"Crime / Police / Criminal Justice" Essays

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Texas Capital Punishment and Education Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,189 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Capital Punishment in Texas. Look at the benefits, drawbacks, costs, and moral and ethical questions raised by imposing the death penalty as punishment in the state of Texas. Do you believe state government should put criminals to death?

Also, discuss and explain the purposes of prisons (being sure to examine its functions

Including correction, rehabilitation, punishment, isolation, and deterrence) and if Texas

prisons achieve those goals (according to the textbook). Also look at the changing focus of Texas prisons, prison problems, repeat offenders, reentry issues, parole, and what the state might do to address some of these problems.

Capital Punishment's etymology stems from the Latin word capital, meaning quite literally "regarding the head." Twenty three people have had to regard their heads in the United States already this year; eleven of which were in Texas. Four people were put to death in Texas in May 2010. Two were in Hunt County, one in Bee County and another in Collin County

. Texas has been using the death penalty ever since its inception in 1819 and it has continued using murder as punishment ever since.

Those who claim capital punishment affective huddle behind the claims that executing capital offenders provides a deterrent that acts to prevent other from committing such horrendous acts of violence. That somehow when the potential offenders are contemplating there acts of violence, they stop and consider that if they continued to pursue such lines of reasoning then they could be potentially be put to death by a state institution. A pro-death penalty resource devoted website states that there are seven recent studies that all conclude that capital punishment is a reasonable deterrent to prevent future crimes. They state that "having the death penalty will always be an added deterrent to murders, over and above any lesser punishments."

The problem with line of reasoning is that it is hard to imagine these criminals or anyone else contemplating a crime, deciding not to commit the crime on the basis that the death penalty may be among the possible outcomes. Spending the rest of your life in a maximum security prison seems like a fairly hefty deterrent on its own. Therefore for the death penalty to value to society in regards to the deterrent aspect, it would have to be deemed by a potential offender to be the tipping top in their decision making process. That is it must enough provide the incentive for someone to resist committing an horrific act when spending the rest of your life behind bars doesn't not provide sufficient incentive in itself.

Besides the mere theoretical objection to the deterrent as specified, there are many compelling empirical arguments against the use of the death penalty. The first is that the cost of convicting someone to a death sentence is nearly four times as much (depending on the source) as keeping them in prison for life. Legal representation for the defense plus other associated costs can amount to nearly two million dollars while keeping… [read more]

Alternatives to Incarceration Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,057 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



Alternatives to Incarceration

Using alternatives to incarceration for offenders who commit minor crimes has a great benefit to both the offender and then community. These types of programs are used to reducing overcrowding in the jails and to better manage costs that are associated with incarceration. There are several different options that exist that can be used as alternatives.… [read more]

Corrections Probation Is a Form of Punishment Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (942 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Probation is a form of punishment that courts can impose on person who has committed a crime instead of making them serve time in jail. A person sentenced to probation has some sort of sentence suspended on the condition that the person stay out of legal trouble, pay fines and restitution, do community service or fulfill other conditions set by the court. If the probationer violates the conditions of his probation, he can be brought back into court and have some or all the suspended sentence imposed (Boyd, 2010).

Probation as it is known today can be traced to the use of several judicial practices exercised in English and later, American courts. Release on recognizance or bail, allowed defendants who agreed to certain conditions of release to return to the community to await trial. Thus, similar to modern day probation, defendants were released to the community conditionally. If they failed to meet the condition of release, they were faced with the threat of revocation. And in some instances, they were spared further contact with the criminal justice system. In English courts, judicial reprieve empowered judges to temporarily suspend either the imposition or execution of a sentence in order to permit a defendant to appeal to the Crown for a pardon. During roughly the same time period, a shoemaker-philanthropist in Boston, named John Augustus, began the practice of bailing offenders out of court and assuming responsibility for them in the community. Regardless of whether the origins of probation are traced to judicial reprieve or to the work of John Augustus, it is clear that the guiding philosophy of probation was rehabilitation (Probation and Parole: History, Goals, and Decision-Making - Origins of Probation and Parole, 2010).

In spite of the widespread use of probation, parole, and other community sanctions there remains dispute over the effectiveness of many of these practices. The empirical evidence points to the fact that some correctional sanctions, such as intensive supervision, electronic monitoring, shock probation, and other control oriented practices do not work to reduce recidivism. These sanctions often achieve other goals, such as reducing prison crowding, but recidivism is usually the most important criteria that a community cares about in regards to correctional programs. Additional options, such as halfway houses and day reporting centers can be successful in changing offender behavior, provided that they have high quality treatment programs and services (Probation and Parole: Supervision - Effectiveness of Community Supervision, 2010).

Recidivism means re-offending. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, 43% of federal felony probationers re-offend within three years of release. Research conducted in California in 1986 for the National Institute of Justice showed that over a 40-month period, 65% of felony probationers were rearrested (Boyd, 2010).

As reported in the publication Criminal Justice in the Media in July 2009, the state of Hawaii changed the…… [read more]

Sociological Theories Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (618 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Sociological Theories

The ADFC program was a federal assistance program that existed between the years 1935 and 1996. ADFC gave financial assistance to children whose families had low or no income. This program was replaced -- or altered really -- by President Clinton. Now it is called Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) and it is also a federal assistance program. Begun in 1997, it provides cash assistance to indigent American families with dependent children through the United States Department of Health and Human Services. States are given block grants and each state both designs and administers their own programs. The access to welfare and how much a family can get varies from state to state. The ADFC is a good example for the application of social structure theories. Criminality is often seen as a schism between lower class individuals and conventional goals, norms, and rules (Seigel 2008), so it seems rational that alternatives to criminal behavior be provided by giving lower income families the opportunities to share in the rewards of conventional society. Research has shown that crime rates decrease when families receive financial help through public assistance payments (Seigel 2008).

The Head Start programs exemplify the social process theory. The Head Start Program is a program under the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, offering comprehensive education, health, nutrition, and parent involvement services to low-income children and their families. The social process theories basically state that people are influence by interactions with various organizations and processes of society such as education, employment, family life, and peer relations. The Head Start program exemplifies the application of the social process theories because, according to research, children who do not do well in school, feel alienated, reside in homes with conflict, and lack of parental involvement can all lead to criminality.

Social conflict theories are based upon the perspective…… [read more]

Telecommunications Law Thesis

Thesis  |  25 pages (7,930 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Telecommunications Law

The USA Patriot Act was passed by Congress in response to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The Act allows federal officials to have greater authority in tracking and intercepting communications, for purposes of law enforcement and foreign intelligence gathering. It gives the Secretary of the Treasury regulatory powers to fight corruption of U.S. financial institutions for… [read more]

Arise Gang Prevention Program Thesis

Thesis  |  16 pages (5,590 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … Gang Prevention Program

"Gangs contain bright boys who do well, bright boys who do less well, and dull boys who pass, dull boys who fail, and illiterates"

(Garabedian & . Gibbons, 2005, p. 26).

In regard to gangs, one never knows what may happen. In the article, "Gang grief: violence wounds teens and communities," Melissa Klein (2009) reports… [read more]

History of Law Enforcement Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (870 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


History Of American Law Enforcement

The Early History and Evolution of Modern American Policing

-Earliest Organized Police Forces

-Vigilante Justice

-Informal Police Methods

Contemporary American Policing

-Evolution of Uniform Constitutional Standards

-Eras of Political and Police Corruption

-Transition to Modern Standards in Policing

-Local, State, and Federal Agency Cooperation

The origin of American policing was fractured and disorganized, with individual cities devising their own systems of hiring local men to police the streets and paying them from municipal funds pooled from collected taxes. A vigilante justice-based system existed throughout the first two centuries of the establishment of the nation's largest cities, eventually being replaced by more organized and uniform approaches to law enforcement that was principally attributable to the gradual centralization of government on a national level. By the turn of the 20th century, local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies had established relatively well-defined areas of legal authority. Still, uniform and effective enforcement would await the further development of constitutional standards of police and criminal procedure throughout the century and resolution of the problems of institutional corruption toward the latter decades of the century, respectively.

Introduction and Thesis Statement

The history of American policing goes back approximately three and a half centuries to the middle of the 17th century. At that time, some of the larger American cities established independent systems of hiring local residents to patrol neighborhoods in much the same manner as the earliest organized "bucket brigades" that were the precursors of modern firefighting. Policing evolved gradually in the United States, progressing through various stages and very difficult periods, particularly during eras of rampant political corruption in large cities such as New York during the 19th century and the Prohibition era between 1920 and 1933 when organized crime largely succeeded in undermining the attempt to establish and maintain honorable policing standards. However, since the latter decades of the 20th century, American law enforcement and policing have become world class in terms of their organizational sophistication, operational capabilities, and ethical values.

The Early History and Evolution of Modern American Policing

The first formally organized and funded municipal police department was the New York City Police Department in 1845, followed shortly after by several of the other largest American cities such as Boston, Cincinnati, and Philadelphia within the next decade (Conlon, 2004; Scmalleger, 2008). Nevertheless, throughout much of the nation, law enforcement was still largely unchanged from the vigilante justice-based system, particularly throughout the untamed territories of the Western Territories known as the "Wild West." The first federal law enforcement agencies such as the U.S. Marshals and the U.S. Secret Service also emerged in…… [read more]

Public Corruption Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (809 words)
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Corruption Issues in Modern Policing

The Slippery Slope Concept:

The slippery slope concept is a metaphor commonly used to illustrate the potential ethical problems that can arise in connection with specific acts or policies that may be inconsequential but which are capable of triggering much more serious problems different in degree but very similar in kind. With regard to police corruption in particular, the slippery slope applies to any deliberate minor violation of law or policy, such as the acceptance of nominal gratuities (Schmalleger, 2008).

In principle, the danger represented by the slippery slope is that even nominal gratuities intended without any manipulative purpose or to encourage preferential treatment may lead naturally to more substantial gratuities as well as those specifically proffered for the purpose of generating a reciprocal obligation on the part of the police officer. For example, a local restaurant owner who provides a discount to police officers may not necessarily be doing so to gain preferential treatment. Likewise, gratuities of purely nominal value (such as free coffee with a paid meal) are too inconsequential to pose an ethical problem in and of themselves.

However, even small gratuities can precipitate ethical problems such as where the restaurant owner who has been furnishing minor gratuities requests special consideration in the realm of the enforcement duties of the officers involved. He may request that a marked patrol unit "just keep an eye on the place around closing time" or that daytime patrols "take it easy on my customers who have to double park for a minute." Where officers who show up at closing time to provide extra security or make allowances for double parked customers begin receiving their meals for free, they have descended further down the slope and increased their risk of slipping down even further.

Generally, the initiation of any form of quid pro quo arrangement (whether by design or simply through natural progression) is extremely dangerous to the integrity of law enforcement personnel precisely because there is often no bright line distinguishing appropriate and inappropriate relationships. Ironically, the transfer of gratuities may change the character of certain occurrences where no problem would have existed otherwise. In the previous example, there would not necessarily be any ethical problem with a restaurant owner asking patrol officers to pass by his business at closing time, especially when it is within their geographic area of authority. However, the same request in conjunction with any gratuity…… [read more]

Prison Overcrowding and Its Effect Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,287 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


A psychologist notes, "As a group of prison researchers summarized in the 1980s, as the problem was just beginning to take shape, 'crowding in prisons is a major source of administrative problems and adversely affects inmate health, behavior, and morale'" (Haney, 2006, p. 2). While that may seem to be a trivial worry with all the other ills facing the criminal justice system regarding prison overcrowding, it can be an extremely dangerous situation for prison personnel. Haney continues, "Among other things, we know that prison overcrowding increases negative affect among prisoners, elevates their blood pressure, and leads to greater numbers of prisoner illness complaints" (Haney, 2006, p. 3). That leads to rising health care costs throughout the prison system, and California has experienced this phenomenon in their own overcrowding situation (Moore, 2009).

The rise in sheer numbers of prisoners has also resulted in a lack of programs to help rehabilitate them. For example, many educational programs are being cut due to budgetary constraints, and even if they are not cut, there is simply not enough room for all the prisoners who want to take the courses. In the same vein, there are not enough prison work programs for all prisoners, so many prisoners sit idle all day, and studies indicate that prisoners with too much time on their hands are more apt to commit crimes inside prison, such as rape and assault (Haney, 2006, p. 6-7). This can be a serious dangers to prison staff, as well, who have to deal with managing more inmates that are depressed, aggressive, and even physically ill because of their boredom and inactivity. These inmates without training and education are more apt to recidivise back into the inmate population after their release from prison, as well. They have no skills to earn a living on the outside, so they return to their old ways and eventually are caught again.


Many experts call for decarceration as one way to help control the skyrocketing inmate populations around the country. One of the most popular ways to decriminalize certain offenses is to legalize marijuana. An advocate for prison reform notes, "No other single decriminalization could have as large an effect on imprisonment rates as drug decriminalization, but there are other decriminalizations that are also conceptually possible" (Jacobs, 2007). There are growing movements around the country, and especially in California, which already allows medical marijuana in certain situations, to decriminalize pot and help the economy at the same time. Taxes on pot could help ease the burden of state budgets that are rapidly decreasing, and it could remove an entire segment of the prison population. That would lead to fewer backlogs in the criminal justice system, and it could lead to savings in other areas, such as prison education, health care and even parole time and costs. (In California, nearly every prisoner faces parole time after release, which is another huge drag on the criminal justice system there.) (Moore, 2009).

In conclusion, prison overcrowding has an extremely… [read more]

Broadening the Agenda of Security Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (314 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Broadening the Security Agenda

The era of modern geopolitical extremist radicalism has revealed the grave dangers to United States national and international security. After the end of World War II, international superpowers focused on the military threat from other superpowers and nation states. Since the fall of the former Soviet Union shortly before the turn of the 21st century, the threat landscape has changed tremendously. Today, national and international security concerns must focus on the threats associated with asymmetric warfare from terrorist groups without any state or national sponsorship.

On the other hand, critics of the broadest approach to national and international human security suggest that the pendulum may have swung too far in the direction of listing too many specific threats. According to that view, specific concerns about (1) societal changes and human migration patterns, (2) environmental issues and energy, and (3) organized crime and various crimes such as human and arms trafficking and narcotics are…… [read more]

Psychology and Obedience the Milgram and Zimbardo Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (832 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Psychology and Obedience

The Milgram and Zimbardo Experiments:

Two of the most important experiments ever conducted in human psychology in the field of obedience to authority and "groupthink" were those conducted by Stanley Milgram and Philip Zimbardo. Milgram's classic experiment involved a situation where subjects believed they were responsible for giving out painful electric shocks to "learners" in what the subjects believed were experiments into human learning. In fact, the purpose of the experiment was to see how far the subjects would go in obeying an authority figure dressed in a white lab coat.

The experimenter expected few subjects to continue giving shocks to the learners but actually many of them continued giving bigger and bigger shocks even when the learners were pleading to stop the experiment and pretending to be in severe pain. Some of the subjects did refuse to go further but Milgram demonstrated how many ordinary people were capable of following horrible orders exactly the way the German people followed the Nazi party before and during the Second World War.

Zimbardo conducted the famous "Stanford Prison Experiment" in which he assigned some volunteers to be "prison guards" and others (all Stanford undergraduates) to be "prisoners." The "prison" was actually the basement of the Stanford University Psychology building. To make the simulation as real as possible, Zimbardo had the prisoners rounded up from their dormitories in the middle of the night as if they had been raided and arrested by real police.

The only instruction given by Zimbardo to the guards was that they were not allowed to use physical violence against the prisoners. Originally, the experiment was scheduled to last two weeks. Almost immediately, the prison guards began treating the prisoners very harshly as though they were real prison guards and convicts. They abused them verbally and intimidated and punished them for minor violations and before the experiment was even halfway over, Zimbardo had no choice but to terminate it because he was concerned for the safety of the prisoners.

Both the experiments revealed disturbing truths about human psychology. In the Milgram experiment, the subjects followed the instructions of someone who played the part of the person in charge of the experiment against their better judgment. In several cases, the subjects became extremely upset, but after the experimenter explained that he would be fully responsible for anything that happened to the subject, they kept on giving what they thought were very painful and dangerous electric shocks.

Both experiments were filmed and have been…… [read more]

Death Penalty Should Be Legal Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (899 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Capital Punishment

Capital crimes are those considered so heinous that they justify imposition of the death penalty instead of penal incarceration, even for a life term. Certainly, ethical issues may arise in connection with what specific crimes are involved, what procedural safeguards protect the rights of the accused, precisely what mechanisms are implemented in executing capital sentences, and prejudicial application to racial (and other) minorities and underprivileged classes (Dershowitz, 2002, Schmalleger, 2008). However, in principle, capital punishment is the most reasonable, beneficial, and appropriate solution to sufficiently depraved criminal conduct.

In the case of the worst class of crimes such as premeditated serial murder or multiple murder for financial gain, perpetrators convicted of such crimes must be removed from society permanently, if for no other reason, than to ensure the safety and security of the general public. It is unclear what the suggested basis is for imposing the burden on society of financing the lifetime housing, feeding, and medical care of perpetrators of such heinous crimes. The circumstances necessitating the individual's removal from society are largely under the control of the perpetrator, and deterrence theory notwithstanding, the evidence strongly suggests that most of those who choose to commit capital crimes do so with awareness of the consequences of conviction for those crimes (Schmalleger, 2008; Zalman, 2008).

The principal arguments against the death penalty in principle are that it is: (1) excessively harsh; (2) subject to mistaken prosecution and the conviction of innocent defendants; (3) unnecessarily cruel in its application; and (4) susceptible to prejudicial application to minority defendants (Dershowitz, 2002; Schmalleger, 2008). Specifically, opposition based on excessive harshness is predicated on the belief that killing is inherently immoral irrespective of even the most equitable objective rationale. Opposition based on the possibility of error in adjudication is based on the principle that criminal justice administration must always err on the side of caution and the forego punishing the guilty for the sake of protecting the innocent to wrongful prosecution.

Opposition based on the cruelty-in-application issue relates mainly to the risk of improper implementation, typically in the form of the lethal injection procedure. That objection is also based on the Eighth Constitutional Amendment that forbids penal sentences that are "cruel and unusual" (Dershowitz, 2002; Schmalleger, 2008; Zalman, 2008). Finally, opposition based on the prejudicial and unfairness application to minorities and the underprivileged is a result of statistical information said to substantiate that concern (Dershowitz, 2002; Schmalleger, 2008; Zalman, 2008).

With respect to the harshness issue, capital punishment by humane means is substantially less harsh than the vast majority of the victims of premeditated murder and other capital murders. Not that the ethical justification for or purpose of capital punishment…… [read more]

OJ Simpson Case Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (2,389 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


OJ Simpson

Forensic Psychology and O.J. Simpson's Guilt

As an evolving field, the administration of criminal justice must increasingly take into consideration the context in which it conducts its roles as determinant of penalty, justice and mercy. Social, cultural, political and psychological aspects of the human condition are receiving more appreciation in our ability to identify, prosecute and treat criminal… [read more]

Should Capital Punishment Should Be Abolished Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,848 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Capital Punishment be Abolished?

Few legal issues in the United States have been as hotly debated as the death penalty. In addition to the two main sides of the debate -- for or against the death penalty -- there are the various issues surrounding it. These include alternatives to the death penalty, such as life without parole, issues… [read more]

Illegal Immigration Thesis

Thesis  |  25 pages (7,044 words)
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Illegal Immigration

This study will seek to ascertain if the requirement to enforce immigration laws by local law enforcement agencies will be detrimental to society. The reasoning behind this hypothesis is that the federal government, along with a number of states, are passing laws that require local and state law enforcement agencies to take certain actions when confronted by situations… [read more]

Las Vegas NV Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (997 words)
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Deterring Theft in Las Vegas: Future Recommendations

Las Vegas is a city which is associated with good times, laughter, and great adventures. Yet, the city is threatened by budding crime which not only has the potential to cause pain and suffering in the lives of the locals, but also but a damper on the multi-billion dollar tourist industry set in place there. Out of all of the crimes committed within the coveted city limits of Las Vegas, Nevada, theft proves most apparent. Crimes from robbery, and especially car theft, have proven to be higher than the national average and place locals and tourists in danger. With the local attitude of wanting to fiercely protect not only their own interests, but also the thriving tourism industry they depend on, law enforcement should place much more effort in deterring and resolving crimes of theft; potentially through such new routes as applying a budding forensic science department within certain theft cases.

The city has many reputations, one of which being sin city. In fact, there is a lot on sin and crime which is committed within the context of Las Vegas city limits. Las Vegas has a huge problem with crimes involving various types of thefts. In fact, most of the crimes which occur within Las Vegas City limits prove to be related to theft in some sort of way. The combination of robbery, burglary, theft, and car theft crimes committed in 2003 totaled to an astounding 61,507 cases (FBI 2003). These thefts are directed at both locals and tourists alike. However, some tourists are especially targeted due to the fact that many come with large amounts of cash and high levels of intoxication. Car theft is also a huge problem the city of Las Vegas is forced to deal with. In 2003, there were a total of 14,718 cases of car theft charged, second to only 30,052 cases of larceny and theft, (FBI 2003). It is reported that Las Vegas' problem with car thefts is 2.06 times that of the national average. In many cases this too is directed at both tourists and locals, who must then cope with the ordeal of car theft. Although theft is such a big problem, there are other issues, such as that of violent crimes. The number of all violent crimes committed in Las Vegas proves to be 1.29 times the national average (FBI 2003). Murder within Vegas city limits also reaches higher than the average city around the country. Yet it is theft which proves to endanger both citizen's interests and livelihood the most within the city of Las Vegas.

Many local residents of the city understand their need and dependency on the billions of dollars brought in by the tourist industry. The city not only earns money through hotels and other recreational activities, it also depends on gambling. Gambling means big money brought in, mainly in chips and cash for the average tourist. This provides ample opportunities for theft to occur.…… [read more]

Sentencing Guidelines Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (791 words)
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Sentencing Guidelines

The objective of this work is to discuss the disparities in the sentencing guidelines of whites compared to minorities as a result of those in leadership positions who held or have the power to overhaul the current system.

Great disparities in sentencing are clearly existing in the sentencing guidelines when comparing sentences handed down to whites and those handed down to minorities. It is certain that those who are in leadership positions or in positions of power that have the potential to bring about a reform in the current system have noted these disparities. In 1995, the Drug Policy Alliance (2007) report that the U.S. Sentencing Commission stated a recommendation that equalization should be brought about in the sentencing penalties "for crack and powder cocaine, without raising penalties for powder cocaine." This was however, rejected by Congress so in 2002 the USSC released a report to Congress recommending that Congress should: (1) increase the quantity of crack cocaine required to trigger an automatic mandatory minimum sentence; (2) repeal the mandatory minimum for simple possession of crack cocaine; and (3) reduce the crack / powder sentencing disparity without increasing trigger thresholds for powder cocaine. (Drug Policy Alliance, 2007) the present reform legislation would reduce these disparities in sentencing and reduce the mandatory minimum for possession of cocaine from 5 years down to 1 year. It is critically necessary that these actions be taken to reduce the disparities in sentencing that presently exist.

I. Statistics and Facts

The work of Mustard (2001) entitled: "Racial Ethnic and Gender Disparities in Sentencing: Evidence from the U.S. Federal Courts" reports a study that examined 77.236 federal offenders who were sentenced under the Sentencing reform Act of 1984 and states conclusions that "blacks, males and offenders with low education and low income receive substantially longer sentences." (Mustard, 2001) Secondly the study states in its findings that "disparities are primarily generated by departures from the guidelines, rather than differential sentencing within the guidelines." (Mustard, 2001) Departures are stated to result in approximately 55% of the black-white difference and 70% of the male-female difference. (Mustard, 2001; paraphrased) the study additionally states findings that while black-white disparities is shown to exist across offenses "the largest differences are for drug trafficking." (Mustard, 2001) Finally, findings state that "black and males are also less likely to get no prison term when that option is…… [read more]

Corrections New Jersey Sentencing Laws Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (1,901 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



New Jersey Sentencing Laws

The concept of corrections can be defined as the treatment of offenders through a system of penal incarceration, rehabilitation, probation, and parole. The main goal of a country's correctional system has always been determined by what society wants. These wishes are then shaped by politics and implemented through public policy. Throughout history in this country… [read more]

Death Penalty as Justified Murder Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,596 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Death Penalty as Justified Murder - an Ineffective Method of Crime Prevention

Capital punishment has a history in the United States that goes back to the colonies. The tenet of capital punishment remains one of the most controversial issues in the United States. Since the reinstatement of the death penalty in 1976, 1,151 executions have taken place in the United… [read more]

Offender Profile Thesis

Thesis  |  17 pages (4,763 words)
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Offender Profiling: Essential and Effective or Intrusive

This work will serve as an in-depth view of offender profiling, a technique often used by law enforcement and other security professionals to develop ideas and potential leads about the who, what, when and where of crime. Offender profiling, and particularly what is termed racial profiling has come under extreme fire from many… [read more]

Chain of Custody Care of Evidence Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,068 words)
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Custody of Evidence

One Error in the Care of Custody

Potential Evidence possesses the potential to help convict criminals, Donna Lyons (2006, the CSI Effect section, ¶ 3), head of NCSL's Criminal Justice Program in Denver, Colorado, stresses in "Capturing DNA's crime fighting potential...." As the term "Rules of evidence" indicates, according to Cornell Law School's Web site, (Evidence, 2008),… [read more]

What Role Does Race Play in the Death Penalty Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,687 words)
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Race and the Death Penalty

Racism and the Death Penalty

An Exploration of the Debate With Possible Solutions

On October 24th, he won a stay of execution. It was 19 years coming. And it was temporary. Of course, Troy Anthony Davis is not the only innocent black man to ever sit on death row. From the Campaign to End the… [read more]

Private Prisons Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,735 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Policing/Corrections - Private Prisons


Prisons in the United States - Background and History:

Until the late 18th century, prisons in the United States emphasized the punitive approach to incarcerating criminals that had been common throughout Britain and other European nations from which the first American Colonists set sail. William Penn had introduced a system intended to… [read more]

Steroid Use in Law Enforcement Officers Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,077 words)
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Cops and Steroids

Steroid Use Among Law Enforcement Officers

Drug crimes are a menacing problem for the society. It is more aggravated if the police force that is vested with the power and the authority to tackle the problem is itself abusing drugs. This may sound unreal but in fact it is the dismal picture of police departments across the nation. Police officers who have to defend against drug offenses, are themselves stained with charges of steroid abuse. The use of Anabolic steroids is on the rise among police personnel. Many police officers consider steroid usage as a vital part of their strength-training regimen in order to develop an impressive physique to subdue criminals. The history of steroid usage dates way back to the period of the World War 2 when the Germans tested the effects of steroids on their soldiers. The masculinizing effect of steroids seems to fit in nicely with the physical requirements of the police force. [Peter J. kraska] Let us discuss the issue briefly with some cases and see how the cosmetic interest in steroids has become a curse of the police department and how its detrimental effects have compromised the integrity of the law enforcement officers.

Case Studies

Officers start using steroids for cosmetic reasons of developing a brawny physique. However, besides the physical effect, steroids also have psychological effects on the user. It is documented that steroid use causes what is termed as a "roid rage' leading to more aggressive and violent policing behavior. Over the recent years several investigations have revealed cases of law enforcement officers caught up in the illicit use and trade of steroids. [Kim R. Humphrey] the most blatant example of arrogant and inhuman cop behavior that shocked the entire nation was the Abner Louima case where four cops were charged with sodomising the victim and torturing him severely till the patient went critical. Later investigations revealed that the one common feature among all the four implicated cops was the use of steroids. In 1995, the case of Bryan Grubb of the Borough of Hightstown, New Jersey, exposed the grave nature of cops donning the abuser role. Officer Grubb not only used steroids for physical conditioning but also did drug exchange transactions. He was caught in the act of exchanging the drug stanozolol for Clenbuterol. Clenbuterol is not a schedule 3 drug and unlike other common drugs like ephedrine it is not easily metabolized and remains active in the body for a very prolonged time. [Phillip J. Sweitzer]

The case of New York v. Foley (2002) is an entirely different dimension of policing crime-involving arrest of officers belonging to different states. (NY to Florida). The officers were arrested in September 2002 and investigations revealed that the accused were not only involved in steroid trading but also of trafficking cocaine. Another startling revelation of cops on steroids is the case of the Davidson County Sheriff's Department in North Carolina where Lt. Scott David Woodall, a veteran police officer, was charged with… [read more]

Economic Impact of Online Identity Theft on Consumers Thesis

Thesis  |  20 pages (5,767 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Economic Impact of Online Identity Theft

In evaluating the research necessary for the paper on Identity theft and its economic impact, it was important to understand the necessary elements that compromise such a project. These components were an evaluation of the term and types of identity theft and how it has changed over time, the current state of Identity Theft… [read more]

Measurement of Parole Effectiveness Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,951 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … measurement of parole effectiveness. How does one measure parole effectiveness? For most people, parole effectiveness is measured by how many parolees and probationers remain free from crime and do not return to prison. However, with such a large and diverse parole population, it is extremely difficult to measure the exact amount of parole effectiveness in the United States,… [read more]

Death Penalty Is One of Society Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,808 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Death penalty is one of society's most significant issues. It has been discussed and debated for many years, and there are always pros and cons to the issue. However, whether the death penalty is effective and how it is addressed as a matter of public policy is something that needs to be more closely scrutinized. Moral issues and ethical issues… [read more]

War on Drugs and Prison Overcrowding Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (991 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … War on Drugs and Prison Overcrowding

The work of Byron Eugene Price entitled: "Merchandizing Prisoners" relates that the Justice Department in 1992 "under the watch of the Bush administration, released a position paper entitled 'The Case for More Incarceration' which argued that prison was cheaper than the alternatives, and violent crimes had been declining since the government began locking people up in prison." (2006) Due the expansion of state correctional budgets "...the efficacy of mandatory prison terms for drug offenders is being questioned." (Price, 2006) Presently, the United States "has the highest incarceration rate in the western world. It is four times that of the United Kingdom and France on a per capita basis."(Painter, 2006) in fact, "the number of people in prison, jail or on probation in the U.S. has increased threefold between 1980 and 2000, to more than six million and the number of people in prison increased from 319,598 to over two million by 2001." (Painter, 2006) the private prison corporations are "...a multibillion dollar industry" and as well "other companies reap hundred of millions of dollars annually by providing health care, phones, food, and other services for correctional facilities." (Painter, 2006) Painter states that the resistance "to rethinking the War on Drugs..." are contained within two primary factors: (1) money; and (2) jobs. Painter states that a state brochure on prisons in Florida states estimates that "a prison with 1158 beds is worth $25 million a year and 350 jobs to a community. Never mind that the drug laws there fill prisons with nonviolent offenders." (2006)


The Drug War has failed in reducing drug use which incidentally was the primary mission stated by proponents of the Drug War at its beginning. However, drug consumption has overall "...not demonstrably fallen...despite the increase in the number of drug arrests and convictions..." (Benson and Rasmussen, 1996) the work of Painter (2006) relates that the Fiscal Affairs and Government Operations Committee at the Southern Legislative Conference, Council of State Governments 2001 states that seven of the sixteen states in this conference have reported "an increase in incarcerations for drug offense while only three show a decrease in drug related incarcerations for drug offenses while only three show a decrease in drug related incarcerations." In fact, it is reported that eleven of the sixteen states in this conference "reported over 50% of the inmate population was black." Stated as cost per day for housing an inmate ranged from $27.50 in the state of Alabama to $63.35 in the state of North Carolina. (Painter, 2006) There has been a 210% increase in the incarceration rate in these 16 states since 1982 when the number of inmates was 168.378 until 2001 when the number of inmates incarcerated has risen to 523,683. Expenditures in these 16 states are stated to have increased by 121.95%.


The War in Drugs is quite simply "...big business…… [read more]

Law Enforcement Group Productivity as a Senior Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,252 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Law Enforcement Group Productivity

As a senior patrol supervisor experiencing attempts at upward discipline and a decline in performance by my immediate subordinates, I would want to discover the possible causes of the insubordination, and then apply the appropriate motivational theory to remedy the problem presented. Because there has been no indication that I have changed my leadership style, and I have a proven ability to complete special assignments and spent several months in the role of senior patrol supervisor before I began to experience problems with my subordinates, I would first try to determine if an outside incident was causing the change in my perception as a leader. Once I determined that outside factors were not causing the leadership problems, I would assess whether I had recently changed anything in my leadership style. If that was not the issue, then I would compare my leadership techniques to techniques that have proven effective in law enforcement group leadership. Finally, once I identified the problem, I would select the appropriate motivational method to help correct the leadership problem.

As most law enforcement professionals are aware, law enforcement is a very stressful occupation. While law enforcement has traditionally been stressful, modern officers face new stressors, including shift work, exposure to violence and suffering, frustration with other elements of the criminal justice system, a decrease in camaraderie, fear of disease, increased scrutiny, and increased civil liability for officers. (Newell). Any source of stress can lead to a decrease in job performance. Because the problem is not specific to any officer, I would not look at personal lives or personal problems as the source of the problem. However, some problems can create stress across a unit, especially because if a substantial number of officers are stressed by something, they create a more stressful work environment for their fellow officers. I would look at whether there had been a recent increase in civil suits against officers, whether there had been recent judgments against officers in those civil suits, whether the courts or in prosecutors had recently become more lenient towards offenders, how the media was portraying the police in news reports, whether there had been any changes in paperwork requirements, and whether officers felt adequately trained to perform their jobs. (Newell).

If no external factors appeared to have changed during my tenure in the position, I would next look at whether I had changed anything in my life, which might be reflected in a change in leadership style. Like any other officer, I am vulnerable to stressors. Therefore, I would look and see if any personal or professional stressors were causing a change in my behavior. I would examine my personal life and see if my new position had been placing undue strain on my family, which might only be reflected in my work performance after several months on the job. I would examine whether I had been involved in any violent or dangerous situations, and what I did to deal with those situations. I… [read more]

Prison Crowding and Violence on Staff Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,015 words)
Bibliography Sources: 30


Prison Overcrowding and Its Relationship to Violence on Prison Staff Members

The debate on whether prison works or not is futile. What matters is that prison is allowed to take its proper place in the criminal justice system, one of excellent last resort, properly equipped and able to cope with those who really need to be there. -- Juliet Lyon,… [read more]

Corrections Current Trends, Innovations and the Future Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,072 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5



Current Trends, Innovations and the Future of Corrections in the United States and Abroad

One of the unfortunate ironies of living in the "Land of the Free" today is the fact that the United States incarcerates more of its citizens than any other country in the world. This paper provides a review of the relevant literature to identify current… [read more]

Probation v. Parole Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (777 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Probation v. Parole

Parole vs. probation: An overview

On first glance, a casual observer might think that parole and probation are just two words for the exact same thing" ("Parole and probation," 2008, Directory M). However, they are really are two different types of alternative punishments. Usually, probation served by those individuals who have committed more minor or nonviolent offenses, and a term of probation issued instead of rather than in addition to a jail sentence. The sentence of probation is issued by a judge after a person is found or pleads guilty to a crime. The convicted individual is placed under the supervision of a probation officer and lives in the community under the probation officer's supervision and guidance. Certain conditions may be placed upon the individual by the judge or probation officer, such as obeying a curfew, having to get a job, living in or not leaving the area or his or her home, and reporting to his or her probation officer on a regular basis. Some offenders may also receive probationary sentences with societal conditions based on the nature of their crimes, such as a man convicted of domestic abuse not coming within a certain range of distance of his wife or significant other, or a convicted drug user not associating with certain people ("Parole and probation," 2008, Directory M).

In contrast, parole is issued by a parole board when an inmate has been deemed eligible 'for parole' after serving his or her court-ordered a minimum sentence ("General parole and probation questions," 2008, Criminal Law - Parole Probation, p. 1). Parole is the conditional release of a prison inmate back into the community and can be revoked at any time. It allows the inmate to live in the community under supervision while he or she transitions back into free society. It is not viewed as part of the original punishment like probation, but as a reward for good behavior and a way of protecting the community from an inmate's immediate unsupervised release.

The decision to grant parole is the responsibility in most states of a board of parole or commission and the inmate's violation of the conditions of the board of parole results in his or her re-imprisonment (General parole and probation questions," 2008, Criminal Law - Parole Probation, p. 2). Unlike probation, which is…… [read more]

Wrongful Convictions Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,640 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Wrongful Convictions

Within the past decades in the U.S., about 183 people have been absolved basing on the new evidence because of DNA testing. This reality gives unquestionable scientific testimony that the protection American jurisprudence has accorded to ensure equivalent safeguards and justifiable process of law to those charged or crime are not sufficient to check guiltless people from wrongful… [read more]

Electronic Monitoring Devices in Corrections Term Paper

Term Paper  |  18 pages (7,168 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Electronic Monitoring Devices in Corrections

Electronic Monitoring Devices

Types of Electronic Monitoring Devices (EMDs)

Electronic Monitoring Devices -- EMDs are devices for electronic monitoring on criminals and other groups that are suspected to be involved in any illegal activity, inclusive of defendants who are under trail on conditional release and offenders who have already been convicted on probation or parole.… [read more]

Aims of Criminology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,905 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 25


¶ … Criminology

The beginnings of criminology in the United States began with the founding fathers and the Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution and is a theory relating to criminal behavior of individuals. The theoretical framework is criminology within this view is one that is straightforward and simple and states that the individual, upon having been informed of a… [read more]

Andrei Chikatilo Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,742 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Andrei Chikatilo

The case of Andrei Chikatilo will go down in criminal justice records as among the most bizarre and bloodthirsty cases in history. Chikatilo was known as "The Beast of the Ukraine," and for good reason. According to information provided through the Crime and Investigative Network (www.crimeandinvestigation.co.uk) Chikatilo, in the end, confessed to 56 murders. He was caught in… [read more]

Animal Abuse Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (963 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Animal Rights - Animal Abuse


Throughout history, man has used animals for food, for their strength to accomplish mechanical tasks and for the raw materials for everything from winter clothing to tools and weapons. Man, unfortunately, also has a long history of inhumanity to his fellow man, and of cruelty to animals. In much of the rest of the world, cultural attitudes reflect a continuing insensitivity to animals, working them to death, and hunting them to extinction for decorative ivory and superstitious uses of their ground up bones, or harvesting one part such as by hauling them from the water to slice off their fins before tossing them back into the water to sink to the ocean floor and drown.

In the United States, cultural values first began to recognize the moral issue of causing unnecessary pain to animals in the middle of the 19th century and the American Society of Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) was founded in 1866 when it busied itself with preventing cruelty to carriage horses, among other things (Moussaieff- Mason & McCarthy 1995). Nevertheless, animal cruelty legislation still varies widely from state to state, defining cruelty to animals as a felony in some states but only as a misdemeanor or violation in others (HSUS 2007). Aside from the inherent insensitivity of perpetrating cruelty on helpless animals, modern criminologists have identified cruelty to animals, particularly among youths, as one significant predictor of pathological criminality and serial violent offenders (Schmalleger 1997). At the most extreme end of the criminality spectrum, criminal profilers who have interviewed serial killers have also concluded that there is a strong link between cruelty to animals and predisposition to serial murder of human beings (Innes 2007). A large volume of similar evidence suggests that deliberate cruelty to animals is associated with all forms of criminal violence, including the most recent series of school shootings within the last decade, since Columbine (HSUS 2007).

The Current State of Criminal Legislation and Future Recommendations:

Despite advances in criminal legislation, many types of animal cruelty are still permitted by law. Only 43 states currently punish animal cruelty as a felony with, Hawaii being the most recent to adopt stricter criminal penalties for animal cruelty in 2007, after the passing of Senate Bill 1665 and House Bill 676 (HSUS 2007). In the seven other states, even the most barbaric torture of animals is only punishable as a minor crime. Even in the 43 states prosecuting some forms of animal cruelty as felonies, there are many types of treatment to which animals are exposed without triggering the effect of penal law. Whereas torturing animals is prohibited by law and defined as criminal behavior in some cases, other types of equally torturous actions are completely legal. For example, the laws of many states sanction killing so-called "nuisance" animals by electrocution or drowning when performed…… [read more]

Japanese Correctional System Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,452 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Again, this is meant to reward good-faith efforts of personal improvement of one's behavior. Over and over again, the punishment of the offender is not stressed, rather forgiveness is, on the part of victim and Japanese society in general.

The behavioral pattern of "apology-forgiveness" seems to be "an ingrained cultural heritage...which serves to make a harmonious, peace-oriented society "(Hosoi &… [read more]

Brief History and Overview and Both Views on Capital Punishment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,589 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 21


Capital Punishment

Nowadays the crimes committed and their intensity in the world has increased to such an alarming rate that the courts are forced to or have no other alternative then to penalize the crime doer with Capital Punishment. Capital Punishment can be referred to as a sentence of death provided by the court for the commission of a crime.… [read more]

Car Theft and Homicide Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (401 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Car Theft and Homicide

DNA profiling is one of the newest ways that is being used to identify criminals, and it has both positive and negative implications for the future of criminal justice and the solving of many crimes that could not otherwise be figured out (Scheck, Neufeld, & Dwyer, 2000). This can be because there were no witnesses to the crime or for many other factors. It is also true, however, that many crimes that are committed do not leave behind any kind of DNA evidence and therefore this new technology would not be useful in solving any of these (Scheck, Neufeld, & Dwyer, 2000). These crimes must continue to rely on eyewitness identification and other factors in order to put the alleged criminal behind bars. This is very true of crimes such as car theft, and also sometimes true with homicide (Scheck, Neufeld, & Dwyer, 2000).

There are many reasons why a person would steal a car. Usually, they do it for money, or because they must get somewhere and they have no vehicle. Sometimes they do it just for a 'joy ride' - for the fun of it. Most often, though, it is to take the car…… [read more]