Study "Crime / Police / Criminal Justice" Essays 1-55

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Corrections/Police - Criminal Justice Theories of Crime Term Paper

… Corrections/Police - Criminal Justice

Theories of Crime

Distinguish the basic features of liberal and conservative ideologies and the perspectives they generated toward crime and criminals. Which would you tend to embrace and why?

Liberal and conservative attitudes towards criminals, broadly speaking, have been polarized between individuals who tend to see societal motives behind the reasons individuals commit crimes, and people that tend to blame the individual's moral conscience. Liberal theorists, because of their focus on society, believe that addressing the causes of crime, such as poverty, perceptions and realities of discrimination and prejudice, and alienated subcultures that normalize crime as a way of life, are the best methods of crime prevention. They tend to focus on social engineering and rehabilitation as a way to combat crime. Conservatives, because of their focus on the individual's ability to choose a moral or an immoral path, tend to focus on increased policing to create less of an incentive for individuals to commit crimes. They believe this will result in a decreased chance of criminals 'getting away with it' and that retribution will act as a deterrent.

Obviously, neither side is 'perfectly' correct. If social programming alone caused crime, than all individuals within certain subcultures would be deviant -- although it is persuasive that individuals within certain contexts are more apt to commit certain crimes, such as selling drugs in the inner cities during the 1980s cocaine epidemic, unethical behavior within certain corporate firms, and even petty juvenile delinquent behavior. Alleviating the circumstances that foster these crimes may be a positive crime-reduction strategy in the long-term. But in the short-term, some retribution is necessary, as society cannot wait for holistic improvement, and ignore the element of moral choice in the commission of crime.

Police corruption is common throughout the United States and around the world. Discuss different types of police corruption and deviant behaviors and offer an explanation for why it is so widespread. Do you trust the police? Why or why not?

Just like crime can be interpreted as the product of a deviant culture, the 'police mentality' can also give rise to an endorsement of corruption. This rationalization may be as simple as believing that someone is entitled to a bribe because of… [read more]

Corrections/Police - Criminal Justice Contemporary Essay

… Rehabilitation is good but correctional centers should not merely rely on just rehabilitating but the inmates should also be encouraged to be part of the restoration justice movement which is in place. Not all offenders are willing to transform; therefore, prisons become part of a restorative justice system to such. (Lozoff Bo, 2012)

Housing for inmates is also a matter that should be delved into such that the older and more experienced prisoners should not be mixed with young offenders since the older ones prey on the younger ones since this gives the older ones the opportunity to register the young ones into criminal jail gangs. Wardens and correctional administrators should undergo continuous inspections as well as allow public scrutiny to ensure minimal abuse against inmates.

Officer burnout comes as a result of the hectic lifestyle of an officer. Massive stress coupled with work and the constant demands to be met contribute to the burn out. I t does not occur instantly but comes on gradually and can cause physical or mental distress. Symptoms differ from one person to the other but fatigue is common to all.

Courts decisions of sentencing inmates to serve a long-term in jail leaves the wardens with carefree attitude and use this time to punish inmates (Fangmeier A. Robert, 2012). The other implication is the large population of even petty offenders being sent to prisons juts on the grounds of being repeat offenders hence the crowding.

According to the scenario given a chance to talk to the supervisor, I would immediately let him know that having established the challenges faced in the prisons, the solution would not be to run away but to help facilitating the reforms that are needed, being that he is in the highest position within the institution.

The short-term measures that I would institute would be to get to know what each officer and officials within the facility think just like the supervisor and record their feelings and observations. This will then form my basis for lobbying for state funding and implementation of changes within the institution as the long-term measures.

It's unfortunate that such cynicism exists, yet sadly it is the representation of the entire picture. Even other justice systems like the police also feel this same burnouts and cynicism toward their job. This is also a paradigm experienced even in other occupations where people constantly talk ill of their bosses and jobs and how much they want to change professions.


Oracle Education Foundation, (2012). The United States Prison System: A Glimpse Behind the Bars. Retrieved June 7, 2012 from

Fangmeier, A. Robert, (2012). Myths and Realities About Prisons and Jails. Retrieved June 7, 2012 from

Lozoff Bo, (2012). Seven Ways to Fix the Criminal Justice System… [read more]

Criminal Justice System Australian Essay

… The result is that over the last two decades of the "War on Crime" we have witnessed an erosion of the principle that juvenile offenders should be treated more leniently than adults (Sallmann & Willis, 2003). The "get tough" movement has tried to include these juvenile offenders within the ambit of the adult criminal justice system. An example of this "get tough" movement is legislation from California [Proposition 21].

The populist response to crime by juveniles has consisted of an attempt to dismantle the separate system of justice that has been created for juvenile offenders. Populist politicians have used the fact that juveniles receive mitigated punishments (compared to adults) to argue that juvenile sentences are too lenient, as though the adult disposition were the norm and the youth court sentence a lenient aberration. The imposition of milder punishments on juvenile offenders has also been cited as a cause of juvenile offending, the same way that leniency throughout the criminal justice system has been described, by politicians and members of the public, as a cause of crime (Roberts & Stalans, 1997).


The syllogism that links the severity of punishments to crime rates emerges more clearly at the level of juvenile justice, where it is often argued that tougher penalties will put a stop to rising levels of juvenile violence and prevent juveniles from turning into adult offenders. The source of the frustration may be the widespread perception that young people will not behave unless the punishment for wrongdoing is severe. But as Jackson Toby noted as far back as 1957, the main factors distinguishing delinquents from non-delinquents is whether a young person has a "stake in conformity" (Toby, 1957). Giving a young person a reason not to offend is, therefore, likely to be a much more effective strategy than threatening punishment.

The claim that "a crime is a crime" and should result in the same punishment for adults and juveniles has also developed popular appeal. Thus the current criminal justice system is about as fair and effective as we can reasonably expect.


Bottoms, A.E. (1995). The philosophy and politics of punishment and sentencing. In C. Clarkson and R. Morgan, eds., The politics of sentencing reform. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Hogg, R., and D. Brown (1998). Rethinking law and order. Sydney: Pluto Press.

Toby, J. (1957). Social disorganization and stake in conformity: Complementary factors in the predatory behavior of hoodlums. Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science 48: 12 -- 17.

Sallmann, P., and J. Willis (2003). Criminal justice in Australia. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Schiraldi, V., and M. Soler (2009). Will of the people' The public's opinion of… [read more]

DNA in Criminal Justice System Research Paper

… Cole (1997) states, that FBI began DNA testing for trails in 1988. There have been 12,000 cases reported since then till 1997. However, FBI pointed out that out of these 12,000, almost a quarter of the suspects in these cases… [read more]

Ethical Concerns in Criminal Justice Research Paper

… Many accusations of police brutality have ultimately been found to be false and created for the betterment of the suspect's situation and these are the majority. However, there are still cases of genuine police brutality that occur throughout the United States. According to researchers, police force is reported in 24% of encounters between officers and suspects or witnesses (Krupanski 2012). Perhaps the most famous incidence of police brutality occurred in Los Angeles, California in 1991 when officers were filmed brutally beating Rodney King (Byers 2002). Cases have been reported in every state of the union about police misconduct to varying degrees including beating suspects, torture, and even murder. Lawyers for the defense will often use any and all errors in judgment of police officers to help their clients. Indeed some cases against defendants have been dismissed because of the actions of the police officers involved in the investigation.

Besides the obvious difficulty with the current case on which the officers are working, the issue of police brutality also has more far reaching negative consequences. The concept of police brutality undermines the whole concept of criminal justice and creates a negative attitude towards police officers. The role of the police in the United States is supposed to be that of protectorate and seeker of justice. When the police officers behave violently, it alters the perception of the police officer with the community. This is worsened by the perception of people that police officers will do whatever it takes to protect one another in accordance with the fraternity of the job. Statistically, incidences of police violence have been investigated and perpetrators punished but there were many cases wherein a cover up was discovered and those involved also punished.

Police brutality is a very important issue in modern criminal justice because it alters the way in which the officers of justice are perceived by the public who they are supposed to protect. Force has been used when necessary to arrest suspects and to gain information. In the modern era, the former is still employed but is always treated critically. Force in the obtaining of information is absolutely verboten in the present historical moment. It is the responsibility of those involved in criminal justice to behave appropriately and to limit force to only the times when it is absolutely necessary and also to keep an eye on other officers. The impetus needs to be on protection of the people above all things.

Works Cited:

Byers, B. (2002). Ethics and criminal justice: some observations on police misconduct. Crime and Justice International. Sam Houston University, Texas. (18:68).

Krupanski, M. (2012). Policing the police: civilian video monitoring of police activity. Global Minds.

Locke, H. (1966). Police brutality and civilian review board: a second look. 625.

Skolnick, J. (1995). Community-oriented… [read more]

Ethics in Criminal Justice Maintaining a High Term Paper

… Ethics in Criminal Justice

Maintaining a high degree of ethical behavior within the criminal justice system is essential in promoting trust within the community. Police misconduct such as raping detainees does irreparable harm to that trust. In order to eliminate… [read more]

Australian Criminal Justice System Is Shaped Largely by Society Discuss This Statement Essay

… Australian criminal justice system is shaped largely by society. Discuss this statement.

Social tendencies in Australia are reflected by the Australian criminal justice system, taking into account that it is the product of years of hard work performed as the… [read more]

Criminal Justice: On September 18 Term Paper

… The reason for the suitability of this theory of punishment in this case is the fact that its central precept is that punishment should be in proportion to the harm.

Importance of Code Ethics in the Criminal Justice System:

One… [read more]

Policing in Criminal Justice Essay

… Criminal Justice - Policing


Does the exclusionary rule control police misbehavior?

The exclusionary rule controls police misbehavior, but in a manner that is more indirect than direct. Technically, it does not actually control what police officers do;… [read more]

Criminal Justice System Term Paper

… The judge's feature is generally begun at the defendant's first court visit or at a hearing if and when proof exists (Israel et al. 2003).

Five Steps of the Criminal Justice System

Entry into the System

Investigation and Arrest:

In… [read more]

Change About the Criminal Justice System Term Paper

… ¶ … change about the criminal justice system if I had the power to do so?

For the criminal justice system to be changed, it seems to me that its very basics need to be altered, and I therefore lean… [read more]

Criminal Justice System Today Essay

… It is true that prison overcrowding is one of the most urgent criminal justice issues not only in America, but all over the world. More often than not the responsible institutions have cited lack of jail space as the cause for this problem. This has led to the proposal of building more prison facilities to accommodate the soaring numbers. However, I hold a different opinion, I believe that the major cause is the lack of alternatives to incarceration which leads all offenders to prison and this is worsened by introduction of certain policies. For instance there is the mandatory minimum sentence for drug crimes in America; this has highly increased the rate of incarceration (Green, 2011). It implies that when alternatives to incarceration are adopted then the number of offenders headed for the prisons will greatly reduce eventually addressing the issue of prison overcrowding.

On the other hand the criminal justice system encourages courts to dispense with the cases that are pending to reduce the volume of cases. This pressure usually leads to either offenders walking free or the wrong people sent to prison in the process of carrying out speedy trials and this is a serious violation (Leipold, 1995). This usually happens because of the complex process involved in taking the defendants through the justice system. It involves organization of attorneys and witnesses for appearance. In some instances one officer may be required to appear in two different locations consecutively and since this is not possible a defendant could walk free. To avoid such loopholes the system usually pays the price of cases backlog. What better way would be there than exploring alternatives to incarceration and bypassing the prison system? This is a clear indication that the most significant problem facing the criminal justice system today is lack of alternatives to incarceration. The moment this is addressed then a host of other related problems will be solved eventually. The only challenge is to convince the relevant authorities that this is what should be addressed and not the related issues since most people still hold the strong view that offenders, especially violent ones or sexual offenders, should be isolated from the society to eliminate threat.


Green, B. (2011). "Criminal Justice - What's Ahead? Roadblocks and New Directions."

Criminal Justice, Volume 25, Number 4.

Leipold, A.D. (1995). Why grand juries do not (and cannot) protect the accused, 80 Cornell.

Rev. 260

Roberts, R.A. (2003). Critical… [read more]

Criminal Justice Associates Program Term Paper

… ¶ … Criminal Justice Associates Program

When I entered into the criminal justice associates program, I have to admit that my thoughts were not focused on what I would learn. Instead, in many ways I viewed the program as a… [read more]

MS Degree in Criminal Justice Help Admission Essay

… ¶ … MS degree in Criminal Justice help you achieve your personal, vocational, and/Or education goals?

As an officer in the U.S. Navy, I already have served in a demanding career, protecting U.S. interests at home and abroad. Studying criminal… [read more]

Poor Grammar Criminal Justice System Term Paper

… Thus, law enforcement agents may apply unrestricted justice on minorities as the occurrence of minority groups increase rulers' insight of threat and fear of crime. Furthermore, the relationships between legal agents such as police officers and minorities are harsh since police nature support the well-being of the rulers (Chambliss and Seidman, 1971:53).Thus, the decisions of police in order to arrest minorities can be independent of genuine conduct and more reliant upon their subordinate group status such as favoritism based on group individuality (Chambliss and Seidman, 1971:53).

Identification of Different Perspectives of Individual Rights & Public-Order Advocates

The individual rights advocates are those who search to protect individual freedoms within the process of criminal justice. For example, legalize marijuana, ACLU, Anti-death penalty groups, NAACP.

While on the other hand public-order advocates are those who consider under particular circumstances involving the safety of public, the society interests and take priority over individual rights. For example, tougher penalties, roadblock searches, three strikes etc.

Community Policing Impact on Crime

According to the DOJ definition:

Community policing is a policing philosophy designed to reduce crime and disorder in communities by fostering trust, respect, and collaboration between police officers and citizens (Jones; 2002)."

The impact of these polices on crime can be seen where the policing leaders, experts along with government agencies and community leaders were almost unanimous and hardly have focused teams, or targeted toward eliminating particular activities. These are considered to be the most effectual means in order to combat violence and homicides in the community (Jones, 2002). These policies however, include severe or high-impact targeting of gang areas and hot spots etc. (Jones; 2002).

Works Cited

Overview of the Criminal Justice System (1998). The National Centre for Victims of Crime.

Criminal Justice. Crime and Violence: Are crime and criminal justice important political issues? Social issues? Why. www.

Chambliss, W. (1976). Functional and Conflict Theories of Crime: The Heritage of Emile

Durkheim and Karl Marx. In Whose Law? What Order?: A Conflict Approach to Criminology. W. Chambliss & Mankoff (Eds.), New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Tittle, C. (1994). The Theoretical Bases for Inequality in Formal Social Control. In Inequality, Crime, and Social Control. Bridges and Myers (Eds.), Boulder: West view Press.

Tolnay, S., & Beck E.M. (1992). Toward a Threat Model of Southern Black Lynchings.

In Social Threat and Social Control. C. Liska (Ed.), Albany: State University of New York Press. Turk, A. (1969). Criminality and Legal Order. Chicago: Rand McNally

Chambliss, W., & Seidman, R. (1971). Law, Order and Power. Massachusetts: Addison-

Wesley Publishing Company

Blalock, H. (1967). Toward a Theory of Minority-Group Relations. New York: John

Wiley and Sons, Inc. (Jones Arthur, J.D; Robin Wiseman 92002). Letter to Community Policing Friends.

Defining Community Policing. International Human Rights Law and Policy.

Jones, Arthur, and Robin Wiseman (2002). Community Policing in the Los Angeles

County Sheriff's Department: Opposition to 2002-03 Reductions… [read more]

Graduate School: Criminal Justice Admission Essay

… Excelsior College has widened my scope of issues in criminal justice, which is essential in determining America's safety and economic wealth. I conducted a research on the program, and according to Little (2008), it was worth noting that about 80% of colleges in America offer consequent study programs in Homeland Security and Emergency Management Concentration. In addressing this academic importance, I have studied and engaged in module discussions with patent issues that concern the Criminal Justice system in America. Variety ideas and issues during the course sprung up that form the basis of my future goals towards addressing Homeland Security and Emergency Management Concentration. I am also professional equipped by my 20 years of experience in public service, U.S. Air Force and Kokomo Police Department.

I am academically prepared to transit into Excelsior College M. Sc in Homeland Security and Emergency Management Concentration. My comprehensive understanding of graduate level study is that it is a concentrated course that anticipates quality and intense quantity of work. It provides further and deep insights into a specific study field, unlike undergraduate level study whereby a course is tackled from several fields of study. In addition, graduate school is strictly academic and professional, whereby in the former situation, one is expected to present original research in the respective discipline and in the latter, one is expected to develop vocational skills and knowledge in the concerned profession or vocation. Excelsior has enabled me to pass in all my Associate and Bachelor's by attaining a 3.50 GPA. The previous levels of study have enabled me to devise appropriate strategies and attain intellectual resources necessary in becoming a graduate. I am ready to focus on a rigorous evaluation of Criminal Justice the assistance of my lecturers and professors to be. I am also ready to present original and unique project and research works that will be assigned to me.

Distance learning has so far been successful and I believe I will undertake the same process in ensuring that I manage to succeed in attaining my Masters degree. I greatly attributed this to the efficiency of the college's website that is always updated with the necessary information that a student needs, making it convenient to study anywhere. In addition, I do have library sessions, whereby I read the recommended books by my lecturer to facilitate quick understanding and have information diversity. I am expecting to continue applying this technique while undertaking my M.Sc degree since I have not yet encountered any challenges.

I am extremely passionate in pursuing a M. Sc in Criminal justice Administration, however, I am also equipped with managerial and business skills that have seen me occupy positions of Employment Specialist, Job Coach, Customer Service Representative and Sales and Marketing Representative. I am confident proclaiming that my journey pursuing the Masters degree will be self-driven by the intellect I obtain and my unrelenting will. I am optimistic that America needs intellectuals to deal with security surges. In addition, it is upon my determination that I… [read more]

Leadership Skills for Criminal Justice Essay

… As for moral agility, this entails having the talent for being able to differentiate between different shades of moral choice. That is, moral agility is based on being able to put to good use "…intelligence, maturity, flexibility, and the ability… [read more]

Criminology and Criminal Justice as Sciences Thesis

… Criminology and Criminal Justice as Sciences

As sciences, the study of criminology and criminal justice are at an exciting place in time and technology. Today, there is more science than ever to back up the investigation and the prosecution of… [read more]

Mandatory Sentencing Public Policy, Crime Research Paper

… Afterwards, the constructing of the justice system aimed at criminalizing the "equal" African-American; additionally, the system also ensured that the social position of African-Americans was not equal to those of their white counterparts. From history, dating back to the era… [read more]

Criminal Justice System Juvenile Delinquency Identify Three Term Paper

… Criminal Justice System Juvenile Delinquency

Identify three components of the diversionary program and initiatives within the NCJRS website Woman & Girls in the Criminal Justice System.

Gender-Specific Assessment of Offender's Needs, Strengths, and Risk Factors in conjunction with Gender-Specific Programming

A Focus on Personal Transformation and Rehabilitation through Continuous Exposure to Positive Role Models (Probation Officers, Case Workers)

Systematic Training to Implement Uniform Assessment and Programming Practices Across Multiple Criminal Justice and Social Service Agencies.

2.Compare and contrast state and local programs as they contribute to successful reintegration and transition services.

State Programs

State institutions, due to the state's exclusive authority for most criminal offenses in the state, usually encounter juvenile offenders only after they have reached the sentencing stage. Although criminal justice institutions theoretically exist to punish criminal offenders for the sake of public safety, incapacitation is often seems premature for most juvenile offenders. Criminal Justice Institutions such as the Department of Juvenile Justice in Maryland have recognized that traditional programming options, which consisted of either short-term or long-term commitment to residential group homes, were more likely to promote than prevent recidivism because the offenders were often being placed in an unhealthy environment. These experiences only reinforced the bad habits of juvenile offenders, trapping them in an environment that they could not see past.

The Maryland Department of Juvenile Justice formed a task force to assess the programming needs of adjudicated female juvenile offenders. The task force formed what they called a Female Intervention Team composed of 13 juvenile counselors/case managers and 1 juvenile supervisor in order to help rehabilitate the female juvenile offender while she was serving out her sentence or sanction. (Juvenile Justice Journal, 1999, p. 15).

The Female Intervention Team counselors, hailing from a variety of backgrounds, were each assigned an all-female caseload. They managed the cases of female juvenile offenders, supervised probation, and organized monthly group activities. One benefit of this approach is that the girls, many of whom were physically or sexually abused by adults at some point in their lives, learned that men and women have healthy relationships which did not involve sex, violence, or drugs. (Juvenile Justice Journal, 1999, p. 16).

Local Programs

Local governmental bodies, such as counties and cities, do not have as much authority in matters of criminal law besides law enforcement. Thus, local governments usually deliver juvenile justice programs through social service agencies and other youth-facing institutions. Their value is in their counseling capabilities as fellow members of the community who are familiar with the larger familial, financial, and… [read more]

Corrections/Police - Criminal Justice Innocents Essay

… Primitive DNA testing before trial excluded all five as the source of semen found in the victim's body, but prosecutors relied on the confessions and the two teens who plead guilty. Taylor, sentenced to 80 years, could not understand how anyone could ignore the DNA or believe he could commit such a crime. He refused to cry or even show emotion. He and another inmate were held in a cell measuring 10 feet 7 inches by 6 feet 7 inches, a bunk bed on one side and a desk and stool on the other, metal bars on one end and a sliver of a window along the top of the other end that let in the only natural light, a narrow slant of sunshine that taunted him but also gave him hope. He dreamed often of freedom, lying on his bunk, sleep elusive, and the noise of prisoners yelling and screaming echoing through the metal galleries. He got used to the noise, so much that the quiet of home was initially unsettling. Now he is getting used to the silence. Even though he had a TV in his cell, he hardly every watched it. As an alternative, he listened to cassette tapes of rap music on an old Walkman. The headphones shut out a world he wanted desperately to get away from (Exonerated, freed and facing a new life, 2011).

This case shows how it is abundantly clear that overly aggressive police interrogation techniques can cause adults to falsely confess to serious crimes and when it comes to juveniles, it can happen at a truly alarming rate. These techniques don't only hurt those wrongfully convicted, but as was seen in this case, they allow the real perpetrators to go free and commit other crimes. Hopefully this case will lead the way for much-needed reforms; like requiring that all police interviews and interrogations all be videotaped in full and juveniles to always be in the presence of the their parents or counsel (Law School's Exoneration Project helps free wrongly convicted man, 2011).


Exonerated, freed and facing a new life. (2011).… [read more]

Criminal Justice From a Theological Worldview Essay

… Christian Worldview of Criminal Justice

Criminal justice as both a field of study and a vocation poses challenges to the individual who seeks to do both: practice the discipline while at the same time, putting one's beliefs and values into the work s/he does within the discipline. Achieving this balance is not easy, as criminal justice as a discipline can be viewed from different perspectives and framed from different schools of thought. Criminal justice can be thought of as a social science, wherein aspects of political science, sociology, psychology, and even law and public administration are integrated together. However, another interesting component that can be incorporated in this 'mixture' of disciplines is theology, which inevitably influences criminal justice (particularly when the concept of moral justice is factored in on the discussion).

Theology and the world's different religions have also different perspectives in understanding and discussing the issue of justice and concepts of humanity and forgiveness. One of the most salient and popular example of humanity as applied in both criminal justice and theology can be found in the Book of Genesis, wherein it said, "So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them" (Genesis 1:27). This verse is one manifestation that what is exacted to humanity is, through transference because of humanity's likeness to God, also exacted to Him. It becomes a challenge, then, for the practitioner of criminal justice to implement the principles of justice to another individual because any form of punishment given to him/her could also mean exacting the same punishment to God. Practicing the profession, then, becomes a constant practice of judgment call and careful discernment governed by the person's beliefs and values about moral justice.

Take as an example, one's view of the country's prison system as an issue that needs to careful discernment and thought even when it is just being discussed, either on a private or public forum. The prison system was built on the principle of behavior correction and the individual's social rehabilitation; however, over time, the overarching goal has become simply, punishment, and numerous forms of abuses against inmates have been committed since (USCCB, 2000). On one hand, there is a need to promote correction and rehabilitation of the deviant behavior of offenders; on the other hand, a Christian practitioner who is part of the criminal justice system also recognizes that God alone has the right to decide and judge the people who were considered deviant in laws of humanity. For the Christian practitioner, s/he must remember that everyone "are all one in Christ Jesus" (Galatians 3:28).

What results, then, is a compromise as the Christian practitioner seeks the balance needed between his/her faith and vocation/profession.… [read more]

How Does the Australian Criminal Justice System Respond to White Collar and Corporate Crime? Essay

… ¶ … Australian Criminal Justice System respond to white collar and corporate crime?

Crimes are breach of the law. Criminal law as in the common law differentiates between crimes that mala per se' that is crimes that are repugnant to… [read more]

Criminal Justice System After Heavy Research Paper

… I would like to see the Home Secretary implement some community service - he would learn there are some really good schemes helping people to change their attitude and help the community."

Moreover Juliet Lyon (Director of the Prison Reform Trust) says

"It makes no sense to expect overcrowded jails to cut crime when the solutions lay outside, in better parental supervision, constructive alternatives for the young, mental health care, treatment for those addicted to drugs and drink, and a reduction in homelessness, poverty and unemployment."

As the British jails have been overloaded so judiciary should carefully give imprisonment punishments and less serious offenders should be given community-based punishments rather than being awarded punishments and purpose of any punishments should carefully. As the John Denham (Chairman Commons home affairs committee) says

"The central challenge is to rebuild public faith in community sentencing, with sentences that are clearer, and sentencing that more accurately shows the evidence on what reduces reoffending. There has been far too little emphasis about getting people into a work-type environment in prison, helping them make the transition into work in the outside world."


BBC. (2001, MAY 7). BBCNEWS VOTE 2001. Retrieved from BBC NEWS|VOTE 2001|FACTS:

CNN. (2012, Feb 22). Cameron hosts talks on football racism. Retrieved from CNN:

Community Correction Punishments. (1996, May). California Research Bureau. Retrieved from Community Correction Punishments:

Press TV. (2012, May 07). UK police racism complaints doubled. Retrieved from Press TV_UK police racism complaints doubled:

The Guardian. (2012, march 27). Student Jailed for Racist Fabrice Muamba Tweets. UK.

The Independent. (2006, November 30). Is the criminal justice system fair?

The Independent. (2009, September). Procedures in the criminal justice system. Retrieved from The Independent: [read more]

Evolution of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 Case Study

… The office of COPS needed to monitor a number of things. First, that in line with the requirements of grant allocation, police departments retained the new officers hired under the '100,000 Cops' initiative even after the lapse of the three-year… [read more]

Criminal Justice Management Reading Articles the Boys Essay

… CRIMINAL JUSTICE Management Reading articles

The Boys in Blue

After reading Erica Goode's article in the New York Times, "Police Chiefs Focus on Disparities in Gun Violence, With an Eye Towards Solutions," there appears to be a couple of different ways in which police management can successfully influence changes in gun laws that are necessary to reduce crime that is committed through the usage of fire arms. One of the most effective ways would be to exert as much pressure as possible on the politicians, and their supporting lobbyists, that are widely responsible for the passing of legislature that could assist to change current laws. Although police are municipal, state and federally funded, these fraternal organizations have lobbyists as well that could do a better job of working in conjunction with the needs of police officers to help reduce crime. Additionally, in attempting to actuate a political influence that could help sway both politicians and voters alike, police management can reassert the significant financial costs associated with gunplay and crimes committed with firearms, such as by telling people that a single week would exact a cost of upwards of 38 million for tax payers.

It appears that some cities have more violence than others for a couple of facts. One would is the particular legislation regarding firearms utilized in these different municipalities. For instance, it is highly significant that in a city in San Diego, in which there are stringent laws and punishments associated with firearm crimes, that there was less violence than that in other cities. However, legislation is not the only factor that plays a role in the disparity in the violence between the cities mentioned in the article. The proclivities of each municipality also influence the amount of crimes committed there. Straw running guns is immensely popular in Texas, which partly explains why Austin had nearly 40 gun related crimes in the week referenced in the article.

There are a couple of different reasons that help to account for the reasons why the rather lengthy research based on the Community Oriented Policing Services program has not stuck or been as effective as it potentially could be. John Laub's opinion that the research is not disseminated widely enough alludes to some of these reasons. However, regardless of the amount of dissemination of the research that was involved in this program, there were certain issues with the implementation of the program that were responsible for its modest degree of success. One such highly significant problem was the fact that there was commonly a delay in the deployment of MORE technology, which slowed if not outright hindered the efforts of several key tenets of the COPS program. Without the proper technology in place, it was difficult for various branches of COPS and MORE to effectively do their jobs. These delays also… [read more]

Criminal Justice - Crime Prevention Theories Term Paper

… Criminal Justice - Crime Prevention


The Nature of Crime Prevention:

Crime is a human invention that derives from the concept of societal laws; without codified laws, there is no such thing as crime, because crime is simply the violation of those established laws. Crime prevention comprises several specific function, such as police intervention, criminal investigation, apprehension, prosecution, and corrections. Collectively, the various functions of the entire criminal justice system also serves another important role as a deterrence to future criminal conduct.

In principle, crime includes everything from technical violations of misdemeanors and other even less serious levels of penal violation that are actually inconsequential in their effect to the most serious types of crimes that threaten the health, safety, and welfare of other individuals, sometimes in very large numbers. Crime prevention is purposeful effort to reduce criminal conduct by deterrence before the fact, and by investigating and punishing criminal conduct after the fact, where and to the extent it is in the reasonable interest of society to do so.

Crime prevention takes on myriad forms, including "first-line" police street patrols, detective investigation services, forensic science, and white collar crime detection and intervention. In police patrol services, crime prevention may include elements of informal policies and procedures in the street and in many facets of law enforcement, it may include baited "sting" operations. While the concept of crime prevention is very broad, virtually every aspect of law enforcement functions requires prioritizing specific categories of criminal conduct because equally strict enforcement of every type of crime is both impractical and also of dubious value, regardless.

Achieving Crime Prevention:

Quantifying crime… [read more]

Criminal Justice Take Home Exam Term Paper

… Certain theories may be more appropriate to discussing and curtailing certain crimes -- for instance, the developmental theory of subcultures seems uniquely appropriate to the drug culture, where by uprooting the organizational structures that financially reward drugs, drug networks can be circumvented. Developmental theories of drug control also stress that while the control of sellers and users through the criminal justice system is necessary, rehabilitating and social procedures must be implemented so addicts receive treatment and the social, contributing causes to drug abuse such as poverty and hopelessness are eliminated or curtailed.

Question 5: Barriers to effective policing have long occurred because of abuses of police authority and corruption within the department that is not adequately supervised by internal affair reviews. But beyond a crisis of perceptions of public honesty, it is also important that police are seen as contributing to a safer community, rather than simply enforcing the law in a cold or worse, arbitrary manner. The best way to create an atmosphere of community policing is to intensify recruitment efforts from the community, and to ensure the police have a social as well as a technical understanding of the community they are overseeing. The responsibility they owe is not simply to their fellow officers, or even to individual victims, but to society as well, and to a community.

Question 6: The police may conduct searches without warrants if made in good faith, if they fear a life may be in danger, if the accoutrements of a crime are in plain view, and other circumstances that merit that probable cause that a crime has been committed are evident. While some believe this circumvents the fourth amendment to the constitution, it is noteworthy that the burden of proof to conduct such searches is substantially smaller than to convict an individual in a criminal court of law. In the case of profiling a suspect, for instance, simply because an individual is stopped because he or she resembles a suspect or legitimately raises a policeman or woman's level of professional (not personal) suspicion, does not mean that individual will be convicted. The law has long trusted the professional eyes and standards of the police in the moment of policing -- if it did not, then no search would be… [read more]

Criminal Justice Powell, Michael. "Bragging Article Review

… Yet more should be done to ensure an error-free DNA processing procedure at all stages of the criminal justice process.

Dwyer, Jim. "Rewriting the City's Record on Prisons." The New York Times. 2 Jan, 2014. Retrieved online:

In this article, Dwyer comments on Harry Belafonte's criticism of the New York City prison system. According to the author, the city has effectively reduced its prison population and is contributing to the overall state reduction in incarceration rates. This news is promising. While the rest of the nation should follow suit, at least New York is taking steps to reduce one of the country's biggest shames: prison overcrowding and the needless imprisonment of nonviolent drug offenders. Alternative sentencing for other crimes, and more aggressive prevention programs are also absolutely critical to reducing prison overpopulation.

Fuller, Thomas. "Wave of High -- Profile Crimes Has Put Malaysians on the Defensive." 18 October, 2013. Retrieved online:

Although we are not discussing international crime, I wanted to write about this article in a more general sense to show how rates of crime shift in response to changing demographics. This article could apply equally as well to an American city that is rapidly growing and changing. The article focuses on the sudden increasing in crimes in Malaysia, with an emphasis on the capital Kuala Lumpur. The city has always been known to be safe but recently has had a rise in crime, especially thefts and burglaries. Class conflict and strain theory are used to explain the issue, but there are clearly other issues at stake given the simultaneous rise in crimes that are violent too, such as rape and homicide.

Kelly, Heather. "Hyperlocal apps help residents fight crime." CNN Tech. 14 May, 2014. Retrieved online:

In this article, the author discusses the use of technology to empower residents of a community in Arizona. This article shows that community residents can use a simple app on their smartphone, which they are already using, to monitor their neighborhood. It is an app that can easily transfer to other cities. The reason why I selected this article for discussion is that I believe in community policing as a viable model. Applications like this help residents feel responsible for the safety of their community, more responsive to threats, and more willing to take action. This will lead to increased citizen watch patterns, and cooperation with police. As long as this does not lead to the "stand your ground" type approach, applications like this will help make communities safer and can be applied to urban, suburban, and even rural regions. [read more]

Criminal Justice Law Enforcement Essay

… Most communities have a skewed view of the law enforcement professionals, which makes it difficult for professionals to operate (Barker, 2011). Secondly, the professionals face a challenge with attending to the vast population with their limited numbers. This slows the efficiency of crime prevention through patrols and other means. Additionally, there is the challenge of the societal creations that bring about the criminal acts. Reaching the agents of the crime manufacturing in the society is difficult; thus, the professional finds it hard to attend to matters concerning the crime prevention process.

In combating these challenges, the professionals can take various models of operation. These strategies to curb the issues challenging the professionals include, empowering the community, which simplifies the relation between the professional and society. The professionals can develop community-based policing in which the professionals rely on the citizens for information and intelligence of unlawful acts (Barker, 2011). The professionals can also decentralize the authority to improve the response to the neighborhood-based crime. Using the crime theories, the law enforcement agency can develop specific professionals for the role of prevention and control of crime and such acts: rather than officers generalize their training. The professionals can also establish and seek a broad belief from the public in their function. With these operations, the society will be safe.

The safety of the people is imperative for progress in all sectors, economically, socially or politically. Therefore, the law enforcement professionals have an obligation to safeguard the rights of the people in the country by maintaining law and order.


Prenzler, T. (2009). Police corruption: Preventing misconduct and maintaining integrity. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Barker, T. (2011). Police ethics: Crisis in law enforcement. Springfield, Ill: Chares C. Thomas.

Law enforcement. (2002, Credit Management,, 22-22. Retrieved from

Rosen, M.D. (2004). Exporting the constitution. Emory Law Journal, 53(1), 171-232. Retrieved


Tierney, J. (2009). Criminology: Theory and context. New York: Longman.

Barker, T. (2006). Police ethics: Crisis in law… [read more]

Criminal Procedure Term Paper

… Criminal Procedure:

The criminal justice system is a process that involves various steps that start with a criminal investigation and end with the release of a convicted criminal from correctional institution. Since it involves a variety of steps, the center… [read more]

Policy Changes in the Criminal Justice System Research Paper

… Policy Changes in the Criminal Justice System in America

Discuss the changes that can be made to improve three parts of the criminal justice system (Crime Prevention, Sentencing, and the prison experience) QUOTE ALL 10 RESOURCES

The criminal justice system in America which comprises of three stages i.e. crime prevention, sentencing and the prison experience has failed terribly in bringing about the necessary changes to the criminals. This is seen in the high rate of violent crimes which are higher in America than other European countries and thus suggest that the system does not work as desired. The sentencing policies that have been used have not helped either. These have just led to exponential growth of the population of inmates and it has created a vast disparity in inmates that is based on class and race. Additionally, the rate of relapse to prison is extremely high suggesting that there are no reforms taking place on the inmates. Therefore, there is need for policies to be instituted which change the criminal justice system in America.

One of the policy changes that need to take place regards the way in which the prisons are run. Mass imprisonment rakes in huge profits for companies as a result of prisons being treated as business entities by those running the prisons. Corporations which are contracted to run or own the prisons usually earn millions in profits year after year. Therefore, they find a way to keep their profits flowing in as a result of mass imprisonment. This system tends to reproduce the same conditions that lead people into prison Davis 16-17(; Schlosser)

. Therefore, the government needs to find a way to run the prisons as state entities that do not make any profits. This would bring about some seriousness to the prisons and reduce the reproduction of conditions similar to those that lead people into prison.

The second issue that arises is how the media and film industries portray prisons to those outside prisons. Prisons have been portrayed in a different image than the reality which confuses the general public into believing that they know all about what happens in the prisons. This has led to the evildoers not being scared of prison since they believe that it is a place that they are familiar with. The government should come up with policies to prevent prisons from being portrayed a lot in the films giving the public this false image Davis 17-18()

It is also important to eliminate drug abuse, sexual abuse and medical neglect for the prisoners. The government needs to come up with ways to curb these… [read more]

Criminal Justice Management Essay

… Criminal Justice Management

Intelligence Led Policing

Intelligence Led Policing is a growing trend in both national and local security strategies and measures. This approach to law enforcement is much more strategic approach to law enforcement which features strategies aimed at early location and understanding of potential risk factors and how to manage those problems before they become too big to control. It is essentially based on finding out intelligence and implementing more proactive strategies that are geared towards the intelligence gathered beforehand.

The Sparrow case study provides an interesting glimpse in modern implementations of intelligence led policing being used within a contemporary context. The article discussed the occurrence of a failed car bomb in the infamous Times Square in New York. The article highlights the New York Police Department's intelligence capabilities and how those capacities are being successfully used to deter future terrorist acts before they are actually set into place. Immediately, the media went into a furry in blaming the Obama administration for not being able to protect American citizens. This shows a clear misunderstanding of intelligence led policing in the eyes of the media.

Assignment 2: Kansas City

There was a preventative patrol experiment conducted in Kansas City. This experiment lasted between 1972 and 1973, later being evaluated by the Police Foundations. Essentially, the experiment tested on whether it was true that heightened numbers of police on patrol would help deter people from actually committing crimes. In this, the more police visible on the streets would essentially mean less criminal activities out of the fear of those visible police. Yet, the case clearly had major issues that made me personally believe the assumption of greater police presence was not necessarily as great of a deterrent as many would… [read more]

Criminal Justice System Essay

… This helps the police in establishing probable cause and connecting other evidence that was collected during the process of the investigation. It is at this point that this information can be used to show how a crime is being committed (which could lead to a judge authorizing a search warrant). (Samaha, 2011)

The dangers involved with using these kinds of tips are that the police could be receiving false information. This is problematic, because they could potentially detain or raid a residence of someone that has committed no crime. If this were to happen it opens law enforcement up to the possibility of a civil lawsuit and a ruling against the search. Another potential danger is that many of the criminals could use this as a way to change the focus of the investigation to someone else. This is troubling, in that this kind of tactic will protect criminals from prosecution by having informants provide the police with information on their rivals and enemies. In the future, this could lead to uneven enforcement of the law by focusing on select groups while ignoring others. (Samaha, 2011)

The biggest dangers of not using tips are that law enforcement will have more difficulties in proving that a crime is being committed. This makes it easier for criminals to avoid prosecution and continue with their activities in the future. When the police are able to understand the organization better is the point that they can effectively arrest and prosecute a suspect. As a result, the type of crime and the difficultly in solving the case should matter. The reason why, is from the critical information that someone may have about a suspect. This means that any kind of tips could tie everything together.


Samaha, J.… [read more]

Criminal Justice - Research Methods Essay

… News blurbs include topics of high interest, such as, a report that the overall crime rate in New York has dropped while the incidence of hate crimes has increased.

Hate Crimes in New York State Annual Report


The State of Connecticut Statistical Analysis Center (CT-SAC) is located at the OPM, which is under the Bureau of Justice Statistics. Grants are awarded on an annual basis. The Research, Analysis & Evaluation Unit applied for grant funds to support the research and administration of the Statistical Analysis Center (SAC) for the State of Connecticut. The relocation of the CT-SAC was an effort to build in-house resources for knowledge sharing, to streamline operations, and to provide agency cross-training in order to improve coordination and support for the CJPAC Research Workgroup.

Between 1970 and 2010, there were 554 incidents of terrorism in Germany. The incidents hit a definitive peak between the years 1990 and 1997. Most of the incidents targeted business, with military and police targets accruing the second and third highest numbers of incidents of terrorism, respectively. The two main types of weapons were incendiary and melee. Fatalities were rare, the intent may have been to destroy property and disrupt. The list of perpetrators is very long and very specific. It was not possible to start with the incidences and find the perpetrator. Rather, the perpetrator had to be selected and then related incidents would be shown. In August 29, 1995, the Kurdistan Worker's Party (PKK) was responsible for attacks on businesses, private citizens, and private property in Ulm in the state of Baden-Wurttemberg, injuring four people and killing two people.

Source: Framework for Program Evaluation, CDC

For a community mobilization effort against youth violence, I would begin by talking to community leaders. Who these people are is highly dependent upon the dominant cultural or ethnic groups in a community, but it is safe to say that a community mobilization effort would be "dead in the water" if it did not engage these community influencers. Initial meetings with community leaders / influencers will help to direct the first formal, organized, and visible activities in the community. Once the community leaders have agreed on the primary tenets of the program, they will act as champions of the program, telling key stakeholders about the program plans. In this way, by the time the initial meeting occurs, a group of community influencers will be ready to evangelize the program within the community.

As I could not get the website provided us to open, I did some additional online searching and found a document that references the Audits and Strategies Toolkit. The URL to that paper is Specifically, the resource that I located was an audit report from a work group conducted by the Research and Information Team of Leicestershire County Council, the focus of which was crime, disorder, and drugs. The audit workshop was conducted on February 13, 2004. From this paper, I was able to make some comparisons between the… [read more]

Contemporary Criminal Justice Issue Police Use of Deadly Force Capstone Project

… Police Use of Deadly Force

Since time immemorial, the use of deadly force has been considered justified for self-defense, or for the defense of one's family and even property. When deadly force is used by governmental authorities to protect law… [read more]

Criminal Justice System Thesis

… Criminal Justice System

Define the criminal justice system in your own words

The criminal justice system is the vehicle that society uses to enforce the standards of conduct that are necessary to protect individuals and the community. The criminal justice… [read more]

History U.S. Criminal Justice Systems/Police Term Paper

… Peel's police wore uniforms and patrolled beats." (Schmalleger Chapter 5 Summary)]

1845 America's first unified, prevention-oriented police force, patterned after the London Metropolitan Police, is established in New York City.

Vila and Morris xxxi)

It was at this point that… [read more]

Ethical Dilemmas in Criminal Justice Term Paper

… For example, they receive little remuneration that does not gather for their daily needs alongside he poor working conditions. This affects their job morale and their psychological well-being. Therefore, William should consider providing his team members with better working environment… [read more]

Criminological and Criminal Justice Research Comparative Article Review

… ¶ … Criminological and Criminal Justice Research

Comparative research

Comparative research is a technique in the social sciences that seeks to draw comparisons across different cultures or countries.

What led to its use in criminology?

The comparative methodology is not new to research studies in the social science field. In 1889, E.B. Taylor recognized the profits of comparative research in his presentation to the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain. Nonetheless, with a couple of prominent special cases, his call for comparative studies went unheeded by non-anthropological analysts until the mid-1950s (Bennett, 2009). At that point, scientists in psychology, political science and sociology started utilizing comparative approaches to develop and test theories in their disciplines. Not until the late 1970s and early 1980s did criminologists, start investigating crime comparatively. Since then, there has been a gradual expansion of criminological literary works, which utilizes comparative techniques.

The September 2001 events altered the way Americans viewed the world and how different the justice systems in different countries address issues of global terrorism. The mainstream media that published criminal justices practices and systems in some nations highlighted the recently discovered interest. It was once perceived as a topic of debate in annual meetings but developed into front-page headlines. Since the 9/11 terror attack, academically focused studies on these topics has grown (Winterdyk, Reichel & Dammer, 2009). For instance, the European Society of Criminology (ESC) has expanded generously every year since then. Right now, the International Division of the ASC has the biggest participation of any division across the society.

Such increased focus towards global terrorism and comparative research has never been a surprise. The terror attacks stirred European and American publics' attention and interest to something, which remains a major security concern across the world for a year.

The design of comparative research

A comparative study exists when a researcher endeavors to answer questions concerning the distinctions between two or more groups or countries. The comparative research design holds defined aspects that hold accurate over all types of comparative exploration. These qualities permit the researcher to utilize their research in a statistically valid and objective manner (Cohen, 2008).

Types of data are used in comparative research

Official Data

Most research studies about comparative crime depend on official information. This information is gathered for utilization by the criminal agencies in a jurisdiction or country. The needs and concerns of researchers concentrating on the correlates of criminal justice and crime are irrelevant. This information is then transmitted to a supra-national information center and distribution office where descriptions of crime must be uniform instead of in strict arrangement with every country's definitions based upon its punitive law (Bennett, 2009).

Survey Data

An exceptional emerging addition to a toolbox of a comparative researcher is the crime victim survey. While this approach is consistent in many countries, there is a variance in the sampling when undertaken within a country. Some countries can use nationwide samples… [read more]

Ethics Criminal Justice Research Paper

… There are some organizational policy ethics impacting the criminal justice system, which are more generalized due to their being universal among all government agencies. For example, gender discrimination, sexual harassment, and equitable pay are all issues that play a role in criminal justice administration. Corruption in law enforcement and in the judiciary, as well as in correctional institutions, is also a managerial issue. Regulations can be in place to prevent ethical infractions, but ultimately criminal justice leaders need to be committed to preventing ethical infractions from taking place and using disciplinary procedures when they do happen. Unfortunately, criminal justice officials often do have conflicting duties, roles, and ethical frameworks to work with and within (Banks, 2012).

Ethics is one of the most fundamental aspects of the criminal justice system, which is why it is important to discuss ethics when learning about criminal justice administration and operations. Philosophical traditions of ethics including deontology vs. utilitarianism play themselves out in the criminal justice arena, and there is no one right or wrong way of tackling ethical problems. Still, consistency in the application of ethical issues is important for ensuring that equal protection is put into practice. A sociological understanding of crime helps clear up some ethical issues, such as the role of race and class, as well as gender, in criminal justice. By becoming more sensitive to issues like racial profiling and police brutality, all branches of the criminal justice system can become more accountable.


American Civil Liberties Union (2012). Racial profiling. Retrieved online:

Banks, C. (2012). Criminal Justice Ethics. Sage.

Block, W.E. & Obioha, V. (2012). War on black men: Arguments for the legalization of drugs. Criminal Justice Ethics 31(2): 106-120.

Harfield, C. (2012). Police informers and professional ethics. Criminal Justice Ethics 31(2): 73-95

Keteyian, A. (2011). Feds crack down on police brutality nationwide. CBS. 10 Aug 2011. Retrieved online:

Krugman, P. (2012). Police brutality. The New York Times. Retrieved online:

Lawrence, N. (n.d.). Ethical issues in criminal justice. eHow. Retrieved online:

Leighton, P. & Reiman, J. (2000). Criminal Justice Ethics. Pearson.

Schmalleger, F. (1991). Criminal Justice Ethics. Greenwood.

Wooley, A. (2012). To what should lawyers be faithful? Criminal Justice Ethics 31(2): 124-136. [read more]

Criminal Justice Ethics the Ethical Term Paper

… Now that virtually everyone with a smart phone could take pictures or videos of police misconduct, the field of law enforcement is obliged to be ethical because one never knows when a phone / camera is aimed at the behavior of cops. Also, the television news industry now has several cable news channels and they compete vigorously to beat each other with revelations on misbehavior (whether real or questionable), cops included.

FIVE: Ethics is a field that is probably more significant now in the law enforcement milieu because the definitions of ethics are numerous and it can be a confusing issue. Understanding the importance of ethics is vitally important for a law enforcement officer because he or she will find that what is ethical and what is not ethical can be a fuzzy dilemma. However, the law is far more cut and dried; it's either legal or it's not legal. The statutes are very clear so officers (in most cases) are very familiar with laws. But as noted, ethics can be confusing and vague as to what is truly ethical hence I feel ethics is more important in this case.

SIX: What would I do in this situation? I would allow the young officer to go about his business and issue a citation. The fact that I know the driver who ran the red light is irrelevant to the violation he is accused of. Yes I would shake hands with the store owner because there is no reason to be in denial just because this is a real-life police / traffic situation. After all it was not a DUI issue in which the driver would need to be handcuffed and jailed. It was a simple traffic ticket and if the store owner is a reasonable person he knows he made a mistake and he also knows it is the duty of the officer to issue a citation. It would be a good lesson for the young officer to witness; no one is above the law! If the young officer is shocked that the veteran officer ticketed a man who is a friend, then indeed that is a perfect lesson for him to learn.

Works Cited

Findlaw. (2010). Police Misconduct and Civil Rights. Retrieved November 21, 2012, from

Gleason, Tag. (2009). Ethics Training for Police. The Police… [read more]

TV, Movies and Criminal Justice Essay

… Law & Order, one of the longest running legal drama series in television today, highlights the dynamics between the police and the litigation system of the country. Each episode covers specific cases, always highlighting how sometimes police and lawyers can work together and actually strengthen a case against a criminal or an offender, or oftentimes, how lawyers' interests clashes with the police's that it is illustrated as a constant struggle on who shall prevail or who has the better judgment about the case.

These popular TV programs have different strengths and weaknesses. Ultimately, they shaped the way people think about the criminal justice system in the United States, both from the side of the legal system and forensic science. CSI, despite its strong adherence to scientific inquiry and explanation in solving crimes, do not actually reflect the real-life scenarios that forensic scientists encounter in the midst of the bigger criminal justice system. DNA processing and analysis, for example, actually takes days rather than a few hours or 24 hours to accomplish. CSI seemed to depict forensic science processing as an easy feat, when in reality, it could be slower than expected simply because not all laboratories have the complete supplies, equipment, and technology to make all these forensic science processing and analyses possible. At best, Law & Order has, over the years, almost 'mirrored' the reality of the police and legal justice system in the country. Its characters, their behavior, and even depiction of the lawyers, police, criminals, and victims have been faithful to real-life events and scenarios. Thus, Law & Order is a good reflection of the criminal justice system, particularly its nature and the… [read more]

Criminal Justice Process Term Paper

… Criminal Justice Process

A felony is a group of crimes that are commonly known as the most serious types of offenses. The major element of a felony is that being found guilty of a felony will consequence in incarceration for… [read more]

Criminal Justice System Program Reducing Research Paper

… Selection criteria and their weights are statement of the problem at 25%, project design at 25%, capabilities and competencies at 30%, data collection plan at 10%, and budget a 10% (BJA).

Rationale of the Program

Research showed a 4.1% decline… [read more]

Criminal Justice and Capital Punishment Essay

… ¶ … Capital Punishment

Criminal Justice and Capital Punishment

Capital punishment has provoked heated discussion since biblical times. The debate remains as divisive as ever because it sits at the intersection of life, death and the very definition of the… [read more]

Criminal Justice for Possible Outcome Essay

… When a practice or program is believed a priori to be effective, it is challenging to obtain resources or support for trails that might dilute experimental effect in the name of science.

"Evidence and Liberty: The Promise of Experimental Criminology,"… [read more]

Changes Within Criminal Justice Organization Essay

… Changes Within Criminal Justice Organization

Changes within a criminal justice organization:

Increased police profiling of Arab-Americans after September 11, 2001

Changes within a criminal justice organization:

Increased police profiling of Arab-Americans after September 11, 2001

Accusations of racial profiling have… [read more]

Criminal Justice Field Research Paper

… Criminal Justice Field

Define what an experiment is and how it is useful in the field of criminal justice research.

Since the beginning of the discipline, quantitative methods have supplied the primary research methods for studying the division and causes… [read more]

Criminal Justice System as Entertainment Critique Movie Review

… Criminal Justice as Portrayed in Television Entertainment

American Justice Episode #87 "Donnie Brasco" is the story of former FBI Special Agent Joe Pistone who successfully infiltrated the Bonanno crime family of the New York Mafia for six years, beginning in 1976. As a result of that long-term undercover operation, more than 200 Mafiosi were arrested, more than half of whom were eventually convicted of their crimes. To accomplish his infiltration, Special Agent Pistone exploited the friendship he established with a Bonanno family captain, Dominick "Sonny Black" Napolitano. After the operation was terminated by the FBI and the successful infiltration made public, Napolitano was killed by his former associates for having vouched for Pistone and allowing him access to the organization. The episode portrays the many criminal operations, including murders, committed by the crime family and by Napolitano, who boasted of having killed 26 people in previous years.

American Justice Episode #71 "The Amy Fisher Story" concerned the case dubbed "The Long Island Lolita" by the press. In 1992, Amy Fisher was a 17-year-old high school student who had been having an affair with a much older married man named Joseph Buttafuco, the owner of a local car repair business where Fisher's father had previously had work done on his car. In May of 1992, Fisher showed up at the Buttafuco home and shot Buttafuco's wife Mary Jo Buttafuco in the head with a handgun; she survived but is disfigured today. Fisher was charged with attempted murder but was eventually allowed to plea bargain the charges down to first degree assault. Fisher served seven years in prison and was released in 1999. Joseph Buttafuco was convicted of statutory rape and only served six months for the crime upon his conviction. There was some evidence that Buttafuco may have actually orchestrated the attempt on his wife's life but that was never established at trial.


The segment of the criminal justice system portrayed in Episode 87 is law enforcement and undercover investigations of organized crime. The Mafia "capo" is depicted both as a ruthless criminal who had murdered more than two dozen people but also as a loyal friend to Special Agent Pistone. Pistone described the sense of betrayal he felt at exploiting Napolitano's friendship on a personal level despite the fact that Napolitano was a ruthless criminal and a murder. The FBI is portrayed as a dedicated law enforcement organization whose agents often risk life and limb to conduct investigations where they associate with cold-blooded killer who would murder them on the spot if their true identity were ever discovered.

The circumstances depicted in the episode seem to illustrate the rational choice theory of crime as well as the principle of criminal association. Rational choice describes the fact that every individual makes conscious decisions to abide… [read more]

Criminal Justice and American Culture Term Paper

… However, not all the statistics point to a disparity in every area of criminal justice toward minorities. As indicated, blacks tend to spend less time on parole than whites do, and whites do outdistance blacks in some areas of crime,… [read more]

Criminal Justice - Corrections Issues Essay

… Criminal Justice - Corrections Issues


What is the more important goal of the justice system, to control crime or to ensure justice?

No single purpose defines the appropriate role of the criminal justice system in modern American society. In that respect, both crime control and justice are fundamental goals of the criminal justice system. In fact, in the larger sense, crime control is merely one isolated component of the goal of ensuring justice rather than a competing interest.

However, to the extent crime control and ensuring justice are viewed as distinguishable objectives, the contemporary focus of American criminal justice is more focuses on crime prevention, despite the fact that controlling crime may also be one of the primary means of ensuring justice in many circumstances.

In part, contemporary societal expectations and social mores and values have emphasized the eradication of criminal activity of all types. In addition to addressing the social consequences of specific criminal conduct motivated by malice or personal gain, modern American criminal justice recognizes the role of so-called "petty crime" and "victimless crimes" in the deterioration of society. Similarly, modern trends in American criminal justice and policing recognize the degree of harm caused by so-called "benign" conduct at the lowest end of the spectrum of criminal law.

Finally, the modern trend in American criminal justice is to incorporate community values and concerns into the administration of criminal justice. Generally, community-lead (or community-inspired) criminal justice initiatives also emphasize crime control through detection, prosecution, and reduction more than ensuring justice, in principle.

2. Can we change the criminal justice system?

The American criminal justice system is a constantly-changing… [read more]

Criminal Justice Process Essay

… Criminal Justice Process

Considerable attention has been devoted to law, both substantive and procedural on the justice process. The criminal justice system is a legal system. How does the law influence the day-to-day activities of the justice process? Be sure… [read more]

U.S. Constitution Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement Thesis


The objective of this research is to examine police procedures such as searches, arrest and interrogations, as well as criminal trials and sentencing regulated by the Constitution in the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and… [read more]

Criminal Justice Administration: Corrections Officers Job Satisfactions Thesis

… Criminal Justice Administration: Corrections Officers

Job satisfactions of corrections officers

According to the U.S. Department of Labor, the primary duty of corrections officers is to perform the often-stressful work of overseeing individuals who have been arrested and are awaiting trial… [read more]

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