Study "Crime / Police / Criminal Justice" Essays 56-110

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Criminal Justice and How They Impact Term Paper

… ¶ … criminal justice and how they impact the United States. In addition the writer explores the three styles of policing by James Q. Wilson and explains how they apply to the criminal justice system in America. There were five… [read more]

Criminal Justice African-Americans and American Prisons Term Paper

… Criminal Justice

African-Americans and American Prisons

In a time of great economic and social change, one American industry is booming: the prison-industrial complex. These prisons represent an ever-expanding apparatus of social control (Ward, 2004), one that, according to Julia Sudbury,… [read more]

Criminal Justice: Challenges and Developments Term Paper

… Furthermore family and friends not connected professionally with the department should also be enlisted in monitoring police officers for any signs of excessive stress or possible substance abuse.

Whether the problem belongs to criminals or officers of the law, it… [read more]

Choosing Study Designs in Criminal Justice Research Term Paper

… If the ethical issues are set aside for the purpose of discussion, then an example of an experimental study design would be randomizing police responses to domestic violence calls. A comparison could be made on outcomes depending on whether a regular patrol or community policing unit responded to the call. A number of demographic variables would have to be collected for each encounter so that potential confounding factors could be controlled for. For example, the socioeconomic status of the entire neighborhood and the residents involved in a domestic violence response could be controlled for, thereby increasing the validity of the findings. In addition, experimental studies often provide findings about cause and effect relationships that can be generalized to the wider population.

Meta-Analysis Study Design

If enough cohort and experimental studies have been completed investigating the same phenomenon of interest then the findings can be analyzed and combined in a meta-analysis to provide insights otherwise unavailable (USC, 2014). A meta-analysis is only possible, however, if the studies included used similar research methods and provided enough information about the data to render it amenable to statistical analysis. For example, if five policing agencies studied the impact of community policing on domestic violence outcomes using a cohort study design then conducting a meta-analysis could be informative. The conclusions reached in a meta-analysis would be weakened if the findings from the included studies differed in significant ways, but strengthened if there was general agreement among most or all studies. The overall effect of a meta-analysis is to increase the sample size and therefore the statistical power of the analysis.

Policing in a Post-Stop-n-Frisk Era

The former and now new police commissioner of the New York Police Department, William J. Bratton, has been tasked with keeping crime rates low following federal court mandates to stop the policing practice of stop-n-frisk (Goldstein, 2014). His plan is to focus on the tried and true policing strategy of 'broken windows,' which in New York City will take the form of aggressively going after low-level offenders. This is taking place in an environment of strident and prolonged criticism of the stop-n-frisk policing practice implemented during former Mayor Mike Bloomberg's tenure. The issue of whether Commissioner Bratton's plans will improve community relations will probably receive intense scrutiny by both the current mayor and the various oversight organizations that have a vested interest in this issue.

The two study designs which could be used to study whether community relations will improve are case study and cohort, with the expectation that the findings from both would complement each other. The case study could involve detailed interviews of selected community residents concerning their views about police conduct, thereby providing insight into what changes residents have witnessed and whether their fear of police encounters has diminished significantly. The cohort study could involve the collection of data concerning the frequency and nature of police stops, in addition to the frequency and nature of police misconduct complaints. The cohort study could also compare crime rates from… [read more]

Criminal Justice and Professional Courtesy Term Paper

… Professional Courtesy in the Criminal Justice System

There are many areas of life where professional courtesy can and should be used out of respect for others. Professional courtesy generally refers to how certain professions have understandings among their members, that may also extend to the families of those members (Fuller, 2005). In the criminal justice system, professional courtesy generally relates to how some crimes and minor infractions can be engaged in without fear of tickets, fines, or arrests. The use of confidential plates, family cards, and "thin blue line" stickers on vehicles are all examples of professional courtesy used in the criminal justice system (Fuller, 2005). However, whether professional courtesy should be used in criminal justice is a question that does not have easy answers. How that question gets answered may also be affected by who is asked the question, and whether that person is part of the criminal justice system in any way. Those who are part of the system will likely not object to professional courtesy being used, but those who are not part of the system may feel it is inappropriate.

The argument could be made that professional courtesy in the criminal justice system encourages illegal behaviors. If a person knows he or she can "get away with" a particular crime or infraction, there is no need for that person to attempt to avoid that particular choice. This is worth considering, especially based on whether professional courtesy should be allowed at all or whether there should be a "line" that cannot be crossed when it comes to how much a person in the criminal justice field can do without getting into legal trouble (Fuller, 2005). Naturally, these people are not exempt from charges like rape and murder, and they cannot burn down buildings or rob people. What they can generally do without fear of legal trouble are things like speeding and other traffic infractions. There are also some arguments made that minor crimes are "allowed," but the definition of what those crimes might be can vary.

Whether a person who works in criminal justice can avoid significant traffic infractions like DUI is also debatable, and… [read more]

Criminal Justice Administration Essay

… In addition to this, they can provide officers with the ability to learn more about an environment before actually stepping it and checking it themselves. This can be especially beneficial in cases when criminals are waiting to surprise officers.

The masses are inclined to oppose the use of unmanned aerial vehicles/systems because they fear that this would provide law enforcement agencies with the ability to interfere with their private lives and that it would thus be wrong for them to support such systems. Even with this, the reality is that the technology is already here and that it being present in the hands of police officers can play a significant role in reducing crime levels. People basically have to choose between being paranoid and living in a safer society.

The technology available in the contemporary society can have a positive effect on crime levels if law enforcement agencies acknowledge this and if they go through with purchasing AR technology and unmanned aerial vehicles/systems. While costs were previously an impediment when considering these concepts, the fact that such technologies have become much more accessible during recent years further contributes to making them particularly appealing for law enforcement agencies.


Cowper, T.J. & Buerger, M.E. "Improving Our View of the World: Police and Augmented Reality Technology." Retrieved October 27, 2013, from

"An Easy Explanation Of Augmented Reality and The Practical Uses For The Technology." Retrieved October 27, 2013, from

"Considerations in Selecting a Small UAV for Police Operations." Retrieved October 27, 2013, from [read more]

Criminal Justice and Criminology the Chicago Alternative Research Proposal

… ¶ … Criminal Justice and Criminology

The Chicago alternative policing strategy came into effect in the year 1993. The strategy initially took place in five police district then moved to include the entire city. The need of this strategy was… [read more]

Criminal Justice System Corrections Term Paper

… At the sentencing, regardless of whether they were witnesses during the trial, "victims are allowed to prepare for the judge (and perhaps to read at the sentencing hearing) a victim impact statement that explains how the crime affected them. In deciding on a sentence, the judge has a range of choices, depending on the crime" (The criminal justice system, 2013, National Center for Victims of Crime). Sentences may include a suspended sentence; time served; probation; parole (if the offender has already been serving jail time); or jail time (The criminal justice system, 2013, National Center for Victims of Crime). Once the criminal is sentenced, the victim can still take an active role in the judicial process and be present at hearings for parole.

As can be seen in this step-by-step outline, the workings of the criminal justice system are fundamentally different from those of the civil court system. If the defendant is not found guilty in the criminal justice system, the victim may still have recourse through the civil court system. There, the burden of proof is less onerous: instead of 'guilty beyond a reasonable doubt,' the standard is guilt by a 'preponderance of the evidence.' "Regardless of whether a criminal prosecution was undertaken, or whether the defendant was found not guilty, crime victims may still be able to seek justice by filing a civil lawsuit against the person or persons the victim believes caused the victim harm. The civil justice system does not determine an offender's guilt or innocence, but works to determine whether the offender is liable for the harm caused to the victim" (What are the differences between the civil and criminal justice system, 2013, National Crime Victim Law Institute). Suits in civil court are not brought forth by the state, however, but by the wronged party called the 'plaintiff.'


The criminal justice system. (2013). National Center for Victims of Crime. Retrieved:

What are the differences between the civil and criminal justice system? (2013). National

Crime Victim Law Institute. Retrieved: [read more]

Criminal Justice Theory and Policy Discussion Chapter

… Criminal Justice Theory and Policy

Identification of Topic Discussed

The three websites major on a single topic, which is murder, related. Two of the websites focus their attention on people who murdered their spouses and the third one draws its attention on a case of a civilian who faces charges on mass murder. These murder cases are or the rise in the present day despite the fact that not many people are aware of such cases. A tremendous number of individuals face charges of having murdered their wives. People tend to think that they can get away with murder yet they face charges that get to the public. The media has been of great help in the process of fighting crime in the present day (Kraska & Brent, 2011). Publication of the murder cases that take place in the courts is apparently making the public aware of the crimes. This way, people are becoming mindful in terms of violence.

The websites that alert the public on the various murder crimes have differing ways in which they present their information to the public. Some websites upload the videos of the court hearing of different murder cases to have the public get first hand information concerning hearing. Other websites create articles that people can read and review at their own free time. The websites that use articles are advantageous especially to the individuals who have gadgets that have an internet access yet cannot stream live videos. The main purpose of having such websites is to help reduce the cases of murder within states (Kraska & Brent, 2011). The media has generally been effective in the process of fighting crime at individual levels.

When people get informed on such cases then it helps in the process of fighting murder crime. There is fear of publicizing ones private life and the moment one is aware of the fact that he or she will go public for such acts as murder then he or she will decide to keep off. The modest in which the media presents there cases differs depending on the target audiences.

The best policy outcome for the first story is to have it on the internet in both written articles and live videos of the court hearing. This is helpful since it will get the attention of the public through a way the public will get details concerning the progress of the case. The first case is a mass murder and the society has to be aware of people under such charges to ensure that justice prevails (Hancock, 2004). Involving the public on such matters is important since it determines how effective the judgment upon the accused will be effective.

On the second website story, there is an article with prior focus on the situation plus videos on other cases the media targets to inform the public. The charges on Oscar Pistorius… [read more]

Criminal Justice Theory and Policy Discussion Chapter

… Criminal Justice Theory and Policy

The Prison Industrial Complex

The national correction-commercial complex is an institution governed by a number of participants who have the power to make certain decisions. The participants are not ordinary individual rather, they are other… [read more]

Criminal Justice System Research Paper

… Pennsylvania introduced a criminal code which prevented the torture and some other cruel forms of punishment awarded to the criminals, by replacing the corporal punishments with prisons and jails. However these reforms could not last for long as right after the death of William Penn they were reverted back in 1718. The lawmakers however had to face heavy pressure from Quaker group and these reforms were then reinstated in 1880s. The changes in the policies in Pennsylvania had led to a drop in the crime rate. Henry Fielding and Patrick Colquhuom were among the most prominent figures that made significant reforms in the criminal justice system. (Justice to All: The Story of the Pennsylvania State Police, 1920)

The criminal justice system is comprised of three main functions. The first function is legislative, the main duty of this function is to create laws according to the needs and demands of the community. The second function is adjudication; the duty of this function is to provide fair and accessible justice to the community. The third and the last function of a criminal justice system is the Correction. Offenders are handed over to the correctional authorities after the criminal is accused of his crime.

Just as every other aspect of the criminal justice system has evolved, the corrective measure is the most prominent among them. Early on when the law enforcement bodies did not have enough resources to maintain prisons therefore the primary form of punishments were executions and exiles. In the modern era the most common form of punishment is prison. Prisons serve as detention centers after the criminal is accused of his crime. Criminal justice system has been evolving and will continue to evolve in future also. New issues have recently been discussed by the lawmakers and the civil society, none more so than the issue of capital punishment.


Kelling, George L., Mary A. Wycoff (2002). Evolving Strategy of Policing: Case Studies of Strategic Change. National Institute of Justice.

Mayo, K. (1920). Justice to All: The… [read more]

Criminal Justice Theory Discussion Chapter

… Criminal Justice Policies

Criminal Justice and Policies

M2D1: Applying Due Process and Crime Control

Habert Packer was the core founder of due process model and crime control model that aimed at reducing the alarming rate of crime in America. Crime… [read more]

Mandatory Minimum Sentencing Laws Research Paper

… In the past three years, there is an ongoing basic critique of these statutes, which is rapidly becoming widely accepted. The laws do not accomplish the conventional accepted goals of punishment since it does not incorporate all theories of retribution.… [read more]

Criminal Justice Administration Research Proposal

… Criminal Justice Administration

Administration of Justice in Cases of Mentally Ill Offenders

Final Project Research Proposal

Administration of Justice in Cases of Mentally Ill Offenders

The objective of this study is to establish the administration of justice to mentality destabilized… [read more]

Criminal Justice Administration Essay

… Criminal Justice Administration

What should Casey's response be to the reporter (other than hanging up or telling him to call back) concerning the agency's recommendation?

Casey's response should be one that is straight forward and honest. She should tell them… [read more]

Organizational and Administrative Strategies in Criminal Justice Book Report

… ¶ … Administrtive Strategies in Criminal Justice

Organizational and Admin. Strategies Organizational and Administrative Strategies in Criminal Justice

Organizational and Administrative Strategies in Criminal Justice

In his book titled, Turnaround, William Bratton gives us his version of how his leadership… [read more]

Criminal Justice Victimization Essay

… Service providers must be mindful to serve all those in need, no matter how inconvenient (Handbook on Justice for Victims, 1999).

Those on the other side of this debate feel that victims should rely on upon private support and insurance payments in order to deal with their victimization. These are known as informal sources of assistance and include family, neighbors, friends and others. Employers sometimes offer assistance. Public and private insurance plans may be available to assist with medical and psychiatric needs, as well as property losses, and to provide counsel through legal procedures and should therefore be included if they meet the needs of victims, even if that is not their primary focus (Victims of Crime Overview, 2012).

The ideal plan is to have victim assistance programs to help victims with both formal and informal sources of aid. Each victim is different, not only in the crim of which they were a victim but also in the way in which they deal with their victimization. So each person's program should be tailored to their needs. If a victim needs the services of a government sponsored program then that option should be available to them. On the other hand if informal sources of aid work for a victim then there should sill be someone available to help these people navigate that process.

People who are victims of crimes should not be hung out to dry when it comes to getting help for what happened to them. Being a victim is not something that a person asks for, and thus they should not be a victim twice, once from the criminal and again from the criminal justice system. These people need help and they should be given it so that they can recover from happened to them and can go on with their lives.


Handbook on Justice for Victims. (1999). Retrieved from

Victims of Crime Overview. (2012). Retrieved from

References [read more]

Racism in the Criminal Justice System Research Paper

… Racism, a term which is defined as the infliction of an obviously unequal consideration which is motivated by the strong desire to dominate on the basis of race alone is noted by several scholars to be rife in the criminal… [read more]

Criminology-Review Criminal Justice Research Research Paper

… Current research has focused on the processing of burglary incidents has focused primarily on the characteristics of burglary targets or offenders. The current study explores whether the optimism of using forensic evidence to bring burglary cases to a successful conclusion… [read more]

Criminal Justice Reaction Paper

… (Hazen, 2009)

Similarly, the Conflict in Criminal Justice emphasizes to make justice. It emphasizes over the social and economic forces which are present in a society. It is also known as System Conflict theory. This relates with the wages, promotion and success and invites the conflict with criminal justice system. A good example of conflict is prison and police officers; where police tries to put the criminal in jail while prison officials want to release prisoners due to lack or overcrowded facilities. (Skolnock, 2004)

The film CRASH is a combination of ethics, diversity and conflict in criminal justice. It is a story which have multiple characters each having a connection with criminal justice. A police detective who has a drug addict mother and a dishonest brother. There were two car thieves. Crash is about racial ribaldry which has stimulated intolerance. (Forbes, 2005)

Crash has targeted the American racial relations which is embedded with tension and sensation. The character of Graham who was a detective investigated a road accident and his partner Ria helped him. She started the racist dialogues with the Korean women.

In another scene two black men Anthony and Peter, have also used discriminated dialogues at Starbuck's color. So, the story went on different characters giving different perspectives to racial discrimination.

Ethically the film is evolved around the racial discrimination which is quite unethical to refer in a movie, but it has highlighted the different facets of racism in a society.


SagePub, (2011), The Importance of Ethics in Criminal Justice, accessed on June 23, 2011, from:

Hazen, A., (2009), Cultural Diversity in Criminal Justice Paper, accessed on June 23, 2011, from:

Skolnock .J., (2004), Conflict Model, accessed on June 23, 2011, from:

Forbes. H., (2005), Crash, Catholic News service, accessed on June 23, 2011, from: [read more]

Supervision in the Criminal Justice Research Paper

… The other challenge involves offender punishment.The issue of what form of punishment be given to criminal offenders is paramount. Different groups of people and especially the human rights activists differ with the kind of punishment given saying that some are… [read more]

Criminal Justice Career Thesis

… Criminal Justice

Corrections/Police Officer Qualities and Specifications

There're many different types of positions available in the field of criminal justice, but they all require some of the same basic personality characteristics. Regardless of whether one wants to be an investigator, a criminal attorney, or a police officer or corrections officer, a strong commitment to justice and fairness is essential. This, however, is a rather esoteric quality, and though it is an essential one there are other more pragmatic considerations and qualifications that must be taken into account in order to successfully perform in the criminal justice field.

For occupations such as a police or corrections officer, physical determination is absolutely essential. Though physical force is the last resort in any instance, it is an unfortunately necessary part of the job, as such force is the only type of power that really matters when another is willing to use it. That is, force… [read more]

Criminal Justice Ethics Journals Journal 1: "Prosecutor Research Proposal

… Criminal Justice Ethics Journals

Journal 1: "Prosecutor Taking Over Justice Ethics Unit," CBS News

The replacement of the head of the internal ethics unit in the U.S. Department of Justice came just one day after a criminal investigation was ordered… [read more]

Colonial Period of Criminal Justice: Lawyers Attorneys Essay

… ¶ … Colonial Period of Criminal Justice: Lawyers

Attorneys fresh from law school during the Colonial Period of American history had no trouble finding jobs, according to a study in the University of North Carolina -- Pembroke (Langley, et all,… [read more]

Criminal Justice - Evaluations Evaluation Methods Thesis

… Criminal Justice - Evaluations

EVALUATION METHODS in CRIMINAL JUSTICE Introduction: As in the case of any other professional industry, policing and other criminal justice administration functions must maintain a system of agency evaluation to assess the effectiveness of its programs.… [read more]

Identifying Problems in the Criminal Justice System Thesis

… Criminal Justice - Systematic Problem


The Problem of Capital Punishment in the United States:

Capital punishment has been a feature of human social justice since before recorded history. Generally, civilized societies reserve the ultimate form… [read more]

Criminal Justice Explain Community Corrections Term Paper

… Criminal Justice

Explain community corrections and what purpose it fulfills in the overall field of criminal justice. Identify and describe programs and services that are usually found in community corrections. Discuss what you feel are strengths and weaknesses of community… [read more]

Practices of Criminal Justice Organizations Term Paper

… Criminal Justice Organizations

Since the inception of business practice, issues such as occupational socialization, power and political behavior, and organizational conflict have had their influences upon the functions of businesses in their environment, as well as upon the individuals within… [read more]

British Criminal Justice System Term Paper

… Criminal justice system of Britain embraces a range of agencies, cultures and objectives. From the police through the courts, and from the prison systems to victim services, all agencies have a goal to reduce crime and punish the guilty. However,… [read more]

Criminal Justice: Wrongful Conviction Term Paper

… Criminal Justice: Wrongful Conviction


Does the criminal justice system have adequate protections in place minimizing the risk of innocent people being wrongly convicted or even executed?

Our criminal justice system is designed around the principle that wrongful exoneration is always preferable to wrongful conviction. Protections designed to minimize the chances of wrongful conviction include constitutional rights against unwarranted search and seizure of evidence, self-incrimination, and competent legal representation at the state's expense.

State violations of search and seizure laws often result in the complete exclusion of any evidence discovered improperly and a criminal returned to the street as a result, even where guilt is plainly obvious in retrospect. Likewise, explicit confessions are invalidated and excluded from permissible evidence where obtained through improper custodial interrogation (DOJ, 2006). Whereas the burden of proof in civil matters is a mere preponderance of evidence, criminal convictions require that the state establish guilt beyond reasonable doubt, a much stricter standard (Garner, 2001). Conviction for death penalty-eligible crimes require mandatory appeals at significant tax payer expense, both for the legal proceedings and representation, as well as for many years of incarceration during the lengthy appeals process.

What additional protections would you recommend?

The U.S. Supreme Court has already established a long tradition of protecting the rights of those accused of criminal conduct. Institutionalized protections are more easily enforced than is the conduct of individual state representatives. Probably the area most ripe for improvement relate to subtle distinctions where constitutional requirements and principles rely on the integrity and honest application of police officers to avoid purposely circumventing those protections in the field. In particular, some of the verbal exchanges between officers and suspects are purposely designed… [read more]

Criminal Justice Response Cesare Beccaria ) Wrote Term Paper

… Criminal Justice Response

Cesare Beccaria (1963) wrote that everyone possesses free will, a rational manner and a rational self-interest. This makes human action predictable and controllable, largely matters of personal choice. The task of the criminal justice system is to predict and control these deviant acts that people with freewill might do to satisfy their own personal pleasures.

A strong believer in the social contract, Beccaria believed that individuals exercised their freewill in deciding to commit crimes. Therefore, in addition to the criminal justice system, government should also create a system of laws and punishment, so that law-abiding citizens could "be defended against private usurpation by individuals" (Beccaria 1963: 43).

In this case, Beccaria would first of all look at how the crime could have been prevented. Bobby may have been feeling looked down upon by his peers, because he did not the requisite pair of tennis shoes. Educators or alert school counselors could have helped to shore up Bobby's self-esteem, so he would not have to covet the shoes so much. An alert parent… [read more]

Women in the Criminal Justice System Term Paper

… Women in the Criminal Justice System

The Law Enforcement Assistance Administration Task Force on Women re-evaluated its 1975 recommendations on issues concerning the treatment of women and girls in the criminal justice system (Gowdy et al. 1998). The Task Force… [read more]

Ethics-Criminal Justice System Details Term Paper

… It is the duty of the police officer to provide protection to all regardless of color or creed and this clause of the job description is clearly violated when instead of providing protection, an innocent man is killed on whim.

Where does the law say that police officers can open fire on some who has allegedly challenged their authority. However it is clear that in some cases police would kill the suspect just because they felt, " their authority is being challenged." Racial bias is seriously plaguing our law enforcement agencies because in all such cases, the victim was an immigrant, black or Hispanic. This fact makes it clear that police is either suffering from an irrational fear of minorities or is simply biased and thus instead of remaining true and fair to their responsibilities, they kill anyone who appears threatening in any manner. Suppose you are driving down a highway at night, your wife is at the hospital and wants you to come over as soon as possible. While rushing to the hospital, police cars follow you and ask you to pull over without any reason. Wouldn't you be annoyed at them and get initiated. In this mood, you might even misbehave by being rude to the police officers. Does this give them a right to kill you? Does this make you a potential criminal or threat to the society? Your answers to these questions explain why such police behavior is unethical in nature.


The author believes we must have some laws that would protect us against police brutality. However no such laws have managed to make it to the Senate. William Heffernan, editor of Criminal Justice Ethic, says we need these laws because "There must be a concern for minority misgivings about routine illegal stops and seizures and frisks...The key minority concerns are not about deadly force but about the indignities to their Fourth Amendment rights."(Quoted in the article). Whenever such laws are proposed, law enforcement agencies oppose them on the selfish grounds. They see themselves as "scapegoats" but the truth is that in the absence of adequate laws, we have given immense powers to the police agencies. They can kill anyone at any time for any reason whatsoever. This is not why the police are needed. The author believes that since there are no laws against police brutality, we must make sure that all such cases are at least tried in the court of law. This can have a "restraining effect" on police officers and might protect others from becoming victims of racial profiling. [read more]

Criminal Justice Implications of Recall and Recognition Essay

… , 2008). According to the article's subsequent analysis of this underlying neural activity, "although recognition tends to be a fast, accurate, automatic process, and is reasonably stable over time, the serial recall of information is effortful, takes much longer, and decays considerably more rapidly" (Frowd et al., 2008). By arming themselves with this emerging knowledge on the function of memory retrieval, those working in the field of criminal justice can refine their interviewing techniques, discern between reliable and unreliable eyewitness testimony, and apply the evidence obtained during interaction with witnesses in a more productive manner. One of the most useful ways in which Frowd's research and recall and recognition can be integrated into criminal investigation involves the standard law enforcement practice of using facial composite systems to determine whether or not a witness recognizes a suspect or subject of interest. As Frowd observes in the article, facial composites are generally considered to be unreliable as a sole means of identification, and the author cites numerous studies which have indicated facial composites are only accurate 20% of the time even under favorable conditions (2008). The brain tends to encode memories involving human faces on a generalized level for the sake of efficiency -- as the vast majority of faces one encounters in everyday life have no reason to be remembered -- and Frowd shows that this streamlined cognitive process can actually act as a barrier to accurate identification via recognition of facial composite systems. Instead, Frowd recommends that criminal justice professionals utilize a novel concept known as Holistic Interviewing (HI), in which "witnesses watch a video of an unfamiliar target face, then both describe and rate the personality of the face before constructing a facial composite" (2008), because this process of evaluating personality cues within a stranger's face has been shown to bypass the brain's natural tendency to encode facial memories on a generalized basis.


Frowd, C.D., Bruce, V., Smith, A.J., & Hancock, P.J. (2008). Improving the quality of facial composites using a… [read more]

Traditional Organized Crime Groups Criminal Essay

… (FBI, 2013). I was additionally surprised to learn, as part of the LCN history, that the first formal "mafia incident" occurred in New Orleans in 1890. (FBI, 2013) That is not a city bereft of mafia activities, but neither is it a New York City, for example. Members of the LCN number in the hundreds of thousands. (ABC, 2013; FBI, 2013) This makes sense, as the abundance of criminal activity committed in the United States could not be perpetrated without a network of dedicated criminals tied together through a shared history and culture. The shared history, blood lines, culture, etc. is part of what keeps the members of LCN so tightly knit, making them all the more of a severe threat. (FBI, 2013)

I was greatly surprised to learn that due to the success of the Italian-American mafia and the mafia indigenous to and still based in Italy, organized crime is the biggest business in Italy. (ABC, 2013) Organized crime is the most stable business in Italy and the Italian mafia is the most profitable organized crime group in America. (ABC, 2013) Citizens and small businesses, as a result, are seeking financial assistance from the LCN these days, than from normative sources such as banks. With the rumors, allegations, and investigations of questionable activities from banking executives in international news, this makes for a very interesting situation. It is almost as if with respect to this issue, we are back in the older times, when there were no or few banks, and people went to the LCN for communal justice and assistance, over normative institutional assistance. I was not particularly surprised to learn of the various activities of La Costra Nostra, only in that just a large part of their activities is money laundering. (ABC News, 2013; FBI, 2013)


ABC News. (2013). Latest La Costra Nostra News. ABC, Available from: 2013 May 04. Web.

Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2013). Italian Organized Crime. The FBI, Available from: 2013 May 04. Web. [read more]

Criminal Justice Systems Comprise of Different Elements Capstone Project

… Criminal justice systems comprise of different elements. Many issues are likely to be raised as problem statements when analyzing criminal justice issues. Usually, the issues relate in one way or the other to ensure common objectives for any criminal justice system. For instance, in trying to address the problem such as "comparison between mentally challenged individuals and the normal offenders" issues relating to the arrest of mentally ill offenders will also arise in case of normal offenders. This illustrates the issue of fairness and justice to all, and at the same time addresses issues related to timeliness in the trial process.

The crime prevention and investigation strategies for mentally ill persons and normal offenders will be the same. In both, for instance, the crime reduction plan will be in harmony with the criminal justice and public safety council. When taking general surveys, both the mentally ill and normal offenders will be interviewed and issues such as self-reported victimization could arise in both scenarios. As the policies provide for early resolution and hastened trial for the normal offenders, these policies will also apply for the normal offenders. The initiatives will affect both offenders and they include timeliness to enhance early resolutions, adherence to court procedures and hierarchical order and the reduction of current case backlog. This clearly indicates that policies and regulations will not affect a certain class of offenders, but will also apply to other diverse classes of offenders. The law applies equally to enhance justice and fairness.

The justice systems for criminals allows for justice, fairness and public safety. This happens to be a diverse element of the judicial system, as all criminals have the right to a fair trial, regardless of their physical and mental situation. Fairness is expected to lead to a community that is peaceful and safe. Justice officials are therefore expected to be just enough and offer… [read more]

Criminal Justice: Writing Is a Very Important Research Paper

… ¶ … Criminal Justice:

Writing is a very important aspect in criminal justice and the law enforcement field despite of whether it's associated with policy statement by the police chief or police report by a new law enforcement officer. This importance of writing and appropriate writing skills is because of its power to result in positive and negative changes with the criminal justice system. Some of these changes include promoting or hindering policies and procedures, improving or destroying public relations, and developing or shattering the writer's self-image. Since criminal justice systems involve various types of reports that are read by different people, writing plays an integral role in the accomplishment of the objectives of law enforcement.

One of the major reasons why writing is important in criminal justice is because it serves as a means of clear communication in order to achieve the goals of criminal justice. Properly written information in criminal justice reports helps in the communication of actions and behaviors of the defendant. It's also enables the readers of the information to identify facts and make informed decisions regarding a particular case (Thompson, n.d.). Without the proper documentation of information through writing, communication and decision-making within the criminal justice system will be negatively impacted.

For example, the possibility of the community to benefit from a K9 unit in scenario 3 was not realized because of the lack of a written proposal. This was despite of the various informal conversations that the captain had with both the mayor and the chief about how this unit would improve local investigations. This scenario presents a clear example of how written documents in the criminal justice system help in communication and decision-making processes.

The second major importance of writing in law enforcement is its impact on the accomplishment of several leadership intentions and purposes by officers and professionals in this field. When there is lack of written documents or ineffective writing in criminal justice,… [read more]

Criminal Justice Criminal Profiling, or Offender Essay

… Criminal Justice

Criminal profiling, or offender profiling, is a process by which law enforcement deduces a psychological and demographic picture of a perpetrator. Clues from the crime scene are used to develop a composite identity of a suspect or suspects. Issues such as geographic location, demographics, behavioral and personality psychology are taken into account. The main purpose of criminal profiling is to aid law enforcement in efficiently pursuing suspects and eliminating false trails. Criminal profiling can also be used to develop a template that can be used to identify suspects in a more general context, although this process risks stereotyping and racial profiling. Criminal profiling is part of Criminal Investigative Analysis (CIA).

The six stages of criminal profiling include profiling inputs, decision process or decision-making models, crime assessment, the criminal profile, the investigation, and the apprehension. Profiling inputs include all hard evidence collected and gleaned from the crime scene. At this stage, nothing is known about potential suspects to avoid bias. Inputs need to be as objective as possible. Second, the investigator organizes and analyzes the information into decision process models. This may entail categorization of data along different dimensions. The third stage, crime assessment, reconstructs the scene of the crime and especially the behaviors of both victim and perpetrator. This stage of profiling helps law enforcement officers to determine such things as whether the crime was premeditated or not. For example, it may be obvious that the crime was committed hastily. Fourth, a formal profile is created. Fifth, the profile is used and enhanced during the investigation process. Finally, the suspect can be apprehended, interviewed, and pursued further.

3. Hormant & Kennedy (1998) provide a theoretical basis for profiling. The authors note that behavioral… [read more]

Impact of Diversity in the Criminal Justice System Term Paper

… ¶ … Diversity on the Criminal Justice System

How does diversity in the Criminal Justice System impact economic considerations?

Over the last two hundred fifty years, the study of criminal justice has become an important part of understanding society and… [read more]

Ethical Considerations and Professional Responsibility in a Criminal Justice Agency Term Paper

… Ethical Considerations and Professional Responsibility in a Criminal Justice Agency

Owing to the distinguishable contribution of police officers in any given society, a number of professionals working in the field of criminology and sociology have emphasized the significance of comprehending… [read more]

Constitutional Rights That Are Implicated for Criminal Justice Employees on the Job Research Paper

… Constitutional Rights and Criminal Justice Employees

While on duty, do criminal justice employees have the right to freedom of speech?

While all employees, regardless of their place of employment, have certain basic rights, (such as the right to enjoy a safe workplace environment and to freedom of speech) these rights are not absolute in all circumstances. The courts have tended to assume that there is a certain assumption of risk, when working in an environment such as a prison. It has also been deemed that the state can have a legitimate interest in limiting the free speech of certain individuals, in the interests of protecting the public. As guardians of the public, criminal justice employees may face particular restrictions upon their behaviors.

However, there must, in all cases be a balance between the rights of the individual and the rights of the public employee. For example, laws which prohibited police officers from engaging in any and all criticism of their departments, even in private conversation, were deemed unconstitutional. Nor can public officers be fired solely because of their political affiliation, if they are not in positions specifically devoted to policy-making. However, prohibiting officers from associating with known criminals on a social basis is deemed to be constitutional, and in one instance a Texas officer was deemed to be constitutionally barred from promotion, given the embarrassment his extramarital affair had brought upon the police force.

Delineate the constitutional rights of criminal justice employees in the area of searches and seizures.

While the Fourth Amendment protects Americans against unreasonable searches and seizures, officers have been ruled to have no expectation of privacy regarding their police lockers and other areas pertinent to their work. However, some protections for officers do exist. For example, in a 1985 Iowa case in which police officers were forced to sign a consent form which mandated they could… [read more]

Criminal Justice Leadership Identify Two Essay

… Simply stated, due process in the hiring and firing phases of employment are federally mandated to avoid litigation and to provide all candidates with fairness and equality in decision making. Civil Right Act of 1964 (Title VII) prohibits employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin and sex (, 2010). Should a hiring committee or authority disregard these federally protected categories, liability will attach and, perhaps, adverse civil judgments may ensue.

Employees in the criminal justice system are afforded all of the due process rights and privledges available to all employees. The benefit, of course, is that criminal justice employees are not subject to the whim of superiors and have the ability to utilize due process protections to avoid termination. Given the duties of law enforcement officers and others in the criminal justice system, given the need for discretion, for strong moral compass and sound ethical decision making capabilities, it is imperative that criminal justice organizations be able to properly discipline and terminate employees when trust is violated. Without this disciplinary ability, law enforcement agencies would be bound to honor the employment of corrupt, discriminatory, abuse or otherwise unfit officers from public service. Clearly, then, while the process may languish, it is an effective method for both hiring and firing.

4. Discuss the impact of law suits on criminal justice organizations. What can be done to lessen the chances of law suits being filed in criminal justice organizations?

The issue isn't about the number of lawsuits. The issue is about why so many criminal justice organizations open themselves up to allow such lawsuits to occur. Lack of training, poor training, abuse of powers, and lack of supervision over employees are all connected with increased lawsuits (AELE, 2007). While lawsuits in the criminal justice system detract from necessary funding, civil liabilities are an effective deterrent for improper training in criminal justice organizations (AELE, 2008). Simply stated, criminal justice organizations can train their employees better, more often, and with greater depth to avoid costly civil liabilities.

The consequences of reducing departmental liabilities from officer's actions are serious. While the issues law enforcement officers are forced to contend with daily are significant, our trust in their ability to handle difficult situations is paramount. Law enforcement officers and all employees in the criminal justice system are entrusted with the protection of the public, of taxpayers, and to do so with high regard for the rights and dignity of all.


AELE Mo L.J. (2008). Civil Liability for Use of Deadly Force -- Part Three Supervisory Liability and Negligent/Accidental Acts, 101, 1.

AELE Mo L.J. (2007). Civil Liability Law Section: Civil Liability for Use of Deadly Force -- Part Two Qualified Immunity and Inadequate Training, 101,12. (2010). Retrieved from:

Banks, N. (2010). The Importance of Ethics in Criminal Justice. Retrieved from: (2010). Online document retrieved from:

Cook, J. (2007). Morality and Cultural Differences. New York: Oxford University Press.

Holmes, Robert. (2008). Basic Moral Philosophy (5th ed.). Belmont,… [read more]

Criminal Justice and Sentencing Issues Essay

… Criminal Justice - Corrections


Criminal Sentencing:

Generally, the purpose of sentencing is to assign a type and length of punishment corresponding to particular types of penal violations. Much more specifically, sentencing incorporates five objectives: retribution,… [read more]

Criminal Justice Administration Taking Into Account Term Paper

… Criminal Justice Administration

Taking into account the fact that criminal justice administrators are faced with right-versus-wrong decisions and must balance the wants and needs of their employees, the politicians and the citizens, this work will describe the ethical decisions-making process that criminal justice administrators engage in when attempting to determine a course of action and will discuss the potential perceptions to the employees, the politicians and the citizens and how this influences the administrator.

Criminal Justice Administration Overview

It is pointed out in the work entitled: "Sentencing Values and Sentencing Structures," published in the Judicial Studies Institute Journal that "In a dissenting opinion in which she disagreed with the Court's analysis, Judge Higgins said: 'The judicial lodestar, whether in difficult questions of interpretation of humanitarian law, or in resolving claimed tensions between competing norms, must be those values that international law seeks to promote and protect. In the present case, it is the physical survival of peoples that we must constantly have in view." (O'Malley, nd) O'Malley notes that within the realm of this 'lodestar' are competing perspectives, norms and interests. The fact is, that is the case in all areas of criminal justice administration and all of these must be considered by the individual who fills the role of criminal justice administrator. O'Malley additionally states as follows:

central plank of critical theory, and one of its more valuable contributions to contemporary policy debate, is that apparently neutral concepts such as equality before the law, due process and proportionate punishment often serve to mask underlying structural inequalities and social injustice. Rhetorical commitment to neutral, equality-based principles tends to sustain the status quo and seldom does much to address cycles of disadvantage." (nd)

While structured sentencing is not preferable to many, if not most, structured sentencing has at least set out a guideline for sentencing that is purported to be in place in order to avoid disparities in sentencing however, this is not always the outcome. For instance, statistics show that African-American men are disproportionately sentenced to prison sentences as compared to their white counterparts. Harsher sentencing of certain crimes has tended to target young black men resulting in the disproportionate number of young African-American men who are presently serving time in prison.

The work entitled: "Fifteen Years After the Federal Sentencing Revolution: How Mandatory Minimums Have Undermined Effective and Just Narcotics Sentencing..(Perspectives on the Federal Sentencing Guidelines and Mandatory… [read more]

Criminal Justice Through the Comparison Term Paper

… ¶ … criminal justice through the comparison of the movie Gridiron Gang to the textbook from class. The writer examines points that were learned about in class between the movie and the book and completes the discussion with points about… [read more]

Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice Term Paper

… Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice -- two views of drug-Related crimes

The relationship of drugs and violent, unorganized street crime:

According to the annual Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) cited by the Justice Information Center, there is a strong correlation between drug and alcohol abuse and violent crime. Data collected from male arrestees in 1998 in 35 cities showed that the percentage testing positive for any drug ranged from 42.5% in Anchorage, Alaska, (the lowest percentage) to 78.7% in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (a rather staggeringly high percentage). ( Additionally, 27% of Federal prisoners admitted committing their offense to get money to buy drugs.

Gangs and drugs

Drug-related crimes are not merely the result of desperate actions of individuals in thrall to their addiction. Drug-related crimes also often have an organized source, and organized sources of drugs also are a source of violent crime. According to the FBI ( one must look at the organized face… [read more]

Ethical Leadership in Criminal Justice Peer Reviewed Journal

… Much of justice is procedural in nature, but that does not mean there is nothing else that should be considered and addressed. The procedures are there to provide minimum standards that have to be met, and to ensure that everything that has to be handled from the standpoint of following the law is dealt with properly (Bottoms & Tankebe, 2012). However, there is more to a criminal justice agency and what it stands for and represents than just procedural issues that are followed to the letter (Bottoms & Tankebe, 2012). That is only a part of the law, and only a part of what criminal justice workers should consider or focus on.

Ethics and procedures are not the same thing. When a person follows procedure, it does not matter how he or she feels about that procedure (Bottoms & Tankebe, 2012). It is simply something that is required, and it has to be followed and handled properly within the confines of the law as it currently stands. Ethics, though, are not a requirement from a legal standpoint. They are something that is much deeper and also considerably more complex, and they are more difficult to put into writing and into the requirements of employment (Bottoms & Tankebe, 2012). When agencies move beyond procedures and consider all the other aspects that go into the field of criminal justice, it is much more likely that they will provide value to the people who trust them for security. By moving beyond procedural issues and ensuring that leadership is focused on ethical standards and values, criminal justice agencies are able to meet the needs and requirements of the community in which they are located. That protects them and the people who rely on them.


Bottoms, A. & Tankebe, J. (2012). Beyond procedural justice: A dialogic approach to legitimacy in criminal justice. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 102(1): 119-170.

Wright, K.N. (1999). Leadership is the key… [read more]

Society's Understanding of Crime and Criminals Essay

… Crime and Criminals

Most feared crimes

Ten responses obtained on the crimes that come to mind when one thinks of crime comprise of:


Rape and molestation

Physical or emotional attack on person rights or damaging personal property

Murder and Rape


Beating up old people

Murder and theft

Crime is a problem for all communities, this is widespread and no one can ever say they live in a crime free neighborhood



From the responses on the crimes that come quickly to mind, murder and rape are the most common crime mentioned by the respondents. These crimes are mentioned by most of the respondents since they seem to have a greater on the sanctity of human life. From the perspective of human life and morality in the society, it is appreciable that the moral guide and rules are meant to safe guard human life. This being a common understanding and regular teaching in the society, anything that goes against such understanding will be highly recognized. This is the reason why murder and rape are the most commonly mentioned crimes by the respondents.

Among the crimes that were not named by the respondents are embezzlement, forgery, false Pretenses, receipt of stolen goods and tax evasion. This types of crime fall under the general category of white-collar crimes and they attract little public concern. The likely grounds for these are that these. crimes have a lesser bearing on the value people place on human life. These crimes are also… [read more]

Criminal Justice Drumming My Hands Essay

… I have discovered areas of focus and places I would hope to specialize in. Drawn to work in the federal sector, I applied for an internship with a major federal agency. The letter I received via my academic advisor's office propelled me into a new level of success. Earning the opportunity to participate in the intern program has absolutely solidified my goals.

With proven leadership skills, I will someday ascend to a directorial position within a federal agency. I thrive in environments in which my mind is tested to its limits, when I can stretch myself and apply creative and critical thinking skills. Drawing on empirical evidence in the interrelated fields of psychology, sociology, and criminal justice, I can apply academic wisdom to real life situations. Keeping localities and our entire nation safe and secure will of course be ultimate goals of any criminal justice professional. I intend to bring integrity, ethical responsibility, and credibility into the framework of federal criminal investigations.

Throughout my undergraduate career I have demonstrated an unusual focus, a single-minded dedication and I show no signs of letting up. In fact, one of the main reasons why I thrive in a criminal justice setting is due to my determined nature: I set my mind on something and go after it. I know I will make a worthy addition to any criminal investigative team because my personal traits and talents gear me in such a direction. Similarly, I will contribute to the Masters program through active participation in research projects and collaborative and independent study projects.

When my talents are in line with my expectations I succeed. When I throw a double dose of hard work in the mix I rarely fail. A proven prior record of success, focus, and determination make me a uniquely ideal candidate for the Master's program in Criminal Justice. [read more]

Activities of the U.S. Criminal Research Paper

… According to a New York Times article, the number of violent and property crimes in the United States had begun to plummet significantly in 2010, with a prevalence in small towns, to what appeared to be "the lowest rate in nearly 40 years" (Oppel, 2011), and this amazed experts who, based on historical lessons, had foreseen that criminality would naturally increase along with the accelerating economic crisis.

Despite this generally positive state of affairs, New York City stood out through its astoundingly proliferating patterns of rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary and larceny cases, while admittedly downgrading to -18,64% in murder cases and -13,19% in motor vehicle theft cases. In fact, whereas a uniformly spread, steady growth rate shared by some types of crime is not unusual, an element of surprise accompanies the realization that motor vehicle thefts and murders have converged in decreasing.

In the scenario where I were in charge of obtaining manpower with a budget that would permit me to hire eight officers, including investigative personnel and administrative personnel, the crime units which would be granted priority in adding manpower, would, according to the data, be those dealing with aggravated assaults and, most importantly, rape cases. This choice is justified by the alarming percentage that rape cases reached by 2012, namely 6,41% compared to the previous year, notwithstanding aggravated assaults' quota of 4,63%. Thus, these two types of crime are clearly problematic and require the most part of a forceful response.

At the same time, there would be much work to do in order to make the police department decisively more efficient by drops of crime rates in the worst crimes presented by data, namely rape and aggravated assault. Firstly, the hired eight officers would be commissioned as follows: the larger part, namely six, would be used to reinforce the crime units that deal with rape cases, whereas two would be assigned to assault units, with the specific recommendation that each be made part of a different, seasoned team, which would guarantee their proper training and enhance the common effort directed at optimizing the process of minimizing rape occurrence in New York City. Secondly, additional forces might be re-deployed from teams which deal with homicide to crime units which specialize in solving rape cases, due to the fact that murder incidence has decreased so notably and may not need as much manpower. Thirdly, it may be helpful and preventive to assign more frequent undercover patrols in the areas where rape and aggravated assault occur most often.

To conclude, the most interesting career option would, in my opinion, be that of a hired psychologist of New York Police Department, because I believe that the best way to optimize the local police department's crime-repelling measures is by making sure that the individuals who comprise its ranks are adequately prepared to handle various situations in a proper manner. By… [read more]

Justice, Crime and Ethics Prepping Research Paper

… Many prisons in the United States have adopted this Panopticon model and have begun functioning under the fact that all humans, even prisoners, have the right to be treated with human dignity. Using the model set forth by Bentham, criminal… [read more]

Criminal Justice Management Mapping Crime Article Review

… In other words, police culture and organizational inertia tend to resist changes to basic assumptions underlying policing strategies, while researchers feel that there should be no sacred cows.

Six Recommendations

Improved communications -- the police and researchers should be upfront about what they hope to gain from collaborative projects and the risks they foresee (Stephens, 2010, p. 151-152). These expectations should be updated by both sides as the collaboration matures, so that compromises can be agreed upon before problems fester.

Some of the friction between the police and researchers arise from differences between political and academic orientations, respectively. Critique is central to academic discourse, but in the political environment within which most police departments reside, critique tends to be perceived by the public as criticism and can therefore carry a heavy price. Stephens (2010) suggests that researchers acknowledge the realities of police politics and frame research findings accordingly. In addition, researchers should realize that they are talking to not only other academics, but also policy makers, politicians, police administrators, and the communities at large. They should therefore publish their findings in a manner that is accessible to all of these different groups, even if it means multiple publications.

Funding and Funders -- federal research dollars for policing research is scarce and local funding non-existent (Stephens, 2010, p. 152). If researchers and police departments could find common ground, they may be more successful in finding additional funding sources. Stephens suggests neighboring universities could also collaboration potential and increase funding opportunities for policing research projects.

Risk -- in addition to the political concerns surrounding the release of academic research findings mentioned above, a number of other potential pitfalls should be considered (Stephens, 2010, p. 152-153). For example, will officers on the street invest themselves in research efforts, or what are the liability issues if experimental policing methods temporarily increase crime? Not addressing such issues upfront is a mistake, because research projects could be derailed if overlooked.

Operational considerations -- if researchers require a significant change in policing operations to address research questions, they should look for police departments willing to consider making such changes (Stephens, 2010, p. 153). Doing otherwise is a fool's errand.

Community and policymaker resistance -- Members of the community and their representatives tend to be even more resistant to change compared to police departments, therefore it is up to the police and researchers to engage the community regarding the intended goals of the research. Not only is it important to have community support, but educating the community about state-of-the-art policing methods can help bring about the necessary policy changes to improve policing effectiveness.

Research agenda -- rather than engaging in reactive research agendas in response to an incident and the subsequent media storm, Stephens (2010) suggests that research agendas should be determined through a collaborative, thoughtful process between the police and academic researchers.


Stephens (2010) suggests that tensions… [read more]

Criminal Justice Organized Crime the Capability Research Paper

… Criminal Justice

Organized Crime

The capability to be ingenious at information collecting and compilation is the key ingredient in the success of policing and criminal investigations. When police are missing witnesses, particularly eyewitnesses, dealing with sophisticated criminals, or not getting a lot out of the crime scene evidence, they often use tried and true methods of law enforcement that include informants and surveillance. The use of informants is the more legally accommodating, yet ethically revolting action; and the utilization of surveillance is the more lawfully regulated, yet ethically sound action. This is true for the reason that informants are frequently used in the loose, early stages of an investigation in order to expand leads, and the action of managing informants almost always compromises the honesty of law enforcement. Surveillance, conversely, is a deep-rooted technique concerning performance and gadgets, and is normally utilized to seal the destiny of a person that has already given the police enough facts to find probable cause (Informants, Surveillance, and Undercover Operations, 2010).

An example of a case that utilizes these practices is that of United States of America, Plaintiff-Appellee v. Jesus Zambrana, Sr., Charles Cole and Jay Zambrana, 841 F.2d 1320 (1988). The defendants in this case were three of thirty two codefendants indicted on a variety of drug charges, including charges of possession of cocaine with intention to distribute, conspiracy to distribute cocaine, and using a telephone in furtherance of a conspiracy. Each person was tried individually and convicted. Each of the three defendants in this case appealed his conviction on comparable, although not matching, grounds. The convictions were upheld by the appellate court.

The thirty-two indictments that were handed down against the members of this conspiracy were the outcome of months of investigation by the United States Drug Enforcement Agency. The DEA synchronized their investigation with many local law enforcement agencies. Ultimately, the investigation centered on the defendant Jesus Zambrana's family and his associates. Because… [read more]

Incorporating Restorative and Community Justice Into American Sentencing and Corrections Article Critique

… Restorative Justice




In criminal justice, new interventions targeting crime control and reduction are constantly being developed and implemented. The recent intervention that is notable is Restorative Justice. This paper will thus critique this particular emerging intervention and… [read more]

White-Collar Crime and Public Order Term Paper

… (a) A person commits the crime of falsifying business records if, with intent to defraud, he: (1) Makes or causes a false entry in the business records of an enterprise; or (2) Alters, erases, obliterates, deletes, removes or destroys a true entry in the business records of an enterprise when he knows the retention or preservation of a true entry is required by law independent of this section; or (3) Omits to make a true entry in the business records of an enterprise in violation of a duty to do so which he knows to be imposed upon him by law; or (4) Prevents the making of a true entry or causes the omission thereof in the business records of an enterprise when he knows a true entry is required by law independent of this section.(b) "Enterprise" means any entity of one or more persons, corporate or otherwise, engaged in business, commercial, professional, industrial, eleemosynary, political or social activity. (c) "Business record" means any writing or article kept or maintained by an enterprise for the purpose of evidencing or reflecting its condition or activity.(d) Falsifying business records is a Class B misdemeanor." (2013, p.1)

Explanations of Statutes and Cases

As noted in the statute on disorderly conduct any public disturbance that is found to be annoying could constitute a disorderly conduct arrest. Disorderly conduct is a Class C misdemeanor which means that the individual will receive a sentence not to exceed three months in jail. Falsifying of business records means that any business record that is maintained for the purpose of documenting business activity that is any way altered to reflect other than the truth. This crime is a white-collar crime that is a Class B misdemeanor. This means if convicted the individual could be sentenced to serve up to six months in jail.


White-Collar Crime (nd) United States Department of Justice. Retrieved from:

Crimes Against Public Order (2013) Legal Match Law Library. Retrieved from:

The Code of Alabama 1975 (2013) Section 13A-9-45: FALSIFYING Business RECORDS. Retrieved from:

The Code of Alabama 1975 (2013) Section 13A-5-4 Article 1 Designation of Offenses. Retrieved from:

The Code of Alabama 1975 (2013) Section 13A-11-7 - Disorderly conduct. Retrieved from: [read more]

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