Study "Crime / Police / Criminal Justice" Essays 661-713

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Criminal Psycholinguistics as a Predictor Literature Review

… A significant amount of queries were made using a variety of key words and phrases. Further studies were uncovered using the citations listed in the articles since this topic is a very specialized area of forensic science.

Research Analysis

The cases were read and summarized for the most relevant of ideas pertaining to the question at hand. They were then organized depending upon date as well as from general information to more specific information, so that they may be examined and/or delivered together. Areas for future investigation include assessment of the claim that criminals are melancholy and an investigation into whether or not technology will deem psycholinguistics irrelevant or useless as claimed within that article "Speaking of Crime: The Language of Criminal Justice." Moreover, the thesis shall organize the material in such a way as to create a clear explanation and listing of the different morphemes, phonemes, word parts, vocabulary, and accents that may or may not have an effect in assessment guilt and/or culpability and/or motivation. Furthermore, the thesis shall identify the specific crimes in which psycholinguistics may be helpful in understanding the criminal and match specific language or speech ups with the particular criminal activity being discussed.

Works Cited

Bilz, Kenworthey. "Speaking of Crime: The Language of Criminal Justice."

Journal of Criminal. Law and Criminology 96.1 (2005): 367+.

Qu€estia. Web. 16 Apr. 2010.

Casey-Owens, M. (1984). The anonymous letter-writer - a psychological profile? Journal of Forensic Sciences. 29. 816-819.

Christie. A. (1963). The clocks (pp. 227-228). New York: Pocket Books.

Geberth V.J. (1981. September). Psychological profiling. Law and Order.

pp. 46-49.

"Comparative and Non-Comparative Forensic Analysis Techniques."

University of Detroit Mercy Law Review 83.285 (1986). Web.

Lind, E.A., & O'Barr, W.M. (1979). The social significance of speech in the courtroom. In H. Giles & R. St. Clair (Eds.), Language and social psychology (pp. 66-87).

Oxford, England: Blackwell.

MacLennan, Jennifer. "A Rhetorical Journey Into Darkness: Crime Scene Profiling as Burkean Analysis." KB (2005). University of Saskatchuwan. Web.

Muller, Damon A. "Criminal Profiling: Real Science or Just Wishful Thinking?" Homocide Studies 4.3 (2000): 234-64. Sage Jounrals Online. Web.

The Effect of Accent Evaluation and Evidence on a Suspect's Perceived Guilt and Criminality." The Journal of Social Psychology (1998). Web.

Tunkel, Ronald F. "Focus on School Violence: Bomb Threat Assessments."

FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin Oct. 2002: 6+. Questia. Web. 16 Apr.


Turvey, B., "The Role of Criminal Profiling in the Development of Trial

Strategy," Knowledge Solutions Library, November, 1997, Electronic

Publication, URL: http://www.corpus-

United States. FBI. Washington DC. Forensic Psycholinguistics: Using Language Analysis for Identifying and Assessing Offenders. By Sharon S. Smith and Roger W. Shuy. Law Enforcement Bulletin, 2002. Print.

United States. FBI. Washington DC. Statement Analysis: What Do Suspects' Words Really Reveal? By Susan H. Adams. 1996. Print. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.

United States. U.S. Department of Justice. FBI Training Bureau. Criminal Profiling From Crime Scene Analysis. By…… [read more]

Crime All Crime Threatens Law and Order Essay

… Crime

All crime threatens law and order, representing the breakdown of social norms. Moreover, all types of crime impact all strata of society. Violent crime is perhaps the most visible of all types of crime because of widespread media coverage and media sensationalism in reporting on violent crimes. Organized crime spreads its tentacles to almost every level of society. White collar crime is unique in that it is perpetrated by the wealthy and powerful social classes but has its greatest impact on the poor and working classes. Because white collar crime has the potential to impact large groups of people, and because white collar crime reinforces class conflict and social stratification, it is the most menacing type of criminal behavior.

One of the reasons why white collar crime can be potentially more devastating than other types of crime is the ease with which it can be perpetrated. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI 2010), "Today's con artists are more savvy and sophisticated than ever, engineering everything from slick online scams to complex stock and health care frauds." The heads of corporations often hide behind cleverly created cloaks of anonymity that are supported by legal loopholes. Ample opportunities exist for nefarious white collar crimes including fraud, embezzlement, extortion, and tax evasion. White collar crime entails the "full range of frauds committed by business and government professionals," many of which are relatively simple to carry out during the course of otherwise legal business activity (FBI 2010; National Check Fraud Center 2006).

Because getting away with the deed depends only on a corporate culture of collusion and corruption, white collar crime occurs constantly behind closed doors. Unlike neighborhoods that are patrolled regularly be the police, the offices of major corporations are not public spaces that can be monitored without probable cause. White collar crime often involves large numbers of perpetrators, many of whom are not remotely suspicious to the police because of their relative wealth, class, and social power. Most white collar criminals have "limited criminal records" that would keep them under the radar," (Weisburd, Waring & Chayet 2001).

The only way to prevent white collar crime is by instilling a strong ethical culture in an organization, which is nearly impossible to do in a society that rewards instant profiteering. The law is only useful once a white collar criminal is brought to the attention of the appropriate law enforcement officials, and that attention is not easily obtained. Whistle blowers and responsible employees are the only ones with any power to stop white collar crime from happening. However, as witnesses, whistle blowers have a lot to lose. The process by which whistle-blowers approach law enforcement is wholly different from the ones used to report a property violation or an assault. A whistle-blower does not simply dial 911 and fill out a criminal report with the local police. The FBI are likely to start an investigation and that procedure could be ongoing for many years and can also be stymied by political… [read more]

American Policing Issues Essay

… ¶ … American Policing Issues

Why is it more difficult to police a democratic society than a dictatorship/autocratic form of government?

It is much more difficult to police a democratic society than a dictatorship or autocratic society simply because in… [read more]

Policing Is an Essential Issue for Communities Essay

… Policing is an essential issue for communities throughout the world (Newborn & Jones, 2007). For the purposes of this discussion: Two police officers are arguing about the policies of community-oriented and problem-oriented policing as opposed to zero-tolerance policing. The research… [read more]

Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs and Organized Crime Thesis

… Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs and Organized Crime

The Modern History of Organized Crime in America:

Organized crime has a long history in the United States going back further than the modern era of American law enforcement, on some levels. The Prohibition… [read more]

Sociology -- Punishment Crime Research Paper

… Sociology -- Punishment

Crime is one of the most immediate concerns that society must address as a whole. The prevalence of crime leads to the eventual degradation of order in society, to which man is relegated to savages wherein every man is pitted against every man. Along this line of establishing the necessary order, society needs a clear set of rules that define punishment for any infraction or deviation from any rule. Society through government institutes the rules of punishment and the procedures that must be followed. Such procedures are grounded on the rationality that the punishment must be equal to the offense done. More importantly, the process through which the punishment is given should be premised on equitable approaches that safeguards the rights of every person for the due process of the law.

Heywood defines punishment as a penalty inflicted on a person for a crime or offense. Heywood clarified that punishment possesses a moral character that distinguishes it from vindictiveness; it is justified because of the wrong that was done. Heywood noted that retribution is shown when one takes vengeance against a wrong doer. The retribution theory suggests some very specific forms of punishment. Because punishment is vengeance it should be proportional to the wrong done, the punishment should fit the crime. Heywood reiterates that the retribution theory is therefore of greatest value in societies where traditional moral principles, usually based upon religious belief are still widely respected, but it is less applicable in the secularized and pluralist societies. (Heywood, 2000: 255-256)

Heywood described another type of punishment as deterrence. According to the deterrence theory, punishment is a device that aims to deter people from crime or anti-social behavior by making them aware of the consequences of their actions. Fear of punishment is therefore key to order and social stability. Heywood stated that to punish the wrong doer is to set an example to others; the more dramatic that example the more effective its deterrent value. Heywood emphasized that the deterrence theory sets no limits to the form of punishment that may be applied, even for the most trivial offense. (Heywood, 2000: 256)

Another type of punishment is rehabilitation. The idea of reform and rehabilitation refers to a theory wherein there is a shift of responsibility for wrongdoing away from the individual and towards society. The criminal is not thought of as somebody who is morally evil or who should be made an example of rather the criminal should be helped, supported and educated. It is based upon an essentially optimistic view of human nature. Along this line prison regimes should be designed to promote self-esteem and personal development and should give transgressors the…… [read more]

Bill of Rights and Justice Administration Essay

… ¶ … Bill of Rights and Justice Administration

The First Amendment and the Administration of Justice and Security:

According to the portion of the First Constitutional Amendment most relevant to the modern administration of criminal justice and national security, "Congress… [read more]

Law Enforcement Technology Do You Think Essay

… Law Enforcement


Do you think you get greater crime prevention by criminals knowing that camera exist somewhere rather than knowing that a camera is observing a specific location? If criminals do not know the specific location of cameras, then… [read more]

Diversity in a Police Force Police Departments Research Proposal

… ¶ … Diversity in a Police Force

Police departments in the 21st century enjoy a level of technology that would make Dick Tracy envious, but they are also faced with several challenges that have made their jobs more difficult than… [read more]

Causes of Crime Essay

… Causes of Crime - Categories of Theories:

Unwanted conduct of individuals and societal attempts to control behavior that is dangerous to others or to society as a whole obviously predates recorded history

(Schmalleger, 2001). In the modern era (and the… [read more]

Police Discretions, Its Uses, and the Abuse Thesis

… ¶ … police discretions, its uses, and the abuse of discretionary powers. Simply put, police discretion is the ability of police officers to make discretionary judgements on the job, for example, the decision to give a person a ticket for running a red light rather than giving them a warning. The office in the field has the ability to make a decision concerning the validity of a ticket or arrest, and weigh the seriousness of the crime with the consequences. An example of discretion would be an officer who stopped a person for running a red light, only to discover there was an injured person in the car, and the driver was trying to get to a hospital. In that case, the officer might forego a ticket, and actually help the driver by safely escorting he or she to the hospital. Discretion is the ability of the officer to make decisions according to the situation, rather than simply going strictly "by the book."

Discretion can lead to numerous positive outcomes, which is why most officers support some form of discretion. It can lead to an officer issuing a warning rather than a ticket in certain situations, and it can lead to an officer evaluating evidence and deciding no crime was committed in minor infractions. It can also lead to an officer recommending other agencies for aid, rather than arrest and incarceration. For example, an officer may not arrest an intoxicated homeless person, but rather transport them to a treatment facility where they can get help for their problems, rather than clogging the legal system. Discretion can also help promote community policing, in that an officer may become familiar with a neighborhood or population, and be able to discern between dangerous and less harmful activities within the community.

It is quite clear that in the wrong hands, police discretionary powers could be abused, and that is one reason why these powers generate so much controversy. Discretion could lead a police officer to target one ethnic group, such as blacks or Hispanics, or to continually ignore activities such as domestic violence or drug activity. In addition, discretionary powers and their misuse can lead to police violence and abuse, such as the case of the New York City police officer that tortured a Haitian suspect and was tried for torture (Banks, 2004, p. 32). The use of excessive force or abuse is a discretionary decision based on the situation, the officer's reaction to the situation, and the perceived threat to others. It also makes it easier for an officer to hide their indiscretions, because they are not supervised every moment, and they can misreport or misrepresent their decisions in reports, to hide their questionable discretionary decisions and practices. Clearly, certain situations can lead to abuse of power and discretionary thought, and this has to be avoided for police to retain the trust of the public, the people they are supposed to serve and protect.

There is much discussion about discretionary powers being banned… [read more]

Terrorist Profiling Task Force Case Research Paper

… Consistency, to avoid later charges of hypocrisy in the media, is important, and also to create a smoothly running task force.

How should the governor announce her plan to the public?

The announcement should come with the governor flanked by representatives of the law enforcement community in uniform and prominent community activists and representatives of victim witness advocacy groups, so she can retain her 'tough on crime' image. She will no doubt be questioned as to how her plan will impact public safety, and she must clearly demonstrate that statistically other states that have created such programs have not seen an increase in crime, as well as provide some preliminary details about how the released convicts will be monitored over the course of her parole.

She will also be asked if this is a cost-cutting measure, and if this sacrifices justice to 'the bottom line.' She should stress that she does empathize and feel the pain of victims, and would never compromise community safety to cut costs, or misuse community corrections -- the policy is to reduce crime, not to simply reduce sentences.

What barriers to communications will exist between the task force members you have selected in response to question 2 above? How can those barriers be overcome?

Representatives of crime-ridden communities may feel more sympathy for certain criminals than victim advocacy representatives, and certain members of the law enforcement community may be in conflict as to the length of sentencing and the degree to which the feelings of victims should impact the terms of the parole. Officers on the streets and corrections officers in prisons may take a more cynical view of the rehabilitative process than parole officers. However, given that the aim of the plan is to balance the need for crime reduction and rehabilitation with still being 'tough on crime,' a common language can hopefully be created.

Assuming that the task force creates a plan, how can the principles of this plan be best communicated to the operational staff?

Local administrators, prosecutors, and law enforcement officers must understand the philosophy of the plan, and receive education as to what types of criminals will be allowed to participate in the plan. The stress must be upon community parole, monitoring, and rehabilitation and reintegration, not simply sentence reduction and cost -cutting. Individuals that have a strong corrections background, including policy makers, administrators, middle managers, and the operational staff may not understand this subtle distinction, and it is essential that they do for the plan to be accepted and administered effectively. Also, the officers who create programs for the inmates to facilitate their reintegration into society must ensure that the programs closely monitor the inmates at different stages of the prisoner's readjustment process ("Community corrections," 2008, Federal Bureau of Prisons).

Works Cited

Community Corrections." (2008). Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at

Marshall, Gordon. (1998). "Classical Criminology." Dictionary of Sociology. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at… [read more]

Impact of DNA Analysis on Criminal Cases That Involved Misidentification Term Paper

… ¶ … DNA Analysis on Criminal Cases' Misidentification

DNA, "the evidence that does not forget..." As Kirk (cited by Butler, 2005, p. 33) purports, aptly introduces the summary for the following paper. As DNA, present in every nucleated cell, constitutes… [read more]

Defenses to Criminal Liability Term Paper

… Defenses to Criminal Liability

Explain the difference between the defenses of justification and excuses to criminal liability

According to Article 35 of the New York State Law Penal Code, and in other like documents throughout the United States, the defense… [read more]

Why Pursue a Degree in Administration of Justice Term Paper

… Administration of Justice

Why pursue a degree in Administration of Justice?

The Criminal Justice Administration System is very important in the general way of things, because of the important fact that the system is responsible for providing a way in which justice may be administered for those people who have committed a crime of any nature. The criminal justice administration system would offer the candidate a bachelor or a master's degree form a reputed university. This would in turn allow the candidate to pursue a rewarding career as a City or State Police Officer, or as a Highway Patrol Officer, as a Sheriff, a Deputy, as a Detective, or as a Plainclothes Detective, as a Corrections Officer, as a Prison Guard, as a State Police Officer, or take up an offer of belonging to the FBI, or to the Secret Service, or to become a Drug Enforcement Officer, or a U.S. Marshal, a Customs Investigator, or a Diplomatic Security Special Agent. (Directory of Schools, 2007)

The main highlight of earning a degree in the Justice Administration System is that the candidate, after having completed his training, would be able to play a very important and significant role in contributing towards making the existing society a better one. It must be remembered that most people in general tend to depend upon police officers and other law enforcement officials to protect their lives and property, and it is the duty of the official to perform these duties to the best of his ability. Take for example a 'correctional treatment specialist'. This officer would work in a correctional institution, like for example, a prison, and from there, they would have the responsibility of evaluating the progress that the criminal is making. Among their other duties is the requirement of their working in close contact with probation officers, other officials and the inmates in order to create and develop parole and release plans. (Directory of Schools, 2007) degree in the criminal justice system would enable the student to protect and to serve the public with the knowledge that they have acquired of the local and the state laws. The degree holders are expected to work in a criminal justice agency, and lawyers, police officers, and even health inspectors may begin their career within the justice administration system. The pay scale would be…… [read more]

Criminal Behavior Term Paper

… Economic Effects of Crime in the United States

Criminal enterprises and conduct vary substantially, ranging from low-level, street" crimes against persons, primarily for the tangible property in their possession, to sophisticated, "white collar" crimes perpetrated against large corporations or even against entire industries.

The direct economic impact of criminal activity are those born by its victims, represented by the material value of stolen property, and the cost of repairing the physical damage or destruction of property caused by the methods used to effectuate the crime.

The indirect economic impact of criminal activity are those born by private entities, necessary to prevent and insure against it, as well as the those born by society collectively, to prevent and deter criminal activity, and to apprehend, prosecute, and incarcerate criminal perpetrators.

Street Crime and Property Crime:

The United States Department of Justice (U.S. DOJ) defines violent crimes as those involving either the actual use of physical force or the threat of physical force; it classifies violent crime into four general categories: murder and non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault (USDOJ, 2006).

The most direct economic costs of violent crime are represented by the cost of replacing personal property lost, but its indirect costs may include both privately-paid and publicly-funded medical treatment and subsequent rehabilitation; time lost from work, including both the cost of privately employed victims' income and lost productivity for the employers of crime victims; and all the costs associated with preventing recurrence of crime afterwards. According to the DOJ, almost 1.5 million violent crimes were reported in the U.S. In 2006 (USDOJ, 2006)

The DOJ defines property crimes as those not involving actual physical force or threat of physical force against the victim; it includes the crimes of burglary, theft-by- larceny, auto-theft, and arson (USDOJ, 2006). According to the DOJ (2006), approximately 10 million property crimes occurred in the U.S. In 2006, representing almost $17 billion in economic losses.

White Collar Crime, Organized Crime, and Abuse of Public Assistance Programs:

White collar crime encompasses a wide variety of fraud and related criminal enterprises perpetrated against individuals as well as against corporations. It includes banking and investment fraud, insurance and mortgage fraud, corporate and public corruption, money laundering, as well as the abuse of public assistance and medical care funding programs.

In total, it is impossible to quantify the precise economic costs of white collar crime, but it is certainly in the hundreds of billions of dollars, representing direct monetary losses as well as the cost of developing, implementing and maintaining security programs and procedures to prevent future and recurrent crimes of this nature. The indirect economic costs of…… [read more]

Hate Crimes Differ From Ordinary Term Paper

… Hate crimes differ from ordinary crimes from many points-of-view. For instance, one point of differentiation is the impact they have upon the victim and the larger group to which the victim belongs to. An example has been provided in "Attorney General's Civil Rights Commission on Hate Crimes" by mentioning the Jewish and Filipino communities throughout U.S. that were strongly impacted by the attack on the West Valley Jewish Community Center and the slaying of Joseph Ileto in the San Fernando Valley in the summer of 1999. Another community greatly impacted by the murders of Matthew Shepherd in Wyoming and Gary Matson and Winfield Mowder, was the gay community. According to many authors, hate crimes affect not only the victim but also all the members of the victim's group.

From the point-of-view of the punishment involved, hate crimes deserve greater punishment since they tend to spark retaliation and further intergroup conflict. Retribution is another aspect that differentiates hate crime from ordinary crime. The offenders in hate crimes deserve more punishment, according to several arguments: they produce more psychological trauma to victims, victims may suffer more physical trauma, and again, in establishing the punishment are the impact of the crime and the further conflict they produce.

Moreover, hate crimes are differentiated from the point-of-view of constitutional laws and policy. Gerstenfeld (2004) stated that hate crimes laws come into effect when the crime committed by a person is motivated by the victim's group. In the U.S., each state has certain protected groups by the laws. Common to all those laws is that they include crimes based on race, ethnicity, and religion Gerstenfeld (1992). The protected groups are those based on sexual orientation, gender, Which groups to be included in such category has been considered a contentious issue. The same author cited above has concluded that the primary value of hate crime laws is symbolic, because they send a message that certain types of behavior are intolerable.

Several of the arguments presented above, which distinguish hate crime from ordinary crime are retributive in nature. One opinion is that laws should exist concerning hate crimes because these offenses deserve worse penalties (Gerstenfeld, 2004). Another fact concerning the laws are their supposed deterrent effects; many authors believe that crime legislation will discourage people from committing offenses. (Chang, 1994, cited in Gerstenfeld, 2004).

Hate crimes have been termed those brutal crimes motivated by bias or hatred for a person or group. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) hate crimes are defined as "a criminal offense committed against a person or property, which is motivated, in whole or in part, by the offender's bias against a race, religion, disability, ethnic/national origin, or sexual orientation" (cited in Nolan & Akiyama, 1999). In a general sense, the authors cited above state that the motivation for the criminal offence is what makes the offense a hate crime. They suggest that hate crime is a traditional type of crime, like murder, rape, burglary, robbery and intimidation. But the distinction between… [read more]

American Criminal Courthouse by Steve Bogira Term Paper

… ¶ … American Criminal Courthouse by Steve Bogira. Specifically, it will contain a book report on the book. "Courtroom 302" is a detailed and disturbing look into the criminal justice system in America. The author spent one year observing the… [read more]

Terrorism and Police Organizations Term Paper

… Terrorism & Police Organizations


In the immediate aftermath of the 9/11/01 terrorist attack on New York City's

World Trade Center towers, coordination of counter terrorism and intelligence gathering efforts among the many U.S. law enforcement agencies assumed top priority. At the same time, U.S. authorities also redoubled their efforts to synchronize intercontinental foreign intelligence and law enforcement sources, especially throughout Europe, Africa, and Asia.

In principle, complete integration of all domestic law enforcement agencies would seem more conducive to an effective national anti-terrorism campaign than maintaining hundreds of autonomous local agencies. On a practical level, integrating law enforcement into a single national police organization is far too difficult, at least for the foreseeable future.

Integrating National Law Enforcement and Intelligence Agencies:

In response to the 2004 release of the 9/11 Commission Report, which outlined forty-one specific recommendations to protect the country from terrorism, President

Bush announced his intention to establish the National Counter Terrorism Center

(NCTC) headed by a National Intelligence Director (NID). One of the main purposes of the NCTC and its director was, specifically, to coordinate better processes for inter- agency information and intelligence sharing between the primary law enforcement and intelligence agencies responsible for protecting American interests, both domestically and overseas.

To understand some of the fundamental difficulties, one need look no further than the problems already encountered just from recent efforts to coordinate intelligence sharing among local, state, and federal authorities in general, and between the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) -- the nation's lead counter terrorism agency -- and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) -- the nation's premier global counter terrorism agency. Critics of the plan commend its goal, but suggest that the NID is largely a figurehead position with no greater authority than already maintained by the CIA director, and point out the problems already encountered in attempts to integrate just two principle law enforcement and intelligence agencies through the joint CIA-FBI Terrorist Threat Integration Center established for that purpose in 2003. (Whitelaw, p.24)

It would also seem logical to expect that one obvious prerequisite for significant coordination among multiple agencies would be effective self-regulation within the individual agencies themselves. However, as detailed by former FBI special agent Mike German (and others), very significant problems within the FBI alone include countless instances of mishandled intelligence information, supervisory incompetence, and internal cover-ups of investigatory mistakes for the sake of preserving the agency's reputation, even at the cost of national security. (German, 2005). Until all internal problems plaguing individual law enforcement agencies can be eliminated, the prospect of meaningful interagency coordination and intelligence sharing would appear more of an elusive hope than a practical reality.

Integrating Local, State, and Federal Police Functions:

Even with a successful solution to the problems of interagency rivalry and their related disputes over intelligence "turf wars" -- by no means likely to be accomplished anytime soon -- the prospect of unifying all domestic law enforcement functions within a single national police organization poses insurmountable… [read more]

Police Discretion Position Term Paper

… Police Discretion refers to any situation in which an officer deviates from standard procedure, or where official procedure permits officers to exercise their personal judgment about a specific situation. While some people may continue to believe that police officers have… [read more]

Theories of Crime Term Paper

… ¶ … Crime

Although this individual has committed several different crimes, this paper will focus only on the theft in the fifth degree charge. Theft occurs when someone takes something belonging to another person, without their consent, with the intent of depriving that person of the objects use. The degrees of theft are determined by the amount or value stolen. In the case at hand, a bottle of wine would be valued at under one hundred dollars and therefore would fall in the category of theft in the fifth degree, which is the lowest degree of the crime.

If I were a defense attorney in this case, I would attempt to get this charge moved to juvenile court. Since the offender is under the age of 18 and has no known juvenile history, she should be prosecuted as a juvenile. The advantage of this is she can avoid fines and jail time. Instead punishment will be limited to restitution for the bottle of wine, various educational classes, and being placed on probation. Although this course will last longer and probably be more involved than going through the District Court, it will ultimately keep this charge off the Defendant's permanent record. At the same time, the juvenile system may be of more benefit to the Defendant considering her casual drug use. Being young there is still opportune time to attempt to correct these problems and prevent future, perhaps more serious, criminal behavior.

If I were a prosecutor in this case, I would probably stipulate to the charge being transferred to juvenile court. I would be agreeable to this because part of my job is to prevent future criminal acts. Considering the Defendant's age and lack of criminal history, I believe the punishment that she would receive in the juvenile system would actually be more beneficial to both her and society than is she was ordered to pay a fine in adult court. If the Defendant were tried in adult court I would ask that her punishment include a fine, giving her the option to pay by…… [read more]

Crime Increase in Houston TX Since Hurricane Katrina in 2005 Term Paper

… Crime

Hurricane Katrina was the worst natural disaster in American History. Although the storm itself was a destructive force, the social and political issues that arose in its wake are likely to go down in history as even more destructive.… [read more]

What a Criminal Psychopathology Term Paper

… Criminal Psychopathology

Psychopathology is the science or study of mental disorders or pathological deviation from normal or official behavior (Lexico Publishing Group LLC 2006). Criminal psychopathology thus refers to the study of deviant behavior of a criminal or offender, aimed… [read more]

Supervisor in Criminal Justice Term Paper

… Community policing is not a synonym 'soft on crime.' Community policing is a preventative strategy, designed to reduce the amount of crime in a traditionally crime-ridden area. The process of community policing attempts to involve the local population in policing and making the community safer for its residents. It recognizes that, even amongst law-abiding citizens, there is often a hostile relationship between the civilian population and the police force, especially if the police force is not recruited from the community. By involving the community in policing efforts such as organizing a neighborhood watch, by increasing a visible but friendly presence of officers in the community, and recruiting officers from the local population, community policing creates a safer atmosphere and thus contributes to a safer neighborhood, and creates a more cooperative atmosphere between residents and the police force.

Scenario 2: Sexism

The female officer must first be made aware that the personal attitudes of the…… [read more]

Criminology Examples Policeman's Working Personality Essay

… Criminology Examples

Policeman's working personality

An example of the "Policeman's working personality" might be when a policeman hears that another member of the force planted evidence to secure the conviction of a known criminal. Rather than question his colleague's behavior,… [read more]

Police Brutality and Monetary Judgements Term Paper

… Police Brutality and Monetary Judgments

This paper explores the relationship between that of police brutality, monetary judgments and the possibility that a municipality; city, town or county will be financially burdened or ruined by a large lawsuit. Despite the fact… [read more]

Police Recruiting Just Term Paper

… They must discharge their official duties so as to gain votes for a coming election, and be the prime movers and often the controlling power of all primary political assemblies ... It is not difficult to perceive that even the honest policeman is not at liberty to see all the violations of the law that he must be literally blind not to observe. (Daily Picayune, 15 October 1859, 1)

Wilbur Miller also notes that in the 19th century when NYPD was still in its infancy, it was under the direct and heavy influence of the elite in the society. It was important in those days to please the middle and upper classes since community's support was considered vital for survival and jobs were given to those who were popular in the neighborhood. People were recruited if they had the support and approval of the middle and upper classes in the society. Political connections almost always played an important role in the recruitment procedure. This was the case not only in New York but in almost every state in the country. In fact corruption was so widespread and since police could serve as a vital instrument, politicians in 1859 actually called for uniting the local police under the direct control of the mayors. In New Orleans for example, the mayor asked for reorganization of forces under his office. The mayor wanted to influence appointments which can be read between the lines from his request:

As at present organized, the police force of this city is divided and local: an idea prevails among its members that their duties are bounded by imaginary lines which under the present system of appointment it is impossible to eradicate or control. There does not exist in its composition that consolidated and uniform spirit of obedience to its constituted head, which is vitally necessary for the proper government of a body of men, the spirit of insubordination is too rife in its midst. This difficulty must inevitably exist to a greater or lesser degree as long as the present system of appointment is preserved. (Daily Picayune, 5 October 1854, 1)

Sheriff system was also adopted from Britain and this system still prevails in the country. In early days of police history in the U.S., Sheriffs were recruited from the local communities. These were individuals who enjoyed influence and a 'reputation' in the neighborhood. Ethnic issues also had a great impact on old recruitment policies. (Wadman et al. 2004)

Things have changed dramatically now. New York Police Department is considered one of the finest law enforcement units in the country. It has a transparent recruitment policy and almost everyone who meets the criteria can apply and join the police force today.


1) Miller, Wilbur R. (1999) Cops and Bobbies: Police Authority in New York and London, 1830-1870. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.

2) Wadman, Robert C. And William Thomas Allison (2004) To Protect And Serve: A History Of Police In America. Upper Saddle River. New Jersey

3)… [read more]

Sexual Harassment by Police Officers Term Paper

… Sexual Harassment by Police

Sexual Harassment Found in Police Misconduct l. Introduction

This project examines sexual harassment as a means of police misconduct. This paper explores this behavior within the context of an officer taking advantage of the role of power during an arrest situation where sexual harassment is perpetrated. This project will look at the issue from many angles including: from the department point-of-view and existing zero tolerance policies; from the officer's point-of-view including issues of occupational stress, trauma but also issues of training and morality; and finally from the public's point-of-view starting with the detainee and then covering the public perception in law enforcement.

Literature Review: Sexual Harassment and Police Misconduct

According to a study done in France by Deschamps et al., "Stress at work is an ill-health provoking factor. Police from minority groups such as ageing subjects or police officers have been reported to experience greater stress" (2). Is stress and trauma a factor leading up to negative behavior or is sexual harassment part of a greater immorality found in a small percentage of police officers? If so, how is it that police misconduct appears to be a growing trend worldwide and in America? Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 provides that it is unlawful for an employer "to discriminate against any individual with respect to his compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment, because of such individual's race, color, religion, sex, or national origin." 42 U.S.C. 2000e-2(a)(1). It is the Civil Rights Act itself that lays the framework that one cannot be harassed on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national original, yet it appears due to prevailing cases against police officers across the United States that something is going despite zero tolerance for such behavior. Is it a matter of officer stress level due to increased crime rates or is it attitude not being addressed during times of training? Dennis Rome writes, "there is no clear consensus among citizens, researchers, community activists and police administrators as to the extent of such conduct in the general police force" (179). Research of case studies and a review of recent newspaper articles suggests differently and therefore a pursuit on the subject is warranted.

3. Background to the study

Methodology tools:

Literature Review

Case Study and Case…… [read more]

Community Profile Research Community Diversity and Crime Term Paper

… Community Profile

Research Community Diversity and Crime

Brooklyn, NY

Brooklyn covers a total land area of 70.61 square miles. It lies at 40.65N latitude and -73.95W longitude. The total population calculated at the time of the 2000 census of Brooklyn was found to be 2,465,326 and hence its population per square miles is 34,914.68. The average household belongs to the middle class with a low average income which at a local level is calculated to be $32,135 and $41,994 at the national level. The average age of a citizen in Brooklyn, NY is about 35 years. Brooklyn constitutes a wide range of people from different racial and ethnic backgrounds. The Whites form the largest part of the population followed by the Blacks. These two form the bulk of the population followed by the Latinos, Asians and the American Indian who are comparatively at a much lower level. People belonging to two or more races are also there in significant numbers. The Native Hawaiians are the smallest in number.

Crime rates in Brooklyn have decreased over the past years. In a period of 10 years from 1993 to 2003 the crime rates in Brooklyn dropped by a huge 63%. The total reported incidents were only 44,648 while in 1993 this figure was way above 80,000. A mega change was seen in the motor vehicle theft rates that fell by about 44% thus forming only 33% of the total crimes committed. Its crime index is approximately 19 crimes per 1000 inhabitants which is much lower that the entire city's crime index being at about 29 crimes. In a study in the year 1998 it was observed that 2% of a 15-year-old black or African-American is likely to get killed before he reaches 45 (U.S. Bureau of the Census). William J. Bratton who presided in the chair of the New York police commissioner during the decline of the crime rates states that this decline in the crime rates are due to the better coordination between the different units of the NYPD including increased arrests for the possession of arms and increased computer aided analysis of crime patterns. He also gives credit to the increased accountability from the precinct commander (Anonymous). With time Brooklyn has witnessed decreased crime rates and the residents there have been very much pleased with this drop in the societal menace. "Brooklyn is the center of the universe," says a 70-year-old resident. "It's the motherland." Another citizen living, in Brooklyn for the past 40 years in the same apartment, Pecorara says "I have never once thought of leaving Brooklyn" (Randy Bergmann). The citizens are very pleased with the decreased crime rates of Brooklyn and see a better future for the place. Volunteer services have also been started and people are taking part in it at a large scale to improve the neighborhood and efforts are being made where the citizens gather and talk about young crime gangs and youth violence. September 11 has also made a huge impact on the… [read more]

Establishing a Community Policing Program Term Paper

… ¶ … Establishing a Community Policing Program in an American Municipality Today

From a law enforcement and community relations perspective, it would just seem to make good sense to place as many police officers "on the beat" in any given… [read more]

Justice Without Trial Term Paper

… Skolnick's book still contains features of great interest for the study of criminal justice. For instance, in his text, Skolnick focuses on what he calls the "working personality" of the policeman. In his text, Skolnick defines three elements of the policeman's personality: danger, authority, and efficiency. Like a soldier in a city under siege, the policeman in training is encouraged to believe he and the community he identifies with (white, usually, in Skolnick's day, and often of an ethnic, working class ethos) are in a constant state of danger and duress. As a result of this heightened state of danger and fear, police officers are encouraged to believe that absolute obedience to authority is always salutary, and that an efficient administration of the law and administrative policies are synonymous with justice. Efficiency even pursued at the expense of individual liberties is encouraged in a tacit way by administrators, and overall by the working, occupational culture of the police.

Such unofficial pressures and the general cultural, occupational climate produce "distinctive cognitive tendencies in police as an occupational grouping." (Skolnick, 1966). Also, people who become policemen have a pre-existing tendency to embrace certain values, according to Skolnick, and to come from certain ethnic and neighbourhood groups and areas than others, that stress order and obedience. All of these conspire to reinforce certain officer's personality profiles. It encourages the promotion of officers with a strongly militaristic ethos, and to exacerbate existing problems given an often-suspicious administrative intent upon overriding individual suspect's rights. Thus Skolnick belives he can speak with confidence of the development of a law enforcement subculture that reinforces preexisting values of suspicion as a positive, with few checks and balances, despite the stated presumption of innocence in the American system.

The danger of a police subculture is that the police see themselves as outside of the community they protect, and thus, outside of the laws they are entrusted with enforcing, thus creating the infamous blue wall of silence. Community policing and the greater sense of trust invested in the police as the result of recent impingements from the outside in the form of terrorism during the 21st century, combined with the added rights protections conveyed upon suspects by the Supreme Court during the decades after Skolnick first spoke out, may have reduced some of the most egregious examples cited by the author, but abuses within the law enforcement system still undeniably remain. However, given the admittedly pressured environment of policing, specifically urban policing, and the need for psychological unity amongst the force, even though greater diversity and community policing may dampen some of the problems discussed in Skolnick'sbook, it is difficult to see how the police could effectively function without some sort of occupational culture of solidarity.

Work Cited

Skolnick, Jerome. (1993) Justice Without Trial: Law Enforcement in Democratic Society, First published in…… [read more]

Minorities in Policing: Facing the Challenges Historical Term Paper

… Minorities in Policing: Facing the Challenges

Historical Use of Minorities in the Police Force

The history of the police force is interesting and varied.

The paradigms associated with the force, as well as factors of social development and diversity, has… [read more]

Police Brutality in Recent Years Term Paper

… "

In 1991, five New York City officers were "indicted on murder charges in the February 5 death by suffocation of a 21-year-old Hispanic man suspected of car theft. The officers were accused of having hit, kicked and choked Federico Pereira while he lay face down and hog-tied - his wrists cuffed behind his back while another set of cuffs bound his hands to one ankle (Lacayo, 1991)."

Present Cases

Cases of police brutality which have recently occurred include the October 2003 case in Minneapolis. The case involves "two officers who are accused of using a plunger to sexually assault a man during a drug raid (Chanen, 2003)." The police chief has taken the allegations seriously and the FBI is currently investigating the charges.

On July 30, 2003, a judge in Los Angeles "declared a mistrial in the racially-charged case of a white police officer accused of slamming a handcuffed black teenager onto a car and punching him the face (Unknown, July 2003)." The jury found one of the two white officers not-guilty of the charges, but could not reach a verdict in the beating case on the other officer.

In December 2003, the Cincinnati coroner ruled that the "death of a 350-pound black man who collapsed after being clubbed by police in a videotaped beating was caused primarily by the struggle (Unknown, December 2003)." Although Nathaniel Jones had a number of extenuating health factors such as "obesity, an enlarged heart and intoxicating levels of cocaine, PCP and methanol in his blood, the cause of death is listed as an irregular heartbeat because of a stress reaction from the violent struggle (Unknown, December 2003)." This has resulted in his death being ruled a homicide, and while the officers state they were trying to subdue him, activists are claiming it is actually a case of police brutality.


Although cases of police brutality against Hispanics and African-Americans are capturing the attention of the public, these groups continue to face racial profiling. Many times, people are stopped for no reason and subjected to callous behavior at the hands of police officers. It is important for everyone to overcome their preconceived notions of different races in order to stop this despicable behavior.


Chanen, David. (27 October 2003). "Chief Olson's legacy is like his tenure: Complicated; As Minneapolis' top cop prepares to leave, he gets credit for a lower crime rate but criticism for being more politician than leader." Star Tribune.

Federal data on police shootings lacking. (accessed 07 May 2004).

Lacayo, Richard. (01 April 1991). "Law and disorder: for cops, fear and frustration are constants.

Sometimes even the best of them snap under pressure." Time.

Roberts, Dorothy E. (22 March 1999). "Foreword: race, vagueness, and the social meaning of order-maintenance policing." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology.

Taslitz, Andrew E. (22 June 2003). "Racial auditors and the Fourth Amendment: data with the power to inspire political action. (The Political Geography of Race Data in the Criminal Justice System)." Law and Contemporary…… [read more]

City Police Departments Term Paper

… "The question is, who are they back in service for (Tos, 2000)? Dispatch? Or the citizens -- all the citizens, not just the ones who call for service? The old school of police practice was that responding to the dispatcher's calls took precedence over other duties. Community policing puts the focus on building a working relationship with the community and on early intervention to prevent crime."

Community policing is based on the idea that the police must work with the callers, as well as organized groups with particular interests, such as neighborhood groups worried about the quality of life, merchants worried about petty theft and parents who want safe schools and playgrounds. In the past, policing looked at these groups as "special-interest groups" that should be resisted to ensure citywide fairness. However, community policing bridges that gap and strengthens relationships with these groups to fight crime.

Police departments must be accountable to their citizens in the way they use the city's liberty and money. Therefore, the NYPD is always searching for ways to produce more safety and security, while using less money and authority. This can be accomplished to some degree by mobilizing the community, placing more responsibility into the hands of the "communities of interest," and providing education to build local capacity to solve identified problems prior to police interventions, which will create a greater sense of control and justice.

In a nutshell, the NYPD sends professional, innovative, self-disciplined and self-motivated officers directly into the community. The department envisions the empowerment of patrol officers to take independent action to solve problems, develop partnerships with the community, and improve the social environment of the neighborhood they serve. The organization is structured, managed, and operated in a manner that supports the efforts of the neighborhood patrol officers and encourages a cooperative approach to solving problems.


Kelling, G. (Autumn, 1995). How to Run a Police Department. City Journal, Vol. 5, No. 4.

Lardner, James and Thomas Reppetto. (2000). NYPD: A City and Its Police. New York: Henry Holt.

Livingston, Debra. 1997. "Police Discretion and the Quality of Life in Public Places: Courts, Communities, and the New Policing." Columbia…… [read more]

Proactive Policing Term Paper

… Moreover, opportunity reduction programs that indicate the success and is concerned with extra police patrols in high-crime "hot spots" along with the monitoring carried out by specialized police units of high-risk repeat offenders has been made (Cordner, 1997).

Additionally, the… [read more]

Police Codes of Ethics Virtually Term Paper

… Some might disagree with that. A case could be made to keep a Code of Ethics short and to the point, and then the police departments should develop ways to deal with violations. Internal management of ethical as well as… [read more]

Criminology the Uniform Crime Reporting Term Paper

… Researchers are asked to study yearly documentation before analyzing the data. Two changes to the UCR county-level files from 1994 to 1998 will result in a break in the series (NAJCD) of previous files. These are a new imputation algorithm to adjust for incomplete reporting by individual law enforcement jurisdictions and a new coverage indicator as diagnostic measure of aggregate data quality in a particular county. Changes in the procedures used in adjusting the missing or incomplete reporting at the jurisdiction level can have an impact on the aggregates of counties, wherein some do not submit reports for all 12 months. These changes, however, are expected to become less sensitive to changes and data from 1994 should become more accurate estimates for longitudinal analysis (NACJD).

Some ORIs (within-county) do not have a population associated with their jurisdiction and report jurisdictions, such as national parks, colleges and universities, toll bridges and tunnels and state police departments. Because the coverage indicator is based on months of reporting and the population, the variable will not show estimates that occurred in the ORIs or in ORIs without a population but reported 3 to 11 months of data. This new coverage indicator will reflect occurrences in ORIs with a population that reported 0 to 2 months of data, even though none was calculated because of the lack of ORIs in the agency's geographic stratum reporting 12 months of data. And ORI data 0 to 2 months of information are set to zero, researchers cannot obtain data estimates for ORIs without a population that reported 0 to 2 months of data. And such county-level files provided for research purposes are not official FBI UCR releases, even if UCR staff members are consulted.

The NIBRS was designed to provide more comprehensive and detailed crime statistics by collecting them on each reported crime incident (Office of Justice Programs 2002). Now under the Summary System, law enforcement agencies sum up the number of incidents by offense monthly and then report the totals to the FBI. This way, under the incident-based mode, there are individual records for each crime reported.

Program awards are given to States and funds provided. BJS also supports technical assistance, research and training to help jurisdiction implement NIBRS-compliant systems and in analyzing NIBRS data. SEARCH, the National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics provides overall support to NIBRS, including technical assistance, onsite visits, web assistance, telephone and email guidance and training seminars.

The Justice Research and Statistics Association put up the Incident-Based Reporting Resource Center to place practical analysis information and tools into the hands of analysts who want these. The Center also provides a forum where analysts can swap information and ideas on these incident-based data (NACJD).

BJS also sponsors the American Statistical Association and the BJS Statistical Methodological Research Program to encourage the creative and proper use of criminal justice data as information substance and for methodical issues. Moreover, Modern Law Enforcement Records Management Systems helps large and medium-sized jurisdiction acquire NIBRS-compliant records management… [read more]

Role of Education in Police Term Paper

… Opponents to the need for higher education counter such data with other statistics that reveal the fact that higher education is linked to lower tenure. As of now, the minimum standard adhered in police recruitment is more a case of excluding convicted felons, people convicted of crimes of domestic violence and substance abuse. For the rest, recruitment of the right candidates depends on psychological and emotional screening tests (Schweizer).

Though the jury is still out on the need for educated police officers, it has been clearly established in the preceding discussion that education has a definitive role to play. For one, educated officers, especially senior ones can bring about a change in organizational culture within the existing police force and more important during training of fresh recruits (Johnson, May-June 2003), which will emphasize on the need for honesty, use of minimal force, and the importance of developing community relations.

Education will also lead to knowledge and skills in developing mission statements, values and codes of conduct that aim at the police force doing their duty in a fair and just manner. Consider, for example, that there are really three different types of codes of ethics: ideals, principles, and conduct. Yet, current police codes have combined all three creating confusion (Dulin, May-June 2003).

Second, besides cultural issues, educated officers can help bring about changes in critical organizational areas such as more sophisticated research on the national, regional and local patterns of criminal activity, which will lead to increased effectiveness in protecting society from crime. Not only will education lend the necessary analytical skills, it will also as important, lead to an ability to deal with organizational issues that may come in the way of gathering and analyzing cross-border data beyond local jurisdiction. Further organizational management skills will result in more proactive short- and long-term planning of departmental goals, human and fiscal resources, allowing for optimization of both technology and personnel. After all, there is active competition between police organizations for resources and personnel; formal and informal spheres of influence between various law enforcement agencies; and informal relationships (Thibault et. al., p.319)

Third, law enforcement senior personnel who understand the benefits that education brings to more effective police management will place an emphasis on the full value of education as a complement to job training and in recruitment policies and methods. As officers are involved with a wide range of policing issues, they need behavioral and human management skills, which is best provided by formal education. Indeed, there is now a discernible trend where agencies revised mission statements mandate skills far beyond just the mechanics of uniformed petrol (Varricchio, April 1998).

Though there are opponents to the need for college educated police officers on the grounds that there is a wide gap between classroom theory and street reality, it is evident that education can bring many important benefits such as a more positive image of the police as protectors of justice and peace, improved relations with the communities served, problem solving skills… [read more]

Nils Christie in His Book Term Paper

… Close to half of the prison population in America is black; in 1996, black males had an incarceration rate of 6.6% per 100,000 or 6,607 compared to the 944 for white males.

Quoted in Crime Control is the research of… [read more]

Crime Understanding Why Crime Occurs Term Paper

… Researchers also found those individuals who posses this extra chromosome have a delay in maturation, causing a delay in intelligence, which is also linked to criminals (Moyer 1979).


Early studies at the beginning of the twentieth… [read more]

DNA in Criminal Cases Term Paper

… They began, 'We wish to suggest a structure for... DNA. This structure has novel features, which are of considerable biological interest.' They ended as modestly: 'It has not escaped our notice that the specific pairing we have postulated immediately suggests… [read more]

Forensic Science and Police Work Term Paper

… This led to the development of short tandem repeat (STR) technique in 1994.

This technique is relatively new but still highly sophisticated and thus greatly in use because its less time consuming and more accurate.

This technique is clearly explained… [read more]

Metropolitan Police Departments Can Use Term Paper

… "You just have to focus on the positives, although it won't happen overnight," he says. "It's just a matter of repetition." ({Peale)

Like L.A., Cincinnati has resorted to traditional marketing efforts to improve its image. For example, the city has… [read more]

Three Perspectives on Crime Essay

… I really believe that. But there are restraints placed on my ability to stray from the statutory framework for sentencing…" ("Todd Hannigan")

Finally there is the idea of the Integrated Perspective which attempts to merge concepts from different sociological and criminological theories. This perspective does not attempt to explain all criminal behavior but it believes that individual cases can be explored through a wider picture of crime which involves a variety of different theories. The recent case of Miller v. Alabama is a good example of how various theories can be used to discuss the sociological perspectives of a criminal case. Evan Miller was convicted of killing Cole Cannon and sentenced to life without parole when Miller was just 14 years old. ("Miller v. Alabama") An appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court decided that sentencing juveniles to life in prison was a violation of the Eighth Amendment against cruel and unusual punishment. Justice Breyer also argued that Miller may not have intended to kill Cannon and without such intent a life sentence was not constitutional. This case could involve the idea of the Choice Theory by asking if Miller had indeed chosen to kill Cannon. Secondly, Miller's sentence could be argued to be the result of Conflict Theory which holds that conflict between society's different classes brings about laws such as mandatory sentencing for specific crimes generally associated with certain social classes. Finally Life Course Theory could be employed to explain how a 14-year-olds' life experiences brought him to a point where he beat a man with a baseball bat and set his home on fire. Integrated perspective can use these theories, as well as others, to explore this specific case and help explain such a tragedy.


Christie Smythe. (2013, July 3). HSBC Judge Approves $1.9B Drug-Money Laundering

Accord. Retrieved from

Miller v. Alabama, 2011. The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law.

Retrieved from

"Todd Hannigan." FAMM. Retrieved from… [read more]

Theories of Crime Research Paper

… The white collar crimes are often considered to be lesser crimes that the street-level crimes. This is because the white collar crimes are considered victimless crimes that do not cause harm to individuals or damage to property. This is the labeling theory look at crime hence many consider the white collar thieves as some smart people. This has seen the law enforcement to invest less in curbing the white collar crimes, there are differences in laws governing such crimes and there are lesser technologies put in place to curb such crimes as compared to the street-level crimes. The 21st century criminals are not the hardcore type law breakers but very intelligent individuals who are well informed and highly educated, they use very sophisticated systems to execute several crimes in different parts of the world as more people are embracing the use of technology in their day-to-day life (Interpol, 2012).

There are several social habits that were there before considered deviant but today have been accepted as part of the social network and people practice without being reprimanded as was before. Some of these behaviors are sex before marriage was there before considered deviant but today a person can have sexual relation with several partners before they settle down with one woman for marriage. Living with a woman who was not your wife was considered deviant and unacceptable, but today there are such living arrangements and in many countries there are laws to protect such. In the earlier decades, it was considered deviant for a woman or a young lady to wear pants or trousers, it was frowned at as a sign of… [read more]

Controlling Organized Crime Term Paper

… A further result of the Act was the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO). This Act provided for the prosecution of anyone taking part in criminal activities via an enterprise or organization within a 10-year period. As such, RICO has taken a dominant position in the repertoire of tools to combat organized crime (Finklea, 2010). More recently, the rules for civil forfeiture proceedings were revisited via the Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act of 2000. This provided a better way for the federal government to prosecute those involved in organized crime.

The meeting of the Organized Crime Council in 2008 focused on the transnational nature of organized crime, fueled by the spread of globalization and the use of communication technology. To combat this, the FBI currently uses the Enterprise Theory of Investigation (ETI) as an analytical tool to identify criminal organizations, their activities, and their financial assets.

Buscaglia and Van Dijk (2003) confirm the international and integrated nature of organized crime. The authors note that there are interdependent links between organized crime and the political, socio-economic, criminal justice, and legal domains within countries. Particularly, the investigation found that organized crime flourishes where social, political, and justice systems are poorly developed, i.e. developing countries are most affected by the phenomenon.

The first step in effectively combating organized crime would therefore be to investigate its root causes and its nature. By effectively analyzing and identifying these, crime fighting organizations can better target their efforts at prosecution and deterring further crimes.


Buscaglia, E. And Van Dijk, J. (2003, Dec.). Controlling Organized Crime and Corruption in the Public Sector. Forum on Crime and Society. 3(1&2). Retrieved from:

Finklea, K.M. (2010, Dec. 22). Organized Crime in the United States: Trends and Issues for Congress. Congressional Research Services. Retrieved from:… [read more]

Ethics and Behavior in Organizational Essay

… These institutions also function as a deterring tool, taking into account that many people refrain from committing crimes as a consequence of considering the experience they would have behind bars.

Police officers often come across feelings of rivalry and this makes it less probable for them to cooperate with each-other. As the head of a police department that is dealing with such an issue, I would focus on devising educational programs meant to emphasize the importance of fighting crime as a unit rather than as individual persons. In addition to this, I would install harsher legislations that would discourage officers from being hesitant about helping each-other. Even with the fact that employing hostility to fight hostility is not always the best option, combining it with educational ideas is more likely to achieve positive effects in the long run.

The reality is that police officers interact with a series of hostile environments and they have the tendency to develop a unique perspective on fighting crime and on living as a social individual in general. Law enforcement is a diverse environment and it would be wrong to expect all police officers to put across similar behaviors and thinking. By focusing on addressing the needs of each individual and then to encourage him or her to cooperate with others as a consequence of the benefits he or she might get from the process, one can effectively make a police unit more effective. The trick is to focus on each person's uniqueness rather than to address the unit as a whole.

Works cited:

Harr, J. "Constitutional Law and the Criminal Justice System." (Cengage Learning, 1 Jan 2014)

"When Rivalry Between Departments Goes Too Far," Retrieved July 15, 2014, from… [read more]

Criminal Minds Case Study

… Expectancy Theory compliments strategy in many ways and can be used as a basis to view the challenges of homeland security and the links to the successes and failures of the 10 Point Commission. Expectance theory explains criminal behavior in a matter that can be formulated and controlled in many ways. Instead of explaining what motivates criminal behavior, expectance theory explains how criminals make decisions and what they value.

By understanding how people think, especially those who wish harm upon the peace and tranquility of the nation, law enforcement professionals can essentially preempt violence by manipulating the formula. Expectancy theory suggests that the combination of perceptions of efforts will leads to rewards. By manipulating the rewards expectations of the criminals, a new paradigm of thought may be created and violence may be downplayed as a suitable recourse of action.

This theory success is aptly described in Zimmerman's case study. It appears that when the 10 Points Commission was at their best, they were essentially modulating the expatiations of the young criminals, and could successfully create new levels of expectations resulting from their behavior. The process broke down when the commission broke down, because those expectations were ultimate dashed as corruption and selfishness took over the commission.


Going forward in finding solutions to the problems created by Homeland Security requirements, should include this idea of Expectancy Theory and its relationship to how criminals may think as opposed to what they may think. Synthesizing these ideas appears to lead to a more controlled situation where values and ideals are placed at a higher level and other distractions are minimized.


Travis, L.F., III. (1983). The case study in criminal justice research: Applications to policy analysis.Criminal Justice Review (Georgia State University), 8(2), 46 -- 51. EBSCO Permalink:

Wahyuni, D. (2012). The research design maze: Understanding paradigms, cases, methods and methodologies.Journal of Applied Management Accounting Research, 10(1), 69 -- 80. EBSCO Permalink:

Scott, E., & Zimmerman, P. (2007). Revisiting gang violence in Boston.Harvard Kennedy School of Government. Available from… [read more]

2008 Juvenile Arrests Essay

… 2% of the overall number of arrests in that year. Juveniles were frequently arrested for sale, manufacturing, and possession of heroin, cocaine, marijuana, synthetic or manufactured drugs, and non-narcotic drugs. The most common simple assaults that juveniles were arrested for include offenses against children and family, drunkenness, vagrancy, and inappropriate conduct. Notably, rate of juvenile arrests for simple assault increased considerably as compared to the 1980 arrest rate.

Implications for Juvenile Females and Members of Ethnic and Racial Minorities:

While juvenile arrests decreased significantly in 2008, these rates had considerable implications for juvenile females and members of ethnic and racial minorities. The implications for female offenders were attributed to the fact that they accounted for a greater percentage of juvenile arrests in comparison to 1999. Female offenders constituted 30% of all juvenile arrests though these arrests decreased as compared to male arrests in many crime categories. For racial and ethnic minorities, the implications were based on the disproportionate composition of these arrests across racial and ethnic groups. The 2008 United States juvenile population between 10 and 17 years was 78%, 16%, 5%, and 1% white, black, Asian Pacific/Islander, and American Indian offenders respectively. This data implies that female offenders and members of ethnic and racial groups were increasingly likely to be arrested or be involved in crime. The data on female juvenile rates shows that females are increasingly becoming violent despite the complexities in interpretations of arrest data due to differences in policy (Cauffmann, 2008).

Tracking Juvenile Arrests:

Juvenile arrests have widely been used as a means of evaluating the amount of and trends in juvenile crime. The process of tracking these arrests have provided been effective in providing insights that the juvenile justice system can use to examine how many offenses occur annually and the specific trends. Through evaluating these arrests, the juvenile justice system and law enforcement agencies can develop appropriate measures that help in reducing the rate of juvenile offenses and their impact. Data on juvenile arrests can be used to develop and establish reform and crime fighting initiatives. Some of the reform initiatives that have been developed based on these reports includes enhancing access to mental health services, serving needs of young people in the juvenile justice system, and developing alternatives to the conventional residential placement facilities. In essence, effective treatment and rehabilitative services can assist juveniles in the justice system to become productive members in the society.

In conclusion, the report on juvenile arrests in 2008 provides a clear indication of crime data that can be used to enhance the effectiveness of the juvenile justice system. The report indicated an overall decrease in the rate of juvenile crime based on statistics from the Uniform Crime Reporting Program by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The significance of the report in enhancing the effectiveness of the juvenile justice system is attributed to the fact that it provides comprehensive crime data across various categories, gender, and community members.


Cauffmann, E. (2008). Understanding the Female Offender. Juvenile…… [read more]

Law Enforcement Deception Term Paper

… A repeat offender may be too used to minimization, and it might require maximization instead. Maximization is the outright falsification of the facts: such as telling the suspect that their partner confessed to the crime too and implicated them. Persons with sociopathic tendencies might not respond to minimization either, because the technique has an essentially emotional component. Persons who are too detached from their emotions, or who feel no fear or remorse, might not respond to minimization.

Police interrogations are most often recorded, and the information gathered available for the jury in the court of law. This means that officers of the law are expected to use the tactic well, avoid using it on vulnerable populations like children or the mentally disabled, and to ensure the reading of the Miranda rights. A police officer who tells the suspect under interrogation that, "it was probably just an accident" is baiting the person, but not doing anything that could remotely be conceived as being illegal or unjust. After all, an innocent adult would say, "what accident? I'm actually innocent, and now I need to speak with my attorney." Minimization should be continued, because it is actually one of the least invasive and least offensive of the types of deceptive techniques officers can use.

Moreover, minimization should be continued because it works. Suspects who are guilty will be more likely to admit their guilt to a person who appears sympathetic, understanding, or lenient. Unfortunately, some research does show that minimization increases both true and false confessions (Redlich & Meissner, n.d.). Officers of the law need to be sure that (a) their suspect was chosen after a diligent, thorough, and problem-free vetting process; (b) the minimization techniques are employed within the Miranda provisions; and (c) the suspect is not vulnerable. The underlying assumption with minimization is that the suspect is guilty, but needs some motivation to confess. Motivations to confess differ significantly from person to person, and may include the desire for a lenient sentence; the promise of absolution or forgiveness; protection from hostile accomplices; or the assuaging of a guilty conscience. If the person remains truly innocent, then there is no reason to believe that a false confession is possible. False confessions may in fact be falsely tabulated, related more to procedural problems like forgetting to read Miranda rights or combining minimization with more intimidating techniques like the Reid Technique.

False confessions, tainted material, and evidence inadmissible in court are all serious problems for law enforcement. This is why interrogation techniques need to be streamlined and effective. Minimization remains one of the most reliable deceptive interrogation techniques available to law enforcement officers. When proper procedures are followed, the interrogation can prove highly successful when the suspect is offered the promise of lenience, the illusion of forgiveness, or the illusory sympathy of the officer. Engendering trust is a psychological tool that is crucial in helping suspects cooperate, and their cooperation is often earnestly for their own good. If the criminal justice system is to… [read more]

Vasiliy Gorshkov and Alexey Case Study

… Even with this, one would have to gain a more complex understanding of the situation before trying to criticize such behaviors. According to Purpura (1997, p. 178), instructors in police academies encourage recruits to use guile rather than force during crisis intervention, investigations and interrogations, and when dealing with the mentally ill."

The law enforcement subculture as a whole demands that officers have a complex understanding of their position in the social order. As a result of acknowledging the role they play, law enforcement officers come to believe that there is nothing wrong with them trying to trick criminals into being captured. Surely, when discussing this idea in a context involving morality it would seem that law enforcement officers act against principles that they live by. Even with this, one would have to understand that policing has more to do with rational behavior than it has to do with moral attitudes.

To a certain degree, police actions involving lies meant to capture criminals can be regarded as a means-to-an-end type of strategy. The idea of consequentialism is widely appreciated in law enforcement circles because of the benefits it can bring on. This particular idea encourages people to express lesser interest in the actor or in the act, as it emphasizes the outcome of the act as the most important concept. "The popular aphorism that 'the needs of the many outweigh the needs of the few' is an example of consequentialism." (Lemieux, 2013)

The U.S. authorities have discovered the fact that they were unable to prosecute many criminals that were known to have access to environments that they could easily exploit. As a consequence, it devised less moral means in an attempt to interact with these respective criminals and to be able to address their crimes similar to how they addressed normal crimes. The Guantanamo Bay detention camp is an example of such an act, as actions performed there are obviously illegal. However, the camp's location and the fact that some U.S. laws do not apply there have enabled prosecutors to take on cruel attitudes with regard to interrogation methods.

Ivanov and Gorshkov's capture generated diverse opinions, as while some believed that this was an obvious breach of laws promoted in the modern society, others considered that such behaviors are the only thing separating honest people from individuals who are unhesitant about committing crimes. FBI was, in the eyes of many, perceived as an institution similar to a hero -- it would not stand by and watch as innocent people were being harassed, even with the fact that its methods of getting to the criminals were seen by some as unlawful. "Probably the most difficult aspect of prosecuting a case involving the use of high technology is that it is hard to sometimes differentiate between criminal activity and noncriminal activity." (Calabrese, 2004, p. 115) Taking this into account, it becomes clear that the FBI was very limited in dealing with Ivanov and Gorshkov and it is likely that they would have… [read more]

Stress Police Signs Essay

… Stress Police

Signs of Stress in Police Officers

Police work is one of the most stressful jobs that can be found. Officers are required to continually face physical risks and often are putting their very lives on the line on a daily basis. This can lead to a variety of conditions that are related to stress such as alcoholism, suicide, marital problems, performance issues, and many other related issues. Being a police officer requires a significant amount of restraint and self-discipline. Stress is one of the phenomenon that can impact a police officer's ability to maintain their self-discipline. As a result, not only can stress be dangerous to the individual officers, but it can also be dangerous for the community at large.

Most of the law enforcement stressors can be grouped into four categories: (1) organizational practices and characteristics, (2) criminal justice system practices and characteristics, (3) public practices and characteristics, and (4) police work itself (Territo & Vetter, 1981). Studies have shown that the 15 most prevalent stress warning signs for police officers include sudden changes in behavior, erratic work habits, increased sick time due to minor problems, inability to maintain a train of thought, and excessive worrying. Any one of these signs should prompt further investigation when they are identified.

In many cases the stressors that result in a police officer's stress level are easily identified. For example, after a traumatic event such as a shooting it may be obvious that an individual might need an intervention to help them control their stress levels. However in other cases the stressors might not be nearly as obvious. There can be routine job functions that can accumulate stress over time and lead to a level of occupational stress that can be classified as chronic stress. Chronic stress has at least two…… [read more]

Court Management Policy Proposal Essay

… In addition, when the courts divert some of the juvenile offenders to VOM program, there is a reduction in the case backlogs, whereby successful mediation will reduce delays and the court's workload (Sheinin, 2010). This means that another goal associated… [read more]

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