynova.org/crime-victim/overview

References… [read more]

Racism in the Criminal Justice System Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,239 words)
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Racism, a term which is defined as the infliction of an obviously unequal consideration which is motivated by the strong desire to dominate on the basis of race alone is noted by several scholars to be rife in the criminal justice system. In this paper we explore this issue with focus on a supervisory issue impacting the criminal justice system with regards to racism. Make sure you include ethical issues found within the criminal justice system.

Elements of racism in the judicial system

The persisting element of racism in the American social system has raised several issues in regard to racial injustice that is being witnessed within the nation's judicial system (Tonry, 1995; Hacker,1992). There is a major source of inquiry within the context of criminology in regard to the investigation if racial status indeed influences the nation's administration of justice. A debate has been raging on the issue of race and the extent to which it serves as an illegal characteristic that can be used to disproportionately subject minorities to sanctions that more stringent in nature .On the contrary, a relatively few number of studies have been carried out in order to explore if Whites and African-Americans perceive that the judicial justice system has elements of racism within it. As noted by Hagan and Albonetti (1982), there is a need for the actual and perceived racial discrimination within the judicial system to be accorded separate studies. This is due to the fact that the studying of the perceptions of racial injustices has conceptual/theoretical implications. This implies that a general lack of the racial divisions would somehow lend a lot of support for the consensus views of the criminal justice while the proposition or even finding that there is a difference between the races in regard to the process of judging of the level fairness of the existing criminal justice system would ultimately support the proposed conflict theory.

The rates of incarceration in deferral prisons have been noted by Nicholson-Crotty and Meie (2003) to have tripled since the year 1975.This growth unfortunately was accompanied by a corresponding increase in the level of racial imbalance. The imbalance which has since seen black Americans constituting close to 50% of all the new admissions as noted by Blumstein and Beck (1999). The racial disproportion has therefore raised serious concerns regarding equity. However, regardless of the subject of race, the large number of prisoners makes the U.S. criminal justice system at the federal level to be of great importance in regard to policy issues. Over the last 25 years, the U.S. federal government has adopted a policy of racial equality in a subject which previously was a domain of the local and state governments.

The national policy has continuously generated a rapidly growing population in their federal penitentiaries which has also seen a massive relocation of the funds towards the federal criminal justice system. It is worth noting that despite the importance of the U.S. criminal policy, several political scientists have been very quiet… [read more]

Criminology-Review Criminal Justice Research Research Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 4


Current research has focused on the processing of burglary incidents has focused primarily on the characteristics of burglary targets or offenders. The current study explores whether the optimism of using forensic evidence to bring burglary cases to a successful conclusion is warranted. The problem is clearly and concisely stated and has been put in a format that is researchable. The literature review is clear and provides relevant scholarly information that identifies gaps in the current literature. This study utilized a prospective analysis of the official record data that followed residential burglary in five jurisdictions. Data was taken from 1263 reported incidents for 2003.

The variables identified for both outcome and descriptive analysis include presence of crime scene evidence, laboratory submitted and examined evidence, and one that linked the suspect to the crime scene and/or victim. They hypothesis seems clear and flows logically. Data was pooled across the five sites with three dummy coded variables related to each site included. The charts were very clear, with each section broken down in very readable and understandable ways. The four hypothesis or outcomes the study explored included (1) whether a reported burglary resulted in an arrest; (2) whether an arrested case was referred to the prosecutor; (3) whether the district attorney formally charged the suspect(s); and (4) whether a prosecuted defendant was convicted.

Criteria selection for the sample was clear. The sample size seemed adequate and representative of the target population. The study did specify how selection bias was corrected for. With regard to the findings, the study illustrated the difficulties of bringing residential burglary cases in the U.S. To a successful conclusion, and made some plausible suggestions for addressing some of the deficiencies noted in the current study. Findings from the study may be successfully generalized to larger communities and particularly those similar to the ones in the study.

Hickle, K., & Roe-Sepowitz, D. (2010). Female juvenile arsonists: An exploratory look at characteristics and solo and group arson offences, Legal and Criminological Psychology, 15, 385-399.

The purpose of the study was to examine a sample of 114 female juveniles charged with arson in a large juvenile justice system, as there is limited descriptive literature about female juvenile arsonists. The methodology included looking into familial characteristics, abuse, neglect, school related issues, mental health, substance abuse, and crime characteristics. Individual and group offenders were explored in depth, and were followed over a five-year period of time.

The literature review was very detailed and provided comparative as well as empirical information that highlighted the current gap that this study was designed to address. T test and chi square tests were used to establish whether the 86 that were excluded from the study demonstrated any significant differences than those who participated in the study. The 114 females included represented 22 counties in the state of Florida. The supervision Risk Classification Instrument was completed by juvenile probation officers within 6 hours of custody. This is a standard tool used for all juvenile offenders. It was difficult to… [read more]

Criminal Justice Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (641 words)
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(Hazen, 2009)

Similarly, the Conflict in Criminal Justice emphasizes to make justice. It emphasizes over the social and economic forces which are present in a society. It is also known as System Conflict theory. This relates with the wages, promotion and success and invites the conflict with criminal justice system. A good example of conflict is prison and police officers; where police tries to put the criminal in jail while prison officials want to release prisoners due to lack or overcrowded facilities. (Skolnock, 2004)

The film CRASH is a combination of ethics, diversity and conflict in criminal justice. It is a story which have multiple characters each having a connection with criminal justice. A police detective who has a drug addict mother and a dishonest brother. There were two car thieves. Crash is about racial ribaldry which has stimulated intolerance. (Forbes, 2005)

Crash has targeted the American racial relations which is embedded with tension and sensation. The character of Graham who was a detective investigated a road accident and his partner Ria helped him. She started the racist dialogues with the Korean women.

In another scene two black men Anthony and Peter, have also used discriminated dialogues at Starbuck's color. So, the story went on different characters giving different perspectives to racial discrimination.

Ethically the film is evolved around the racial discrimination which is quite unethical to refer in a movie, but it has highlighted the different facets of racism in a society.


SagePub, (2011), The Importance of Ethics in Criminal Justice, accessed on June 23, 2011, from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/4031_Banks_Chapter_1_Proof.pdf

Hazen, A., (2009), Cultural Diversity in Criminal Justice Paper, accessed on June 23, 2011, from: http://www.scribd.com/doc/16052470/Cultural-Diversity-in-Criminal-Justice-Paper-CJA423-WK4

Skolnock .J., (2004), Conflict Model, accessed on June 23, 2011, from: http://neohumanism.org/c/co/conflict_model__criminal_justice_.html

Forbes. H., (2005), Crash, Catholic News service, accessed on June 23, 2011, from: http://www.catholicnews.com/data/movies/05mv542.htm… [read more]

Supervision in the Criminal Justice Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,908 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The other challenge involves offender punishment.The issue of what form of punishment be given to criminal offenders is paramount. Different groups of people and especially the human rights activists differ with the kind of punishment given saying that some are inhumane. Another main challenge faced by the criminal justice organizations is the provision of services to demeanor offenders. There has… [read more]

Criminal Justice Career Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (304 words)
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Criminal Justice

Corrections/Police Officer Qualities and Specifications

There're many different types of positions available in the field of criminal justice, but they all require some of the same basic personality characteristics. Regardless of whether one wants to be an investigator, a criminal attorney, or a police officer or corrections officer, a strong commitment to justice and fairness is essential. This, however, is a rather esoteric quality, and though it is an essential one there are other more pragmatic considerations and qualifications that must be taken into account in order to successfully perform in the criminal justice field.

For occupations such as a police or corrections officer, physical determination is absolutely essential. Though physical force is the last resort in any instance, it is an unfortunately necessary part of the job, as such force is the only type of power that really matters when another is willing to use it. That is, force…… [read more]

Criminal Justice Ethics Journals Journal 1: "Prosecutor Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,153 words)
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Criminal Justice Ethics Journals

Journal 1: "Prosecutor Taking Over Justice Ethics Unit," CBS News

The replacement of the head of the internal ethics unit in the U.S. Department of Justice came just one day after a criminal investigation was ordered into the department's handling of the Ted Steven's prosecution. In some ways, this move could be seen as an attempt at restoring the ethics of the department. However, it seems to me that this is more an attempt to mask the problems and possibly even obfuscate the investigation by changing leadership and making direct access to information more difficult. Even if this is the case, though, it would not matter from a utilitarian point-of-view. The person being placed at the head of the ethics department has an impeccable ethical record herself, so regardless of the reasons for her appointment at this time the results will have a definite benefit in the world of justice, rendering it an ethical move.

Journal 2: "Many immigrants deported for nonviolent crimes," LA Times

This article describes the stepped up efforts by the U.S. federal government in arresting and deporting illegal immigrants that have committed non-violent crimes, despite repeated assertions that they are only after violent criminals. Though there is something to be said for upholding the law of the land in deporting any illegal immigrants, ethics demands a proper allocation of limited resources. There are certainly many more pressing issues requiring federal attention, notably national security at ports and airports. A utilitarian view would agree with my personal feelings on this issue; non-violent immigrants, legal or otherwise, pose little threat to the population, and deportation certainly is not good for the immigrants, either.

Journal 3: "Mayor Bloomberg and the Economics of Violent Crime," Wall Street Journal

Mayor Bloomberg recently challenged the commonly held belief the poor economic times leads to a rise in crime. An actual analysis of crime rates shows a strong correlation between rising unemployment rates and an increase in incidence of property crimes, but no such relationship exists when it comes to violent crimes. This becomes an ethical issue when strategies are developed to combat crime; focusing attention on low-income areas and those at risk for higher unemployment could amount to a type of persecution. I find this somewhat morally repugnant, and yet to provide the greatest good with limited resources it is necessary to use all of the information available. Knowing what types of crime will be on the increase and in what areas they are likely to be occurring allows law enforcement to make more efficient decisions.

Journal 4: "Trial set to begin in slaying of transgender woman," Associated Press

The tragic slaying of a transgendered woman is about to undergo prosecution, and an extra penalty for the murder being a bias-motivated crime is being considered. Such enhancements are not new, but they have always been ethically questionable. Deontologically speaking, the act of murder was made more heinous because it was motivated by such a base impulse. But our… [read more]

Colonial Period of Criminal Justice: Lawyers Attorneys Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,279 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Colonial Period of Criminal Justice: Lawyers

Attorneys fresh from law school during the Colonial Period of American history had no trouble finding jobs, according to a study in the University of North Carolina -- Pembroke (Langley, et all, 2001). Lawyers in those times were considered "the elite of society" and most of them graduated from Harvard College (today known as Harvard University). Young lawyers like Samuel Adams, James Otis and John Dickinson were trained in law prior to the American Revolution, and so they were obliged to "uphold British law," Langley writes, "…even though they disagreed with it." The fact that most of the colonies did not like lawyers is not a surprise, because lawyers were not doing things like representing clients for the most part; they were writing legislation, wills, and representing law enforcement.

Because of the vast socioeconomic differences between ordinary people and lawyers -- the average colonist was an "uneducated, unemployed male who felt he had been oppressed and cheated by the upper class elite in England" -- a definite gap existed for a long time. People who broke the law were punished in several ways in the Colonies. One, they were put in "stocks" (locked into a wooden framework with foot holes for the ankles); two they were put in a "pillory" (like stocks only holes for the head and hands); three, they were tied to whipping posts and given lashes in front of the public; and four, criminals were tided to a "ducking stool" (a chair dunked into water as punishment).

The U.S. History of Crime: Constantly Expanding Incarceration

There have been numerous "white collar crimes" and crimes involving international issues like drug smuggling and espionage crimes over the years; there have also been terrible crimes by pathological serial killers like Jeffrey Dahmer. But the crimes that have received the most public notice in the U.S. over the past one hundred or so years have been crimes like the St. Valentine's Day Massacre in Chicago. This was a gang war between illegal providers of alcohol, including Al Capone and others; on February 14, 1929, six men in a bootleg liquor warehouse were gunned down in cold blood in Chicago, which led to the killing of over 500 gangsters during the next few years.

Public Policy and Crime

There are so many laws on the books -- and so many people willing to break those laws -- in all 50 states that prisons have been filling up rapidly. William Spelman writes in the journal Crime and Justice that between the years 1980 to 2000, those 50 states doubled their prison capacity "then doubled it again, increasing their costs by more than $20 billion per year" (Spelman, 2000 p. 419-420). The good news is that cities and states have found better ways to fight crime rather than just throw people in prison. The jurisdictions have hired more judges, made certain they have more effective police departments and better-trained probation officers, Spelman continues. Along with community… [read more]

Criminal Justice - Evaluations Evaluation Methods Thesis

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Criminal Justice - Evaluations

EVALUATION METHODS in CRIMINAL JUSTICE Introduction: As in the case of any other professional industry, policing and other criminal justice administration functions must maintain a system of agency evaluation to assess the effectiveness of its programs. Evaluations encompass effectiveness with respect to achieving specific strategic objectives, supervisory controls, program design, methodology, and fiscal efficiency.

In professional… [read more]

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