"Crime / Police / Criminal Justice" Essays

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Mccurdy vs. Arkansas State Police Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (934 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



The issue at hand in this was whether the continued harassment of McCurdy by Hall (and perhaps others) made the police department liable based on the fact that it was protracted and insidious in nature or if liability was not assignable because McCurdy did not report the alleged acts even though she was informed of the sexual harassment policy and did not report the illegal actions despite this. In other words, the Arkansas State police asserted that even though Hall and the other males in the police agency were liable to for their sexual harassment under the policy if/when they engage in it, the victims of harassment had a duty to come forward so that the state police could react to the accusations and issue the proper firings, demotions, investigations and so forth (Leagle, 2014).


The decision of the court was that because the police agency reacted as quickly and as reasonably as they could and because they exercised due diligence in separating them while an impartial and third party (internal affairs) investigation was conducted, it was held that the Arkansas State police did what they could and when they could and thus should not be held liable for what was allegedly done to her. Beyond that, the lack of proper legal due diligence on the part of McCurdy was complicated by the fact that she took a polygraph and the results pertaining to her assertion that her breast was fondled was inconclusive (Leagle, 2014).


There was obviously some credence and substance to McCurdy's accusations, at least as it pertains to the overall sexual harassment, but her lack of filing the complaint(s) properly and completely in addition to some of her polygraph undermining her in part, there was no overarching evidence that the police higher-ups were neglectful and slow in dealing with the problem when found out (Leagle, 2014).

Rule of Law

The one main legal point to take form this case is that accusers have a burden just like the accused when they are found out. Bosses and coworkers cannot do anything about a problem if they do not know about it and/or have a formal complaint.


IntroLaw. (2014, May 30). Summary: McCurdy v. Arkansas State Police, 375 F.3d 762 (8th Cir. July 23, 2004). Summary: McCurdy v. Arkansas State Police, 375 F.3d 762 (8th Cir. July 23, 2004). Retrieved May 30, 2014, from http://www.introlaw.com/ed/cs/8th/04/080704mc.html

LawMemo. (2014, May 30). Employment Law Memo sample. Employment Law Memo sample. Retrieved May 30, 2014, from http://www.lawmemo.com/sample/e20040726.htm

Leagle. (2014, May 30). McCURDY v. ARKANSAS STATE POLICE | Leagle.com. McCURDY v. ARKANSAS STATE POLICE | Leagle.com. Retrieved May…… [read more]

Occupational Socialization Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (547 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


However, this does not excuse overlooking the civil liberties of citizens and ultimately everyone suffers if the police overlook necessary legal protocols when dealing with suspects. There will be an eventual public erosion of trust in the force.

There is a limit to what one officer can do, particularly a new officer. Even very distinguished officers may face resistance and pushback when they expose misconduct. Recently, in Houston, "HPD Officer Christopher Zamora was awarded $150,000 for compensatory damages which include emotional distress and damage to his professional reputation and standing in the law enforcement community" simply because he reported discrimination against Latinos to the EEOC within the department (Breaking the code of silence, 2014, Houston Forward Times). Even when the formal, articulated demands of the job cause for reporting illegal behavior, the informal codes of the job are often tremendously resistant to such candor.

For change to take place, particularly in a bureaucratic organization such as a police department, it must often be generated from the top, because lower-level officers are reluctant to challenge the social code of silence. But merely changing policy is not adequate, given how defiance of change may still exist behind closed doors. Instead, police departments must work with fellow officers to counteract change resistance. "Planned change is more likely to be successful with staff involvement. Therefore, include the staff in the planning and implementation process" (Lecture notes). Conflict must be channeled into productive dialogue about how to improve both the culture and the standard operating procedures of the organization.


Breaking the code of silence. (2014). Houston Forward Times. Retrieved from:


Lecture notes. Online.… [read more]

What Is the Best Philosophy for the Corrections System to Employ? Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (773 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


"Restorative justice is a theory of justice that emphasizes repairing the harm caused or revealed by criminal behavior" ("What is restorative justice," Restorative Justice Online). Examples of restorative justice include community service (such as someone who committed a hate crime undoing the damage he did to the church or synagogue) or victim-perpetrator mediation in which the victim is allowed to confront the perpetrator and explain the harms done to him or her.

While to some degree a balance of all of these elements are required in any criminal justice system, statistical evidence indicates there is an extreme imbalance in how crime is addressed through punishment. Evidence of discrimination in the justice system suggests that there is a lack of justice in terms of how punishment is allocated which subverts the concept of rehabilitation and fosters hostility to an unjust society. There is also evidence of how social factors can contribute to fostering criminal tendencies amongst individuals who believe they have no clear way out of their circumstances. For example, within the juvenile justice system which is supposed to be primarily rehabilitative: "African-American youth are 1.4 times more likely to be detained than white youth arrested for the same crimes, and are twice as likely to be transferred to adult court" ("Our broken justice system," Fair Sentencing of Youth).

The burgeoning numbers of people in prison system combined with the widening gap between rich and poor in our society point to the need to create more creative solutions to the social conditions which are conducive to crime. There is also a need to heal communities and individuals that have been impacted by crime although the focus of the system is often purely upon punishing the offender. Employing more rehabilitative and restorative philosophies in structuring the corrections system is the only way to address such issues.

Works Cited

Greek, C. "The Classical School." FSU. 2005. 21 Apr 2014.


"Our broken justice system." Fair Sentencing of Youth. 21 Apr 2014.


Smith, Nick. "Rehabilitation." The Encyclopedia of Criminal Justice. 21 Apr 2014.


"What is restorative justice?" Restorative Justice Online. 21 Apr 2014.

http://www.restorativejustice.org/university-classroom/01introduction… [read more]

Public Policy Analysis Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,016 words)
Bibliography Sources: 17


In the U.S., other societies identified with the suffering societies because the problem was common.


Many of the social problems originate from the developed countries, and developing countries often emulate them as they develop. Hate crime is a significant social problem, which was intense in the past, but has traces in the current society. The process the problem undergoes to become a public policy problem depends on the magnitude of the problem in terms of the effects on the society. For instance, hate crime resulted to substantial destruction of life and property.

Due to its progressive nature, people retaliated by forming anti-hate groups, which passed the societal problem to the national arena. The media also played a role in the process by showing the effects of the problem, and holding debates for people, including the politicians to express their views on the problem. The views reaches the national level and government responds by sending professionals to ascertain the existence of the problem, and later on formulate policies to control the problem.


Barnes, A., & Ephros, H.P. (1994). The impact of hate crime on victims: Emotional and behavioral responses to attacks. Nationalassociationofsocialworkers.com [online] http://www.socialworkers.org/pressroom/events/911/barnes.asp (accessed April 6, 2014)

Burns, L.S., & Peyrot, M. (2010). New Approaches to Social Problems Treatment. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing.

Daniels, Mark R. (201). Policy and Organizational Termination. International Journal of Public

Administration, 24(3), pp. 249 -- 262.

Hodge, P.J. (2011). Gendered Hate: Exploring Gender in Hate Crime Law. Boston: Northeastern University Press.

Iganski, P. (2001). Hate Crimes Hurt More. American Behavioral Scientist, 45(4), pp. 626-638

Illarraza, F., & Angle, B.P. (2001). Hate Crime Data and its Sources: An assessment.

Journal of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 38 (2), pp. 128-138.

Jennessis, V., & Grattet, R. (2004). Making Hate A Crime: From Social Movement to Law Enforcement. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Jennessis, V., & Broad, K. (2001). Hate Crimes: New Social Movements and the Politics of Violence. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Kapler, R. (1993). Number of Hate Crimes by Blacks Rising, Rights Group Says: Justice Research. Washington, D.C.: National Criminal Justice Association.

Levin, J., & McDevitt, J. (1993). Hate Crimes: The Rising Tide of Bigotry and Bloodshed. New York NY: Plenum

Lieberman, M. (1995). The Hate Crime Statistics Act: The FBI's 1994 Report. ADL Law Enforcement Bulletin. New York: Anti-Defamation League.

McDevitt, J. et al. (2001). Consequences for Victims: A Comparison of Bias- and Non-Bias Motivated Assaults. American Behavioral Scientist, 45(4), pp. 697-713

Perry, B. (2003). Hate and Bias Motivated Crime: A Reader. New York NY: Routledge.

Petrosino, C. (1999). Connecting the Past to the Future: Hate Crime in America. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 15(1), pp. 22-47.

Rainwater, L. (1974). Social Problems and Public Policy: Deviance and Liberty. Chicago: Aldine Pub. Company.

Reno, J et al. (1999). A Policymaker's Guide to Hate Crimes. Bureauofjusticeassiatance.com [Online] https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/bja/162304.pdf (accessed April 5, 2014)

Shwirtz, M. (2014). Man…… [read more]

Polygraph Testing: Critique Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,224 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The control questions are designed to control for the effect of the generally threatening nature of relevant questions. Control questions concern misdeeds that are similar to those being investigated, but refer to the subject's past and are usually broad in scope; for example, 'Have you ever betrayed anyone who trusted you?'" (American Psychological Association, 2014). Apparently, most people taking such a test would fear the control questions and thus have a reaction towards these control questions. This would help set a baseline for judging truthfulness. There is also a procedure known as the Guilty Knowledge Test (GKT). Here, the research claims that this procedure "involves developing a multiple-choice test with items concerning knowledge that only a guilty subject could have" (American Psychological Association, 2014). When the suspect knows guilty answers, he or she will have the reaction that signifies deception. This method for detecting deception has long been seen as reliable enough to stand in a court of law. Because of this, "lie detector tests have become a popular cultural icon - from crime dramas to comedies to advertisements - the picture of a polygraph pen wildly gyrating on a moving chart is readily recognized symbol" (American Psychological Association, 2014). It is thus one of the most commonly thought of and used strategies for evaluating truthfulness and detecting deception.

However, there are a number of issues that arise with the use of polygraph tests as well. When polygraphs are administered by people who are not professionals, their reliability goes down dramatically in interpreting the physical signs of deception. Unfortunately, the "polygraph is a useful tool, but it has a focused use (e.g. criminal suspect investigations and national security) and can produce both false-positive and false-negative errors" (Cooper et al., 304). There are even situations where a polygraph can indicate deception where there is none at all. Essentially, "an honest person may be nervous when answering truthfully and a dishonest person may be non-anxious" (American Psychological Association, 2014). This would increase inefficiencies in the test and make it possibly dictate deception when there is none and vice versa. Additionally, there are a number of counter measures that can be used by the suspect in order to throw off the polygraph test as well. Suspects can purposely stress themselves out at simple questions to throw off the baseline analysis. Some even say that self-inducing pain during the process can throw off the stress detectors enough to have inconsistent results.

Still, the technology surrounding lie detector tests is rapidly evolving.

Voice stress analyzers "detect changes in the pitch and tension of the voice and there is no question that detecting change is an important aspect in evaluating truthfulness" (Cooper et al., 304). These tests can often be administered over much longer ranges, without the suspect re Cooper et al., ally knowing that he or she is being tested for truthfulness.


Overall, the polygraph is a very reliable tool for detecting truthfulness and deception; however, the results must be augmented with out deception… [read more]

Arguments for and Against Prison Privatization Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,329 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


, 1999).

Arguments for prison privatization

Economic ventures undertaken by the private sector have a key feature of being efficient compared to state run ventures. The argument for privatization of prison owing to the potential efficiency to result follows from this argument. It is observable that private organizations have the advantage of being more rigorous and flexible in making vital decisions relating to the operation of the prison. The aspect of privatization and economic efficiency follows from the fact that private operators will face competition. This on its own is an incentive to provide state services reflective of money value. The efficiency that lack is state operation owing to bureaucratic red tapes is absent in private organizations (Committee, 1996; Thomas et al., 1999). This guarantees that the private sectors operating prison facility will take immediate necessary action. Deployment of workforce and the capital will be more efficient making available cost cutting measures and maximum utilization of the facility. Use of advanced security measure that minimize the cost of operating the prison facility as well as reducing staff workload and overtime will result from the privatization.

Public sector reforms will be realized following privatization and the gains obtained thereof. Public sector will emulate the observed efficiency in the privatized prisons thus deploy measure to reflect the some changes. Exposure of public sector to competition will introduce good work practices that enhance changes in policy and government efficiency in provision of public services. The delegation of prison facility management to private sector lessens the workload to the government. This presents an avenue for the government to allocate its time and resources to other development ventures (Thomas et al., 1999).

Upon privatization of prison services, accountability of the state and the private run prisons. It is true that private prison receive scrutiny from the state and the media. This type of scrutiny ensures that the prison management remain on high alert. It also ensures they provide the service concerning the policy and minimum set standards (Cunningham, 2003).

It is pointed out that enthusiast-running prisons privately have undertaken to provide these services and other similar services for years. This grants an understating to argument that profiting from services such as food and clothing for the prisoners is no different from management. Therefore, it morality arguments brought to discredit the privatization of prisons does not hold a lot of ground (Cunningham, 2003).

Lobbing by private prison corporations will not result since despite the provision of a vital public service, the volume of private corporations in the country outnumbers them. This means that the private owners of prisons cannot force the government to undertake ventures beneficial only to them. This implies that privatization will result to greater management government functions (Lanza-Kaduce et al., 2001; NSW Parliament, 2000).


Bowman, G.W., Simon, H., & Paul, S. (2009). Privatizing the United States Justice System: Police, Adjudication, and Corrections Services from the Private Sector. . Jefferson, NC:: McFarland & Company, Inc.

Brakel, S.J. (2002). Prison Management, Private Enterprise Style:… [read more]

Prisons Are Correctional Facilities Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,840 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


There are some ideas when implemented can help in curbing officer corruption. These ideas can be expressed in three areas; the first step is hiring officers that have good character no matter how difficult it seems. There should be strict screening methods used so as to reduce chances of hiring potentially corrupt officers. Secondly officers have to be well trained on matters pertaining corruptions and how they can deal with such situations when they present themselves. Finally incentive programs should be well though such that they adequately cater for needs of officers and hence prevent them from any temptation of taking part in corruption dealings (White, 1999).


It is therefore very important to ensure that these challenges in prisons are addressed so that the correctional element of prions is not lost but maintained. If the challenges are addressed then we can be sure of effective rehabilitation of criminals when they are released back to the community.


Grey, J.(2012). Prisons deal with gangs inside, problems continue outside. Retrieved February 23, 2014 from http://www.ktvb.com/news/crime/Prisons-deal-with-gangs-inside-problems-continue-outside-153399255.html

Walker, R. (2013). The History, Origin and Evolution of Prison Gangs and Security Threat Groups (STG). Retrieved February 23, 2014 from http://www.gangsorus.com/prison_gang_history.htm

Harris, K.(2012). Rise in prison gangs fuelling violence, drug trade. Retrieved February 23, 2014 from http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/rise-in-prison-gangs-fuelling-violence-drug-trade-1.1191284

Knox, W, G. (2005). The Problem of Gangs and Security Threat Groups (STG's)

In American Prisons Today: Recent Research Findings

From the 2004 Prison Gang Survey. Retrieved February 23, 2014 from http://www.ngcrc.com/corr2006.html

Kaufman, P. (2001). Prison Rape: Research Explores Prevalence, Prevention. Retrieved February 23, 2014 from http://www.nij.gov/journals/259/Pages/prison-rape.aspx

Hunter, G., (2014). Sexual Abuse by Prison and Jail Staff Proves Persistent, Pandemic. Retrieved February 23, 2014 from https://www.prisonlegalnews.org/displayArticle.aspx?articleid=21225&AspxAutoDetectCookieSupport=1

White, A, S.(1999).Controlling Police Corruption. Retrieved February 23, 2014 from https://www.stanford.edu/class/e297c/poverty_prejudice/paradox/hwhite.html

Transparency International UK.(2014). Corruption in prisons. Retrieved February 23, 2014 from http://www.transparency.org.uk/our-work/corruption-in-the-uk/prisons… [read more]

Perceived Media Credibility Article Critique

Article Critique  |  3 pages (853 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The authors posit that, contrary to past studies, which generalize the effects of all media use variables, theirs demonstrates the significance between the number of hours spent watching local news, and punitive attitudes, and still ends up with values within the normal range, after the addition of variables (adjusted R2). Based on this, I am of the opinion that the article was meant for researchers within the field.

I do not agree with the authors' main point because it disregards the importance of the element of fear of crime (Beckett, 1999). The fear of crime, which is induced by demographic factors such as an individual's background, age, race, education levels, etc., is a significant predictor of punitive attitudes (Beckett, 1999). The media only has an indirect effect on such attitudes, through the fear of crime (Beckett, 1999). This implies that people who regularly view crime-related media shows are more likely to fear crime, than those who do not, and are, as a result of this fear, more likely to develop punitive orientations (Gould, 2007). Fear of crime controls for age, gender and victimization status, and is, therefore, the most significant predictor for punitive attitudes (Beckett, 1999).

In the author's argument above, punitiveness does not increase because the number of hours spent watching local news increases; rather, it increases because the increased number of hours induces more fear of crime in an individual, making them feel that crimes are increasing because the current sentences are too lenient (Gould, 2007). It is this fear of crime that then increases punitiveness. In the same way, gender, level of income, etc., do not predict punitiveness directly, but rather do so due to the fear of crime effect.


In summary, demographic variables are fairly weak punitive attitude predictors. Variables that measure crime salience through such factors as fear of, or concern about crime are more effective predictors of the same. The fear of crime is most commonly linked with people's perceptions of increasing crimes, and punitiveness. As has been proven by numerous studies around the country, and beyond, the media does have a clear role in shaping people's ideological beliefs.


Beckett, K. (1999). Making Crime Pay: Law and Order in Contemporary American Politics. New York: Oxford University Press.

Gould, J. (2007). The Innocence Commission: Preventing Wrongful Convictions and Restoring the Criminal Justice System. New York: New York University Press.

Waid-Lindberg, C.A., Dobbs, R.R. & Shelley, T. (2011). Blame the Media? The Influence of Primary…… [read more]

Precedent-Setting Court Cases Support Response Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (793 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Examples of racial discrimination in relation to the applicability of the Sentencing guidelines waiver and superseding of federal law are seen in cases in which the same judge gives different sentencing for similar offenses and conditions. "Judge Johnson sentences a Hispanic offender convicted of armed robbery to 5 years in prison; she sentences a similarly situated white offender convicted of an identical crime to 2 years in prison" (How do Judges decide, n.d) At the same time though, in the defense of the judge, it can be argued that no condition is ever the same and that the criminal record of an accused weights heavily on the decision of the judge. Such an approach however is strictly related to the fact that the reference points -- gravity of the offense and criminal history -- cannot be fully quantified and measured and so, sensitive distinctions between cases cannot be made.

In terms of social discrimination, studies have shown that "despite the existence of statewide sentencing guidelines, the sentences imposed by judges in the three counties varied. The sentences handed down by judges in a large urban county were the least severe, those handed down by judges in a medium-sized suburban county were the most severe, and those handed down by judges in a small rural county fell in between" (How do Judges decide, n.d) This further points out that despite the sentencing guidelines, the ruling is still arbitrary and takes into account an entire array of factors that makes the sentencing to lack uniformity.

Finally, gender also plays a part in determining of a sentence and studies pointed out that women tend to receive easier legal punishments than men, especially taking into account the social pressure on women, whether they have children and the overall background of their existence. Such an approach may be acceptable from a human point-of-view, but in terms of legal practices, it allows a discriminatory behavior and does not allow for fair trial conditions.


"How do judges decide" (n.d.) Sentencing disparity And discrimination. Sage Publications, available online at http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/27008_4.pdf

The Leadership Conference (2014). "Supreme Court Decision Ends Judicial Debate Over Sentencing Guidelines," available online at http://www.civilrights.org/criminal-justice/sentencing/supreme-court-sentencing-guidelines.html

United States Sentencing Commission (2012) "2012 Guidelines Manual," available online at http://www.ussc.gov/Guidelines/2012_Guidelines/Manual_HTML/5a_SenTab.htm… [read more]

Ethics Forensic Science Legal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,070 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


d.). However, there is not clear cut ethical standard that has developed in this profession and many so-called experts will take liberties to state their beliefs even when this are not based on sound scientific analysis.

The March 2009 issue of the Virginia Law Review included an article entitled "Invalid Forensic Science Testimony and Wrongful Convictions." This study, conducted by Brandon L. Garrett and Peter J. Neufeld, was the first study undertaken to explore the relationship between forensic testimony and convictions ultimately leading to exonerations based upon post-conviction DNA analysis (Beiser, 2013). Of those reviewed for this study, 82 of the cases, or approximately 60%, included invalid forensic testimony by prosecution experts, or "testimony with conclusions misstating empirical data or wholly unsupported by empirical data."

Ethics at the Crime Scene

The first place forensic personnel come into contact with physical evidence is at the crime scene and there are policies and procedures that must be abided by in order to properly document and collect evidence (Refuge, 2011). If a forensic scientist does not follow the appropriate protocol, then they are acting unethically whether it is intentionally done or not. The possibility of evidence manipulation begins at the crime scene; here evidence can be purposefully or accidentally overlooked, planted, or mishandled (Refuge, 2011). People can purposely tamper with the evidence available at the crime scene and if the investigator cuts corners then they might not be able to discern the falsified evidence.

Even though police and forensic specialists are ethically obliged to preserve the integrity of their investigations and their agencies' reputations, there are still areas that have not been included in professional ethical codes relating to crime scenes. One example is that the American Academy of Forensic Sciences and the Canadian Society of Forensic Science provide no guidelines for crime scene ethics, or the retention of items from former crime scenes (Rogers, 2004). Guidelines are necessary to define acceptable behavior relating to removing, keeping, or selling artifacts, souvenirs, or teaching specimens from former crime scenes, where such activities are not illegal, to prevent potential conflicts of interest and the appearance of impropriety.

Therefore, even though such acts might not be explicitly covered in the professional ethical code that the investigator is bound by, the forensic scientist must still use their best ethical judgment to determine that such behavior is unethical and certainly unprofessional as well. It is up to the forensic scientist to develop a capacity for ethical reasoning for instances in which the ethical codes are incomplete or blurry. A forensic scientist must be able to defend their actions ethically at all times. This requires a significant amount of consideration, however in such a high-stakes profession such consideration is a must.

Works Cited

Beiser, V. (2013, November 25). When Crime Labs Go Criminal. Retrieved from Pacific Standard: http://www.psmag.com/science/crime-labs-go-criminal-70638/

Dutelle, A. (N.d.). Ethics and Forensic Science. Retrieved from Evidence Technology Magazine: http://www.evidencemagazine.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=453

Refuge, J. (2011, June 24). Ethics and Training in Forensic Science. Retrieved from Crime Scene Investigator: http://www.crime-scene-investigator.net/ethicsinforensicscience.html

Rogers,… [read more]

Boot Camp's Program Claim Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,112 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The Selection Criteria (Creaming)

According to Cole, Smith & Dejong (2012), boot camps have, in the past, been accused of only accepting those offenders that they feel will be successful. The criteria for eligibility for the California LEAD program, for instance, required "non- serious non-violent juvenile court commitment, minimum of age 16 (later reduced to 14), history or risk of substance abuse" (Jones, 2012, p.1). This technique ultimately results in creaming, as it absorbs those participants that are considered 'receptive', eliminating those with more serious offences (Cole et al., 2012). It may be much easier to change the behavior of these types of offenders, than it would be, to change those convicted of more serious offences. This discriminative selection has hugely contributed to the high levels of public disappointment in boot camp programs, which have been viewed as being more concerned about "their success ratio" (Cole et al., 2012, p.597).

The Program Design

The approach adopted in formulating the boot camp program design would, to a large extent, determine the effectiveness of its operations. Lutze (as cited in Travis 2011), is of the view that boot camp programs are mainly designed to exert control and excessive supervision on their participants, which limits their self-development. Cole, Smith & Dejong (2012) further argue that, boot camp programs largely increase, rather than "reduce the control over offenders' lives" (p.597). LEAD's poorly- produced design, in the opinion of Jones (2012), resulted in the development of contradicting objectives, and, consequently, led to its eventual closure

The General Assessment of Risk Technique

Assessing the risk factors on a general platform has its share of disadvantages. There need to be policies that ensure different boot camp participants are placed on different effects (Travis, 2011). In Travis' opinion, the application of general strategies to a diverse- participant population could be helpful to a proportion of the population, and harmful to another. There is need to "match the right program to the right type of offender" (Travis, 2011, p.413).

The Overall Focus

Boot camp programs evidently disregard the fact that, negligence, poverty, and unemployment, to mention but a few, are the root causes of criminal activities (Jones, 2012). Those against boot camp programs argue that their focus on the physical aspect of training disregards the offenders' fundamental problems (Cole, Smith & Dejong, 2012).


It is important to note that boot camp programs incorporate policies that seek to improve the offenders' attitudes, as well as put more emphasis on instilling a culture of discipline, while focusing on individualism, and self- growth. The inclusion of these points of focus into the boot camp programs could see them develop into being efficient substitutes for shock incarceration (Cole & Smith, 2007). This would see a shift, into a regime that "measures success through re-integration, rather than through punishment" (Jones, 2012, p.3).


Cole, G.F., Smith, C.E. & DeJong, C. (2012). The American System of Criminal Justice (13th ed.). Belmont: Cengage Learning

Cole, G.F. & Smith, C.E. (2007). The American System of Criminal… [read more]

Texas Prison Reform: A Success Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,799 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The total savings realized from all these reform bills is probably close to a billion dollars, yet crime rates actually dropped by over 10% during the same period. Although the communities dependent on correctional spending have complained, it seems unlikely that Texas will reverse this trend given the savings realized.


ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union). (2011). Smart Reform is Possible. States Reducing Incarceration Rates and Costs while Protecting Communities. New York: American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved 19 Oct. 2013 from www.aclu.org/files/assets/smartreformispossible.pdf.

Editorial Board. (2013, Mar. 23). Shrinking prisons, saving billions. New York Times, SR12. Retrieved 19 Oct. 2013 from http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/24/opinion/sunday/shrinking-prisons-saving-billions.html.

Grissom, Brandi. (2013, Aug. 2). Texas lawmakers close inmate facilities due to dropping prison population. Pegasus News. Retrieved 21 Oct. 2013 from http://www.pegasusnews.com/news/2013/aug/02/texas-lawmakers-close-inmate-facilities-dropping/?refscroll=798.

Kyckelhahn, Tracey. (2012). State corrections expenditures, FY 1982-2010. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 19 Oct. 2013 from www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/scefy8210.pdf.

McNichol, Elizabeth C. And Lav, Iris J. (2007). 13 states face total budget shortfall of at least $23 billion in 2009: 11 others expect budget problems. Economy, states' past fiscal decisions are largely to blame. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. Retrieved 20 Oct. 2013 from http://www.cbpp.org/files/12-18-07sfp.pdf.

Multpl.com. (2013). U.S. Population by Year. Multpl.com. Retrieved 19 Oct. 2013 from http://www.multpl.com/united-states-population/table.

Prison Law Office. (2013). Information about California's prison population reduction plans. Prison Law Office. Retrieved 20 Oct. 2013 from http://www.prisonlaw.com/events.php.

PSPP (Public Safety Performance Project). (2007). Work in the States: Texas. Public Safety Performance Project, Pew Center on the States. Retrieved 20 Oct. 2013 from www.pewstates.org/uploadedfiles/Texas.pdf.

PSPP (Public Safety Performance Project). (2010). Prison Count 2010: State population declines for the first time in 38 years. Public Safety Performance Project, Pew Center on the States. Retrieved 19 Oct. 2013 from http://www.cjpc.org/Prison_Count_2010%20Pew%20%20Center%20report.pdf

RIG (Nelson A.…… [read more]

African-Americans Have Experienced Higher Rates Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (648 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Most notably: substance abuse, anger management, making the transition back into society and job training / placement. This is illustrating how no one cares or understands what happens to them when they are released from jail or placed on probation. These issues will have a negative impact on CBT group therapy. This occurs with professionals becoming overwhelmed with the cases, challenges and identifying areas of concern. As they have limited amounts of time to interact with everyone. (Andrews, 2010)

Furthermore, Raphael (2011) and Shepherd (2013) found that there were other factors which impacted recidivism rates among African-Americans. These include: the lack of education / skills, substance abuse and the belief that their past criminal history will always hurt them. The combination of these factors can cause someone to feel hopeless about their situation. This is because they have no way to support themselves, establish positive connections and make empowering lifestyle choices.

Over the course of time, they will see no other options than to become involved in what they know (crime). The potential impact this is having on CBT group therapy is to reduce its effects. This will occur with these individuals telling mental health professionals what they want to hear. Then, they are engaging in the same kind of anti-social behavior from the past. It is at this point, when the odds of them not coming to the sessions increase. The challenge for mental health professionals is preventing the situation from becoming worse. However, they are overwhelmed with other cases and may not have the time or resources to make a difference. (Raphael, 2011) (Shepherd, 2013)


Andrews, D. (2010). Rehabilitating Criminal Justice Policy. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 16 (1), pp. 39 -- 55.

Bellair, P. (2011). Low Skill Employment Opportunities. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 48 (2), pp.

176 -- 208.

Kury,…… [read more]

Roles of Sergeants vs Upper Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (681 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Sergeants perform patrol functions in smaller departments coupled with their normal supervisory activities. In other words, the notion that police sergeants have routine activities is a fiction. However, the focal activity of several first-line supervisors involves the controlling the behaviors of several patrolling officers. There are four distinct styles used by the sergeants. They include innovative, traditional, active supervision and the supportive aspect. All these aim at perfecting the operations of various police departments in many U.S. states.

Middle managers are grouped into three main functional areas. These are specialized units like the chief of detectives or the tactical operations. Patrol managers named the watch commanders, the police academy training, internal affairs and other strictly administrative functions in the form of research developments. Considering this, it is lucidly true that the sergeants have their roles cutting across the entire jurisdiction, and they perform the patrol functions while in smaller groups compared to the middle managers whose main roles center around the administrative parts with few officers taking part in patrol work.

Middle managers also deal with cases of ensuring that a given community facing dangerous crimes and disorder or immersed in the perilous intractable socioeconomic issues affecting societies is assisted (McCoy, 2009). Sergeants rarely participate in anything considered communal. Their aim is handling everything at personal or small group levels without taking into considerations the aspects of communities. In their roles, the middle managers have their focus on two leadership dimensions; community culture and police culture (McCoy, 2009). This is different from what sergeants do. It'd evident that the jobs or operations of the sergeants are strictly on the mistakes of individuals or group disregarding the element of community or society.


Freeman, R.M. (1999). Correctional organization and management: Public policy challenges, behavior, and structure. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Gaines, L.K., & Kappeler, V.E. (2011). Policing In America. Burlington: Elsevier Science.

McCoy, A.W. (2009). Policing America's empire: The United States, the Philippines, and the rise of the surveillance state. Madison, Wis: University of Wisconsin Press.… [read more]

Feminist Criminology and Victimization Theory Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (649 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



There are four costs associated with crime: (1) losses suffered by victims, (2) criminal justice system expenditures, (3) losses to society in terms of positive productivity by criminals, and (4) intangible losses such as pain, suffering, and fear of victimization (McCollister, French, and Fang, 2010). In 2007, the losses suffered by victims were estimated to be $15 billion and the cost of maintaining a criminal justice system $179 billion. Murder, for example, was estimated to cost victims about $738,000, the criminal justice system $400,000, society $150,000, and $8,442,000 in intangibles. By contrast, rape and aggravated assault carry tangible costs totaling $41,000 and $20,000, respectively, and intangible costs of $200,000 and $95,000, respectively.

The descriptive data generated by Simpson and colleagues (2008) provides considerable support for the conflict/critical/feminist theory of victimization (Wilcox, 2010). This theory holds that crime generally occurs in situations where there is an imbalance of power, such as between an adult and child, husband and wife, or gun wielding thug and unarmed pedestrian. In a society that generally defines female roles as distinct from, and weaker than, their male counterparts, this theory of victimization would explain why Simpson and colleagues (2008) found that offending by girls was significantly associated with having been sexually abused before the 6th grade. For adult-onset female offenders, encounters with the criminal justice system were found to be significantly associated with being victimized by their male partners. Marriage is therefore a risk factor for both violent victimization and subsequent criminality for women.


Bernard, April. (2013). The intersectional alternative: Explaining female criminality. Feminist Criminology, 8(1), 3-19.

McCollister, Kathryn E., French, Michael T., and Fang, Hai. (2010). The cost of crime to society: New crime-specific estimates for policy and program evaluation. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 108(1-2), 98-109.

Simpson, Sally S., Yahner, Jennifer L., and Dugan, Laura. (2008). Understanding women's pathways to jail: Analysing the lives of incarcerated women. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology,…… [read more]

Inmates and God Time/Right Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (774 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


On the opposite pole, mandatory release occurs once the felon has reached his / hers calendar time serving. Thus, mandatory release is subject to serving full sentence. Good time credits are awarded once an inmate's file has been carefully reviewed and assessed. Most importantly, these credits are mainly given to non-violent prisoners. Good behavior in prison implies conforming to prevailing norms and avoiding any misconduct. Also, inmates may require extra prison work which would further contribute to their credits. Overall, any implication which would result in positive outcomes is likely to present itself as good time behavior. However, there are no strict regulations to determine who and what an inmate has to do in order to be given good time credits. In this respect, the program may indeed be overall confusing and perhaps not equally shared. Given that ?good-time allowances are in some manner restricted, with some classes of inmates either ineligible to earn credit at the highest rates, or prohibited from earning it all together, ? (Edwards, 2001, p. 4) we do foresee some challenges in regards to the program's efficiency. Good time release should first and foremost be made available for first time felony offenders, particularly those not having shown violent behavior. While the program should include every prisoner, not everyone should have expectations in regards to having their punishment reduced and we are referring here to serious crime committing. While reduction of punishment in such cases is questionable, the opportunity to earn-time credit should nevertheless be available to all prisoners because it allows them to nurture their time in prison productively.

Reference List

American Civil Liberties Union (2006). Out of step with the world: An analysis of felony disfranchisement in the U.S. And other democracies. aclu.org. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/files/images/asset_upload_file825_25663.pdf

American Civil Liberties Union (n.d.). Promoting access to the ballot: The right to vote. aclu.org. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/voting-rights/promoting-access-ballot

Edwards, T. (2001). Regional Resource: Correctional good time credits in Southern States, report prepared for the Human Services and Public Safety Committee of the Southern Legislative Conference. Retrieved from http://www.slcatlanta.org/Publications/HSPS/GoodTime.pdf… [read more]

Ethics in Research an Error in Human Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  5 pages (1,951 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Ethics in Research

An error in human inquiry

Eyewitness testimony is frequently presented in criminal court cases, but it can be extremely unreliable. This unreliability is compounded when witnesses must identify persons of groups other than their own or when their experience is clouded because of exterior circumstances such as a lack of visibility or a heated, pressured moment. This… [read more]

Strategic Analysis NYC Parole Department Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  6 pages (1,949 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


According to Singh (2010) the discretionary powers of the parole board and judiciary should be brought in line with a framework to minimize the threats of misuse. The systems should be transparent and provide adequate support for willing prisoners. The technical requirements of the parole system should be simplified in order to achieve maximum results. The prisoners should be communicated regarding the benefits of system and required obligations. A strategic approach to create a disciplinary motive can be incorporated through the approach to grant parole release. At the same time it is also required that technical violations of the system should be treated through training and awareness of technical obligations rather than sending back to prison. The purpose of technical obligations should be aligned with the primary focus of creating an effective integration of prisoners with the community rather than to follow the rules for the sake of compliance. The overall strategic direction of the system can be improved through redefinition of the operating strategy and implementing effective controls to achieve maximum results.


The strategic analysis of the NYC department of parole covers a wide range of perspectives. The internal and external analysis of the environments in which the organization is operating provides a detailed understanding of the factors influencing the operations of the department. The strategic motive of parole release is to achieve a high rate of community integration and provide convicts with the option to live a useful life. The analysis of external environment reveals that the department is influenced through multiple social, political, and legal forces. The internal analysis of the organization highlights that the resources allocated to the department are not adequate. The overall strategy for the department should be transformed from quantitative focus on parole releases to qualitative approach. The usage of technology and integration of community-based police as well as regular police resources should also be utilized to effectively improve the system.


Gayman, M.D., & Bradley, M.S. (2012). Organizational climate, work stress, and depressive symptoms among probation and parole officers. Criminal Justice Studies, (ahead-of-print), 1-21.

Harvard Business Review. (2011). HBR's 10 Must Reads on Change Management (Including Featured Article" Leading Change," by John P. Kotter). Harvard Business School Press.

Kilgore, J. (2013). Progress or More of the Same-Electronic Monitoring and Parole in the Age of Mass Incarceration. Critical Criminology, 1-17.

Regoli, R.M., & Hewitt, J.D. (2009). Exploring Criminal Justice: The Essentials: The Essentials. USA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Singh, R. (2010). Right To Information And Good Governance. USA: Concept Publishing Company.

Stroker, R. (2010). Core Competencies: A Resource for Parole Board Chairs, Members, and Executive Staff. P. Burke, & L. Gilligan…… [read more]

New York State Department Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  10 pages (4,051 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


Good behavior was not the end result of his efforts and criminals kept committing crimes once they were released. The obstacle became providing adequate supervision and consequences once criminals were released.

By 1913, the re-offense rate increased and it became apparent, supervision of released offenders as well as inmates residing in correctional facilities had to be implemented. Actions were granted… [read more]

Procedural and Substantive Law Comparison Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (616 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


If the police have a reasonable belief that the individual in question is armed and poses a potential danger to innocent people, then the police are within their rights to search that person including frisking the person's body or searching their person, car, or possessions. This is now referred to as a "stop and frisk" because it does not require a permit or warrant by the police. These frisking are only permissible in terms of looking for weapons with which a potential culprit could pose a danger to himself or others. The search does not permit the officer to look for contraband items such as narcotics because they are not dangerous to others within a close enough time frame to warrant unpermitted investigation. Challenges to the case or further trials which have tried to use Terry v. Ohio as precedent have been overturned unless both components are found; namely that there is a weapon suspected and that a crime is imminent.

In State v. Perkins, it was found that since there was no imminent danger to police or to the inhabitants within the home; the police had no right to confiscate the weapons in question, including the unlawful assault rifle. If the police had not looked for the guns at that time, then they would not have been able to arrest Perkins for their possession or to prosecute him for the crime later one. The entire case had to be thrown out because of the inability of the police to acquire a proper search warrant. Their overzealous work, although good intended, was nonetheless illegal. Since the finding, the case has been used several times with varying levels of success to throw out evidence which was acquired because police claimed clear and present danger to others.

Works Cited

State v. Perkins. (2003). 358 N.J. Super. 151

Terry v. Ohio.…… [read more]

Ted Bundy: All-American Serial Killer Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,826 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


134). Law enforcement officials then compiled and printed a list of names that appeared twice (600 results, including Bundy), four times (400 results, including Bundy), and five times (25 results, excluding Bundy).

While police were sorting through this information in Washington, he was being tracked down in Utah. On August 16, 1975 at 2:30 A.M., in Granger, Utah, Sgt. Bob… [read more]

Conference Theory Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,609 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



Theories to support conference themes and their application, reflecting updates for more current literature on the theory bases, and synthesizing and evaluating how the practices of public administration today and in the future relate to or integrate with the four or five theory bases.

Some criminological theories attempt to differentiate issues to provide "distinctly different theories of crime for… [read more]

Punishments for First Degree Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (698 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


It could therefore be said that those found guilty of murder have by virtue of the said offense forfeited their right to life.

Yet another argument that has been proposed in opposition to the death penalty is that the same is not only brutal but also demeaning (Siegel, 2009). It should however be noted that some of the crimes committed by those found guilty of first-degree murder are both heinous and gruesome. If an individual takes the life of another in the cruelest way, why shouldn't such an individual be sentenced to death? According to Samaha (2011), in some instances, "brutal murders or torture murders intended to cause lingering death, appears on the list of aggravating factors that qualifies a murderer for the death penalty."

It has also been argued that maintaining the death penalty is relatively expensive (Siegel, 2009). Abolitionists as Siegel (2009) notes are convinced that given the number of legal appeals the said penalty attracts, it tends to be more expensive than incarceration. Although some studies have supported this point-of-view, some aspects of life imprisonment could make it more expensive in the long-term. Siegel and Bartollas (2010) are convinced that caring for elder prisoners "is extremely expensive." Given their susceptibility to illnesses and other age related vulnerabilities, elderly prisoners require more attention than their younger counterparts. Thus for some classes of prisoners, life imprisonment could indeed be more expensive than the death penalty.


As a form of punishment for first-degree murder, the death penalty still retains its relevance in the criminal justice system. Being the harshest punishment for first-degree murder -- alongside life imprisonment, the death penalty also plays an important role as a deterrent. The three elements identified earlier on in the text guarantee rightful conviction.


Kurtz, L. (Ed.). (2008). Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, & Conflict (2nd ed.). Fairfax, VA: George Mason University.

Samaha, J. (2011). Criminal Law (10th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Siegel, L.J. (2009). Introduction to Criminal Justice (12th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Siegel, L.J. &…… [read more]

Sentencing Juvenile Offenders to Life in Prison Article Critique

Article Critique  |  3 pages (945 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Sentencing Juvenile Offenders to Life in Prison

Courts are giving juveniles sentences that are more severe than those given to adult offenders are. This is because juveniles have not been able to negotiate so that they can attend the adult criminal court. In the article "Sentencing Juvenile Offenders to Life in Prison" by Jason and Giovani, they have demonstrated that America is the only country where juveniles are sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of Parole Initiative. Eighty percent of juveniles serving life sentences are below 18 years of age: this suggests that these youths will surely die in prison (Welsh & Siegel, 2011). In cities such as Michigan, young people under the age of 14 years have been charged for committing felonies and subject to trial at the adult courts. If they are found guilty, they will be sentenced as adults (Grigorenko, 2012).

The article has gathered reports detailing a wide range of differences how different states are dealing with juvenile cases. In addition, it provides highlights of enormous financial costs involved in juvenile sentencing without parole. Disparities are also evident in juvenile courts. Youth charged with murder are sentenced according to their racial background. A white youth accused of murder is likely to be given parole while a youth from black family is not likely to be given similar treatment. Such similar disparities are evident in a number of states and reports indicate that the trend is on the rise (Researcher, 2011).

On a critical perspective, putting juveniles in the adult court system is just wrong and it has never been supported by the society. Sentencing youth to life imprisonment is some of the injustices arising from reforms done to the court system. The article has compiled data about 1,579 people worldwide who were sentenced to life in prison without parole as juveniles. The data represents 50% of America's juveniles who have been given such sentences (Welsh & Siegel, 2011). The article titled "Sentencing Juvenile Offenders to Life in Prison" has documented high rates of social disparities in juvenile courts, correction policies that are counterproductive and thwart rehabilitation efforts. Juveniles have been encountering disadvantages since the establishment of juvenile courts. Youths who have been sentenced to life imprisonment without parole are being disciplined at an extraordinary rate. In addition, lawyers representing juveniles sentenced to life imprisonment have also been given extraordinary treatment in courts. These attorneys have been publicly disciplined or sanctioned for violating ethical conduct in courts (Steib, 2011).

Juveniles are also rejecting offers of plea at a higher rate compared to adults. Very often, adults are given linear sentences for their crimes. This is because juveniles are not fully equipped and cannot negotiate offers of parole because they are immature, inexperienced and have failed to realize the importance of negotiating for pleas. Many juveniles do not…… [read more]

Inmate Classification in Iowa Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (955 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Reclassification could result in an inmate being moved into a less or more restrictive setting, which could increase an inmate's access to more rehabilitation programs and less restrictive work assignments, improve staff and inmate safety, and lower correctional costs. Exceptions to this classification system include inmates convicted of a sex-related crime or serving a life sentence, who may be reclassified internally under an administrative override. The mentally ill and other vulnerable inmates would be subjected to the same administrative override, to prevent victimization by other inmates.

The new classification risk factors was expected to increase the size of both male and female minimum security inmate populations, from 26.1% to 32.0% and 48.6% to 67.9%, respectively (CJI, 2008). This would reduce the medium and maximum security populations accordingly. Another important effect of custody classification is the determination of eligibility for less restrictive work assignments. The Iowa Department of Corrections uses custody classification scores, together with staff discretion, to determine whether an inmate can work outside on prison property or out in the community. In addition to the three main classifications of minimum, medium, and maximum custody, an inmate could be classified as minimum out, minimum live-out, or medium out. For example, minimum and medium out inmates would be eligible for outside work assignments on prison property or off-site, but differ in the intensity of supervision needed (MDOC, 2004). For example, the chain gangs policing roadways would probably be classified as minimum out.


The Iowa Department of Corrections inmate classification system has been recently revised to enhance the ability of corrections officials to predict the risk of inmate misconduct when under correctional control. Probably the change with the greatest impact is the shortening of the reclassification interval, thereby improving the responsiveness of the classification system to recent inmate behavioral changes. The expected benefits include greater inmate access to rehabilitation programs, increased safety for correctional staff and inmates, and lower correctional costs.


Austin, James and Hardyman, Patricia L. (2004). Objective prison classification: A guide for correctional agencies. National Institute of Corrections, U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 23 Jan. 2013 from http://nicic.gov/Library/019319.

CJI (Criminal Justice Institute, Inc.). (2008). Validation and redesign of the Iowa Department of Corrections Inmate Classification System. Department of Corrections, State of Iowa. Retrieved 23 Jan. 2013 from http://www.doc.state.ia.us/Research/IAClassificationReportFinal.pdf.

Gaes, Gerald G. And Camp, Scott D. (2009). Unintended consequences: Experimental evidence for the criminogenic effect of prison security level placement on post-release recidivism. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 5, 139-162.

MDOC (Mississippi Department of Corrections). (2004). Definition of correctional terminology. MDOC.State.MS.U.S.. Retrieved 23 Jan. 2013 from http://www.mdoc.state.ms.us/Annual%20Report%20PDF/Annual%20Report%2005/A%20-%20Website%20-%20FY04%20Annual%20Report/Introduction/Terminology%20-%20Correctional.pdf.

Prell, Lettie and Smith, Curt. (2008). Inmate custody classification study brings changes. Department of Corrections, State of Iowa. Retrieved 23 Jan. 2013 from http://publications.iowa.gov/13213/1/july08.pdf.… [read more]

CSI Effect and Public Perception Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,259 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Jurors -- Jurors watch television, too. Jurors read books like The Silence of the Lambs. While the CSI effect has only been studied for less than a decade, at least one scholarly study shows that viewers of forensic dramas are far more critical of forensic science testimony, and less persuaded by it. Jurors now demand more and more sophistication in… [read more]

Confessions and Interrogations the Fourteenth Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (554 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Police interrogations, those conversation between suspects and police in which police intend to illicit a confession to a crime, are not allowed before informing a suspect of their Miranda rights. At the same time, the police are fully allowed to question a suspect if their intention is to simply gain information and not try to get a confession. (Salzburg 2009) If during their questioning a suspect happens to confess to a crime, without any intention on the part of the police to get that confession, then it is usually allowed. But if the police intend to use their questioning performed prior to Miranda warnings in order to illicit a confession from a suspect, then it is considered the functional equivalent of an interrogation.

The main difference between questioning and an interrogation is the intent of the police; if they intend to gain information then it is questioning, but if they intend to illicit a confession then it is an interrogation. This is the important factor when deciding whether statements thought to be given during "questioning" by the police were really given during a police "interrogation." And as stated prior, an interrogation cannot, by law, take place without a suspect fully informed of their constitutional rights under Miranda.

Works Cited

"Confessions." Lexis Nexis. Web 26 Nov. 2012. http://www.lexisnexis.com/lawschool/study/outlines/html/crimpro/crimpro10.htm

Salzburg, Steven. "Miranda, the Functional Equivalent of Interrogation, and Taint."

Criminal Justice 24.3 (Fall 2009). Web. 27 Nov. 2012.


_newsletter/crimjust_cjmag_24_3_trialtactics.authcheckdam.pdf… [read more]

Yorkshire Ripper Murder Case UK Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,094 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


Psychology of Serial Killer Investigations

Most of the murders serial killers commit have an element of torture. In this case, torture could either be brutal or mild. But why exactly do serial killers torture their victims? Why do they drag their victims through a dehumanizing process of both physical and mental anguish? In this text, I will largely concern myself with the essence of torture and how information regarding torture helps in understanding a killer's signature.

The Essence of Torture

According to Keppel and Birnes (2008), there is a specific subgroup of serial killers who expose their victims to torture in an attempt to derive sexual arousal from such torture. As the authors further point out, the killer in this case tends to get stimulated by the victim's anguish, suffering, pain, and terror. Driven by fantasies that could be regarded highly specialized, such a killer in the words of Keppel and Birnes (2003) "selects the victim, male or female, and escalates violence through various acquired and learned incremental levels of ritualistic carnage." The killing process is what matters to the killer in this particular case. Inflicting maximum pain is more often than not the ultimate or primary objective of such a killer. Death in this case can therefore be regarded a consequence of the ultimate or primary objective. Indeed, the luxury of sadism in this case as Keppel and Birnes (2003) point out is found not in the death of the victim but in the killing process. Richard Cottingham, one of the most brutal serial killers in history, once told one of his would-be victims that he derived intense sexual enjoyment and satisfaction from punishing and torturing his victims (Keppel and Birnes, 2008). In addition to being savagely bitten, most of Cottingham's victims had cigarette burns on their breasts (Keppel and Birnes, 2008). Cottingham also exposed his victims to extreme sexual abuse and physical torture. Dennis Rader, notorious for the murder of ten people during his two-decade murderous spree, referred to his victims as "projects" (Vito, Maahs, and Holmes, 2006). He was widely known as the BTK killer, with the acronyms standing for Blind, Torture, Kill. As Vito, Maahs, and Holmes (2006) point out, Rader admitted that his actions enabled him to fulfill his sexual fantasies.

According to Smith and Zahn (1998) serial killers do not usually kill for money or love. They kill for the fun of it. In the words of the authors, "they delight in the thrill, the sexual satisfaction, or the dominance they achieve as they squeeze the last breath of life from their victims." Douglas Clark, another notorious serial killer, was fond of killing women during sexual intercourse (Barkan and Bryjak, 2011). According to the authors, this was his ultimate fantasy. Torture is also used by a killer as a dread enhancing instrument. Dread and degradation are two of what Keppel and Birnes (2008) refer to as "the three D's of a sadistic killer." The other two "D's" are degradation and dependency. While dread as… [read more]

Career as a Probation Officer Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,206 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


When their clients are eligible for release, the case reports are given to the appropriate parole board. The specialist may help set up counseling for the offenders and their families, find substance-abuse or mental health treatment options, aid in job placement, and find housing. Correctional treatment specialists also explain the terms and conditions of the prisoner's release, write reports, and… [read more]

Ilea's International Law Enforcement Academies Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,017 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Courses are offered on the basis of the needs of specific countries and participants include mid to senior level law enforcement and criminal justice officials that have already graduated from a regional ILEA. The topics of these specialized courses include high level topics like police organizations and administration, ethics, domestic violence, women in policing, role of citizens, civil disobedience and always include a cultural and institutional orientation component. ("ILEA-Roswell")

When it comes to the individual agencies within the American government, there are a number which are directly involved in the International Law Enforcement Academies. For instance, the Diplomatic Security Service, also known as the Bureau of Diplomatic Security, is the world leader in international investigations, threat analysis, cyber security, counterterrorism, security technology, and protection of people, property, and information." ("Bureau of Diplomatic Security") This agency is one of many that are heavily involved in training law enforcement officers from around the globe. Others include the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF), Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), Department of Immigration (DOI), and the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC).

As with many other international efforts, foreign nations are willing to participate but it takes the United States to provide the impetus, and funding, for most. This is the case with the International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEA's), which began as a meeting between top U.S. And Eastern European law enforcement officials to discuss transnational crime and ended up becoming an international law enforcement academy. Of course it took the President of the United States, Bill Clinton, speaking at the United Nations to provide the momentum for the establishment of the academies, and a great deal of American dollars. From the first academy in Europe, other ILEA's were established in other regions of the globe including Thailand, Botswana, El Salvador, and the United States. It is the continuing mission of these ILEA's to provide regional law enforcement with the tools and training to combat transnational criminal activity, terrorism, and other threats to international peace and prosperity.


"Bureau of Diplomatic Security." U.S. Department of State Homepage. Retrieved from http://www.state.gov/m/ds/index.htm

"Remarks by the President to the U.N. General Assembly" (22 October, 1995).

Welcome to the White House. Retrieved from http://clinton4.nara.gov/WH/New/other/unspeech.html

"ILEA-Budapest" International Law Enforcement Academy- Budapest. Retrieved from http://www.ilea.hu/en/index.php

"ILEA-Bangkok" International Law Enforcement Academy-Bangkok. Retrieved from http://www.ileabangkok.com/index.html

"ILEA-Gaborone" International Law Enforcement Academy-Gaborone. Retrieved from http://www.ileagaborone.co.bw/

"ILEA-San Salvador" International Law Enforcement Academy-San Salvador. Retrieved from http://www.ileass.org.sv/inicio.php

"International Law Enforcement Academies." FLETC Homepage. Retrieved from http://www.fletc.gov/training/programs/international-capacity-building / international-law-enforcement-academies

Kaciban, Leslie, and Judson Ray. (Fall/Winter 2001). "International Law Enforcement

Academies-ILEA's" The Journal of Public Inquiry. Retrieved from http://www.ignet.gov/randp/f01c08.pdf

"PDD42: International Organized Crime." (October 1995). Federation of American

Scientists. Retrieved from http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/pdd42.htm… [read more]

Utilitarianism -- Death Penalty Context Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  2 pages (636 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Utilitarianism Case Study -- Death Penalty

Context, History, and General Background of the Issue

The history of criminal justice recognizes three principal concerns: punishment or retribution, isolation of offenders for the benefit of the general public, and deterrence. In principle, the death penalty serves all of those interests by punishing the offender, protecting members of the general public from the offender, and providing an example intended to deter other individuals who might otherwise be more inclined to perpetrate the same offenses. In ancient times, punishment was typically the focus of criminal penalties but contemporary ethical theorists emphasize crime prevention and prosecution the Utilitarian approach to criminal justice in general would favor measures that reduce the incidence of crime and benefit the greatest number of people in society. It could support the imposition of death penalties in certain situations.

Applying Utilitarian Ethical Concepts

Generally, Utilitarianism would permit capital punishment in circumstances where there were no other reasonable means of achieving the greatest good for the largest number of people. One school of Utilitarian thought is that human social behavior must be addressed through Utilitarian rules that do not recognize fact-based exceptions to those rules. The other Utilitarian school of thought, Act Utilitarianism, is that it may also be for the maximum good of society that its rules maintain sufficient flexibility not to produce morally absurd results applied in an all-or-none manner. Both schools of thought could justify capital punishment under certain circumstances. [the larger implications would be terrifying because, in principle, Rule Utilitarianism could establish an ethical requirement to impose the death penalty for killing strictly in self-defense or even by accident, depending only on the literal content of the laws involved.]

Should this man have been subjected to capital punishment? Why or why not?

Possibly. First, as a general proposition, it is not helpful to look backwards with 20/20 factual hindsight. The perpetrator of a violent attempted homicide…… [read more]

Administration of Justice in Cases Data Analysis Chapter

Data Analysis Chapter  |  2 pages (437 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Methodology and Study

In order to attain the goal in this study, the research has incorporated a quantitative study. The study involves the use of statistical data on various cases done in the past on mentally disturbed convicts. The quantitative study is meant to reveal patterns of judicial proceedings which will lead to conclusions and potential outcomes, which will lay strong evidence e to support the thesis. A survey research is done to determine the position and opinion of the people about the conviction of mentally disturbed people (Babbie, 2012).

The Hypothesis to be examined

The null hypothesis in the criminal justice administration states that mental destabilized people are innocent of accusations of any criminal activity. In addition, their violent actions and irresponsible behaviors are triggered by certain circumstance that provokes their mental illnesses.

Operationalization of Concepts (Babbie, 2012)

Mental illness is the state of an individual acting on impulse without any discernment of the consequences of the actions.

An offender is either

a) Mentally ill (unstable)

b) Mentally stable

Variables in the Hypothesis (Babbie, 2012)

Independent variable: judgment

Dependent variable: mental illness


Babbie, E.R. (2010). The Practice of Social Research. New…… [read more]

Capital Punishment -- Immoral Justice? Research Paper

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Capital Punishment -- Immoral Justice?

Capital punishment is presently one of the most debated topics as a consequence of the mixed opinions that the masses have concerning the practice. While some believe that the procedure is an essential concept of society, others consider that it is immoral and that it stands against the idea of civilization. When looking at things… [read more]

Inside Female Prisons Research Paper

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¶ … Female Prisons

According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics in the Office of Justice Programs (U.S. Department of Justice) as of December 2010 there were a total of 1,612,395 men and women incarcerated in federal and state prisons in the United States. Of that total, only a small percentage, 112,822, were female inmates. But what are the conditions… [read more]

Ethical Dilemmas: Forensic Psychologists Assessing the Competency Essay

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Ethical Dilemmas: Forensic Psychologists Assessing the Competency of Inmates to Be Executed

For most psychologists, working with patients in order to improve their mental health is a goal that presents no ethical conflicts; it is seen as an unmitigated positive to improve a patient's mental health. However, there is one area where a psychologist improving a patient's mental health is… [read more]

Agency/Organization in Which You Worked Essay

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S. Cyber Security and carries out covert investigations through undercover law enforcement methodologies.

Child Exploitation Section

Child Exploitation Section is responsible for fighting the sexual exploitation of children and the production and distribution of child pornography. CES's sophisticated investigative techniques target the internet violators. CES utilizes the latest technology to gather the evidence and track the activities of individuals and… [read more]

Senate Bill 123 of Kansas Research Paper

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Senate Bill 123 Kansas

Kansas' Senate Bill 123 (SB 123) had created an obligatory community-based drug treatment that is for individuals that have been sentenced of first- or second-offense drug possession. This essay will examined the impact of SB 123 on condemning practices, administration, and treatment services that are all across Kansas. The paper will indicate that SB 123 has… [read more]

Juveniles in Basic Terms Research Paper

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The alternatives in this case should have taken into consideration the need to reform and treat young Nathaniel as opposed to punishing him. Rehabilitation is one such alternative. An attempt to rehabilitate Nathaniel would have given him a chance to recollect himself after stumbling down the wrong path. Indeed, the juvenile system under which Nathaniel should have been tried is designed to treat, guide and reform other than punish. The other alternatives which should have been taken into consideration in this case include mentoring programs, vocational programs as well as other interventions (family based).

It is important to note that trying juveniles as adults has a number of consequences. According to Cole and Smith (2007), "many experts believe that trying juveniles as adults only makes things worse." To begin with, trying juveniles as adults effectively destroys and complicates their future. Indeed, in the words of Cole and Smith (2007), "punishing juveniles in adult institutions robs them of their childhood and threatens their future." There is also a possibility that kids tried as adults could end up becoming more hardened. This is more so the case given that juveniles happen to be at a different level of both emotional as well as social development in comparison to their adult counterparts.


In conclusion, it can be noted that trying juveniles as adults only focuses on the crime committed and as a result ignores the individual needs of the juvenile charged. In reality, juveniles are not allowed to marry, vote or engage in many of the same activities undertaken by their adult counterparts partly because they are not deemed fully appreciative of the implications of their actions. Why then should juvenile offenders be subjected to the same standards as adults when they commit a crime?


Bradsher, K. (1999, November 17). Michigan Boy Who Killed at 11 Is Convicted of Murder as Adult. Retrieved April 13, 2012, from The New York Times website: http://www.nytimes.com/1999/11/17/us/michigan-boy-who-killed-at-11-is-convicted-of-murder-as-adult.html?ref=nathanielabraham

Cole, G.F. & Smith, C.E. (2007). Criminal Justice in America (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.… [read more]

Violent Crimes Criminology Crime Analysis Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (739 words)
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Criminologists also interview any surviving victims of the criminal, as well as close friends, family members, and any relevant associates of the murderers. This gives the profile and the interview of the criminal itself a context within which to understand, interpret, and predict the criminal's behaviors.

In addition to interviewing murderers and persons in their lives, criminologists would analyze the scene of the violent crime itself. There are many roles in crime scene investigation. The crime scene tells the criminologists the circumstances under which the crime was committed. The crime scene tells the criminologist what materials were used to commit the crime. The crime scene also provides insight into the mindset of the criminal. Whether the crime scene is left in disarray or whether the crime scene was left immaculate can be details that are exceptionally revealing about the criminal. These kinds of details give the criminologists the information necessary to prevent the next crime, arrest the criminal, and influence policy related to that specific violent crime such as the classification of the crime or the penalties for committing the crime.

Criminology utilizes various methods to understand and prevent violent crimes such as murder. Analyzing violent crimes is integral to the science of criminology. The analysis of violent crimes is insightful to learning about the criminal (past and present) and learning about the crime, whether the crime is isolated or one of a series of crimes. The analysis of violent crimes such as murders assists criminologists in their pursuit of the criminal and in enacting the rightful punishment for the crime. The analysis of violent crimes can furthermore influence legislation regarding the classification and/or penalty for that specific crime. Crime analysis, in this case, of the violent crime of murder, serves many functions to criminologists and to the public at large, as criminologists are a type of public servant.


Kiefer, M. (2010, August 4). New 'Baseline Killer' details emerge Tuesday in court testimony. The Arizona Republic. Available from

"The Manson Snyder Interviews." Web. Available from [read more]

Probation Originated From Ancient Times Essay

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Employment assistance is another way of treatment intervention to the probationers. The most important element of preventing recidivism for probationers and parolees is employment as indicated by Petersilia, (2003). The employment will provide financial support for the offenders as well as the family and at the same time it establish and maintain self-esteem for the offenders as well as personal dignity which are qualities that are viewed by many of the authority as important to successful reintegration into the community.

Another important form of treatment intervention is appealing to informal social control. Some of the informal social controls like community agencies and family membership tend to be essential resources that help probationers to develop good social behaviors. This technique is being used by neighborhood-based supervision to help in supervision.

Supervision is part of the process that is very essential to a probationer. Neighborhood-based probation supervision and PC supervision are always meant for changing the operation and accountability so that probation becomes a more respected and a highly visible part of the correction system. In traditional supervision a probation officer is always assigned and at the same time the probationer reports on a consistent basis like weekly, monthly depending on the way he or she is required to do so. Probationer who was supervised in the NBS program perceived a lot of assistance from their probation officer in searching for employment as well as establishing connections to treatment providers as compared to probationers that were supervised on traditional caseloads, Lutze Smith and Lovrich (2004). NBS and PCS officers had more autonomy as well as a closer connection with community and the police as compared to traditional probation officers, though their relationship with treatment service providers tend to be the same for all the groups. Probationers of NBS were more possibly to be violated for technical violations as compared to traditional probationers, however all the groups were involved in the same number of the new crimes during supervision.

When we compare the caseloads such as specialized caseload and traditional caseload, we find that specialized caseload always have a greater focus on a single specific area of law or legal action while a traditional caseload is able to cover several different facets of law. A specialized caseload always needs more time devoted so that the issue is understood.


Not only observing conditions of release or managing the offender not to be arrested for a fresh offense shows that an offender has been rehabilitated but training, personality as well as experience of the supervisory officer determine the result just as much as motivation of the offender.


Joan Petersilila, and Richard Rosenfeld, (2007) "Parole, Desistance from Crime, and Community Integration Committee on Community Supervision and Desistance from Crime," National Research Council

Lutze Smith and Lovrich (2004) "Innovation in Community Corrections and Probation Officers' Fears of Being SuedImplementing Neighborhood-Based Supervision in Spokane, Washington" Washington State University, Pullman, WA

Petersilia.( 2003). When Prisoners Come Home: Parole and Prisoner Reentry. New York: Oxford

Taxman, F.S, Simpson,… [read more]