Study "Crime / Police / Criminal Justice" Essays 881-935

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Labeling Theory and Juvenile Essay

… The drugs have not changed, only our perceptions of them. Similarly, legal racial classifications have broken down that stigmatized certain individuals as 'other,' although personal stereotypes have proven harder to extinguish.

One criticism of labeling theory is that it is difficult to pinpoint as the root cause of all sentencing discrepancies, however. For example, while there is clearly an overrepresentation of young black and Latino males within the juvenile justice system, there is a chicken and egg question -- is the overrepresentation due to racism, or to the social end economic conditions that racism has created that drive these young men to crime? The answer may be that it is a combination of the two -- expectations of criminality result in higher apprehension and conviction rates, because of presumed guilt, although poverty and social strain can increase the incentives to behave in an asocial manner. However, a bias that may cause a judge to see a white teen as in need of treatment vs. detention may also influence conviction rates. The subjective nature of what constitutes labeling theory makes empirical evidence-gathering difficult.

One experiment conducted within the context of the juvenile justice system of Portland, Oregon found that when less racially coded language was used when assessing juveniles using a new risk assessment instrument: 'potentially biased criteria as 'good family structure'" was replaced with language such as "whether there is an adult [not necessarily a parent] willing to be responsible for assuring the youth's appearance in court" -- and 'gang affiliation' references were dropped "a designation that is sometimes attributed to minority youths simply on the basis of where they live," the new offense rates for African-American youths plummeted from 23 to 13% (Reducing racial disparity in the criminal justice system, 2008, The Sentencing Project). This paper will examine how 'labeling' has been used to explain juvenile delinquency, and such attempts to empirically examine the degree to which labeling can influence juvenile sentencing.


Becker, Howard. (1963). Outsiders: Studies in the sociology of deviance. London: Macmillan.

A class divided. (2011). PBS. Retrieved September 24, 2011 at

Lemert, E.M. (1967). Human deviance, social problems and social control. Englewood Cliffs:


Paternoster, Raymond & Iovanni, Leeann. (1989). Labeling perspective and delinquency: An elaboration of the theory and an assessment of the evidence. Justice Quarterly. 6(3) 359.

Reducing racial disparity in the criminal justice system: A manual for practitioners and policymakers. (2008). The Sentencing Project. Retrieved September 24, 2011 at [read more]

Troy Davis and the Lessons Research Paper

… The idea of someone confessing to a crime they didn't commit, especially for something as serious as murder or rape, seems improbable to most people who have never been arrested and interrogated by the police. What isn't commonly realized is… [read more]

US Secret Service Research Paper

… Secret Service

Protection for Presidents & Myriad Other Assignments

The Secret Service began as an agency that was concerned only with counterfeiting issues in the U.S. In time the Service became part of America's spy network and only much later,… [read more]

Justice and the Insanity Defense in Contemporary Term Paper

… Justice and the Insanity Defense

In contemporary American criminal justice, insanity is a defense to criminal charges. When it is successfully asserted, it bars criminal conviction and the corresponding penal sentences associated with the even the most serious criminal offenses, including murder. Generally, defendants who are adjudicated to be insane may be confined to mental health facilities for as long as their mental capacity remains unchanged. However, it is also conceivably possible for murderers to be released much sooner than the term or incarceration they would have received for criminal conviction if their mental state improves substantially shortly after their being adjudicated insane.

In principle, the justification for recognizing the insanity defense is based on the underlying concept of mens rea, or "guilty mind" in Latin, the concept being that the mental capacity to understand that specific actions are wrong is a fundamental prerequisite for the justified imposition of penal sanctions for that conduct. In American criminal justice, the insanity defense is applicable whenever the defendant (through legal counsel) can establish that he was suffering from a mental condition that rendered him unable to appreciate the nature of his action as being wrong at the time of the crime. It is thought that protecting the insane defendant from punishment for conduct he was incapable of controlling or understanding is more compassionate than imposing penal sanctions. However, there are ethical considerations that may yield the entirely opposite conclusion: namely, that there is nothing necessarily compassionate about subjecting the rest of society to the consequences of recognizing the insanity defense.

There are several bases for opposing the application of the insanity defense to criminal charges. First, it conflicts with one of the fundamental purposes of the criminal justice system: namely, the removal of dangerous offenders from society for the benefit (i.e.… [read more]

Argument of Death and Justice Term Paper

… Morality of the Death Penalty

In "Death and Justice" (Koch, 1985), former New York City Mayor Ed Koch argues that the death penalty is not inhumane or morally inappropriate in a civilized society. According to the author, the traditional arguments used to oppose the death penalty are invalid. I would agree with the author on some of his points while disagreeing on several others. Specifically, I agree with the author that the U.S. is the only democracy that employs the death penalty while refuting the relevance of that distinction. I would agree with the author that the death penalty is not necessarily barbaric in principle while disagreeing on the basis of the fact that, in actual application, it may very well be. I disagree that the prospects of discriminatory and erroneous application are problems that have been solved, although I agree that biblical concepts should be irrelevant to modern secular law, that rightfully sanctioned capital punishment is not the same as murder, and that the death penalty does not necessarily cheapen human life.

Points of Philosophical Agreement and Disagreement

The author is correct when he suggests that the death penalty is not, in principle, barbaric. Assuming that it could be implemented in a manner that is completely devoid of suffering, administering the death penalty is no more barbaric than the administration of general anesthesia for scheduled therapeutic surgery. For that matter, I would even agree that other means of producing instantaneous death without suffering (such as a firing squad) are also immune to the criticism of barbarism simply because that standard must be considered only from the point-of-view of the convict rather than from the audience. In my opinion, only inflicting pain is cruel and barbaric.

The author rejects the opposition to the death penalty on the basis of the fact that the U.S. is the only democracy to impose it through a rationale with which I disagree although I accept the conclusion. In that regard, the point that… [read more]

Polygraph Does it Work Research Paper

… ¶ … Polygraph Testing

Polygraphs have fascinated law enforcement members ever since they were first proposed, seemingly offering a silver bullet for uncovering dishonesty in suspects and possible law enforcement applicants, and it remains wildly popular among United States law… [read more]

Travis Hirschi's Theories Discussion Chapter

… Travis H's theories

Controlling chaos: The causes of juvenile delinquency and their remedies

In contrast to the psychological theories of criminality that tended to predominate when he first constructed his 'social disorganization' theory, Travis Hirschi instead emphasized the sociological role in the fostering of delinquent behavior. Hirschi stated that rather than asking 'why do people become criminals' a more relevant question was 'why do people NOT become criminals. His answer was the sense of social bonds and obligations that individuals feel towards others and to society. Once these barriers break down, people feel little compunction in transgressing them. "Hirschi contended that no motivational factors were necessary for one to become delinquent; the only requirement was the absence of control that allows the individual to be free to weigh the benefits of crime over the costs of those same delinquent acts" (Welch 1998). This sense of social breakdown was particularly acute in impoverished areas of the country.

However, in working in conjunction with Gottfredson, Hirschi substantially reformulated his thesis. His first thesis suggests that by 'shoring up' traditional institutions such as the church and community organizations, social order can be preserved. But his larger work with Gottfredson harkened back to older conceptions of criminal behavior, asserting the need to foster self-control in the individual: "the essential element of criminality is the absence of self-control. Persons with high self-control consider the long-term consequences of their behavior; those with low self-control do not. Such control is learned, usually early in life, and once learned, is highly resistant to change" (Gottfredson & Hirschi 2011). Individuals from less affluent backgrounds might be less apt to be taught such self-control, but all individuals, regardless of class, can be brought up in a background that does not foster self-control. When an individual's natural inclination has a poor locus of self-control, combined with disadvantaged circumstances (although not necessarily so), the result is often criminal behavior.

Matza and Sykes Neutralization Theory stresses the intellectual rationalizations that people make to justify criminal behavior, including juveniles 'from good homes' who lack the traditionally accepted profile of the majority of juveniles who commit crimes. "Neutralization is defined as a technique,… [read more]

Correctional Service of Canada (Csc) the Reintegration Research Paper

… Correctional Service of Canada (CSC)

The reintegration project of the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) is a controversial system. Whilst the CSC maintains that its system works effectively for best enabling offenders to slowly acclimatize to the community thus stabilizing… [read more]

Public vs. Private Security Research Paper

… Public vs. Private Security

Private and public security forces have always been integral and critical components of ensuring safety and security in society. Although they may share some similarities especially with regards to the protection of lives and properties, their differences lay with their specific and detailed mandates as well as the extent of their responsibilities. Indeed, "private security and public law enforcement share many of the same goals: preventing crime and disorder, identifying criminals, and ensuring the security of people and property (U.S. Department of Justice, 2007)." The latter though has more responsibilities under the law especially with regards to investigating crimes, pursuing criminals, and bringing them to justice.

Taking the case whereby a parade is being held in a public venue, both public and private security forces are present albeit for different reasons. The public security forces particularly the police are present to maintain law and order as part of their regular duties and responsibilities. On the other hand, the private security forces were contracted by the various merchants to provide security for business establishments. Thus, the basic segregation of their duties and responsibilities in this particular scenario are apparent between the two security groups. However, when a sniper starts shooting randomly at the crowd, the police and private security professionals will have both overlapping and distinct duties as the shooting occurs and in the aftermath thereto. Both forces should and must ensure the safety and security of the public and prevent injury or death. This means that they will have to risk their lives in order to protect the public. But there are limitations though to the work of private security forces in this scenario and that is they cannot stop the protection of lives and property to go after and try arresting the sniper; this is the purview of the law enforcement personnel.… [read more]

Lock EM Up Reaction Paper

… Criminal Punishment

Dating back to 1973, the Rockefeller Drug Laws were a set of statutes that dealt with narcotics in the New York State Penal Code, named after Nelson Rockefeller, New York's Governor at the time. Designed to be as harsh as possible and seemingly in tune with the climate of the times, these laws were the toughest of their kind in the entire United States. Soon adopted by Michigan, the laws, which put drug sales and possession almost on the same par as violent crimes like murder and assault, were harshly criticized by both conservatives and liberals as being unrealistic, untenable, and taxing on a penal system already in crisis. More to the point, they simply did not work (New York Legislature to Vote, 2009). In fact, in January 2009, in his first State of the State address, New York Governor David Paterson, who had once been arrested for civil disobedience protesting these laws, was so critical of these laws, he noted, "I cannot think of a criminal justice strategy that has been more unsuccessful than the Rockefeller Drug Laws" (Liu, 2009).

The Rockefeller Laws, though, have just been indicative of an attitude toward drug offenses. The basic conservative viewpoint is to throw the perpetrator in jail, keep them in jail, and therefore engender a dual perception of keeping the streets clean and a society that punishes harshly. Ostensibly, this should deter criminal activity, reduce serious crime, and to improve the following of societal rules by those who might have an inclination to commit crime. Actually, these types of draconian laws did not accomplish any of their stated goals. Yes, they sent a great number of people to prison for lengthy sentences. But it seems that the data suggests that they also increased the number of repeat offenders, did not significantly drop the crime rate, and did not really deter drug related offenses. However, it is quite certain that overall, most prisons are now overcrowded, unable to rehabilitate, typically unable to offer the type of services necessary to help the prison population (education, psychological counseling, even adequate medical care). This is… [read more]

Reducing Vandalism at Shopping Malls Research Paper

… Territorial Reinforcements: physical and visual indicators of territory to express ownership, such as fences, pavement treatments (assigned parking), signs, landscaping, and artwork, help to discourage criminal activity.

Maintenance: paying attention to the landscaping, litter, parking lots and garages, lighting, gates, and the appearance of structures sends a signal that the property owners and management are paying close attention to what occurs on their property.

Order Maintenance: Quick and decisive responses to control disorderly or criminal behavior also sends a message that this type of behavior won't be tolerated.

Vandalism, in contrast to violent crimes that may be committed against customers, would require 24-hour surveillance to prevent after-hours activity. CPTED strategies that can minimize after-hours vandalism include installing gates for both vehicular and pedestrian traffic that can be locked after-hours and installing fencing around the perimeter of the property (San Diego Police Department, p. 13). Anti-graffiti paints and coatings could be applied to outdoor surfaces to discourage this type of vandalism.

The Long-Term Costs of Vandalism

In addition to the direct costs associated with repairing the damage caused by vandalism, unchecked and unrepaired damage creates the appearance of structural and social decay (Gibbons, p. F441-F442). Customers would perceive an atmosphere of greater vulnerability to the criminal element and be less likely to shop and spend their money in the stores. Over time adjacent neighborhoods would gain a poor reputation and property values would begin to decline. Residential vacancy rates would increase. A downward economic spiral would occur locally that could eventually force businesses to relocate and the mall to close. For these reasons, the damage caused by vandals should be corrected as soon as possible to prevent a very costly image problem.


Allen, Jennifer M. And Sawhney, Rajeev. (2010). Administration and management in criminal justice: A service quality Approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. p. 33.

Carter, Sherry P. (2001). Surrounded by safety: A crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) handbook for youth. YCWA Handbook.

Gibbons, Steve. (2004). The costs of urban property crime. Economic Journal, 114, F441-F463.

National Capital Planning Commission. (2001). Designing for security in the nation's capital. Retrieved May 12, 2011 from

San Diego Police Department. (2005). Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) for urban village centers. Retrieved May 12, 2011 from [read more]

Security Department Policy Hospitals Have Many Unique Term Paper

… Security Department Policy

Hospitals have many unique security needs and legal obligations as highly public, accessible institutions providing essential public goods. Because of the precarious condition of many local and state governments, local and state law enforcement agencies are often… [read more]

African-American Incarceration African-American Race Research Paper

… Strongest evidence for racially differential treatment is found for some offenses and in some jurisdictions rather than at the aggregate level. African-Americans are at especially high risk of incarceration, given their arrest rates, for drug crimes and burglary. States with… [read more]

Effectiveness of DNA Evidence in Criminal Investigations Term Paper

… ¶ … DNA Evidence in Criminal Investigations

Ever since its double-helix structure was first described by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has become the focus of an increasing amount of research, including its applications in… [read more]

Criminal Law the Book Is Divided Essay

… Criminal Law

The book is divided into 13 different chapters, covering a wide range of issues of criminal law, including the elements of crime, the basic legal limits upon criminal law, different categories of crimes (homicide crimes, crimes against habitation… [read more]

Random Preventive Patrol Essay

… Preventive Patrol Efficacy

Random Preventive Patrol

Random preventive patrol has long been thought of as a fundamental and effective basis of policing -- dating way back to the 13th century when patrolling force was created in Hangchow (Caro 1976: 323).… [read more]

Police Ethics and Terrorism Essay

… Law Enforcement: Ethics, Stigmas, and Anti-Terrorism Roles

The police mission inside the U.S. has been completely transformed and redefined by terrorism and the threat of domestic terror attacks. Police have an important anti-terrorism role to play. The post 9/11 world… [read more]

Detective Stories Essay

… ¶ … detective stories. One is represented by the so called Golden Age, the most famous representatives of which are Holmes and Poirot, the other one being the hard boiled detective fiction. In order to better understand the differences and… [read more]

Capital Punishment and the Church Research Paper

… ¶ … death penalty is one of the few social issues where the United States's political position more closely resembles that of Uganda, Iraq, and Pakistan than that of Britain and most European nations. In fact, the U.S. is the… [read more]

Special Offenders Found in Prison Essay

… Corrections and Police

Special Offenders found in Prison

Special offenders are inmates who circumstances, conditions or behaviors require that they be managed or treated outside of the norm. Juvenile offenders in the adult system are one example of such a special offender. It is ever more common for juvenile offenders to end up in the adult criminal system. As many as 25% of all juvenile offenders who are younger than age eighteen are now prosecuted in adult court. There was a 208% increase in the number of juveniles serving time in adult prisons, between 1990 and 2004 (Border Disputes between Juvenile and Adult Criminal Justice Systems: Exclusion and Transfer Laws, 2008).

America's juvenile courts have changed considerably over the past 30 years. The reasons for and procedures of juvenile courts have become very comparable to adult criminal courts. No state keeps a sacred, legal difference between the rank of juvenile and adult, and the age minimum for trial in adult court seems to fall every time a new incident of juvenile violence captures the nation's attention (Butts and Harrell, 2009).

Almost every state in the country has been sending a greater amount of juvenile offenders into the adult court using a variety of devices known collectively as transfer. When juveniles are moved to adult court, they lose their legal position as minor children and become fully liable for their behavior. Reassigning is often exercised for juveniles charged with violent crimes, but many youth are transferred for lesser charges (Butts and Harrell, 2009).

The underlying foundation for transfer to adult court is that minors should serve adult time for adult crime. Along with the assumption that juveniles who commit sophisticated crimes possess adult maturity of judgment and competency, has led to a significant increase in the number of juveniles who are transferred to adult court. Many of the laws passed during the 1990s to increase the numbers of youth tried in adult court have roots in the fears of the coming super predator. In many media stories that occurred in the 1990s, the adolescent offender was depicted as… [read more]

System of Inquiry Essay


Police Ethics Codes and the Problem of "Professional Courtesy"

In contemporary American policing, every duly authorized federal, state, or local municipal police agency maintains an official code of professional conduct… [read more]

Scientific Method and Forensics Science Essay

… Criminal Science

Applying the Scientific Method in the Real World: From Observation to Experimentation in Criminal Forensics

The scientific method is a very useful methodology for coming to objective conclusions about certain phenomena based on empirical evidence. Essentially, this method… [read more]

Restorative Justice Braithwaite, J. ) Research Proposal

… Restorative Justice

Braithwaite, J. (2002). Restorative Justice & Responsive Regulation. Oxford University Press.

Restorative justice, the Braithwaite text indicates, has been advocated for centuries in a variety of different forms. However, the text makes the argument that the approach demanded by restorative justice conflicts with the practical implications of court annexed justice by reducing legal contextualization to an impractical degree. The Braithwaite text contributes the most significant counterargument to the advocacy of restorative justice otherwise found in this account.

Braithwaite argues that "contrary to legal common sense, restorative justice seeks to reduce the cost of justice by expanding the issues beyond those that are legally relevant, especially into underlying relationships. Court-annexed ADR and restorative justice could not be philosophically further apart on this question." (Braithwaite, 249) This reflects one perspective on the issue, though Braithwaite's legal review research method would effectively consider all angles on the subject through the citation precedent.

Hopkins, B. (2004). Just Schools: A Whole School Approach to Restorative Justice. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

The text by Hopkins provides one of the more compelling discussions on the subject of restorative justice. If it is not always the case that such methods may be used to mend legal trespasses due to prevailing political or legal culture, the context of a school proves extremely practical for evaluating the benefits of this approach. The Hopkins text considers restorative justice as a way to mend relationships in the school context, arguing that this is a more constructive way of approach problem students.

Hopkins denotes that restorative justice as an applicable part of the legal system requires a paradigm shift and, further, contributes to the subject of restorative justice by suggesting "that a similar paradigm shift is needed in a school setting if relationship and behaviour management are to be developed along restorative lines." (Hopkins, 30) the research conducted is field research, producing grounded handbook drawn from firsthand professional experience.

Liebmann, M. (2007). Restorative Justice: How it Works. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

The Liebmann text is effectively the introductory and comprehensive overview source for the present discussion. Providing a sweeping look at the subject in the legal context, as well as applying it thereafter to the workplace, schools and community reconciliation, Liebmann contributes a view of restorative justice which suggests its progressive properties. The research method would be a literature review gathering together a wide array of case studies to the endorsement of restorative justice. Most of these contribute to the perspective that restorative justice has the capacity to improve criminal… [read more]

Community Watch Impact on Colleges Universities Research Proposal


Community Policing Neighborhood Watch Programs

The work of Godfrey (nd) entitled: "Assessing the Success of Community-Policing (Neighborhood Watch Program)" states that communities are turning to "community-policing neighborhood watch programs to deter crime in their neighborhoods. This includes the location and elimination of drug houses so that citizens can enjoy peace in their neighborhoods." (Godfrey, nd) Godfrey relates that community policing is a practice that was "developed in the 1970s, a product of the experimentation of rank and file police officers at the street level." (Godfrey, nd)

Major Principles of the Program

The major principles which are stated to distinguish community policing from convention law enforcement are those as follows:

(1) Crime prevention;

(2) Problem-solving; and (3) Partnerships. (Godfrey, nd)

As already stated previously in this review community policing "...supports the systematic use of partnerships." (Community Policing Dispatch, 2008) College and university campuses are stated to be a "rich source of volunteers for law enforcement agencies in higher education settings. Despite being an inherently transient population, the university community can help their campus police departments provide valuable crime prevention and public safety services." (VIPS in Focus, 2009) The College of Lake County Illinois reports that the goals of campus watch are: (1) to encourage extensive community involvement in the reduction of crime and criminal activity; (2) to provide a forum for the exchange and coordination on ideas, concepts and strategies to prevent or reduce crime; (3) to educate members of the College community in crime prevention matters; (4) to focus attention on all issues relating to crime prevention; (5) to share with all segments of the campus community and the campus watch organization matters relating to the continued development of a comprehensive plan for the prevention of crime; (6) to encourage the education of all members of the community in matters which increase personal and community safety; and (7) to encourage maximum cooperation and communication between all community members and the Campus Safety Department toward the goal of crime prevention. (College of Lake County, Illinois, 2008)

IV. Student Volunteers

The work of Gummere (2003) entitled: "Making a Better Place: Planning, Implementing & Managing a Student Volunteer Program" states that community service and volunteering '...directly influence a young person's development of important life skills such as leadership ability, interpersonal and communication skills, critical thinking, and conflict resolution skills. For students, community service and volunteering bridges academic learning with applied settings, integrating theory and research with real world experiences." (Gummere, 2005)

V. Strategies for University and College Campus Public Safety

The work entitled: "National Summit on Campus Public Safety: Strategies for Colleges and Universities in a Homeland Security Environment" states that there should be the establishment of a center for campus safety " support the field, foster collaboration and lasting relationships, facilitate information sharing and provide quality education." (COPS, 2005) It is stated that the center should: (1) Improve and sustain the quality of services provided by police, security, and public safety personnel to… [read more]

Miranda Warnings and Miranda-Based Law Thesis

… Fifth Amendment Miranda Issues

The Miranda Doctrine:

Under the landmark 1966 Miranda v. Arizona (348 U.S. 346) decisions, evidence procured by police authorities during interrogations of criminal suspects may not be admissible at trial unless the suspect was first advised… [read more]

Criminological Theory Thesis

… Criminological Theory

The relationship between unemployment and crime is complex and can be discussed at length. Let us instead explore how unemployment might cause or inhibit a criminal behavior; how crime might lead to unemployment; and what third variables might… [read more]

Criminal Investigation Research Proposal

… Forensics

Residing in a city with one of the highest rates of violent crime leads to a variety of criminal situations that can be addressed with forensics. A recent event involving a shootout at a local gang site is one… [read more]

RICO Act Thesis

… RICO ACT in Conception and Application

Prosecuting organized crime has always carried with it unique and unwieldy challenges for law enforcement agents and groups. By their very nature, organized crime syndicates will tend to be complex, inherently subterranean in their… [read more]

Normative Ethics Essay

… Normative Ethics: Should Obama Seek an Investigation of Possible Crimes by the Bush Administration

Since Obama was chosen as President in early November, there has been a tremendous amount of discussion regarding whether he should pursue an investigation into possible… [read more]

Recidivism Among Violent Criminals Thesis

… Recidivism Among Violent Criminals in the United States Today

One of the more ironic aspects of life in the "land of the free" is the fact that the United States continues to incarcerate more of its citizens than any other… [read more]

Broken Windows Thesis

… Broken Windows

Is the Broken Windows Theory Broken?

In their article Broken Windows, Wilson and Kelling give an in-depth explanation of how whether a community is orderly or disorderly can impact the perception of a community's crime rate. They explain… [read more]

Ohio Corrections Through Just Desserts: A Multi-Agency Essay

… Ohio Corrections

Corrections Through Just Desserts: A Multi-Agency Collaborative Approach

The orientation of our government is essentially a composite of agencies whose capacity to function both independently and in concert with one another serves as a key determinant of the… [read more]

Agree: The Death Penalty Does Not Deter Thesis

… Agree: The death penalty does not deter crime.

One of the arguments in favor of the death penalty centers on capital punishment as deterrent. Supposedly criminals -- those among us who are the most psychologically disturbed, the most besieged by hatred and anger, or those who have become wholly irrational -- are supposed to take a moment of reflection before committing a crime and talk themselves out of it with the fear of dying. The very thought that the death penalty might be a deterrent to crime is laughable. An individual who commits egregious crimes is not one to think rationally or clearly enough to contemplate his or her own mortality, no matter how self-motivated the crime or self-interested the individual. Persons who commit heinous acts, those that would warrant the death penalty in a Hammurabian world, are nearly immune from such high-level thinking.

Looming capital punishment could not have deterred those who were in the wrong place at the wrong time. Nor could capital punishment deter those whose crimes were accidental, or those whose lawyers were simply inept during the trial. The death penalty is simply not a deterrent to the crimes it purports to prevent.

Data and statistics seem to back up the truth that the death penalty is not a deterrent. In spite of common sense, reason, and factual evidence, however, some states in the union still kill their own people. Those states -- and all those who support the death penalty -- have no right to criticize the barbaric practices of other countries. The death penalty makes Americans a less moral society.

The death penalty deters crime mainly in those who would not have committed crimes in the first place. As a deterrent, the death penalty does send a message that inhumane behavior is intolerable in our free society. Yet any life-loving, moral American… [read more]

Probation, Parole, and Prison Privatization Thesis

… Probation, Parole, & Prison Privatization

Prison Privatization: Pro

Privatization saves taxpayers money: The state of New Mexico has privatized 45% of its prison system, a greater percentage than any other state in the union. A 2003 study by the New Mexico-based Rio Grande Foundation showed that New Mexico spent $9,600 less per prisoner in 2001 than did states with no prison privatization programs. The state saved more than $50 million in 2001 over the previous year without prison privatization by contracting out for management of less than half its prison system (La Faive, 2004).

2003 study published by Vanderbilt University researchers showed that states using privately owned and/or run prisons saw their daily cost of housing prisoners grow almost 9% slower than states not privatizing their prison facilities at all (La Faive, 2004). To ensure proper safety and security of the community under tightening budgets for states, this is of vital consideration in maintaining an effective prison system that can incarcerate offenders for the entirety of their sentences.

Private companies must use more transparent accounting procedures according to the law. Studies have shown private prisons consistently exhibit more truth about their spending practices. When "most of the costs associated...are parts of a private-sector business contract and, therefore, easily identifiable" this reduces waste (La Faive, 2004).

Privatization is not a quirk of the U.S. prison system, it is used internationally: "Governments around the globe have been hiring private companies to manage prison populations for decades" (La Faive, 2004).

Privatized prisons often provide better services and conditions for inmates: A prospective study of prison privatization in Alabama concluded that "private construction would create more prisoner bed space faster, thereby relieving overcrowding. Private construction could replace many aging facilities in Alabama with more efficient, state-of-the-art prisons (Ciamarra, 2006).

Parole: Pro

When used for genuinely repentant inmates, offering the possibility of parole psychologically eases the transition into the 'real world' for prisoners.

The prospect of parole provides an incentive for good behavior for inmates, reducing… [read more]

Successful Community Problem Solving Thesis

… Policing - Implementing Changes


In 1993, New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani implemented a zero-tolerance approach to criminal code enforcement that included mandatory police response to various violations, the lowest level of infraction set forth in the criminal code, below misdemeanors (Conlon, 2004). According to Giuliani, low-level violations, particularly those that relate to the so-called broken windows concept, detract from the overall quality of life of ordinary citizens.

That initiative included a crackdown on minor infractions like squeegee solicitations, spitting in public, playing music that is audible to others on public transportation, unlawful assembly, and even "improper use of a milk crate" (i.e. sitting on it) that were appreciated more by some than others (Conlon, 2004).

The Relevance of the Broken Windows Concept to a Bustling Metropolis:

In its original formulation and context, the broken windows theory applied to the relationship between infrastructure deterioration and general neglect of real property and the growth of crime in those areas and its eventual spread to surrounding communities (Schmalleger, 2001). In that respect, it does not apply to large busy cities like New York, "the city that never sleeps." However, in a broader sense, the broken windows principle also applies to the general deterioration of respect for rules of order and lawful authority where, as in New York City, police are typically too busy handling "heavy" calls for service to respond to all the comparatively inconsequential violations they witness continually (Nolan, et al., 2005).

The concern on the part of Giuliani was not that lack of enforcement of minor violations necessarily increased crime specifically, but that the routine flouting of laws undermined respect for law enforcement and at least encouraged more serious criminal activity. More importantly, Giuliani objected to the traditional characterization of minor illegal activities as being "victimless" crimes because they detracted from the quality of life for thousands of ordinary citizens (Conlon, 2004). According to Giuliani, failing to take action against the hundreds of "squeegee men" staking out major intersections and access ramps throughout the city bogged down traffic for thousands in the aggregate, and annoyed and inconvenienced drivers continually.

Naturally, the seemingly petty enforcement of milk crate-use violations became the subject of numerous news stories, but it actually served a valid purpose. The focus on milk crates was certainly a novel method of improving quality-of-life detractors in many neighborhoods, but the objective was actually about eliminating the age-old habit, especially within poorer New York City communities, of groups of men sitting on the… [read more]

Promotion Plan Situation Analysis Promotional Strategy Communication Research Proposal

… Promotion Plan

Situation Analysis

Promotional Strategy

Communication Media

Promotional Budget

ABC Company is a young company with five employees and one product that they are about to launch. The product is a silver bracelet with a tracking chip embedded, a… [read more]

Law Enforcement Is a Different Occupation Term Paper

… Law enforcement is a different occupation than most. A policeman who walks out of the door one morning faces a greater likelihood of not returning home, than people from most other professions. Policemen are first responders to scenes of accidents… [read more]

Assessing Juveniles Perceptions on Capital Punishment Term Paper

… Race Justice

Assessing Juveniles Perceptions on Capital Punishment

The purpose of this study is an exploration of the relationship between race and capital punishment. Specifically the researcher will explore the racial differences in attitudes toward capital punishment, focusing on juvenile… [read more]

Gendered Criminology Theory Term Paper

… Gendered Criminology Theory

The authors of this article interrogates the various traditional and more contemporary approaches to the issue of gender differences in crime and particularly with regard to the sociological influences and factors that affect rate and types of… [read more]

Secrets of the FBI Term Paper

… FBI and Witness Protection

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is perceived by the public primarily as a law enforcement agency, though more and more the public is also noting the role of the FBI in fighting terrorism and in… [read more]

Law Enforcement Deviance Term Paper

… Law Enforcement Deviance

The Rampart division of the Los Angeles Police Department suffered an enduring scandal over police threats and treatment of gangs in an attempt to control gang and other criminal activity in the area. There were numerous forms of police deviance performed by officers in the Rampart district, and two of the most important were perjury and false arrest reports along with planting of evidence. All of these forms of deviance were overlooked and ignored by department leadership and management, which led to continued police deviance and abuses.

Some of the reasons behind the Rampart deviance include an intense desire to control crime in the Rampart district at any cause, and, as one convicted police officer noted the officers felt they were above the law. He said, "[T]hey were LAPD and could do whatever they wished'" (Editors 5). This attitude may have helped them control crime in the Rampart area, but it also led to a severe distrust of the police by the people, and ultimately an undermining of the entire criminal justice process in Los Angeles. The attitude was so widespread that a group of police officers robbed a bank in the area, and another checked out cocaine for a court trial that had already taken place for the purpose of selling it. The Rampart district officers were essentially given free reign in their war on gangs, and this freedom turned to corruption and abuse.

The activity was allowed to flourish for a number of reasons. First, the report stated that the CRASH unit was so elite and its purpose so specialized, that it received little support or influence from its chain of command. Thus, the officers were given too much power with too little input or responsibility, and the officers began to think and operate as if they were above the law. Supervisors gave them too much freedom and overlooked their transgressions because they were effectively reducing crime in the area. Because the program became very successful, a few "bad seeds" were allowed to continue to operate without supervisory management, and this grew into an operational policy that most officers followed.

Of course, Rampart is not the only police unit to illustrate this type of behavior. In neighboring Orange County in 2006, Huntington Beach police officers were… [read more]

Panetti v. Quarterman Term Paper

… Panetti v. Quarterman

Title and Citation

Panetti, Scott v. Quarterman, Nathaniel, Director, Texas Department of Criminal Justice, Correctional Institutions Division

Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit

Argued April 18, 2007 - Decided June 28,… [read more]

Effects of Slavery on African Americans Today Term Paper

… African-Americans

The history of African-Americans concerns the story of a group of people who were displaced from their different homelands and struggled through great adversity to adapt to their new "homes" and redefine their traditions and culture. Since arriving in… [read more]

Legal Reasoning Term Paper

… Legal Reasoning a) in his speech Lord Hope of Craighead stated a number of grounds that he believed justified banning the use of torture or of evidence obtained by torture. The first of those grounds was that the United Kingdom… [read more]

DNA During the 1990's, DNA Testing Term Paper


During the 1990's, DNA testing became popular in the area of Law Enforcement and the criminal justice system. Today hundreds of cases, both cold and live, have been solved using DNA evidence as a primary tool during both investigation and trials. While the power of DNA analysis, particularly combined with the Combined DNA Index System, or CODIS, has great advantages to law enforcement, there are also disadvantages to such technology.

When collected, documented, and stored appropriately, DNA evidence, or biological evidence, can be a useful tool for crime scene investigation, even after several years (National Institute of Justice (NIJ), 2002). Since hair, blood, semen, and other bodily fluids and tissues contain DNA specific to each individual person, much like fingerprints, crime scene investigators can collect DNA from victims, crime scenes, and suspects. If DNA found, for example, in the semen of a rape victim, and if that DNA matches that of a suspect, there is a high likelihood the suspect is responsible. This can be immensely useful in identifying criminals within a group (NIJ, 2002).

In addition, due to the life of DNA, old cases thought unsolvable are now being reopened, and checked for DNA evidence (NIJ, 2002). This allows old cases to be reinvestigated, using samples of tissues and other biological information taken at the time the crime was committed. Even several years later, a person suspected of the crime can be brought in for DNA analysis against crime scene evidence, and if a match is found, investigators can prosecute accordingly, bringing the perpetrator to justice (FBI, 2000).

While DNA is a powerful tool alone, the creation of the DNA database has proved to be an even more effective tool in criminal investigation. A DNA database, such as the FBI's CODIS system, often contain two indexes, those of crime scenes, and those of offenders. When a crime is committed in which DNA evidence is found, police and investigators can compare the crime scene samples to samples in either index. In doing so, investigators can link together crime scenes, as well… [read more]

Death Penalty (Anti) Historically Term Paper

… Death Penalty (Anti)

Historically, much of the debate over capital punishment has focused on the core moral issue of whether it is right to take a life as a punishment for murder. This moral debate is important and necessary, but… [read more]

Forum Report: Greece Is a European Nation Term Paper

… Forum Report: Greece

Greece is a European nation, predominantly Greek Orthodox in terms of the religious composition of its relatively homogenous population. However, the average age of the population has been rising since the 1990s, and there has also been an increase of immigrants, particularly from Albania, which has somewhat changed the composition of the nation's demographics. Greece's government is that of a united, multiparty parliamentary state. Its judiciary is independent from the government. Judicial proceedings are similar to current French and German inquisitorial, as opposed to adversarial systems of justice. This means, from a criminological perspective, that rather than the philosophy of the justice system revolving around two opposed parties presenting their own biased sides of the 'story' before a jury, which will ideally find out what is true from hearing both sides, the French system sees the judicial process as a fact-finding mission where judges and the state have a more active part in… [read more]

Women Do Not Make Good Term Paper

… Lack of job satisfaction, underutilization, lack of incentive due to the fact that their chances of getting promoted are negligible and the constant feeling that they are not wanted all combine to bring out an effect where it is seen that women are not the best police officers as compared to men. Society, especially the male component of society should realize and recognize that women police officers are as productive and competent as the male police officers. They should not discriminate and accept them to be a functioning part of society. Years and centuries of male dominance should come to an end in this civilized world today and women police officers should be given equal opportunities, not only theoretically but also practically. Women police officers should not be paid any less than their male counterparts. Equal opportunity and equal pay should be the principle regardless of which gender a person belongs to. Sex discrimination should be eliminated completely otherwise this would increase negative effects in society and thus be harmful. Once such steps are taken and women police officers are accepted and considered to be competent and responsible, the productivity will increase. Once they are given equal opportunities for special assignments and promotions, the world today will find women police officers to be as good as male police officers.


(1) Prenzler, T., & Wimhurst, K. (1997). Blue tunics and batons: women and politics in the Queensland police, 1970-1987. Journal of Australian Studies, (52), 88

(2) Linden, R. (1983) "Women in policing - a study of lower mainland RCMP (royal Canadian mounted police) Detachments." Canadian Police College Journal, 7(3), 217

(3) Steinberg. (1982) Typical and Alternative Routes to Promotion of Women and Minorities. Journal Public and Internal Affairs 3, 13 (Fall/Winter). 21

(4) Grant, Nancy K., Garrison, Carole G., McCormick K. (1990) Perceived Utilization, Job Satisfaction and Advancement of Police Women. Public Personnel Management. 19. (2) 147.

(5) Steel Brent S., Warner, Rebecca L. (1989) Affirmative Action in Times of Fiscal Stress and Changing Value Priorities: The Case of Women in Policing. Public Personnel Management. 18. (3)… [read more]

What Are the Arguments for and Against Giving First Time Young Offenders a Custodial Sentence? Term Paper

… Youthful Offenders in British Legal Sys

Youthful Offenders: Custodial Sentence

Argument both for and Against in Relation to British Law

The stated objective of this work in writing is to research and make examination of the arguments both for and… [read more]

Offenders Rehabilitation vs. Punishment Changing Term Paper

… The model is expressed in public policy through crime control strategies such as determinate sentencing and sentencing guidelines, abolishment of parole, tougher penalties, and expanded use of the death penalty. One consequence has been more massive expenditures for corrections and… [read more]

Opportunities Abound in the Forensics Term Paper

… Citing the example of a Secret Service human resource manager: "There are just not that many people out there in the job market that have the skills we're looking for," he says. "Oftentimes we have to train them in house, but once we get them where we want them, the private sector has an interest in the same skills, and so they're always trying to recruit our people" (p. 112). If this was not enough competition for qualified forensics professionals, the U.S. military is also a major user of forensics technology. Although the forensics systems and techniques used by the military are slightly different from their counterparts in other governmental agencies and the private sector, there is going to be a growing demand for qualified forensics professionals across the board in years to come (Braga, 2004). Furthermore, the demand for qualified forensics professionals is only going to be outweighed by the new opportunities realized through the application of increasingly sophisticated computer software applications specifically designed to assist in such investigations (Sartin, 2004). Therefore, developing a "snapshot" of the forensics industry as it exists today, what techniques and applications are commonly used, as well as an analysis of future trends, will help provide managers at all levels with a more informed view of how they can recruit and keep qualified forensics professionals in their own organizations, and how they can use them to their best advantage.


Avise, J.C. (2004). The hope, hype & reality of genetic engineering: Remarkable stories from agriculture, industry, medicine, and the environment. New York: Oxford University


Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Braga, M. (2004, June 10). Tracking data on dead. Sarasota Herald Tribune, D1.

Great expectations are realized. (2000). Security Management 44(11), 74.

Piazza, P. (2003, April). On patrol in cyberspace: A look at progress among local, state, and federal efforts to combat cybercrime, including credit card fraud and identity theft.

Security Management, 47(4), 111.

Rauschart, L. (2001, November 5). Law & scholarship. The Washington Times, 4.

Sartin, B. (2004, September). Tracking the cybercrime trail: In… [read more]

Role of Law Enforcement Administrators in the Face of Increased International Terrorism Term Paper

… ¶ … Role of Law Enforcement Administrators in the face of increased International Terrorism

The origins of the office of the sheriff, both in England as well as in the United States of America are very old, and in England,… [read more]

White-Collar Crime Term Paper

… Thus, part of the reason white-collar crime is so frequent today is that the perpetrators know there is a strong likelihood they will never be caught or prosecuted. This encourages crimes such as fraud, identity theft, Internet fraud, and a host of other crimes that are difficult to trace. In addition, many Americans focus on violent crimes, such as rape, robbery, and murder. Those crime numbers have been decreasing in modern-day America, while white-collar crimes have been increasing (Johnston, 2002). Funding is always available for violent crimes, but it is far less common to effectively combat white-collar crimes. T

In conclusion, white-collar crime in America is increasing, and so are the ways to combat it. To truly combat this type of crime, instruction of ethics and morals should be more widespread in the educational and business communities, and there should be much harsher penalties for white-collar crimes. White-collar criminals need to know the law enforcement community takes their crimes seriously, and the court system will punish them as harshly as possible according to the law. White-collar crime can devastate people's lives just as any other violent crime can, and so, the court and judicial systems must seriously consider these crimes, and society must recognize them as dangerous before the system can control them.


Editors. (2005). Economic and high-tech crime papers, publications, reports. Retrieved from the National White-Collar Crime Center Web site: / 17 Aug. 2005.

Johnston, R. (2002, January). The battle against white-collar crime: "The exponential growth of technology and the use of computers have triggered a purposeful rethinking of the tools needed by law enforcement organizations to address Internet-related crime." USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 130, 36+.

Weisburd, D., Waring, E., &… [read more]

Police Suspicion and Discretionary Decision-Making During Citizen Stops Term Paper

… ¶ … Police Suspicion and Discretionary Decision Making During Citizen Stops" presents the topic of "racial profiling" and how it applies to stop and question suspects during police stops. It discusses just how police offers make the decision to stop and question suspects and suspicious persons in one specific area, Savannah, Georgia. Specifically, the article addresses actual "situational processes" that help officers discover suspicious persons and what actually deems suspicious behavior that will cause an officer to stop a suspect for questioning. The authors maintain that most studies look at the officers and the suspect after the stop, and not at what specifically caused the officers to stop the suspects in the first place. Their main thesis is that how they choose to stop a citizen "has the most profound consequences for the citizens in the criminal justice system" (Alpert, Macdonald and Dunham 408).

The findings and examples used as a foundation for the actually include a literature review, individual and environmental factors, research, and legalities in their decision-making process, and their conclusions seem to be based on real data, research, and a deep understanding of the sociological aspects of policing. One conclusion that what quite interesting in this data was that younger police officers tend to be more aggressive in their behaviors and judgments, and younger suspects tend to be more aggressive and more disrespectful than older suspects, and that this can surely play a part in the officer's decision-making process when deciding to stop a suspect. Race is also a compelling issue, as is how the police officer sees and infers a suspect's nonverbal behaviors. The authors' research shows there are different communication styles between races and they can be misunderstood. As expected, training and experience are deciding factors in decision-making, but so is race - right or wrong. The authors acknowledge that suspicion should be based on how the suspects actually act, but that is not always the case.

These author's conclusions are fairly easy to understand, and the tables were very helpful in making some of the data clearer and more enlightening. The data showed that the researchers, after some study and research, were fairly able… [read more]

Peacemaking Criminology Term Paper

… Peacemaking Criminology

The first difficulty in assessing peacemaking criminology (PMC) begins with identifying a clear, reasonably encompassing definition, or even isolating a group of precepts that binds adherents. The PMC perspective is not a theory, because it lacks an identifiable… [read more]

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