"Crime / Police / Criminal Justice" Essays

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Identifying Problems in the Criminal Justice System Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,381 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Criminal Justice - Systematic Problem


The Problem of Capital Punishment in the United States:

Capital punishment has been a feature of human social justice since before recorded history. Generally, civilized societies reserve the ultimate form of punishment for the most serious crimes, such as the murder of another, but that is not always the case.

The Guillotine played a highly publicized role throughout the 18th century in France, and hanging by the neck was frequently imposed in the U.S. well into the 20th century.

In several Middle Eastern countries, capital punishment is still imposed for such "crimes" as homosexuality; in others, including some of the wealthiest, modern, and so- called "moderate" Islamic nations, the death penalty is not formally sanctioned by law, but nevertheless condoned and rarely prosecuted as punishment for female adultery (Dershowitz, 2002). In the contemporary U.S., a large majority of states still impose capital punishment for certain crimes involving homicide, subject to modern rules of procedure and due process established by the Supreme Court in the last quarter of the 20th century (Schmalleger, 2007).

In the United States, objections to the death penalty as a criminal punishment have centered around constitutional definitions of "cruel and unusual" and culminated in arguments before the Supreme Court in 1976. In Gregg v. Georgia the Court decided that capital punishment is not inherently cruel or unusual provided certain precautions are maintained to ensure a humane death (Dershowitz, 2002). However, evidence suggests that existing guidelines for compliance with constitutional principles are insufficient to eliminate the possibility of cruelty in application, even if not in sentencing (Lancet, 2008).

Beyond the issue of humane application, criminologists examining data from the second half of the 20th century have determined that capital punishment is applied disproportionately to criminal defendants who are from racial minorities as well as those who are poor (Schmalleger, 2007). Finally, the recent advent of advanced forensic techniques making use of DNA science have exonerated hundreds of criminal defendants serving time for crimes they never committed, among them, more than a few who were on death row awaiting execution (Schmalleger, 2007).

Moral Objections and Constitutional Issues:

Religious principles generate a considerable amount of opposition to capital punishment in modern times, despite biblical references to death as an appropriate form of punishment. However, in the U.S., religious principles are not valid criteria for modifying laws; instead, the Constitution dictates the principles that defines and distinguishes appropriate and inappropriate forms of criminal punishment (Dershowitz, 2002).

In that regard, there are two fundamental constitutional problems with capital punishment, at least in the form currently employed within the criminal justice system.

Specifically, the Eighth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution prohibits criminal sanctions that are cruel and unusual punishment (Zalman, 2008). Second, the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment (in conjunction with Fifth Amendment due process applied to the federal government) prohibits unequal treatment under the law, particularly as a function of suspect classes, including race (Friedman, 2005; Zalman, 2008).

Cruel and… [read more]

Criminal Justice Explain Community Corrections Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,096 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Criminal Justice

Explain community corrections and what purpose it fulfills in the overall field of criminal justice. Identify and describe programs and services that are usually found in community corrections. Discuss what you feel are strengths and weaknesses of community corrections programs.

Community corrections programs are rehabilitative programs that attempt to slowly reintegrate offenders designated for release into the community,… [read more]

Practices of Criminal Justice Organizations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,593 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Criminal Justice Organizations

Since the inception of business practice, issues such as occupational socialization, power and political behavior, and organizational conflict have had their influences upon the functions of businesses in their environment, as well as upon the individuals within the businesses. As a primarily business environment, the criminal justice sector is not stranger to these elements. Indeed, factors such… [read more]

British Criminal Justice System Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,568 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Criminal justice system of Britain embraces a range of agencies, cultures and objectives. From the police through the courts, and from the prison systems to victim services, all agencies have a goal to reduce crime and punish the guilty. However, within each agency, specific objectives exist, and embrace numerous cultural differences. This paper will discuss the various agencies involved in… [read more]

Criminal Justice: Wrongful Conviction Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (567 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Criminal Justice: Wrongful Conviction


Does the criminal justice system have adequate protections in place minimizing the risk of innocent people being wrongly convicted or even executed?

Our criminal justice system is designed around the principle that wrongful exoneration is always preferable to wrongful conviction. Protections designed to minimize the chances of wrongful conviction include constitutional rights against unwarranted search and seizure of evidence, self-incrimination, and competent legal representation at the state's expense.

State violations of search and seizure laws often result in the complete exclusion of any evidence discovered improperly and a criminal returned to the street as a result, even where guilt is plainly obvious in retrospect. Likewise, explicit confessions are invalidated and excluded from permissible evidence where obtained through improper custodial interrogation (DOJ, 2006). Whereas the burden of proof in civil matters is a mere preponderance of evidence, criminal convictions require that the state establish guilt beyond reasonable doubt, a much stricter standard (Garner, 2001). Conviction for death penalty-eligible crimes require mandatory appeals at significant tax payer expense, both for the legal proceedings and representation, as well as for many years of incarceration during the lengthy appeals process.

What additional protections would you recommend?

The U.S. Supreme Court has already established a long tradition of protecting the rights of those accused of criminal conduct. Institutionalized protections are more easily enforced than is the conduct of individual state representatives. Probably the area most ripe for improvement relate to subtle distinctions where constitutional requirements and principles rely on the integrity and honest application of police officers to avoid purposely circumventing those protections in the field. In particular, some of the verbal exchanges between officers and suspects are purposely designed…… [read more]

Criminal Justice Response Cesare Beccaria ) Wrote Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (351 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Criminal Justice Response

Cesare Beccaria (1963) wrote that everyone possesses free will, a rational manner and a rational self-interest. This makes human action predictable and controllable, largely matters of personal choice. The task of the criminal justice system is to predict and control these deviant acts that people with freewill might do to satisfy their own personal pleasures.

A strong believer in the social contract, Beccaria believed that individuals exercised their freewill in deciding to commit crimes. Therefore, in addition to the criminal justice system, government should also create a system of laws and punishment, so that law-abiding citizens could "be defended against private usurpation by individuals" (Beccaria 1963: 43).

In this case, Beccaria would first of all look at how the crime could have been prevented. Bobby may have been feeling looked down upon by his peers, because he did not the requisite pair of tennis shoes. Educators or alert school counselors could have helped to shore up Bobby's self-esteem, so he would not have to covet the shoes so much. An alert parent…… [read more]

Women in the Criminal Justice System Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,493 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Women in the Criminal Justice System

The Law Enforcement Assistance Administration Task Force on Women re-evaluated its 1975 recommendations on issues concerning the treatment of women and girls in the criminal justice system (Gowdy et al. 1998). The Task Force found that female offenders, female crime victims, and female criminal justice professionals have been significantly neglected despite noteworthy gains made.… [read more]

Ethics-Criminal Justice System Details Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (893 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


It is the duty of the police officer to provide protection to all regardless of color or creed and this clause of the job description is clearly violated when instead of providing protection, an innocent man is killed on whim.

Where does the law say that police officers can open fire on some who has allegedly challenged their authority. However it is clear that in some cases police would kill the suspect just because they felt, " their authority is being challenged." Racial bias is seriously plaguing our law enforcement agencies because in all such cases, the victim was an immigrant, black or Hispanic. This fact makes it clear that police is either suffering from an irrational fear of minorities or is simply biased and thus instead of remaining true and fair to their responsibilities, they kill anyone who appears threatening in any manner. Suppose you are driving down a highway at night, your wife is at the hospital and wants you to come over as soon as possible. While rushing to the hospital, police cars follow you and ask you to pull over without any reason. Wouldn't you be annoyed at them and get initiated. In this mood, you might even misbehave by being rude to the police officers. Does this give them a right to kill you? Does this make you a potential criminal or threat to the society? Your answers to these questions explain why such police behavior is unethical in nature.


The author believes we must have some laws that would protect us against police brutality. However no such laws have managed to make it to the Senate. William Heffernan, editor of Criminal Justice Ethic, says we need these laws because "There must be a concern for minority misgivings about routine illegal stops and seizures and frisks...The key minority concerns are not about deadly force but about the indignities to their Fourth Amendment rights."(Quoted in the article). Whenever such laws are proposed, law enforcement agencies oppose them on the selfish grounds. They see themselves as "scapegoats" but the truth is that in the absence of adequate laws, we have given immense powers to the police agencies. They can kill anyone at any time for any reason whatsoever. This is not why the police are needed. The author believes that since there are no laws against police brutality, we must make sure that all such cases are at least tried in the court of law. This can have a "restraining effect" on police officers and might protect others from becoming victims of racial profiling.… [read more]

Criminal Justice Implications of Recall and Recognition Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (671 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


, 2008). According to the article's subsequent analysis of this underlying neural activity, "although recognition tends to be a fast, accurate, automatic process, and is reasonably stable over time, the serial recall of information is effortful, takes much longer, and decays considerably more rapidly" (Frowd et al., 2008). By arming themselves with this emerging knowledge on the function of memory retrieval, those working in the field of criminal justice can refine their interviewing techniques, discern between reliable and unreliable eyewitness testimony, and apply the evidence obtained during interaction with witnesses in a more productive manner. One of the most useful ways in which Frowd's research and recall and recognition can be integrated into criminal investigation involves the standard law enforcement practice of using facial composite systems to determine whether or not a witness recognizes a suspect or subject of interest. As Frowd observes in the article, facial composites are generally considered to be unreliable as a sole means of identification, and the author cites numerous studies which have indicated facial composites are only accurate 20% of the time even under favorable conditions (2008). The brain tends to encode memories involving human faces on a generalized level for the sake of efficiency -- as the vast majority of faces one encounters in everyday life have no reason to be remembered -- and Frowd shows that this streamlined cognitive process can actually act as a barrier to accurate identification via recognition of facial composite systems. Instead, Frowd recommends that criminal justice professionals utilize a novel concept known as Holistic Interviewing (HI), in which "witnesses watch a video of an unfamiliar target face, then both describe and rate the personality of the face before constructing a facial composite" (2008), because this process of evaluating personality cues within a stranger's face has been shown to bypass the brain's natural tendency to encode facial memories on a generalized basis.


Frowd, C.D., Bruce, V., Smith, A.J., & Hancock, P.J. (2008). Improving the quality of facial composites using a…… [read more]

Traditional Organized Crime Groups Criminal Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (738 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


(FBI, 2013). I was additionally surprised to learn, as part of the LCN history, that the first formal "mafia incident" occurred in New Orleans in 1890. (FBI, 2013) That is not a city bereft of mafia activities, but neither is it a New York City, for example. Members of the LCN number in the hundreds of thousands. (ABC, 2013; FBI, 2013) This makes sense, as the abundance of criminal activity committed in the United States could not be perpetrated without a network of dedicated criminals tied together through a shared history and culture. The shared history, blood lines, culture, etc. is part of what keeps the members of LCN so tightly knit, making them all the more of a severe threat. (FBI, 2013)

I was greatly surprised to learn that due to the success of the Italian-American mafia and the mafia indigenous to and still based in Italy, organized crime is the biggest business in Italy. (ABC, 2013) Organized crime is the most stable business in Italy and the Italian mafia is the most profitable organized crime group in America. (ABC, 2013) Citizens and small businesses, as a result, are seeking financial assistance from the LCN these days, than from normative sources such as banks. With the rumors, allegations, and investigations of questionable activities from banking executives in international news, this makes for a very interesting situation. It is almost as if with respect to this issue, we are back in the older times, when there were no or few banks, and people went to the LCN for communal justice and assistance, over normative institutional assistance. I was not particularly surprised to learn of the various activities of La Costra Nostra, only in that just a large part of their activities is money laundering. (ABC News, 2013; FBI, 2013)


ABC News. (2013). Latest La Costra Nostra News. ABC, Available from: http://abcnews.go.com/topics/news/la-cosa-nostra.htm. 2013 May 04. Web.

Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2013). Italian Organized Crime. The FBI, Available from: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/organizedcrime/italian_mafia. 2013 May 04. Web.… [read more]

Criminal Justice Systems Comprise of Different Elements Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  2 pages (625 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Criminal justice systems comprise of different elements. Many issues are likely to be raised as problem statements when analyzing criminal justice issues. Usually, the issues relate in one way or the other to ensure common objectives for any criminal justice system. For instance, in trying to address the problem such as "comparison between mentally challenged individuals and the normal offenders" issues relating to the arrest of mentally ill offenders will also arise in case of normal offenders. This illustrates the issue of fairness and justice to all, and at the same time addresses issues related to timeliness in the trial process.

The crime prevention and investigation strategies for mentally ill persons and normal offenders will be the same. In both, for instance, the crime reduction plan will be in harmony with the criminal justice and public safety council. When taking general surveys, both the mentally ill and normal offenders will be interviewed and issues such as self-reported victimization could arise in both scenarios. As the policies provide for early resolution and hastened trial for the normal offenders, these policies will also apply for the normal offenders. The initiatives will affect both offenders and they include timeliness to enhance early resolutions, adherence to court procedures and hierarchical order and the reduction of current case backlog. This clearly indicates that policies and regulations will not affect a certain class of offenders, but will also apply to other diverse classes of offenders. The law applies equally to enhance justice and fairness.

The justice systems for criminals allows for justice, fairness and public safety. This happens to be a diverse element of the judicial system, as all criminals have the right to a fair trial, regardless of their physical and mental situation. Fairness is expected to lead to a community that is peaceful and safe. Justice officials are therefore expected to be just enough and offer…… [read more]

Criminal Justice: Writing Is a Very Important Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (644 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Criminal Justice:

Writing is a very important aspect in criminal justice and the law enforcement field despite of whether it's associated with policy statement by the police chief or police report by a new law enforcement officer. This importance of writing and appropriate writing skills is because of its power to result in positive and negative changes with the criminal justice system. Some of these changes include promoting or hindering policies and procedures, improving or destroying public relations, and developing or shattering the writer's self-image. Since criminal justice systems involve various types of reports that are read by different people, writing plays an integral role in the accomplishment of the objectives of law enforcement.

One of the major reasons why writing is important in criminal justice is because it serves as a means of clear communication in order to achieve the goals of criminal justice. Properly written information in criminal justice reports helps in the communication of actions and behaviors of the defendant. It's also enables the readers of the information to identify facts and make informed decisions regarding a particular case (Thompson, n.d.). Without the proper documentation of information through writing, communication and decision-making within the criminal justice system will be negatively impacted.

For example, the possibility of the community to benefit from a K9 unit in scenario 3 was not realized because of the lack of a written proposal. This was despite of the various informal conversations that the captain had with both the mayor and the chief about how this unit would improve local investigations. This scenario presents a clear example of how written documents in the criminal justice system help in communication and decision-making processes.

The second major importance of writing in law enforcement is its impact on the accomplishment of several leadership intentions and purposes by officers and professionals in this field. When there is lack of written documents or ineffective writing in criminal justice,…… [read more]

Criminal Justice Criminal Profiling, or Offender Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (570 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Criminal Justice

Criminal profiling, or offender profiling, is a process by which law enforcement deduces a psychological and demographic picture of a perpetrator. Clues from the crime scene are used to develop a composite identity of a suspect or suspects. Issues such as geographic location, demographics, behavioral and personality psychology are taken into account. The main purpose of criminal profiling is to aid law enforcement in efficiently pursuing suspects and eliminating false trails. Criminal profiling can also be used to develop a template that can be used to identify suspects in a more general context, although this process risks stereotyping and racial profiling. Criminal profiling is part of Criminal Investigative Analysis (CIA).

The six stages of criminal profiling include profiling inputs, decision process or decision-making models, crime assessment, the criminal profile, the investigation, and the apprehension. Profiling inputs include all hard evidence collected and gleaned from the crime scene. At this stage, nothing is known about potential suspects to avoid bias. Inputs need to be as objective as possible. Second, the investigator organizes and analyzes the information into decision process models. This may entail categorization of data along different dimensions. The third stage, crime assessment, reconstructs the scene of the crime and especially the behaviors of both victim and perpetrator. This stage of profiling helps law enforcement officers to determine such things as whether the crime was premeditated or not. For example, it may be obvious that the crime was committed hastily. Fourth, a formal profile is created. Fifth, the profile is used and enhanced during the investigation process. Finally, the suspect can be apprehended, interviewed, and pursued further.

3. Hormant & Kennedy (1998) provide a theoretical basis for profiling. The authors note that behavioral…… [read more]

Impact of Diversity in the Criminal Justice System Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,344 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Diversity on the Criminal Justice System

How does diversity in the Criminal Justice System impact economic considerations?

Over the last two hundred fifty years, the study of criminal justice has become an important part of understanding society and why someone will commit different crimes. Evidence of this can be seen by looking at the writings of Cesare Becciria. In 1764 he wrote an essay called Crimes and Punishments. In it, he wanted to know why someone breaks the law and what could be done to prevent this from occurring. What Becciria concluded, was that if people knew they would be caught and severely punished their actions would be restrained. This is because they are hesitant about breaking the law, as this will serve as a way of deterring them from engaging in behaviors that are against the norms of society. (Siegel, 2010, pp. 2 -- 10) As a result, he believed that if the government had an effective means of: enforcing the law and responding to various incidents that this would prevent criminal activity from occurring. This is significant, because this philosophy has become the standard approach that is used by many Western nations when it comes to enforcing the law.

However, there are also critics who claim that following these standards can often lead to major social problems down the road. This is troubling, as it is illustrating the overall challenges and lack of diversity in the criminal justice system. Over the course of time, this can have an effect on economic and social considerations. To fully understand why this is happening requires examining: how scholars study diversity / social causes and the impact of the consequences of racism on the society. Once this takes place, it will provide the greatest insights as to the overall effects that this is having the general public and the lasting consequences.

How Scholars are Studying Diversity and the Different ways in which They are Examining the Causes

During the 20th century there were a number of different methods that were used to study criminal justice system to include: the Marxist / socialist view and the Western standard. The Marxist / socialist views are when researchers are studying the impact of the capitalist system on the individual. As, they are looking beyond the underlying causes of: why someone committed a particular crime. Instead, they are focused on how society and the system itself contributed to the person committing a particular offense. This is important, because it is indicating how criminologists will study diversity by: looking at the economic system and society. The way that this impacts the underlying causes and their views of them, will be based upon various Marxist principals. As, these kinds of researchers will often to point to social injustices that are occurring, to highlight the underlying reasons why people will break the law. This is how sociologists will understand the causes by: focusing on the economic system and the divisions that it creates. (Hil, 2002)

The Western… [read more]

Ethical Considerations and Professional Responsibility in a Criminal Justice Agency Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (4,201 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Ethical Considerations and Professional Responsibility in a Criminal Justice Agency

Owing to the distinguishable contribution of police officers in any given society, a number of professionals working in the field of criminology and sociology have emphasized the significance of comprehending the duties of a police officer. Going by this tradition, the respective analysis challenges the behavioural actions and moral obligations… [read more]

Constitutional Rights That Are Implicated for Criminal Justice Employees on the Job Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (621 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Constitutional Rights and Criminal Justice Employees

While on duty, do criminal justice employees have the right to freedom of speech?

While all employees, regardless of their place of employment, have certain basic rights, (such as the right to enjoy a safe workplace environment and to freedom of speech) these rights are not absolute in all circumstances. The courts have tended to assume that there is a certain assumption of risk, when working in an environment such as a prison. It has also been deemed that the state can have a legitimate interest in limiting the free speech of certain individuals, in the interests of protecting the public. As guardians of the public, criminal justice employees may face particular restrictions upon their behaviors.

However, there must, in all cases be a balance between the rights of the individual and the rights of the public employee. For example, laws which prohibited police officers from engaging in any and all criticism of their departments, even in private conversation, were deemed unconstitutional. Nor can public officers be fired solely because of their political affiliation, if they are not in positions specifically devoted to policy-making. However, prohibiting officers from associating with known criminals on a social basis is deemed to be constitutional, and in one instance a Texas officer was deemed to be constitutionally barred from promotion, given the embarrassment his extramarital affair had brought upon the police force.

Delineate the constitutional rights of criminal justice employees in the area of searches and seizures.

While the Fourth Amendment protects Americans against unreasonable searches and seizures, officers have been ruled to have no expectation of privacy regarding their police lockers and other areas pertinent to their work. However, some protections for officers do exist. For example, in a 1985 Iowa case in which police officers were forced to sign a consent form which mandated they could…… [read more]

Criminal Justice Leadership Identify Two Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,090 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Simply stated, due process in the hiring and firing phases of employment are federally mandated to avoid litigation and to provide all candidates with fairness and equality in decision making. Civil Right Act of 1964 (Title VII) prohibits employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin and sex (Archives.gov, 2010). Should a hiring committee or authority disregard these federally protected categories, liability will attach and, perhaps, adverse civil judgments may ensue.

Employees in the criminal justice system are afforded all of the due process rights and privledges available to all employees. The benefit, of course, is that criminal justice employees are not subject to the whim of superiors and have the ability to utilize due process protections to avoid termination. Given the duties of law enforcement officers and others in the criminal justice system, given the need for discretion, for strong moral compass and sound ethical decision making capabilities, it is imperative that criminal justice organizations be able to properly discipline and terminate employees when trust is violated. Without this disciplinary ability, law enforcement agencies would be bound to honor the employment of corrupt, discriminatory, abuse or otherwise unfit officers from public service. Clearly, then, while the process may languish, it is an effective method for both hiring and firing.

4. Discuss the impact of law suits on criminal justice organizations. What can be done to lessen the chances of law suits being filed in criminal justice organizations?

The issue isn't about the number of lawsuits. The issue is about why so many criminal justice organizations open themselves up to allow such lawsuits to occur. Lack of training, poor training, abuse of powers, and lack of supervision over employees are all connected with increased lawsuits (AELE, 2007). While lawsuits in the criminal justice system detract from necessary funding, civil liabilities are an effective deterrent for improper training in criminal justice organizations (AELE, 2008). Simply stated, criminal justice organizations can train their employees better, more often, and with greater depth to avoid costly civil liabilities.

The consequences of reducing departmental liabilities from officer's actions are serious. While the issues law enforcement officers are forced to contend with daily are significant, our trust in their ability to handle difficult situations is paramount. Law enforcement officers and all employees in the criminal justice system are entrusted with the protection of the public, of taxpayers, and to do so with high regard for the rights and dignity of all.


AELE Mo L.J. (2008). Civil Liability for Use of Deadly Force -- Part Three Supervisory Liability and Negligent/Accidental Acts, 101, 1.

AELE Mo L.J. (2007). Civil Liability Law Section: Civil Liability for Use of Deadly Force -- Part Two Qualified Immunity and Inadequate Training, 101,12.

Archives.gov (2010). Retrieved from: http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/civil-rights-act/

Banks, N. (2010). The Importance of Ethics in Criminal Justice. Retrieved from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/4031_Banks_Chapter_1_Proof.pdf

Caltax.org (2010). Online document retrieved from: http://www.caltax.org/ZeroBase.pdf

Cook, J. (2007). Morality and Cultural Differences. New York: Oxford University Press.

Holmes, Robert. (2008). Basic Moral Philosophy (5th ed.). Belmont,… [read more]

Criminal Justice &amp Sentencing Issues Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,119 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Criminal Justice - Corrections


Criminal Sentencing:

Generally, the purpose of sentencing is to assign a type and length of punishment corresponding to particular types of penal violations. Much more specifically, sentencing incorporates five objectives: retribution, incapacitation, deterrence, rehabilitation, and restoration (Schmalleger, 2001). Retribution reflects the natural instincts of human beings and was featured predominantly throughout human history. In more modern times, criminology theory has deemphasized retribution in formal legislation and policy in favor of functional incapacitation, mainly through incarceration and deterrence.

Similarly, increased attention and effort in the areas of rehabilitation have been employed as a means of crime prevention, instead of focusing on punishing crime, after the fact. Restoration is a concept of compensating victims of crimes, which can be in the form of monetary awards or simply consideration of victims' sentiments about the crime and the criminal during the sentencing phase of trial (Schmalleger, 2001).

The main differences in sentencing forms among different states concerns the distinction between determinate and indeterminate sentencing. The former refers to a system in which specific criminal offenses trigger specific sentences upon conviction as a matter of law that are not subject to judicial discretion. The latter refers to a system in which judges may prescribe very different sentences for conviction on similar offenses.

Proponents of determinate sentencing argue that excessive judicial latitude in sentencing undermines the intent of legislators; that it is necessary to ensure equal treatment under the law to all criminal defendants; that it encourages "judge shopping"; that it undermines truth in sentencing by failing to ensure that convicted criminals actually serve a substantial portion of their criminal sentences; and that it allows for the potential of personal bias and prejudice on the part of judges (Schmalleger, 2001).

Proponents of indeterminate sentencing suggest that determinate sentencing applies inappropriately harsh sentences that cannot take into account mitigating factors to the extent necessary to achieve justice; that it undermines the ability of the criminal justice system to emphasize rehabilitation; and that restricting judicial discretion without changing prosecutorial authority produces an imbalance that favors the prosecution (Schmalleger, 2001). Some of the best proposals designed to incorporate both sets of concerns are variations of sentencing approaches that allow for certain elements of judicial discretion but within mandatory sentencing guidelines in the form of minimum sentences. By legislating a mandatory minimum sentence, the partial determinant strategy ensures that offenders who perpetrate specific classes of crimes never escape minimum sentences established by legislators for those crimes while still allowing for the exercise of judicial discretion and input as appropriate in individual cases. Contemporary Sentencing Issues Addressed by the U.S. Sentencing Commission:

According to the 2007 report of the U.S. Sentencing Commission (USSC) to Congress, current issues in federal sentencing include guidelines for: modification of penalties associated with offenses related to trafficking crack cocaine including the "100- to-1 ratio" problem; four specific counterterrorism offenses under the U.S.A. PATRIOT

Improvement and reauthorization Act of 2005; the Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act… [read more]

Criminal Justice Administration Taking Into Account Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (798 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Criminal Justice Administration

Taking into account the fact that criminal justice administrators are faced with right-versus-wrong decisions and must balance the wants and needs of their employees, the politicians and the citizens, this work will describe the ethical decisions-making process that criminal justice administrators engage in when attempting to determine a course of action and will discuss the potential perceptions to the employees, the politicians and the citizens and how this influences the administrator.

Criminal Justice Administration Overview

It is pointed out in the work entitled: "Sentencing Values and Sentencing Structures," published in the Judicial Studies Institute Journal that "In a dissenting opinion in which she disagreed with the Court's analysis, Judge Higgins said: 'The judicial lodestar, whether in difficult questions of interpretation of humanitarian law, or in resolving claimed tensions between competing norms, must be those values that international law seeks to promote and protect. In the present case, it is the physical survival of peoples that we must constantly have in view." (O'Malley, nd) O'Malley notes that within the realm of this 'lodestar' are competing perspectives, norms and interests. The fact is, that is the case in all areas of criminal justice administration and all of these must be considered by the individual who fills the role of criminal justice administrator. O'Malley additionally states as follows:

central plank of critical theory, and one of its more valuable contributions to contemporary policy debate, is that apparently neutral concepts such as equality before the law, due process and proportionate punishment often serve to mask underlying structural inequalities and social injustice. Rhetorical commitment to neutral, equality-based principles tends to sustain the status quo and seldom does much to address cycles of disadvantage." (nd)

While structured sentencing is not preferable to many, if not most, structured sentencing has at least set out a guideline for sentencing that is purported to be in place in order to avoid disparities in sentencing however, this is not always the outcome. For instance, statistics show that African-American men are disproportionately sentenced to prison sentences as compared to their white counterparts. Harsher sentencing of certain crimes has tended to target young black men resulting in the disproportionate number of young African-American men who are presently serving time in prison.

The work entitled: "Fifteen Years After the Federal Sentencing Revolution: How Mandatory Minimums Have Undermined Effective and Just Narcotics Sentencing..(Perspectives on the Federal Sentencing Guidelines and Mandatory…… [read more]

Criminal Justice Through the Comparison Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,655 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … criminal justice through the comparison of the movie Gridiron Gang to the textbook from class. The writer examines points that were learned about in class between the movie and the book and completes the discussion with points about how well the movie related to the reality of the criminal justice system. There were two sources used to complete… [read more]

Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (318 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice -- two views of drug-Related crimes

The relationship of drugs and violent, unorganized street crime:

According to the annual Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) cited by the Justice Information Center, there is a strong correlation between drug and alcohol abuse and violent crime. Data collected from male arrestees in 1998 in 35 cities showed that the percentage testing positive for any drug ranged from 42.5% in Anchorage, Alaska, (the lowest percentage) to 78.7% in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (a rather staggeringly high percentage). (http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/factsht/crime/index.html) Additionally, 27% of Federal prisoners admitted committing their offense to get money to buy drugs.

Gangs and drugs

Drug-related crimes are not merely the result of desperate actions of individuals in thrall to their addiction. Drug-related crimes also often have an organized source, and organized sources of drugs also are a source of violent crime. According to the FBI (http://www.usdoj.gov/ndic/pubs11/13157/index.htm#relation) one must look at the organized face…… [read more]

Ethical Leadership in Criminal Justice Peer Reviewed Journal

Peer Reviewed Journal  |  2 pages (710 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Much of justice is procedural in nature, but that does not mean there is nothing else that should be considered and addressed. The procedures are there to provide minimum standards that have to be met, and to ensure that everything that has to be handled from the standpoint of following the law is dealt with properly (Bottoms & Tankebe, 2012). However, there is more to a criminal justice agency and what it stands for and represents than just procedural issues that are followed to the letter (Bottoms & Tankebe, 2012). That is only a part of the law, and only a part of what criminal justice workers should consider or focus on.

Ethics and procedures are not the same thing. When a person follows procedure, it does not matter how he or she feels about that procedure (Bottoms & Tankebe, 2012). It is simply something that is required, and it has to be followed and handled properly within the confines of the law as it currently stands. Ethics, though, are not a requirement from a legal standpoint. They are something that is much deeper and also considerably more complex, and they are more difficult to put into writing and into the requirements of employment (Bottoms & Tankebe, 2012). When agencies move beyond procedures and consider all the other aspects that go into the field of criminal justice, it is much more likely that they will provide value to the people who trust them for security. By moving beyond procedural issues and ensuring that leadership is focused on ethical standards and values, criminal justice agencies are able to meet the needs and requirements of the community in which they are located. That protects them and the people who rely on them.


Bottoms, A. & Tankebe, J. (2012). Beyond procedural justice: A dialogic approach to legitimacy in criminal justice. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 102(1): 119-170.

Wright, K.N. (1999). Leadership is the key…… [read more]

Society's Understanding of Crime and Criminals Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (498 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Crime and Criminals

Most feared crimes

Ten responses obtained on the crimes that come to mind when one thinks of crime comprise of:


Rape and molestation

Physical or emotional attack on person rights or damaging personal property

Murder and Rape


Beating up old people

Murder and theft

Crime is a problem for all communities, this is widespread and no one can ever say they live in a crime free neighborhood



From the responses on the crimes that come quickly to mind, murder and rape are the most common crime mentioned by the respondents. These crimes are mentioned by most of the respondents since they seem to have a greater on the sanctity of human life. From the perspective of human life and morality in the society, it is appreciable that the moral guide and rules are meant to safe guard human life. This being a common understanding and regular teaching in the society, anything that goes against such understanding will be highly recognized. This is the reason why murder and rape are the most commonly mentioned crimes by the respondents.

Among the crimes that were not named by the respondents are embezzlement, forgery, false Pretenses, receipt of stolen goods and tax evasion. This types of crime fall under the general category of white-collar crimes and they attract little public concern. The likely grounds for these are that these. crimes have a lesser bearing on the value people place on human life. These crimes are also…… [read more]

Criminal Justice Drumming My Hands Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (633 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


I have discovered areas of focus and places I would hope to specialize in. Drawn to work in the federal sector, I applied for an internship with a major federal agency. The letter I received via my academic advisor's office propelled me into a new level of success. Earning the opportunity to participate in the intern program has absolutely solidified my goals.

With proven leadership skills, I will someday ascend to a directorial position within a federal agency. I thrive in environments in which my mind is tested to its limits, when I can stretch myself and apply creative and critical thinking skills. Drawing on empirical evidence in the interrelated fields of psychology, sociology, and criminal justice, I can apply academic wisdom to real life situations. Keeping localities and our entire nation safe and secure will of course be ultimate goals of any criminal justice professional. I intend to bring integrity, ethical responsibility, and credibility into the framework of federal criminal investigations.

Throughout my undergraduate career I have demonstrated an unusual focus, a single-minded dedication and I show no signs of letting up. In fact, one of the main reasons why I thrive in a criminal justice setting is due to my determined nature: I set my mind on something and go after it. I know I will make a worthy addition to any criminal investigative team because my personal traits and talents gear me in such a direction. Similarly, I will contribute to the Masters program through active participation in research projects and collaborative and independent study projects.

When my talents are in line with my expectations I succeed. When I throw a double dose of hard work in the mix I rarely fail. A proven prior record of success, focus, and determination make me a uniquely ideal candidate for the Master's program in Criminal Justice.… [read more]

Activities of the U.S. Criminal Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,009 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


According to a New York Times article, the number of violent and property crimes in the United States had begun to plummet significantly in 2010, with a prevalence in small towns, to what appeared to be "the lowest rate in nearly 40 years" (Oppel, 2011), and this amazed experts who, based on historical lessons, had foreseen that criminality would naturally increase along with the accelerating economic crisis.

Despite this generally positive state of affairs, New York City stood out through its astoundingly proliferating patterns of rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary and larceny cases, while admittedly downgrading to -18,64% in murder cases and -13,19% in motor vehicle theft cases. In fact, whereas a uniformly spread, steady growth rate shared by some types of crime is not unusual, an element of surprise accompanies the realization that motor vehicle thefts and murders have converged in decreasing.

In the scenario where I were in charge of obtaining manpower with a budget that would permit me to hire eight officers, including investigative personnel and administrative personnel, the crime units which would be granted priority in adding manpower, would, according to the data, be those dealing with aggravated assaults and, most importantly, rape cases. This choice is justified by the alarming percentage that rape cases reached by 2012, namely 6,41% compared to the previous year, notwithstanding aggravated assaults' quota of 4,63%. Thus, these two types of crime are clearly problematic and require the most part of a forceful response.

At the same time, there would be much work to do in order to make the police department decisively more efficient by drops of crime rates in the worst crimes presented by data, namely rape and aggravated assault. Firstly, the hired eight officers would be commissioned as follows: the larger part, namely six, would be used to reinforce the crime units that deal with rape cases, whereas two would be assigned to assault units, with the specific recommendation that each be made part of a different, seasoned team, which would guarantee their proper training and enhance the common effort directed at optimizing the process of minimizing rape occurrence in New York City. Secondly, additional forces might be re-deployed from teams which deal with homicide to crime units which specialize in solving rape cases, due to the fact that murder incidence has decreased so notably and may not need as much manpower. Thirdly, it may be helpful and preventive to assign more frequent undercover patrols in the areas where rape and aggravated assault occur most often.

To conclude, the most interesting career option would, in my opinion, be that of a hired psychologist of New York Police Department, because I believe that the best way to optimize the local police department's crime-repelling measures is by making sure that the individuals who comprise its ranks are adequately prepared to handle various situations in a proper manner. By…… [read more]

Justice, Crime and Ethics Prepping Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,434 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Many prisons in the United States have adopted this Panopticon model and have begun functioning under the fact that all humans, even prisoners, have the right to be treated with human dignity. Using the model set forth by Bentham, criminal justice and psychological experts have seen that the condition of a prison certainly adds to a prisoner's pain and suffering… [read more]

Criminal Justice Management Mapping Crime Article Review

Article Review  |  6 pages (1,991 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


In other words, police culture and organizational inertia tend to resist changes to basic assumptions underlying policing strategies, while researchers feel that there should be no sacred cows.

Six Recommendations

Improved communications -- the police and researchers should be upfront about what they hope to gain from collaborative projects and the risks they foresee (Stephens, 2010, p. 151-152). These expectations should be updated by both sides as the collaboration matures, so that compromises can be agreed upon before problems fester.

Some of the friction between the police and researchers arise from differences between political and academic orientations, respectively. Critique is central to academic discourse, but in the political environment within which most police departments reside, critique tends to be perceived by the public as criticism and can therefore carry a heavy price. Stephens (2010) suggests that researchers acknowledge the realities of police politics and frame research findings accordingly. In addition, researchers should realize that they are talking to not only other academics, but also policy makers, politicians, police administrators, and the communities at large. They should therefore publish their findings in a manner that is accessible to all of these different groups, even if it means multiple publications.

Funding and Funders -- federal research dollars for policing research is scarce and local funding non-existent (Stephens, 2010, p. 152). If researchers and police departments could find common ground, they may be more successful in finding additional funding sources. Stephens suggests neighboring universities could also collaboration potential and increase funding opportunities for policing research projects.

Risk -- in addition to the political concerns surrounding the release of academic research findings mentioned above, a number of other potential pitfalls should be considered (Stephens, 2010, p. 152-153). For example, will officers on the street invest themselves in research efforts, or what are the liability issues if experimental policing methods temporarily increase crime? Not addressing such issues upfront is a mistake, because research projects could be derailed if overlooked.

Operational considerations -- if researchers require a significant change in policing operations to address research questions, they should look for police departments willing to consider making such changes (Stephens, 2010, p. 153). Doing otherwise is a fool's errand.

Community and policymaker resistance -- Members of the community and their representatives tend to be even more resistant to change compared to police departments, therefore it is up to the police and researchers to engage the community regarding the intended goals of the research. Not only is it important to have community support, but educating the community about state-of-the-art policing methods can help bring about the necessary policy changes to improve policing effectiveness.

Research agenda -- rather than engaging in reactive research agendas in response to an incident and the subsequent media storm, Stephens (2010) suggests that research agendas should be determined through a collaborative, thoughtful process between the police and academic researchers.


Stephens (2010) suggests that tensions…… [read more]

Criminal Justice Organized Crime the Capability Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (645 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Criminal Justice

Organized Crime

The capability to be ingenious at information collecting and compilation is the key ingredient in the success of policing and criminal investigations. When police are missing witnesses, particularly eyewitnesses, dealing with sophisticated criminals, or not getting a lot out of the crime scene evidence, they often use tried and true methods of law enforcement that include informants and surveillance. The use of informants is the more legally accommodating, yet ethically revolting action; and the utilization of surveillance is the more lawfully regulated, yet ethically sound action. This is true for the reason that informants are frequently used in the loose, early stages of an investigation in order to expand leads, and the action of managing informants almost always compromises the honesty of law enforcement. Surveillance, conversely, is a deep-rooted technique concerning performance and gadgets, and is normally utilized to seal the destiny of a person that has already given the police enough facts to find probable cause (Informants, Surveillance, and Undercover Operations, 2010).

An example of a case that utilizes these practices is that of United States of America, Plaintiff-Appellee v. Jesus Zambrana, Sr., Charles Cole and Jay Zambrana, 841 F.2d 1320 (1988). The defendants in this case were three of thirty two codefendants indicted on a variety of drug charges, including charges of possession of cocaine with intention to distribute, conspiracy to distribute cocaine, and using a telephone in furtherance of a conspiracy. Each person was tried individually and convicted. Each of the three defendants in this case appealed his conviction on comparable, although not matching, grounds. The convictions were upheld by the appellate court.

The thirty-two indictments that were handed down against the members of this conspiracy were the outcome of months of investigation by the United States Drug Enforcement Agency. The DEA synchronized their investigation with many local law enforcement agencies. Ultimately, the investigation centered on the defendant Jesus Zambrana's family and his associates. Because…… [read more]

Incorporating Restorative and Community Justice Into American Sentencing and Corrections Article Critique

Article Critique  |  14 pages (5,088 words)
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Restorative Justice




In criminal justice, new interventions targeting crime control and reduction are constantly being developed and implemented. The recent intervention that is notable is Restorative Justice. This paper will thus critique this particular emerging intervention and focus on answering questions like: What is Restorative Justice? What is Community Justice? Should Restorative and Community Justice Be incorporated… [read more]

White-Collar Crime and Public Order Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (823 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


(a) A person commits the crime of falsifying business records if, with intent to defraud, he: (1) Makes or causes a false entry in the business records of an enterprise; or (2) Alters, erases, obliterates, deletes, removes or destroys a true entry in the business records of an enterprise when he knows the retention or preservation of a true entry is required by law independent of this section; or (3) Omits to make a true entry in the business records of an enterprise in violation of a duty to do so which he knows to be imposed upon him by law; or (4) Prevents the making of a true entry or causes the omission thereof in the business records of an enterprise when he knows a true entry is required by law independent of this section.(b) "Enterprise" means any entity of one or more persons, corporate or otherwise, engaged in business, commercial, professional, industrial, eleemosynary, political or social activity. (c) "Business record" means any writing or article kept or maintained by an enterprise for the purpose of evidencing or reflecting its condition or activity.(d) Falsifying business records is a Class B misdemeanor." (2013, p.1)

Explanations of Statutes and Cases

As noted in the statute on disorderly conduct any public disturbance that is found to be annoying could constitute a disorderly conduct arrest. Disorderly conduct is a Class C misdemeanor which means that the individual will receive a sentence not to exceed three months in jail. Falsifying of business records means that any business record that is maintained for the purpose of documenting business activity that is any way altered to reflect other than the truth. This crime is a white-collar crime that is a Class B misdemeanor. This means if convicted the individual could be sentenced to serve up to six months in jail.


White-Collar Crime (nd) United States Department of Justice. Retrieved from: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/to-wcc.pdf

Crimes Against Public Order (2013) Legal Match Law Library. Retrieved from: http://www.legalmatch.com/law-library/article/crimes-against-public-order.html

The Code of Alabama 1975 (2013) Section 13A-9-45: FALSIFYING Business RECORDS. Retrieved from: http://alisondb.legislature.state.al.us/acas/codeofalabama/1975/coatoc.htm

The Code of Alabama 1975 (2013) Section 13A-5-4 Article 1 Designation of Offenses. Retrieved from: http://alisondb.legislature.state.al.us/acas/codeofalabama/1975/coatoc.htm

The Code of Alabama 1975 (2013) Section 13A-11-7 - Disorderly conduct. Retrieved from: http://alisondb.legislature.state.al.us/acas/codeofalabama/1975/coatoc.htm… [read more]

Criminal Justice Management Policing Matrix Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,341 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Criminal Justice Management Policing Matrix

The Matrix provided here is a detailed and thorough plotting of research findings in a number of specific areas that are defined by their level of proactive nature and success levels. Essentially, it is a survey of research conclusions that is laid out in a format that helps make understanding modern research much easier, especially in a context of strategy planning and execution within various policing agencies around the nation. The Matrix takes a wide number of research study findings and plots them in a thorough diagram that rates effectiveness of particular strategies. It aids policing agencies in the development of strategies to combat very specific issues they may be facing within their department jurisdictions. Thus, the Matrix represents a move away from generalized and vague statistics, and more into very thorough and detailed evaluation of up-to-date research. It takes very detailed study findings and combines them into an easy to use and easy to read format that can be applied in the field without confusion or the need to work through administrative teams to decipher research statistics.

There are a number of areas that are important, but a few that really stick out both in the Matrix itself and in articles reviewing some of the research that helped create it. First, it is clear that in a number of target crime areas, taking a more proactive approach to managing crime is a huge benefit to the overall success of implementing various strategies. This includes the process of stepping up patrol proactively in areas which prove to have higher rates of criminal incidences. Proactive approaches have been increasingly successful with the use of data and conclusions from the Matrix. The articles show several instances were proactive strategies designed with the conclusions of the Matrix in mind have been successful in developing and executing strategies that target specific crime incidences. The Repeat Offender Program (ROP) in Phoenix and the DARE programs are positive examples of how proactive approaches based on research findings can be successful in reducing crime rates for targeted offenses, like drug use and sales. Finding the right level of proactive approach depends on the specific nature of the crimes being targeted, but it is clear that in almost every category of targeting, proactive approaches are more successful. This then is a catalyst for designing future policing tactics around a more proactive approach.

Moreover, the ability to use the Matrix as a self-assessment tool for individual agencies and departments is also a very crucial element of the research here as well. The Matrix can help local agencies examine their department performance as well as individual officer performances within that jurisdiction. Use of the Matrix increases the active role of Sergeants in supervising officer and department performance, allowing them to take on greater levels of responsibility in developing their own unique and tailored tactics to combat specific issues being faced in their individual situations. Moreover, the Matrix increases the scope of self-assessment to include much… [read more]

Effectiveness of Police Patrol Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,056 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Criminal Justice

Effectiveness of Police Patrol

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze the topic of police patrol. Specifically, it will discuss the purpose and effectiveness of police patrol. The two articles utilized for this study are "Reducing Firearms Violence Through Directed Police Patrol" by Edmund F. McGarrell, Stephen Chermak, Alexander Weiss, and Jeremy Wilson, and "What Can Police Do to Reduce Crime, Disorder, and Fear?" By David Weisburd and John E. Eck.

The first article looks at a project in Kansas City, Missouri, which utilized specific police patrols in areas of the city that experienced a severe amount of violent crime. The officers heavily patrolled the area looking for illegal firearms, and did not answer other police calls, which is known as "directed patrol." The authors of this article note, "The results of the project were striking. The increased traffic enforcement led to a 65% increase in seizures of illegal firearms. This, in turn, was associated with a 49% decrease in gun-related crime in this area" (McGarrell et. al 119). However, the study only ran for six months in one area of the city. The authors wanted to do a similar study in another area to see if they could find a correlation. First, they study several other earlier studies of police patrol effectiveness. Most found that increased police patrols positively affected crime rates in the areas.

For example, another study, "analyzed data from the same project and found a positive relationship between the amount of time the police were present at a hot spot and the amount of time the location remained crime-free" (McGarrell et. al 123). The authors conclude that specific crimes, such as gun violence crimes in Kansas City, can be impacted by increased police patrols, they can make neighborhoods safer and reduce crime. However, their study also found this impact depends on the neighborhood and how specific the target areas area. In their Indianapolis study of gun crime, crime was reduced in one neighborhood, but not another. Thus, police patrols must be very specific in what they are looking for and target the right neighborhoods to have the most positive affect on reducing the crime rates.

The second article looks at specific types of police patrols, including directed patrol and hot-spot patrol, two methods geared toward effectively managing crime in certain hot spots of crime activity in cities. Again, these authors focus on different studies completed in the past, and analyze their results. They note that police patrols are still the most common method of police activity to deter criminal activity. They write, "Random preventive patrol across police jurisdictions has continued to be one of the most enduring of standard police practices" (Weisburd and Eck 49). They found that while many police patrols were not as effective at reducing crime, directed, or hot spots policing was much more effective. They note, "The study found that the experimental as compared with the control hot spots experienced statistically significant reductions in crime calls and… [read more]

Treatment vs. Punishment Treatment Concept Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,712 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


In this research, recidivism was the new contact with the criminal justice system after release from the last DHS supervised residential treatment placement (McCollister et al., 2009). The critical was critical in integrating three definitions: new arrest for felony crime, new conviction for felony crime, and incarceration with the Michigan Department of Corrections

According to this research, 1978 persons took… [read more]

Criminal Justice Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,247 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


While lies are not universally acceptable, telling strategic lies as a part of plan to achieve greater good is always acceptable.

• An analysis of whether this is a form of retributive justice with reasons to support your analysis

The retributive justice means the punishment should be a fair response to crime. Thus, intentions to commit crime should not be punished as much as actually committing or preparing for crime. Hence, the retributive justice offers fair solution to those that have committed a crime. The crime against state is thus punished more severely than the crime against a small community. The case presented here is not a crime against an individual thus it is not restorative justice case. The crime against society or a community, department, should not be personally dealt by an individual. The solution to a retributive justice case is that it should be solved by a criminal justice system and not the individual or a community (Retributive vs. Restorative Justice, 2009). Referring the case to criminal justice system would mean a lot more. It will not only assess the given information rather it will also monitor the linked activities. For example there can be other illegal activities going on in the prison that are not in the knowledge of the police.

• An analysis of Kant's ethical formalism in view of the given scenario.

Kantian theory of formalism is a kind of deontological i.e. duty-oriented theories of ethics. It tells that an individual should know what are his duties and obligations. By fulfilling one's duty, he contributes something valuable to the society. Kant's ethics says that there is always a form or structure of a moral judgment (thus called formalism). This duty oriented approach demands that a person should do good even if does not bring benefits to the individual because duty is obligation that must be fulfilled whatever the case is.

Kant believes that no act can be categorized as good or evil or cruel but the scenario makes it so (Jensen, 1934). He believes that a person does not act freely if he behaves the same before and after knowing the facts. He says that people have a variety of different experiences and backgrounds thus they make different judgments and can hardly agree on same decisions. Kant advocates that we can control our actions in order to hold the consequences of actions that we are responsible for. He says that categorical imperative requires behaving in a fair manner regardless of personal aims or purposes. To him, an action can be universally acceptable if it is consistent and acceptable to people. In the light of moral and ethical guidelines of Kant's theory, I believe that it was right to share the information the inmate shared with me. It is universally acceptable to tell a minor lie that violates the confidentially right of one in order to uproot crime from the society. If it was not so, there would be no rewards to those sharing the location… [read more]

Categorizing Crimes: Criminal Law Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,222 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


In this case, the defendant argued that separate convictions violated double jeopardy and that he acted intentionally in kicking the puppy.

However, the court argued that the evidence provided at trial was sufficient to justify separate convictions. The court also concluded that the general or specific rule is inapplicable to the underlying statutes and child abuse is not a particular kind of misdemeanor aggravated battery. With regards to negligent cruelty to animals, the jury concluded that there was sufficient evidence to convict the defendant because he acted with a higher mens rea than required by the statute. The court examined various factors including the temporal proximity of the two charged incidents, location of the victim during each incident, existence of any intervening events, his intentions based on conduct and utterances, and sufficiency of evidence on negligent cruelty on animals.

Statute and Case on Crime against Property:

The Florida State statue on theft is an example of a statute on crime against property that states that an individual commits theft if he/she knowingly obtains or use, or attempts to obtain or use, another person's property with the intention of temporarily or permanently depriving the person of a right to the property ("Crimes Against Property," n.d.). The statute is also applicable if the individual seeks to use a property that he/she is not entitled to. This statute was used in determining a case where the defendant, Robert H. Bonanno appealed to the District Court of Appeal regarding the conviction of robbery with a deadly weapon. He argued that the trial court erred in allowing his case to continue despite voluntarily absenting himself since the jury was selected before being sworn. He also argued against the conviction by stating that the trial judge erred in instructing the jury regarding the robbery elements.

According to the Florida Rule of Criminal Procedure, a trial should continue as though the defendant is present if the defendant voluntarily absents himself from the trail after being present at the beginning. Secondly, the instruction from the trial judge to the jury was that the element of robbery was a temporary or permanent intention to deprive the victim of his property. Therefore, there was no error in the conviction based on the law of Florida, which made the court to uphold the ruling of the trial court ("Crimes Against Property," n.d.).


Crimes against persons and crimes against property differ significantly with regards to kind of criminal act, mental state, and punishment. Generally, crimes against persons are geared towards causing physical injury to an individual while crimes against property are geared towards depriving an individual a right or benefit to property. However, the determination of cases involving these crimes requires an understanding of the statutes and case law interpretations. Criminal justice professionals should understand them in order to ensure effectiveness of the process and ruling.


Crossman, A. (n.d.). Types of Crimes. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from http://sociology.about.com/od/Deviance/a/Types-Of-Crimes.htm

"Crimes Against Property." (n.d.). Chapter 13. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from http://www.sagepub.com/lippmanccl2e/study/supplements/Florida/FL13.pdf… [read more]

Criminal Justice Although Jeff's Confession Is Voluntary Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,709 words)
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Criminal Justice

Although Jeff's confession is voluntary in principle, there are certain facts of the case which make it inadmissible. The voluntary nature of the confession may be ascribed to the fact that Jeff made the decision to confess independent of police intervention. The officer taking the confession offered no interruptions in the form of guiding questions, promises or threats.… [read more]

Criminal Justice - Gender Crime Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (403 words)
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Criminal Justice - Gender


Give and explain two reasons why hanging out with boys seems to increase criminal offending for both boys and girls.

Generally, males are much more likely than females to engage in delinquent and criminal behaviors than females; this is especially true in the case of violent crimes (Ogle, et al. 1995). Also, there seems to be is a direct relationship between peer relations and offending behaviors of all types, in both genders. Regardless of gender, adolescents who spend more unsupervised time with their peers are more likely to engage in delinquent behavior by virtue of the strength of their need for peer approval. Since males are more inclined to become involved in criminal offending behavior, adolescents whose peer group consists of (or includes) males are more inclined toward criminal conduct because male peers are more likely to lead by example and to reward offending behavior with peer approval (Agnew & Brezina 1997). Another possible explanation is that adolescents who are less tightly controlled by parents are more likely to offend. Since male adolescents are less tightly controlled by parents than females, adolescents who have the opportunity to spend more time with male peers are…… [read more]

UCR vs NIBRS Data Gathering Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,662 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


This permits criminal justice researchers to analyze and dissect various incidents of a crime. Unlike UCR, NIBRS supplies data about cases including simple assault (Maxfield, & Babbie, 2012).

NIBRS builds its study with respect to reported criminal offenses, which are reported to the police, while the UCR conducts its study dependent upon family unit reports from people that have been victims. The UCR is contrived to supply reports of victimization dependent on across the nation's information. Contrary, NIBRS measures reports dependent upon a local level, obtained from the police organizations. The NIBRS represent law violations that occur in people who are under 12 years, yet the UCR does not cover any victimized people less than 12 years of age. Since the data does not factor in young children, it does not consider the amount of sexual or physical misuse victims of this age that may exist within these family units (Reaves, & United States, 2013).

Since the summary reporting framework gathers the vast majority of its wrongdoing information as classes, it gives next to no proficiency to break down the coming about information into particular subcategories. Then again, since NIBRS gathers the portions of crime episodes, it permits more specificity in reporting (Siegel, 2012). For instance, breakdowns might be made around crimes against people, organizations, financial foundations, government, religious institutions, public, and different substances, Unlawful acts perpetrated by and against citizens vs. non-citizen people and unlawful acts including different forms injuries and wounds. Moreover, because NIBRS gathers the particular qualities of recovered and stolen property, numerous financial value breakdowns might be made.


Gaines, L.K., & Miller, R.L.R. (2013). Criminal justice in action. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Maxfield, M.G., & Babbie, E.R. (2012). Basics of research methods for criminal justice and criminology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.

Nolan, J., Haas, S. & Napier, J. (2011). Estimating the Impact of Classification Error on the "Statistical Accuracy" of Uniform Crime Reports. J Quant Criminol (2011) 27:497 -- 519

Reaves, B.A., & United States. (2013). Using NIBRS data to analyze violent crime. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. Of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of…… [read more]

Parole Board Robert, the Chair Case Study

Case Study  |  10 pages (3,452 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Parole Board

Robert, the chair of the parole board, is under pressure to relax the standards for parole because of the Governor's fears that if current overcrowding suits are successful, it will result in inmates being released under a federal process outside of the parole board's control. However, Robert is concerned that relaxing the current standards could result… [read more]

History and Theories Associated With Criminal Justice Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  3 pages (1,199 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Criminal Justice

History of Criminalities

The need to amend criminal procedures and justice has developed in Europe since 20th century. Several philosophers have come up with theories trying to explain how justice can be achieved in a much simpler way other than using the common law as a justice reference. The philosophers aim at minimizing crimes such as monarchy and feudalism. As much effort has been put, theories of various philosophers differ, such as Beccaria and Van Den Haag, with few similarities.

Similarities and differences between Beccaria and Van Den Haag's theories

Both philosophers acknowledge that every crime pays, with a more painful charge on a more severe crime. Both agreed that the ultimate price of crime is punishment, and no crime should go unpunished, with aim of reducing crime rates. Equality on crimes committed is a key concern to both parties, and that an individual is punished for a crime committed and not punished based on discrimination factors.

However, the two philosophers have great differences. Beccaria does not support capital punishment in case of a sever crimes made. He terms capital punishment as human brutality, and instead, he advocates for a rational punishment that aims at improving individual's status of crime rather than the "brutality" (Roth, 2010). He believed that individuals who commit crimes could undergo reform and correct the crime he or she once committed. Beccaria emphasized more on the use of extraditions, with no extra ordinary renditions, on administering justice. Beccaria believed that individual incitement of fear will keep anyone away from committing crime, with a severe crime facing more charges, which induced more fear to an individual who would wish to commit crime purposely. On the other hand, Van Der Haag advocated for capital punishment. He believed the no crime would go unpunished, with a more severe crime being subjected to capital punishment. Van believed that the only way to stop crime is by doing away with criminals totally, and that rehabilitation was of no help to offenders since it will have no impact on the reduction of crime rates.

Beccaria's theory has proven more appealing, since it offers a basis of justice for both minor and major crimes committed. Beccaria's theory does not support death as the ultimate of law offender, and gives second chances to individuals who learn from their mistakes. It incites fear depending on crime committed, gives severe punishment to a severe crime, and in turn, ends up being fairer as opposed to Van Der Haag's theory.

Three Strikes Legislation

Three strikes legislation is a law used to imply a repeated crime, more than twice, by the same individual. It implies that a successful or failed attempt of an in individual to commit the same crime for the second time faces greater liability than the first. The liability is greater with an increased attempt of the crime. This law mainly applies to violent offenders (Shute and Simester, 2002).

According to Beccaria's theory, three strikes legislation will aid in rehabilitation of a law… [read more]

Gender Bias in the U.S Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,961 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


In certain situations women have been given leniency because of their physical femininity such as the case where a woman became impregnated by a 14-year-old and was granted probation because she needed to stay out of prison to take care of the newborn baby (Elias 2007). Because she was a woman she was granted probation when a man in her… [read more]

Illegal Immigration Cost Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,097 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The GAO found that the number was, on average, 8 times. They also said that "Approximately fifteen percent of these crimes were "property-related offenses," including "burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and property damage." Twelve percent of these crimes were "violent offenses such as murder, robbery, assault, and sex-related crimes" (Blair, 2011). This is from a sample of over 55,000 illegal… [read more]

Criminal Justice -- Research Method Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Drop-off rates increase when a slow-to-fast bar is used as compared to not showing a progress bar. The fast-to-slow progress indicator is currently considered to be ethically questionable by the American Association for Public Opinion Research (AAPOR) and the European Society for Opinion and Marketing Research (ESOMAR) codes, so use is not recommended by the authors.

Assignment # 3 -- Surveymonkey Survey Questions

1. Do you work a rotating shift?

2. How often do you go to work feeling as though you have not had enough sleep?

3. What do you do when you have not had enough rest and you have to work?

4. Do you feel that the quality of your work, including your reaction time and mental alertness, is impacted by how much you sleep?

5. When you are not working, do you engage in recreation, or do you catch up on sleep?

*I am interested in these questions because sleep is closely related to cognitive processing and mood, both of which are critical factors in police work.

Assignment # 4 -- Center for Problem-Oriented Policing (POP Center)

The sample for the offender's interviews in Rana Sampson study on theft of and from autos in parking facilities in Chula Vista, California, was inadequate for any type of generalization. Sampson recognized this problem from the onset of the study, and identified the primary factor contributing to the low number of offenders in the sample -- the arrest rates were very low for the criteria used in sampling. Apparently the risk of getting caught stealing cars -- or stealing from cars -- in these parking lots in Chula Vista is quite low. It is entirely possible that Sampson's sampling procedures result in a sample of young, inexperienced, careless, or not very bright offenders. Sampson's research would be vastly improved by expanding her sample to other cities that are similarly situated or in which auto theft is similarly a problem.

The survey is too long, nearly 41 pages. The structure of the survey is not clear. It is possible that Sampson was attempting to triangulate the data by asking and re-asking questions, but she risks having her respondents get survey fatigue early in the process because of the length of the survey and repetitive nature of the survey questions. The most important questions -- those that Sampson is most likely to want responses to-were not all located in the beginning of the survey.

THESE ARE OBVIOUS TO ME: shorten the survey, sample in other cities, put the most important questions first in the survey, don't repeat (variants of questions) so many… [read more]

Criminal Justice SARA Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (541 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


III. Response

The third step or that of response is one that is chosen "based on the seriousness of the problem and the interests at stake which is inclusive of an analysis. This step also involves the office returning to the individual who originally made the complaint to see is the individual perceives there has been any improvement in the situation.

IV. Assessment

The final step of the S.A.R.A. model is that of assessment and Lyons reports that it is this area in which policing "typically falls short." (Lyons, 2000) Assessment is inclusive of "evaluation of the effectiveness of the response." (Lyons, 2000)

V. Community Policing

The S.A.R.A. model is most effectively used in community policing initiatives as community oriented policing "Involves not only greater involvement of the community, but also more creative and innovative approaches to problem solving." (Lyons, 2000)

Summary and Conclusion

The S.A.R.A policing model was designed to provide better response to the community and involves the steps of scanning, analysis, response, and assessment. This model is used primarily in the problem oriented and community policing models and is a method that provides appropriate response to concerns and reports that are made to the police and law enforcement agencies.


Lyons, Phillip (2000) Community Policing Concepts Applied to TLE Patrol. Spring, 2000 edition of Texas Highway Patrol Association Magazine. Retrieved from: http://www.cjcenter.org/trcpi/doc/articles/cpc.pdf

What is S.A.R.A. Problem Solving (2000) Neighborhood Associations of Michigan (NAM). Fact Sheet. No. 3 December 2000. Retrieved from: http://www.cj.msu.edu/~outreach/rcpi/sara.pdf… [read more]

Criminal Justice Victimology the Term Crime Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (900 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Criminal Justice


The term crime victim usually refers to any person, group, or entity that has suffered injury or loss due to illegal activity. The harm that is done can be physical, psychological, or economic. The legal definition of a victim usually includes the following:

"A person who has suffered direct, or threatened, physical, emotional or pecuniary harm as a result of the commission of a crime; or in the case of a victim being an institutional entity, any of the same harms by an individual or authorized representative of another entity. Group harms are normally covered under civil and constitutional law, with "hate crime" being an emerging criminal law development, although criminal law tends to treat all cases as individualized" (Victimology Theory, 2003)

Along with primary crime victims, there are also secondary crime victims. These are people who experience the harm second hand, such as intimate partners or significant others of rape victims or children of a battered woman. There is also something called tertiary crime victims. These are people who experience the harm vicariously, such as through media accounts or from watching television. Many people feel that referring to themselves as a victim has negative connotations, so they choose instead to define themselves as survivors (Victimology Theory, 2003)

Victimologists often use surveys of large numbers of people about the crimes that have been committed against them because official police statistics are often incomplete. Data is obtained from victimization surveys that are carried out each year by the Census Bureau on behalf of the Department of Justice. This is done by conducting the NCVS - National Crime Victimization Survey. Victimologists take this data and estimate victimization rates and risks in order to predict crime. If one were to define a method to victimology it would look something like this:

1. Define the problem by finding the irregularities, analyze the responsibilities, and exploring the kinds of harm that have been done

2. Measure the true dimension of the problem - by analyzing statistics to see what kind of people are involved and accurately gauging the extent of the harm that has been done

3. Investigate how the Criminal Justice system handles the problem -- by looking at what is being ignored, asking what the victim wants, and analyzing the effects of crime on victims

4. Examine society's response to the problem - look at issues of constitutional rights, analyze proposed legislation, analyze media reaction, see if anyone is cashing in on the problem at hand (Victimology Theory, 2003).

The law and order movement that has taken place in America has continued to overlap with the movement to enhance the legal standing and improve treatment of crime victims. Those people…… [read more]

Do African-American Women Receive Harsher Sentencing in the Criminal Justice System for Crimes? Thesis

Thesis  |  14 pages (3,941 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Racial Bias in Sentencing

Do African-American Women Receive Harsher Sentencing in the Criminal Justice System for Crimes than Caucasian Women?

A ic/Research Question

The proposed research will explore racial bias in the criminal justice system. It will explore consist of a paired analysis of sentencing practices between Caucasian women and African-American women for similar crimes. It will explore the research… [read more]

Criminal Justice Final Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (2,030 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Criminal Justice Final

Define the "traditional" crime of murder as described in 2C:11-3 (a) 1 and 2, include the two relevant forms of criminal intent or criminal state of mind.

According to N.J.S.2C:11-3(a), "criminal homicide constitutes murder when:

The actor purposely causes death or serious bodily injury resulting in death; or 2) the actor knowingly causes death or serious bodily… [read more]

Comparison of New Zealand and the United States Criminal Justice System Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (3,004 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … New Zealand and the United States Criminal Justice System

New Zealand and United States Criminal Justice System

Comparison of the New Zealand and United States Criminal Justice System

Brief history of New Zealand

The first inhabitants of New Zealand were the indigenous Maoris. It is estimated that that arrived on the islands in 950 -1130 AD. (Tangata Whenua:… [read more]

Crime Prevention Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (566 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Criminal Justice - Crime Prevention


Crime prevention encompasses myriad different facets both within the criminal justice system and also within society at large. Within the criminal justice system, increasing the effectiveness of crime prevention efforts requires directing resources in the most focused way toward that effort. Specifically, increasing the effectiveness of crime prevention efforts requires distinguishing between criminal conduct that affects other individuals adversely from criminal conduct that affects only the criminal himself.

While paternalistic criminal laws may serve some role in the most general sense, the reality of American society is that law enforcement resources are insufficient to address every form of criminality; therefore, one of the primary conceptual themes should be to address crimes perpetrated against persons and other entities first and avoid wasting precious financial resources and manpower against so-called criminal vices, particularly those that do not pose any risk or danger to others.

The war against illegal drugs is one example of a law enforcement effort that wastes a tremendous amount of financial and personnel resources combating a vice that might very well be better allocated to other types of crime. Certainly, some of the criminal conduct associated with the illicit drug market constitutes a necessary area of law enforcement focus, but that class of crimes is completely separable from the issue of private drug use just as driving or violence under the influence of alcohol is completely distinguishable from consuming alcohol privately without concurrent criminal conduct.

Ultimately, effective crime prevention is more a matter of optimal resource allocation to prevent serious crimes against innocent persons than it is a matter of preventing every criminal statute across the board without conceptual distinction. The CRIMINAL JUSTICE…… [read more]

Criminal Justice Critique on Policing the Various Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,055 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Criminal Justice

Critique on Policing

The various polices about getting tough on crime that are most reflective of the government's commitment to toughening up criminal laws are the bail reform law for gun offenses and the mandatory prison sentences. There are also policies already in force on impaired driving and street racing that target specific problem areas of the law, and attempt to make the streets safer, which appeals to the public at large. These policies send a message to criminals that their actions and continued crimes will not be tolerated, and they send a message to the public that the legislature is listening and is extremely serious about controlling crime in Canada. This is extremely important but it also has to work. If these bills are created and implemented, and crime still increases, then clearly the public will be dissatisfied, and they may even demand stronger, tougher measures on crime, and this could directly affect policing all across the country.

These policies directly affect policing in Canada because they will create the need for more police officers to enforce the laws and more prisons to help carry out sentences. More courts could be required, as well, to handle the bail reform and sentencing requirements. In addition, more court and prison related personnel would also be required if these laws create as many new felons as they seem to suggest. One has to wonder where all these personnel will come from, and if the criminal justice system can grow to accommodate everyone that might fall under these guidelines. Especially, how quickly can it grow, and how can it manage with the existing structures and infrastructure currently in place? These are questions that need to be answered, and that are not addressed in these documents. It is fine to get tough on crime, but the legislature also has to recognize that to do that, the infrastructure must change, and change quickly, and that does not seem to be the case here.

The RCMP has developed intelligence-led policing since 2000. This has realigned the mission of the RCMP and led to some resistance by at least some of the RCMP officers to the new adoption of ideas and policing methods. In addition, training has been inadequate in some areas, which has led to friction and as the author calls them "misalignments" in the focus of management and the officers.

These types of policing styles include heavy interaction and reliance on the community, and interaction between officers and community members in a variety of ways. This may be one reason some RMCP officers are resistant to the new systems, and their training in the new systems has been extremely limited in many areas. This tends to show that the executive branch of the RMCP may be authoritarian and out of touch with reality. It is still running its organization following military guidelines, which are outmoded and do not yield the best results in community policing models. This means the executive branch is resistant… [read more]

Crime as Schmalleger Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,570 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


5. a) The site labeled ":Criminal Justice Statistics (http://www.lib.msu.edu/harris23/crimjust/intsites.htm) offers links to many different criminal justice websites, with a large section headed "Foreign Web Sites." The sites linked cover much of the world, notably Canada, Great Britain, Finland, Germany, Korea, Mexico, Russia, and Ukraine. The section headed "International Web Sites" covers sites dealing with crime in Latin America and Europe and different police organizations, including various UN crime control programs.

b) The website for the United Nations Office on Drugs & Crime (http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/crime_prevention.html) discusses the UN program, its history, and the importance of crime prevention when it comes to the drug issue, an international problem. The site also covers topics such as terrorism, organized crime, corruption, and trafficking in human beings. The site also offers links to other UN sponsored agencies and programs addressing legal issues and crime in different parts of the world.

c) Crime and Justice International, sponsored by the Criminal Justice Center (

addresses issues of crime and crime news with stories about international crime programs, criminal justice agencies, and other trends, with a searchable archive of past issues to take the visitor to stories from other time periods on the same basic topics. The featured story in the current issue involves the use of technology to fight crime and aid law enforcement personnel.

Works Cited

Eskridge, Chris W. Criminal Justice, 4th edition. New York: Roxbury, 1993.

Schmalleger, Frank. Criminal Justice Today 8th edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2005.… [read more]

Constitutional, Legal and Ethical Issues Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (4,668 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


According to Ida Tarbell, who makes a very broad observation of the police behaviour, "deviance (i.e. behavior inconsistent with norms, values, or ethics) also implies corruption (i.e. forbidden acts involving misuse of office for gain), misconduct (i.e. wrongdoing violations of departmental procedures) and favoritism (i.e. unfair "breaks" to friends or relatives (nepotism))."

Corruption is criminal conduct that can involve underusing… [read more]

Overcoming Ethical Challenges in the Workplace Case Study

Case Study  |  10 pages (2,987 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Ethical Behavior in Criminal Justice

The Parole Board

Correction facilities are meant to shape the characters of offenders; offer punishment for crimes committed, and train them to fit the society well after release. It also gives them the chance to become accepted into the society systems once released (Herman, 2012). Offenders are there in different forms. There are those are… [read more]

Evaluating Police Reform Efficacy Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,103 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Not everyone is so enamored with police-worn body cameras, especially police officers. The Toronto Police Association's President, Mike McCormack, argued that body cameras would do little to reduce citizen complaints against police (Rosenthal & Brown, 2014). Meanwhile, mandated body cameras for police officers in Edmonton, Victoria, Calgary, and Ottawa have reportedly reduced citizen complaints by as much as 80%. When U.S. District Judge Shira Scheindlin mandated body camera pilot programs for the New York City Police Department in the aftermath of the Stop-n-Frisk trial, an outcry was heard throughout City Hall (Skoloff, Ritter, & Lemire, 2013).

Although civil libertarians are concerned about the privacy issues raised by police-worn body cameras, the greatest resistance seems to be coming from police officers themselves. One hypothesis would be that police resistance to body cameras is due to the constraints imposed on an officer's behavior by police culture (Conti, 2009). To better understand the rationale(s) for this resistance a grounded theory study design will be used. Officers will be interviewed individually or in groups, asked whether they would be willing to wear a body camera, and then queried about the basis of their views. The information collected during the individual and group interviews will be used to improve the questions before the next set of interviews. A comparison of the views expressed by officers individually or in a group format may reveal whether police culture has a significant influence on officer attitudes towards body cameras.

Research findings have suggested police culture affiliation is a significant negative influence on the prevalence of use of force (Terrill, Paoline, & Manning, 2003), which was one of the outcome variables reduced in Rialto after the introduction of body cameras (Carroll, 2013). Terrill and colleagues (2003) developed a survey instrument to quantify attitudes towards organizational culture, the public, and police culture, which could be used to evaluate changes in officer attitudes after the introduction of mandated body cameras. All officers would complete the survey as a pretest and then randomized to either a camera or control group. A year later, posttest scores would be collected and compared with pretest scores. The RCT data could then be analyzed to see of body camera experience improved attitudes towards the public and reduced affiliation toward police culture values.


Carroll, R. (2013, November 4). California police use of body cameras cuts violence and complaints. The Guardian. Retrieved 27 Apr. 2014 from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/04/california-police-body-cameras-cuts-violence-complaints-rialto.

Conti, N. (2009). A visigoth system: Shame, honor, and police socialization. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 38(3), 409-32.

Driessnack, M., Sousa, V.D., & Mendes, I.A. (2007). An Overview of Research Designs Relevant to Nursing: Part 2: Qualitative Research Designs. Revisto Latino-Americana de Enfermagem 15(4), 684-8.

Rosenthal, J. & Brown, D. (2014, March 31). Curtis Young case shows need for body-worn cameras on police. The Star. Retrieved 27 Apr. 2014 from http://www.thestar.com/opinion/commentary/2014/03/31/curtis_young_case_shows_need_for_bodyworn_cameras_on_police.html.

Skoloff, B., Ritter, K., & Lemire, J. (2013, August 14). Police body cameras get cool reception. Associated Press. Retrieved 27 Apr. 2013 from http://abclocal.go.com/wabc/story?section=news/local/new_york&id=9206129.

Sousa, V.D., Driessnack, M., & Mendes,… [read more]

Racial Equality Race Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,884 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Eating and breathing are pleasurable and necessary activities to maintain natural life and are both based on inequality of resources. Instead, we are force feeding our beliefs to a body that does not need them or in reality want them.

The only way to truly eliminate racism is to look at both sides of race. How can we escape this mess if we are constantly throwing new piles of trash on top of old ones? If we amend the Constitution for every way in which folks are different (i.e., unequal), the document is going to get cluttered, if it has not already reached this point. Race needs to be embraced and celebrated. One must consider what is the purpose of having many races on earth. To me, each race, when looked at from a macrocosmic perspective has both gifts and troubles to offer the rest of society. To me it is quite hypocritical to celebrate Black History Month and then ignore the negative aspects of the black race. Each race has its own pluses and negatives as new ones are created every day. Race is an expanding and fluid measurement and new forms and combinations are rapidly increasing each day. Instead of singling people out for their race we should simply treat it as hair or eye color.


Brooks, E. (2011). Cultural Resources. The African-American Lectionary, 1 Nov 2011. Retrieved from http://www.theafricanamericanlectionary.org/PopupCulturalAid.asp?LRID=235

Goldmacher, S. (2012). Disparate Impact: Black Lawmakers and Ethics Investigations. The Atlantic, 3 Mar 2012. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2012/03/disparate-impact-black-lawmakers- and-ethics-investigations/253931/

Kerby, S. (2012). The Top10 Most Startling Facts about the People of Color And Criminal Justice in the United States. Center For American Progress, 13 March 2012. Retrieved from http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/race/news/2012/03/13/11351/the-top-10- most-startling-facts-about-people-of-color-and-criminal-justice-in-the-united-states/

Kansal, T. & Mauer, M. (2005). Racial Disparity in Sentencing: A Review of the Literature. The Sentencing Project, January 2005. Retrieved from http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/rd_sentencing_review.pdf

Maurer, M. (2010). Justice for All? Challenging Racial Disparities in the Criminal Justice System. Human Rights Magazine Fall 2010. Retrieved from https://www.americanbar.org/publications/human_rights_magazine_home/human_rights_ vol37_2010/fall2010/justice_for_all_challenging_racial_disparities_criminal_justice_syst em.html

The Sentencing Project (ND). Racial Disparity. Viewed 9 Sep 2013. Retrieved from http://www.sentencingproject.org/template/page.cfm?id=122… [read more]

Victims Program Grant Application Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,255 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Victim Service Enhancement Program for Rural Crime Victims

Victim Services Enhancement Program for Rural Crime Victims:

The State Board Fund offers support and advocacy services to crime victims in order to develop and enhance current programs that serve victims of crime. Generally, the State Board of Victim Services provides specific priorities and initiatives that can be funded in light of… [read more]

Investigation Procedures Sexual Assault Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (962 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Sexual Assault

The criminal justice and legal procedures for investigating a sexual assault will vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, but there are some key common elements to all cases. The first and most obvious step is the initial interviews with the victim. First responders must determine whether or not the victim requires emergency medical care, as in the case of a violent sexual assault. Multiple types of responses and responders may be necessary at this juncture (IACP National Law Enforcement Policy Center, 2005). Moreover, the first responders and law enforcement need to determine whether or not the victim is in need of supervision and whether the attacker is known to him or her. If the attacker is known, then it may be necessary to protect the victim who may have continued contact with the suspect.

After a formal complaint has been filed with law enforcement regarding an alleged sexual assault, a law enforcement detective will work with the victim to develop an official statement. The statement is created under oath, and may be used as evidence in a court of law (Government of New South Wales: Justice and Attorney General, 2012). When gathering evidence for the statement, the detective will need to keep several core issues in mind. These issues will relate to prevailing definitions of felony sexual assault, the different types of sexual offences that may have taken place, and what types of questions or concerns might be raised in courts or by attorneys. As the IACP National Law Enforcement Policy Center (2005) states, "Investigators must remain flexible because defenses are not entirely predictable and may change -- even during the course of a single investigation," (p. 3). Issues related to defense will need to be intelligently considered when interviewing the victim, as denial, identity, and the defense of consent may surely be raised. General guidelines of criminal investigation apply, such as inquiring about potential witnesses or circumstantial evidence that could be helpful if a criminal prosecution evolves. Writing the report requires knowledge of judicious report-writing skills in general, such as the use of helpful details related to the victim's physical and emotional condition.

At this stage in the investigation, no formal charges have been brought yet. Follow -- up investigations and interviews will usually take place. Evidence must be gathered. Photographs of the victim, and if possible, the crime scene, can prove helpful when trying the case. Articles of clothing will need to be acquired, as they might include some DNA evidence that could be used successfully in a court of law. Similarly, bedding, and any possible physical evidence that might include bodily fluids must be taken in as evidence.

A forensic medical examination may be required of the victim. Although potentially traumatic, the medical examination could be crucial in the prosecution. The IACP's "Training Key 572" (2004) suggests, "The forensic examiner should document the victim's medical history and…… [read more]

Considering the Consequences Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,291 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Consequences


Talks about police abuses and supervision often begin and center on the brutal attack of Rodney King, an African-American construction worker-parolee by Los Angeles policemen (Johnson, 2011). A videotape of the incident by a resident in the area led to the involved policemen's admission of hitting King more than 50 times, kicking him at least 7 times and threatened with a stun gun. These officers, however, were acquitted and the incident caused much outrage throughout the city. Recently, the U.S. Justice Department was closely investigating 15 police departments from Arizona to New Jersey on the issues of discrimination against minorities and using too much force (Johnson).

The Police Component

The police are the most visible sign and symbol of authority in government and society (O'Connor, 2008). They exist because they fulfill the role and perform the tasks, which citizens do not want to take. Citizens rely on them to hunt down criminals, prevent crime, maintain peace and order, interpret the law, protect citizens and, in general, keep things in order in the community. Someone said that a police officer has to be a "lawyer, scientist, medic, psychologist, athlete, and public servant" in one. The police are a conservative and fundamental institution because their function is directly linked to maintaining equilibrium in society. They are often expected to do the impossible and to do it efficiently despite limited resources. They are also expected to wield their power judiciously. How they do this depends on how free and open society is. Quite importantly, they are the guardians of human rights (O'Connor). The Conference on New York City's Criminal Courts adopted the appropriate theme, "Are We Achieving Justice?" In the wake of an increase in misdemeanor arrests at 190,000 in 2003 from 130,000 a decade earlier (Zeidman, 2005). It rightfully queried if the components of the courts -- the judges, court administrators and prosecutors -- have lived to their calling and mission to promote justice at least in activity and carefully monitoring the police. Police action is what opens opportunities for the courts and other institutions to influence justice. From the time the police bring a suspect to court, all the components of the criminal justice system must scrutinize the underlying police action and involvement in the arrest. Everyone involved becomes responsible and accountable (Zeidman).

Ethical Standards for the Police

Ethics means distinguishing right from wrong and it is the product of careful thought, not speedy action required of the police force. Everyone knows that police officers are creatures of rapid action rather than introspection (O'Donnell, 2011). Reflection or meditation is also considered softness or weakness and slowness in response to a need. Police officers treat others in the way they are treated by their superiors, who always urge for rapid and superior action. Efforts at creating respect for the rights of others in the hearts and minds of police officers must first be expended within the police department. This is where and with whom a candid… [read more]

Criminal Justice Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,797 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Society is providing a means for these individuals to contribute to America. As it stands to today, more and more individuals are entering prison. These individuals are subsequently not paying any tax, not providing goods and services for society to use, not raising a family, and not contributing to America. In fact they are detracting from it. Why not help… [read more]

Disparity and Discrimination Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (989 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


If a prison holds 200 prisoners and 150 of them are blacks, then it suggests that the justice system discriminates against race. However, this may not be the case. It is necessary for one to carry out an investigation in the crimes committed, the degree of serious found in the rimes, and the criminal records of the criminals. It is impossible for the court to release a number of criminal based of maintaining the races imprisoned. This would be discrimination in itself (Mustard, 2009).

Disparity does not have to entail discrimination. Cities such as Detroit have been noted to have a large population of one race. Therefore, it makes sense if the prison contains a high percentage of this defined race. Therefore, disparity is a product of discrimination, which begins at the point of arrest and ends at the point of sentencing. For example, those who are employed are said to be given more linear sentences than those who are not employed. Male employees are believed to serve longer hours than their female counterparts who commit similar crimes. This belief draws the issue of discrimination while it could be a reason for disparity (Robinson & Williams, 2009).

A good example is the deputy attorney of the Juvenile department of Santa Clara, Kurt Kumli. This attorney demonstrates an example of how the juvenile justice system experiences issues related to racial disparity. His story relates to two minor offenders, one white, and the other black who were attending a hearing. The white minor offender comes from a family of affluent whites where the mother watches over the son ay home. On the other hand, the black minor offender comes from a single parent home where the mother has to go to work, and she cannot provide his son with the same options as the white juvenile. The justice system does not discriminate because juveniles are surrounded with different circumstances: it generates disparity between the juvenile who is arrested and the one who is sent home (Walker, Spohn, & DeLone, 2004).

Chances of discrimination can be eliminated through ensuring that there is equal application of laws to all offenders. People of all races should be given the same treatment and sentence regardless of an individual's race, age, ethnicity, or prior criminal records. However, concerns are increasing over the treatment given to white people who engage in drug trafficking. Many white people who deal with drugs are not given the same treatment as that given to black people found with drugs. Consistency must be adhered to in order to reduce disparities and discrimination in the justice system (Mustard, 2009).


Mustard, B. (2009). Racial, ethnic, and gender disparities in sentencing: Evidence from the U.S.

Federal Courts. New York: Springer.

Robinson, M. & Williams, M. (2009). The myth of a fair criminal justice system. South Carolina:

Edward Elgar Publishing.

Walker, S., Spohn, C. & DeLone, M. (2004). The color of justice:…… [read more]

Sex Offenders Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,655 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Residency laws have been reviewed by several state supreme courts, where they have been largely upheld. But the dissenting judge in an Illinois Supreme Court Case challenge noted the problems inherent in the "application of these residency restrictions, which fail to consider sex offenders' prior offenses or case histories…since this Act treats all offenders alike, without consideration of whether a particular offender is likely to reoffend, its retroactive residency restriction promotes and furthers retribution, a traditional aim of punishment" (Durling 2006). There is still ambiguity about the intention of the law, and deliberately 'shaming' individuals after serving their time, and subjecting them to community censure clearly does 'punish' the offender to some degree.

The uniform applicability of the laws to all sex offenders, regardless of age or crime, has been so troubling that even the mother of the original Megan has protested their use. In 2009, "authorities in Passaic County, N.J., charged a 14-year-old girl with possession and distribution of child pornography for posting nude photos of herself on MySpace.com" ('Megan's Law' mom criticizes 'sexting' charges, 2009, NPR). Under Megan's Law, she would have to register and be publically identified as a sexual criminal for the rest of her life. But Ms. Kanka said "the girl needs help, not legal trouble" ('Megan's Law' mom criticizes 'sexting' charges, 2009, NPR). Even if Megan's Laws and other residency restrictions continue to exist -- which they likely will -- some refinement of the types of crimes encompassed by such laws seems essential in the name of justice.


Durling, C. (2006). Never going home: Does it make us safer? does it make sense? sex offenders, residency restrictions, and reforming risk management law. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 97(1), 317-363.

'Megan's Law' mom criticizes 'sexting' charges. (2009). NPR. Retrieved:


Shealy, L., Kalichman, S.C., Henderson, M.C., Szymanowski, D., & McKee, G. (1991). MMPI

profile subtypes of incarcerated sex offenders against children. Violence and Victims, 6(3), 201-12.…… [read more]

Criminal Justice Should Sherriff Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (725 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The voters can get rid of the sheriff from office during the election. The county board controls the budget and salary of the sheriff; and in severe cases statutes allow for the removal of the sheriff from office for misfeasance or nonfeasance of duty (Elected office of the sheriff, n.d.).

In our democratic system, the people should have the right to choose who is to be sheriff. In a lot of counties the sheriff is the single most influential individual and institution. Despite the efforts of appointment proponents, voters who have had a chance to decide the issue have nearly collectively decided to keep the office elective (Elected office of the sheriff, n.d.). Citizens should have the freedom to choose their sheriff and direct election is the best means to accomplish that.

The election of the sheriff in Killeen is constant with national traditions and practices. Election of sheriffs is almost uniform throughout the United States. History has shown in those jurisdictions in which the sheriff is appointed there is a decline in quality and continuity of law enforcement services and administration. When the sheriff is subject to the whims and caprices of the board of commissioners, the office becomes more politicized, not less (Elected office of the sheriff, n.d.).

There is stability and continuity of office. The sheriffs at the county level and the city police departments at the municipal level handle local law enforcement in Killeen. While city police departments on the whole do a good job, evaluation of the continuity, innovation and public responsiveness of the office sheriff to city police demonstrates the perils of appointment. There is no purpose, empirical data that proves city police departments headed by an appointed law enforcement official are any (Elected office of the sheriff, n.d.).


Dan Smith - Bell County Sheriff. (n.d.). Retreived from http://www.co.bell.tx.us/Sheriff/03aboutthesheriff.htm

Elected office of the sheriff. (n.d.). Retreived from http://www.sheriffs.org/sites/default/files/tb/The_Elected_Office_of_Sheriff


Killeen Police Department. (2012). Retreived from http://www.killeentexas.gov/index.php?section=226… [read more]

Community Response to Race Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,265 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


What needs to be taken into account is the environment that some of these individuals grow up in. We cannot always assume that everyone comes from a stable household. The department takes these things into consideration and the objective is not to judge, but to deal with each and every situation individually and from a place of empathy. If we incarcerate the offenders and release them back into society without any type of help and guidance, we can expect that they will become repeat offenders. But, if we give them the proper tools and information to reintegrate back into society our hope and belief is that they will be successful.

Of concern is that once most of the offenders have been made accountable and have taken the necessary measures to reintegrate successfully back into society, they often go back to the same environment that was a major factor in their prior delinquent behavior. The juvenile justice system is at a disadvantage because most offenders go back to an environment that is economically disadvantaged and this can encourage repeat behavior (Grunwald et al., 2010).

One of the biggest challenges this issue faces is prevention. If we can prevent the reasons for the criminal activity to begin with then juvenile offenses would not be an issue. To do this we have to address the underlying causes. The two causes were already identified as being their environment and poverty. There is one recommendation that could possibly be a solution to both of these factors and that is education. This may sound simple but if people from a low socio economic status are given the same opportunities to advance in life, the rate of juvenile offenses would drop dramatically. Few people realize that the use and distribution of drugs have very little to do with the drugs themselves. It is more about there being very little or sustainable jobs in low income neighborhoods because many in these communities cannot read past an eighth grade level (Western, 2010).

If the DJJ had free reign over addressing this issue, there would be numerous community programs that were generously funded. The programs would not only assist in college preparation for children beginning at a preschool age, but there would also be programs for parents to teach them the skills to gain good paying jobs to break the cycle of poverty. Parents would also receive college prep courses should they decide to pursue higher education. There would also be assistance for help with health issues, AIDS awareness, etc. with no income limitations that are set so low disqualifying families barely making more than minimum wage.

The theory of criminal justice behind this summary with the DJJ is definitely social disorganization theory. This theory is briefly states that low economic neighborhoods have difficulty maintaining social order. This was the basic theme throughout the interview. If African-American males (and others from a low socio economic background) had access to certain things like a quality education, then many of the crimes… [read more]

TV Criminal Procedure Fluffy, Unrealistic Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (823 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


According to the law school review, few shows do justice to what judges do; judges don't attack people like Judge Judy does.

A recent show that is remaking The Firm (by John Grisham) had an interesting opening story. A bereaved father sought to kill a juvenile boy who killed his son. It turned out the both the defense attorney and the prosecutor came up with an informal way to punish the father by using a confession as a form of coercion -- which the prosecutor said she would keep until she was convinced the father would not break the law again. While this is not very ethical, it could be a more realistic way that the real people of the profession try to get the means to balance with the ends.


Texas appears to be the only state in the Union that requires that all felony charges be substantiated through a grand jury indictment (Onecle, 2007). This would mean that, in most cases involving serious offenses, there is no choice about whether there will be an indictment by a grand jury. This would also mean that there could not be both a grand jury review and a preliminary hearing. However, after an indictment has been provided, it seems possible for certain pretrial procedures to occur that might act like a preliminary hearing where the defense has a lawyer present and arguing on his or her side. In Article 28.01, the codes allows for questioning the process or substance of an indictment provided by a grand jury.

As a defense attorney who is defending a person accused of a sexual assault, I would not have an option to request a preliminary hearing, because the charge will likely be as a felony. My best move would be to try to at least get the charges reduced to a misdemeanor so we could use the preliminary hearing to ensure that my client had continuous legal assistance and that he or she would be treated less harshly if found guilty.



Admin (2011). Are criminal justice TV shows full of fluff? A one-sided depiction of criminal justice careers. Viewable at http://www.uscollegesearch.org/blog/resource-articles/criminal-justice-info/are-criminal-justice-tv-shows-full-of-fluff.

Weyenburg, M. (2011). 25 Best & Worst Legal TV Shows. Law School Podcaster: Your guide to law school. Viewable at http://www.lawschoolpodcaster.com/2011/05/27/25-best-worst-legal-tv-shows/


Onecle (2007). Texas Code of Criminal Procedure -- Article 28.01. Pre-Trial. Viewable at http://law.onecle.com/texas/criminal-procedure/28.01.00.html.… [read more]

Leadership Skills for the Criminal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (852 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


There have been cases in the past of people in the criminal justice system having problems at home with issues such as domestic violence. While these difficulties did not occur on the job, they still reflect on the character and abilities of the person who went through the difficulties or who caused them to occur. Anyone who works in criminal justice or who wants to work in criminal justice must be aware of the potential for problems and the difficulties that a lack of ethics can cause in life, in order to avoid a loss of the trust and leadership ability that comes with being an ethical human being (Walsh, 2010).

Leaders in the criminal justice profession focus on ethics and virtue in every aspect of their lives, because they know the value of the work they do and how much ability they have to help other people or affect those people's lives in some way (Nordin, Pauleen, & Gorman, 2009). It can be hard to remain ethical when one is exposed to the worst of society on a daily basis, though, and some do break under the pressure. Usually, they burn out in some way rather than turn to crime, though. For example, they may end up with violence problems in their own life, or they may have difficulties with anger management, depression, or anxiety (Walsh, 2010). It is very important that anyone who works in the criminal justice system stay close to his or her colleagues, family, and friends in order to mitigate the effects of a life lived around the criminal element. When criminal justice professionals attain good leadership skills and exercise them regularly, they are better able to stay strong and to continue to help others and themselves to stay out of trouble, do the right thing, and be valuable members of society.


Bryan, K. & Mackenzie, J. (2008). Meeting the speech, language, and communication needs of vulnerable young people: Model of service delivery for those at risk of offending and re-offending. Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists. Retrieved from http://www.rcslt.org/about/campaigns/RCSLT_model_of_service_delivery_offending_2008.pdf

Nordin, M., Pauleen, D.J., & Gorman, G.E. (2009). Investigating KM antecedents: KM in the criminal justice system. Journal of Knowledge Management, 13(2): 4-20. Retrieved from http://lpis.csd.auth.gr/mtpx/km/material/JKM-13-2a.pdf

Walsh, E.F. (2010). The development of comprehensive criminal justice leadership standards: A modified delphi study approach. Retrieved from http://gradworks.umi.com/3467496.pdf… [read more]

Police Integrity and Police Work Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (640 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The result is a condition in which many officers will tend to unfairly target particular demographics or racial groups for routing traffic stops, vehicle searchers or other modes of engagement. This is not a behavior that is consistent with the order of integrity to which officers are to be beholden but to many in the line of duty, this is perceived as a necessary avenue by which to conduct work that is frequently challenging and dangerous. Here, officers are often in a difficult position of attempting to balance what they perceive as professional instincts with what may be deeply ingrained and unconscious racial biases. Whether conscious or not, according to JRank (2009), "Statistics show that African-Americans are several times more likely to be arrested and incarcerated than white Americans. As of 2000, fewer African-American men were in college than were in prison. Moreover, black children were nine times as likely as white children to have at least one parent in prison." (JRank, p. 1)

This suggests that for a complex array of socio-cultural, political and economic reasons, African-Americans are a group confronted by police officers at a far higher rate than Caucasians. While we cannot observe that racial profiling is alone the cause for this, it is possible to observe that a certain degree of objective integrity is required of the police officer in order to prevent an imbalanced perpetuation of this condition. And even more than that, it is incumbent upon precincts, departments and states to aggressively dissuade and root out systemic practices of racial profiling from daily police work.

Works Cited:

JRank. (2009). Racial Profiling. Jrank.org. Online at http://law.jrank.org/pages/9628/Racial-Profiling.html

U.S. Department of Justice. (2001). Principles for Promoting Police Integrity. Examples of Promising Police Practices and Policies.… [read more]

Criminal Justice Grade Course Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,099 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Compensation may also be paid to victims of crime to cover their bills in hospitals and sustain them if they are not in a position to continue working.

Illegal Expenditures

Illegal expenditures is also another cost associated with crime (Conklin, 2010). These illegal expenditures can result from purchasing illegal goods and services such as drugs, prostitutions and gambling. This form of expenditure can categorized as costs of crime because rather than the money spent in buying these illegal goods and services being spent in the rightful manner than boosts a country's economy, it is directed towards illegal activities that help increase the rate of crimes in the society.

Enforcement Costs

In this section, I think that criminal justice agencies spend a lot of money in fighting for the rights of particular groups of people in the society (Conklin, 2010). The costs incurred by these agencies can be treated as financial costs associated with crime. Otherwise money spent by these agencies could be directed into the productive parts of our economy. Also government bodies such as the police spend a lot of money in ensuring that those involved in crime commission face are arrested and appropriately convicted of the offences they have committed.

Prevention and Protection Costs

These costs include the millions of shillings used by both private individuals and law enforcement agencies such as the police to ensure that an individual's security is guaranteed (Conklin, 2010). Private individual spend a lot of money hiring private guards, buying items to boost their security such as padlocks, torches and strong steel gates. Public institutions such as the police spend a lot of money in ensuring that the community is secure from crimes by employing more security officers and purchasing the relevant equipment to query crime.


As I have observed above, a crime is basically an act that violates criminal law and the state punishes one for doing it. There exist various provisions as to what amounts to a crime depending on the circumstances under which a crime occurred, the mental fitness of the offender, his age and his state of his mind while committing that crime. The distinct characteristic of crime is the relevant punishment that accompanies such a crime as defined in the penal code.

There are different ways of measuring crime such as the application of police statistics, court convictions and offender surveys. These methods of measuring crime come along with their own drawbacks such as at times they might be biased and even manipulated by individual persons. Therefore, for these methods to be effective and accurate bodies involved such as the judiciary and the policy ought to carry out their duties independently and accurately.

Crime comes along with grave costs such as loss of property, physical injuries cased on victims and compensation paid to victims, a lot of money being invested on policies initiated to curb crime and costs associated with the enforcement of the law to curb crimes. Therefore, it is crucial that crime be minimized to… [read more]

Diversity in Criminal Justice Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (684 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Criminal Justice

Diversity in Criminal Justice

No one has ever said that that being a cop on the street is unproblematic. One day they have to be a social worker and the next they have to prepare for a riot. They have to be charming and in control as they ask an intoxicated person to quit urinating in public. The compensation is horrible and they take the risk of getting killed every day. And then they have to cope with the phenomenon of profiling, either racial in doing their jobs or in another way by just being a cop.

In a survey done by the Washington Post, fifty two percent of African-American males reported that they had familiarity with racial profiling first hand. But what occurs when police officers think that they too are sufferers, when they become swayed that they cannot do their work without being known as racists or being wrongly charged with using unacceptable vigor. What happens is what took place in Cincinnati, OH in April of 2001.

In the anxious time since the three days of aggressive altercations in April between generally black demonstrators and generally white cops, many police officers have seemed to have taken a break. According to numbers provided by the city of Cincinnati, in June of 2001 the police made 2,517 arrests for nonviolent crimes like disorderly conduct and weapons infringements; in June of 2000 they made 5,063 of this type of arrest. Arrests for violent crimes, like murder and arson, went down a little, to 487 from 502, in spite of a 20% increase from the preceding June in the occurrence of those crimes. The numbers for May, the month following the rioting, are very similar. Police officers are extremely discouraged at this increase in crimes but they fear being tagged as a racial profiler every time they go to arrest someone.

What precisely is racial profiling? It does not reduce the seriousness of racial profiling by admitting that that there is no acknowledged definition of what it means. It is not contained…… [read more]

Criminal Justice - Corrections Criminal Justice: Reducing Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (894 words)
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Criminal Justice - Corrections


In this Module, there were two ways of estimating how much crime is saved merely by getting them off the street, two ways of estimating the "incapacitation effect. One way is to conduct self-report studies of offenders just entering prison, asking them to report their criminal involvement over the past year. Are there any strengths to this approach? Are there any limitations? How might you conduct such a study?

In principle, the incapacitation approach to crime reduction hinges on the accurate identification of criminals whose prior criminal history is associated with a higher degree of repeated or continual criminality (Visher, 1987). In that regard, self-report studies are potentially useful, particularly to the extent those studies disclose criminal conduct for which prisoners imprisoned for other crimes were never prosecuted because those crimes were never detected (or never solved) by authorities. Except for one-time offenders, it is presumed that the vast majority of offenders commit many more offenses than those for which they are eventually incarcerated (Visher, 1987). The most significant limitation to this method of identifying criminals with a higher degree of repeated or continual criminality is that it depends completely on the honesty of a population with a demonstrated propensity to violate rules of law, moral principles, and the rights of others. In general, these traits are much more consistent with untruthfulness than truthfulness; more particularly, the most "successful" criminals are likely to be the most wary of providing authorities with information about their undetected past crimes. One possible method of increasing the accuracy of information provided by more "successful" criminals is to provide assurances of immunity with respect to disclosures.

Especially since the incapacitation approach depends on identifying offenders with the greatest likelihood of repeated criminality, the failure of those offenders to provide accurate information of past crimes undermines the entire concept. Therefore, because self-report studies may fail to identify the very offenders on whose identification the success of the incapacitation approach to reducing criminality depends most directly, reliance on self-reporting represents a crucial limitation.

2. Various authors have argued that since the 1970s, we have been conducting a natural or real world "experiment" in whether prisons "work" to reduce crime. As a correctional policy, do you think that the expansion of prison as a key way to control crime in the United States has been warranted?

According to Visher (1987), the approach to reducing crime that relies on increasing prosecution, sentencing, and prison populations across the board do not correspond particularly well with crime reduction. First, prior studies indicate that even with respect to serious crimes thought to be most indicative of future criminality, a relatively…… [read more]

Forensic Science in 21st Century Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (846 words)
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Criminal Justice - Forensics


Forensic Science in Policing and Criminal Investigations:

In terms of its full potential, 21st-century forensic science is still in its infancy; nevertheless, the initial incorporation of forensic technologies to contemporary law enforcement applications have already revolutionized several traditional law enforcement investigative functions (Kobalinsky, Liotti, et al., 2005). The recent evolution DNA technology attributable to the Human Genome Project have revolutionized the field of criminal investigations more than any other single development since the introduction of identification through finger prints in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In fact, hundreds of decades-old so-called "cold cases" have been solved in the first decade of the 21st century by applying new DNA analysis and identification techniques that were unavailable to the original investigators to physical evidence preserved since the initial investigation went cold (Johns, Downes, et al., 2005). As forensic science technology continues to evolve, investigators anticipate being able to establish conclusive identifications from an even greater range of potential sources as well as continued improvements in the sensitivity and precision of existing technologies that will enable even more minute quantities of physical evidence to provide positive identification.

DNA matching techniques have greatly expanded the list of potential substances and sources of reliable forensic evidence. Specifically, uniquely identifying forensic material is present in virtually all biological excretions and tissues but previous technological capabilities have limited their use pending the development of more precise forensic identification techniques (Markey, 2007). Since the introduction of more accurate DNA mapping and more sensitive analysis of biological evidence, forensic science has enabled criminal investigators to establish definitive identification from very minute quantities of blood evidence as well as hair, fiber, skin, saliva, semen, mucous, and excretory secretions. In many cases, those applications have even been applied successfully to animal DNA leading to positive identification of suspects from trace evidence linked to the domestic pets of both victims and criminals alike (Yost & Burke, 2007). Forensic Science in Court Processes and Modern Security: In addition to the tremendous potential increase in the applicability of forensic science to criminal investigations, 21st-century forensic science has also provided corresponding increases in the accuracy of existing techniques for establishing paternal lineage through mitochondria DNA, in particular (Markey, 2007). Those developments have generated applications capable of corroborating (or refuting) information pertaining to substance abuse by offenders and other court-monitored subjects.

The sophisticated analyses of hair follicles, for example, are capable of reveling accurate information that far exceeds the limits of 20th-century urinalysis techniques. In principle, these developments…… [read more]

Policing - Criminal Profiling: Legitimate Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (1,677 words)
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Policing - Criminal Profiling


Due process of law is one of the most fundamental concepts in American constitutional law. The right of citizens to live free from the threat of arbitrary or partial enforcement of law by government authorities was foremost on the minds of the Founding Fathers (Dershowitz 2002), inspired by the… [read more]

Criminal Justice Is the Coordination of Putting Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,218 words)
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Criminal Justice is the coordination of putting into practice and associations exercised by state and local governments which are aimed at sustaining social power, dissuade, controlling misdemeanor and permitting those who disobey laws with illegal punishments. The most important organizations alleged with these tasks are law enforcement, magistrates, defense attorneys and local penitentiaries and jails which govern the process for… [read more]

Discrimination Within the Death Penalty and Criminal Justice Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,823 words)
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Death Penalty and Race

Arguments have raged for decades about the use of capital punishment in the United States, with some holding that there is a need for society to express its disapproval for certain acts by ending the life of the convicted person, while others see this as an act outside the boundaries of what a civilized society should… [read more]

Due Process, Truth, and the Criminal Justice Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (799 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Due Process, Truth, And the Criminal Justice System

Due Process is one of the most important founding principles underlying the U.S.

A criminal justice system. It derives from the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution (which applies to federal government action) and has traditionally been applied identically to state actions by the identical provision contained in the Fourteenth Amendment (Schmalleger, 1997). The specific wording that appears in both amendments prohibits the deprivation of "life," "liberty," and "property" by the government without the "due process of law." Due process also requires grand jury indictment, and prohibits double jeopardy and compelled self-incrimination, and therefore, is one of the most influential concepts defining criminal procedure in the enforcement of penal laws in the U.S.

Supreme Court interpretation continually directs the evolution and refining of permissible criminal procedures and establishes the limits of permissible police and other law enforcement-related functions. Therefore, modern law enforcement and the security industry must continually update their tactical procedures to ensure compliance with changes in constitutional law of due process to ensure compliance, because the consequences of error in this area can potentially undermine investigations and criminal prosecutions requiring the release of guilty criminals back into society without punishment for their crimes (Dershowitz, 2002).

Striking a Balance between Two Important Principles:

Law enforcement always requires the balancing of two competing social concerns: on one hand, is the government's interest in protecting its citizens and prosecuting criminal conduct; on the other hand, is the right of innocent citizens to be free from unrestricted searches and seizures and compelled confessions. Under British rule before the Revolution that established a sovereign United States, citizens were subject to unwarranted searches of their property and seizure of their persons for suspicion of criminal conduct without the need for justification on the part of government agents. This experience under British rule was incorporated into the U.S. Constitution and its subsequent amendments, including the Bill of Rights, precisely to provide the protection of citizens against unrestricted governmental police powers.

Unrestricted police powers might, in principle, allow for the highest level of crime prevention and prosecution, but at a very steep cost, because virtually any police action would be permissible, including searches and apprehension, detention, and imprisonment without any justification, based solely on the suspicions, or even the whims, of government agents. Excessive protections of individual rights would prohibit the investigatory, arrest, and prosecutorial functions necessary to…… [read more]

Criminal Justice the Polygraph Remains a Controversial Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,376 words)
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Criminal Justice

The polygraph remains a controversial tool in criminal investigation ever since 1917, when William M. Marston, an American professor, first invented it. However, for almost a century now, the polygraph continues to be used in many countries as an important tool not only for criminal investigations, but also in intelligence screening, as a 'pre trial stipulation', and in the recruitment process. The polygraph is a tool that analyses certain physiological changes as a person is subject to interrogation. A forensic psychophysiologist then assesses the fluctuations in the data from the polygraph test and uses them for the 'psychophysiological detection of deception'. It is common for a person to experience certain involuntary reactions or what are known as autonomic responses when he or she is subject to stress. By the simultaneous measurement of physiological changes such as 'electrodermal response', 'cardiovascular changes', blood pressure and breathing patterns, a psychophysiologist infers either truth or deception from the statements obtained from the suspected person.

The polygraph is used in many countries in their criminal investigation process. Despite the several successful cases where polygraph has helped solve cases without other leads, it has not found universal acceptance. As a statement from the American Civil Liberties Union says, "Despite claims of 'lie detector' examiners, there is no machine that can detect lies," "The 'lie detector' does not measure truth-telling; it measures changes in blood pressure, breath rate and perspiration rate, but those physiological changes can be triggered by a wide range of emotions." [Kevin Bonsor] the most common argument is that the physiological changes that are induced are not uniquely attributed to the stress of lying, as there are other factors that can also result in such fluctuations. (BCSSE, 2003)

Voice stress analysers, widely touted as an alternative to polygraphs, were first used by the U.S. army in the Vietnam War to identify Vietnamese citizens from the rebels. Today, we have Computer-based voice stress analysers, which can help identify the stress levels in speech during an interrogation. The essential principle behind the CVSA is that stress affects speech, which can be easily identified. Normal speech is made up of two components namely amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM). It has been verified that during stress the FM component diminishes to such an extent that a computer can monitor this change successfully, thus helping in identifying stress due to deception. The measurement of inaudible fluctuations of human voice or what are known as 'micro-tremors' are used to analyse voice patterns for stress. A recent study commissioned by Department of Defence Polygraph Institute (DODPI) showed CVSA to be ineffective as a definitive lie detection tool. Mitchell S. Sommers, an associate professor of psychology at the St. Louis University, and an important member of the study states, "We tested one of the more popular voice-stress lie detection technologies and got dismal results. Voice-stress analysis is fairly effective in identifying certain variations in stress levels in human speech, but high levels of stress do not necessarily correlate… [read more]

Criminal Justice Substantive vs. Procedural Law Essay

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Criminal Justice

Substantive vs. Procedural Law

Substantive law includes laws that "create, define and regulate legal rights and obligations" whereas procedural law governs and defines rules law enforcement agencies use "to enforce substantive law" (ICMBA, 2007). Examples of substantive law include the rules governing contract law, which determine whether agreements are binding and enforceable (Kubasek, Brennan & Browne, 2006, p.… [read more]

Comparative CJ System Final Project Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,493 words)
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Criminal Justice

The Perfect Criminal Justice System

This paper will propose the perfect criminal justice system, one that focuses on networking and collaboration among policing agencies, communities, private sector entities, judicial bodies, prosecutors, legal representatives and those accused of or prosecuted for criminal activity. The perfect criminal justice system will also concentrate on rehabilitative measures for criminals incarcerated younger than… [read more]

Criminal Justice Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (927 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Criminal Justice

Do you agree that for police action to be "just" it must recognize the rights of individuals while at the same time holding them accountable to the social obligations defined by law?

Law enforcement is an essential component of any civilized society. The alternative to some form of penal law enforcement is a state of complete anarchy in which individual citizens are at the mercy of other citizens absolutely free to rape, rob, pillage, and plunder without any consequences. On the other hand, the polar opposite, a society with unjust laws (or unjust principles of law enforcement), is little better than complete anarchy. A "police state" in which government may intrude into the ordinary lives of its citizens without restriction, cause, or justification other than the general aim of enforcing its laws does so at the expense of individual freedom and fundamental rights, such as those recognized by American penal philosophy..

In the words of one renowned ethical philosopher, "... It is not the criminal law and its efficient and vigorous enforcement that enslaves, but the absence of such law, or its creation and enforcement in the light of ill-conceived principles." (Taylor, 1980) The goal of a society designed to protect its citizens must balance two equally important and legitimate needs: (1) to protect them from harming each other by establishing and enforcing social regulations, and (2) to avoid enforcement practices and procedures that do so only at the substantial expense of basic civil liberties and reasonable freedom from unjustifiable, unregulated, and arbitrary police intrusion into ordinary life.

Given only the choice between absolute civil anarchy governed by the "natural law" of might makes right and completely unchallenged and unjust state regulation, most individual citizens are probably somewhat safer risking governmental oppression and law enforcement abuse than they would be without any social rules whatsoever to protect the weaker from the whims of the stronger. Ultimately, the moral goal of a civilized society is to establish principles of laws (and rules for their enforcement) that maximize the protection of its citizens while minimizing unjustifiable intrusions into ordinary life that are almost -- if not quite exactly -- every bit as harmful as no governmental regulation, enforcement, or protection of law at all.

Have the courts provided adequate protection to citizens against overzealous police officers? In which Areas of search and seizure and interrogation law do you think the courts have not gone far enough? In which areas do you think the courts have gone too far?

Yes. Ever since the Miranda decision in 1966, the Supreme Court has continually expanded protections afforded under constitutional rights against unwarranted search and seizure and self-incrimination. Under the fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine, police action determined to have violated constitutional principles results in excluding…… [read more]

Role of Psychics in Criminal Justice Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (3,952 words)
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Role of Psychics in Criminal Justice

An Analysis of the Modern Role of Psychics in Criminal Justice

Summary of Remaining Chapters

Chapter IV: Data Analysis

Discussion, Conclusions and Recommendations

Responses to "I believe that psychics have some special ability that other people do not possess"

Responses to "I have experienced episodes in my life where I thought could read other… [read more]

Corporate Criminal Justice Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,569 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


His intention is to show that privatization of criminal justice is nothing new in the United States. Its history can be traced back to the American colonies and before into Anglo-Saxon history (McCrie 12-13).

The overall impression that one takes away from this analysis is that McCrie has spent an extensive amount of time examining the historical precedent for the coexistence of private and public criminal justice forces in the Western tradition. His evidence is quite extensive for his discussion of police forces, though he only lightly touches on privatization of the courts and the prison system (McCrie 20-22). That is perhaps McCrie weakest section; his argument might have been stronger had he restricted his focus to police forces and left the courts and prisons for another essay. Despite this, McCrie does an expert job in providing the historical evidence for a tradition of public and private solutions to criminal justice in the United States for at least the last three hundred years (McCrie 23).

Works Cited

Dalton, Daniel R. Security Management: Business Strategies for Success. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann. 1-37.

Internal Revenue Services. Financial Investigations: A Financial Approach to Detecting and Resolving Crimes. INSERT REMAINING CITATION INFORMATION.

Keller, Kimberley S. "Securing Security Expert Testimony: Overcoming the Daubert Challenge to Reach the Witness Stand." Security Journal 17.3 (2004): 21-29.

McCrie, Robert. "Three Centuries of Criminal Justice Privatization in the United States."…… [read more]

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