Study "Crime / Police / Criminal Justice" Essays 991-1000

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Utilitarianism -- Death Penalty Context Literature Review

… Utilitarianism Case Study -- Death Penalty

Context, History, and General Background of the Issue

The history of criminal justice recognizes three principal concerns: punishment or retribution, isolation of offenders for the benefit of the general public, and deterrence. In principle, the death penalty serves all of those interests by punishing the offender, protecting members of the general public from the offender, and providing an example intended to deter other individuals who might otherwise be more inclined to perpetrate the same offenses. In ancient times, punishment was typically the focus of criminal penalties but contemporary ethical theorists emphasize crime prevention and prosecution the Utilitarian approach to criminal justice in general would favor measures that reduce the incidence of crime and benefit the greatest number of people in society. It could support the imposition of death penalties in certain situations.

Applying Utilitarian Ethical Concepts

Generally, Utilitarianism would permit capital punishment in circumstances where there were no other reasonable means of achieving the greatest good for the largest number of people. One school of Utilitarian thought is that human social behavior must be addressed through Utilitarian rules that do not recognize fact-based exceptions to those rules. The other Utilitarian school of thought, Act Utilitarianism, is that it may also be for the maximum good of society that its rules maintain sufficient flexibility not to produce morally absurd results applied in an all-or-none manner. Both schools of thought could justify capital punishment under certain circumstances. [the larger implications would be terrifying because, in principle, Rule Utilitarianism could establish an ethical requirement to impose the death penalty for killing strictly in self-defense or even by accident, depending only on the literal content of the laws involved.]

Should this man have been subjected to capital punishment? Why or why not?

Possibly. First, as a general proposition, it is not helpful to look backwards with 20/20 factual hindsight. The perpetrator of a violent attempted homicide…… [read more]


Administration of Justice in Cases Data Analysis Chapter

… Methodology and Study

In order to attain the goal in this study, the research has incorporated a quantitative study. The study involves the use of statistical data on various cases done in the past on mentally disturbed convicts. The quantitative study is meant to reveal patterns of judicial proceedings which will lead to conclusions and potential outcomes, which will lay strong evidence e to support the thesis. A survey research is done to determine the position and opinion of the people about the conviction of mentally disturbed people (Babbie, 2012).

The Hypothesis to be examined

The null hypothesis in the criminal justice administration states that mental destabilized people are innocent of accusations of any criminal activity. In addition, their violent actions and irresponsible behaviors are triggered by certain circumstance that provokes their mental illnesses.

Operationalization of Concepts (Babbie, 2012)

Mental illness is the state of an individual acting on impulse without any discernment of the consequences of the actions.

An offender is either

a) Mentally ill (unstable)

b) Mentally stable

Variables in the Hypothesis (Babbie, 2012)

Independent variable: judgment

Dependent variable: mental illness

References

Babbie, E.R. (2010). The Practice of Social Research. New…… [read more]


Capital Punishment -- Immoral Justice? Research Paper

… Capital Punishment -- Immoral Justice?

Capital punishment is presently one of the most debated topics as a consequence of the mixed opinions that the masses have concerning the practice. While some believe that the procedure is an essential concept of… [read more]


Inside Female Prisons Research Paper

… ¶ … Female Prisons

According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics in the Office of Justice Programs (U.S. Department of Justice) as of December 2010 there were a total of 1,612,395 men and women incarcerated in federal and state prisons… [read more]


Ethical Dilemmas: Forensic Psychologists Assessing the Competency Essay

… Ethical Dilemmas: Forensic Psychologists Assessing the Competency of Inmates to Be Executed

For most psychologists, working with patients in order to improve their mental health is a goal that presents no ethical conflicts; it is seen as an unmitigated positive… [read more]


Agency/Organization in Which You Worked Essay

… S. Cyber Security and carries out covert investigations through undercover law enforcement methodologies.

Child Exploitation Section

Child Exploitation Section is responsible for fighting the sexual exploitation of children and the production and distribution of child pornography. CES's sophisticated investigative techniques… [read more]


Senate Bill 123 of Kansas Research Paper

… Senate Bill 123 Kansas

Kansas' Senate Bill 123 (SB 123) had created an obligatory community-based drug treatment that is for individuals that have been sentenced of first- or second-offense drug possession. This essay will examined the impact of SB 123… [read more]


Juveniles in Basic Terms Research Paper

… The alternatives in this case should have taken into consideration the need to reform and treat young Nathaniel as opposed to punishing him. Rehabilitation is one such alternative. An attempt to rehabilitate Nathaniel would have given him a chance to recollect himself after stumbling down the wrong path. Indeed, the juvenile system under which Nathaniel should have been tried is designed to treat, guide and reform other than punish. The other alternatives which should have been taken into consideration in this case include mentoring programs, vocational programs as well as other interventions (family based).

It is important to note that trying juveniles as adults has a number of consequences. According to Cole and Smith (2007), "many experts believe that trying juveniles as adults only makes things worse." To begin with, trying juveniles as adults effectively destroys and complicates their future. Indeed, in the words of Cole and Smith (2007), "punishing juveniles in adult institutions robs them of their childhood and threatens their future." There is also a possibility that kids tried as adults could end up becoming more hardened. This is more so the case given that juveniles happen to be at a different level of both emotional as well as social development in comparison to their adult counterparts.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it can be noted that trying juveniles as adults only focuses on the crime committed and as a result ignores the individual needs of the juvenile charged. In reality, juveniles are not allowed to marry, vote or engage in many of the same activities undertaken by their adult counterparts partly because they are not deemed fully appreciative of the implications of their actions. Why then should juvenile offenders be subjected to the same standards as adults when they commit a crime?

References

Bradsher, K. (1999, November 17). Michigan Boy Who Killed at 11 Is Convicted of Murder as Adult. Retrieved April 13, 2012, from The New York Times website: http://www.nytimes.com/1999/11/17/us/michigan-boy-who-killed-at-11-is-convicted-of-murder-as-adult.html?ref=nathanielabraham

Cole, G.F. & Smith, C.E. (2007). Criminal Justice in America (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.… [read more]


Violent Crimes Criminology Crime Analysis Discussion Chapter

… Criminologists also interview any surviving victims of the criminal, as well as close friends, family members, and any relevant associates of the murderers. This gives the profile and the interview of the criminal itself a context within which to understand, interpret, and predict the criminal's behaviors.

In addition to interviewing murderers and persons in their lives, criminologists would analyze the scene of the violent crime itself. There are many roles in crime scene investigation. The crime scene tells the criminologists the circumstances under which the crime was committed. The crime scene tells the criminologist what materials were used to commit the crime. The crime scene also provides insight into the mindset of the criminal. Whether the crime scene is left in disarray or whether the crime scene was left immaculate can be details that are exceptionally revealing about the criminal. These kinds of details give the criminologists the information necessary to prevent the next crime, arrest the criminal, and influence policy related to that specific violent crime such as the classification of the crime or the penalties for committing the crime.

Criminology utilizes various methods to understand and prevent violent crimes such as murder. Analyzing violent crimes is integral to the science of criminology. The analysis of violent crimes is insightful to learning about the criminal (past and present) and learning about the crime, whether the crime is isolated or one of a series of crimes. The analysis of violent crimes such as murders assists criminologists in their pursuit of the criminal and in enacting the rightful punishment for the crime. The analysis of violent crimes can furthermore influence legislation regarding the classification and/or penalty for that specific crime. Crime analysis, in this case, of the violent crime of murder, serves many functions to criminologists and to the public at large, as criminologists are a type of public servant.

References:

Kiefer, M. (2010, August 4). New 'Baseline Killer' details emerge Tuesday in court testimony. The Arizona Republic. Available from

"The Manson Snyder Interviews." Web. Available from [read more]


Probation Originated From Ancient Times Essay

… Employment assistance is another way of treatment intervention to the probationers. The most important element of preventing recidivism for probationers and parolees is employment as indicated by Petersilia, (2003). The employment will provide financial support for the offenders as well… [read more]

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